Science.gov

Sample records for bismuth silicon oxide

  1. Silicon-based bridge wire micro-chip initiators for bismuth oxide-aluminum nanothermite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, C. S.; Morris, C. J.; Thiruvengadathan, R.; Apperson, S. J.; Gangopadhyay, K.; Gangopadhyay, S.

    2011-11-01

    We present a micro-manufacturing process for fabricating silicon-based bridge wire micro-chip initiators with the capacity to liberate joules of chemical energy at the expense of micro joules of input electrical energy. The micro-chip initiators are assembled with an open material reservoir utilizing a novel 47 C melting point solder alloy bonding procedure and integrated with a bismuth oxide-aluminum nanothermite energetic composite. The electro-thermal conversion efficiency of the initiators is enhanced by the use of a nanoporous silicon bed which impedes thermal coupling between the bridge wire and bulk silicon substrate while maintaining the structural integrity of the device. Electrical behaviors of the ignition elements are investigated to extract minimum input power and energy requirements of 382.4 mW and 26.51 J, respectively, both in the absence and presence of an injected bismuth oxide-aluminum nanothermite composition. Programmed combustion of bismuth oxide-aluminum nanothermite housed within these initiators is demonstrated with a success rate of 100% over a 30 to 80 J range of firing energies and ignition response times of less than 2 s are achieved in the high input power operation regime. The micro-initiators reported here are intended for use in miniaturized actuation technologies.

  2. Introduction, revelation, and evolution of complementary gratings in photorefractive bismuth silicon oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Bashaw, M.C.; Ma, T.; Barker, R.C.; Mroczkowski, S. Department of Electrical Engineering, Center for Microelectronic Materials and Structures, Yale University, New Haven, CT ); Dube, R.R. )

    1990-09-15

    Principal and complementary space-charge gratings are formed in photorefractive bismuth silicon oxide with use of 785-nm light. An electric field is optionally applied in the direction of the grating for hologram evolution by either drift or diffusion of charge carriers. For write times on the order of the decay time of the principal grating, no complementary behavior is observed. For much longer write times, a complementary space-charge grating is introduced both in the presence and in the absence of the applied field, and is initially hidden due to screening by the principal grating. Uniform illumination in the presence of the field reveals the complementary grating. Time-resolved data show its growth and decay, with a response rate much lower than that of the principal grating. A two-level electron-hole transport model explains the observations; one level participates in the establishment of the principal grating by majority carriers, and the other in the establishment of the extended-lifetime complementary grating by minority carriers. A scheme for multiplexing normal and extended-lifetime complementary gratings is presented.

  3. Surface aspects of bismuth-metal oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, N.; Deo, G.; Wachs, I.E.

    1996-03-01

    A series of conventional and model bismuth-metal oxide catalysts (vanadates, molybdates, tungstates, and niobates) were physically and chemically characterzied (Raman spectroscopy, BET, XPS, and methanol oxidation) to obtain additional insights into the structure-reactivity relationships of such catalytic materials. The reactivity for methanol oxidation over the conventional bismuth-metal oxide catalysts was found to be primarily related to the surface area of the oxide catalysts and was essentially independent of the near surface composition and the bulk structure. The selectivity for methanol oxidation over the conventional bismuth-metal oxide catalysts was essentially found not to be a function of the surface area, the near surface composition, and the bulk structure. A series of model bismuth-metal oxide catalysts was synthesized by depositing metal oxides on the surface of a bismuth oxide support. The model studies demonstrated that two-dimensional metal oxide overlayers are not stable on the bismuth oxide support and readily react to form bulk bismuth-metal oxide compounds upon heating. Furthermore, the model studies revealed that these bulk bismuth-metal oxide compounds are related to the active sites for the partial oxidation reaction. In situ Raman spectroscopy in methanol/oxygen, methanol, and oxygen reaction environments with helium as the diluent revealed no additional information regarding the nature of the active site. It was found that only highly crystalline bismuth-metal oxide phases are selective for the partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Thus, selective bismuth-metal oxide catalysts will always possess highly crystalline metal oxide phases containing extremely low surface areas which make it difficult to obtain fundamental surface information about the outermost layers. 48 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Electrical activation and electron spin resonance measurements of implanted bismuth in isotopically enriched silicon-28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, C. D.; Lo, C. C.; Lang, V.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; George, R. E.; Yu, K. M.; Bokor, J.; Lyon, S. A.; Morton, J. J. L.; Schenkel, T.

    2012-04-01

    We have performed continuous wave and pulsed electron spin resonance measurements of implanted bismuth donors in isotopically enriched silicon-28. Donors are electrically activated via thermal annealing with minimal diffusion. Damage from bismuth ion implantation is repaired during thermal annealing as evidenced by narrow spin resonance linewidths (Bpp=12?T) and long spin coherence times (T2=0.7 ms, at temperature T =8 K). The results qualify ion implanted bismuth as a promising candidate for spin qubit integration in silicon.

  5. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  6. Spray pyrolysed bismuth oxide thin films and their characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gujar, T.P. . E-mail: gujar_tp@yahoo.com; Shinde, V.R.; Lokhande, C.D. . E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com

    2006-08-10

    Uniform, adherent and reproducible bismuth oxide thin films have been deposited on glass substrates from aqueous Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution, using the solution spray technique. Their structural, surface morphological, optical, and electrical properties were investigated by XRD, AFM, optical absorption, electrical resistivity and thermo-emf measurements. The structural analysis from XRD pattern showed the formation of mixed phases of monoclinic Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} (predominant), tetragonal {beta}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and nonstiochiometric Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2.33}. The surface morphological studies on atomic force micrographs revealed round grain morphology of bismuth oxide crystallites. The optical studies showed a direct band gap of 2.90 eV for as-prepared bismuth oxide films. The electrical resistivity measurements of bismuth oxide films indicated a semiconducting behavior with the room temperature electrical resistivity of the order of 10{sup 7} {omega} cm. From thermo-emf measurements, the electrical conductivity was found to be of n-type.

  7. Optical pumping and readout of bismuth hyperfine states in silicon for atomic clock applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeedi, K.; Szech, M.; Dluhy, P.; Salvail, J. Z.; Morse, K. J.; Riemann, H.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Ntzel, N.; Litvinenko, K. L.; Murdin, B. N.; Thewalt, M. L. W.

    2015-05-01

    The push for a semiconductor-based quantum information technology has renewed interest in the spin states and optical transitions of shallow donors in silicon, including the donor bound exciton transitions in the near-infrared and the Rydberg, or hydrogenic, transitions in the mid-infrared. The deepest group V donor in silicon, bismuth, has a large zero-field ground state hyperfine splitting, comparable to that of rubidium, upon which the now-ubiquitous rubidium atomic clock time standard is based. Here we show that the ground state hyperfine populations of bismuth can be read out using the mid-infrared Rydberg transitions, analogous to the optical readout of the rubidium ground state populations upon which rubidium clock technology is based. We further use these transitions to demonstrate strong population pumping by resonant excitation of the bound exciton transitions, suggesting several possible approaches to a solid-state atomic clock using bismuth in silicon, or eventually in enriched 28Si.

  8. Oxidation resistance of silicon ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasutoshi, H.; Hirota, K.

    1984-01-01

    Oxidation resistance, and examples of oxidation of SiC, Si3N4 and sialon are reviewed. A description is given of the oxidation mechanism, including the oxidation product, oxidation reaction and the bubble size. The oxidation reactions are represented graphically. An assessment is made of the oxidation process, and an oxidation example of silicon ceramics is given.

  9. Bismuth oxide nanotubes-graphene fiber-based flexible supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalsamy, Karthikeyan; Xu, Zhen; Zheng, Bingna; Huang, Tieqi; Kou, Liang; Zhao, Xiaoli; Gao, Chao

    2014-07-01

    Graphene-bismuth oxide nanotube fiber as electrode material for constituting flexible supercapacitors using a PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte is reported with a high specific capacitance (Ca) of 69.3 mF cm-2 (for a single electrode) and 17.3 mF cm-2 (for the whole device) at 0.1 mA cm-2, respectively. Our approach opens the door to metal oxide-graphene hybrid fibers and high-performance flexible electronics.Graphene-bismuth oxide nanotube fiber as electrode material for constituting flexible supercapacitors using a PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte is reported with a high specific capacitance (Ca) of 69.3 mF cm-2 (for a single electrode) and 17.3 mF cm-2 (for the whole device) at 0.1 mA cm-2, respectively. Our approach opens the door to metal oxide-graphene hybrid fibers and high-performance flexible electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Equations and characterization. SEM images of GGO, XRD and XPS of Bi2O3 NTs, HRTEM images and EDX Spectra of Bi2O3 NT5-GF, CV curves of Bi2O3NT5-GF, Bi2O3 NTs and bismuth nitrate in three-electrode system (vs. Ag/AgCl). CV and GCD curves of Bi2O3 NT1-GF and Bi2O3 NT3-GF. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02615b

  10. Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Mackinnon, Ian D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Platey grains of cubic Bi2O3, alpha-Bi2O3, and Bi2O(2.75), nanograins were associated with chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles W7029C1, W7029E5, and 2011C2 that were collected in the stratosphere at 17-19 km altitude. Similar Bi oxide nanograins were present in the upper stratosphere during May 1985. These grains are linked to the plumes of several major volcanic eruptions during the early 1980s that injected material into the stratosphere. The mass of sulfur from these eruptions is a proxy for the mass of stratospheric Bi from which we derive the particle number densities (p/cu m) for "average Bi2O3 nanograins" due to this volcanic activity and those necessary to contaminate the extraterrestrial chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles via collisional sticking. The match between both values supports the idea that Bi2O3 nanograins of volcanic origin could contaminate interplanetary dust particles in the Earth's stratosphere.

  11. In vitro antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility of bismuth doped micro-arc oxidized titanium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dan-Jae; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Shieh, Tzong-Ming; Huang, Heng-Li; Hsu, Jui-Ting; Ko, Yi-Chun; Fuh, Lih-Jyh

    2013-01-01

    Chemical manipulations of the implant surface produce a bactericidal feature to prevent infections around dental implants. Despite the successful use of bismuth against mucosal and dermis infections, the antibacterial effect of bismuth in the oral cavity remains under investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of bismuth compounds against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Staphylococcus mutans, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and to investigate the antimicrobial effects of bismuth doped micro-arc oxidation (MAO) titanium via an agar diffusion test. Cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization level of MG63 osteoblast-like cells seeded on the coatings were evaluated at 1, 7, and 14 days. The results demonstrate that bismuth nitrate possess superior antibacterial activity when compared with bismuth acetate, bismuth subgallate, and silver nitrate. The bismuth doped MAO coating (contained 6.2 atomic percentage bismuth) had good biological affinities to the MG63 cells and showed a higher antibacterial efficacy against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and MRSA, where the reduction rates of colony numbers is higher than that of the control group by 1.5 and 1.9 times, respectively. These in vitro evaluations demonstrate that titanium implants with bismuth on the surface may be useful for better infection control. PMID:21926149

  12. Optical pumping and readout of bismuth hyperfine states in silicon for atomic clock applications.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, K; Szech, M; Dluhy, P; Salvail, J Z; Morse, K J; Riemann, H; Abrosimov, N V; Ntzel, N; Litvinenko, K L; Murdin, B N; Thewalt, M L W

    2015-01-01

    The push for a semiconductor-based quantum information technology has renewed interest in the spin states and optical transitions of shallow donors in silicon, including the donor bound exciton transitions in the near-infrared and the Rydberg, or hydrogenic, transitions in the mid-infrared. The deepest group V donor in silicon, bismuth, has a large zero-field ground state hyperfine splitting, comparable to that of rubidium, upon which the now-ubiquitous rubidium atomic clock time standard is based. Here we show that the ground state hyperfine populations of bismuth can be read out using the mid-infrared Rydberg transitions, analogous to the optical readout of the rubidium ground state populations upon which rubidium clock technology is based. We further use these transitions to demonstrate strong population pumping by resonant excitation of the bound exciton transitions, suggesting several possible approaches to a solid-state atomic clock using bismuth in silicon, or eventually in enriched (28)Si. PMID:25990870

  13. Optical pumping and readout of bismuth hyperfine states in silicon for atomic clock applications

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, K.; Szech, M.; Dluhy, P.; Salvail, J.Z.; Morse, K.J.; Riemann, H.; Abrosimov, N.V.; Nötzel, N.; Litvinenko, K.L.; Murdin, B.N.; Thewalt, M.L.W.

    2015-01-01

    The push for a semiconductor-based quantum information technology has renewed interest in the spin states and optical transitions of shallow donors in silicon, including the donor bound exciton transitions in the near-infrared and the Rydberg, or hydrogenic, transitions in the mid-infrared. The deepest group V donor in silicon, bismuth, has a large zero-field ground state hyperfine splitting, comparable to that of rubidium, upon which the now-ubiquitous rubidium atomic clock time standard is based. Here we show that the ground state hyperfine populations of bismuth can be read out using the mid-infrared Rydberg transitions, analogous to the optical readout of the rubidium ground state populations upon which rubidium clock technology is based. We further use these transitions to demonstrate strong population pumping by resonant excitation of the bound exciton transitions, suggesting several possible approaches to a solid-state atomic clock using bismuth in silicon, or eventually in enriched 28Si. PMID:25990870

  14. Heat capacity, enthalpy and entropy of ternary bismuth tantalum oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, J.; Jakes, V.; Sofer, Z.; Sedmidubsky, D.; Ruzicka, K.; Svoboda, P.

    2011-02-15

    Heat capacity and enthalpy increments of ternary bismuth tantalum oxides Bi{sub 4}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 11}, Bi{sub 7}Ta{sub 3}O{sub 18} and Bi{sub 3}TaO{sub 7} were measured by the relaxation time method (2-280 K), DSC (265-353 K) and drop calorimetry (622-1322 K). Temperature dependencies of the molar heat capacity in the form C{sub pm}=445.8+0.005451T-7.489x10{sup 6}/T{sup 2} J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}, C{sub pm}=699.0+0.05276T-9.956x10{sup 6}/T{sup 2} J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1} and C{sub pm}=251.6+0.06705T-3.237x10{sup 6}/T{sup 2} J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1} for Bi{sub 3}TaO{sub 7}, Bi{sub 4}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 11} and for Bi{sub 7}Ta{sub 3}O{sub 18}, respectively, were derived by the least-squares method from the experimental data. The molar entropies at 298.15 K, S{sup o}{sub m}(298.15 K)=449.6{+-}2.3 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1} for Bi{sub 4}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 11}, S{sup o}{sub m}(298.15 K)=743.0{+-}3.8 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1} for Bi{sub 7}Ta{sub 3}O{sub 18} and S{sup o}{sub m}(298.15 K)=304.3{+-}1.6 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1} for Bi{sub 3}TaO{sub 7}, were evaluated from the low-temperature heat capacity measurements. -- Graphical Abstract: Temperature dependence of {Delta}{sub ox}C{sub pm} for bismuth tantalum mixed oxides. Display Omitted Research highlights: > Heat capacity, enthalpy and entropy of ternary bismuth tantalum oxides Bi{sub 4}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 11}, Bi{sub 7}Ta{sub 3}O{sub 18} and Bi{sub 3}TaO{sub 7}. > Heat capacity by DSC calorimetry and heat-pulsed calorimetry. > Enthalpy increments by drop calorimetry. > Einstein-Debye model for low-temperature dependence of the heat capacity. > Application of Neumann-Kopp rule.

  15. Silicon oxidation in fluoride solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.; Kapur, V.

    1980-01-01

    Silicon is produced in a NaF, Na2SiF6, and Na matrix when SiF4 is reduced by metallic sodium. Hydrogen is evolved during acid leaching to separate the silicon from the accompanying reaction products, NaF and Na2SiF6. The hydrogen evolution reaction was studied under conditions simulating leaching conditions by making suspensions of the dry silicon powder in aqueous fluoride solutions. The mechanism for the hydrogen evolution is discussed in terms of spontaneous oxidation of silicon resulting from the cooperative effects of (1) elemental sodium in the silicon that reacts with water to remove a protective silica layer, leaving clean reactive silicon, and (2) fluoride in solution that complexes with the oxidized silicon in solution and retards formation of a protective hydrous oxide gel.

  16. Tributylphosphate Extraction Behavior of Bismuthate-Oxidized Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Nicholas C. Schmitt

    2008-08-01

    Higher oxidation states of americium have long been known; however, options for their preparation in acidic solution are limited. The conventional choice, silver-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, is not useful at nitric acid concentrations above about 0.3 M. We investigated the use of sodium bismuthate as an oxidant for Am3+ in acidic solution. Room-temperature oxidation produced AmO2 2+ quantitatively, whereas oxidation at 80 C produced AmO2+ quantitatively. The efficacy of the method for the production of oxidized americium was verified by fluoride precipitation and by spectroscopic absorbance measurements. We performed absorbance measurements using a conventional 1 cm cell for high americium concentrations and a 100 cm liquid waveguide capillary cell for low americium concentrations. Extinction coefficients for the absorbance of Am3+ at 503 nm, AmO2+ at 514 nm, and AmO2 2+ at 666 nm in 0.1 M nitric acid are reported. We also performed solvent extraction experiments with the hexavalent americium using the common actinide extraction ligand tributyl phosphate (TBP) for comparison to the other hexavalent actinides. Contact with 30% tributyl phosphate in dodecane reduced americium; it was nevertheless extracted using short contact times. The TBP extraction of AmO2 2+ over a range of nitric acid concentrations is shown for the first time and was found to be analogous to that of uranyl, neptunyl, and plutonyl ions.

  17. Photoelastic constants of germanate glasses containing lead and bismuth oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Rabukhin, A.I.

    1995-07-01

    Regression equations which accurately approximate the concentration curves of the photoelastic constants of lead bismuth germanate glasses were obtained and the isolines of the photoelastic constants were plotted and graphically illustrate the change in the properties of the glasses in almost the entire glass-formation region of the PbO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-GeO{sub 2} system. The partial values of the photoelastic constants of the oxides, components of these glasses, were determined and are in agreement with the values established for glasses of other systems. The data obtained can be used in planning the compositions of effective optical media for fabrication of light and acoustic lines for acousto-optic instruments and glasses with a zero optical stress coefficient.

  18. Bismuth(III) and copper(II) oxides as catalysts for the electro-oxidation of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, T.C.; Lee, K.H.; Manlangit, E.; Nnodimele, R.

    1996-11-01

    It was shown that copper(II) oxide bound to the anode with polystyrene containing a cationic surfactant acted as a catalyst for the oxidation of organic compounds in aqueous systems in a manner similar to powdered copper oxide suspended in aqueous systems containing the organic compounds and the cationic surfactant. Voltammetric measurements made with these electrodes were reproducible over an extended period of time, and it was possible to reproducibly use the polystyrene bound copper oxide as a catalyst for anodic destruction of several organic compounds. On the other hand, while bismuth(III) oxide bound to platinum with polystyrene was a catalyst for the oxidation of organic compounds in cationic surfactant suspensions, the results were not reproducible. The rate of renewal of the reactant adsorbed on the anode after oxidation was extremely slow. In addition, the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} gradually changed during the catalytic reaction to BiO(OH). Both of the bismuth compounds acted as catalysts for the oxidation reaction, but the potential for oxidation of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was less anodic than the potential for BiO(OH). Previous coulometric experiments have indicated clearly that the catalytic intermediate for the copper oxidations is copper(III); however, the coulometric oxidations of bismuth indicate that the intermediate has a bismuth oxidation state slightly over 4. Most probably the intermediate is bismuth (V) and some of the bismuth had agglomerated so that not all of it has been oxidized.

  19. Structure and resistivity of bismuth nanobelts in situ synthesized on silicon wafer through an ethanol-thermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Zheng; Qin Haiming; Yan Tao

    2011-12-15

    Bismuth nanobelts in situ grown on a silicon wafer were synthesized through an ethanol-thermal method without any capping agent. The structure of the bismuth belt-silicon composite nanostructure was characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and high resolution transmission electron microscope. The nanobelt is a multilayered structure 100-800 nm in width and over 50 {mu}m in length. One layer has a thickness of about 50 nm. A unique sword-like nanostructure is observed as the initial structure of the nanobelts. From these observations, a possible growth mechanism of the nanobelt is proposed. Current-voltage property measurements indicate that the resistivity of the nanobelts is slightly larger than that of the bulk bismuth material. - Graphical Abstract: TEM images, EDS, and electron diffraction pattern of bismuth nanobelts. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bismuth nanobelts in situ grown on silicon wafer were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Special bismuth-silicon nanostructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential application in sensitive magnetic sensor and other electronic devices.

  20. Bismuth oxide aqueous colloidal nanoparticles inhibit Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Martinez-Sanmiguel, Juan Jose; Diaz, David; Zumeta-Dube, Inti; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Multiresistance among microorganisms to common antimicrobials has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanomaterials are a new alternative to successfully treat the multiresistant microorganisms. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. Recently, it was demonstrated that the bactericidal activity of zero-valent bismuth colloidal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans; however the antimycotic potential of bismuth nanostructured derivatives has not yet been studied. The main objective of this investigation was to analyze the fungicidal activity of bismuth oxide nanoparticles against Candida albicans, and their antibiofilm capabilities. Our results showed that aqueous colloidal bismuth oxide nanoparticles displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans growth (reducing colony size by 85%) and a complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are better than those obtained with chlorhexidine, nystatin, and terbinafine, the most effective oral antiseptic and commercial antifungal agents. In this work, we also compared the antimycotic activities of bulk bismuth oxide and bismuth nitrate, the precursor metallic salt. These results suggest that bismuth oxide colloidal nanoparticles could be a very interesting candidate as a fungicidal agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic. Additionally, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for the synthesized aqueous colloidal Bi2O3 nanoparticles. PMID:23637533

  1. Bismuth oxide aqueous colloidal nanoparticles inhibit Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Martinez-Sanmiguel, Juan Jose; Diaz, David; Zumeta-Dube, Inti; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Multiresistance among microorganisms to common antimicrobials has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanomaterials are a new alternative to successfully treat the multiresistant microorganisms. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. Recently, it was demonstrated that the bactericidal activity of zero-valent bismuth colloidal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans; however the antimycotic potential of bismuth nanostructured derivatives has not yet been studied. The main objective of this investigation was to analyze the fungicidal activity of bismuth oxide nanoparticles against Candida albicans, and their antibiofilm capabilities. Our results showed that aqueous colloidal bismuth oxide nanoparticles displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans growth (reducing colony size by 85%) and a complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are better than those obtained with chlorhexidine, nystatin, and terbinafine, the most effective oral antiseptic and commercial antifungal agents. In this work, we also compared the antimycotic activities of bulk bismuth oxide and bismuth nitrate, the precursor metallic salt. These results suggest that bismuth oxide colloidal nanoparticles could be a very interesting candidate as a fungicidal agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic. Additionally, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for the synthesized aqueous colloidal Bi2O3 nanoparticles. PMID:23637533

  2. Efficient water-splitting device based on a bismuth vanadate photoanode and thin-film silicon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Lihao; Abdi, Fatwa F; van de Krol, Roel; Liu, Rui; Huang, Zhuangqun; Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim; Dam, Bernard; Zeman, Miro; Smets, Arno H M

    2014-10-01

    A hybrid photovoltaic/photoelectrochemical (PV/PEC) water-splitting device with a benchmark solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 5.2% under simulated air mass (AM) 1.5 illumination is reported. This cell consists of a gradient-doped tungsten-bismuth vanadate (W:BiVO4 ) photoanode and a thin-film silicon solar cell. The improvement with respect to an earlier cell that also used gradient-doped W:BiVO4 has been achieved by simultaneously introducing a textured substrate to enhance light trapping in the BiVO4 photoanode and further optimization of the W gradient doping profile in the photoanode. Various PV cells have been studied in combination with this BiVO4 photoanode, such as an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) single junction, an a-Si:H/a-Si:H double junction, and an a-Si:H/nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) micromorph junction. The highest conversion efficiency, which is also the record efficiency for metal oxide based water-splitting devices, is reached for a tandem system consisting of the optimized W:BiVO4 photoanode and the micromorph (a-Si:H/nc-Si:H) cell. This record efficiency is attributed to the increased performance of the BiVO4 photoanode, which is the limiting factor in this hybrid PEC/PV device, as well as better spectral matching between BiVO4 and the nc-Si:H cell. PMID:25138735

  3. Morphology modulated growth of bismuth tungsten oxide nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Shushan; Wei, Jiyong; Huang Baibiao Feng Shengyu; Zhang Xiaoyang; Qin Xiaoyan; Wang Peng; Wang Zeyan; Zhang Qi; Jing Xiangyang; Zhan Jie

    2009-02-15

    Two kinds of bismuth tungsten oxide nanocrystals were prepared by microwave hydrothermal method. The morphology modulation of nanocrystals synthesized with precursor suspension's pH varied from 0.25 (strong acid) to 10.05 (base) was studied. The 3D flower like aggregation of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoflakes was synthesized in acid precursor suspension and the nanooctahedron crystals of Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} were synthesized in alkalescent precursor. The dominant crystal is changed from Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} to Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} when the precursor suspension changes from acid to alkalescence. The growth mechanisms of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} were attributed to the different solubility of WO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and [Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sup 2+} in precursor suspensions with various pH. For the decomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation ({lambda}>400 nm), different morphology of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} crystal samples obtained by microwavesolvothermal process showed different photocatalytic activity. - Graphical abstract: The morphology modulation of bismuth tungsten oxide nanocrystals synthesized by microwave hydrothermal method with precursor suspension's pH varied from 0.25 (strong acid) to 10.05 (base) was studied. The 3D flower like aggregation of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoflakes and nanooctahedron crystals of Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} were prepared. The growth mechanisms of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} were attributed to the different precipitation ability and solubility of H{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Bi(OH){sub 3} in precursor suspensions with various pH. The photocatalytic evaluation, via the decomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation ({lambda}>420 nm), reveals that nanocrystalline Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} samples obtained in different condition exhibit different photocatalytic activities which depend on pH value of the precursor suspensions.

  4. Oxidation mechanism of formic acid on the bismuth adatom-modified Pt(111) surface.

    PubMed

    Perales-Rondón, Juan Victor; Ferre-Vilaplana, Adolfo; Feliu, Juan M; Herrero, Enrique

    2014-09-24

    In order to improve catalytic processes, elucidation of reaction mechanisms is essential. Here, supported by a combination of experimental and computational results, the oxidation mechanism of formic acid on Pt(111) electrodes modified by the incorporation of bismuth adatoms is revealed. In the proposed model, formic acid is first physisorbed on bismuth and then deprotonated and chemisorbed in formate form, also on bismuth, from which configuration the C-H bond is cleaved, on a neighbor Pt site, yielding CO2. It was found computationally that the activation energy for the C-H bond cleavage step is negligible, which was also verified experimentally. PMID:25188779

  5. Bismuth Oxide: A New Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuling; Trujillo, Matthias A.; Fu, Engang; Patterson, Brian; Fei, Ling; Xu, Yun; Deng, Shuguang; Smirnov, Sergei; Luo, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Bismuth oxide directly grown on nickel foam (p-Bi2O3/Ni) was prepared by a facile polymer-assisted solution approach and was used directly as a lithium-ion battery anode for the first time. The Bi2O3 particles were covered with thin carbon layers, forming network-like sheets on the surface of the Ni foam. The binder-free p-Bi2O3/Ni shows superior electrochemical properties with a capacity of 668 mAh/g at a current density of 800 mA/g, which is much higher than that of commercial Bi2O3 powder (c-Bi2O3) and Bi2O3 powder prepared by the polymer-assisted solution method (p-Bi2O3). The good performance of p-Bi2O3/Ni can be attributed to higher volumetric utilization efficiency, better connection of active materials to the current collector, and shorter lithium ion diffusion path. PMID:24416506

  6. Investigation of solution-processed bismuth-niobium-oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Satoshi; Ariga, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Shin; Onoue, Masatoshi; Miyasako, Takaaki; Tokumitsu, Eisuke; Shimoda, Tatsuya; Chinone, Norimichi; Cho, Yasuo

    2014-10-21

    The characteristics of bismuth-niobium-oxide (BNO) films prepared using a solution process were investigated. The BNO film annealed at 550°C involving three phases: an amorphous phase, Bi₃NbO₇ fluorite microcrystals, and Nb-rich cubic pyrochlore microcrystals. The cubic pyrochlore structure, which was the main phase in this film, has not previously been reported in BNO films. The relative dielectric constant of the BNO film was approximately 140, which is much higher than that of a corresponding film prepared using a conventional vacuum sputtering process. Notably, the cubic pyrochlore microcrystals disappeared with increasing annealing temperature and were replaced with triclinic β-BiNbO₄ crystals at 590°C. The relative dielectric constant also decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Therefore, the high relative dielectric constant of the BNO film annealed at 550°C is thought to result from the BNO cubic pyrochlore structure. In addition, the BNO films annealed at 500°C contained approximately 6.5 atm.% carbon, which was lost at approximately 550°C. This result suggests that the carbon in the BNO film played an important role in the formation of the cubic pyrochlore structure.

  7. Structure, defects, and strain in silicon-silicon oxide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kova?evi?, Goran; Pivac, Branko

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the interfaces between silicon and silicon-oxide is responsible for proper functioning of MOSFET devices while defects in the interface can deteriorate this function and lead to their failure. In this paper we modeled this interface and characterized its defects and strain. MD simulations were used for reconstructing interfaces into a thermodynamically stable configuration. In all modeled interfaces, defects were found in the form of three-coordinated silicon atom, five coordinated silicon atom, threefold-coordinated oxygen atom, or displaced oxygen atom. Three-coordinated oxygen atom can be created if dangling bonds on silicon are close enough. The structure and stability of three-coordinated silicon atoms (Pb defect) depend on the charge as well as on the electric field across the interface. The negatively charged Pb defect is the most stable one, but the electric field resulting from the interface reduces that stability. Interfaces with large differences in periodic constants of silicon and silicon oxide can be stabilized by buckling of silicon layer. The mechanical stress resulted from the interface between silicon and silicon oxide is greater in the silicon oxide layer. Ab initio modeling of clusters representing silicon and silicon oxide shows about three time larger susceptibility to strain in silicon oxide than in silicon if exposed to the same deformation.

  8. Structure, defects, and strain in silicon-silicon oxide interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kova?evi?, Goran Pivac, Branko

    2014-01-28

    The structure of the interfaces between silicon and silicon-oxide is responsible for proper functioning of MOSFET devices while defects in the interface can deteriorate this function and lead to their failure. In this paper we modeled this interface and characterized its defects and strain. MD simulations were used for reconstructing interfaces into a thermodynamically stable configuration. In all modeled interfaces, defects were found in the form of three-coordinated silicon atom, five coordinated silicon atom, threefold-coordinated oxygen atom, or displaced oxygen atom. Three-coordinated oxygen atom can be created if dangling bonds on silicon are close enough. The structure and stability of three-coordinated silicon atoms (P{sub b} defect) depend on the charge as well as on the electric field across the interface. The negatively charged P{sub b} defect is the most stable one, but the electric field resulting from the interface reduces that stability. Interfaces with large differences in periodic constants of silicon and silicon oxide can be stabilized by buckling of silicon layer. The mechanical stress resulted from the interface between silicon and silicon oxide is greater in the silicon oxide layer. Ab initio modeling of clusters representing silicon and silicon oxide shows about three time larger susceptibility to strain in silicon oxide than in silicon if exposed to the same deformation.

  9. Structure and resistivity of bismuth nanobelts in situ synthesized on silicon wafer through an ethanol-thermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zheng; Qin, Haiming; Yan, Tao; Liu, Hong; Wang, Jiyang

    2011-12-01

    Bismuth nanobelts in situ grown on a silicon wafer were synthesized through an ethanol-thermal method without any capping agent. The structure of the bismuth belt-silicon composite nanostructure was characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and high resolution transmission electron microscope. The nanobelt is a multilayered structure 100-800 nm in width and over 50 μm in length. One layer has a thickness of about 50 nm. A unique sword-like nanostructure is observed as the initial structure of the nanobelts. From these observations, a possible growth mechanism of the nanobelt is proposed. Current-voltage property measurements indicate that the resistivity of the nanobelts is slightly larger than that of the bulk bismuth material.

  10. Observation of Collective Strong Coupling between a Superconducting Resonator and Bismuth Dopants in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antler, Natania; Vijay, R.; Weis, Christoph; Levenson-Falk, Eli; Schenkel, Thomas; Siddiqi, Irfan

    2011-03-01

    All electrical readout and control of spin systems with superconducting circuitry is an attractive route for implementing hybrid quantum information processing. Isolated spins, in general, have much longer coherence times than present day superconducting qubits, and thus could be utilized as memory elements. Species with a zero-field splitting (ZFS), such as bismuth doped silicon or NV centers in diamond, are particularly attractive as the absence of a strong magnetic bias field facilitates compatibility with low loss superconducting circuitry. We present results on the interaction of a tunable superconducting resonator and an ensemble of Bi spins implanted in an epitaxial layer of 28Si. As the resonator tunes through the ZFS, we observe an avoided crossing indicative of collective strong coupling. We discuss coherence properties as a function of spin density as well as progress on the detection of a small number of spins using a dispersive nanoSQUID magnetometer.

  11. Kinetics and characterization of bismuth molybdate catalysts. 1. A gradientless partial oxidation reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Burban, P.M.; Schuit, G.C.A.; Bicschoff, K.B. ); Koch, T.A. Du Pont Experimental Station, Wilmington, DE )

    1990-12-01

    A gradientless laboratory fixed bed reactor was designed for studying the partial oxidation of 1-butene to 1,3-butadiene over bismuth-molybdate catalysts. By dilution of the catalyst bed with inert silicon carbide, axial catalyst bed temperature gradients were routinely reduced to 2 K or less over the temperature range 650-740 K for the exothermic model reaction. A systematic experimental procedure was developed and used to show that potential transport 'disguises' did not significantly influence the intrinsic rate of butadiene formation measured under both integral and differential conditions. For one Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} catalyst system, rate of butadiene formation data over the temperature range 700-740 K were fit to pseudo first-order (in butene) kinetics. Analytical solutions of the governing equations describing fixed bed reactor transport disguises for first-order catalytic reactions were used to confirm that the reactor operated in a near gradientless fashion, in agreement with experiment.

  12. Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2000-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  13. Synthesis of α-Bismuth oxide using solution combustion method and its photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuti, Y.; Fauziyah, A.; Nurhayati, S.; Wulansari, A. D.; Andianingrum, R.; Hakim, A. R.; Bhaduri, G.

    2016-02-01

    The monoclinic bismuth oxide was prepared by the solution combustion method using bismuthyl nitrate as the raw material and citric acid as fuel. The synthesis process consisted of the formation of a clear transparent solution and the formation of white powder after heating the mixture at 250 °C for 2 hours. The yellow pale crystalline materials were obtained after calcination of the white powder at 600 °C for 80 minutes. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the product was also studied using methyl orange as a model pollutant. The result showed that the coral reef-like bismuth oxide was able to degrade 50 mL methyl orange (5 ppm) by 37.8% within 12 hours irradiation using 75-watt tungsten lamp.

  14. Effect of additions of praseodymium and bismuth oxides on the properties of barium hexaferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Kirichok, P.P.; Garmash, V.Y.; Verezhak, O.F.; Voronina, N.B.

    1985-08-01

    Among oxide permanent magnets, of greatest practical interest are those made of barium hexaferrite. Because of its high constant of uniaxial anisotropy, a barium ferrite can be employed for producing permanent magnets of large coercive force. The formation of important technical properties in barium ferrites is strongly affected by their production technology, in particular, the addition of oxides, such as those or bismuth and some rare-earth elements. The goal of this work was to study the effect of bismuth and praseodymium on the parameters of the static hysteresis loop, magnetic microstructure, and electronic configuration of iron ions in the BaO.nFe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (5.0 less than or equal tonless than or equal to6.0) system. It is determined that the changes induced in the crystallostructural parameters, magnetic microstructure, and electronic spectrum of a barium ferrite by the addition of praseodymium and bismuth oxides to the ferrite powder charge control to a large extent the formation of the magnetic energy level.

  15. Capacity and cycle-life of batteries using bismuth-bearing oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Haigh, N. P.; Lim, O. V.; Rand, D. A. J.; Manders, J. E.

    An examination is made of the capacity performance of lead-acid positive electrodes which are prepared from bismuth (Bi)-bearing oxide. This oxide is produced from Pasminco VRLA Refined™ lead which contains 0.05 wt.% Bi. For comparison, benchmark tests are performed on electrodes made from oxide with virtually no bismuth (<0.005 wt.%). The change in capacity is investigated by means of a purpose-built `compression cell'. With this design, the positive active-material is constrained under the action of a desirable, constant force during charge-discharge cycling. In general, the capacity increases with the compressive force. Importantly, the use of Bi-bearing oxide yields higher initial capacity and then a significantly faster rise in capacity to the full value with subsequent cycling. Commercial VRLA batteries made with Bi-bearing oxide exhibit a lower rate of self-discharge than those fabricated with conventional factory oxide. In addition, Bi-bearing batteries provide good cycle-life under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) test.

  16. High Tc bismuth and thallium copper oxide superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sleight, A.W.; Subramanian, M.A.; Torardi, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    The structures of the AO(m)M2Ca(n-1)Cu(n)O(2n+2) family with m = 1 and 2 are studied for n = 1, 2, and 3. The ease with which these structures intergrow with each other is demonstrated. One structural feature peculiar to all the copper oxide superconductors is that the part of the structure between the nonconsecutive CuO/sub 2/ sheets is ill defined. 29 references.

  17. Effect of Bismuth Oxide on the Microstructure and Electrical Conductivity of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liwei; Zhou, Zheng; Tian, He; Li, Jixue

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth oxide (Bi₂O₃)-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were prepared via the solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction spectroscopy results indicate that doping with 2 mol% Bi₂O₃ and adding 10 mol% yttria result in a stable zirconia cubic phase. Adding Bi₂O₃ as a dopant increases the density of zirconia to above 96%, while reducing its normal sintering temperature by approximately 250 °C. Moreover, electrical impedance analyses show that adding Bi₂O₃ enhances the conductivity of zirconia, improving its capability as a solid electrolyte for intermediate or even lower temperatures. PMID:26985895

  18. Synthesis and photocatalytic properties of bismuth titanate with different structures via oxidant peroxo method (OPM).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Andr E; Longo, Elson; Leite, Edson R; Camargo, Emerson R

    2014-02-01

    Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12 and Bi12TiO20) powders were synthesized by the Oxidant Peroxide Method (OPM), and the effect of temperatures on physical and chemical properties of particles was investigated. The results showed that the morphology and average particle size of materials can be successfully controlled by adjusting the temperature. The samples after calcination were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and BET isotherms. The photocatalytic activity of materials was also evaluated by studying the degradation of 10ppm aqueous rhodamine B dye under ultraviolet radiation. PMID:24267334

  19. Laser induced oxidation and optical properties of bismuth telluride nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhipeng; Sucharitakul, Sukrit; Keiser, Courtney; Kidd, Tim E.; Gao, Xuan P. A.; He, Rui

    2015-03-01

    Bi-Te nanoplates (NPs) grown by low pressure vapor transport method were studied by Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). We find that the surface of relatively thick (more than tens of nanometers) Bi2Te3 NPs is oxidized in the air and forms a bump under heating with moderate laser power, as revealed by the emergence of Raman lines characteristic of Bi2O3 and TeO2 and characterization by AFM and EDS. Further increase of laser power burns holes on the surface of the NPs. Thin (thicknesses less than 20 nm) NPs with stoichiometry different from Bi2Te3 were also studied. Raman lines from non-stoichiometric NPs are different from those of stoichiometric ones. Thin NPs with the same thickness but different stoichiometries show different color contrast compared to the substrate in the optical image. This indicates that the optical absorption coefficient in thin Bi-Te NPs strongly depends on their stoichiometry. Controlling the stoichiometry in the Bi-Te NP growth is thus very important for their thermoelectric, electronic, and optical device applications. Supported by American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund (Grant 53401-UNI10), NSF (No. DMR-1206530, No. DMR-1410496, DMR-1151534), UNI Faculty Summer Fellowship and a UNI capacity building grant.

  20. Bismuth oxide coated amorphous manganese dioxide for electrochemical capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Linsen; Dong, Huichao; Xia, Tongchi; Huang, Zhigang

    2015-05-01

    With MnSO4, NaOH and K2S2O8 as the raw materials, the amorphous and ?-type manganese dioxide (MnO2) is separately prepared by using different chemical precipitation-oxidation methods. The results of charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests show that (i) the specific capacitance of the amorphous MnO2 reaches to 301.2 F g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 and its capacitance retention rate after 2000 cycles is 97%, which is obviously higher than 250.8 F g-1 and 71% of the ?-type one, respectively; (ii) good electrochemical capacitance properties of the amorphous MnO2 should be contributed to easy insertion/extraction of ions within the material; (iii) when 5 wt% Bi2O3 is coated on the amorphous MnO2, its specific capacitance increases to 352.8 F g-1 and the capacitance retention rate is 90% after 2000 cycles.

  1. Single crystal functional oxides on silicon

    PubMed Central

    Bakaul, Saidur Rahman; Serrao, Claudy Rayan; Lee, Michelle; Yeung, Chun Wing; Sarker, Asis; Hsu, Shang-Lin; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Dedon, Liv; You, Long; Khan, Asif Islam; Clarkson, James David; Hu, Chenming; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystalline thin films of complex oxides show a rich variety of functional properties such as ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, ferro and antiferromagnetism and so on that have the potential for completely new electronic applications. Direct synthesis of such oxides on silicon remains challenging because of the fundamental crystal chemistry and mechanical incompatibility of dissimilar interfaces. Here we report integration of thin (down to one unit cell) single crystalline, complex oxide films onto silicon substrates, by epitaxial transfer at room temperature. In a field-effect transistor using a transferred lead zirconate titanate layer as the gate insulator, we demonstrate direct reversible control of the semiconductor channel charge with polarization state. These results represent the realization of long pursued but yet to be demonstrated single-crystal functional oxides on-demand on silicon. PMID:26853112

  2. Single crystal functional oxides on silicon.

    PubMed

    Bakaul, Saidur Rahman; Serrao, Claudy Rayan; Lee, Michelle; Yeung, Chun Wing; Sarker, Asis; Hsu, Shang-Lin; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Dedon, Liv; You, Long; Khan, Asif Islam; Clarkson, James David; Hu, Chenming; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystalline thin films of complex oxides show a rich variety of functional properties such as ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, ferro and antiferromagnetism and so on that have the potential for completely new electronic applications. Direct synthesis of such oxides on silicon remains challenging because of the fundamental crystal chemistry and mechanical incompatibility of dissimilar interfaces. Here we report integration of thin (down to one unit cell) single crystalline, complex oxide films onto silicon substrates, by epitaxial transfer at room temperature. In a field-effect transistor using a transferred lead zirconate titanate layer as the gate insulator, we demonstrate direct reversible control of the semiconductor channel charge with polarization state. These results represent the realization of long pursued but yet to be demonstrated single-crystal functional oxides on-demand on silicon. PMID:26853112

  3. AFM and MFM characterization of oxide layers grown on stainless steels in lead bismuth eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosemann, P.; Hawley, M.; Mori, G.; Li, N.; Maloy, S. A.

    2008-06-01

    Fast reactors and spallation neutron sources may use lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) as a coolant. Its thermal physical and neutronic properties make it a high performance nuclear coolant and spallation target. The main disadvantage of LBE is that it is corrosive to most steels and container materials. Active control of oxygen in LBE will allow the growth of protective oxides on steels to mitigate corrosion. To understand corrosion and oxidation of candidate materials in this environment and to establish a solid scientific basis the surface structure, composition, and properties should be investigated carefully at the smallest scale. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful tool to map out properties and structure on surfaces of virtually any material. This paper is a summary of the results from AFM measurements on ferritic/martensitic (HT-9) and austenitic (D9) steels that are candidates for liquid metal cooled reactors.

  4. Understanding of the retarded oxidation effects in silicon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzeminski, C. D.; Han, X.-L.; Larrieu, G.

    2012-06-01

    In-depth understanding of the retarded oxidation phenomenon observed during the oxidation of silicon nanostructures is proposed. The wet thermal oxidation of various silicon nanostructures such as nanobeams, concave/convex nanorings, and nanowires exhibits an extremely different and complex behavior. Such effects have been investigated by the modeling of the mechanical stress generated during the oxidation process explaining the retarded regime. The model describes the oxidation kinetics of silicon nanowires while predicting reasonable and physical stress levels at the silicon/silicon dioxide interface by correctly taking into account the relaxation effects in silicon oxide through plastic flow.

  5. Oxide driven strength evolution of silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutzik, Scott J.; Milosevic, Erik; Boyce, Brad L.; Zehnder, Alan T.

    2015-11-01

    Previous experiments have shown a link between oxidation and strength changes in single crystal silicon nanostructures but provided no clues as to the mechanisms leading to this relationship. Using atomic force microscope-based fracture strength experiments, molecular dynamics modeling, and measurement of oxide development with angle resolved x-ray spectroscopy we study the evolution of strength of silicon (111) surfaces as they oxidize and with fully developed oxide layers. We find that strength drops with partial oxidation but recovers when a fully developed oxide is formed and that surfaces intentionally oxidized from the start maintain their high initial strengths. MD simulations show that strength decreases with the height of atomic layer steps on the surface. These results are corroborated by a completely separate line of testing using micro-scale, polysilicon devices, and the slack chain method in which strength recovers over a long period of exposure to the atmosphere. Combining our results with insights from prior experiments we conclude that previously described strength decrease is a result of oxidation induced roughening of an initially flat silicon (1 1 1) surface and that this effect is transient, a result consistent with the observation that surfaces flatten upon full oxidation.

  6. Characterization of oxide layers grown on D9 austenitic stainless steel in lead bismuth eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosemann, P.; Hawley, M.; Koury, D.; Swadener, J. G.; Welch, J.; Johnson, A. L.; Mori, G.; Li, N.

    2008-04-01

    Lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) is a possible coolant for fast reactors and targets in spallation neutron sources. Its low melting point, high evaporation point, good thermal conductivity, low reactivity, and good neutron yield make it a safe and high performance coolant in radiation environments. The disadvantage is that it is a corrosive medium for most steels and container materials. This study was performed to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the austenitic stainless steel D9 in oxygen controlled LBE. In order to predict the corrosion behavior of steel in this environment detailed analyses have to be performed on the oxide layers formed on these materials and various other relevant materials upon exposure to LBE. In this study the corrosion/oxidation of D9 stainless steel in LBE was investigated in great detail. The oxide layers formed were characterized using atomic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, nanoindentation, and scanning electron microscopy with wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) to understand the corrosion and oxidation mechanisms of D9 stainless steel in contact with the LBE. What was previously believed to be a simple double oxide layer was identified here to consist of at least 4 different oxide layers. It was found that the inner most oxide layer takes over the grain structure of what used to be the bulk steel material while the outer oxide layer consists of freshly grown oxides with a columnar structure. These results lead to a descriptive model of how these oxide layers grow on this steel under the harsh environments encountered in these applications.

  7. Broadly tunable multiwavelength fiber laser with bismuth-oxide EDF using large effective area fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzia Salem, A. M.; Al-Mansoori, M. H.; Hizam, H.; Mohd Noor, S. B.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2011-02-01

    A multiwavelength laser comb using 2.49 m Bismuth-oxide erbium-doped fiber (Bi-EDF) with different lengths of large effective area fiber (LEAF) in a ring cavity configuration is realized. The Bi-EDF is used as the linear gain medium and LEAF is used as the non-linear gain medium for stimulated Brillouin scattering. Out of the four different lengths, the longest length of 25 km LEAF exhibits the widest tuning range of 44 nm (1576 to 1620 nm) in the L-band at 264 mW pump power and 5 mW Brillouin pump power. In addition, a total of 15 output channels are achieved with total average output power of -8 dBm from this laser structure. All Brillouin Stokes signals exhibit high peak power of above -20 dBm per signal and their optical signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 15 dB.

  8. Narrowband and tunable optical parametric amplification in Bismuth-Oxide-based highly nonlinear fiber.

    PubMed

    Seki, Kyota; Yamashita, Shinji

    2008-09-01

    The one-pump optical fiber parametric amplification (FOPA) has been well known to be a means for realizing wideband amplification when the group-delay dispersion (beta(2)) is small at the pump wavelength. In this paper, we report one-pump FOPA in short Bismuth-Oxide-based highly nonlinear fiber (Bi-HNLF) that has large normal dispersion at 1550nm, both theoretically and experimentally, for the first time to the best of our knowledge. We found that, due to the large beta(4) along with large beta(2), FOPA in the Bi-HNLF is very narrowband, and its gain peak wavelength is tunable in proportional to the pump wavelength. We achieved the gain bandwidth as narrow as 0.75nm and gain peak as high as 58dB in the experiment using a 2m-long Bi-HNLF. PMID:18772997

  9. Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of Br-Doped Bismuth Oxide Formate Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Cui, Wen; Zhong, Junbo; Liu, Xiaoying; Dong, Fan; Zhang, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    A facile method was developed to enhance the visible light photocatalytic activity of bismuth oxide formate (BiOCOOH) nanosheets via Br-doping. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra, and N? adsorption-desorption isotherms measurement. The Br- ions replaced the COOH- ions in the layers of BiOCOOH, result in a decreased layer distance. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared materials was evaluated by removal of NO in qir at ppb level. The results showed that the Br-doped BiOCOOH nanosheets showed enhanced visible light photocatalytic activtiy with a NO removal of 37.8%. The enhanced activity can be ascribed to the increased visible light absorption and the promoted charge separation. PMID:26506332

  10. Silicon Carbide Nanotube Oxidation at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlborg, Nadia; Zhu, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Carbide Nanotubes (SiCNTs) have high mechanical strength and also have many potential functional applications. In this study, SiCNTs were investigated for use in strengthening high temperature silicate and oxide materials for high performance ceramic nanocomposites and environmental barrier coating bond coats. The high · temperature oxidation behavior of the nanotubes was of particular interest. The SiCNTs were synthesized by a direct reactive conversion process of multiwall carbon nanotubes and silicon at high temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to study the oxidation kinetics of SiCNTs at temperatures ranging from 800degC to1300degC. The specific oxidation mechanisms were also investigated.

  11. Silicon oxide colloidal/polymer nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haifeng; Cao, Wenwu; Zhou, Q. F.; Shung, K. Kirk; Huang, Y. H.

    2004-12-01

    The quarter-wavelength (?/4) acoustic matching layer, a vital component in medical ultrasonic transducer, can bridge the large acoustic impedance mismatch between the piezoelectric material and the human body. Composite materials are widely used as matching materials in order to cover the wide acoustic impedance range that cannot be accomplished by using a single-phase material. At high frequencies (>50MHz), the ? /4 matching layers become extremely thin so that the fabrication of homogeneous composite material matching layers becomes very challenging. A method is reported in this letter to fabricate sol-gel silicon oxide colloidal/polymer composite film on silicon substrate, in which the particle size of silicon oxide colloidal is between 10 and 40 nm. The acoustic impedance of the nanocomposite films versus aging temperature has been measured at the desired operating frequency.

  12. Silicon oxide colloidal/polymer nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Haifeng; Cao Wenwu; Zhou, Q.F.; Shung, K. Kirk; Huang, Y.H.

    2004-12-13

    The quarter-wavelength ({lambda}/4) acoustic matching layer, a vital component in medical ultrasonic transducer, can bridge the large acoustic impedance mismatch between the piezoelectric material and the human body. Composite materials are widely used as matching materials in order to cover the wide acoustic impedance range that cannot be accomplished by using a single-phase material. At high frequencies (>50 MHz), the {lambda}/4 matching layers become extremely thin so that the fabrication of homogeneous composite material matching layers becomes very challenging. A method is reported in this letter to fabricate sol-gel silicon oxide colloidal/polymer composite film on silicon substrate, in which the particle size of silicon oxide colloidal is between 10 and 40 nm. The acoustic impedance of the nanocomposite films versus aging temperature has been measured at the desired operating frequency.

  13. Functionalised silicon oxide nanoparticles for fingermark detection.

    PubMed

    Moret, Sbastien; Bcue, Andy; Champod, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    Over the past decade, the use of nanotechnology for fingermark detection has been attracting a lot of attention. A substantial number of nanoparticle types has thus been studied and applied with varying success. However, despite all efforts, few publications present clear supporting evidence of their superiority over standard and commonly used techniques. This paper focuses on a rarely studied type of nanoparticles that regroups all desired properties for effective fingermark detection: silicon oxide. These nanoparticles offer optical and surface properties that can be tuned to provide optimal detection. This study explores their potential as a new method for fingermark detection. Detection conditions, outer functionalisations and optical properties were optimised and a first evaluation of the technique is presented. Dye-doped silicon oxide nanoparticles were assessed against a one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate. Both techniques were compared on natural fingermarks from three donors collected on four different non-porous substrates. On average, the two techniques performed similarly but silicon oxide detected marks with a better homogeneity and was less affected by donor inter-variability. The technique remains to be further optimised and yet silicon oxide nanoparticles already show great promises for effective fingermark detection. PMID:26717406

  14. Visible light photooxidative performance of a high-nuclearity molecular bismuth vanadium oxide cluster

    PubMed Central

    Tucher, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Summary The visible light photooxidative performance of a new high-nuclearity molecular bismuth vanadium oxide cluster, H3[{Bi(dmso)3}4V13O40], is reported. Photocatalytic activity studies show faster reaction kinetics under anaerobic conditions, suggesting an oxygen-dependent quenching of the photoexcited cluster species. Further mechanistic analysis shows that the reaction proceeds via the intermediate formation of hydroxyl radicals which act as oxidant. Trapping experiments using ethanol as a hydroxyl radical scavenger show significantly decreased photocatalytic substrate oxidation in the presence of EtOH. Photocatalytic performance analyses using monochromatic visible light irradiation show that the quantum efficiency ? for indigo photooxidation is strongly dependent on the irradiation wavelength, with higher quantum efficiencies being observed at shorter wavelengths (?395nm ca. 15%). Recycling tests show that the compound can be employed as homogeneous photooxidation catalyst multiple times without loss of catalytic activity. High turnover numbers (TON ca. 1200) and turnover frequencies up to TOF ca. 3.44 min?1 are observed, illustrating the practical applicability of the cluster species. PMID:24991508

  15. Tailoring Silicon Oxycarbide Glasses for Oxidative Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, F. I.; Meador, M. A. B.

    1997-01-01

    Blackglas(Trademark) polysiloxane systems produce silicon oxycarbide glasses by pyrolysis in inert atmosphere. The silicon oxycarbides evidence oxidative degradation that limits their lifetime as composite matrices. The present study characterizes bonding rearrangements in the oxycarbide network accompanying increases in pyrolysis temperature. It also addresses the changes in susceptibility to oxidation due to variations in the distribution of Si bonded species obtained under different processing conditions. The study is carried out using Si-29 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and a design of experiments approach to model the oxidation behavior. The NMR results are compared with those obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Samples pyrolyzed under inert conditions are compared to those pyrolyzed in reactive ammonia environments.

  16. Method of making silicon carbide-silicon composite having improved oxidation resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthra, Krishan Lal (Inventor); Wang, Hongyu (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A Silicon carbide-silicon matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is provided. A method is given for sealing matrix cracks in situ in melt infiltrated silicon carbide-silicon matrix composites. The composite cracks are sealed by the addition of various additives, such as boron compounds, into the melt infiltrated silicon carbide-silicon matrix.

  17. Silicon carbide-silicon composite having improved oxidation resistance and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthra, Krishan Lal (Inventor); Wang, Hongyu (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A Silicon carbide-silicon matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is provided. A method is given for sealing matrix cracks in situ in melt infiltrated silicon carbide-silicon matrix composites. The composite cracks are sealed by the addition of various additives, such as boron compounds, into the melt infiltrated silicon carbide-silicon matrix.

  18. Silica substrate or portion formed from oxidation of monocrystalline silicon

    DOEpatents

    Matzke, Carolyn M.; Rieger, Dennis J.; Ellis, Robert V.

    2003-07-15

    A method is disclosed for forming an inclusion-free silica substrate using a monocrystalline silicon substrate as the starting material and oxidizing the silicon substrate to convert it entirely to silica. The oxidation process is performed from both major surfaces of the silicon substrate using a conventional high-pressure oxidation system. The resulting product is an amorphous silica substrate which is expected to have superior etching characteristics for microfabrication than conventional fused silica substrates. The present invention can also be used to convert only a portion of a monocrystalline silicon substrate to silica by masking the silicon substrate and locally thinning a portion the silicon substrate prior to converting the silicon portion entirely to silica. In this case, the silica formed by oxidizing the thinned portion of the silicon substrate can be used, for example, as a window to provide optical access through the silicon substrate.

  19. Electrically tailored resistance switching in silicon oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehonic, Adnan; Cueff, Sébastien; Wojdak, Maciej; Hudziak, Stephen; Labbé, Christophe; Rizk, Richard; Kenyon, Anthony J.

    2012-11-01

    Resistive switching in a metal-free silicon-based material offers a compelling alternative to existing metal oxide-based resistive RAM (ReRAM) devices, both in terms of ease of fabrication and of enhanced device performance. We report a study of resistive switching in devices consisting of non-stoichiometric silicon-rich silicon dioxide thin films. Our devices exhibit multi-level switching and analogue modulation of resistance as well as standard two-level switching. We demonstrate different operational modes that make it possible to dynamically adjust device properties, in particular two highly desirable properties: nonlinearity and self-rectification. This can potentially enable high levels of device integration in passive crossbar arrays without causing the problem of leakage currents in common line semi-selected devices. Aspects of conduction and switching mechanisms are discussed, and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) measurements provide a more detailed insight into both the location and the dimensions of the conductive filaments.

  20. Development of tellurium oxide and lead-bismuth oxide glasses for mid-wave infra-red transmission optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Beiming; Rapp, Charles F.; Driver, John K.; Myers, Michael J.; Myers, John D.; Goldstein, Jonathan; Utano, Rich; Gupta, Shantanu

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal oxide glasses exhibiting high transmission in the Mid-Wave Infra-Red (MWIR) spectrum are often difficult to manufacture in large sizes with optimized physical and optical properties. In this work, we researched and developed improved tellurium-zinc-barium and lead-bismuth-gallium heavy metal oxide glasses for use in the manufacture of fiber optics, optical components and laser gain materials. Two glass families were investigated, one based upon tellurium and another based on lead-bismuth. Glass compositions were optimized for stability and high transmission in the MWIR. Targeted glass specifications included low hydroxyl concentration, extended MWIR transmission window, and high resistance against devitrification upon heating. Work included the processing of high purity raw materials, melting under controlled dry Redox balanced atmosphere, finning, casting and annealing. Batch melts as large as 4 kilograms were sprue cast into aluminum and stainless steel molds or temperature controlled bronze tube with mechanical bait. Small (100g) test melts were typically processed in-situ in a 5%Au/95%Pt crucible. Our group manufactured and evaluated over 100 different experimental heavy metal glass compositions during a two year period. A wide range of glass melting, fining, casting techniques and experimental protocols were employed. MWIR glass applications include remote sensing, directional infrared counter measures, detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents, laser detection tracking and ranging, range gated imaging and spectroscopy. Enhanced long range mid-infrared sensor performance is optimized when operating in the atmospheric windows from ~ 2.0 to 2.4?m, ~ 3.5 to 4.3?m and ~ 4.5 to 5.0?m.

  1. Optical Studies on Oxidized Porous Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asli, N. A.; Yusop, S. F. M.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2011-03-01

    The porous silicon (PSi) samples were prepared by photo-electrochemical anodization method. As-prepared and oxidized PSi samples were studied using photoluminescence spectrometer and Raman spectrometer. PSi samples were prepared at 40 and 50 mA/cm2 of current density for 20 minutes. As-prepared sample was kept in a tight chamber as a control sample. The oxidation process used to prepare oxidized PSi which is PSi placed in the oxidation chamber for various time exposition. The products samples were analyzed by PL spectra which have shown the peak positions and peak intensity changes with level of oxidation. The peaks shown shifted to higher energies after oxidized and FWHM becomes smaller compared to as-prepared samples. Raman spectra of PSi have shown the significant differences between as-prepared PSi and oxidized PSi samples that change the line shape become more symmetry shape. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectrum used to estimate the size of nanocrystallites of as-prepared PSi and oxidized PSi.

  2. Correlation between matrix structural order and compressive stress exerted on silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon-rich silicon oxide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon oxide matrix were deposited by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering. By means of Raman spectroscopy, we have found that a compressive stress is exerted on the silicon nanocrystal cores. The stress varies as a function of silicon concentration in the silicon-rich silicon oxide layers varies, which can be attributed to changes of nanocrystal environment. By conducting the Fourier transform infrared absorption experiments, we have correlated the stresses exerted on the nanocrystal core to the degree of matrix structural order. PACS 78.67.Bf, 78.67.Pt, 73.63.Bd, 78.47.D, 74.25.Nd PMID:23336352

  3. Boron-Doped Strontium-Stabilized Bismuth Cobalt Oxide Thermoelectric Nanocrystalline Ceramic Powders Synthesized via Electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyi?it, Serhat; Aytimur, Arda; ?nar, Emre; Uslu, ?brahim; Akdemir, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Boron-doped strontium-stabilized bismuth cobalt oxide thermoelectric nanocrystalline ceramic powders were produced by using a polymeric precursor technique. The powders were characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and physical properties measurement system (PPMS) techniques. The XRD results showed that these patterns have a two-phase mixture. The phases are face-centered cubic (fcc) and body-centered cubic (bcc). Values of the crystallite size, dislocation density, and microstrain were calculated by using the Scherrer equation. The lattice parameters were calculated for fcc and bcc phases. The SEM results showed that needle-like grains are formed in boron-undoped composite materials, but the needle-like grains changed to the plate-like grains with the addition of boron. The distribution of the nanofiber diameters was calculated and the average diameter of the boron-doped sample is smaller than the boron-undoped one. PPMS values showed that the electrical resistivity values decreased, but the thermal conductivity values, the Seebeck coefficients, and figure of merit ( ZT) increased with increasing temperature for the two samples.

  4. Enhancing the Performance of the Rechargeable Iron Electrode in Alkaline Batteries with Bismuth Oxide and Iron Sulfide Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-09-07

    Iron-based alkaline rechargeable batteries have the potential of meeting the needs of large-scale electrical energy storage because of their low-cost, robustness and eco-friendliness. However, the widespread commercial deployment of iron-based batteries has been limited by the low charging efficiency and the poor discharge rate capability of the iron electrode. In this study, we have demonstrated iron electrodes containing bismuth oxide and iron sulfide with a charging efficiency of 92% and capable of being discharged at the 3C rate. Such a high value of charging efficiency combined with the ability to discharge at high rates is being reported for the first time. The bismuth oxide additive led to the in situ formation of elemental bismuth and a consequent increase in the overpotential for the hydrogen evolution reaction leading to an increase in the charging efficiency. We observed that the sulfide ions added to the electrolyte and iron sulfide added to the electrode mitigated-electrode passivation and allowed for continuous discharge at high rates. At the 3C discharge rate, a utilization of 0.2 Ah/g was achieved. The performance level of the rechargeable iron electrode demonstrated here is attractive for designing economically-viable large-scale energy storage systems based on alkaline nickel-iron and iron-air batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Fouling Study of Silicon Oxide Pores Exposed to Tap Water

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Lee, J.R.I.; Letant, S.E.; /LLNL, Livermore

    2007-07-12

    We report on the fouling of Focused Ion Beam (FIB)-fabricated silicon oxide nanopores after exposure to tap water for two weeks. Pore clogging was monitored by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) on both bare silicon oxide and chemically functionalized nanopores. While fouling occurred on hydrophilic silicon oxide pore walls, the hydrophobic nature of alkane chains prevented clogging on the chemically functionalized pore walls. These results have implications for nanopore sensing platform design.

  6. Thermoelectrics from silicon nanoparticles: the influence of native oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petermann, Nils; Stötzel, Julia; Stein, Niklas; Kessler, Victor; Wiggers, Hartmut; Theissmann, Ralf; Schierning, Gabi; Schmechel, Roland

    2015-06-01

    Thermoelectric materials were synthesized by current-assisted sintering of doped silicon nanoparticles produced in a microwave-plasma reactor. Due to their affinity to oxygen, the nanoparticles start to oxidize when handled in air and even a thin surface layer of native silicon oxide leads to a significant increase in the oxide volume ratio. This results in a considerable incorporation of oxygen into the sintered pellets, thus affecting the thermoelectric performance. To investigate the necessity of inert handling of the raw materials, the thermoelectric transport properties of sintered nanocrystalline silicon samples were characterized with respect to their oxygen content. An innovative method allowing a quantitative silicon oxide analysis by means of electron microscopy was applied: the contrast between areas of high and low electrical conductivity was attributed to the silicon matrix and silicon oxide precipitates, respectively. Thermoelectric characterization revealed that both, electron mobility and thermal conductivity decrease with increasing silicon oxide content. A maximum figure of merit with zT = 0.45 at 950 °C was achieved for samples with a silicon oxide mass fraction of 9.5 and 21.4% while the sample with more than 25% of oxygen clearly indicates a negative impact of the oxygen on the electron mobility. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Silicon and Silicon-related Materials for Thermoelectricity", edited by Dario Narducci.

  7. The Active Oxidation of Silicon Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Myers, Dwight L.

    2009-01-01

    The high temperature oxidation of silicon carbide occurs in two very different modes. Passive oxidation forms a protective oxide film which limits further attack of the SiC: SiC(s) + 3/2 O2(g) = SiO2(s) + CO(g) Active oxidation forms a volatile oxide and may lead to extensive attack of the SiC: SiC(s) + O2(g) = SiO(g) + CO(g) Generally passive oxidation occurs at higher oxidant pressures and active oxidation occurs at lower oxidant pressures and elevated temperatures. Active oxidation is a concern for reentry, where the flight trajectory involves the latter conditions. Thus the transition points and rates of active oxidation are a major concern. Passive/active transitions have been studied by a number of investigators. An examination of the literature indicates many questions remain regarding the effect of impurity, the hysteresis of the transition (i.e. the difference between active-to-passive and passive-toactive), and the effect of total pressure. In this study we systematically investigate each of these effects. Experiments were done in both an alumina furnace tube and a quartz furnace tube. It is known that alumina tubes release impurities such as sodium and increase the kinetics in the passive region [1]. We have observed that the active-to-passive transition occurs at a lower oxygen pressure when the experiment is conducted in alumina tubes and the resultant passive silica scale contains sodium. Thus the tests in this study are conducted in quartz tubes. The hysteresis of the transition has been discussed in the detail in the original theoretical treatise of this problem for pure silicon by Wagner [2], yet there is little mention of it in subsequent literature. Essentially Wagner points out that the active-to-passive transition is governed by the criterion for a stable Si/SiO2 equilibria and the passive-to-active transition is governed by the decomposition of the SiO2 film. A series of experiments were conducted for active-to-passive and passive-to-active transitions by increasing and decreasing oxygen pressure, respectively. For pure silicon a dramatic difference was found; whereas for SiC the difference was not as great. This may be due to the oxidation of the carbon in SiC which may break down the scale [3]. The third area is the effect of total pressure. In the literature, low oxygen potentials are achieved via either low total pressure or low oxygen pressure in an O2/Ar mixture. Both types of experiments are done in this study and the differences are discussed with regard to the presence or absence of a boundary layer.

  8. Bismuth Subsalicylate

    MedlinePLUS

    Bismuth subsalicylate is used to treat diarrhea, heartburn, and upset stomach in adults and children 12 years of age and older. Bismuth subsalicylate is in a class of medications called antidiarrheal ...

  9. Investigating the use of bismuth(V) for the oxidation and subsequent solvent extraction of americium(VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L.R.; Mincher, B.J.; Schmitt, N.C.

    2008-07-01

    The separation of Am from Cm and the lanthanides is still one of the most complex separations facing analytical chemistry, as well as any proposed advanced fuel cycle. Current research is focused on the oxidation of americium for its selective separation from the trivalent lanthanides and curium. We have already successfully demonstrated that Am oxidized to the hexavalent state using sodium bismuthate at room temperature can be extracted into 30% TBP/dodecane. Its behavior has been demonstrated to be analogous to that of hexavalent uranyl, neptunyl, and plutonyl ions. Using UV-visible spectrophotometry, the mechanism of the oxidation with sodium bismuthate has been probed to identify if it is a suitable reagent for deployment in solvent extraction systems. It has been identified that 97% of the Am is oxidized within the first 5 minutes. Significantly longer periods of time are required to obtain a solution containing greater than 50% Am(VI) limiting the use of Bi(V) for process applications. (authors)

  10. Guided photoluminescence study of Nd-doped silicon rich silicon oxide and silicon rich silicon nitride waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirasteh, Parastesh; Charrier, Jol; Dumeige, Yannick; Doualan, Jean-Louis; Camy, Patrice; Debieu, Olivier; Liang, Chuan-hui; Khomenkova, Larysa; Lemaitre, Jonathan; Boucher, Yann G.; Gourbilleau, Fabrice

    2013-07-01

    Planar waveguides made of Nd3+-doped silicon rich silicon oxide (SRSO) and silicon rich silicon nitride (SRSN) have been fabricated by reactive magnetron sputtering and characterized with special emphasis on the comparison of the guided photoluminescence (PL) properties of these two matrices. Guided fluorescence excited by top surface pumping at 488 nm on planar waveguides was measured as a function of the distance between the excitation area and the output of the waveguide, as well as a function of the pump power density. The PL intensity increased linearly with pump power without any saturation even at high power. The linear intensity increase of the Nd3+ guided PL under a non-resonant excitation (488 nm) confirms the efficient coupling between either Si-np and rare-earth ions for SRSO or radiative defects and rare earth ions for SRSN. The guided fluorescences at 945 and 1100 nm were observed until 4 mm and 8 mm of the output of the waveguide for Nd3+ doped SRSO and SRSN waveguides, respectively. The guided fluorescence decays of Nd3+-doped-SRSO and -SRSN planar waveguides have been measured and found equal to 97 ?s 7 and 5 ?s 2, respectively. These results show notably that the Nd3+-doped silicon rich silicon oxide is a very promising candidate on the way to achieve a laser cavity at 1.06 ?m.

  11. Dissolution and oxidation behaviour of various austenitic steels and Ni rich alloys in lead-bismuth eutectic at 520 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Marion; Martinelli, Laure; Ginestar, Kevin; Favergeon, Jérôme; Moulin, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Ten austenitic steels and Ni rich alloys were tested in static lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) at 520 °C in order to obtain a selection of austenitic steels having promising corrosion behaviour in LBE. A test of 1850 h was carried out with a dissolved oxygen concentration between 10-9 and 5 10-4 g kg-1. The combination of thermodynamic of the studied system and literature results leads to the determination of an expression of the dissolved oxygen content in LBE as a function of temperature: RT(K)ln[O](wt%) = -57584/T(K) -55.876T(K) + 254546 (R is the gas constant in J mol-1 K-1). This relation can be considered as a threshold of oxygen content above which only oxidation is observed on the AISI 316L and AISI 304L austenitic alloys in static LBE between 400 °C and 600 °C. The oxygen content during the test leads to both dissolution and oxidation of the samples during the first 190 h and leads to pure oxidation for the rest of the test. Results of mixed oxidation and dissolution test showed that only four types of corrosion behaviour were observed: usual austenitic steels and Ni rich alloys behaviour including the reference alloy 17Cr-12Ni-2.5Mo (AISI 316LN), the 20Cr-31Ni alloy one, the Si containing alloy one and the Al containing alloy one. According to the proposed criteria of oxidation and dissolution kinetics, silicon rich alloys and aluminum rich alloy presented a promising corrosion behaviour.

  12. Structural, electrical, and thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride: Silicon/carbon nanocomposites thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Khushboo; Mehta, B. R.

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the effect of the presence of secondary phases on the structural, electrical, and thermoelectric properties of nanocomposite Bi2Te3 films prepared by co-sputtering of silicon and carbon with Bi2Te3 has been investigated. Growth temperature and the presence of Si and C phase are observed to have a strong effect on the topography and orientation of crystallites. X-ray diffraction study demonstrates that Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te3:C samples have preferred (0 0 15) orientation in comparison to Bi2Te3:Si sample, which have randomly oriented crystallites. Atomic force, conducting atomic force, and scanning thermal microscopy analysis show significant differences in topographical, electrical, and thermal conductivity contrasts in Bi2Te3:Si and Bi2Te3:C samples. Due to the randomly oriented crystallites and the presence of Si along the crystallite boundaries, appreciable Seebeck coefficient, higher electrical conductivity, and lower thermal conductivity is achieved resulting in relatively higher value of power factor (3.71 mW K-2 m-1) for Bi2Te3:Si sample. This study shows that by incorporating a secondary phase along crystallite boundaries, microstructural, electrical, and thermoelectric properties of the composite samples can be modified.

  13. Structural, electrical, and thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride: Silicon/carbon nanocomposites thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Khushboo; Mehta, B. R.

    2014-08-28

    In this study, the effect of the presence of secondary phases on the structural, electrical, and thermoelectric properties of nanocomposite Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films prepared by co-sputtering of silicon and carbon with Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} has been investigated. Growth temperature and the presence of Si and C phase are observed to have a strong effect on the topography and orientation of crystallites. X-ray diffraction study demonstrates that Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}:C samples have preferred (0 0 15) orientation in comparison to Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}:Si sample, which have randomly oriented crystallites. Atomic force, conducting atomic force, and scanning thermal microscopy analysis show significant differences in topographical, electrical, and thermal conductivity contrasts in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}:Si and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}:C samples. Due to the randomly oriented crystallites and the presence of Si along the crystallite boundaries, appreciable Seebeck coefficient, higher electrical conductivity, and lower thermal conductivity is achieved resulting in relatively higher value of power factor (3.71 mW K{sup −2} m{sup −1}) for Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}:Si sample. This study shows that by incorporating a secondary phase along crystallite boundaries, microstructural, electrical, and thermoelectric properties of the composite samples can be modified.

  14. The effect of aluminium on the post-anneal concentration of ion implanted bismuth in silica thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southern-Holland, R.; Halsall, M. P.; Crowe, I. F.; Yang, P.; Gwilliam, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    We present a study of bismuth and aluminium co-implanted silica thin films and the effectiveness of post implantation annealing at activating Bismuth related photoluminescence. The only emission seen in photoluminescence from any of the samples was centred at 1160 nm and is of the kind generally reported as due to silicon dislocation loops. In particular, the layers did not exhibit the broad NIR emission in photoluminescence as reported by other authors in Bismuth doped silica fibres. In order to study the retention of the Bismuth in the layers after annealing Rutherford Backscattering measurements were conducted on the samples, these found that the concentration of bismuth in the samples was greatly reduced following the annealing process when compared to the concentration implanted and explains why we measured no emission from bismuth. The concentration of bismuth remaining in the sample post anneal depended on the initial implant doses of bismuth and aluminium. We propose that aluminium plays the role of increasing the solubility of bismuth in oxide but that this was not sufficient in our samples to observe the photoemission reported for fibre materials.

  15. Silicon radiation detectors with oxide charge state compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. T.; Goulding, F. S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of boron implantation on high resistivity P type silicon before oxide growth to compensate for the presence of charge states in the oxide and oxide/silicon interface. The presence of these charge states on high resistivity P type silicon produces an inversion layer which causes high leakage currents on N(+)P junctions and high surface conductance. Compensating the surface region by boron implantation is shown to result in oxide passivated N(+)P junctions with very low leakage currents and with low surface conductance.

  16. A simple analytical model of thermal oxidation of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, N. F.

    1999-02-01

    A simple closed-form analytical model of thermal oxidation of silicon is presented. The model is based on the oxidation rate expression of Massoud et al. [1], and is valid for artibitrary values of oxide thickness, including the initial regime. Using this analytical formulation, the various phases of oxidation kinetics are examined in detail.

  17. Resistive switches and memories from silicon oxide.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Sun, Zhengzong; Zhong, Lin; Natelson, Douglas; Tour, James M

    2010-10-13

    Because of its excellent dielectric properties, silicon oxide (SiO(x)) has long been used and considered as a passive, insulating component in the construction of electronic devices. In contrast, here we demonstrate resistive switches and memories that use SiO(x) as the sole active material and can be implemented in entirely metal-free embodiments. Through cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, we determine that the switching takes place through the voltage-driven formation and modification of silicon (Si) nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in the SiO(x) matrix, with SiO(x) itself also serving as the source of the formation of this Si pathway. The small sizes of the Si NCs (d ? 5 nm) suggest that scaling to ultrasmall domains could be feasible. Meanwhile, the switch also shows robust nonvolatile properties, high ON/OFF ratios (>10(5)), fast switching (sub-100-ns), and good endurance (10(4) write-erase cycles). These properties in a SiO(x)-based material composition showcase its potentials in constructing memory or logic devices that are fully CMOS compatible. PMID:20806916

  18. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment. PMID:25114633

  19. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafshgari, Morteza Hasanzadeh; Cavallaro, Alex; Delalat, Bahman; Harding, Frances J.; McInnes, Steven JP; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Vasilev, Krasimir; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment.

  20. Growth of silicon quantum dots by oxidation of the silicon nanocrystals embedded within silicon carbide matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Kole, Arindam; Chaudhuri, Partha

    2014-10-15

    A moderately low temperature (?800 C) thermal processing technique has been described for the growth of the silicon quantum dots (Si-QD) within microcrystalline silicon carbide (?c-SiC:H) dielectric thin films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process. The nanocrystalline silicon grains (nc-Si) present in the as deposited films were initially enhanced by aluminium induced crystallization (AIC) method in vacuum at a temperature of T{sub v} = 525 C. The samples were then stepwise annealed at different temperatures T{sub a} in air ambient. Analysis of the films by FTIR and XPS reveal a rearrangement of the ?c-SiC:H network has taken place with a significant surface oxidation of the nc-Si domains upon annealing in air. The nc-Si grain size (D{sub XRD}) as calculated from the XRD peak widths using Scherrer formula was found to decrease from 7 nm to 4 nm with increase in T{sub a} from 250 C to 800 C. A core shell like structure with the nc-Si as the core and the surface oxide layer as the shell can clearly describe the situation. The results indicate that with the increase of the annealing temperature in air the oxide shell layer becomes thicker and the nc-Si cores become smaller until their size reduced to the order of the Si-QDs. Quantum confinement effect due to the SiO covered nc-Si grains of size about 4 nm resulted in a photoluminescence peak due to the Si QDs with peak energy at 1.8 eV.

  1. Development of an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified disposable bismuth film electrode and its application for stripping analysis of heavy metals in milk.

    PubMed

    Ping, Jianfeng; Wang, Yixian; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yibin

    2014-05-15

    A novel electrochemical sensing platform based on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide film modified screen-printed electrode was developed. This disposable electrode shows excellent conductivity and fast electron transfer kinetics. By in situ plating bismuth film, the developed electrode exhibited well-defined and separate stripping peaks for cadmium and lead. Several parameters, including electrolytes environment and electrodeposition conditions, were carefully optimized to achieve best stripping performance. The linear range for both metal ions at the disposable bismuth film electrode was from 1.0 ?g L(-1) to 60.0 ?g L(-1). The detection limit was 0.5 ?g L(-1) for cadmium ion and 0.8 ?g L(-1) for lead ion. Milk sample analysis demonstrates that the developed electrode could be effectively used to detect low levels (?g L(-1)) of cadmium ion and lead ion. Graphene based disposable bismuth film electrode is a sensitive, stable, and reliable sensing platform for heavy metals determination. PMID:24423503

  2. Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

    1982-12-28

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  3. Oxidation-Induced Trapping of Drugs in Porous Silicon Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An approach for the preparation of an oxidized porous silicon microparticle drug delivery system that can provide efficient trapping and sustained release of various drugs is reported. The method uses the contraction of porous silicons mesopores, which occurs during oxidation of the silicon matrix, to increase the loading and retention of drugs within the particles. First, a porous Si (pSi) film is prepared by electrochemical etching of p-type silicon with a resistivity of >0.65 ? cm in a 1:1 (v/v) HF/ethanol electrolyte solution. Under these conditions, the pore walls are sufficiently thin to allow for complete oxidation of the silicon skeleton under mild conditions. The pSi film is then soaked in an aqueous solution containing the drug (cobinamide or rhodamine B test molecules were used in this study) and sodium nitrite. Oxidation of the porous host by nitrite results in a shrinking of the pore openings, which physically traps the drug in the porous matrix. The film is subsequently fractured by ultrasonication into microparticles. Upon comparison with commonly used oxidizing agents for pSi such as water, peroxide, and dimethyl sulfoxide, nitrite is kinetically and thermodynamically sufficient to oxidize the pore walls of the pSi matrix, precluding reductive (by Si) or oxidative (by nitrite) degradation of the drug payload. The drug loading efficiency is significantly increased (by up to 10-fold), and the release rate is significantly prolonged (by 20-fold) relative to control samples in which the drug is loaded by infiltration of pSi particles postoxidation. We find that it is important that the silicon skeleton be completely oxidized to ensure the drug is not reduced or degraded by contact with elemental silicon during the particle dissolutiondrug release phase. PMID:25678746

  4. One-step synthesis of bismuth molybdate catalysts via flame spray pyrolysis for the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein.

    PubMed

    Schuh, K; Kleist, W; Hj, M; Trouillet, V; Jensen, A D; Grunwaldt, J-D

    2014-12-18

    Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) of Bi(III)- and Mo(VI)-2-ethylhexanoate dissolved in xylene resulted in various nanocrystalline bismuth molybdate phases depending on the Bi/Mo ratio. Besides ?-Bi2Mo3O12 and ?-Bi2MoO6, FSP gave direct access to the metastable ?-Bi2Mo2O9 phase with high surface area (19 m(2) g(-1)). This phase is normally only obtained at high calcination temperatures (>560 C) resulting in lower surface areas. The ?-phase was stable up to 400 C and showed superior catalytic performance compared to ?- and ?-phases in selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein at temperatures relevant for industrial applications (360 C). PMID:25350295

  5. Light-induced degradation of native silicon oxide-silicon nitride bilayer passivated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Zahidur R.; Kherani, Nazir P.

    2015-10-01

    This article reports on the effects of aging and light induced degradation of the passivation quality of the interface formed by the crystalline silicon surface and facile grown oxideSiNx bilayer. Stable passivation quality against aging and light soaking require thicker oxide layers grown at room temperature, suggesting that thicker oxide layers mitigate the migration of hydrogen from the interface and hence the defect density under light soaking. In addition, the stoichiometry of the PECVD SiNx influences the stability of the passivation quality. Specifically, the rate of degradation in passivation quality is observed to correlate with the optical absorption properties of SiNx; the higher the optical absorption the greater the degradation in passivation. This result is attributed to neutralization of the K+ centers in SiNx. Passivation layers with SiNx deposited with 5% silane in nitrogen to ammonia gas ratio of 7 and facile grown native oxide thickness of 1 nm resulted in the most stable passivation scheme within the scope of the reported experiments.

  6. Excimer laser induced oxidation of ion-implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Fogarassy, E.; White, C.W.; Slaoui, A.; Fuchs, C.; Siffert, P.; Pennycook, S.J.

    1988-10-31

    We have investigated laser-induced oxidation of ion-implanted Si using a repetitively pulsed ArF laser, working at low-energy density (100--500 mJ/cm/sup 2/). Oxidation is observed at energy densities between the melt threshold and that required for epitaxial recrystallization of the amorphous layer. At these energy densities, oxidation is not observed on virgin silicon. The factors that influence the oxidation process are discussed.

  7. Enhancement of Er optical efficiency through bismuth sensitization in yttrium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarangella, Adriana; Reitano, Riccardo; Franzò, Giorgia; Priolo, Francesco; Miritello, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The process of energy transfer (ET) between optically active ions has been widely studied to improve the optical efficiency of a system for different applications, from lighting and photovoltaics to silicon microphotonics. In this work, we report the influence of Bi on the Er optical emission in erbium-yttrium oxide thin films synthesized by magnetron co-sputtering. We demonstrate that this host permits to well dissolve Er and Bi ions, avoiding their clustering, and thus to stabilize the optically active Er3+ and Bi3+ valence states. In addition, we establish the ET occurrence from Bi3+ to Er3+ by the observed Bi3+ PL emission decrease and the simultaneous Er3+ photoluminescence (PL) emission increase. This was further confirmed by the coincidence of the Er3+ and Bi3+ excitation bands, analyzed by PL excitation spectroscopy. By increasing the Bi content of two orders of magnitude inside the host, though the occurrence of Bi-Bi interactions becomes deleterious for Bi3+ optical efficiency, the ET process between Bi3+ and Er3+ is still prevalent. We estimate ET efficiency of 70% for the optimized Bi:Er ratio equal to 1:3. Moreover, we have demonstrated to enhance the Er3+ effective excitation cross section by more than three orders of magnitude with respect to the direct one, estimating a value of 5.3 × 10-18 cm2, similar to the expected Bi3+ excitation cross section. This value is one of the highest obtained for Er in Si compatible hosts. These results make this material very promising as an efficient emitter for Si-compatible photonics devices.

  8. A review of oxide, silicon nitride, and silicon carbide brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, M.L.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    There is growing interest in using ceramics for structural applications, many of which require the fabrication of components with complicated shapes. Normal ceramic processing methods restrict the shapes into which these materials can be produced, but ceramic joining technology can be used to overcome many of these limitations, and also offers the possibility for improving the reliability of ceramic components. One method of joining ceramics is by brazing. The metallic alloys used for bonding must wet and adhere to the ceramic surfaces without excessive reaction. Alumina, partially stabilized zirconia, and silicon nitride have high ionic character to their chemical bonds and are difficult to wet. Alloys for brazing these materials must be formulated to overcome this problem. Silicon carbide, which has some metallic characteristics, reacts excessively with many alloys, and forms joints of low mechanical strength. The brazing characteristics of these three types of ceramics, and residual stresses in ceramic-to-metal joints are briefly discussed.

  9. Integration of functional complex oxide nanomaterials on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila-Fungueirio, Jose Manuel; Bachelet, Romain; Saint-Girons, Guillaume; Gendry, Michel; Gich, Marti; Gazquez, Jaume; Ferain, Etienne; Rivadulla, Francisco; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Juan; Mestres, Narcis; Carretero-Genevrier, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    The combination of standard wafer-scale semiconductor processing with the properties of functional oxides opens up to innovative and more efficient devices with high value applications that can be produced at large scale. This review uncovers the main strategies that are successfully used to monolithically integrate functional complex oxide thin films and nanostructures on silicon: the chemical solution deposition approach (CSD) and the advanced physical vapor deposition techniques such as oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Special emphasis will be placed on complex oxide nanostructures epitaxially grown on silicon using the combination of CSD and MBE. Several examples will be exposed, with a particular stress on the control of interfaces and crystallization mechanisms on epitaxial perovskite oxide thin films, nanostructured quartz thin films, and octahedral molecular sieve nanowires. This review enlightens on the potential of complex oxide nanostructures and the combination of both chemical and physical elaboration techniques for novel oxide-based integrated devices.

  10. Plasma-nitrided silicon-rich oxide as an extension to ultrathin nitrided oxide gate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubaynes, F. N.; Venezia, V. C.; van der Marel, C.; Snijders, J. H. M.; Everaert, J. L.; Shi, X.; Rothschild, A.; Schaekers, M.

    2005-04-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of N incorporation, during plasma nitridation, in thermally grown ultrathin (<2nm)SiO2 films and deposited silicon-rich oxide films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicates that N atoms exchange mainly with O to bond with Si atoms in ultrathin plasma-nitrided oxides. Based on this understanding, we were able to increase the amount of N that can be incorporated in plasma-nitrided silicon oxides by increasing the silicon content in these films. This was achieved by depositing ultrathin substoichiometric silicon-rich oxide films. We demonstrate an increase of almost twice as much N in these ultrathin plasma-nitrided silicon-rich oxide films yielding lower gate leakage current for a given thickness.

  11. Plasma-nitrided silicon-rich oxide as an extension to ultrathin nitrided oxide gate dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Cubaynes, F.N.; Venezia, V.C.; Marel, C. van der; Snijders, J.H.M.; Everaert, J.L.; Shi, X.; Rothschild, A.; Schaekers, M.

    2005-04-25

    We have investigated the mechanism of N incorporation, during plasma nitridation, in thermally grown ultrathin (<2 nm) SiO{sub 2} films and deposited silicon-rich oxide films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicates that N atoms exchange mainly with O to bond with Si atoms in ultrathin plasma-nitrided oxides. Based on this understanding, we were able to increase the amount of N that can be incorporated in plasma-nitrided silicon oxides by increasing the silicon content in these films. This was achieved by depositing ultrathin substoichiometric silicon-rich oxide films. We demonstrate an increase of almost twice as much N in these ultrathin plasma-nitrided silicon-rich oxide films yielding lower gate leakage current for a given thickness.

  12. Nanostructured bismuth vanadate-based materials for solar-energy-driven water oxidation: a review on recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhen-Feng; Pan, Lun; Zou, Ji-Jun; Zhang, Xiangwen; Wang, Li

    2014-11-01

    Water oxidation is the key step for both photocatalytic water splitting and CO2 reduction, but its efficiency is very low compared with the photocatalytic reduction of water. Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is the most promising photocatalyst for water oxidation and has become a hot topic for current research. However, the efficiency achieved with this material to date is far away from the theoretical solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency, mainly due to the poor photo-induced electron transportation and the slow kinetics of oxygen evolution. Fortunately, great breakthroughs have been made in the past five years in both improving the efficiency and understanding the related mechanism. This review is aimed at summarizing the recent experimental and computational breakthroughs in single crystals modified by element doping, facet engineering, and morphology control, as well as macro/mesoporous structure construction, and composites fabricated by homo/hetero-junction construction and co-catalyst loading. We aim to provide guidelines for the rational design and fabrication of highly efficient BiVO4-based materials for water oxidation.

  13. Multiwavelength L-band fiber laser with bismuth-oxide EDF and photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzia Salem, A. M.; Al-Mansoori, M. H.; Hizam, H.; Mohd Noor, S. B.; Abu Bakar, M. H.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2011-05-01

    A multiwavelength laser comb using a bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber and 50 m photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated in a ring cavity configuration. The fiber laser is solely pumped by a single 1455 nm Raman pump laser to exploit its higher power delivery compared to that of a single-mode laser diode pump. At 264 mW Raman pump power and 1 mW Brillouin pump power, 38 output channels in the L-band have been realized with an optical signal-to-noise ratio above 15 dB and a Stokes line spacing of 0.08 nm. The laser exhibits a tuning range of 12 nm and produces stable Stokes lines across the tuning range between Brillouin pump wavelengths of 1603 nm and 1615 nm.

  14. Silicon oxide nanowires: facile and controlled large area fabrication of vertically oriented silicon oxide nanowires for photoluminescence and sensor applications.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Taiwo R; Yuan, Dajun; Bucknall, David; Das, Suman

    2013-09-25

    We describe a technique for the fabrication of dense and patterned arrays of aligned silicon oxide nanowires for applications in surface modification, optoelectronic, and electromechanical based devices. Conventional techniques for the fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires based on the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes involve the use of high temperatures and catalysts. We demonstrate a technique that extends the use of a plasma thermal reactive ion etching for the fabrication of aligned silicon oxide nanowires with aspect ratios extending up to 20 and lengths exceeding 1 ?m. The process incorporates phase separated PS-b-P4VP block copolymer loaded with an iron salt. The iron salt preferentially segregates into the P4VP layer and during an O2 etch is not removed but forms a hexagonally packed array on the silicon oxide substrate. Further etching with CHF3/O2 gas mixture over time can generate nanodots, to nanopillars, and then nanowires of silicon oxide. The photoluminescence property of the as-fabricated nanowire arrays as well as the parasitic ferromagnetic effect from the iron oxide-tipped section of the wires resulting in coalescence under an scanning electron microscope (SEM) are demonstrated. This technique is simpler compared to existing VLS fabrication approaches and can be used for the direct fabrication of patterned arrays of nanowires when a laser interference ablation step is incorporated into the fabrication procedure. PMID:23915216

  15. Carbon nanotube network-silicon oxide non-volatile switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Albert D.; Araujo, Paulo T.; Xu, Runjie; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2014-12-01

    The integration of carbon nanotubes with silicon is important for their incorporation into next-generation nano-electronics. Here we demonstrate a non-volatile switch that utilizes carbon nanotube networks to electrically contact a conductive nanocrystal silicon filament in silicon dioxide. We form this device by biasing a nanotube network until it physically breaks in vacuum, creating the conductive silicon filament connected across a small nano-gap. From Raman spectroscopy, we observe coalescence of nanotubes during breakdown, which stabilizes the system to form very small gaps in the network~15?nm. We report that carbon nanotubes themselves are involved in switching the device to a high resistive state. Calculations reveal that this switching event occurs at ~600?C, the temperature associated with the oxidation of nanotubes. Therefore, we propose that, in switching to a resistive state, the nanotube oxidizes by extracting oxygen from the substrate.

  16. Infrared characterization of UV laser-induced silicon oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Slaoui, A.; Fogarassy, E.; White, C.W.; Siffert, P.

    1988-11-07

    Oxygen incorporation and subsequent oxidation of ion-implanted silicon have been performed using repetitive pulsed excimer laser irradiation working in the liquid phase regime. The kinetics of the oxidation and the characterization of the grown SiO/sub 2/ were investigated by infrared spectroscopy. The origin of the broadening of the Si-O stretching band of these oxides grown from the liquid phase is discussed.

  17. Cycling endurance of silicon{endash}oxide{endash}nitride{endash}oxide{endash}silicon nonvolatile memory stacks prepared with nitrided SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Habermehl, S.; Nasby, R.D.; Rightley, M.J.

    1999-08-01

    The effects of nitrided SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) interfaces upon cycling endurance in silicon{endash}oxide{endash}nitride{endash}oxide{endash}silicon (SONOS) nonvolatile memory transistors are investigated. Analysis of metal{endash}oxide{endash}silicon field-effect transistor subthreshold characteristics indicate cycling degradation to be a manifestation of interface trap generation at the tunnel oxide/silicon interface. After 10{sup 6} write/erase cycles, SONOS film stacks prepared with nitrided tunnel oxides exhibit enhanced cycling endurance over stacks prepared with non-nitrided tunnel oxides. If the capping oxide is formed by steam oxidation, rather than by deposition, SONOS stacks prepared with non-nitrided tunnel oxides exhibit endurance characteristics similar to stacks with nitrided tunnel oxides. For this case, a mechanism for latent nitridation of the tunnel oxide/silicon interface is proposed. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Temperature-induced phase changes in bismuth oxides and efficient photodegradation of phenol and p-chlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yin; Li, Danzhen; Sun, Fuqian; Weng, Yaqing; You, Shengyong; Shao, Yu

    2016-01-15

    A novel, simple and efficient approach for photodegrading phenol and p-chlorophenol, based on BixOy, was reported for the first time. Monoclinic Bi2O4 was prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of NaBiO32H2O. A series of interesting phase transitions happened and various bismuth oxides (Bi4O7, ?-Bi2O3 and ?-Bi2O3) were obtained by sintering Bi2O4 at different temperatures. The results demonstrated that the Bi2O4 and Bi4O7 phase had strong abilities towards the oxidative decomposition of phenol and p-chlorophenol and very high rates of TOC removal were observed. The characterization by XRD and XPS revealed that Bi(4+) in Bi2O4 and Bi(3.5+) in Bi4O7 were reduced to Bi(3+) during the reaction process. Singlet oxygen ((1)O2) was identified as the major reactive species generated by Bi2O4 and Bi4O7 for the photodegradation of p-chlorophenol and phenol. This novel approach could be used as a highly efficient and green technology for treating wastewaters contaminated by high concentrations of phenol and chlorophenols. PMID:26384997

  19. Oxidation kinetics of CVD silicon carbide and silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Dennis S.

    1992-01-01

    The long-term oxidation behavior of pure, monolithic CVD SiC and Si3N4 is studied, and the isothermal oxidation kinetics of these two materials are obtained for the case of 100 hrs at 1200-1500 C in flowing oxygen. Estimates are made of lifetimes at the various temperatures investigated. Parabolic rate constants for SiC are within an order of magnitude of shorter exposure time values reported in the literature. The resulting silica scales are in the form of cristobalite, with cracks visible after exposure. The oxidation protection afforded by silica for these materials is adequate for long service times under isothermal conditions in 1-atm dry oxygen.

  20. Oxidation kinetics of CVD silicon carbide and silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, D.S.

    1992-10-01

    The long-term oxidation behavior of pure, monolithic CVD SiC and Si3N4 is studied, and the isothermal oxidation kinetics of these two materials are obtained for the case of 100 hrs at 1200-1500 C in flowing oxygen. Estimates are made of lifetimes at the various temperatures investigated. Parabolic rate constants for SiC are within an order of magnitude of shorter exposure time values reported in the literature. The resulting silica scales are in the form of cristobalite, with cracks visible after exposure. The oxidation protection afforded by silica for these materials is adequate for long service times under isothermal conditions in 1-atm dry oxygen. 10 refs.

  1. Visible-light-induced water oxidation by a hybrid photocatalyst consisting of bismuth vanadate and copper(ii) meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Shu; Negishi, Ryo; Tada, Hiroaki

    2016-02-23

    Copper(ii) meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin surface-modified monoclinic scheelite bismuth vanadate (CuTCPP/BiVO4) has been synthesized via a two-step route involving chemisorption of TCPP on BiVO4 and successive Cu(ii) ion incorporation into the TCPP, and the surface modification drastically enhances the water oxidation to oxygen (O2) under visible-light irradiation (? > 430 nm). PMID:26853997

  2. Optical properties of Lead bismuth borate glasses doped with neodymium oxide.

    PubMed

    Farouk, M; Abd El-Maboud, A; Ibrahim, M; Ratep, A; Kashif, I

    2015-10-01

    Neodymium doped Lead bismuth borate glasses with the composition of 25PbO-25Bi2O3-50B2O3:xNd2O3, where x=0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mol%, have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The behavior of the density and molar volume allows concluding that, addition of Nd2O3 leads to the formation of non-bridging oxygen. Rare earth ion parameters have been calculated and studied. The optical band gap (Eg), and band tails (Ee) were determined. Judd-Ofelt theory for the intensity analysis of induced electric dipole transitions has been applied to the measured oscillator strengths of the absorption bands to determine the three phenomenological intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6 for glass. It was observed that the deviation parameters, rms, was found to be 0.56:0.58(×10(-6)). The estimated Judd-Ofelt parameters were found to be Nd2O3concentration dependent. The hypersensitive transition, (4)I9/2→(4)G5/2+(2)G7/2, is closely related to Ω2 parameter. PMID:25965518

  3. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-07-27

    Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  4. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  5. Ion implantation reduces radiation sensitivity of metal oxide silicon /MOS/ devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Implanting nitrogen ions improves hardening of silicon oxides 30 percent to 60 percent against ionizing radiation effects. Process reduces sensitivity, but retains stability normally shown by interfaces between silicon and thermally grown oxides.

  6. The Oxidation of CVD Silicon Carbide in Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Nguyen, QuynchGiao N.

    1997-01-01

    Chemically-vapor-deposited silicon carbide (CVD SiC) was oxidized in carbon dioxide (CO2) at temperatures of 1200-1400 C for times between 100 and 500 hours at several gas flow rates. Oxidation weight gains were monitored by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and were found to be very small and independent of temperature. Possible rate limiting kinetic laws are discussed. Oxidation of SiC by CO2 is negligible compared to the rates measured for other oxidants typically found in combustion environments: oxygen and water vapor.

  7. Gated twin-bit silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon NAND flash memory for high-density nonvolatile memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon; Shim, Won Bo; Park, Byung-Gook

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we report the fabrication and analysis of the gated twin-bit NAND flash memory with a nitride charge-trapping layer. This device is based on the recessed channel structure, and it has an additional cut-off gate that enables 2-bit operation. Therefore, the density of the array can be doubled without any difficulty in patterning. The fabrication method for gated twin-bit (GTB) silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) memories and their electrical characteristics are described in this paper. Program/erase characteristics are observed and the 2-bit operation is verified by the forward-reverse reading scheme.

  8. Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors formed by oxidation of polycrystalline silicon on SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, J.; Das, M. K.; Cooper, J. A., Jr.; Melloch, M. R.

    1997-04-01

    A method to form SiO2/SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor structures by oxidation of a thin polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) layer deposited on SiC is demonstrated. The oxidation time used is sufficient to oxidize all the polysilicon while short enough at 1050 C to insure insignificant oxidation of the underlying SiC. Since the oxidation of SiC is highly anisotropic, this method allows uniform oxide formation on a nonplanar SiC surface. The SiO2/SiC interface quality is comparable to that obtained with thermal oxidation.

  9. One dimensional silicon nanostructures prepared by oxidized porous silicon under heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendamani, V. S.; Pathak, A. P.; Rao, S. V. S. Nageswara

    2014-11-01

    One dimensional high aspect ratio Si nanostructures were prepared by using oxidized sponge like nanostructured porous silicon (pSi) as a seed material. This can be considered as a complementary technique to synthesize silicon nanowires such as vapour-liquid-solid method (VLS). One dimensional silicon nanostructures were fabricated by subjecting pSi to heat treatment without metal assistance. It is shown that the aspect ratio can be tuned by controlling the concentration of oxygen (SiO2) and the porosity of the seed material (pSi). The atomic percentage of oxygen incorporated into pSi was estimated by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) confirms unambiguously the formation of silicon nanowires. The broad peak observed around 490 cm-1 in Raman spectra further confirms the formation of Si NWs. At higher oxygen concentration, narrower (?20 nm) and longer (?1 ?m) silicon nanowires have been achieved. The observed change in photoluminescence (PL) peak position towards lower wavelength as a function of the aspect ratio of Si NWs is in good agreement with quantum confinement effects. This work demonstrates a new oxide assisted method to prepare high aspect ratio silicon nanowires without using any metal catalysts.

  10. Structural and electrochemical evaluation of bismuth doped lithium titanium oxides for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subburaj, T.; Prasanna, K.; Kim, Ki Jae; Ilango, P. Robert; Jo, Yong Nam; Lee, Chang Woo

    2015-04-01

    Micro-sized Li4Ti5-xBixO12 (0 ? x ? 0.15) materials are synthesized using a simple solid state method in air. The structural, morphological, and electrochemical characteristics of Bi-doped lithium titanates and pristine samples are methodically analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The XRD and Raman spectroscopy results demonstrate that bismuth-doping do not alter the spinel structure and good crystalline materials are synthesized. The FE-SEM images show that all samples possess the same morphological characteristics, with a particle size distribution of 0.5-1 ?m. The electrochemical cycling testing reveals that the Li4Ti4.9Bi0.10O12 sample exhibits discharge capacities of 205.4 mAh g-1, 160.8 mAh g-1, and 135.4 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles at 1C, 5C, and 10C-rates, respectively. The differential capacity curves suggest that the Li4Ti4.9Bi0.10O12 sample has a weaker polarization effect than the other samples. The EIS measurements imply that the Li4Ti4.9Bi0.10O12 sample possesses a high electronic conductivity and lithium ion diffusivity, which demonstrate that this new Li4Ti4.9Bi0.10O12 material would be a good candidate as an anode for lithium ion batteries.

  11. High-relative-dielectric-constant bismuth-niobium-oxide films prepared using Nb-rich precursor solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariga, Tomoki; Inoue, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Shin; Onoue, Masatoshi; Miyasako, Takaaki; Tokumitsu, Eisuke; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2015-09-01

    Various ceramic materials have been developed for electronic devices. Bismuth-niobium-oxide (BNO) films prepared by a chemical solution deposition (CSD) method have the cubic pyrochlore phase, high relative dielectric constant, and low tangent loss (tan δ). We found that a BNO cubic pyrochlore crystal was Nb-rich, even though its pyrochlore formula is A2B2O7. The crystallization temperature of BNO increased with increasing Nb ratio. The relative dielectric constants of BNO films were related to the Nb ratio in the precursor solution. The dielectric constant of the BNO films was 250 when the Bi and Nb ratios in BNO precursor solutions were 4 and 6, respectively, and the sintering temperature was 600 °C. In addition, the tan δ was less than 0.01 at 1 kHz, which is higher than the reported values of BNO systems despite using the CSD method. These results show that the properties of BNO films prepared by the CSD method were associated with the Nb ratio in the precursor solution. Furthermore, the dielectric characteristics indicated that the Nb-rich BNO films have potential applications in electronic devices.

  12. The effect of ultrathin oxides on luminescent silicon nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. Howard; Yamani, Zain; AbuHassan, Laila; Gurdal, Osman; Nayfeh, Munir

    1998-08-01

    The effect of ultrathin oxides on nanocrystallites of luminescent porous silicon is studied using infrared, optical, and Auger spectroscopy. Room-temperature oxidation is performed using H2O2 immersion and UV ozone interactions, producing oxides of 5 and 10 , respectively. The H2O2 oxidized sample is optically active, while the ozone oxidized sample is not active. UV-ozone produces a transverse optical Si-O-Si mode blueshifted by 90 cm-1 from bulk oxide, which H2O2 does not produce. Auger Si LVV spectra show an oxidelike signal for UV/ozone samples and a Si-like signal for H2O2 samples. We discuss this in terms of different oxidation behaviors that either preserve or break Si-Si dimers that may be responsible for the optical behavior.

  13. Silicon-containing ferritic/martensitic steel after exposure to oxygen-containing flowing lead-bismuth eutectic at 450 and 550 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroer, Carsten; Koch, Verena; Wedemeyer, Olaf; Skrypnik, Aleksandr; Konys, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    A ferritic/martensitic (f/m) steel with 9 and 3 mass% of chromium (Cr) and silicon (Si), respectively, was tested on performance in flowing lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) at 450 and 550 °C, each at concentrations of solved oxygen of both 10-7 and 10-6 mass%. The 9Cr-3Si steel generally exhibits the same basic corrosion modes as other f/m materials with 9 mass% Cr and typically lower Si content, namely Steel T91. The Si-rich steel shows an overall improved performance in comparison to T91 at 450 °C and 10-7 mass% solved oxygen, but especially at 450 °C and 10-6 mass% solved oxygen. The advantage of higher Si-content in 9Cr steel is less clear at 550 °C. Especially high oxygen content in flowing LBE at 550 °C, between >10-6 mass% and oxygen saturation, seems detrimental for the high-Si material in respect of the initiation and progress of a solution-based corrosion.

  14. Optimization of amorphous silicon double junction solar cells for an efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting device based on a bismuth vanadate photoanode.

    PubMed

    Han, Lihao; Abdi, Fatwa F; Perez Rodriguez, Paula; Dam, Bernard; van de Krol, Roel; Zeman, Miro; Smets, Arno H M

    2014-03-01

    A photoelectrochemical water splitting device (PEC-WSD) was designed and fabricated based on cobalt-phosphate-catalysed and tungsten-gradient-doped bismuth vanadate (W:BiVO4) as the photoanode. A simple and cheap hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) double junction solar cell has been used to provide additional bias. The advantage of using thin film silicon (TF-Si) based solar cells is that this photovoltaic (PV) technology meets the crucial requirements for the PV component in PEC-WSDs based on W:BiVO4 photoanodes. TF-Si PV devices are stable in aqueous solutions, are manufactured by simple and cheap fabrication processes and their spectral response, voltage and current density show an excellent match with the photoanode. This paper is mainly focused on the optimization of the TF-Si solar cell with respect to the remaining solar spectrum transmitted through the W:BiVO4 photoanode. The current matching between the top and bottom cells is studied and optimized by varying the thickness of the a-Si:H top cell. We support the experimental optimization of the current balance between the two sub-cells with simulations of the PV devices. In addition, the impact of the light induced degradation of the a-Si:H double junction, the so-called Staebler-Wronski Effect (SWE), on the performance of the PEC-WSD has been studied. The light soaking experiments on the a-Si:H/a-Si:H double junctions over 1000 hours show that the efficiency of a stand-alone a-Si:H/a-Si:H double junction cell is significantly reduced due to the SWE. Nevertheless, the SWE has a significantly smaller effect on the performance of the PEC-WSD. PMID:24452785

  15. Tribological interaction between polytetrafluoroethylene and silicon oxide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Uar, A.; opuro?lu, M.; Suzer, S.; Baykara, M. Z.; Ar?kan, O.

    2014-10-28

    We investigated the tribological interaction between polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and silicon oxide surfaces. A simple rig was designed to bring about a friction between the surfaces via sliding a piece of PTFE on a thermally oxidized silicon wafer specimen. A very mild inclination (?0.5) along the sliding motion was also employed in order to monitor the tribological interaction in a gradual manner as a function of increasing contact force. Additionally, some patterns were sketched on the silicon oxide surface using the PTFE tip to investigate changes produced in the hydrophobicity of the surface, where the approximate water contact angle was 45 before the transfer. The nature of the transferred materials was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XPS results revealed that PTFE was faithfully transferred onto the silicon oxide surface upon even at the slightest contact and SEM images demonstrated that stable morphological changes could be imparted onto the surface. The minimum apparent contact pressure to realize the PTFE transfer is estimated as 5 kPa, much lower than reported previously. Stability of the patterns imparted towards many chemical washing processes lead us to postulate that the interaction is most likely to be chemical. Contact angle measurements, which were carried out to characterize and monitor the hydrophobicity of the silicon oxide surface, showed that upon PTFE transfer the hydrophobicity of the SiO{sub 2} surface could be significantly enhanced, which might also depend upon the pattern sketched onto the surface. Contact angle values above 100 were obtained.

  16. The microstructure of laterally seeded silicon-on-oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinizzotto, R. F.; Lam, H. W.; Vaandrager, B. L.

    1982-03-01

    The production of large scale integrated circuits in thin silicon films on insulating substrates is currently of much interest in the electronics industry. One of the most promising techniques of forming this composite structure is by lateral seeding. We have used optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to characterize the microstructure of silicon-on-oxide formed by scanning CW laser induced lateral epitaxy. The primary defects are dislocations. Dislocation rearrangement leads to the formation of both small angle boundaries (stable, regular dislocation arrays) and grain boundaries. The grains were found to be misoriented to the <100> direction perpendicular to the film plane by ? 4 and to the <100> directions in the plane of the film by ? 2. Internal reflection twins are a common defect. Microtwinning was found to occur at the vertical step caused by the substrate-oxide interface if the substrate to oxide step height was > 120 nm. The microstructure is continuous across successive scan lines. Microstructural defects are found to initiate at the same topographical location in different oxide pads. We propose that this is due to the meeting of two crystallization growth fronts. The liquid silicon between the fronts causes large stresses in this area because of the 9% volume increase during solidification. The defects observed in the bulk may form by a similar mechanism or by dislocation generation at substrate-oxide interface irregularities. The models predict that slower growth leads to improved material quality. This has been observed experimentally.

  17. Oxidation Protection of Porous Reaction-Bonded Silicon Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    Oxidation kinetics of both as-fabricated and coated reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) were studied at 900 and 1000 C with thermogravimetry. Uncoated RBSN exhibited internal oxidation and parabolic kinetics. An amorphous Si-C-O coating provided the greatest degree of protection to oxygen, with a small linear weight loss observed. Linear weight gains were measured on samples with an amorphous Si-N-C coating. Chemically vapor deposited (CVD) Si3N4 coated RBSN exhibited parabolic kinetics, and the coating cracked severely. A continuous-SiC-fiber-reinforced RBSN composite was also coated with the Si-C-O material, but no substantial oxidation protection was observed.

  18. Enhanced current injection in thermal oxides grown on texturized silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olcer, M.; Buehlmann, H. J.; Ilegems, M.

    1986-03-01

    A new method to obtain enhanced electron injection in MOS structures by means of an oxide layer grown on monocrystalline silicon, is described. It is shown that texturization of the Si surface prior to oxidation can lead to markedly enhanced electron injection, with field enhancement factors mu = E(inj)/E(a) reaching values in the range from about 2-4 to 8.6. Preliminary measurements suggest that the improved injection efficiency is obtained without deleterious effects on the trapping properties of the thermal oxide. The proposed technique may be used as an alternative to conventional Fowler-Nordheim emission processes for write/erase operations in EEPROM-type devices.

  19. Photoluminescence of graphene oxide integrated with silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalino, M.; Rea, I.; Sansone, L.; Terracciano, M.; De Stefano, L.; Coppola, G.; Dardano, P.; Giordano, M.; Borriello, A.; Rendina, Ivo

    2015-05-01

    In this work we have investigated the photoluminescence signal emitted by graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets infiltrated in silanized porous silicon (PSi) matrix. We have demonstrated that a strong enhancement of the PL emitted from GO by a factor of almost 2.5 with respect to GO on crystalline silicon can be experimentally measured. This enhancement has been attributed to the high PSi specific area. In addition, we have observed a weak wavelength modulation of GO photoluminescence emission, this characteristic is very attractive and opens new perspectives for GO exploitation in innovative optoelectronic devices and high sensible fluorescent sensors.

  20. Oxidation kinetics of coated silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC)

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, D.S.

    1994-12-31

    Silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) was exposed for 100 hours to dry, flowing oxygen. Oxidation kinetics were determined via thermogravimetric analysis at 981{degrees}, 1204{degrees} and 1316{degrees}C (1800{degrees}, 2200{degrees} and 2400{degrees}F). The effectiveness of three external coating systems applied for oxidation protection is discussed. In all cases, weight gains were observed, and the pyrolytic carbon interface layer remained intact. A CVD SiC external coating is the most promising due to low oxidation kinetics resulting from solid silica formation. A borosilicate glass was observed on the surface of two of the materials that have boron-containing coatings.

  1. Efficient Direct Reduction of Graphene Oxide by Silicon Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Chan Lee, Su; Some, Surajit; Wook Kim, Sung; Jun Kim, Sun; Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Jooho; Lee, Taeyoon; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Choi, Heon-Jin; Chan Jun, Seong

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has been studied for various applications due to its excellent properties. Graphene film fabrication from solutions of graphene oxide (GO) have attracted considerable attention because these procedures are suitable for mass production. GO, however, is an insulator, and therefore a reduction process is required to make the GO film conductive. These reduction procedures require chemical reducing agents or high temperature annealing. Herein, we report a novel direct and simple reduction procedure of GO by silicon, which is the most widely used material in the electronics industry. In this study, we also used silicon nanosheets (SiNSs) as reducing agents for GO. The reducing effect of silicon was confirmed by various characterization methods. Furthermore, the silicon wafer was also used as a reducing template to create a reduced GO (rGO) film on a silicon substrate. By this process, a pure rGO film can be formed without the impurities that normally come from chemical reducing agents. This is an easy and environmentally friendly method to prepare large scale graphene films on Si substrates. PMID:26194107

  2. Efficient Direct Reduction of Graphene Oxide by Silicon Substrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Chan; Some, Surajit; Kim, Sung Wook; Kim, Sun Jun; Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Jooho; Lee, Taeyoon; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Choi, Heon-Jin; Jun, Seong Chan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has been studied for various applications due to its excellent properties. Graphene film fabrication from solutions of graphene oxide (GO) have attracted considerable attention because these procedures are suitable for mass production. GO, however, is an insulator, and therefore a reduction process is required to make the GO film conductive. These reduction procedures require chemical reducing agents or high temperature annealing. Herein, we report a novel direct and simple reduction procedure of GO by silicon, which is the most widely used material in the electronics industry. In this study, we also used silicon nanosheets (SiNSs) as reducing agents for GO. The reducing effect of silicon was confirmed by various characterization methods. Furthermore, the silicon wafer was also used as a reducing template to create a reduced GO (rGO) film on a silicon substrate. By this process, a pure rGO film can be formed without the impurities that normally come from chemical reducing agents. This is an easy and environmentally friendly method to prepare large scale graphene films on Si substrates. PMID:26194107

  3. Athermal silicon microring resonators with titanium oxide cladding.

    PubMed

    Guha, Biswajeet; Cardenas, Jaime; Lipson, Michal

    2013-11-01

    We describe a novel approach for CMOS-compatible passively temperature insensitive silicon based optical devices using titanium oxide cladding which has a negative thermo-optic (TO) effect. We engineer the mode confinement in Si and TiO2 such that positive TO of Si is exactly cancelled out by negative TO of TiO2. We demonstrate robust operation of the resulting device over 35 degrees. PMID:24216877

  4. Green light emission from terbium doped silicon rich silicon oxide films obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Podhorodecki, A; Zatryb, G; Misiewicz, J; Wojcik, J; Wilson, P R J; Mascher, P

    2012-11-30

    The effect of silicon concentration and annealing temperature on terbium luminescence was investigated for thin silicon rich silicon oxide films. The structures were deposited by means of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The structural properties of these films were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering. The optical properties were investigated by means of photoluminescence and photoluminescence decay spectroscopy. It was found that both the silicon concentration in the film and the annealing temperature have a strong impact on the terbium emission intensity. In this paper, we present a detailed discussion of these issues and determine the optimal silicon concentration and annealing temperature. PMID:23110801

  5. Green light emission from terbium doped silicon rich silicon oxide films obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podhorodecki, A.; Zatryb, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Wojcik, J.; Wilson, P. R. J.; Mascher, P.

    2012-11-01

    The effect of silicon concentration and annealing temperature on terbium luminescence was investigated for thin silicon rich silicon oxide films. The structures were deposited by means of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The structural properties of these films were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering. The optical properties were investigated by means of photoluminescence and photoluminescence decay spectroscopy. It was found that both the silicon concentration in the film and the annealing temperature have a strong impact on the terbium emission intensity. In this paper, we present a detailed discussion of these issues and determine the optimal silicon concentration and annealing temperature.

  6. Engineering functionalized multi-phased silicon/silicon oxide nano-biomaterials to passivate the aggressive proliferation of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premnath, P.; Tan, B.; Venkatakrishnan, K.

    2015-07-01

    Currently, the use of nano silicon in cancer therapy is limited as drug delivery vehicles and markers in imaging, not as manipulative/controlling agents. This is due to limited properties that native states of nano silicon and silicon oxides offers. We introduce nano-functionalized multi-phased silicon/silicon oxide biomaterials synthesized via ultrashort pulsed laser synthesis, with tunable properties that possess inherent cancer controlling properties that can passivate the progression of cancer. This nanostructured biomaterial is composed of individual functionalized nanoparticles made of a homogenous hybrid of multiple phases of silicon and silicon oxide in increasing concentration outwards from the core. The chemical properties of the proposed nanostructure such as number of phases, composition of phases and crystal orientation of each functionalized nanoparticle in the three dimensional nanostructure is defined based on precisely tuned ultrashort pulsed laser-material interaction mechanisms. The amorphous rich phased biomaterial shows a 30 fold (95%) reduction in number of cancer cells compared to bulk silicon in 48 hours. Further, the size of the cancer cells reduces by 76% from 24 to 48 hours. This method exposes untapped properties of combination of multiple phases of silicon oxides and its applications in cancer therapy.

  7. Engineering functionalized multi-phased silicon/silicon oxide nano-biomaterials to passivate the aggressive proliferation of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Premnath, P.; Tan, B.; Venkatakrishnan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the use of nano silicon in cancer therapy is limited as drug delivery vehicles and markers in imaging, not as manipulative/controlling agents. This is due to limited properties that native states of nano silicon and silicon oxides offers. We introduce nano-functionalized multi-phased silicon/silicon oxide biomaterials synthesized via ultrashort pulsed laser synthesis, with tunable properties that possess inherent cancer controlling properties that can passivate the progression of cancer. This nanostructured biomaterial is composed of individual functionalized nanoparticles made of a homogenous hybrid of multiple phases of silicon and silicon oxide in increasing concentration outwards from the core. The chemical properties of the proposed nanostructure such as number of phases, composition of phases and crystal orientation of each functionalized nanoparticle in the three dimensional nanostructure is defined based on precisely tuned ultrashort pulsed laser-material interaction mechanisms. The amorphous rich phased biomaterial shows a 30 fold (95%) reduction in number of cancer cells compared to bulk silicon in 48?hours. Further, the size of the cancer cells reduces by 76% from 24 to 48?hours. This method exposes untapped properties of combination of multiple phases of silicon oxides and its applications in cancer therapy. PMID:26190009

  8. Oxidation of silicon with a 5 eV O(-) beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M. H.; Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.; Vasquez, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    A silicon wafer has been oxidized at room temperature in vacuum using a pure, ground-state beam of O(-) ions. The beam was of sufficiently low energy that no displacement damage or implantation was energetically possible. The resulting SiO2 films were analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A logarithmic dependence of oxide thickness on dose was observed, with an extrapolated oxidation efficiency of unity for the clean silicon surface. A distinct initial oxidation phase was observed, with an anomalously high level of silicon suboxides. In addition, the valence-band offset between the silicon and the oxide was unusually small, suggesting a large interfacial dipole.

  9. Thermodynamic stability of intergranular amorphous films in bismuth-doped zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Chiang, Y.M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the solid-state equilibrium configuration of Bi-doped ZnO grain boundaries is a nanometer-thick amorphous film. Polycrystalline Bi-doped ZnO was investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The equilibrium state below the eutectic temperature and at 1 atm total pressure was approached from three different routes: samples were cooled from above the eutectic temperature (T{sub eutectic} = 740 C), processed entirely below the eutectic temperature, and desegregated by high applied pressure (1 GPa) followed by annealing at ambient pressure to restore segregation. In all instances, the final state is an amorphous intergranular film 1.0--1.5 nm in thickness. The results show that a thin intergranular film in this system has lower free energy than the crystal-crystal grain boundary. The implications of these results for creation of electrically active grain boundaries in zinc oxide varistors are discussed.

  10. Silicon heterojunction solar cells with novel fluorinated n-type nanocrystalline silicon oxide emitters on p-type crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Sukanta; Mandal, Sourav; Das, Gourab; Mukhopadhyay, Sumita; Pratim Ray, Partha; Banerjee, Chandan; Barua, Asok Kumar

    2015-08-01

    A novel fluorinated phosphorus doped silicon oxide based nanocrystalline material have been used to prepare heterojunction solar cells on flat p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) Czochralski (CZ) wafers. The n-type nc-SiO:F:H material were deposited by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Deposited films were characterized in detail by using atomic force microscopy (AFM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and optoelectronics properties have been studied using temperature dependent conductivity measurement, Ellipsometry, UV-vis spectrum analysis etc. It is observed that the cell fabricated with fluorinated silicon oxide emitter showing higher initial efficiency (? = 15.64%, Jsc = 32.10 mA/cm2, Voc = 0.630 V, FF = 0.77) for 1 cm2 cell area compare to conventional n-a-Si:H emitter (14.73%) on flat c-Si wafer. These results indicate that n type nc-SiO:F:H material is a promising candidate for heterojunction solar cell on p-type crystalline wafers. The high Jsc value is associated with excellent quantum efficiencies at short wavelengths (<500 nm).

  11. Method for removing oxide contamination from silicon carbide powders

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    1984-08-01

    The described invention is directed to a method for removing oxide contamination in the form of oxygen-containing compounds such as SiO/sub 2/ and B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ from a charge of finely divided silicon carbide. The silicon carbide charge is contacted with a stream of hydrogen fluoride mixed with an inert gas carrier such as argon at a temperature in the range of about 200/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The oxides in the charge react with the heated hydrogen fluoride to form volatile gaseous fluorides such as SiF/sub 4/ and BF/sub 3/ which pass through the charge along with unreacted hydrogen fluoride and the carrier gas. Any residual gaseous reaction products and hydrogen fluoride remaining in the charge are removed by contacting the charge with the stream of inert gas which also cools the powder to room temperature. The removal of the oxygen contamination by practicing the present method provides silicon carbide powders with desirable pressing and sintering characteristics. 1 tab.

  12. Characterization of silicon nanowires grown on silicon, stainless steel and indium tin oxide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Philip; Jiang, Zhong-Tao; Wyatt, Nicholas M. W.; Parlevliet, David; Creagh, Christine; Yin, Chun-Yang; Widjaja, Hantarto; Mondinos, Nick

    2013-11-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been grown on crystalline silicon (Si), indium tin oxide (ITO) and stainless steel (SS) substrates using a gold catalyst coating with a thickness of 200 nm via pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PPECVD). Their morphological, mineralogical and surface characteristics have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman analysis. SiNWs growth is accompanied by oxidation, thus yielding partially (SiO x ) and fully oxidized (SiO2) Si sheaths. The mean diameters of these SiNWs range from 140 to 185 nm. Si with (111) and (220) planes exists in SiNWs grown on all three substrates while Si with a (311) plane is detected only for Si and ITO substrates. Computational simulation using density functional theory (DFT) has also been conducted to supplement the experimental Raman analyses for crystalline Si and SiO2. XPS results reveal that ca. 30 % of the SiNWs have been oxidized for all substrates. The results presented in this paper can be used to aid selection of appropriate substrates for SiNW growth, depending on specific applications.

  13. Application of doped silicon oxide films in solar cell technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoras, K.; Major, A.; Simkiene, I.; Gaubas, E.

    1998-05-01

    Silicon oxide films phosphorus doped and formed by a spin-on technique are proposed for the manufacture of shallow, heavily doped 0268-1242/13/5/013/img7-p junctions. The structures were investigated using electron microscopy, optical and electrical methods. Transient microwave absorption measurements were performed to monitor the quality of the doping by evaluation of the surface recombination velocity and the bulk lifetime. Such a simple 0268-1242/13/5/013/img7-p junction formation technique is suitable for the fabrication of a silicon solar cell with a highly doped 0268-1242/13/5/013/img9 and shallow 0268-1242/13/5/013/img10 emitter. The usual recombination rates at the surfaces are reduced by more than an order of magnitude. The tentative solar cells have been manufactured, and an efficiency of 12% was achieved.

  14. In situ imaging of the conducting filament in a silicon oxide resistive switch

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Zhong, Lin; Natelson, Douglas; Tour, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of the conducting filaments in many resistive switching systems has been elusive. Through in situ transmission electron microscopy, we image the real-time formation and evolution of the filament in a silicon oxide resistive switch. The electroforming process is revealed to involve the local enrichment of silicon from the silicon oxide matrix. Semi-metallic silicon nanocrystals with structural variations from the conventional diamond cubic form of silicon are observed, which likely accounts for the conduction in the filament. The growth and shrinkage of the silicon nanocrystals in response to different electrical stimuli show energetically viable transition processes in the silicon forms, offering evidence for the switching mechanism. The study here also provides insights into the electrical breakdown process in silicon oxide layers, which are ubiquitous in a host of electronic devices. PMID:22355755

  15. Mobile-Ion-Induced Charge Loss Failure in Silicon-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon Two-Bit Storage Flash Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaoka, Kazunori; Higashi, Masahiko; Shiraiwa, Hidehiko; Inoue, Fumihiko; Kajita, Tatsuya; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2009-06-01

    In silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) 2-bit storage flash memory, we discovered deterioration of data retention (DR) in the form of charge loss, which is dependent on the distance between contact windows and word lines (WLs) and also on the thermal treatment performed after the formation of contact windows. We hypothesized that the unique structure of the SONOS flash memory leads to susceptibility to mobile ion contamination. We concluded that Na mobile ion contamination originates in the tungsten chemical-mechanical polishing (W-CMP) process, and that the ions diffuse through the boundaries of the boron phosphosilicate glass (BPSG) and stacked oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) films into the cell area. We successfully reduced the charge loss by cleaning of the contamination source and by the stable control of phosphorus concentration at the bottom of the BPSG. As a permanent countermeasure, we proposed the complete isolation of contact windows from the adjacent ONO layer, and we were able to demonstrate the effectiveness of this proposal.

  16. Process to produce silicon carbide fibers using a controlled concentration of boron oxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Thomas Duncan (Inventor); Lipowitz, Jonathan (Inventor); Nguyen, Kimmai Thi (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process for producing polycrystalline silicon carbide includes heating an amorphous ceramic fiber that contains silicon and carbon in an environment containing boron oxide vapor. The boron oxide vapor is produced in situ by the reaction of a boron containing material such as boron carbide and an oxidizing agent such as carbon dioxide, and the amount of boron oxide vapor can be controlled by varying the amount and rate of addition of the oxidizing agent.

  17. Process to produce silicon carbide fibers using a controlled concentration of boron oxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Thomas Duncan (Inventor); Lipowitz, Jonathan (Inventor); Nguyen, Kimmai Thi (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing polycrystalline silicon carbide by heating an amorphous ceramic fiber that contains silicon and carbon in an environment containing boron oxide vapor. The boron oxide vapor is produced in situ by the reaction of a boron containing material such as boron carbide and an oxidizing agent such as carbon dioxide, and the amount of boron oxide vapor can be controlled by varying the amount and rate of addition of the oxidizing agent.

  18. Reverse current-voltage characteristics of indium tin oxide/silicon solar cells under illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Singh, R.; DuBow, J.

    1980-04-01

    Recently, Rodriquez and co-workers (J. Appl. Phys. 50, 6011 (1979)) reported anomalous photocurrent in reverse-biased tin oxide/silicon solar cells. We have observed no anomalous photocurrent in our indium tin oxide/silicon semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) solar cells. In this paper we have offered a possible explanation of why the authors of the above referred paper have observed anomalous photocurrent in tin oxide/silicon solar cells whereas no such effect has been observed in our indium tin oxide/silicon SIS solar cells.

  19. Effect of hydrogen passivation on the photoluminescence of Tb ions in silicon rich silicon oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatryb, G.; Klak, M. M.; Wojcik, J.; Misiewicz, J.; Mascher, P.; Podhorodecki, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, silicon-rich silicon oxide films containing terbium were prepared by means of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The influence of hydrogen passivation on defects-mediated non-radiative recombination of excited Tb3+ ions was investigated by photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation, and photoluminescence decay measurements. Passivation was found to have no effect on shape and spectral position of the excitation spectra. In contrast, a gradual increase in photoluminescence intensity and photoluminescence decay time was observed upon passivation for the main 5D4-7F5 transition of Tb3+ ions. This observation was attributed to passivation of non-radiative recombination defects centers with hydrogen. It was found that the number of emitted photons increases upon passivation as a result of two effects: (1) longer Tb3+ lifetime in the 5D4 excited state and (2) optical activation of new Tb3+ emitters. The obtained results were discussed and compared with other experimental reports.

  20. Oxidation threshold in silicon etching at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Tillocher, T.; Dussart, R.; Mellhaoui, X.; Lefaucheux, P.; Maaza, N. Mekkakia; Ranson, P.; Boufnichel, M.; Overzet, L.J.

    2006-07-15

    In silicon etching in SF{sub 6}/O{sub 2} plasmas, an oxidation threshold appears when the oxygen content is large enough. A SiO{sub x}F{sub y} passivation layer is formed under such conditions. This threshold is reached at lower oxygen proportions if the substrate is cooled down to cryogenic temperatures. In this article, we present a mass spectrometry study of this oxidation threshold in different experimental conditions (temperature, source rf power, self-bias) on bare silicon wafers. The presence of the threshold is clearly evident in the signals of many ions, for example, SiF{sub 3}{sup +}, F{sup +}, and SOF{sub 2}{sup +}. This helps us to determine the main reactions which can occur in the SF{sub 6}/O{sub 2} plasma in our experimental conditions. This threshold appears for higher oxygen proportions when either the source power or the chuck self-bias is increased. The ion bombardment transfers energy to the surface and makes the film desorb. A model, describing the oxygen coverage as a function of the parameters mentioned above, is proposed to interpret these results. Data presented in this article give another point of view of the cryogenic etching process. They contribute to explain how anisotropic profiles can be achieved at low temperature. Surfaces subjected to ion bombardment (the bottom of the structures) are below the oxidation threshold while the structures sidewalls, not subjected to ion bombardment, are in passivating regime.

  1. Oxidation Behavior of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Silicon Carbide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentin, Victor M.

    1995-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced Silicon Carbide (C-SiC) composites offer high strength at high temperatures and good oxidation resistance. However, these composites present some matrix microcracks which allow the path of oxygen to the fiber. The aim of this research was to study the effectiveness of a new Silicon Carbide (SiC) coating developed by DUPONT-LANXIDE to enhance the oxidation resistance of C-SiC composites. A thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the oxidation rate of the samples at different temperatures and pressures. The Dupont coat proved to be a good protection for the SiC matrix at temperatures lower than 1240 C at low and high pressures. On the other hand, at temperatures above 1340 C the Dupont coat did not seem to give good protection to the composite fiber and matrix. Even though some results of the tests have been discussed, because of time restraints, only a small portion of the desired tests could be completed. Therefore, no major conclusions or results about the effectiveness of the coat are available at this time.

  2. Mathematical characterization of oxidized crystalline silicon nanowires grown by electroless process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Robert G.; Sundaram, Kalpathy B.

    2012-03-01

    Silicon nanowires were created via the electroless etching technique using silver nitrate (AgNO3)/hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution. The prepared raw samples were oxidized for various intervals, so as to have an end result of various nanowire thicknesses. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken of the original nanowires, the oxidized nanowires and then the oxidized and etched (in HF solution) nanowires. When silicon nanowires are made, the area of exposed silicon undergoes "amplification," a formula for which is provided herein. When silicon nanowires are oxidized, the growth rate of the oxide layer varies according to the crystalline alignment. A formula for a polar plot is provided for illustrating the shape of a silicon nanowire after oxidation for various intervals, based on the Deal-Grove and Massoud models of oxidation.

  3. Precise localized thinning and vertical taper fabrication for silicon photonics using a modified local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) fabrication process.

    PubMed

    Beaudin, Guillaume; Belarouci, Ali; Aimez, Vincent

    2015-02-23

    This paper presents a method to locally fine tune silicon-on-insulator (SOI) device layer thickness for the fabrication of optimal silicon photonics devices. Very precise control of thickness can be achieved with a modified local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) process. The fabrication process is robust, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible and has the advantage of creating vertical tapers (~5.3 m long for ~210 nm of height) required for impedance matching between sections of different height. The technology is demonstrated by fabricating a TE-pass filter. PMID:25836474

  4. Origin of complex impact craters on native oxide coated silicon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Samela, Juha; Nordlund, Kai; Popok, Vladimir N.; Campbell, Eleanor E. B.

    2008-02-15

    Crater structures induced by impact of keV-energy Ar{sub n}{sup +} cluster ions on silicon surfaces are measured with atomic force microscopy. Complex crater structures consisting of a central hillock and outer rim are observed more often on targets covered with a native silicon oxide layer than on targets without the oxide layer. To explain the formation of these complex crater structures, classical molecular dynamics simulations of Ar cluster impacts on oxide coated silicon surfaces, as well as on bulk amorphous silica, amorphous Si, and crystalline Si substrates, are carried out. The diameter of the simulated hillock structures in the silicon oxide layer is in agreement with the experimental results, but the simulations cannot directly explain the height of hillocks and the outer rim structures when the oxide coated silicon substrate is free of defects. However, in simulations of 5 keV/atom Ar{sub 12} cluster impacts, transient displacements of the amorphous silicon or silicon oxide substrate surfaces are induced in an approximately 50 nm wide area surrounding the impact point. In silicon oxide, the transient displacements induce small topographical changes on the surface in the vicinity of the central hillock. The comparison of cluster stopping mechanisms in the various silicon oxide and silicon structures shows that the largest lateral momentum is induced in the silicon oxide layer during the impact; thus, the transient displacements on the surface are stronger than in the other substrates. This can be a reason for the higher frequency of occurrence of the complex craters on oxide coated silicon.

  5. Correlation of gate oxide integrity with crystalline defects in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamatsuka, Masaro

    1997-12-01

    This thesis is concerned with gate oxide integrity degradation due to crystal silicon grown-in and process-induced defects. Many tools have been invented to detect these defects, however, clear explanations for the gate oxide integrity degradation mechanism of these defects are still missing. One of the major difficulties of studying grown-in micro defects is their low density, below 10sp6\\ cmsp{-3}. Therefore, precise defect localization techniques are needed. To solve this problem, we focused on the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS)/electron beam induced current (EBIC) technique which is the only method to achieve a direct one-to-one correlation of defects and degradation source. Finally, we have developed a novel failure analysis procedure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/EBIC image identification of individual breakdown sites under sub-nano ampere stress currents, followed by focused ion beam (FIB) marking for oxide defect localization using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By this technique, the damage strength associate with breakdown was evaluated with changing the breakdown stress current from micro to nano ampere for Poly-Si gate MOS capacitors which are fabricated on the boron doped substrate. The breakdown induced damage is strongly reduced below nano ampere. Under such a small damage regime, we observed the origin of the medium electric field breakdown for as-grown CZ wafers. It was an octahedral void, the same as that delineated by others using copper decoration method. To study for the failure mechanism of both grown-in and process-induced defects, we focused on the impact of Al or Poly-Si gate electrodes and oxide thickness on gate oxide integrity. Recent studies of the MOS capacitor gate oxide integrity B-mode failure ratios indicate a peak for an oxide thickness of either {}40 nm or from 70 to 100 nm. In present research, however, more precise analysis using commutative failure plots revealed that these peaks are artificial. It can be changed by the occurrence of self-healing. We found that grown-in defects have different degradation effect to Al and Poly-Si gate films, whereas oxygen precipitates have not. Finally we proposed the degradation model of grown-in voids and oxygen precipitates. Other fundamental topics are oxide defect annihilation and generation phenomena due to high temperature heat treatments. We have investigated B- and C-mode oxide defects and flow pattern (FP) and laser scattering tomography (LST) defects as a function of depth for hydrogen, argon, and dry oxygen ambient. The gate oxide strength depth profile of wafers after dry oxidation at 1200sp C was essentially homogeneous; whereas, for hydrogen and argon annealing ambient a variety of breakdown strength distributions were found. These oxide defect failure profiles were correlated with FPD and LSTD. The EBIC technique was used to delineate both B- and C-mode oxide failure sites. Subsequent one-to-one TEM observations of these EBIC defects marked by a focused ion beam revealed the origin of the B-mode oxide defect to be a residual void. Both qualitative and quantitative models based on point defect injection from the surface and the silicon bulk is proposed to explain the unique oxide defect distributions after hydrogen or argon annealing. In the summary, practical recommendation of suitable defect engineering options for the next ULSI era. is discussed.

  6. Effect of Graphene Oxide on the Properties of Porous Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenych, Igor B.; Aksimentyeva, Olena I.; Monastyrskii, Liubomyr S.; Horbenko, Yulia Yu.; Partyka, Maryan V.; Luchechko, Andriy P.; Yarytska, Lidia I.

    2016-02-01

    We studied an effect of the graphene oxide (GO) layer on the optical and electrical properties of porous silicon (PS) in hybrid PS-GO structure created by electrochemical etching of silicon wafer and deposition of GO from water dispersion on PS. With the help of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic-force microscopy (AFM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, it was established that GO formed a thin film on the PS surface and is partly embedded in the pores of PS. A comparative analysis of the FTIR spectra for the PS and PS-GO structures confirms the passivation of the PS surface by the GO film. This film has a sufficient transparency for excitation and emission of photoluminescence (PL). Moreover, GO modifies PL spectrum of PS, shifting the PL maximum by 25 nm towards lower energies. GO deposition on the surface of the porous silicon leads to the change in the electrical parameters of PS in AC and DC modes. By means of current-voltage characteristics (CVC) and impedance spectroscopy, it is shown that the impact of GO on electrical characteristics of PS manifests in reduced capacitance and lower internal resistance of hybrid structures.

  7. Effect of Graphene Oxide on the Properties of Porous Silicon.

    PubMed

    Olenych, Igor B; Aksimentyeva, Olena I; Monastyrskii, Liubomyr S; Horbenko, Yulia Yu; Partyka, Maryan V; Luchechko, Andriy P; Yarytska, Lidia I

    2016-12-01

    We studied an effect of the graphene oxide (GO) layer on the optical and electrical properties of porous silicon (PS) in hybrid PS-GO structure created by electrochemical etching of silicon wafer and deposition of GO from water dispersion on PS. With the help of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic-force microscopy (AFM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, it was established that GO formed a thin film on the PS surface and is partly embedded in the pores of PS. A comparative analysis of the FTIR spectra for the PS and PS-GO structures confirms the passivation of the PS surface by the GO film. This film has a sufficient transparency for excitation and emission of photoluminescence (PL). Moreover, GO modifies PL spectrum of PS, shifting the PL maximum by 25 nm towards lower energies. GO deposition on the surface of the porous silicon leads to the change in the electrical parameters of PS in AC and DC modes. By means of current-voltage characteristics (CVC) and impedance spectroscopy, it is shown that the impact of GO on electrical characteristics of PS manifests in reduced capacitance and lower internal resistance of hybrid structures. PMID:26831681

  8. Enhanced room temperature oxidation in silicon and porous silicon under 10 keV x-ray irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ryckman, Judson D.; Reed, Robert A.; Weller, Robert A.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Weiss, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    We report the observation of enhanced oxidation on silicon and porous silicon samples exposed in air ambient to high-dose-rate 10 keV x-ray radiation at room temperature. The evolution of the radiation-induced oxide growth is monitored by ellipsometry and interferometric reflectance spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy shows the emergence of Si-O-Si stretching modes and corresponding suppression of SiH{sub x} and Si-Si modes in the porous silicon samples. The radiation response depends strongly on initial native oxide thickness and Si-H surface species. The enhanced oxidation mechanism is attributed to photoinduced oxidation processes wherein energetic photons are used to dissociate molecular oxygen and promote the formation of more reactive oxygen species.

  9. Silicon and tungsten oxide nanostructures for water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Gil, Karla R.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2009-08-01

    Inorganic semiconductors are promising materials for driving photoelectrochemical water-splitting reactions. However, there is not a single semiconductor material that can sustain the unassisted splitting of water into H2 and O2. Instead, we are developing a three part cell design where individual catalysts for water reduction and oxidation will be attached to the ends of a membrane. The job of splitting water is therefore divided into separate reduction and oxidation reactions, and each catalyst can be optimized independently for a single reaction. Silicon might be suitable to drive the water reduction. Inexpensive highly ordered Si wire arrays were grown on a single crystal wafer and transferred into a transparent, flexible polymer matrix. In this array, light would be absorbed along the longer axial dimension while the resulting electrons or holes would be collected along the much shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array resembling carpet fibers on a microscale, hence the term "solar carpet". Tungsten oxide is a good candidate to drive the water oxidation. Self-organized porous tungsten oxide was successfully synthesized on the tungsten foil by anodization. This sponge-like structure absorbs light efficiently due to its high surface area; hence we called it "solar sponge".

  10. Oxide Growth Rate Enhancement of Silicon Carbide (0001) Si-Faces in Thin Oxide Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Hijikata, Yasuto; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Sadafumi

    2008-10-01

    Thermal oxidation process of silicon carbide (SiC) has been studied by performing in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. In our previous work, we, for the first time, found that the growth rates of SiC(0001) C-face at oxidation thicknesses less than around 20 nm are much higher than those given by the Deal-Grove (D-G) model. In this report, we show that such a growth rate enhancement occurs also in the oxidation of SiC(0001) Si-face. By applying the empirical equation proposed by Massoud et al. [J. Electrochem. Soc. 132 (1985) 2685] to the oxidation of SiC Si-face and comparing the temperature and oxygen partial pressure dependences of oxidation rate parameters obtained with those for C-face, we discuss the difference in oxidation mechanism between SiC Si- and C-faces.

  11. Understanding the role of silicon oxide shell in oxide-assisted SiNWs growth

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Cai-Zhuang Z; Zhu, Z Z; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2014-12-01

    The role of silicon oxide shell in oxide-assisted SiNWs growth is studied by performing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations on the structural and dynamical properties of the interface between crystalline Si(111) surface and disorder SiO thin film. Si atoms in the SiO film tends to aggregate into the vicinity of the Si(111)/SiO interface. In addition, the diffusion of Si atoms at the interface is anisotropic - the diffusion along the interface is several times faster than that perpendicular to the interface. The segregation and anisotropic diffusion of Si atoms at the Si(111)/SiO interface shed interesting light into the mechanism of oxide-assisted silicon nanowire growth.

  12. Selective Growth of ?-Sexithiophene by Using Silicon Oxides Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Albonetti, Cristiano; Barbalinardo, Marianna; Milita, Silvia; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Liscio, Fabiola; Moulin, Jean-Franois; Biscarini, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    A process for fabricating ordered organic films on large area is presented. The process allows growing sexithiophene ultra-thin films at precise locations on patterned Si/SiOx substrates by driving the orientation of growth. This process combines the parallel local anodic oxidation of Si/SiOx substrates with the selective arrangement of molecular ultra-thin film. The former is used to fabricate silicon oxide arrays of parallel lines of 400 nm in width over an area of 1 cm2. Selective growth arises from the interplay between kinetic growth parameters and preferential interactions with the patterned surface. The result is an ultra-thin film of organic molecules that is conformal to the features of the fabricated motives. PMID:22016622

  13. Study of the processes of carbonization and oxidation of porous silicon by Raman and IR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Vasin, A. V.; Okholin, P. N.; Verovsky, I. N.; Nazarov, A. N.; Lysenko, V. S.; Kholostov, K. I. Bondarenko, V. P.; Ishikawa, Y.

    2011-03-15

    Porous silicon layers were produced by electrochemical etching of single-crystal silicon wafers with the resistivity 10 {Omega} cm in the aqueous-alcohol solution of hydrofluoric acid. Raman spectroscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy are used to study the processes of interaction of porous silicon with undiluted acetylene at low temperatures and the processes of oxidation of carbonized porous silicon by water vapors. It is established that, even at the temperature 550 Degree-Sign C, the silicon-carbon bonds are formed at the pore surface and the graphite-like carbon condensate emerges. It is shown that the carbon condensate inhibits oxidation of porous silicon by water vapors and contributes to quenching of white photoluminescence in the oxidized carbonized porous silicon nanocomposite layer.

  14. Phonon confinement in Ge nanocrystals in silicon oxide matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Yiaxiong; Wee, A. T. S.; Huan, C. H. A.; Shen, Z. X.; Choi, W. K.

    2011-02-01

    Spherical Ge nanocrystals well-dispersed in amorphous silicon oxide matrix have been synthesized with different sizes, and significant size-dependent Raman shift and broadening have been observed. The lattice constant of Ge nanocrystals well-bonded to silicon oxide matrix has been characterized nearly size-independent. With our proposed stress generation and relaxation mechanisms, stress effects in our samples have been analyzed to be insignificant with respect to phonon confinement effects. The phenomenological model introduced by [Richter, Wang, and Ley, Solid State Commun. 39, 625 (1981] with Gaussian weighting function and TO2 phonon dispersion function has been found to give a quite good description of the measured size-dependence of Raman shift and broadening. A 3-peak fitting method has been proposed to determine Ge nanocrystal size and film crystallinity. After physically quantizing quantum-confined one-dimensional elastic waves, we have deduced that each quantum-confined phonon possesses an instantaneous momentum of a given magnitude ?k with an equal chance of being either positive or negative and momentum conservation is retained in an electron-phonon scattering process. Therefore, on the basis of the first-principle microscopic model and our experimental results, we deduced that Raman scattering in spherical nanocrystals is a concurrent two-phonon process, one phonon generation and one phonon transition.

  15. Single crystal ternary oxide ferroelectric integration with Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakaul, Saidur; Serrao, Claudy; Youun, Long; Khan, Asif; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2015-03-01

    Integrating single crystal, ternary oxide ferroelectric thin film with Silicon or other arbitrary substrates has been a holy grail for the researchers since the inception of microelectronics industry. The key motivation is that adding ferroelectric materials to existing electronic devices could bring into new functionality, physics and performance improvement such as non-volatility of information, negative capacitance effect and lowering sub-threshold swing of field effect transistor (FET) below 60 mV/decade in FET [Salahuddin, S, Datta, S. Nano Lett. 8, 405(2008)]. However, fabrication of single crystal ferroelectric thin film demands stringent conditions such as lattice matched single crystal substrate and high processing temperature which are incompatible with Silicon. Here we report on successful integration of PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 in single crystal form with by using a layer transfer method. The lattice structure, surface morphology, piezoelectric coefficient d33, dielectric constant, ferroelectric domain switching and spontaneous and remnant polarization of the transferred PZT are as good as these characteristics of the best PZT films grown by pulsed laser deposition on lattice matched oxide substrates. We also demonstrate Si based, FE gate controlled FET devices.

  16. Metal and silicon oxides as efficient catalysts for the preparative organic chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Yu A.; Fedorova, O. V.; Rusinov, G. L.; Charushin, V. N.

    2015-12-01

    Data on the use of metal and silicon oxides as catalysts of reactions which are most in demand in laboratory organic syntheses are summarized. The potential of oxide catalysts for optimization of organic reactions is demonstrated, and some mechanistic aspects of oxide action are considered. Published data on the synthetic use of single, mixed, bulk and nanosized metal and silicon oxides are presented. Bibliography — 189 references.

  17. Fabrication of p-type porous silicon nanowire with oxidized silicon substrate through one-step MACE

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shaoyuan; Ma, Wenhui; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Xiuhua; Xiao, Yongyin; Ma, Mingyu; Wei, Feng; Yang, Xi

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the simple pre-oxidization process is firstly used to treat the starting silicon wafer, and then MPSiNWs are successfully fabricated from the moderately doped wafer by one-step MACE technology in HF/AgNO{sub 3} system. The PL spectrum of MPSiNWs obtained from the oxidized silicon wafers show a large blue-shift, which can be attributed to the deep Q. C. effect induced by numerous mesoporous structures. The effects of HF and AgNO{sub 3} concentration on formation of SiNWs were carefully investigated. The results indicate that the higher HF concentration is favorable to the growth of SiNWs, and the density of SiNWs is significantly reduced when Ag{sup +} ions concentrations are too high. The deposition behaviors of Ag{sup +} ions on oxidized and unoxidized silicon surface were studied. According to the experimental results, a model was proposed to explain the formation mechanism of porous SiNWs by etching the oxidized starting silicon. - Graphical abstract: Schematic cross-sectional views of PSiNWs array formation by etching oxidized silicon wafer in HF/AgNO{sub 3} solution. (A) At the starting point; (B) during the etching process; and (C) after Ag dendrites remove. - Highlights: • Prior to etching, a simple pre-oxidation is firstly used to treat silicon substrate. • The medially doped p-type MPSiNWs are prepared by one-step MACE. • Deposition behaviors of Ag{sup +} ions on oxidized and unoxidized silicon are studied. • A model is finally proposed to explain the formation mechanism of PSiNWs.

  18. Solid oxide membrane (SOM) process for ytterbium and silicon production from their oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yihong

    The Solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis is an innovative green technology that produces technologically important metals directly from their respective oxides. A yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) tube, closed at one end is employed to separate the molten salt containing dissolved metal oxides from the anode inside the YSZ tube. When the applied electric potential between the cathode in the molten salt and the anode exceeds the dissociation potential of the desired metal oxides, oxygen ions in the molten salt migrate through the YSZ membrane and are oxidized at the anode while the dissolved metal cations in the flux are reduced to the desired metal at the cathode. Compared with existing metal production processes, the SOM process has many advantages such as one unit operation, less energy consumption, lower capital costs and zero carbon emission. Successful implementation of the SOM electrolysis process would provide a way to mitigate the negative environmental impact of the metal industry. Successful demonstration of producing ytterbium (Yb) and silicon (Si) directly from their respective oxides utilizing the SOM electrolysis process is presented in this dissertation. During the SOM electrolysis process, Yb2O3 was reduced to Yb metal on an inert cathode. The melting point of the supporting electrolyte (LiF-YbF3-Yb2O3) was determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA). Static stability testing confirmed that the YSZ tube was stable with the flux at operating temperature. Yb metal deposit on the cathode was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). During the SOM electrolysis process for silicon production, a fluoride based flux based on BaF2, MgF2, and YF3 was engineered to serve as the liquid electrolyte for dissolving silicon dioxide. YSZ tube was used to separate the molten salt from an anode current collector in the liquid silver. Liquid tin was chosen as cathode to dissolve the reduced silicon during SOM electrolysis. After electrolysis, upon cooling, silicon crystals precipitated out from the Si-Sn liquid alloy. The presence of high-purity silicon crystals in the liquid tin cathode was confirmed by SEM/EDS. The fluoride based flux was also optimized to improve YSZ membrane stability for long-term use.

  19. Research of materials for porous matrices in sol-gel systems based on silicon dioxide and metallic oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraeva, E. V.; Bobkov, A. A.; Maximov, A. I.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Nalimova, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this study silicon dioxide stannic oxide and silicon dioxide zinc nanomaterials oxide were obtained through sol-gel technology. The results of nitrogen thermal desorption measurements, atomic force microscopy measurements and particle sizes measurements are discussed.

  20. Oxide impurities in silicon oxide intermetal dielectrics and their potential to elevate via-resistances.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wentao; Alldredge, Donavan; Heleotes, Douglas; Elkind, Alexander; Theodore, N David; Fejes, Peter; Vadipour, Mostafa; Godek, Bill; Lerner, Norman

    2014-08-01

    Silicon oxide used as an intermetal dielectric (IMD) incorporates oxide impurities during both its formation and subsequent processing to create vias in the IMD. Without a sufficient degassing of the IMD, oxide impurities released from the IMD during the physical vapor deposition (PVD) of the glue layer of the vias had led to an oxidation of the glue layer and eventual increase of the via resistances, which correlated with the O-to-Si atomic ratio of the IMD being ~10% excessive as verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. A vacuum bake of the IMD was subsequently implemented to enhance outgassing of the oxide impurities in the IMD before the glue layer deposition. The implementation successfully reduced the via resistances to an acceptable level. PMID:24821584

  1. Bismuth, Metronidazole, and Tetracycline

    MedlinePLUS

    Helidac® (as a kit containing Bismuth Subsalicylate, Metronidazole, Tetracycline) ... Bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline is used along with other ulcer medications to treat duodenal ulcers. It is in a ...

  2. Atomic layer-deposited tunnel oxide stabilizes silicon photoanodes for water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi Wei; Prange, Jonathan D.; Dhnen, Simon; Park, Yohan; Gunji, Marika; Chidsey, Christopher E. D.; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2011-07-01

    A leading approach for large-scale electrochemical energy production with minimal global-warming gas emission is to use a renewable source of electricity, such as solar energy, to oxidize water, providing the abundant source of electrons needed in fuel synthesis. We report corrosion-resistant, nanocomposite anodes for the oxidation of water required to produce renewable fuels. Silicon, an earth-abundant element and an efficient photovoltaic material, is protected by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a highly uniform, 2?nm thick layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and then coated with an optically transmitting layer of a known catalyst (3?nm iridium). Photoelectrochemical water oxidation was observed to occur below the reversible potential whereas dark electrochemical water oxidation was found to have low-to-moderate overpotentials at all pH values, resulting in an inferred photovoltage of ~550?mV. Water oxidation is sustained at these anodes for many hours in harsh pH and oxidative environments whereas comparable silicon anodes without the TiO2 coating quickly fail. The desirable electrochemical efficiency and corrosion resistance of these anodes is made possible by the low electron-tunnelling resistance (<0.006???cm2 for p+-Si) and uniform thickness of atomic-layer deposited TiO2.

  3. Structural Evolution of Silicon Oxide Nanowires via Head-Growth Solid-Liquid-Solid Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hang; Chan, Shih-Yu; Chen, Chia-Fu

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a growth mechanism for silicon oxide nanowires (SiONWs) as a unique solid-liquid-solid process. SiONWs were synthesized in a furnace at 1000 °C and cooled at a high rate. Nickel and gold were introduced as catalysts to dissolve and precipitate the silicon oxide originally prepared by wet oxidation. The ratio of nickel to gold determined the precipitation rate and different “octopus-like” structures were formed. At a specific cooling rate, composition and amount of a catalyst, aligned silicon oxide nanowires with unattached ends were obtained.

  4. Characterization of the mechanism of bi-layer oxide growth on austenitic stainless steels 316L and D9 in oxygen-controlled Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koury, Daniel

    Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) has been proposed for use in programs for accelerator-based and reactor-based transmutation of nuclear waste. LBE is a leading candidate material as a spallation target (in accelerator-based transmutation) and an option for the sub-critical blanket coolant. The corrosion by LBE of annealed and cold-rolled 316L stainless steels, and the modified austenitic stainless steel alloy D9, has been studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Exposed and unexposed samples have been compared and the differences studied. Small amounts of surface contamination are present on the samples and have been removed by ion-beam sputtering. The unexposed samples reveal typical stainless steel characteristics: a chromium oxide passivation surface layer and metallic iron and nickel. The exposed samples show protective iron oxide and chromium oxide growths on the surface. Oxygen takes many forms on the exposed samples, including oxides of iron and chromium, carbonates, and organic acids from subsequent handling after exposure to LBE. Different types of surface preparation have lead to considerably different modes of corrosion. The cold-rold samples were resistant to thick oxide growth, having only a thin (< 1 mum), dense chromium-rich oxide. The annealed 316L and D9 samples developed thick, bi-layered oxides, the inner layer consisting of chromium-rich oxides (likely spinel) and the outer layer consisting mostly of iron oxides. The cold-rolled samples were able to maintain a thin chromium oxide layer because of the surface work performed on it, as ample diffusion pathways provided an adequate supply of chromium atoms. The annealed samples grew thick oxides because iron was the primary diffusant, as there are fewer fast-diffusion pathways and therefore an amount of chromium insufficient to maintain a chromium based oxide. Even the thick oxide, however, can prolong the life of a steel in LBE, provided proper oxygen control. The mechanisms responsible for the differences in the oxidation behaviors are discussed.

  5. Atomistic modeling of bending properties of oxidized silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ilinov, Andrey Kuronen, Antti

    2014-03-14

    In this work, we have modeled a three point bending test of monocrystalline Si nanowires using molecular dynamics simulations in order to investigate their elastic properties. Tested nanowires were about 30 nm in length and had diameters from 5 to 9 nm. To study the influence of a native oxide layer, nanowires were covered with a 1 nm thick silica layer. The bending force was applied by a carbon diamond half-sphere with a 5 nm diameter. The Si-O parametrization for the Tersoff potential was used to describe atomic interactions between Si and O atoms. In order to remove the indentation effect of the diamond half-sphere and to obtain a pure bending behavior, we have also performed a set of simulations with fixed bottoms of the nanowires. Our results show that the oxide layer reduces the nanowire stiffness when compared with a pure Si nanowire with the same number of silicon atoms—in spite of the fact that the oxidized nanowires had larger diameters.

  6. Atomistic modeling of bending properties of oxidized silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilinov, Andrey; Kuronen, Antti

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we have modeled a three point bending test of monocrystalline Si nanowires using molecular dynamics simulations in order to investigate their elastic properties. Tested nanowires were about 30 nm in length and had diameters from 5 to 9 nm. To study the influence of a native oxide layer, nanowires were covered with a 1 nm thick silica layer. The bending force was applied by a carbon diamond half-sphere with a 5 nm diameter. The Si-O parametrization for the Tersoff potential was used to describe atomic interactions between Si and O atoms. In order to remove the indentation effect of the diamond half-sphere and to obtain a pure bending behavior, we have also performed a set of simulations with fixed bottoms of the nanowires. Our results show that the oxide layer reduces the nanowire stiffness when compared with a pure Si nanowire with the same number of silicon atomsin spite of the fact that the oxidized nanowires had larger diameters.

  7. Formation of hybrid hafnium oxide by applying sacrifacial silicon film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chiung-Wei; Zheng, Bo-Shen; Huang, Jing-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In the fabrication of hafnium oxide (HfO2)-based metalinsulatorsemiconductor (MIS) devices, a sacrificial amorphous silicon (a-Si) film was used as silicon source for facilitating the formation of hafnium silicate (Hf-silicate; HfSiO) between HfO2 and crystallized Si (c-Si). HfSiO can assist in changing the phase of the HfO2 film into the tetragonal phase and achieve high dielectric constant. The combination of HfSiO and HfO2 was named as Hybrid HfO2. When this Hybrid HfO2 insulator was applied to MIS devices, it can form a good insulator/semiconductor interface with c-Si. Hybrid HfO2 cannot only suppress the leakage current but also show high dielectric strength. The Hybrid HfO2 film in this work exhibited a high dielectric constant of 25.5 and a high dielectric strength of 17.9 MV/cm.

  8. Novel synthetic methodology for controlling the orientation of zinc oxide nanowires grown on silicon oxide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jinhyun; Salleh, Najah; Blanco, Carlos; Yang, Sungwoo; Lee, Chul-Jin; Kim, Young-Woo; Kim, Jungsang; Liu, Jie

    2014-03-01

    This study presents a simple method to reproducibly obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowire arrays on silicon oxide (SiOx) substrates using seed crystals made from a mixture of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2) solution. In comparison, high levels of OH- concentration obtained using NaOH or KOH solutions lead to incorporation of Na or K atoms into the seed crystals, destroying the c-axis alignment of the seeds and resulting in the growth of misaligned nanowires. The use of NH4OH eliminates the metallic impurities and ensures aligned nanowire growth in a wide range of OH- concentrations in the seed solution. The difference of crystalline orientations between NH4OH- and NaOH-based seeds is directly observed by lattice-resolved images and electron diffraction patterns using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This study obviously suggests that metallic impurities incorporated into the ZnO nanocrystal seeds are one of the factors that generates the misaligned ZnO nanowires. This method also enables the use of silicon oxide substrates for the growth of vertically aligned nanowires, making ZnO nanostructures compatible with widely used silicon fabrication technology.This study presents a simple method to reproducibly obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowire arrays on silicon oxide (SiOx) substrates using seed crystals made from a mixture of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2) solution. In comparison, high levels of OH- concentration obtained using NaOH or KOH solutions lead to incorporation of Na or K atoms into the seed crystals, destroying the c-axis alignment of the seeds and resulting in the growth of misaligned nanowires. The use of NH4OH eliminates the metallic impurities and ensures aligned nanowire growth in a wide range of OH- concentrations in the seed solution. The difference of crystalline orientations between NH4OH- and NaOH-based seeds is directly observed by lattice-resolved images and electron diffraction patterns using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This study obviously suggests that metallic impurities incorporated into the ZnO nanocrystal seeds are one of the factors that generates the misaligned ZnO nanowires. This method also enables the use of silicon oxide substrates for the growth of vertically aligned nanowires, making ZnO nanostructures compatible with widely used silicon fabrication technology. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional SEM images, photographs of seed solution and XRD peaks and XPS. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03694d

  9. Tantalum oxide/silicon nitride: A negatively charged surface passivation stack for silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Yimao Bullock, James; Cuevas, Andres

    2015-05-18

    This letter reports effective passivation of crystalline silicon (c-Si) surfaces by thermal atomic layer deposited tantalum oxide (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) underneath plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}). Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy imaging shows an approximately 2 nm thick interfacial layer between Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and c-Si. Surface recombination velocities as low as 5.0 cm/s and 3.2 cm/s are attained on p-type 0.8 Ω·cm and n-type 1.0 Ω·cm c-Si wafers, respectively. Recombination current densities of 25 fA/cm{sup 2} and 68 fA/cm{sup 2} are measured on 150 Ω/sq boron-diffused p{sup +} and 120 Ω/sq phosphorus-diffused n{sup +} c-Si, respectively. Capacitance–voltage measurements reveal a negative fixed insulator charge density of −1.8 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} for the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} film and −1.0 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} for the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiN{sub x} stack. The Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiN{sub x} stack is demonstrated to be an excellent candidate for surface passivation of high efficiency silicon solar cells.

  10. Efficient and sustained photoelectrochemical water oxidation by cobalt oxide/silicon photoanodes with nanotextured interfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinhui; Walczak, Karl; Anzenberg, Eitan; Toma, Francesca M; Yuan, Guangbi; Beeman, Jeffrey; Schwartzberg, Adam; Lin, Yongjing; Hettick, Mark; Javey, Ali; Ager, Joel W; Yano, Junko; Frei, Heinz; Sharp, Ian D

    2014-04-30

    Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of cobalt oxide onto nanotextured p(+)n-Si devices enables efficient photoelectrochemical water oxidation and effective protection of Si from corrosion at high pH (pH 13.6). A photocurrent density of 17 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 V vs RHE, saturation current density of 30 mA/cm(2), and photovoltage greater than 600 mV were achieved under simulated solar illumination. Sustained photoelectrochemical water oxidation was observed with no detectable degradation after 24 h. Enhanced performance of the nanotextured structure, compared to planar Si, is attributed to a reduced silicon oxide thickness that provides more intimate interfacial contact between the light absorber and catalyst. This work highlights a general approach to improve the performance and stability of Si photoelectrodes by engineering the catalyst/semiconductor interface. PMID:24720554

  11. Low-Temperature Oxidation of Silicon in H2O2 Ambient by UV Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Yutaka

    2002-03-01

    Thermal oxidation of silicon can be markedly enhanced by UV irradiation in H2O2 ambient. The typical thickness of the oxide was about 3.3 nm for oxidation at 350C for 60 min. The OH obtained by decomposing hydrogen peroxide using UV light is an oxidizing species. Since OH is highly reactive, the low-temperature oxidation of silicon becomes possible. The dynamics of the oxidation follows the linear rule, and the activation energy is 0.59 eV.

  12. Improved performance of microcrystalline silicon solar cell with graded-band-gap silicon oxide buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhen-Liang; Ji, Yun; Yu, Wei; Yang, Yan-Bin; Cong, Ri-Dong; Chen, Ying-Juan; Li, Xiao-Wei; Fu, Guang-Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) solar cell with graded band gap microcrystalline silicon oxide (μc-SiOx:H) buffer layer is prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and exhibits improved performance compared with the cell without it. The buffer layer moderates the band gap mismatch by reducing the barrier of the p/i interface, which promotes the nucleation of the i-layer and effectively eliminates the incubation layer, and then enhances the collection efficiency of the cell in the short wavelength region of the spectrum. The p/i interface defect density also decreases from 2.2 × 1012 cm‑2 to 5.0 × 1011 cm‑2. This graded buffer layer allows to simplify the deposition process for the μc-Si:H solar cell application. Project supported by the Key Basic Research Project of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. 12963930D and 12963929D), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. F2013201250 and E2012201059), and the Science and Technology Research Projects of the Education Department of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. ZH2012030).

  13. Surface kinetics modeling of silicon and silicon oxide plasma etching. III. Modeling of silicon oxide etching in fluorocarbon chemistry using translating mixed-layer representation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Ohseung; Bai Bo; Sawin, Herbert H.

    2006-09-15

    Silicon oxide etching was modeled using a translating mixed-layer model, a novel surface kinetic modeling technique, and the model showed good agreement with measured data. Carbon and fluorine were identified as the primary contributors to deposition and etching, respectively. Atomic fluorine flux is a major factor that determines the etching behavior. With a chemistry having a small amount of atomic fluorine (such as the C{sub 4}F{sub 8} chemistry), etching yield shows stronger dependence on the composition change in the gas flux.

  14. Studies on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy-Silicon Oxide Hybrid Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Kumar, Kaushal; Kumar, Arun

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasonic dual mixing (UDM) process involving ultrasonic vibration with simultaneous stirring is used to prepare epoxy-silicon oxide hybrid materials with inorganic nanoscale building blocks by incorporating nanoscale silicon oxide network in epoxy matrix. The silicon oxide network is obtained from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) by using the in situ sol-gel process. Same epoxy-silica hybrid materials were also prepared by mixing with simple impeller stirring, and its properties were compared with the material of same composition prepared by the UDM process. The epoxy-silicon oxide hybrid materials are characterized by using FT-IR, DSC, FESEM, and XRD techniques. The glass transition temperature, tensile strength, and elastic modulus of the epoxy-silicon oxide hybrid materials treated by UDM process are found comparatively better than those of the materials processed by a rotating impeller. FESEM studies confirm that amount of TEOS varies the distribution and size of silicon oxide network, which remains relatively finer at lower content of TEOS. Significant improvement of thermal and mechanical properties of the neat epoxy is noted in the presence of 3.05 wt.% TEOS content in it is giving rise to the formation of inorganic building block of silicon oxide of size 88 ± 45 nm in the matrix. In this regard, the use of UDM process is found superior to mixing by simple impeller stirring for enhancement of properties of epoxy-silicon oxide hybrid materials. Lowering of properties of the epoxy-silicon oxide hybrid materials with TEOS addition beyond 3.05 wt.% up to 6.1 wt.% occurs primarily due to increase of amount and size (up to 170 ± 82 nm) of the inorganic building block in the matrix.

  15. Serum protein layers on parylene-C and silicon oxide: effect on cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Ouberai, Myriam M; Coffey, Paul D; Swann, Marcus J; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Welland, Mark E

    2015-02-01

    Among the range of materials used in bioengineering, parylene-C has been used in combination with silicon oxide and in presence of the serum proteins, in cell patterning. However, the structural properties of adsorbed serum proteins on these substrates still remain elusive. In this study, we use an optical biosensing technique to decipher the properties of fibronectin (Fn) and serum albumin adsorbed on parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates. Our results show the formation of layers with distinct structural and adhesive properties. Thin, dense layers are formed on parylene-C, whereas thicker, more diffuse layers are formed on silicon oxide. These results suggest that Fn acquires a compact structure on parylene-C and a more extended structure on silicon oxide. Nonetheless, parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates coated with Fn host cell populations that exhibit focal adhesion complexes and good cell attachment. Albumin adopts a deformed structure on parylene-C and a globular structure on silicon oxide, and does not support significant cell attachment on either surface. Interestingly, the co-incubation of Fn and albumin at the ratio found in serum, results in the preferential adsorption of albumin on parylene-C and Fn on silicon oxide. This finding is supported by the exclusive formation of focal adhesion complexes in differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (CGR8), cultured on Fn/albumin coated silicon oxide, but not on parylene-C. The detailed information provided in this study on the distinct properties of layers of serum proteins on substrates such as parylene-C and silicon oxide is highly significant in developing methods for cell patterning. PMID:25555155

  16. Serum protein layers on parylene-C and silicon oxide: Effect on cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Ouberai, Myriam M.; Coffey, Paul D.; Swann, Marcus J.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Welland, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Among the range of materials used in bioengineering, parylene-C has been used in combination with silicon oxide and in presence of the serum proteins, in cell patterning. However, the structural properties of adsorbed serum proteins on these substrates still remain elusive. In this study, we use an optical biosensing technique to decipher the properties of fibronectin (Fn) and serum albumin adsorbed on parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates. Our results show the formation of layers with distinct structural and adhesive properties. Thin, dense layers are formed on parylene-C, whereas thicker, more diffuse layers are formed on silicon oxide. These results suggest that Fn acquires a compact structure on parylene-C and a more extended structure on silicon oxide. Nonetheless, parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates coated with Fn host cell populations that exhibit focal adhesion complexes and good cell attachment. Albumin adopts a deformed structure on parylene-C and a globular structure on silicon oxide, and does not support significant cell attachment on either surface. Interestingly, the co-incubation of Fn and albumin at the ratio found in serum, results in the preferential adsorption of albumin on parylene-C and Fn on silicon oxide. This finding is supported by the exclusive formation of focal adhesion complexes in differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (CGR8), cultured on Fn/albumin coated silicon oxide, but not on parylene-C. The detailed information provided in this study on the distinct properties of layers of serum proteins on substrates such as parylene-C and silicon oxide is highly significant in developing methods for cell patterning. PMID:25555155

  17. Novel synthetic methodology for controlling the orientation of zinc oxide nanowires grown on silicon oxide substrates.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jinhyun; Salleh, Najah; Blanco, Carlos; Yang, Sungwoo; Lee, Chul-Jin; Kim, Young-Woo; Kim, Jungsang; Liu, Jie

    2014-04-01

    This study presents a simple method to reproducibly obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowire arrays on silicon oxide (SiOx) substrates using seed crystals made from a mixture of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2) solution. In comparison, high levels of OH(-) concentration obtained using NaOH or KOH solutions lead to incorporation of Na or K atoms into the seed crystals, destroying the c-axis alignment of the seeds and resulting in the growth of misaligned nanowires. The use of NH4OH eliminates the metallic impurities and ensures aligned nanowire growth in a wide range of OH(-) concentrations in the seed solution. The difference of crystalline orientations between NH4OH- and NaOH-based seeds is directly observed by lattice-resolved images and electron diffraction patterns using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This study obviously suggests that metallic impurities incorporated into the ZnO nanocrystal seeds are one of the factors that generates the misaligned ZnO nanowires. This method also enables the use of silicon oxide substrates for the growth of vertically aligned nanowires, making ZnO nanostructures compatible with widely used silicon fabrication technology. PMID:24584438

  18. Energetics of bismuth vanadate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagabhushana, G. P.; Tavakoli, A. H.; Navrotsky, A.

    2015-05-01

    Bismuth vanadate has gained considerable interest as a photoanode for water splitting reactions under visible light. It exists in four different polymorphs, out of which three of them have been synthesized. Thermodynamic properties of these three polymorphs are investigated using high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The monoclinic scheelite phase which exhibits photocatalytic activity under visible light is found to be the most stable polymorph, followed by tetragonal scheelite which exhibits activity under UV light. The photocatalytically inactive tetragonal zircon form is found to be the least stable polymorph. The small difference in enthalpy of formation between the two scheelite structures (-8 kJ/mol) is in accord with the reversibility of the transformation between them and the larger difference between the most stable monoclinic phase and the least stable tetragonal zircon phase (-23 kJ/mol) is in accord with the irreversible (monoclinic?tetragonal zircon) phase transformation.

  19. Monolithic integration of rare-earth oxides and semiconductors for on-silicon technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dargis, Rytis Clark, Andrew; Erdem Arkun, Fevzi; Grinys, Tomas; Tomasiunas, Rolandas; O'Hara, Andy; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2014-07-01

    Several concepts of integration of the epitaxial rare-earth oxides into the emerging advanced semiconductor on silicon technology are presented. Germanium grows epitaxially on gadolinium oxide despite lattice mismatch of more than 4%. Additionally, polymorphism of some of the rare-earth oxides allows engineering of their crystal structure from hexagonal to cubic and formation of buffer layers that can be used for growth of germanium on a lattice matched oxide layer. Molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition of gallium nitride on the rare-earth oxide buffer layers on silicon is discussed.

  20. High-temperature oxidation behavior of reaction-formed silicon carbide ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogbuji, Linus U. J. T.; Singh, M.

    1995-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of reaction-formed silicon carbide (RFSC) ceramics was investigated in the temperature range of 1100 to 1400 C. The oxidation weight change was recorded by TGA; the oxidized materials were examined by light and electron microscopy, and the oxidation product by x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The materials exhibited initial weight loss, followed by passive weight gain (with enhanced parabolic rates, k(sub p)), and ending with a negative (logarithmic) deviation from the parabolic law. The weight loss arose from the oxidation of residual carbon, and the enhanced k(sub p) values from internal oxidation and the oxidation of residual silicon, while the logarithmic kinetics is thought to have resulted from crystallization of the oxide. The presence of a small amount of MoSi, in the RFSC material caused a further increase in the oxidation rate. The only solid oxidation product for all temperatures studied was silica.

  1. Fracture of flash oxidized, yttria-doped sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Govila, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of a slip cast, yttria-doped, sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride after 'flash oxidation' was investigated. It was found that both the static oxidation resistance and flexural stress rupture life (creep deformation) were improved at 1000 C in air compared to those of the same material without flash oxidation. Stress rupture data at high temperatures (1000 to 1200 C) are presented to indicate applied stress levels for oxidation-dependent and independent failures.

  2. Assessment of the influence of surface finishing and weld joints on the corrosion/oxidation behaviour of stainless steels in lead bismuth eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Muñoz, F. J.; Soler-Crespo, L.; Gómez-Briceño, D.

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to gain some insight into the influence of the surface finishing in the oxidation/corrosion behaviour of 316L and T91 steels in lead bismuth eutectic (LBE). Specimens of both materials with different surface states were prepared (as-received, grinded, grinded and polished, and electrolitically polished) and oxidation tests were carried out at 775 and 825 K from 100 to 2000 h for two different oxygen concentrations and for H 2/H 2O molar ratios of 3 and 0.03. The general conclusion for these tests is that the effect of surface finishing on the corrosion/protection processes is not significant under the tested conditions. In addition the behaviour of weld joints, T91-T91 Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) and T91-316L have been also studied under similar conditions. The conclusions are that, whereas T91-T91 welded joint shows the same corrosion properties as the parent materials for the conditions tested, AISI 316L-T91 welded joint, present an important dissolution over seam area that it associated to the electrode 309S used for the fabrication process.

  3. A promising biosensing-platform based on bismuth oxide polycrystalline-modified electrode: characterization and its application in development of amperometric glucose sensor.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shou-Nian; Shan, Dan; Xue, Huai-Guo; Cosnier, Serge

    2010-10-01

    Nano-structured bismuth oxide (nano-BiOx) is a suitable material for enzyme immobilization owing to its attractive properties, such as large specific surface area, suitable permeability of the resulting film, the high biocompatibility, and as well as photovoltaic effect from semiconductor nanoparticles. Thus, a new type of amperometric glucose biosensor based on nano-BiOx was constructed. The amperometric detection of glucose was assayed by potentiostating the GOD/nano-BiOx electrode at 0.5 V to oxidize the enzymatically generated hydrogen peroxide. The proposed biosensor provided a linear response to glucose over a concentration range of 1 x 10(-6) M to 1.5 x 10(-3) M with a sensitivity of 51.0+/-0.4 mA/(M cm(2)) and a detection limit of 4 x 10(-7) M based on S/N=3. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant was calculated to be 2.9 x 10(-3) M. In addition, characterization of nano-BiOx and modified electrode was performed by FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and rotating-disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry. PMID:20541478

  4. Topology of an anodically formed oxide film on a silicon single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, A. M.; Yavtushenko, I. O.; Makhmud-Akhunov, M. Yu.

    2015-08-01

    The results of investigations of the morphological properties of an oxide film formed on single-crystal silicon by anodic oxidation in distilled water in the potential-controlled mode have been presented. It has been established that the oxide film is always formed in the form of separate islands, the shape of which depends on the substrate orientation irrespective of the applied potential.

  5. Silicon nanoprofiling with the use of a solid aluminum oxide mask and combined 'dry' etching

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, A. N.; Demidov, Yu. A.; Putrya, M. G.; Golishnikov, A. A.; Vasilyev, A. A.

    2009-12-15

    Technological features of nanoprofiling of silicon protected by a solid mask based on porous aluminum oxide are considered. It is shown that, for a nanoprofiled silicon surface to be formed, it is advisable that combined dry etching be used including preliminary bombardment of structures with accelerated neutral atoms of an inert gas followed by reactive ion etching.

  6. Role of oxidizing agent: thin film formation by photo-oxidizing silicone oil for vacuum UV rays transmittance and high hardness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murahara, M.; Sato, Y.; Jitsuno, T.; Okamoto, Y.

    2012-11-01

    An oxidizing agent is needed for silicone oil to be photo-oxidized with Xe2 excimer-lamp. However, the lamp light did not reach the silicone oil on the surface of the substrate satisfactorily, and the photo-oxidation reaction of the silicone oil layer was hard to take place properly. In order to find the appropriate conditions for supplying the proper amount of an oxidizing agent to silicone oil, the vacuum ultraviolet light that passed the silicone oil layer was made fluoresce in the phosphor to monitor the progress of the photo-oxidation reaction. As the vitrification by photo-oxidation reaction of the silicone oil layer improved, the fluorescence intensity of the phosphor increased. While monitoring the change of the fluorescence intensity, the supply of the oxidizing agent and the irradiation time of the vacuum ultraviolet light were controlled; as a result, the new method to efficiently form a transparent, photo-oxidized thin film has been established.

  7. Role of atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide as oxidation barrier for silicon based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorentino, Giuseppe Morana, Bruno; Forte, Salvatore; Sarro, Pasqualina Maria

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, the authors study the protective effect against oxidation of a thin layer of atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Nitrogen doped silicon carbide (poly-SiC:N) based microheaters coated with ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are used as test structure to investigate the barrier effect of the alumina layers to oxygen and water vapor at very high temperature (up to 1000 °C). Different device sets have been fabricated changing the doping levels, to evaluate possible interaction between the dopants and the alumina layer. The as-deposited alumina layer morphology has been evaluated by means of AFM analysis and compared to an annealed sample (8 h at 1000 °C) to estimate the change in the grain structure and the film density. The coated microheaters are subjected to very long oxidation time in dry and wet environment (up to 8 h at 900 and 1000 °C). By evaluating the electrical resistance variation between uncoated reference devices and the ALD coated devices, the oxide growth on the SiC is estimated. The results show that the ALD alumina coating completely prevents the oxidation of the SiC up to 900 °C in wet environment, while an oxide thickness reduction of 50% is observed at 1000 °C compared to uncoated devices.

  8. High-temperature oxidation behavior of hot-dipped aluminide mild steel with various silicon contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei-Jen; Wang, Chaur-Jeng

    2013-06-01

    Mild steel was coated by hot-dipping into molten baths containing pure aluminum, Al-2.5Si, Al-5Si and Al-10Si (wt.%) at 700 C for 180 s. Isothermal and cyclic oxidations were carried out at 750 C in static air to study the oxidation behavior of the hot-dipped aluminide steel with various silicon contents. The results of isothermal oxidation show the weight gains of the aluminide steel followed a parabolic law. The isothermal oxidation rates of the aluminide steel specimens were directly proportional to the silicon content in the aluminide layers. The reason for the aluminide steel with high silicon possessing a high isothermal oxidation rate is that the silicon addition in the molten bath caused a reduction in the aluminide layer thickness and the formation of phase transformation induced voids in the aluminide layer. The results, after cyclic oxidation, show the weight gains of the aluminide steel specimens were larger than those after isothermal oxidation. Because the aluminide layer with low silicon was mainly composed of a thick brittle Fe2Al5 phase, thermal stress was easily generated in the aluminide layer and caused the formation of vertical cracks when the aluminide steel underwent cyclic oxidation. Once cracks appeared, the weight gains of the aluminide steel specimens were accelerated. Thus, mild steel after hot-dipping in pure aluminum, which had the thickest Fe2Al5 layer, possessed the worst resistance to cyclic oxidation.

  9. Structural alloy with a protective coating containing silicon or silicon-oxide

    DOEpatents

    Natesan, Ken

    1994-01-01

    An iron-based alloy containing chromium and optionally, nickel. The alloy has a surface barrier of silicon or silicon plus oxygen which converts at high temperature to a protective silicon compound. The alloy can be used in oxygen-sulfur mixed gases at temperatures up to about 1100.degree. C.

  10. Structural alloy with a protective coating containing silicon or silicon-oxide

    DOEpatents

    Natesan, K.

    1994-12-27

    An iron-based alloy is described containing chromium and optionally, nickel. The alloy has a surface barrier of silicon or silicon plus oxygen which converts at high temperature to a protective silicon compound. The alloy can be used in oxygen-sulfur mixed gases at temperatures up to about 1100 C. 8 figures.

  11. Structural alloy with a protective coating containing silicon or silicon-oxide

    DOEpatents

    Natesan, K.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is comprised of an iron-based alloy containing chromium and optionally, nickel. The alloy has a surface barrier of silicon or silicon plus oxygen which converts at high temperature to a protective silicon compound. The alloy can be used in oxygen-sulfur mixed gases at temperatures up to about 1100{degrees}C.

  12. Fabrication of p-type porous silicon nanowire with oxidized silicon substrate through one-step MACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaoyuan; Ma, Wenhui; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Xiuhua; Xiao, Yongyin; Ma, Mingyu; Wei, Feng; Yang, Xi

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the simple pre-oxidization process is firstly used to treat the starting silicon wafer, and then MPSiNWs are successfully fabricated from the moderately doped wafer by one-step MACE technology in HF/AgNO3 system. The PL spectrum of MPSiNWs obtained from the oxidized silicon wafers show a large blue-shift, which can be attributed to the deep Q. C. effect induced by numerous mesoporous structures. The effects of HF and AgNO3 concentration on formation of SiNWs were carefully investigated. The results indicate that the higher HF concentration is favorable to the growth of SiNWs, and the density of SiNWs is significantly reduced when Ag+ ions concentrations are too high. The deposition behaviors of Ag+ ions on oxidized and unoxidized silicon surface were studied. According to the experimental results, a model was proposed to explain the formation mechanism of porous SiNWs by etching the oxidized starting silicon.

  13. Microstructure, toughness and flexural strength of self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramics doped with yttrium oxide and ytterbium oxide.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y. S.; Knowles, K. M.; Vieira, J. M.; Lopes, A. B.; Oliveira, F. J.

    2001-02-01

    Self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramics with additions of either yttrium oxide or ytterbium oxide have been investigated at room temperature after various processing heat treatments. Devitrification of the intergranular phase in these materials is very sensitive to the heat treatment used during processing and does not necessarily improve their strength and toughness. Hot-pressed ceramics without a subsequent devitrification heat treatment were the strongest. The ytterbium oxide-doped silicon nitride ceramics were consistently tougher, but less strong, than the yttrium oxide-doped silicon nitride ceramics. In all the ceramics examined, the fracture toughness showed evidence for R-curve behaviour. This was most significant in pressureless sintered ytterbium oxide-doped silicon nitride ceramics. A number of toughening mechanisms, including crack deflection, bridging, and fibre-like grain pull-out, were observed during microstructural analysis of the ceramics. In common with other silicon nitride-based ceramics, thin amorphous films were found at the grain boundaries in each of the ceramics examined. Arrays of dislocations left in the elongated silicon nitride grains after processing were found to belong to the {101;0}<0001> primary slip system. PMID:11207926

  14. Synchrotron x-ray reflectivity study of oxidation/passivation of copper and silicon.

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Y.; Nagy, Z.; Parkhutik, V.; You, H.

    1999-07-21

    Synchrotron x-ray-scattering technique studies of copper and silicon electrochemical interfaces are reported. These two examples illustrate the application of synchrotron x-ray techniques for oxidation, passivation, and dissolution of metals and semiconductors.

  15. Modelling and engineering of stress based controlled oxidation effects for silicon nanostructure patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiang-Lei; Larrieu, Guilhem; Krzeminski, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    Silicon nanostructure patterning with tight geometry control is an important challenge at the bottom level. In that context, stress based controlled oxidation appears to be an efficient tool for precise nanofabrication. Here, we investigate the stress-retarded oxidation phenomenon in various silicon nanostructures (nanobeams, nanorings and nanowires) at both the experimental and the theoretical levels. Different silicon nanostructures have been fabricated by a top-down approach. Complex dependence of the stress build-up on the nano-objects dimension, shape and size has been demonstrated experimentally and physically explained by modelling. For the oxidation of a two-dimensional nanostructure (nanobeam), relative independence to size effects has been observed. On the other hand, radial stress increase with geometry downscaling of a one-dimensional nanostructure (nanowire) has been carefully emphasized. The study of shape engineering by retarded oxidation effects for vertical silicon nanowires is finally discussed.

  16. Method for forming indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

    1984-03-13

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  17. Cobalt silicon mixed oxide nanocomposites by modified sol gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Serena; Turco, Maria; Ramis, Gianguido; Bagnasco, Giovanni; Pernice, Pasquale; Pagliuca, Concetta; Bevilacqua, Maria; Aronne, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    Cobalt-silicon mixed oxide materials (Co/Si=0.111, 0.250 and 0.428) were synthesised starting from Co(NO 3) 26H 2O and Si(OC 2H 5) 4 using a modified sol-gel method. Structural, textural and surface chemical properties were investigated by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA), XRD, UV-vis, FT-IR spectroscopy and N 2 adsorption at -196 C. The nature of cobalt species and their interactions with the siloxane matrix were strongly depending on both the cobalt loading and the heat treatment. All dried gels were amorphous and contained Co 2+ ions forming both tetrahedral and octahedral complexes with the siloxane matrix. After treatment at 400 C, the sample with lowest Co content appeared amorphous and contained only Co 2+ tetrahedral complexes, while at higher cobalt loading Co 3O 4 was present as the only crystalline phase, besides Co 2+ ions strongly interacting with siloxane matrix. At 850 C, in all samples crystalline Co 2SiO 4 was formed and was the only crystallising phase for the nanocomposite with the lowest cobalt content. All materials retained high surface areas also after treatments at 600 C and exhibited surface Lewis acidity, due to cationic sites. The presence of cobalt affected the textural properties of the siloxane matrix decreasing microporosity and increasing mesoporosity.

  18. Silicon oxide permeation barrier coating of PET bottles and foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steves, Simon; Deilmann, Michael; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Modern packaging materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have displaced established materials in many areas of food and beverage packaging. Plastic packing materials offer are various advantages concerning production and handling. PET bottles for instance are non-breakable and lightweight compared to glass and metal containers. However, PET offers poor barrier properties against gas permeation. Therefore, the shelf live of packaged food is reduced. Permeation of gases can be reduced by depositing transparent plasma polymerized silicon oxide (SiOx) barrier coatings. A microwave (2.45 GHz) driven low pressure plasma reactor is developed based on a modified Plasmaline antenna to treat PET foils or bottles. To increase the barrier properties of the coatings furthermore a RF substrate bias (13.56 MHz) is applied. The composition of the coatings is analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy regarding carbon and hydrogen content. Influence of gas phase composition and substrate bias on chemical composition of the coatings is discussed. A strong relation between barrier properties and film composition is found: good oxygen barriers are observed as carbon content is reduced and films become quartz-like. Regarding oxygen permeation a barrier improvement factor (BIF) of 70 is achieved.

  19. Degenerate epitaxy-driven defects in monolayer silicon oxide on ruthenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Shashank; Vlaic, Sergio; Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Vu, Anh-Duc; Guisset, Valrie; David, Philippe; Hadji, Emmanuel; Pochet, Pascal; Coraux, Johann

    2015-10-01

    The structure of the ultimately thin crystalline allotrope of silicon oxide, prepared on a ruthenium surface, is unveiled down to the atomic scale with chemical sensitivity, owing to high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and first principles calculations. An ordered oxygen lattice is imaged which coexists with the two-dimensional monolayer oxide. This coexistence signals a displacive transformation from an oxygen-reconstructed Ru(0001) to silicon oxide, along which laterally shifted domains form, each with equivalent and degenerate epitaxial relationships with the substrate. The unavoidable character of defects at the boundaries between these domains appeals for the development of alternative methods capable of producing single-crystalline two-dimensional oxides.

  20. Effect of temperature on data retention of silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-semiconductor nonvolatile memory transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. L.; McWhorter, P. J.; Dellin, T. A.; Zimmermann, G. T.

    1990-06-01

    The discharge behavior of silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-semiconductor nonvolatile memory transistors is investigated for a range of programming and storage temperatures spanning -55 C to 200 C. A number of empirical observations strongly limit the nature of the mechanisms that govern charge injection and decay. Both electrons and holes contribute to the charge storage properties of the transistors, and the decay properties of both are thermally activated with a continuous distribution of activation energies (trap depths). Charge decay, for both charge states, is negligibly limited by mechanisms other than those which are strongly thermally activated. The programming temperature, relative to the storage temperature, significantly impacts the retention time of the excess electron state, while not affecting the long term decay of the excess hole state. The experimental results also have significant implications regarding proper retention screening techniques and nonvolatile ROM programming techniques.

  1. Process for depositing an oxide epitaxially onto a silicon substrate and structures prepared with the process

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilizes an ultra high vacuum and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) methods to grow an epitaxial oxide film upon a surface of the substrate. As the film is grown, the lattice of the compound formed at the silicon interface becomes stabilized, and a base layer comprised of an oxide having a sodium chloride-type lattice structure grows epitaxially upon the compound so as to cover the substrate surface. A perovskite may then be grown epitaxially upon the base layer to render a product which incorporates silicon, with its electronic capabilities, with a perovskite having technologically-significant properties of its own.

  2. Microstructural aspects and oxidation behavior of laser surface cladded silicon-containing stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.A.; Lee, J.T.; Tsai, W.T.

    1998-01-13

    It is known that silicon is a strong ferrite stabilizer for stainless steels (SS). The beneficial effect of silicon on enhancing mechanical properties, aqueous corrosion resistance and high temperature oxidation resistance of stainless steels is also well recognized. Therefore, the alloying of silicon to stainless steels is of great interest to researchers. By employing a laser surface alloying technique, Tsai et al. have successfully demonstrated that silicon addition to stainless steels, either austenitic or ferritic, could be achieved. They have found that silicon contents as high as 20 wt% could be produced by laser surface alloying (LSA). Laser surface cladding (LSC) of nitrogen and silicon containing stainless steels on carbon steel has also been reported. In these studies, the use of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} was essential to silicon alloying. For both LSA and LSC alloys, their properties are dependent upon the chemical compositions and microstructures. In the present investigation, silicon-containing stainless steels produced by laser melting of the Fe-Cr-Ni-Si mixed powders on carbon steel is attempted. The chemical composition and the microstructure of the LSC layers produced are analyzed. The oxidation behavior of the laser cladded stainless steels with different silicon content is also examined.

  3. High performance high-κ/metal gate complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuit element on flexible silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Sevilla, G. A.; Almuslem, A. S.; Gumus, A.; Hussain, A. M.; Cruz, M. E.; Hussain, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Thinned silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics can be physically flexible. To overcome challenges of limited thinning and damaging of devices originated from back grinding process, we show sequential reactive ion etching of silicon with the assistance from soft polymeric materials to efficiently achieve thinned (40 μm) and flexible (1.5 cm bending radius) silicon based functional CMOS inverters with high-κ/metal gate transistors. Notable advances through this study shows large area of silicon thinning with pre-fabricated high performance elements with ultra-large-scale-integration density (using 90 nm node technology) and then dicing of such large and thinned (seemingly fragile) pieces into smaller pieces using excimer laser. The impact of various mechanical bending and bending cycles show undeterred high performance of flexible silicon CMOS inverters. Future work will include transfer of diced silicon chips to destination site, interconnects, and packaging to obtain fully flexible electronic systems in CMOS compatible way.

  4. Atomic layer deposition of bismuth oxide using Bi(OCMe{sub 2}{sup i}Pr){sub 3} and H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, Dustin Z. Conley, John F.; Allman, Derryl; Price, David; Hose, Sallie; Saly, Mark

    2014-01-15

    Bismuth oxide thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition using Bi(OCMe{sub 2}{sup i}Pr){sub 3} and H{sub 2}O at deposition temperatures between 90 and 270 °C on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, TaN, and TiN substrates. Films were analyzed using spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited at 150 °C have a linear growth per cycle of 0.039 nm/cycle, density of 8.3 g/cm{sup 3}, band gap of approximately 2.9 eV, low carbon content, and show the β phase structure with a (201) preferred crystal orientation. Deposition temperatures above 210 °C and postdeposition anneals caused uneven volumetric expansion, resulting in a decrease in film density, increased interfacial roughness, and degraded optical properties.

  5. TiO2/Ag modified penta-bismuth hepta-oxide nitrate and its adsorption performance for azo dye removal.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Eshraq Ahmed; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ban, Tan Kar

    2012-01-01

    A modified hydrophilic penta-bismuth hepta-oxide nitrate (Bi5O7NO3) surface was synthesized via a precipitation method using TiO2 and Ag as modified agents. The synthesized product was characterized by different analytical techniques. The removal efficiency was evaluated using mono- and di-sulphonated azo dyes as model pollutants. Different kinetic, isotherm and diffusion models were chosen to describe the adsorption process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed no noticeable differences in the chemical states of modified adsorbent when compared to pure Bi5O7NO3; however, the presence of hydrophilic centres such as TiO2 and Ag developed positively charged surface groups and improved its adsorption performance to a wide range of azo dyes. Dyes removal was found to be a function of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, solution pH and temperature. The reduction of Langmuir 1,2-mixed order kinetics to the second or first-order kinetics could be successfully used to describe the adsorption of dyes onto the modified adsorbent. Mass transfer can be described by intra-particle diffusion at a certain stage, but it was not the rate limiting step that controlled the adsorption process. Homogenous behavior of adsorbent surface can be explored by applying Langmuir isotherm to fit the adsorption data. PMID:23520859

  6. Metal-oxide-semiconductor characterization of silicon surfaces thermally oxidized after reactive ion etching and magnetically enhanced reactive ion etching

    SciTech Connect

    Settlemyer, K.T. Jr.; Ruzyllo, J.; Hwang, D.K.

    1993-03-01

    In this study the performance of reactive ion etching (RIE) and magnetically enhanced reactive ion etching (MERIE) processes in pregate oxidation etching of the field oxide are compared. The comparison is carried out through metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) characterization of oxides and interfaces formed on etched silicon surfaces. The results revealed differences in the outcome of RIE and MERIE processes with the latter displaying overall superior characteristics. MERIE induced surface damage is shallower, and is mostly removed during oxide growth. RIE damage propagates deeper into the Si bulk and still influences the MOS devices even after the top Si layers are converted into the oxide. The results obtained emphasize the importance of adequate cleaning of silicon surfaces following RIE/MERIE processes. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Bismuth-doped tin oxide-coated carbon nanotube network: improved anode stability and efficiency for flow-through organic electrooxidation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Vajpayee, Akshay; Vecitis, Chad D

    2013-10-23

    In this study, a binder-free, porous, and conductive 3D carbon-nanotube (CNT) network uniformly coated with bismuth-doped tin oxide (BTO) nanoparticles was prepared via a simple electrosorption-hydrothermal method and utilized for the electrooxidative filtration of organics. The BTO-CNT nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, and Tafel analysis. The submonolayer BTO coating is composed of 3.91.5 nm diameter nanoparticles (NPs). The oxygen-evolution potential of the BTO-CNT nanocomposite was determined to be 1.71 V (vs Ag/AgCl), which is 440 mV higher than an uncoated CNT anode. Anodic stability, characterized by CNT oxidative corrosion to form dissolved species, indicated that the BTO-CNT incurred negligible corrosion up to Vanode=2.2 V, whereas the uncoated CNT was compromised at Vanode?1.4 V. The effect of metal oxide-nanoparticle coating on anodic performance was initially studied by oxalate oxidation followed by total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis. The BTO-CNT displayed the best performance, with ?98% oxalate oxidation (1.2 s filter residence time) and current efficiencies in the range of 32 to >99%. The BTO-CNT anode energy consumption was 25.7 kW h kgCOD(-1) at ?93% TOC removal and 8.6 kW h kgCOD(-1) at ?50% TOC removal, comparable to state-of-the-art oxalate oxidation processes (22.5-81.7 kW h kgCOD(-1)). The improved reactivity, current efficiency, and energy consumption are attributed to the increased conductivity, oxygen-evolution potential, and stability of the BTO-CNT anode. The effectiveness and efficiency of the BTO-CNT anode as compared to the uncoated CNT was further investigated by the electrooxidative filtration of ethanol, methanol, formaldehyde, and formate, and it was determined to have TOC removals 2 to 8 times greater, mineralization current efficiencies 1.5 to 3.5 times greater, and energy consumption 4 to 5 times less than the uncoated CNT anode. Electrooxidation and anode passivation mechanisms are discussed. PMID:24040859

  8. Characterization of microparticles and oxide layers generated by laser irradiation of diamond-machined silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiwang; Sakai, Shin; Isogai, Hiromichi; Izunome, Koji

    2011-02-01

    Nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation is a potential method for removing machining-induced subsurface damage from silicon wafers. In this study, the material compositions and microstructures of microparticles and oxide layers generated during laser irradiation were investigated by atomic force microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. The oxide layer was found to be approximately 5 nm thick, which is significantly thicker than the native oxide layer of silicon at room temperature in air (~1 nm). The microparticles have a low-density amorphous structure and are mainly composed of silicon oxide, while a few particles contain silicon. The particles are attached to the substrate, but are distinct from it. The results indicate that silicon boiled during the laser pulse and that the particles are recondensed and oxidized liquid silicon boiled away from the wafer surface. The microparticles can be completely removed from the wafer surface by hydrofluoric acid etching.

  9. Gas-phase formation of silicon carbides, oxides, and sulphides from atomic silicon ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohme, Diethard K.; Wlodek, Stanislaw; Fox, Arnold

    1989-01-01

    A systematic experimental study of the kinetics and mechanisms of the chemical reactions in the gas phase between ground-state Si(+)2p and a variety of astrophysical molecules. The aim of this study is to identify the reactions which trigger the formation of chemical bonds between silicon and carbon, oxygen and sulphur, and the chemical pathways which lead to further molecular growth. Such knowledge is valuable in the identification of new extraterrestrial silicon-bearing molecules and for an assessment of the gas-phase transition from atomic silicon to silicon carbide and silicate grain particles in carbon-rich and oxygen-rich astrophysical environments.

  10. Method for one-to-one polishing of silicon nitride and silicon oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babu, Suryadevara V. (Inventor); Natarajan, Anita (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of removing silicon nitride at about the same removal rate as silicon dioxide by CMP. The method utilizes a polishing slurry that includes colloidal silica abrasive particles dispersed in water and additives that modulate the silicon dioxide and silicon nitride removal rates such that they are about the same. In one embodiment of the invention, the additive is lysine or lysine mono hydrochloride in combination with picolinic acid, which is effective at a pH of about 8. In another embodiment of the invention, the additive is arginine in combination with picolinic acid, which is effective at a pH of about 10.

  11. Effect of additive gases and injection methods on chemical dry etching of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon oxide layers in F{sub 2} remote plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Y. B.; Park, S. M.; Kim, D. J.; Lee, N.-E.; Kim, K. S.; Bae, G. H.

    2007-07-15

    The authors investigated the effects of various additive gases and different injection methods on the chemical dry etching of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon oxide layers in F{sub 2} remote plasmas. N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}+O{sub 2} gases in the F{sub 2}/Ar/N{sub 2} and F{sub 2}/Ar/N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} remote plasmas effectively increased the etch rate of the layers. The addition of direct-injected NO gas increased the etch rates most significantly. NO radicals generated by the addition of N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}+O{sub 2} or direct-injected NO molecules contributed to the effective removal of nitrogen and oxygen in the silicon nitride and oxide layers, by forming N{sub 2}O and NO{sub 2} by-products, respectively, and thereby enhancing SiF{sub 4} formation. As a result of the effective removal of the oxygen, nitrogen, and silicon atoms in the layers, the chemical dry etch rates were enhanced significantly. The process regime for the etch rate enhancement of the layers was extended at elevated temperature.

  12. Characterization of polycrystalline silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon devices on a SiO2 or Si3N4 buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Youl; Oh, Jae-Sub; Yang, Seung-Dong; Yun, Ho-Jin; Jeong, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Hi-Deok; Lee, Ga-Won

    2013-10-01

    Silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) memory devices were fabricated from polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) using the solid phase crystallization (SPC) method for use in a low-power system-on-panel (SOP) display. In these poly-Si SONOS memories, oxide or nitride was used as a buffer layer. The electrical characteristics, such as the threshold voltage ( V T ), subthreshold slope ( SS) and transconductance ( g m ), were determined for each SONOS device. To interpret the characteristics of both poly-Si devices, x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and flicker noise analysis were conducted. The results show that the poly-Si SONOS on the oxide layer has better electrical, memory characteristics, such as turn-on speed and g m , program/erase, endurance and data retention than that on the nitride layer. From the XRD measurements, it is shown that the grain size of the poly-Si on the oxide layer is larger than that on the nitride layer. From the flicker noise analysis, the poly-Si device on oxide was shown to have less traps or defects in the channel layer than that on nitride.

  13. Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibre laser with 20-W output power at 1460 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Firstov, Sergei V; Shubin, Aleksei V; Khopin, V F; Mel'kumov, Mikhail A; Bufetov, Igor' A; Medvedkov, O I; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2011-07-31

    We report the first cw bismuth - germanium codoped silica fibre laser with an output power above 20 W at 1460 nm and 50% optical efficiency. The laser operates on a transition between energy levels of bismuth-related active centres associated with silicon. The incorporation of a small amount ({approx}5 mol %) of germanium into the core of bismuth-doped silica fibre has little effect on its luminescence spectrum but reduces optical losses, which limit the laser efficiency. (letters)

  14. Dimethyl sulfoxide as a mild oxidizing agent for porous silicon and its effect on photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.H.; Sailor, M.J.

    1998-06-29

    Dimethyl sulfoxide acts as a mild room-temperature oxidant of luminescent porous silicon. The oxidation reaction is accompanied by a loss in photoluminescence intensity from the silicon nanocrystallites, indicating that the oxide formed under these conditions is electronically defective. The rate of oxidation is reduced if the reaction is carried out in the presence of the radical traps 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (butylated hydroxytoluene, BHT) or cumene. In addition, photoluminescence intensity is preserved if the DMSO oxidation reaction is carried out in the presence of high concentrations of BHT. The BHT is proposed to form a more electronically passive oxide layer by hydrogenating the surface radicals (dangling bonds) generated during the oxidation reaction.

  15. Parallel-local anodic oxidation of silicon surfaces by soft stamps.

    PubMed

    Albonetti, Cristiano; Martinez, Javier; Losilla, Nuria S; Greco, Pierpaolo; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Borgatti, Francesco; Montecchi, Monica; Pasquali, Luca; Garcia, Ricardo; Biscarini, Fabio

    2008-10-29

    We investigate the fabrication of nanometric patterns on silicon surfaces by using the parallel-local anodic oxidation technique with soft stamps. This method yields silicon oxide nanostructures 15nm high, namely at least five times higher than the nanostructures made with local anodic oxidation using atomic force microscopy, and thanks to the size of the stamp enables one to pattern the surface across a centimetre length scale. To implement this technique, we built a machine to bring the metallized polydimethylsiloxane stamp in contact with the silicon surface, subsequently inserted in a sealed chamber with controlled relative humidity. The oxide nanostructures are fabricated when a bias voltage of 36V is applied between the stamp and the silicon for 2min, with a relative humidity of 90%. The flexibility of the stamp enables a homogeneous conformal contact with the silicon surface, resulting in an excellent reproducibility of the process. Moreover, by means of two subsequent oxidations with the same stamp and just rotating the sample, we are able to fabricate complex nanostructures. Finally, a detailed study of the oxidation mechanism, also using a finite element analysis, has been performed to understand the underlying mechanism. PMID:21832690

  16. Comparative investigation of infrared optical absorption properties of silicon oxide, oxynitride and nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shun; Liu, Weiguo; Cai, Changlong; Liu, Huan

    2011-02-01

    Amorphous silicon oxide, silicon oxynitride and silicon nitride films were deposited in a PECVD reactor using silane (SiH4),ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as precursor gases. The N2O/NH3 flow ratio was varied in order to obtain different oxynitride compositions. The films were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry, XPS and FTIR spectroscopy. The compositions and infrared optical absorption properties of the three different types of films were investigated and compared. Special attention was paid to analyze the Si-O/Si-N bond stretching absorption including the absorption band intensity. It was found that the silicon oxynitride films show a dominant infrared stretching band due to the Si-O/Si-N bond , with the infrared absorption peak located between 860cm-1(11.6?m) for Si-N bond in silicon nitride and 1063cm-1(9.4?m) for Si-O bond in silicon oxide. The position of peak also shifts to a shorter wavelength when increasing the N2O/NH3 flow ratio. The infrared optical absorption properties of the silicon oxynitride films make them well suited for the absorber of uncooled microbolometer detectors

  17. Comparative investigation of infrared optical absorption properties of silicon oxide, oxynitride and nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shun; Liu, Weiguo; Cai, Changlong; Liu, Huan

    2010-10-01

    Amorphous silicon oxide, silicon oxynitride and silicon nitride films were deposited in a PECVD reactor using silane (SiH4),ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as precursor gases. The N2O/NH3 flow ratio was varied in order to obtain different oxynitride compositions. The films were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry, XPS and FTIR spectroscopy. The compositions and infrared optical absorption properties of the three different types of films were investigated and compared. Special attention was paid to analyze the Si-O/Si-N bond stretching absorption including the absorption band intensity. It was found that the silicon oxynitride films show a dominant infrared stretching band due to the Si-O/Si-N bond , with the infrared absorption peak located between 860cm-1(11.6?m) for Si-N bond in silicon nitride and 1063cm-1(9.4?m) for Si-O bond in silicon oxide. The position of peak also shifts to a shorter wavelength when increasing the N2O/NH3 flow ratio. The infrared optical absorption properties of the silicon oxynitride films make them well suited for the absorber of uncooled microbolometer detectors

  18. The complex interface chemistry of thin-film silicon/zinc oxide solar cell structures.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, D; Wimmer, M; Wilks, R G; Flix, R; Kronast, F; Ruske, F; Br, M

    2014-12-21

    The interface between solid-phase crystallized phosphorous-doped polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si(n(+))) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using spatially resolved photoelectron emission microscopy. We find the accumulation of aluminum in the proximity of the interface. Based on a detailed photoemission line analysis, we also suggest the formation of an interface species. Silicon suboxide and/or dehydrated hemimorphite have been identified as likely candidates. For each scenario a detailed chemical reaction pathway is suggested. The chemical instability of the poly-Si(n(+))/ZnO:Al interface is explained by the fact that SiO2 is more stable than ZnO and/or that H2 is released from the initially deposited a-Si:H during the crystallization process. As a result, Zn (a deep acceptor in silicon) is "liberated" close to the silicon/zinc oxide interface presenting the inherent risk of forming deep defects in the silicon absorber. These could act as recombination centers and thus limit the performance of silicon/zinc oxide based solar cells. Based on this insight some recommendations with respect to solar cell design, material selection, and process parameters are given for further knowledge-based thin-film silicon device optimization. PMID:25363298

  19. Improvement of plasmonic enhancement of quantum dot emission via an intermediate silicon-aluminum oxide interface

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, Waylin J.; Sadeghi, Seyed M. Campbell, Quinn

    2015-01-05

    We studied the emission of quantum dots in the presence of plasmon-metal oxide substrates, which consist of arrays of metallic nanorods embedded in amorphous silicon coated with a nanometer-thin layer of aluminum oxide on the top. We showed that the combined effects of plasmons and the silicon-aluminum oxide interface can lead to significant enhancement of the quantum efficiency of quantum dots. Our results show that such an interface can significantly enhance plasmonic effects of the nanorods via quantum dot-induced exciton-plasmon coupling, leading to partial polarization of the quantum dots' emission.

  20. Crack healing behavior of hot pressed silicon nitride due to oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Tikare, V.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that limited oxidation of an MgO-containing, hot-pressed silicon nitride ceramic at 800 deg C and above results in increased strength due to crack healing. Slight oxidation of the surface produces enstatite and cristobalite which fills in cracks. More extensive oxidation leads to strength degradation due to the formation of new flaws by the evolution of N2 gas at the surface. The apparent fracture toughness also increased at 800 deg C and above due to oxidation. Bonds formed between the two surfaces of the crack during oxidation leads to a reduction in stress intensity at the crack tip, suggesting that valid high-temperature toughness values cannot be obtained in an air environment. The increase in strength due to crack healing by oxidation can be achieved without compromising the fatigue properties of the silicon nitride ceramic.

  1. Optimization of contaminated oxide inversion layer solar cell. [considering silicon oxide coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Call, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Contaminated oxide cells have been fabricated with efficiencies of 8.6% with values of I sub sc = 120 ma, V sub oc = .54 volts, and curve factor of .73. Attempts to optimize the fabrication step to yield a higher output have not been successful. The fundamental limitation is the inadequate antireflection coating afforded by the silicon dioxide coating used to hold the contaminating ions. Coatings of SiO, therefore, were used to obtain a good antireflection coating, but the thinness of the coatings prevented a large concentration of the contaminating ions, and the cells was weak. Data of the best cell were .52 volts V sub oc, 110 ma I sub sc, .66 CFF and 6.7% efficiency.

  2. Annealing behavior of atomic layer deposited hafnium oxide on silicon: Changes at the interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Anand; Inman, Ronald; Jursich, Gregory; Takoudis, Christos G.

    2006-05-01

    Thin films of hafnium oxide are deposited on Si(100) substrates by means of atomic layer deposition using tetrakis(diethylamino)hafnium and water on Si(100) at 300 C. Detailed studies of temperature induced annealing effects on the HfO2/Si interface are done using angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). As-deposited films show mostly native silicon oxide at the interface. Crystallization of HfO2 film initiates at about 600 C. As the annealing temperature is increased, the hafnium silicate content in the film is found to increase and the mostly silicon oxide interlayer is found to grow thicker under Ar atmosphere. Also, the formation of hafnium silicide is found to take place at temperatures >=800 C. The XPS data shows decomposition of the interfacial hafnium silicate layer into hafnium oxide and silicon oxide at 1000 C along with increasing formation of hafnium silicide. The ToF-SIMS data suggest interdiffusion of the hafnium oxide film and the interfacial silicon oxide during the annealing process.

  3. Synthesis of metal silicide at metal/silicon oxide interface by electronic excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.-G.; Nagase, T.; Yasuda, H.; Mori, H.

    2015-05-21

    The synthesis of metal silicide at the metal/silicon oxide interface by electronic excitation was investigated using transmission electron microscopy. A platinum silicide, α-Pt{sub 2}Si, was successfully formed at the platinum/silicon oxide interface under 25–200 keV electron irradiation. This is of interest since any platinum silicide was not formed at the platinum/silicon oxide interface by simple thermal annealing under no-electron-irradiation conditions. From the electron energy dependence of the cross section for the initiation of the silicide formation, it is clarified that the silicide formation under electron irradiation was not due to a knock-on atom-displacement process, but a process induced by electronic excitation. It is suggested that a mechanism related to the Knotek and Feibelman mechanism may play an important role in silicide formation within the solid. Similar silicide formation was also observed at the palladium/silicon oxide and nickel/silicon oxide interfaces, indicating a wide generality of the silicide formation by electronic excitation.

  4. Preparation of highly aligned silicon oxide nanowires with stable intensive photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraia, El-Shazly M.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Tokmolden, S.; Beall, Gary W.

    2010-02-01

    In this work we report the successful formation of highly aligned vertical silicon oxide nanowires. The source of silicon was from the substrate itself without any additional source of silicon. X-ray measurement demonstrated that our nanowires are amorphous. Photoluminescence measurements were conducted through 18 months and indicated that there is a very good intensive emission peaks near the violet regions. The FTIR measurements indicated the existence of peaks at 463, 604, 795 and a wide peak at 1111 cm -1 and this can be attributed to Si-O-Si and Si-O stretching vibrations. We also report the formation of the octopus-like silicon oxide nanowires and the growth mechanism of these structures was discussed.

  5. Graphene-Assisted Chemical Etching of Silicon Using Anodic Aluminum Oxides as Patterning Templates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungkil; Lee, Dae Hun; Kim, Ju Hwan; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2015-11-01

    We first report graphene-assisted chemical etching (GaCE) of silicon by using patterned graphene as an etching catalyst. Chemical-vapor-deposition-grown graphene transferred on a silicon substrate is patterned to a mesh with nanohole arrays by oxygen plasma etching using an anodic- aluminum-oxide etching mask. The prepared graphene mesh/silicon is immersed in a mixture solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydro peroxide with various molecular fractions at optimized temperatures. The silicon underneath graphene mesh is then selectively etched to form aligned nanopillar arrays. The morphology of the nanostructured silicon can be controlled to be smooth or porous depending on the etching conditions. The experimental results are systematically discussed based on possible mechanisms for GaCE of Si. PMID:26473800

  6. Corrosion resistant three-dimensional nanotextured silicon for water photo-oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Rachel; Chatterjee, Shahana; Gordon, Evan; Share, Keith; Erwin, William R.; Cohn, Adam P.; Bardhan, Rizia; Pint, Cary L.

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate the ability to chemically transform bulk silicon into a nanotextured surface that exhibits excellent electrochemical stability in aqueous conditions for water photo-oxidation. Conformal defective graphene coatings on nanotextured silicon formed by thermal treatment enable over 50× corrosion resistance in aqueous electrolytes based upon Tafel analysis and impedance spectroscopy. This enables nanotextured silicon as an effective oxygen-evolution photoanode for water splitting with saturation current density measured near 35 mA cm-2 under 100 mW cm-2 (1 sun) illumination. Our approach builds upon simple and scalable processing techniques with silicon to develop corrosion resistant electrodes that can benefit a broad range of catalytic and photocatalytic applications.We demonstrate the ability to chemically transform bulk silicon into a nanotextured surface that exhibits excellent electrochemical stability in aqueous conditions for water photo-oxidation. Conformal defective graphene coatings on nanotextured silicon formed by thermal treatment enable over 50× corrosion resistance in aqueous electrolytes based upon Tafel analysis and impedance spectroscopy. This enables nanotextured silicon as an effective oxygen-evolution photoanode for water splitting with saturation current density measured near 35 mA cm-2 under 100 mW cm-2 (1 sun) illumination. Our approach builds upon simple and scalable processing techniques with silicon to develop corrosion resistant electrodes that can benefit a broad range of catalytic and photocatalytic applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (i) Experimental details, (ii) Nyquist plot from EIS data, (iii) FTIR of H-terminated silicon, (iv) reflectance measurements to quantify light trapping in nanotextured silicon, (v) LSV from Tafel analysis, and (vi) J-V curves for H-terminated flat samples, (vii) stability test of photoanode, and (viii) forward and reverse scans for each sample type. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03897a

  7. Silicon and silicon oxide etching rate enhancement by nitrogen containing gas addition in remote perfluorocarbon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bai Bo; An Jujin; Sawin, Herbert H.

    2006-03-06

    The addition of 3% nitrogen to a mixture of perfluorocarbon/oxygen/argon in a remote toroidal plasma source was shown to double the etching rate of both silicon dioxide and silicon in a downstream process. It is believed that the nitrogen blocks the surface recombination sites for COF{sub 2} formation on the wall of the transfer tube, thereby transporting more fluorine atoms to the downstream process chamber and increasing the etching rate.

  8. Dispersion engineering of high-Q silicon microresonators via thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei C.; Zhang, Jidong; Usechak, Nicholas G.; Lin, Qiang

    2014-07-21

    We propose and demonstrate a convenient and sensitive technique for precise engineering of group-velocity dispersion in high-Q silicon microresonators. By accurately controlling the surface-oxidation thickness of silicon microdisk resonators, we are able to precisely manage the zero-dispersion wavelength, while simultaneously further improving the high optical quality of our devices, with the optical Q close to a million. The demonstrated dispersion management allows us to achieve parametric generation with precisely engineerable emission wavelengths, which shows great potential for application in integrated silicon nonlinear and quantum photonics.

  9. Effects of oxidation and creep damage mechanisms on creep behavior in HIPed silicon nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, A.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Kirkland, T.P.

    1994-02-01

    The creep resistance of hot-isostatically pressed (HIPed) silicon nitride materials is ultimately dictated by its susceptibility to creep enhanced damage (e.g. cavitation) and oxidation induced damage. The evolution of these simultaneously occurring events has been examined in several HIPed silicon nitrides which were tested in tension at elevated temperatures. The activity and extent of each have found to be functions of several variables. These parameters and their roles are discussed and include the following: initial {alpha}/{beta} ratio of silicon nitride grains, reaction of stable/unstable phases in the as-received material, percentage and type of sintering aid, and grain boundary crystallinity, impurity content, and viscosity.

  10. Quantification of silane molecules on oxidized silicon: are there options for a traceable and absolute determination?

    PubMed

    Dietrich, P M; Streeck, C; Glamsch, S; Ehlert, C; Lippitz, A; Nutsch, A; Kulak, N; Beckhoff, B; Unger, W E S

    2015-10-01

    Organosilanes are used routinely to functionalize various support materials for further modifications. Nevertheless, reliable quantitative information about surface functional group densities after layer formation is rarely available. Here, we present the analysis of thin organic nanolayers made from nitrogen containing silane molecules on naturally oxidized silicon wafers with reference-free total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An areic density of 2-4 silane molecules per nm(2) was calculated from the layer's nitrogen mass deposition per area unit obtained by reference-free TXRF. Complementary energy and angle-resolved XPS (ER/AR-XPS) in the Si 2p core-level region was used to analyze the outermost surface region of the organic (silane layer)-inorganic (silicon wafer) interface. Different coexisting silicon species as silicon, native silicon oxide, and silane were identified and quantified. As a result of the presented proof-of-concept, absolute and traceable values for the areic density of silanes containing nitrogen as intrinsic marker are obtained by calibration of the XPS methods with reference-free TXRF. Furthermore, ER/AR-XPS is shown to facilitate the determination of areic densities in (mono)layers made from silanes having no heteroatomic marker other than silicon. After calibration with reference-free TXRF, these areic densities of silane molecules can be determined when using the XPS component intensity of the silane's silicon atom. PMID:26334589

  11. The effect of nanocrystalline silicon host on magnetic properties of encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Granitzer, P; Rumpf, K; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, R; Coffer, J L; Reissner, M

    2015-12-21

    The purpose of this work is a detailed comparison of the fundamental magnetic properties of nanocomposite systems consisting of Fe3O4 nanoparticle-loaded porous silicon as well as silicon nanotubes. Such composite structures are of potential merit in the area of magnetically guided drug delivery. For magnetic systems to be utilized in biomedical applications, there are certain magnetic properties that must be fulfilled. Therefore magnetic properties of embedded Fe3O4-nanoparticles in these nanostructured silicon host matrices, porous silicon and silicon nanotubes, are investigated. Temperature-dependent magnetic investigations have been carried out for four types of iron oxide particle sizes (4, 5, 8 and 10 nm). The silicon host, in interplay with the iron oxide nanoparticle size, plays a sensitive role. It is shown that Fe3O4 loaded porous silicon and SiNTs differ significantly in their magnetic behavior, especially the transition between superparamagnetic behavior and blocked state, due to host morphology-dependent magnetic interactions. Importantly, it is found that all investigated samples meet the magnetic precondition of possible biomedical applications of exhibiting a negligible magnetic remanence at room temperature. PMID:26575478

  12. The apatite structure without an inversion center in a new bismuth calcium vanadium oxide: BiCa[sub 4]V[sub 3]O[sub 13

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jinfan; Sleight, A.W. )

    1993-05-01

    A new bismuth calcium vanadium oxide, BiCa[sub 4]V[sub 3]O[sub 13], with hexagonal symmetry has been synthesized: space group P6[sub 3] (No. 173), a = 9.819(2) [Angstrom], c = 7.033(2) [Angstrom], V = 587.2(3) [Angstrom][sup 3], and Z = 2. The structure was solved and refined from single crystal X-ray data leading to R = 0.055 and R[sub w] = 0.069 for 1076 unique reflections. Three different types of Ca sites were found: Ca(1) and Ca(2) coordinate to six O atoms, and Ca(3) coordinates to nine O atoms. There is no Bi site; instead, Bi partially occupies the Ca(1) and Ca(2) sites. The V atom is coordinated to four O atoms and forms a distorted tetrahedron with the V-O bond lengths ranging from 1.693(6) [Angstrom] to 1.72(1) [Angstrom] and O-V-O angles varying from 102.5(7)[degrees] to 114.7(6)[degrees]. The coordination polyhedra of Ca(1) and Ca(3) share faces forming chains along the c axis, and the coordination hexahedra of Ca(2) also form a chain along the c axis through sharing the corners among themselves. The VO[sub 4] tetrahedra connect the two types of chains forming a three dimensional structure. The BiCa[sub 4]V[sub 3]O[sub 13] formula may be written as A[sub 5](VO[sub 4])[sub 3]O to emphasize that this structure is essentially the same as the apatite structure, except that the inversion center is missing. Many compounds previously reported to have the apatite structure may actually have the lower symmetry version of this structure found in this study and thus be candidates for ferroelectricity. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Analyses of silicon dioxide, magnesium oxide, lead fluoride, bismuth as low-pass velocity filters for neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connor, D.; Holmryd, S.

    1969-01-01

    Transmission measurement of neutrons by filter materials for low energy neutrons is important for the study of structure and dynamics of condensed matter. Since only thermal neutrons are useful for such experiments, filter materials that transmit thermal neutrons while attenuating fast neutrons and gamma rays are of considerable interest.

  14. Titanium-silicon oxide film structures for polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Iain E.; Zorn, Stefan; Richter, Gunther; Srot, Vesna; Kelsch, Marion; van Aken, Peter A.; Skoda, Maximilian; Gerlach, Alexander; Spatz, Joachim P.; Schreiber, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We present a titanium-silicon oxide film structure that permits polarization modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy on silicon oxide surfaces. The structure consists of a ~6 nm sputtered silicon oxide film on a ~200 nm sputtered titanium film. Characterization using conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray reflectometry is presented. We demonstrate the use of this structure to investigate a selectively protein-resistant self-assembled monolayer (SAM) consisting of silane-anchored, biotin-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG-associated IR bands were observed. Measurements of protein-characteristic band intensities showed that this SAM adsorbed streptavidin whereas it repelled bovine serum albumin, as had been expected from its structure. PMID:20418963

  15. Designing high performance precursors for atomic layer deposition of silicon oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Mallikarjunan, Anupama Chandra, Haripin; Xiao, Manchao; Lei, Xinjian; Pearlstein, Ronald M.; Bowen, Heather R.; O'Neill, Mark L.; Derecskei-Kovacs, Agnes; Han, Bing

    2015-01-15

    Conformal and continuous silicon oxide films produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are enabling novel processing schemes and integrated device structures. The increasing drive toward lower temperature processing requires new precursors with even higher reactivity. The aminosilane family of precursors has advantages due to their reactive nature and relative ease of use. In this paper, the authors present the experimental results that reveal the uniqueness of the monoaminosilane structure [(R{sub 2}N)SiH{sub 3}] in providing ultralow temperature silicon oxide depositions. Disubstituted aminosilanes with primary amines such as in bis(t-butylamino)silane and with secondary amines such as in bis(diethylamino)silane were compared with a representative monoaminosilane: di-sec-butylaminosilane (DSBAS). DSBAS showed the highest growth per cycle in both thermal and plasma enhanced ALD. These findings show the importance of the arrangement of the precursor's organic groups in an ALD silicon oxide process.

  16. Silicon Oxide Deposition into a Hole Using a Focused Ion Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hiroko; Komano, Haruki; Norimatu, Kenji; Gomei, Yoshio

    1991-11-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB)-induced deposition of silicon oxide in terms of filling a hole is reported. It was found that a vacant space was formed when an ion beam was simply scanned through the hole area. To investigate the mechanism to form the vacancy, deposition on the sample, which has a step with a height of 0.8 μm, was carried out by using a Si2+ and a Be2+ ion beam. An extruded deposit resembling a pent roof was observed from the step ridge. The mechanism of the pent roof growth on the steplike sample was considered and the vacancy formation in the hole can be explained by the same mechanism. For silicon oxide, the high growth rate of the extruded deposit is thought to be the key to the vacancy formation. A useful way is proposed to fill the hole with silicon oxide with almost no vacancy.

  17. Microstructural and physical properties of magnesium oxide-doped silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirota, V.; Lukianova, O.; Krasilnikov, V.; Selemenev, V.; Dokalov, V.

    Silicon nitride based ceramics with aluminum, yttrium and magnesium oxides were produced by cold isostatic pressing and free sintering. The phase composition of the starting MgO powder obtained by the novel technology has been studied. The effect of magnesium oxide content on the structure of the produced materials has been investigated. It was found, that obtained materials with 1 and 2 wt.% of magnesium oxide and without it have a typical β-silicon nitride structure with elongated grains. Ceramics with 5 wt.% magnesia has a duplex α/β-structure with elongated and equiaxed grains. Ceramics with 2 wt.% magnesium oxide has a maximum density of 2.91 g/cm3. The increases in magnesium oxide content upto 5% led to decrease in the shrinkage (from 16% to 12%) and density (from 2.88 to 2.37 g/cm3).

  18. High-Quality Solution-Processed Silicon Oxide Gate Dielectric Applied on Indium Oxide Based Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Jaehnike, Felix; Pham, Duy Vu; Anselmann, Ralf; Bock, Claudia; Kunze, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    A silicon oxide gate dielectric was synthesized by a facile sol-gel reaction and applied to solution-processed indium oxide based thin-film transistors (TFTs). The SiOx sol-gel was spin-coated on highly doped silicon substrates and converted to a dense dielectric film with a smooth surface at a maximum processing temperature of T = 350 C. The synthesis was systematically improved, so that the solution-processed silicon oxide finally achieved comparable break downfield strength (7 MV/cm) and leakage current densities (<10 nA/cm(2) at 1 MV/cm) to thermally grown silicon dioxide (SiO2). The good quality of the dielectric layer was successfully proven in bottom-gate, bottom-contact metal oxide TFTs and compared to reference TFTs with thermally grown SiO2. Both transistor types have field-effect mobility values as high as 28 cm(2)/(Vs) with an on/off current ratio of 10(8), subthreshold swings of 0.30 and 0.37 V/dec, respectively, and a threshold voltage close to zero. The good device performance could be attributed to the smooth dielectric/semiconductor interface and low interface trap density. Thus, the sol-gel-derived SiO2 is a promising candidate for a high-quality dielectric layer on many substrates and high-performance large-area applications. PMID:26039187

  19. Resistance of Silicon Nitride Turbine Components to Erosion and Hot Corrosion/oxidation Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangmen, Thomas E.; Fox, Dennis S.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon nitride turbine components are under intensive development by AlliedSignal to enable a new generation of higher power density auxiliary power systems. In order to be viable in the intended applications, silicon nitride turbine airfoils must be designed for survival in aggressive oxidizing combustion gas environments. Erosive and corrosive damage to ceramic airfoils from ingested sand and sea salt must be avoided. Recent engine test experience demonstrated that NT154 silicon nitride turbine vanes have exceptional resistance to sand erosion, relative to superalloys used in production engines. Similarly, NT154 silicon nitride has excellent resistance to oxidation in the temperature range of interest - up to 1400 C. Hot corrosion attack of superalloy gas turbine components is well documented. While hot corrosion from ingested sea salt will attack silicon nitride substantially less than the superalloys being replaced in initial engine applications, this degradation has the potential to limit component lives in advanced engine applications. Hot corrosion adversely affects the strength of silicon nitride in the 850 to 1300 C range. Since unacceptable reductions in strength must be rapidly identified and avoided, AlliedSignal and the NASA Lewis Research Center have pioneered the development of an environmental life prediction model for silicon nitride turbine components. Strength retention in flexure specimens following 1 to 3300 hour exposures to high temperature oxidation and hot corrosion has been measured and used to calibrate the life prediction model. Predicted component life is dependent upon engine design (stress, temperature, pressure, fuel/air ratio, gas velocity, and inlet air filtration), mission usage (fuel sulfur content, location (salt in air), and times at duty cycle power points), and material parameters. Preliminary analyses indicate that the hot corrosion resistance of NT154 silicon nitride is adequate for AlliedSignal's initial engine applications. Protective coatings and/or inlet air filtration may be required to achieve required ceramic component lives in more aggressive environments.

  20. Fabrication of OSOS cells by neutral ion beam sputtering. [Oxide Semiconductor On Silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, D. E.; Dubow, J. B.; Sites, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Oxide semiconductor on silicon (OSOS) solar cells have been fabricated from various indium tin oxide (In2O3)x(SnO2)1-x compositions sputtered onto p-type single crystal silicon substrates with a neutralized argon ion beam. High temperature processing or annealing was not required. The highest efficiency was achieved with x = 0.91 and was 12 percent. The cells are environmentally rugged, chemically stable, and show promise for still higher efficiencies. Moreover, the ion beam sputtering fabrication technique is amenable to low cost, continuous processing.

  1. Investigation and Integration of Polycrystalline Silicon/TiN/SiON Gate Stack in Silicon on Thin Buried Oxide Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Ryuta; Morita, Yusuke; Sugii, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Shinichiro; Iwamatsu, Toshiaki; Oda, Hidekazu; Inoue, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    We developed fully depleted silicon on thin buried oxide (SOTB) complementary metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (CMOSFETs) with a polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si)/TiN/SiON gate stack. We investigated the flat-band voltage (Vfb) shift of the gate stack for the threshold voltage (Vth) symmetry of SOTB CMOSFETs. We found that the Vfb shift depended on both TiN thickness and thermal load. Thicker TiN above 15 nm is preferable for obtaining the midgap value of Vfb with considering the thermal budget of the SOTB process. We also integrated the gate stack into SOTB CMOSFETs, which showed that the Vth roll-off characteristics corresponded to the proper control of the effective work function by considering how the impurity-related work function modulation affects. Narrow channel characteristics of the TiN-gate SOTB CMOSFETs were also shown to be superior to fully silicided gate SOTB devices due to the less silicidation.

  2. Oxidation of Silicon in AN Rf-Coupled Plasma.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eljabaly, Kamal Ali

    Different aspects of plasma enhanced oxidation in an electrodeless rf system based on an earlier design are presented. Oxidation rates were fitted to a power law model. The effect on oxidation rate and/or thickness uniformity were investigated for different oxygen-argon concentrations in the plasma, rf frequency and power, and pressure. Annealing studies of SiO_2 grown in an rf plasma system are also presented. Samples were given post oxidation anneals at either 900 ^circC or 1000^circ C in either argon or oxygen, for 15 or 30 minutes. Flatband, net coulombic charge, and breakdown values for these post oxidation annealed oxides were obtained with poly-gated capacitors. Plasma oxides were also annealed in pure oxygen at temperatures ranging from 700^circ C to 1000^circC for 16 hours to 15 minutes respectively. Flatband and breakdown measurements were conducted with both the plasma and thermal "control" oxides using aluminum gated MOS capacitors only. It was found that those oxides which had received a post oxidation anneal in oxygen at 1000^circC for 15 minutes were comparable to thermal oxides. The oxidation mechanism(s) accompanying plasma oxidation is also described. O^{18 } and Si^{30} were used as markers to trace the oxidation process. Based on these double marker studies, it appears that the oxidation process occurs by the interstitial diffusion of oxygen to the Si-SiO_2 interface attended possibly by a "knock on" process or an oxygen exchange reaction. The sign of the charge of the oxidizing species and the experimental setup used in that study is also discussed. It was concluded that the oxidizing species for the plasma system used in this study are positively charged.

  3. Investigation of Low Temperature, Atomic-Layer-Deposited Oxides on 4Hydrigen-Silicon Carbide and their Effect on the Silicon Carbide/Silicon Dioxide Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Sarah Kay

    Silicon carbide has long been considered an excellent substrate for high power, high temperature applications. Fabrication of conventional MOSFETs on silicon carbide (SiC) relies on thermal oxidation of the SiC for formation of the silicon dioxide (SiO2) gate oxide. Historically, direct oxidation was viewed favorably due to ease of fabrication. However, the resulting MOS devices have exhibited significant interface trap densities, Dit , which reduce effective inversion layer mobility by capturing free carriers and enhancing scattering. While nitridation has been shown to reduce Dit, the inversion layer electron mobility of these devices is still limited by the presence of carbon near the interface. Studies have suggested a low mobility transition region between the SiC and SiO2, on the SiC side, attributed to increased carbon concentration resulting from the thermal oxidation of the SiC. In this work, we have investigated the low temperature, atomic layer deposition (ALD) of SiO2 onto SiC compared to thermal oxidation of SiC for the fabrication of MOS devices. Avoiding the carbon out diffusion and subsequent carbon build-up resulting from thermal oxidation is expected to result in a superior, higher mobility MOSFET. A three-step ALD process using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysiliane (3-APTES), ozone and water was evaluated on silicon and SiC substrates. Ellipsometry and XPS were used to characterize blanket films, and showed good results. Capacitors fabricated on SiC showed the need for optimized post deposition anneals. The effect of post oxidation anneals in nitrogen, forming gas and nitric oxide were examined. The standard nitric oxide (NO) anneal that is used to improve Dit after thermal oxidation was also shown to be the best anneal for the low temperature deposited ALD oxides. Materials characterization of the nitrided ALD and nitrided thermal oxide samples was completed using STEM/EELS techniques in addition to the ellipsometry and XPS. STEM/EELS analysis of the samples revealed no significant difference in transition regions on either side of the SiC/SiO2 interface regardless of oxidation technique or anneal temperature or ambient. All samples analyzed exhibited approximately 2-3nm of transition region on either side of the interface with no evidence of carbon or silicon rich regions. XPS was also used to determine a valence band offset of 2.43eV for the ALD oxide on 4H-SiC. Lateral MOSFETs were fabricated on 4H-SiC substrates with the following oxidation treatments: thermal oxidation at 1175C, thermal oxidation at 1175C followed by a nitric oxide (NO) anneal at 1175C, and ALD of SiC at 150C followed by an NO post oxidation anneal (POA) at 1175C. ALD of the SiO2 was performed using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysiliane (3-APTES), ozone and water. Field effect mobility values were comparable for these samples, suggesting common thermal oxidation steps were still limiting the mobility. As such additional lateral MOSFETs were fabricated without the incoming sacrificial oxidation steps. This sacrificial-oxidation free experiment showed a 15% improvement in peak field effect mobility for the nitrided ALD oxide samples as compared to the nitrided thermal oxides. SIMS of the interfaces revealed nitrogen concentrations of 6E21 at/cc in the nitrided ALD sample compared to 4-6E20 in the nitrided thermal sample. This extremely high level of nitrogen incorporation, which is unparalleled in NO annealed thermal oxides, is accountable for the increase in field effect mobility. The low deposition temperature of the ALD oxide causes high levels of carbon incorporation and greater number of dangling bonds at the interface. Both the dangling bonds and excess carbon acts as binding sites for the nitrogen, increasing the nitrogen concentration and resulting in higher mobilities. Results presented support the use of SiO2 deposited using low temperature atomic layer deposition for improved gate oxides on 4H-SiC MOSFETs given the opportunity for increased nitrogen incorporation. The elevated levels of nitrogen measured in the NO annealed

  4. Bismuth as a modifier of Au Pd catalyst: Enhancing selectivity in alcohol oxidation by suppressing parallel reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Alberto; Wang, Di; Veith, Gabriel M; Prati, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Bi has been widely employed as a modifier for Pd and Pt based catalyst mainly in order to improve selectivity. We found that when Bi was added to the bimetallic system AuPd, the effect on activity in alcohol oxidation mainly depends on the amount of Bi regardless its position, being negligible when Bi was 0.1 wt% and detectably negative when the amount was increased to 3 wt%. However, the selectivity of the reactions notably varied only when Bi was deposited on the surface of metal nanoparticles suppressing parallel reaction in both benzyl alcohol and glycerol oxidation. After a careful characterization of all the catalysts and additional catalytic tests, we concluded that the Bi influence on the activity of the catalysts could be ascribed to electronic effect whereas the one on selectivity mainly to a geometric modification. Moreover, the Bi-modified AuPd/AC catalyst showed possible application in the production of tartronic acid, a useful intermediate, from glycerol.

  5. Plasma-Sprayed Refractory Oxide Coatings on Silicon-Base Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, Surendra

    1997-01-01

    Silicon-base ceramics are promising candidate materials for high temperature structural applications such as heat exchangers, gas turbines and advanced internal combustion engines. Composites based on these materials are leading candidates for combustor materials for HSCT gas turbine engines. These materials possess a combination of excellent physical and mechanical properties at high temperatures, for example, high strength, high toughness, high thermal shock resistance, high thermal conductivity, light weight and excellent oxidation resistance. However, environmental durability can be significantly reduced in certain conditions such as when molten salts, H2 or water vapor are present. The oxidation resistance of silicon-base materials is provided by SiO2 protective layer. Molten salt reacts with SiO2 and forms a mixture of SiO2 and liquid silicate at temperatures above 800C. Oxygen diffuses more easily through the chemically altered layer, resulting in a catastrophic degradation of the substrate. SiC and Si3N4 are not stable in pure H2 and decompose to silicon and gaseous species such as CH4, SiH, SiH4, N2, and NH3. Water vapor is known to slightly increase the oxidation rate of SiC and Si3N4. Refractory oxides such as alumina, yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttria and mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2) possess excellent environmental durability in harsh conditions mentioned above. Therefore, refractory oxide coatings on silicon-base ceramics can substantially improve the environmental durability of these materials by acting as a chemical reaction barrier. These oxide coatings can also serve as a thermal barrier. The purpose of this research program has been to develop refractory oxide chemical/thermal barrier coatings on silicon-base ceramics to provide extended temperature range and lifetime to these materials in harsh environments.

  6. Surface and Interface Structures of Crystalline Oxides on Silicon (COS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Fred; Buongiorno-Nardelli, Marco; McKee, Rodney

    2006-03-01

    The structure of the Sr-covered Si(001) surface (the precursor to COS heteroepitaxy) is a matter of on-going scientific debate with experiment and theory casting opposing views. Real space Z-contrast imaging shows that half of the silicon atoms on the (001) surface are absent, and this has presented us with the intriguing question -- ``Where does the silicon go?''. A metallic surface termination of silicon was required in the layer-sequenced heteroepitaxy of COS. What has been common to all experimental realizations of the layer-sequenced COS structure, is the presence of hydrogen evolving from the metal sources during the film growth. We report here that this hydrogen has inadvertently played a pivotal role in defining the silicon termination and thus the evolution of the interface structure for COS. We will describe the thermodynamic basis for this hydrogen effect along with experimental and theoretical characterization of the structural details. Research sponsored jointly by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC and at the University of Tennessee under contract DE-FG02-01ER45937. Calculations have been performed on CCS supercomputers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  7. Optical waveguides in oxygen-implanted buried-oxide silicon-on-insulator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kurdi, B.N.; Hall, D.G.

    1988-02-01

    There is continued interest in the use of silicon as a basic material for integrated optics. Compatibility with the technology used for the fabrication of silicon integrated circuits is clearly an important motivation. Several silicon-based integrated-optical systems-waveguide demultiplexers, spectrum analyzers, and others - have already been described in the literature. Newer applications such as the interconnection of electronic circuits and systems, many of which are fabricated in silicon, make the question of the potential role of silicon in integrated optics all the more interesting. The optical waveguide is perhaps the most fundamental component needed for any integrated-optical system. The waveguiding properties of the oxygen-implanted, buried-oxide, silicon-on-insulator structures currently being developed for use in microelectronics are analyzed. It was found that, in spite of the fact that the buried-oxide layer is only a few tenths of a micrometer thick, the single-crystal overlayer can support Te/sub O/ guided-wave propagation, at subbandgap wavelengths, with losses due to substrate radiation leakage at or below the benchmark level of 1 dB/cm.

  8. Enhanced sinterability and conductivity of BaZr0.3Ce0.5Y0.2O3-? by addition of bismuth oxide for proton conducting solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Liangqi; Ling, Yihan; Li, Geng; Wang, Zhihao; Wan, Yanhong; Wang, Ranran; He, Beibei; Zhao, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The effect of bismuth oxide addition on the sintering behavior and electrical properties of BaZr0.3Ce0.5Y0.2O3-? (BZCY) as an electrolyte for proton conducting solid oxide fuel cells (H-SOFCs) is studied. The introduction of Bi2O3 is beneficial to improving sinterability of BZCY, resulting in high density. Meanwhile, the conductivity test indicates that BaZr0.3Ce0.5Y0.2O3-? - 2 mol% Bi2O3 (BZCY-2) promises the highest conductivities. Further, single cells with BZCY-2 as the electrolyte are fabricated and evaluated. The cell with BZCY-2 presents excellent power densities, which reaches 0.67, 0.44, and 0.27 mW cm-2 at 700, 650, and 600 C, respectively. The conductivities of BZCY-2 film are higher than BZCY in this work and other reported BZCY films. The encouraging results suggest that the addition of a small amount (2 mol%) of Bi2O3 to BZCY can significantly promote sinterability and electrical conductivity for H-SOFCs.

  9. Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the temperature range 300 - 1500 K

    SciTech Connect

    Dvoretskii, D A; Bufetov, Igor' A; Vel'miskin, V V; Zlenko, Alexander S; Khopin, V F; Semjonov, S L; Guryanov, Aleksei N; Denisov, L K; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2012-09-30

    The visible and near-IR absorption and luminescence bands of bismuth-doped silica and germanosilicate fibres have been measured for the first time as a function of temperature. The temperature-dependent IR luminescence lifetime of a bismuth-related active centre associated with silicon in the germanosilicate fibre has been determined. The Bi{sup 3+} profile across the silica fibre preform is shown to differ markedly from the distribution of IR-emitting bismuth centres associated with silicon. The present results strongly suggest that the IR-emitting bismuth centre comprises a lowvalence bismuth ion and an oxygen-deficient glass network defect. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  10. Oxidation of Chemically-Vapor-Deposited Silicon Carbide in Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Nguyen, QuynhGiao N.

    1998-01-01

    Chemically-vapor-deposited silicon carbide (CVD SiC) was oxidized in carbon dioxide (CO2) at temperatures of 1200-1400 C for times between 96 and 500 h at several gas flow rates. Oxidation weight gains were monitored by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and were found to be very small and independent of temperature. Possible rate limiting kinetic mechanisms are discussed. Passive oxidation of SiC by CO2 is negligible compared to the rates measured for other oxidants that are also found in combustion environments, oxygen and water vapor.

  11. Mid-infrared optical properties of thin films of aluminum oxide, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, aluminum nitride, and silicon nitride.

    PubMed

    Kischkat, Jan; Peters, Sven; Gruska, Bernd; Semtsiv, Mykhaylo; Chashnikova, Mikaela; Klinkmller, Matthias; Fedosenko, Oliana; Machulik, Stephan; Aleksandrova, Anna; Monastyrskyi, Gregorii; Flores, Yuri; Masselink, W Ted

    2012-10-01

    The complex refractive index components, n and k, have been studied for thin films of several common dielectric materials with a low to medium refractive index as functions of wavelength and stoichiometry for mid-infrared (MIR) wavelengths within the range 1.54-14.29 ?m (700-6500 cm(-1)). The materials silicon oxide, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and titanium oxide are prepared using room temperature reactive sputter deposition and are characterized using MIR variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The investigation shows how sensitive the refractive index functions are to the O2 and N2 flow rates, and for which growth conditions the materials deposit homogeneously. It also allows conclusions to be drawn on the degree of amorphousness and roughness. To facilitate comparison of the materials deposited in this work with others, the index of refraction was also determined and provided for the near-IR and visible ranges of the spectrum. The results presented here should serve as a useful information base for designing optical coatings for the MIR part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The results are parameterized to allow them to be easily used for coating design. PMID:23033094

  12. Corrosion resistant three-dimensional nanotextured silicon for water photo-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rachel; Chatterjee, Shahana; Gordon, Evan; Share, Keith; Erwin, William R; Cohn, Adam P; Bardhan, Rizia; Pint, Cary L

    2015-10-28

    We demonstrate the ability to chemically transform bulk silicon into a nanotextured surface that exhibits excellent electrochemical stability in aqueous conditions for water photo-oxidation. Conformal defective graphene coatings on nanotextured silicon formed by thermal treatment enable over 50 corrosion resistance in aqueous electrolytes based upon Tafel analysis and impedance spectroscopy. This enables nanotextured silicon as an effective oxygen-evolution photoanode for water splitting with saturation current density measured near 35 mA cm(-2) under 100 mW cm(-2) (1 sun) illumination. Our approach builds upon simple and scalable processing techniques with silicon to develop corrosion resistant electrodes that can benefit a broad range of catalytic and photocatalytic applications. PMID:26400265

  13. Synthesis of silicon oxide nanowires and nanotubes with cobalt-palladium or palladium catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esterina, Ria; Liu, X. M.; Ross, C. A.; Adeyeye, A. O.; Choi, W. K.

    2012-07-01

    The dewetting behaviors of cobalt (Co), cobalt palladium (CoPd), and palladium (Pd) thin films on oxidized silicon substrates were examined. We observed the formation of craters in the oxide layer and pits in the Si substrate for larger CoPd or Pd catalyst particles and thinner oxide. Nanowires and nanotubes were observed near the Si pits. The nanowires and nanotubes grow via a vapor-solid-solid or vapor-liquid-solid mechanism with the silicon vapor source provided from the substrate. The original Si atoms that form the nanowires or nanotubes were oxidized in situ by the residual oxygen atoms present in the chamber. Some of the nanotubes had a series of embedded sub-catalysts that formed branches from the primary nanotube.

  14. Heterojunction Solar Cells Based on Silicon and Composite Films of Graphene Oxide and Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yu, LePing; Tune, Daniel; Shearer, Cameron; Shapter, Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) sheets have been used as the surfactant to disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) in water to prepare GO/CNT electrodes that are applied to silicon to form a heterojunction that can be used in solar cells. GO/CNT films with different ratios of the two components and with various thicknesses have been used as semitransparent electrodes, and the influence of both factors on the performance of the solar cell has been studied. The degradation rate of the GO/CNT-silicon devices under ambient conditions has also been explored. The influence of the film thickness on the device performance is related to the interplay of two competing factors, namely, sheet resistance and transmittance. CNTs help to improve the conductivity of the GO/CNT film, and GO is able to protect the silicon from oxidation in the atmosphere. PMID:25959241

  15. Nanopatterning of Crystalline Silicon Using Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templates for Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tsu-An

    A novel thin film anodized aluminum oxide templating process was developed and applied to make nanopatterns on crystalline silicon to enhance the optical properties of silicon. The thin film anodized aluminum oxide was created to improve the conventional thick aluminum templating method with the aim for potential large scale fabrication. A unique two-step anodizing method was introduced to create high quality nanopatterns and it was demonstrated that this process is superior over the original one-step approach. Optical characterization of the nanopatterned silicon showed up to 10% reduction in reflection in the short wavelength range. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to analyze the nanopatterned surface structure and it was found that interpore spacing and pore density can be tuned by changing the anodizing potential.

  16. Etch-free low loss silicon waveguides using hydrogen silsesquioxane oxidation masks.

    PubMed

    Nezhad, Maziar P; Bondarenko, Olesya; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh; Simic, Aleksandar; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2011-09-26

    An etch-free fabrication technique for creating low loss silicon waveguides in the silicon-on-insulator material system is proposed and demonstrated. The approach consists of local oxidation of a silicon-on-insulator chip covered with a e-beam patterned hydrogen silsesquioxane mask. A single oxidation step converts hydrogen silsesquioxane to a glass-like compound and simultaneously defines the waveguides, bypassing the need for any wet or dry etching steps. The spectral response of ring resonators fabricated using this technique was used to characterize the waveguide losses. Intrinsic Q-factors as high as 1.57 10(6), corresponding to a waveguide loss of 0.35 dB/cm, were measured. PMID:21996825

  17. Silicon oxide nanowire growth mechanisms revealed by real-time electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbal, Miroslav; Novk, Libor; Shanley, Toby; Toth, Milos; ikola, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Growth of one-dimensional materials is possible through numerous mechanisms that affect the nanowire structure and morphology. Here, we explain why a wide range of morphologies is observed when silicon oxide nanowires are grown on silicon substrates using liquid gallium catalyst droplets. We show that a gallium oxide overlayer is needed for nanowire nucleation at typical growth temperatures, and that it can decompose during growth and, hence, dramatically alter the nanowire morphology. Gallium oxide decomposition is attributed to etching caused by hydrogen that can be supplied by thermal dissociation of H2O (a common impurity). We show that H2O dissociation is catalyzed by silicon substrates at temperatures as low as 320 C, identify the material supply pathways and processes that rate-limit nanowire growth under dry and wet atmospheres, and present a detailed growth model that explains contradictory results reported in prior studies. We also show that under wet atmospheres the Ga droplets can be mobile and promote nanowire growth as they traverse the silicon substrate.Growth of one-dimensional materials is possible through numerous mechanisms that affect the nanowire structure and morphology. Here, we explain why a wide range of morphologies is observed when silicon oxide nanowires are grown on silicon substrates using liquid gallium catalyst droplets. We show that a gallium oxide overlayer is needed for nanowire nucleation at typical growth temperatures, and that it can decompose during growth and, hence, dramatically alter the nanowire morphology. Gallium oxide decomposition is attributed to etching caused by hydrogen that can be supplied by thermal dissociation of H2O (a common impurity). We show that H2O dissociation is catalyzed by silicon substrates at temperatures as low as 320 C, identify the material supply pathways and processes that rate-limit nanowire growth under dry and wet atmospheres, and present a detailed growth model that explains contradictory results reported in prior studies. We also show that under wet atmospheres the Ga droplets can be mobile and promote nanowire growth as they traverse the silicon substrate. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional nanowire analysis (Fig. S1-S4), real-time EDX analysis of the Si content in the Ga droplet (Fig. S5), image sequence S6 showing crack formation and further evolution of the catalyst droplet morphology, determination of the activation energy of NW formation (Fig. S7), and a demonstration of Ga droplet migration (Fig. S8). See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05152e

  18. Improved reaction sintered silicon nitride. [protective coatings to improve oxidation resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgartner, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    Processing treatments were applied to as-nitrided reaction sintered silicon nitride (RSSN) with the purposes of improving strength after processing to above 350 MN/m2 and improving strength after oxidation exposure. The experimental approaches are divided into three broad classifications: sintering of surface-applied powders; impregnation of solution followed by further thermal processing; and infiltration of molten silicon and subsequent carburization or nitridation of the silicon. The impregnation of RSSN with solutions of aluminum nitrate and zirconyl chloride, followed by heating at 1400-1500 C in a nitrogen atmosphere containing silicon monoxide, improved RSSN strength and oxidation resistance. The room temperature bend strength of RSSN was increased nearly fifty percent above the untreated strength with mean absolute strengths up to 420 MN/m2. Strengths of treated samples that were measured after a 12 hour oxidation exposure in air were up to 90 percent of the original as-nitrided strength, as compared to retained strengths in the range of 35 to 60 percent for untreated RSSN after the same oxidation exposure.

  19. Metal Oxide Silicon /MOS/ transistors protected from destructive damage by wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.; Devine, E. J.

    1966-01-01

    Loop of flexible, small diameter, nickel wire protects metal oxide silicon /MOS/ transistors from a damaging electrostatic potential. The wire is attached to a music-wire spring, slipped over the MOS transistor case, and released so the spring tensions the wire loop around all the transistor leads, shorting them together. This allows handling without danger of damage.

  20. Scalable Preparation of Ternary Hierarchical Silicon Oxide-Nickel-Graphite Composites for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Bao, Wurigumula; Ma, Lu; Tan, Guoqiang; Su, Yuefeng; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-12-01

    Silicon monoxide is a promising anode candidate because of its high theoretical capacity and good cycle performance. To solve the problems associated with this material, including large volume changes during charge-discharge processes, we report a ternary hierarchical silicon oxide-nickel-graphite composite prepared by a facile two-step ball-milling method. The composite consists of nano-Si dispersed silicon oxides embedded in nano-Ni/graphite matrices (Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite). In the composite, crystalline nano-Si particles are generated by the mechanochemical reduction of SiO by ball milling with Ni. These nano-Si dispersed oxides have abundant electrochemical activity and can provide high Li-ion storage capacity. Furthermore, the milled nano-Ni/graphite matrices stick well to active materials and interconnect to form a crosslinked framework, which functions as an electrical highway and a mechanical backbone so that all silicon oxide particles become electrochemically active. Owing to these advanced structural and electrochemical characteristics, the composite enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO, accommodates its large volume expansion upon cycling, and has good ionic and electronic conductivity. The composite electrodes thus exhibit substantial improvements in electrochemical performance. This ternary hierarchical Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite composite is a promising candidate anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Additionally, the mechanochemical ball-milling method is low cost and easy to reproduce, indicating potential for the commercial production of the composite materials. PMID:26548901

  1. A Model for the Oxidation of Carbon Silicon Carbide Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical theory and an accompanying numerical scheme have been developed for predicting the oxidation behavior of carbon silicon carbide (C/SiC) composite structures. The theory is derived from the mechanics of the flow of ideal gases through a porous solid. The result of the theoretical formulation is a set of two coupled nonlinear differential equations written in terms of the oxidant and oxide partial pressures. The differential equations are solved simultaneously to obtain the partial vapor pressures of the oxidant and oxides as a function of the spatial location and time. The local rate of carbon oxidation is determined using the map of the local oxidant partial vapor pressure along with the Arrhenius rate equation. The nonlinear differential equations are cast into matrix equations by applying the Bubnov-Galerkin weighted residual method, allowing for the solution of the differential equations numerically. The numerical method is demonstrated by utilizing the method to model the carbon oxidation and weight loss behavior of C/SiC specimens during thermogravimetric experiments. The numerical method is used to study the physics of carbon oxidation in carbon silicon carbide composites.

  2. Magnetometer uses bismuth-selenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollman, J. A.; Spain, I. L.; Beale, H.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of bismuth-selenide magnetometer are described. Advantages of bismuth-selenide magnetometer over standard magnetometers are stressed. Thermal stability of bismuth-selenide magnetometer is analyzed. Linearity of output versus magnetic field over wide range of temperatures is reported.

  3. Influence of interlayer trapping and detrapping mechanisms on the electrical characterization of hafnium oxide/silicon nitride stacks on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, H.; Duenas, S.; Castan, H.; Gomez, A.; Bailon, L.; Toledano-Luque, M.; Prado, A. del; Martil, I.; Gonzalez-Diaz, G.

    2008-11-01

    Al/HfO{sub 2}/SiN{sub x}:H/n-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors have been studied by electrical characterization. Films of silicon nitride were directly grown on n-type silicon substrates by electron cyclotron resonance assisted chemical vapor deposition. Silicon nitride thickness was varied from 3 to 6.6 nm. Afterwards, 12 nm thick hafnium oxide films were deposited by the high-pressure sputtering approach. Interface quality was determined by using current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), conductance transients, and flatband voltage transient techniques. Leakage currents followed the Poole-Frenkel emission model in all cases. According to the simultaneous measurement of the high and low frequency capacitance voltage curves, the interface trap density obtained for all the samples is in the 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1} range. However, a significant increase in this density of about two orders of magnitude was obtained by DLTS for the thinnest silicon nitride interfacial layers. In this work we probe that this increase is an artifact that must be attributed to traps existing at the HfO{sub 2}/SiN{sub x}:H intralayer interface. These traps are more easily charged or discharged as this interface comes near to the substrate, that is, as thinner the SiN{sub x}:H interface layer is. The trapping/detrapping mechanism increases the capacitance transient and, in consequence, the DLTS measurements have contributions not only from the insulator/substrate interface but also from the HfO{sub 2}/SiN{sub x}:H intralayer interface.

  4. The effect of nanocrystalline silicon host on magnetic properties of encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granitzer, P.; Rumpf, K.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, R.; Coffer, J. L.; Reissner, M.

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work is a detailed comparison of the fundamental magnetic properties of nanocomposite systems consisting of Fe3O4 nanoparticle-loaded porous silicon as well as silicon nanotubes. Such composite structures are of potential merit in the area of magnetically guided drug delivery. For magnetic systems to be utilized in biomedical applications, there are certain magnetic properties that must be fulfilled. Therefore magnetic properties of embedded Fe3O4-nanoparticles in these nanostructured silicon host matrices, porous silicon and silicon nanotubes, are investigated. Temperature-dependent magnetic investigations have been carried out for four types of iron oxide particle sizes (4, 5, 8 and 10 nm). The silicon host, in interplay with the iron oxide nanoparticle size, plays a sensitive role. It is shown that Fe3O4 loaded porous silicon and SiNTs differ significantly in their magnetic behavior, especially the transition between superparamagnetic behavior and blocked state, due to host morphology-dependent magnetic interactions. Importantly, it is found that all investigated samples meet the magnetic precondition of possible biomedical applications of exhibiting a negligible magnetic remanence at room temperature.The purpose of this work is a detailed comparison of the fundamental magnetic properties of nanocomposite systems consisting of Fe3O4 nanoparticle-loaded porous silicon as well as silicon nanotubes. Such composite structures are of potential merit in the area of magnetically guided drug delivery. For magnetic systems to be utilized in biomedical applications, there are certain magnetic properties that must be fulfilled. Therefore magnetic properties of embedded Fe3O4-nanoparticles in these nanostructured silicon host matrices, porous silicon and silicon nanotubes, are investigated. Temperature-dependent magnetic investigations have been carried out for four types of iron oxide particle sizes (4, 5, 8 and 10 nm). The silicon host, in interplay with the iron oxide nanoparticle size, plays a sensitive role. It is shown that Fe3O4 loaded porous silicon and SiNTs differ significantly in their magnetic behavior, especially the transition between superparamagnetic behavior and blocked state, due to host morphology-dependent magnetic interactions. Importantly, it is found that all investigated samples meet the magnetic precondition of possible biomedical applications of exhibiting a negligible magnetic remanence at room temperature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Energy dispersive X-ray spectra and corresponding EDX maps of pSi filled with Fe3O4-NPs of 8 nm and of 5 nm are shown. Furthermore the process for loading Fe3O4 NPs into Si NTs, consisting of: (a) physical detachment of SiNTs grown on a substrate and inversion of the NT film, followed by (b) dropwise addition of a solution of Fe3O4 NPs, facilitated by placing a Nd magnet underneath the film; (c) subsequent formation of the Fe3O4 NP-loaded SiNTs is depicted. The size dependent blocking temperatures of SiNTs of 10 nm wall thickness filled with Fe3O4 NPs are summarized in a table. TEM image and associated size distribution data for a commercial Fe3O4 NP sample (Aldrich) with stated average particle size of 10 nm is also shown. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05232g

  5. Coating of tips for electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy by means of silicon, magnesium, and tungsten oxides.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Marco

    2010-09-01

    Different combinations of metal tips and oxide coatings have been tested for possible operation in electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy. Silicon and magnesium oxides have been thermally evaporated onto gold and platinum-iridium tips, respectively. Two different thickness values have been explored for both materials, namely, 40 and 120 nm for silicon oxide and 20 and 60 nm for magnesium oxide. Alternatively, tungsten oxide has been grown on tungsten tips via electrochemical anodization. In the latter case, to seek optimal results we have varied the pH of the anodizing electrolyte between one and four. The oxide coated tips have been first inspected by means of scanning electron microscopy equipped with microanalysis to determine the morphological results of the coating. Second, the coated tips have been electrically characterized ex situ for stability in time by means of cyclic voltammetry in 1 M aqueous KCl supporting electrolyte, both bare and supplemented with K(3)[Fe(CN)(6)] complex at 10 mM concentration in milliQ water as an analyte. Only the tungsten oxide coated tungsten tips have shown stable electrical behavior in the electrolyte. For these tips, the uncoated metal area has been estimated from the electrical current levels, and they have been successfully tested by imaging a gold grating in situ, which provided stable results for several hours. The successful tungsten oxide coating obtained at pH=4 has been assigned to the WO(3) form. PMID:20886983

  6. Coating of tips for electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy by means of silicon, magnesium, and tungsten oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Marco

    2010-09-01

    Different combinations of metal tips and oxide coatings have been tested for possible operation in electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy. Silicon and magnesium oxides have been thermally evaporated onto gold and platinum-iridium tips, respectively. Two different thickness values have been explored for both materials, namely, 40 and 120 nm for silicon oxide and 20 and 60 nm for magnesium oxide. Alternatively, tungsten oxide has been grown on tungsten tips via electrochemical anodization. In the latter case, to seek optimal results we have varied the pH of the anodizing electrolyte between one and four. The oxide coated tips have been first inspected by means of scanning electron microscopy equipped with microanalysis to determine the morphological results of the coating. Second, the coated tips have been electrically characterized ex situ for stability in time by means of cyclic voltammetry in 1 M aqueous KCl supporting electrolyte, both bare and supplemented with K3[Fe(CN)6] complex at 10 mM concentration in milliQ water as an analyte. Only the tungsten oxide coated tungsten tips have shown stable electrical behavior in the electrolyte. For these tips, the uncoated metal area has been estimated from the electrical current levels, and they have been successfully tested by imaging a gold grating in situ, which provided stable results for several hours. The successful tungsten oxide coating obtained at pH=4 has been assigned to the WO3 form.

  7. Oxidation Kinetics of Chemically Vapor-Deposited Silicon Carbide in Wet Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.

    1994-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of chemically vapor-deposited SiC in dry oxygen and wet oxygen (P(sub H2O) = 0.1 atm) at temperatures between 1200 C and 1400 C were monitored using thermogravimetric analysis. It was found that in a clean environment, 10% water vapor enhanced the oxidation kinetics of SiC only very slightly compared to rates found in dry oxygen. Oxidation kinetics were examined in terms of the Deal and Grove model for oxidation of silicon. It was found that in an environment containing even small amounts of impurities, such as high-purity Al2O3 reaction tubes containing 200 ppm Na, water vapor enhanced the transport of these impurities to the oxidation sample. Oxidation rates increased under these conditions presumably because of the formation of less protective sodium alumino-silicate scales.

  8. Crack healing in silicon nitride due to oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Tikare, Veena; Pawlik, Ralph

    1991-01-01

    The crack healing behavior of a commercial, MgO-containing, hot pressed Si3N4 was studied as a function of temperature in oxidizing and inert annealing environments. Crack healing occurred at a temperature 800 C or higher due to oxidation regardless of crack size, which ranged from 100 microns (indentation crack) to 1.7 mm (SEPB precrack). The resulting strength and apparent fracture toughness increased at crack healing temperature by 100 percent and 300 percent, respectively. The oxide layer present in the crack plane was found to be highly fatigue resistant, indicating that the oxide is not solely silicate glass, but a mixture of glass, enstatite, and/or cristobalite that was insensitive to fatigue in a room temperature water environment.

  9. Modelling of silicon oxynitridation by nitrous oxide using the reaction rate approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dominique Krzeminski, Christophe

    2013-12-14

    Large technological progress in oxynitridation processing leads to the introduction of silicon oxynitride as ultra-thin gate oxide. On the theoretical side, few studies have been dedicated to the process modelling of oxynitridation. Such an objective is a considerable challenge regarding the various atomistic mechanisms occurring during this fabrication step. In this article, some progress performed to adapt the reaction rate approach for the modelling of oxynitride growth by a nitrous ambient are reported. The Ellis and Buhrman's approach is used for the gas phase decomposition modelling. Taking into account the mass balance of the species at the interface between the oxynitride and silicon, a minimal kinetic model describing the oxide growth has been calibrated and implemented. The influence of nitrogen on the reaction rate has been introduced in an empirical way. The oxidation kinetics predicted with this minimal model compares well with several experiments.

  10. Low temperature photo-oxidation of silicon using a xenon excimer lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun-Ying; Boyd, Ian W.

    1997-11-01

    Low temperature (250 C) photo-oxidation of silicon initiated by a Xe2* excimer lamp operating at a wavelength of 172 nm has been investigated. The induced reaction rate of 0.1 nm/min is 90 times greater than thermal oxidation at 612 C and more than three times greater than that previously obtained at 350 C using a low pressure mercury lamp. It was found to be strongly dependent upon oxygen pressure with the highest rates being achievable below 10 mbar. Ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, capacitance-voltage, and current-voltage measurements have been employed to characterize the oxide films and designate them as high quality.

  11. Influence of Fluorine on the Conductivity and Oxidation of Silicon Nanomembranes after Hydrofluoric Acid Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiang-Fu; Han, Ping; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, You-Dou

    2011-08-01

    After immersion in hydrofluoric acid, the sheet resistance of a 220-nm-thick silicon nanomembrane, measured in dry air by van der Pauw method, drops around two orders of magnitude initially, then increases and reaches the level of a sample with a native oxide surface in about one month. The surface component and oxidation rate are also characterized by x-ray photo electronic spectroscopy measurement. Fluorine is found to play a significant role in improving conductivity and has no apparent influence on the oxidation rate after hydrofluoric acid treatment.

  12. Destruction of monocrystalline silicon with nanosecond pulsed fiber laser accompanied by the oxidation of ablation microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, V. P.; Skvortsov, A. M.; Huynh, C. T.; Petrov, A. A.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we report an observation of process of local destruction monocrystalline silicon with a scanning beam irradiation of pulse ytterbium fiber laser with a wavelength λ= 1062 nm, accompanied by the oxidation of ablation microparticles. It is shown that depending on the power density of irradiation was observed a large scatter size of the microparticles. From a certain average power density is observed beginning oxidation particulate emitted from the surface of the irradiated area. By varying the parameters of the laser beam such as scanning speed, pulse repetition rate, overlap of laser spot, radiation dose can be achieved almost complete oxidation of all formed during the ablation of microparticles.

  13. The effect of oxide precipitates on minority carrier lifetime in n-type silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. D.; Al-Amin, M.; Bothe, K.; Olmo, M.; Voronkov, V. V.; Falster, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Supersaturated levels of interstitial oxygen in Czochralski silicon can lead to the formation of oxide precipitates. Although beneficial from an internal gettering perspective, oxygen-related extended defects give rise to recombination which reduces minority carrier lifetime. The highest efficiency silicon solar cells are made from n-type substrates in which oxide precipitates can have a detrimental impact on cell efficiency. In order to quantify and to understand the mechanism of recombination in such materials, we correlate injection level-dependent minority carrier lifetime data measured with silicon nitride surface passivation with interstitial oxygen loss and precipitate concentration measurements in samples processed under substantially different conditions. We account for surface recombination, doping level, and precipitate morphology to present a generalised parameterisation of lifetime. The lifetime data are analysed in terms of recombination activity which is dependent on precipitate density or on the surface area of different morphologies of precipitates. Correlation of the lifetime data with interstitial oxygen loss data shows that the recombination activity is likely to be dependent on the precipitate surface area. We generalise our findings to estimate the impact of oxide precipitates with a given surface area on lifetime in both n-type and p-type silicon.

  14. Silicon oxide nanowire growth mechanisms revealed by real-time electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kolíbal, Miroslav; Novák, Libor; Shanley, Toby; Toth, Milos; Šikola, Tomáš

    2015-12-17

    Growth of one-dimensional materials is possible through numerous mechanisms that affect the nanowire structure and morphology. Here, we explain why a wide range of morphologies is observed when silicon oxide nanowires are grown on silicon substrates using liquid gallium catalyst droplets. We show that a gallium oxide overlayer is needed for nanowire nucleation at typical growth temperatures, and that it can decompose during growth and, hence, dramatically alter the nanowire morphology. Gallium oxide decomposition is attributed to etching caused by hydrogen that can be supplied by thermal dissociation of H2O (a common impurity). We show that H2O dissociation is catalyzed by silicon substrates at temperatures as low as 320 °C, identify the material supply pathways and processes that rate-limit nanowire growth under dry and wet atmospheres, and present a detailed growth model that explains contradictory results reported in prior studies. We also show that under wet atmospheres the Ga droplets can be mobile and promote nanowire growth as they traverse the silicon substrate. PMID:26608729

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis map of bismuth titanates

    SciTech Connect

    Sardar, Kripasindhu; Walton, Richard I.

    2012-05-15

    The hydrothermal synthesis of four bismuth titanate materials from common bismuth and titanium precursors under hydrothermal conditions is described. Reaction of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and anatase TiO{sub 2} in concentrated NaOH solution at 240 Degree-Sign C is shown to produce perovskite and sillenite phases Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20}, depending on the ratio of metal precursors used. When KOH solution is used and a 1:1 ratio of the same precursors, a pyrochlore Bi{sub 1.43}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 0.29}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.66} is formed. The use of a mixture of HNO{sub 3} and NaOH is shown to facilitate the formation of the Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}. The phases have been isolated separately as phase-pure powders and profile refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data allows comparisons with comparable materials reported in the literature. Analysis of Bi L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the materials shows the oxidation state of bismuth is +3 in all of the hydrothermally derived products. - Graphical abstract: Use of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} as reagents under hydrothermal conditions allows the phase-pure preparation of four crystalline bismuth titanate materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NaBiO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} under hydrothermal conditions allow formation of bismuth titanates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of four distint phases has been mapped. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi LIII-edge XANES shows Bi is reduced to oxidation state +3 in all materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new hydrated bismuth titanate pyrochlore has been isolated.

  16. Rapid photo-oxidation of silicon at room temperature using 126 nm vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun-Ying; Boyd, Ian W.

    2002-01-01

    Over the years, photo-oxidation of silicon has been found to proceed fastest when the progressively lower wavelength radiation has been used. Here, we use the shortest UV lamp radiation yet applied to Si oxidation, by employing 126 nm radiation from an Ar excimer lamp source. Oxidation rates as high as 5 nm/min were readily achievable at room temperature, which are more than two orders of magnitude higher than those for UV-induced oxidation of silicon using a low pressure mercury lamp at a temperature of 350 C, and immeasurably higher than for thermal oxidation at room temperature. This enhancement is believed to arise from two effects: ozone produced by 126 nm light and more efficient photochemical reaction at lower wavelengths. Furthermore, thicknesses up to 9 nm have been obtained, which are not possible in reasonable times with conventional dry thermal oxidation processes at temperatures less than even 500 C. The films are found by XPS and FTIR to be stoichiometric in nature. Current-voltage measurements from metal oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices fabricated using a 9 nm SiO 2 layer showed that leakage current densities as low as 10 -6 A/cm 2 at an electric field of 1 MV/cm can be obtained in the as-grown films. Further properties of these films will be reported.

  17. Bismuth compounds in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Jorge A R; Figueiredo, Sandra A C; Pinto, Rui M A; Silvestre, Samuel M

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, the chemical potential of bismuth and bismuth compounds has been actively exploited. Bismuth salts are known for their low toxicity, making them potential valuable reagents for large-scale synthesis, which becomes more obvious when dealing with products such as active pharmaceutical ingredients or synthetic intermediates. Conversely, bismuth compounds have been widely used in medicine. After extensive use in the treatments of syphilis and other bacterial infections before the advent of modern antibiotics, bismuth compounds remain important for the treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders and also exhibit antimicrobial properties and cytotoxic activity, among others. This review updates relevant advances in the past few years, concerning the application of bismuth reagents and catalysts in innovative synthetic processes for the preparation of compounds of medicinal interest, as well as the preparation, biological evaluation and potential medicinal uses of bismuth compounds. PMID:22857536

  18. Indentation and oxidation studies on silicon nitride joints

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal, M.; De Jonghe, L.C.; Thomas, G. |

    1996-05-01

    Si nitride ceramics have been joined with a Y oxide-SiO{sub 2} interlayer. A 1:2 molar ratio of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} to SiO{sub 2} was chosen to obtain the desired Y{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} stoichiometry, which should give the interlayer better oxidation resistance compared to other interlayer materials. Mechanical characterization of the joints performed by indentation shows it to have good room temperature strength.

  19. Effects of rapid thermal processing on thermal oxides of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. K.; Kwong, D. L.; Alvi, N. S.

    1986-11-01

    The effects of rapid thermal processing (RTP) on the electrical properties of thin gate oxides in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices have been studied. MOS capacitors have been analyzed by current-voltage (I-V) and constant current stress techniques. MOS field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) have been fabricated using RTP for the post-implant anneal, and the transistor degradation due to hot carrier injection has also been investigated. No significant RTP-induced degradation was detected in any category of the device properties considered here. An abnormal trapping behavior was observed on the wafer annealed at high temperature and/or long duration.

  20. Extracting mechanical properties of copper coatings on oxidized silicon substrates by nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moharrami, N.; Oila, A.; Bull, S. J.

    2014-08-01

    The thickness of the copper coatings that are used for the manufacture of conducting tracks in microelectronic devices are being aggressively scaled down and there is a need to monitor the mechanical response of metallization at a scale comparable to the material microstructure. When using indentation tests to assess the properties of thin films, the plastic zone dimensions are of a similar scale to the grain size. For the purposes of designs based on continuum mechanics approaches it is usually required that the grain size is much smaller than the deforming volume, which is not always observed in practice. Considerable differences between predicted and observed performance can be seen depending on the material tested and its grain size; the extent of oxidation of the copper after deposition is critical, as is that of its underlying silicon substrate. Whereas it is possible to make good measurements of metallization properties on stiff substrates such as silicon there are serious issues with the reliability of Young's modulus and hardness data from coatings on device quality wafers which may have been oxidized prior to use. The effects of grain size, shape and orientation on the mechanical response of metallic thin films used for semiconductor metallization on oxidized silicon are presented in this paper. The appropriate conditions for the successful use of continuum mechanics are discussed and the importance of considering the consequences of crystallographic anisotropy and oxidation on the selection of suitable design data is presented with regards to copper coatings.

  1. A novel composite cathode Er0.4Bi1.6O3-Pr0.5Ba0.5MnO3-? for ceria-bismuth bilayer electrolyte high performance low temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jie; Bi, Lei; Qian, Jing; Gong, Zheng; Zhu, Zhiwen; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A novel composite cathode consisting of A-site disordered Pr0.5Ba0.5MnO3-? (PBM) and Er0.4Bi1.6O3 (ESB) is developed for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with ceria-bismuth bilayer electrolyte. Based on Sm0.075Nd0.075Ce0.85O2-?|ESB (SNDC|ESB) bilayer structured film, the single cell NiO-SNDC|SNDC|ESB|ESB-PBM achieves an encouraging performance with the maximum power density (MPD) of 994 mW cm-2 and an interfacial polarization resistance (Rp) of 0.027 ? cm2 at 650 C. Although a possible reaction between ESB and PBM has been identified in the cathode, the ascendant electrochemical performance including the very high fuel cell performance and Rp obtained here can demonstrate that the novel cobalt-free composite cathode ESB-PBM is a preferable alternative for ceria-bismuth bilayer electrolyte high performance low temperature SOFCs (HPLT-SOFCs) and the interfacial reaction in the cathode seems not to be detrimental to the electrochemical performance.

  2. Addition of silicon improves oxidation resistance of nickel based superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, C. E.; Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Specific weight changes of nickel-base superalloy B-1900 and B-1900 + 1% Si specimens were tested at 1273 K. B-1900 was losing weight at an increasing rate due to spalling of oxide scale while B-1900 + 1% Si was still gaining weight at low, nearly constant rate. Similar comparison in weight change was observed for specimens tested at 1373 K.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of silicon oxidation enhanced by energetic hydrogen ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizotani, Kohei; Isobe, Michiro; Fukasawa, Masanaga; Nagahata, Kazunori; Tatsumi, Tetsuya; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    Molecular dynamics numerical simulations have been performed to clarify the mechanism of enhanced oxidation in Si during silicon gate etching by HBr/O2 plasmas. Such enhanced oxidation sometimes manifests itself as Si recess during gate etching processes. When a Si substrate is subject to energetic ion bombardment together with a flux of radical species, our study has identified the cause of such enhanced oxidation in Si as enhanced O diffusion arising from the momentum transfer from energetic H atoms to O atoms on the surface or in the subsurface of the Si substrate. No chemical effect such as hydrogenation of Si plays a role for the enhanced oxidation. Simulation results are found to be in good agreement with earlier experimental observations of ion-irradiation-enhanced oxidation obtained by beam experiments.

  4. Thin film germanium on silicon created via ion implantation and oxide trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, R.; Knights, A. P.

    2015-06-01

    We present a novel process for integrating germanium with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. Germanium is implanted into SOI which is then oxidized, trapping the germanium between the two oxide layers (the grown oxide and the buried oxide). With careful control of the implantation and oxidation conditions this process creates a thin layer (current experiments indicate up to 20-30nm) of almost pure germanium. The layer can be used potentially for fabrication of integrated photo-detectors sensitive to infrared wavelengths, or may serve as a seed for further germanium growth. Results are presented from electron microscopy and Rutherford back-scattering analysis, as well as preliminary modelling using an analytical description of the process.

  5. Valley polarization in bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauque, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of certain crystal lattices can contain multiple degenerate valleys for their charge carriers to occupy. The principal challenge in the development of valleytronics is to lift the valley degeneracy of charge carriers in a controlled way. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. According to our recent study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth, a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. As a consequence of a unique combination of high mobility and extreme mass anisotropy in bismuth, the effect is visible even at room temperature in a magnetic field of 1 T. Thus, a modest magnetic field can be used as a valley valve in bismuth. The results of our recent investigation of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in other semi-metals and doped semiconductors suggest that a rotating magnetic field can behave as a valley valve in a multi-valley system with sizeable mass anisotropy.

  6. Microcrystalline silicon oxides for silicon-based solar cells: impact of the O/Si ratio on the electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bär, M.; Starr, D. E.; Lambertz, A.; Holländer, B.; Alsmeier, J.-H.; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Gorgoi, M.; Yang, W.; Wilks, R. G.; Heske, C.

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon oxide (μc-SiOx:H) layers are one alternative approach to ensure sufficient interlayer charge transport while maintaining high transparency and good passivation in Si-based solar cells. We have used a combination of complementary x-ray and electron spectroscopies to study the chemical and electronic structure of the (μc-SiOx:H) material system. With these techniques, we monitor the transition from a purely Si-based crystalline bonding network to a silicon oxide dominated environment, coinciding with a significant decrease of the material's conductivity. Most Si-based solar cell structures contain emitter/contact/passivation layers. Ideally, these layers fulfill their desired task (i.e., induce a sufficiently high internal electric field, ensure a good electric contact, and passivate the interfaces of the absorber) without absorbing light. Usually this leads to a trade-off in which a higher transparency can only be realized at the expense of the layer's ability to properly fulfill its task. One alternative approach is to use hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon oxide (μc-SiOx:H), a mixture of microcrystalline silicon and amorphous silicon (sub)oxide. The crystalline Si regions allow charge transport, while the oxide matrix maintains a high transparency. To date, it is still unclear how in detail the oxygen content influences the electronic structure of the μc-SiOx:H mixed phase material. To address this question, we have studied the chemical and electronic structure of the μc-SiOx:H (0 <= x = O/Si <=1) system with a combination of complementary x-ray and electron spectroscopies. The different surface sensitivities of the employed techniques help to reduce the impact of surface oxides on the spectral interpretation. For all samples, we find the valence band maximum to be located at a similar energy with respect to the Fermi energy. However, for x > 0.5, we observe a pronounced decrease of Si 3s - Si 3p hybridization in favor of Si 3p - O 2p hybridization in the upper valence band. This coincides with a significant increase of the material's resistivity, possibly indicating the breakdown of the conducting crystalline Si network. Silicon oxide layers with a thickness of several hundred nanometres were deposited in a PECVD (plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition) multi chamber system using an excitation frequency of 13.56 MHz with a plasma power density of 0.3 W/cm2. Glass (Corning type Eagle) and mono-crystalline silicon wafer substrates were coated in the same run at a substrate temperature of 185°C. The deposition pressure was 4 mbar and the substrate-electrode distance 20 mm. Mixtures of silane (SiH4), 1% TMB (B(CH3)3) diluted in helium, hydrogen (H2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) gases were used at flow rates of 1.25 - 0.18/0.32/500/0 - 1.07) sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute) for the deposition of μc-SiOx:H(B) layers. By changing the CO2/SiH4 gas flow rate ratio from 0 to 6, μc-SiOx:H(B) layers with a composition of 0 <= x = O/Si <= 1 were prepared using a constant sum of SiH4 and CO2. The TMB flow and the H2 flow were kept constant within the series. For more details see Ref. [1]. The oxygen content in the films was determined using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS). With RBS, the area-related atomic density of oxygen and silicon can be determined (+/- 2% [2]), and thus x can be calculated. This quantity considers only the number of silicon / oxygen atoms and not the number of atoms of other elements, such as hydrogen, which is also incorporated to a considerable extent: up to 20% in μc-SiOx:H (measured using the hydrogen effusion method). To avoid charging effects, the measurements were performed on films deposited on a substrate of mono-crystalline silicon wafers. The electrical conductivity was measured in the planar direction of the film in a vacuum cryostat, using voltages from - 100 V to + 100 V. For that two co-planar Ag contacts were evaporated on the film with a gap of 0.5 mm - 5 mm. In the present study, the optical band E04 is arbitrarily used as a measure for the optical band gap. E04 is defined by the photon energy E for which an optical absorption coefficient of α of 104cm-1 is obtained. The absorption coefficient α(λ) versus the wavelength λ of the films was determined by measuring the transmittance T(λ) and reflectance R(λ), using the Beer-Lambert law, as suggested by Ref. [3]. The film thickness d was measured using the step profiler close to the measurement spot of the spectrophotometer. It is important to measure the transmittance T(λ) and the reflectance R(λ) at the same spot on the sample, to avoid inaccuracies in the calculated absorption spectra that arise from non-uniformity of the film thickness and different positions of the reflectance and transmittance minima and maxima in the spectrum [4]. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) experiments were conducted at the HiKE end-station [5] on the KMC-1 beamline [6] of the BESSY-II electron storage ring. This end-station is equipped with a Scienta R4000 electron energy analyzer capable of measuring photoelectron kinetic energies up to 10 keV. A pass energy of 200 eV was used for all measurements. Spectra were recorded with a photon energy of 2003 eV using the first and fourth order supplied by a Si(111) double crystal monochromator. The combined analyzer plus beamline resolution is approx. 0.25 eV for spectra taken at both photon energies. The top surface of the sample was electrically grounded for all measurements. The binding energy was calibrated by measuring the 4f spectrum of a grounded Au foil and setting the Au 4f7/2 binding energy equal to 84.00 eV. In SiO2, the inelastic mean free path of electrons was estimated to be approx. 5 and 13-16 nm for the core levels and valence band measurements performed with 2003 and 8012 eV [7].

  7. Metal and organic contamination effects on the characteristics of thin oxides thermally grown on silicon based wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borionetti, G.; Geranzani, P.; Orizio, R.; Godio, P.; Bonoli, F.; Pagani, F.; Pello', C.

    2006-12-01

    The control of silicon dioxide properties in ULSI applications is important due to the trend in reducing the oxide thickness. The degree of residual contamination of silicon substrate can become a relevant component for the integrity and quality of thin and very thin oxides. This paper investigates the influence that metallic and organic contaminants can have on growth rate, dielectric strength and charges in thin and very thin oxides thermally grown on silicon wafers by various oxidation processes that led to oxide thickness values in the range of 3-30 nm. The effect of alkali metals (K, Ca, Na), fast diffusing metals (Ni, Cu) and caprolactam (as an example of organic contaminant) has been evaluated with a variety of techniques: ellipsometry for oxide thickness measurement, ICP-MS for determination of metal concentration in the oxide, gate oxide integrity, triangular voltage sweep and advanced Elymat technique. The paper provides a useful quantification of the relationship between alkali metal contamination and oxide growth rate, insights on the segregation of fast diffuser metals in silicon dioxide and their effect on oxide integrity, preliminary evaluation of organic contamination effect on oxide interface states and oxide integrity.

  8. Efficient processing of reaction-sintered silicon carbide by anodically oxidation-assisted polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Qunzhang; Shen, Xinmin; Zhou, Jianzhao; He, Xiaohui; Yamamura, Kazuya

    2015-10-01

    Reaction-sintered silicon carbide (RS-SiC) is a promising optical material for the space telescope systems. Anodically oxidation-assisted polishing is a method to machine RS-SiC. The electrolyte used in this study is a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydrochloric acid (HCl), and the oxidation potential has two modes: constant potential and high-frequency-square-wave potential. Oxide morphologies are compared by scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning white-light interferometer. The results indicate that anodic oxidation under constant potential can not only obtain a relatively smooth surface but also be propitious to obtain high material removal rate. The oxidation depth in anodic oxidation under constant potential is calculated by comparing surface morphologies before and after hydrofluoric acid etching. The theoretical oxidation rate is 5.3 nm/s based on the linear Deal-Grove model. Polishing of the oxidized RS-SiC is conducted to validate the machinability of the oxide layer. The obtained surface roughness root-mean-square is around 4.5 nm. Thus, anodically oxidation-assisted polishing can be considered as an efficient method, which can fill the performance gap between the rough figuring and fine finishing of RS-SiC. It can improve the machining quality of RS-SiC parts and promote the application of RS-SiC products.

  9. Positive charge instability during bidirectional stress on metal-oxide-silicon capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziane, Dj.; El-Hdiy, A.

    2000-12-01

    Bidirectional electron injections are made on metal-oxide-silicon capacitors under constant currents or constant voltages. It is shown that both stresses reveal the same generation mechanism of oxide defects and consequently confirm that the gate/oxide interface is more stress resistant than the oxide/silicon interface. It is also shown that the created positive charge is unstable during bidirectional stress. We characterize this instability by studying dielectric defect neutralization following a new procedure. Oxide field intensity and polarity are considered as the principal precursors of this instability. Without any applied field, the neutralization follows a logarithmic law; while under a nonstressing field it follows an exponential law. Both kinetic laws are linked, since the logarithmic law describes the saturation value of the exponential one, and hence both describe the same process. Results of both current and voltage stresses give a power law between the oxide field near the cathode during stress and the capture cross section measured from neutralization kinetics.

  10. Silicon-oxide-assisted wear of a diamond-containing composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Huaping; Sinyukov, Alexander M.; He, Xingliang; Lin, Chih; Liang, Hong

    2013-12-01

    A composite containing diamond in silicon carbide substrate was studied for revealing wear mechanisms. Due to the low production cost, this material is being evaluated as an alternative economical solution in industry. Tribochemical examination was conducted using a pin-on-disk configuration in both aqueous and dry environments. Characterization was conducted on worn disks and wear debris. Phase transformation from diamond carbon (sp3) to graphite, tetrahedral carbon, or amorphous carbon (sp2) in friction was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. In addition, the Raman peak of wear debris identified a shift from crystalline Si (521 cm-1) to the mixture of amorphous silicon and silicon oxide at 510 cm-1. The surface roughness of the diamond particles was found to be greatly reduced due to wear. The smoothening of the edges was due to polishing by silicon oxide as abrasives promoting removal of weaker sp2 bonded carbon. This research proposes a tribochemical wear mechanism of diamond that has significant benefits in the applications of automotive, aerospace, and energy industries.

  11. Novel Iron-oxide Catalyzed CNT Formation on Semiconductor Silicon Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Adam, Tijjani; U, Hashim

    2014-10-01

    An aqueous ferric nitrate nonahydrate (Fe(NO3)3.9H2O) and magnesium oxide (MgO) were mixed and deposited on silicon nanowires (SiNWs), the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) formed by the concentration of Fe3O4/MgO catalysts with the mole ratio set at 0.15:9.85 and 600C had diameter between 15.23 to 90nm with high-density distribution of CNT while those with the mole ratio set at 0.45:9.55 and 730C had diameter of 100 to 230nm. The UV/Vis/NIR and FT-IR spectroscopes clearly confirmed the presence of the silicon-CNTs hybrid structure. UV/Vis/NIR, FT-IR spectra and FESEM images confirmed the silicon-CNT structure exists with diameters ranging between 15-230nm. Thus, the study demonstrated cost effective method of silicon-CNT composite nanowire formation via Iron-oxide Catalyze synthesis. PMID:25237290

  12. Novel Iron-oxide Catalyzed CNT Formation on Semiconductor Silicon Nanowire

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Tijjani; U, Hashim

    2014-01-01

    An aqueous ferric nitrate nonahydrate (Fe(NO3)3.9H2O) and magnesium oxide (MgO) were mixed and deposited on silicon nanowires (SiNWs), the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) formed by the concentration of Fe3O4/MgO catalysts with the mole ratio set at 0.15:9.85 and 600C had diameter between 15.23 to 90nm with high-density distribution of CNT while those with the mole ratio set at 0.45:9.55 and 730C had diameter of 100 to 230nm. The UV/Vis/NIR and FT-IR spectroscopes clearly confirmed the presence of the silicon-CNTs hybrid structure. UV/Vis/NIR, FT-IR spectra and FESEM images confirmed the silicon-CNT structure exists with diameters ranging between 15-230nm. Thus, the study demonstrated cost effective method of silicon-CNT composite nanowire formation via Iron-oxide Catalyze synthesis. PMID:25237290

  13. Sinterability, strength and oxidation of alpha silicon carbide powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation is made of pressureless sintering of commercially available alpha-SiC powders at temperatures between 1900 and 2150 C for periods of 10 to 240 min under one atmosphere of argon pressure. It is found that alpha-SiC powder containing boron and carbon sintering aids is sinterable at 2150 C for a period of 30 min to a high final density (greater than 96 percent of theoretical). In alpha-SiC powder containing aluminum and carbon sintering aids, the final density achieved is only about 80 percent of theoretical. Determinations are made of room temperature and high temperature (1370 C) flexure strength and oxidation resistance on sintered high density (more than 96 percent of theoretical) alpha-SiC (boron, carbon) material. It is found that both the strength and the resistance to oxidation are equivalent and comparable to those of the sintered alpha-SiC which represents the state of the art.

  14. Quantum Conductance in Silicon Oxide Resistive Memory Devices

    PubMed Central

    Mehonic, A.; Vrajitoarea, A.; Cueff, S.; Hudziak, S.; Howe, H.; Labbé, C.; Rizk, R.; Pepper, M.; Kenyon, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Resistive switching offers a promising route to universal electronic memory, potentially replacing current technologies that are approaching their fundamental limits. In many cases switching originates from the reversible formation and dissolution of nanometre-scale conductive filaments, which constrain the motion of electrons, leading to the quantisation of device conductance into multiples of the fundamental unit of conductance, G0. Such quantum effects appear when the constriction diameter approaches the Fermi wavelength of the electron in the medium – typically several nanometres. Here we find that the conductance of silicon-rich silica (SiOx) resistive switches is quantised in half-integer multiples of G0. In contrast to other resistive switching systems this quantisation is intrinsic to SiOx, and is not due to drift of metallic ions. Half-integer quantisation is explained in terms of the filament structure and formation mechanism, which allows us to distinguish between systems that exhibit integer and half-integer quantisation. PMID:24048282

  15. Effect of Alcohol-Assisted Annealing on the Quality of Silicon Oxide Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takuya; Ota, Yasuyuki; Shiomori, Koichiro; Nishioka, Kensuke

    2014-07-01

    Silicon oxide thin films have been formed by use of the reaction between spin-coated silicone oil and ozone gas at atmospheric pressure and low temperature (250°C). Films formed at this temperature contained Si-OH bonds, owing to inadequate dehydration. To remove the Si-OH bonds at low temperature, the sample was dipped in ethanol at room temperature for 15 min then annealed on a hot plate at 250°C in methanol gas for 30 min. This treatment effectively dissociated the Si-OH bonds. It is believed the Si-OH bonds are replaced by Si-OCH3 bonds during the alcohol-assisted annealing. The leakage current of the metal-oxide-semiconductor after alcohol-assisted annealing was improved and the hysteresis width was reduced. This indicated that the number of trap sites owing to Si-OH bonds was reduced.

  16. Tunable nanoporous silicon oxide templates by swift heavy ion tracks technology.

    PubMed

    Kaniukov, E Yu; Ustarroz, J; Yakimchuk, D V; Petrova, M; Terryn, H; Sivakov, V; Petrov, A V

    2016-03-18

    Nanoporous silicon oxide templates formed by swift heavy ion tracks technology have been investigated. The influence of the heavy ion characteristics, such as type of ion, energy, stopping power and irradiation fluence on the pore properties of the silicon oxide templates, has been studied. Furthermore, the process of pore formation by chemical etching with hydrofluoric acid has been thoroughly investigated by assessing the effect of etchant concentration and etching time. The outcome of this investigation enables us to have precise control over the resulting geometry of nanopores arrays. As a result, guidelines for the creation of a-SiO2/Si templates with tunable parameters and general recommendations for their further application are presented. PMID:26878691

  17. Application of IBA techniques to silicon profiling in protective oxide films on a steel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurbich, A. F.; Molodtsov, S. L.

    2004-12-01

    A technique to depth profile silicon in steel employed in the experimental study of steel corrosion in Pb flow is described. The differential cross-sections for 16O(d, p)17O and 28Si(d, p)29Si reactions for the transitions to the ground and the first excited states were measured at the scattering angle of 150 in the energy range from 0.7 to 1.8 and from 1.2 to 2.3 MeV, respectively. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) was applied to characterize the protective oxide films. The significant increase in the silicon concentration at the oxide/metal interface was observed.

  18. Production of Silicon Oxide like Thin Films by the Use of Atmospheric Plasma Torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozono, E. M.; Fachini, E. R.; Silva, M. L. P.; Ruchko, L. F.; Galvão, R. M. O.

    2015-03-01

    The advantages of HMDS (hexamethyldisilazane) APT-plasma films for sensor applications were explored producing films in a three-turn copper coil APT equipment. HMDS was introduced into the argon plasma at four different conditions. Additional flux of oxygen could modulate the presence of organic components in the film, the composition varying from pure inorganic oxides to organo-silane polymers. Oxygen promoted deposition rates as high as 900 nm/min on silicon, acrylic or piezoelectric quartz crystal substrates. Films with a clustered morphology and refractive index of 1.45 were obtained, mainly due to a silicon oxide structure. Raman spectroscopy and XPS data showed the presence of CHn and amorphous carbon in the inorganic matrix. The films were sensitive to the humidity of the air. The adsorptive capabilities of outstanding films were tested in a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). The results support that those films can be a useful and simple alternative for the development of sensors.

  19. Immobilization of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine on silicon oxide wafer for an acoustical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Dutra, R F; Castro, C M; Azevedo, C R; Vinhas, E; Malagueo, E; Melo, E H; Lima Filho, J L; Kennedy, J F

    2000-01-01

    One the most important aspects of a biosensor is related to immobilization and maintenance of specific reference compounds on sensing surfaces. A method for the immobilization of polysaccharides to a silicon oxide surface intended for Surface Acoustical Waves (SAW) sensors is described. Silicon oxide is a hydrophobic inorganic support used for the fabrication of many electronic devices. The pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPS) vaccine is immobilized via Protein A after pre-treatment of the surface with hydrochloric acid. The effects of non-specific binding are discussed. The results indicate that the immobilization of PPS via Protein A increases the sensitivity of detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae antibodies in human sera and offers greater reproducibility of response compared with ELISA methods. The principles of this technique are simple and are applicable to the immobilization of many capsular polysaccharides. PMID:11419647

  20. Tunable nanoporous silicon oxide templates by swift heavy ion tracks technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniukov, E. Yu; Ustarroz, J.; Yakimchuk, D. V.; Petrova, M.; Terryn, H.; Sivakov, V.; Petrov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoporous silicon oxide templates formed by swift heavy ion tracks technology have been investigated. The influence of the heavy ion characteristics, such as type of ion, energy, stopping power and irradiation fluence on the pore properties of the silicon oxide templates, has been studied. Furthermore, the process of pore formation by chemical etching with hydrofluoric acid has been thoroughly investigated by assessing the effect of etchant concentration and etching time. The outcome of this investigation enables us to have precise control over the resulting geometry of nanopores arrays. As a result, guidelines for the creation of a-SiO2/Si templates with tunable parameters and general recommendations for their further application are presented.

  1. High-Temperature (1200-1400C) Dry Oxidation of 3C-SiC on Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Y. K.; Li, F.; Jennings, M. R.; Fisher, C. A.; Prez-Toms, A.; Thomas, S.; Hamilton, D. P.; Russell, S. A. O.; Mawby, P. A.

    2015-11-01

    In a novel approach, high temperatures (1200-1400C) were used to oxidize cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) grown on silicon substrate. High-temperature oxidation does not significantly affect 3C-SiC doping concentration, 3C-SiC structural composition, or the final morphology of the SiO2 layer, which remains unaffected even at 1400C (the melting point of silicon is 1414C). Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOS-C) and lateral channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFET) were fabricated by use of the high-temperature oxidation process to study 3C-SiC/SiO2 interfaces. Unlike 4H-SiC MOSFET, there is no extra benefit of increasing the oxidation temperature from 1200C to 1400C. All the MOSFET resulted in a maximum field-effect mobility of approximately 70 cm2/V s.

  2. Oxidation resistant high temperature thermal cycling resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates and process for the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Sarin, V.K.

    1990-08-21

    An oxidation resistant, high temperature thermal cycling resistant coated ceramic article for ceramic heat engine applications is disclosed. The substrate is a silicon-based material, i.e. a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based monolithic or composite material. The coating is a graded coating of at least two layers: an intermediate AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and an aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. The composition of the coating changes gradually from that of the substrate to that of the AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and further to the composition of the aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. Other layers may be deposited over the aluminum oxide layer. A CVD process for depositing the graded coating on the substrate is also disclosed.

  3. Oxidation resistant high temperature thermal cycling resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates and process for the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Sarin, Vinod K. (Lexington, MA)

    1990-01-01

    An oxidation resistant, high temperature thermal cycling resistant coated ceramic article for ceramic heat engine applications. The substrate is a silicon-based material, i.e. a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based monolithic or composite material. The coating is a graded coating of at least two layers: an intermediate AlN or Al.sub.x N.sub.y O.sub.z layer and an aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. The composition of the coating changes gradually from that of the substrate to that of the AlN or Al.sub.x N.sub.y O.sub.z layer and further to the composition of the aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. Other layers may be deposited over the aluminum oxide layer. A CVD process for depositing the graded coating on the substrate is also disclosed.

  4. High-temperature oxidation studies of several silicon-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramberg, Charles Eric

    1997-10-01

    A mixed control oxidation model was used in Chapter 1 to reevaluate historical assumptions regarding diffusion controlled oxidation. Rather than assuming thermodynamic equilibrium at the scale/substrate interface (a fast chemical reaction), a mixed control model allows finite rates for both the diffusion process and the chemical reaction, which occur in series. This coupling of the two mechanisms by the interfacial oxygen concentration can result in kinetics that appear completely parabolic. However, the interfacial oxygen concentration may never reach the equilibrium thermodynamic value, and may in fact remain at a significant percentage of the atmospheric value, despite the apparently parabolic kinetics. In Chapter 2, siliconized silicon carbide samples were oxidized in high purity oxygen from 1250 to 1600spC. The parabolic rate constants for the siliconized SiC at temperatures below 1400spC agreed well with literature values for CVD-SiC and single crystal SiC. At higher temperatures, the parabolic rate constants and activation energy for siliconized SiC oxidation increased. However, the parabolic rate constants obtained in this study for oxidation of CVD-SiC at 1500 and 1600 C were consistent with a single activation energy extrapolated from lower temperature rate constants obtained in prior studies. In Chapter 3, dense, homogeneous samples in the Mo-Al-Si system were fabricated using a combination of self propagating synthesis (SPS) and hot pressing. Materials in the Mosb3Alsb8-MoSisb2 pseudobinary had a strong tendency to form alumina (Alsb2Osb3) scales. During oxidation at 600 C for 50 days, arc melted Mosb3Alsb8 was extremely oxidation resistant-forming a 170 nm thick oxide scale. Increasing the silicon content reduced the oxidation resistance at this temperature for arc-melted samples. At higher temperatures, compositions in the Mosb3Alsb8-MoSisb2 pseudobinary with silicon to aluminum ratios greater than 2:1 formed scales containing both silica and alumina. The oxidation kinetics as a function of temperature were determined for hot pressed Mo(Alsb{0.1}Sisb{0.9})sb2 and Mo(Alsb{0.01}Sisb{0.99})sb2. The hot-pressed Mo(Alsb{0.1}Sisb{0.9})sb2 materials formed alumina scales at low temperatures (1200 C), and oxide scales composed of alumina (Alsb2Osb3) and mullite (3Alsb2Osb3sp\\*2SiOsb2) at higher temperatures (>1300 C). Hot pressed Mo(Alsb{0.01}Sisb{0.99})sb2 materials formed scales consisting of cristobalite (SiOsb2) and mullite. At 1500 C, the oxidation kinetics were extremely nonlinear, presumably due to the formation of a continuous mullite layer at the scale/substrate interface after 20 hours.

  5. Window layer with p doped silicon oxide for high Voc thin-film silicon n-i-p solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biron, Rmi; Pahud, Celine; Haug, Franz-Josef; Escarr, Jordi; Sderstrm, Karin; Ballif, Christophe

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the influence of the oxygen content in boron-doped nanocrystalline silicon oxide films (p-nc-SiOx) and introduce this material as window layer in n-i-p solar cells. The dependence of both, optical and electrical properties on the oxygen content is consistent with a bi-phase model which describes the p-nc-SiOx material as a mixture of an oxygen-rich (O-rich) phase and a silicon-rich (Si-rich) phase. We observe that increasing the oxygen content enhances the optical gap E04 while deteriorating the activation energy and the planar conductivity. These trends are ascribed to a higher volume fraction of the O-rich phase. Incorporated into n-i-p a-Si:H cells, p-nc-SiOx layers with moderate oxygen content yield open circuit voltage (Voc) up to 945 mV, which corresponds to a relative gain of 11% compared to an oxygen-free p-layer. As a similar gain is obtained on planar and on textured substrates, we attribute the increase in Voc to the higher work function of the p-nc-SiOx layer made possible by its wider band gap. These results are attained without changing the dilution ratio of the 250 nm thick intrinsic layer. We also observe an enhancement of 0.6 mA cm-2 in short circuit current density in the short wavelengths due to the higher transparency of the p-nc-SiOx layer. Finally, an initial efficiency of 9.9% for a single junction 250 nm a-Si:H n-i-p solar cell on plastic foil is achieved with the optimization of the p layer thickness, the doping ratio of the front transparent conductive oxide, and the optical properties of the back reflector.

  6. Oxidation of chemically-vapor-deposited silicon nitride and single-crystal silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Doo J.; Fischbach, David B.; Scott, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The present 1000 C and 1300 C oxidation tests on 111-oriented single-crystal Si and dense CVD Si3N4 notes the oxidation rates of the latter in wet O2, dry O2, wet inert gas, and steam atmosphere conditions to be several orders of magnitude lower than the rates for the former in identical atmospheric conditions. Although the parabolic rate constant for Si increased linearly as the water vapor pressure increased, the parabolic rate constant for Si3N4 exhibited a nonlinear dependency on water vapor pressure in the presence of O2. NO and NH3 formation at the reaction interface of Si3N4, and the counterpermeation of these reaction products, are noted to dominate reaction kinetics.

  7. Atomistic and Electronic Structure of Crystalline Oxides on Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, G. Malcolm; Moghadam, Nassrin Y.

    2001-03-01

    Crystalline rare earth and perovskite oxides can now be grown commensurate with the Si-(100) surface [R. A. McKee et al., Phys. Rev. Letters, 81, 3014 (1998)]. These systems, by virtue of their high dielectric constants offer significant possibilities for replacing native oxides in semi-conductor devices as will as new physics based on their ferro-electric response. Here we present the results of first principles studies of the atomistic and electronic structure of SrO over-layers on Si-(001). The calculation are based on the model structures suggested by McKee et al. for which it is speculated that a layer of SrSi2 passivates the Si-surface and allows subsequent oxide growth. The calculations were performed using the first principles pseudo-potential package VASP [G. Kresse and J. Furthmller, Phys. Rev. B 55 11169 (1996)] and super-cell models of the surface structure. Optimization of the surface structure together with the subsurface Si layers was performed. A stable structure for the SrSi2 monolayer on Si-100 was found [SrSi_2/Si-(100)]. Results for subsequent over layers of SrO on SrSi_2/Si-(100) are presented [nSrO/ SrSi_2/Si-(100)]. Stable structures are obtained and we comment on the evolution of the electronic structure as a function of the number of SrO over-layers n. Work supported by DOE Office of Science BES-DMS and OASCR-MICS under subcontract DEAC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.

  8. Comparison of beryllium oxide and pyrolytic graphite crucibles for boron doped silicon epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Dyan; Richardson, Christopher J. K.

    2012-11-15

    This article reports on the comparison of beryllium oxide and pyrolytic graphite as crucible liners in a high-temperature effusion cell used for boron doping in silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis indicates decomposition of the beryllium oxide liner, leading to significant incorporation of beryllium and oxygen in the grown films. The resulting films are of poor crystal quality with rough surfaces and broad x-ray diffraction peaks. Alternatively, the use of pyrolytic graphite crucible liners results in higher quality films.

  9. Optical waveguides in oxygen-implanted buried-oxide silicon-on-insulator structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurdi, B. N.; Hall, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis is made of the waveguiding properties of the oxygen-implanted, buried-oxide, silicon-on-insulator structures currently being developed for use in microelectronics. It is found that in spite of the fact that the buried-oxide layer is only a few tenths of a micrometer thick, the single-crystal overlayer can support TEo guided-wave propagation, at subbandgap wavelengths, with losses due to substrate radiation leakage at or below the benchmark level of 1 dB/cm.

  10. Patterns of discoloration and oxidation by direct and scattered fluxes, especially oxygen on silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Filz, R. C.; Rich, F. J.; Sagalyn, Paul L.

    1991-01-01

    A number of interesting discoloration patterns are clearly evident on M0002-1 which resides on three faces of LDEF: front face, rear face, and earth face. Most interesting is the pattern of blue oxidation on polished single crystal silicon apparently produced by once-scattered ram oxygen atoms along the earth face. Most of the other patterns are seen in the Thermal Control Paint. Also, severe oxidation of CR-39 polycarbonate occurred on the front face of LDEF, as expected. A complete explanation for the patterns has not yet been obtained.

  11. Identification and Control of Gravity Related Defect Formation During Melt Growth of Bismuth-Silicate (Bi12SiO20)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Y.; Witt, A. F.

    1999-01-01

    In the light of strong indications that a majority of critical defects formed in bismuth silicon oxide (BSO) during growth from the melt is related directly or indirectly to gravitational interference, it is suggested to use the reduced gravity environment of outer space for experimentation directed at the identification and control of these defects. The results of these experiments are expected to lead to advances in our understanding of crystal growth related defect formation in general and will establish a basis for effective defect engineering, the approach to efficient achievement of defect related, application specific properties in opto-electronic materials

  12. Interface studies of tungsten gate metal-oxide-silicon capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Huiling; White, Marvin H.; Guarini, Kathryn W.; Solomon, Paul; Cartier, Eduard; McFeely, Fenton R.; Yurkas, John J.; Lee, Wen-Chin

    2001-05-01

    The Si/SiO2 interface in 100-nm-thick chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tungsten gate metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures exhibits high interface state densities (Dit0>51011/cm2 eV) after conventional forming gas anneals over varying temperatures and times. In this letter, we show this is a consequence of the low diffusivity and solubility of molecular hydrogen in tungsten and the high temperature CVD process. We have discovered that atomic hydrogen is more effective in passivating tungsten gate MOS interfaces because of its higher diffusivity in tungsten. Atomic hydrogen can be produced (1) by the reaction of aluminum with water vapor when aluminum is evaporated on the top of tungsten, (2) by hydrogen implantation, and (3) by hydrogen plasma. These techniques can passivate the Si/SiO2 interface effectively in MOS structures (Dit0<51010/cm2 eV) with 100-nm thick CVD tungsten gates.

  13. Structural silicon nitride materials containing rare earth oxides

    DOEpatents

    Andersson, Clarence A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1980-01-01

    A ceramic composition suitable for use as a high-temperature structural material, particularly for use in apparatus exposed to oxidizing atmospheres at temperatures of 400 to 1600.degree. C., is found within the triangular area ABCA of the Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 --SiO.sub.2 --M.sub.2 O.sub.3 ternary diagram depicted in FIG. 1. M is selected from the group of Yb, Dy, Er, Sc, and alloys having Yb, Y, Er, or Dy as one component and Sc, Al, Cr, Ti, (Mg +Zr) or (Ni+Zr) as a second component, said alloy having an effective ionic radius less than 0.89 A.

  14. Proposal of Trench-Oxide Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structure and Computer Simulation of Silicon Quantum-Wire Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukui, Tetsuya; Oda, Shunri

    1993-12-01

    We propose trench-oxide metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures as a novel formation method of silicon-based low-dimensional quantum structures, which are considered to be basic elements of future ultrahigh-speed and ultralarge-scale integrated devices. In this method, the applied gate voltage forms the potential well confined in an additional direction defined by ultrafine trenches on the oxide layer of the MOS structure. We characterize trench-oxide MOS quantum wire structures by two-dimensional numerical calculation of the shape of the potential well, the subband energy levels and the electron density, and investigate the possibility of the experimental observation of quantized density of states peculiar to quantum wires, by measuring capacitance-gate voltage (C-V) characteristics of trench-oxide MOS capacitors. We also have successfully fabricated trench-oxide MOS quantum wires with the width of 16 nm using electron beam (EB) lithography and electron cyclotron resonance reactive ion etching (ECR-RIE).

  15. Silicon surface deoxidation using strontium oxide deposited with the pulsed laser deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Jovanovi?, Zoran; Spreitzer, Matja; Kova?, Janez; Klement, Dejan; Suvorov, Danilo

    2014-10-22

    The epitaxial growth of functional oxides on silicon substrates requires atomically defined surfaces, which are most effectively prepared using Sr-induced deoxidation. The manipulation of metallic Sr is nevertheless very delicate and requires alternative buffer materials. In the present study the applicability of the chemically much more stable SrO in the process of native-oxide removal and silicon-surface stabilization was investigated using the pulsed-laser deposition technique (PLD), while the as-derived surfaces were analyzed in situ using reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy. After the deposition of the SrO over Si/SiO2, in a vacuum, different annealing conditions, with the temperature ranging up to 850 C, were applied. Because the deposition took place in a vacuum, a multilayer composed of SrO, Sr-silicate, modified Si, and Si as a substrate was initially formed. During the subsequent annealing the topmost layer epitaxially orders in the form of islands, while a further increase in the annealing temperature induced rapid desorption and surface deoxidation, leading to a 2 1 Sr-reconstructed silicon surface. However, the process is accompanied by distinctive surface roughening, and therefore the experimental conditions must be carefully optimized to minimize the effect. The results of the study revealed, for the first time, an effective pathway for the preparation of a SrO-induced buffer layer on a silicon substrate using PLD, which can be subsequently utilized for the epitaxial growth of functional oxides. PMID:25249034

  16. THORIUM DISPERSION IN BISMUTH

    DOEpatents

    Bryner, J.S.

    1961-07-01

    The growth of thorium bismutaide particles, which are formed when thorium is suspended in liquid bismuth, is inhibited when the liquid metal suspension is being flowed through a reactor and through a heat exchanger in sequence. It involves the addition of as little as 1 part by weight of tellurium to 100 parts of thorium. This addition is sufficient to inhibit particle growth and agglomeration.

  17. Ultrathin silicon dioxide films grown by photo-oxidation of silicon using 172 nm excimer lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliwoh, Never; Zhang, Jun-Ying; Boyd, Ian W.

    2000-12-01

    We report the low temperature growth of ultrathin SiO2 films on crystalline Si by photo-oxidation with an array of Xe2? excimer vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamps operating at a wavelength of 172 nm. Ultrathin layers from 1.2 to 3.3 nm thickness were grown at time intervals from 5 to 40 min at 100-400C at an O2 pressure of 1000 mbar. Growth rates of up to 0.2 nm min-1 have been achieved at 400C, while the chemical bonding of the films has been analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and found to be SiO2. The as-grown 3.3 nm films exhibited good dielectric properties, comparible to SiO2 films of identical thickness, grown by RTP at 800C.

  18. Silicon Metal-oxide-semiconductor Quantum Dots for Single-electron Pumping.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alessandro; Tanttu, Tuomo; Hudson, Fay E; Sun, Yuxin; Möttönen, Mikko; Dzurak, Andrew S

    2015-01-01

    As mass-produced silicon transistors have reached the nano-scale, their behavior and performances are increasingly affected, and often deteriorated, by quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling through single dopants, scattering via interface defects, and discrete trap charge states. However, progress in silicon technology has shown that these phenomena can be harnessed and exploited for a new class of quantum-based electronics. Among others, multi-layer-gated silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) technology can be used to control single charge or spin confined in electrostatically-defined quantum dots (QD). These QD-based devices are an excellent platform for quantum computing applications and, recently, it has been demonstrated that they can also be used as single-electron pumps, which are accurate sources of quantized current for metrological purposes. Here, we discuss in detail the fabrication protocol for silicon MOS QDs which is relevant to both quantum computing and quantum metrology applications. Moreover, we describe characterization methods to test the integrity of the devices after fabrication. Finally, we give a brief description of the measurement set-up used for charge pumping experiments and show representative results of electric current quantization. PMID:26067215

  19. Enhancing the far-ultraviolet sensitivity of silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor imaging arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retherford, Kurt D.; Bai, Yibin; Ryu, Kevin K.; Gregory, James A.; Welander, Paul B.; Davis, Michael W.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Winters, Gregory S.; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi; Beletic, James W.

    2015-10-01

    We report our progress toward optimizing backside-illuminated silicon P-type intrinsic N-type complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices developed by Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS) for far-ultraviolet (UV) planetary science applications. This project was motivated by initial measurements at Southwest Research Institute of the far-UV responsivity of backside-illuminated silicon PIN photodiode test structures, which revealed a promising QE in the 100 to 200 nm range. Our effort to advance the capabilities of thinned silicon wafers capitalizes on recent innovations in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) doping processes. Key achievements to date include the following: (1) representative silicon test wafers were fabricated by TIS, and set up for MBE processing at MIT Lincoln Laboratory; (2) preliminary far-UV detector QE simulation runs were completed to aid MBE layer design; (3) detector fabrication was completed through the pre-MBE step; and (4) initial testing of the MBE doping process was performed on monitoring wafers, with detailed quality assessments.

  20. Silicon Metal-oxide-semiconductor Quantum Dots for Single-electron Pumping

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Alessandro; Tanttu, Tuomo; Hudson, Fay E.; Sun, Yuxin; Möttönen, Mikko; Dzurak, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    As mass-produced silicon transistors have reached the nano-scale, their behavior and performances are increasingly affected, and often deteriorated, by quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling through single dopants, scattering via interface defects, and discrete trap charge states. However, progress in silicon technology has shown that these phenomena can be harnessed and exploited for a new class of quantum-based electronics. Among others, multi-layer-gated silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) technology can be used to control single charge or spin confined in electrostatically-defined quantum dots (QD). These QD-based devices are an excellent platform for quantum computing applications and, recently, it has been demonstrated that they can also be used as single-electron pumps, which are accurate sources of quantized current for metrological purposes. Here, we discuss in detail the fabrication protocol for silicon MOS QDs which is relevant to both quantum computing and quantum metrology applications. Moreover, we describe characterization methods to test the integrity of the devices after fabrication. Finally, we give a brief description of the measurement set-up used for charge pumping experiments and show representative results of electric current quantization. PMID:26067215

  1. Micro-wear resistance of ultrathin silicon oxide film-covered polymer substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hozumi, Atsushi; Wu, Yunying; Hayashi, Kazuyuki; Sugimura, Hiroyuki; Takai, Osamu; Yokogawa, Yoshiyuki; Kameyama, Tetsuya

    2003-06-01

    An ultrathin silicon oxide film only several nanometers in thickness was prepared on a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate at the relatively low temperature of 80 C, which is below the glass transition temperature of PMMA. Our method consisted of three processes. A hydrophobic PMMA substrate was first photochemically hydrophilized using vacuum ultraviolet light of 172 nm wavelength radiated from an excimer lamp. The photochemically treated sample was then exposed to vapor-phase tetoraethoxysilane (TEOS) as a silica precursor. Because of the chemisorbed TEOS layer thus formed, the sample surface again became relatively hydrophobic with a water-contact angle of about 70. Finally, in order to eliminate the organic phase from the chemisorbed layer, the sample was again irradiated with the same excimer lamp. As confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the binding energy (BE) of the Si 2p spectra for the chemisorbed TEOS layer shifted from 102.8 to 103.5 eV after photooxidation. This final BE value is consisted with that of amorphous silicon dioxide. The actual thickness of the oxide was estimated to be 3 nm or less by a cross-sectional image acquired by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, we investigated the micro-wear resistance of the oxide-covered PMMA substrates based on a micro-scratching test using a nanoindenter. Wear depths on the scratched oxide-covered substrates were markedly reduced by about 60-84% compared with those on bare PMMA substrates.

  2. Optimization of oxidation processes to improve crystalline silicon solar cell emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, L.; Liang, Z. C. Liu, C. F.; Long, T. J.; Wang, D. L.

    2014-02-15

    Control of the oxidation process is one key issue in producing high-quality emitters for crystalline silicon solar cells. In this paper, the oxidation parameters of pre-oxidation time, oxygen concentration during pre-oxidation and pre-deposition and drive-in time were optimized by using orthogonal experiments. By analyzing experimental measurements of short-circuit current, open circuit voltage, series resistance and solar cell efficiency in solar cells with different sheet resistances which were produced by using different diffusion processes, we inferred that an emitter with a sheet resistance of approximately 70 Ω/□ performed best under the existing standard solar cell process. Further investigations were conducted on emitters with sheet resistances of approximately 70 Ω/□ that were obtained from different preparation processes. The results indicate that emitters with surface phosphorus concentrations between 4.96 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} and 7.78 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} and with junction depths between 0.46 μm and 0.55 μm possessed the best quality. With no extra processing, the final preparation of the crystalline silicon solar cell efficiency can reach 18.41%, which is an increase of 0.4%{sub abs} compared to conventional emitters with 50 Ω/□ sheet resistance.

  3. Processing of uranium oxide and silicon carbide based fuel using polymer infiltration and pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Abhishek K.; Zunjarrao, Suraj C.; Singh, Raman P.

    2008-09-01

    Ceramic composite pellets consisting of uranium oxide, UO 2, contained within a silicon carbide matrix, were fabricated using a novel processing technique based on polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP). In this process, particles of depleted uranium oxide, in the form of U 3O 8, were dispersed in liquid allylhydridopolycarbosilane (AHPCS), and subjected to pyrolysis up to 900 C under a continuous flow of ultra high purity argon. The pyrolysis of AHPCS, at these temperatures, produced near-stoichiometric amorphous silicon carbide ( a-SiC). Multiple polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) cycles were performed to minimize open porosity and densify the silicon carbide matrix. Analytical characterization was conducted to investigate chemical interaction between U 3O 8 and SiC. It was observed that U 3O 8 reacted with AHPCS during the very first pyrolysis cycle, and was converted to UO 2. As a result, final composition of the material consisted of UO 2 particles contained in an a-SiC matrix. The physical and mechanical properties were also quantified. It is shown that this processing scheme promotes uniform distribution of uranium fuel source along with a high ceramic yield of the parent matrix.

  4. Bismuth toxicity in patients treated with bismuth iodoform paraffin packs.

    PubMed

    Atwal, A; Cousin, G C S

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth is a heavy metal used in bismuth iodoform paraffin paste (BIPP) antiseptic dressings and in a number of other medical preparations. It can be absorbed systemically and cause toxicity. We report 2 cases of such neurotoxicity after it was used in operations on the jaws. PMID:26608687

  5. Oxidation of silicon nitride sintered with rare-earth oxide additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mieskowski, D. M.; Sanders, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of rare-earth oxide additions on the oxidation of sintered Si3N4 were examined. Insignificant oxidation occurred at 700 and 1000 C, with no evidence of phase instability. At 1370 C, the oxidation rate was lowest for Y2O3 and increased for additions of La2O3, Sm2O3, and CeO2, in that order. Data obtained from X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, and scanning electron microscopy indicate that oxidation occurs via diffusion of cationic species from Si3N4 grain boundaries.

  6. Enhanced electron-hole droplet emission from surface-oxidized silicon photonic crystal nanocavities.

    PubMed

    Sumikura, Hisashi; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya

    2016-01-25

    We have observed electron-hole droplet (EHD) emission enhanced by silicon photonic crystal (Si PhC) nanocavities with a surface oxide. The EHD is employed as a massive emitter that remains inside the nanocavity to achieve efficient cavity-emitter coupling. Time-resolved emission measurements demonstrate that the surface oxide greatly reduces the nonradiative annihilation of the EHDs and maintains them in the PhC nanocavities. It is found that the surface-oxidized Si PhC nanocavity enhances EHD emission in addition to the Purcell enhancement of the resonant cavity, which will contribute to works on Si light emission and the cavity quantum electrodynamics of electron-hole condensates. PMID:26832491

  7. Photoemission spectroscopy of heterojunctions of hydrogenated amorphous silicon with silicon oxide and nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Abeles, B.; Eberhardt, W.; Stasiewski, H.; Sondericker, D.

    1989-02-01

    The growth and electronic structure of a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H and a-Si:H/a-SiOx:H heterojunctions have been studied by photoemission spectroscopy. Si 2p core-level photoemission was used to profile the chemical composition microscopically across the interfaces. With the exception of the SiOx-on-Si interface, which due to initial plasma oxidation is graded over ~3 Å, the interfaces are atomically abrupt. The offset energies between the a-Si:H valence-band edge and that of a-SiNx:H and a-SiOx:H, determined by valence-band photoemission, are 1.2 and 4.0 eV, respectively. Based on the fact that the offset energy is independent of a-Si:H layer thickness down to monolayer dimensions, we concluded that hole wave functions in a-Si:H are extremely localized. From the variation of the intensity of the Si-H bonding peak, located at ~7 eV below the Fermi level, as a function of a-Si:H overlayer thickness, we determined that there are ~21015 cm-2 extra H atoms incorporated at the interface region to compensate for the large lattice mismatch at the interface. The invariance of the Si L2,3 absorption edge with a-Si:H overlayer thickness indicates that the range of the core-hole exciton is less than 6 Å. The downward shifts in energy of the absorption edge in ultrathin a-SiNx:H and a-SiOx:H overlayers on a-Si:H are interpreted as optical transitions in which the photoexcited electrons in the insulator overlayer tunnel into the conduction band of a-Si:H.

  8. Ion beam reactive sputter-deposition of silicon and zirconium oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Pringle, S.D.; Valizadeh, R.; Colligon, J.S.; Faunce, C.A.; Kheyrandish, H.

    1996-12-31

    Oxides of silicon and zirconium have been deposited onto silicon, carbon and aluminum substrates by reactive sputtering using a 1 keV argon ion beam and a controlled partial pressure of oxygen. Using RBS, film composition was determined for a given partial pressure of oxygen and different Si or Zr deposition rates. There is evidence of retained argon in the film which is primarily due to argon ions reflected from the sputtered target. Cross-sectional TEM was used to examine the film microstructure and morphology. Both silica films and sub-stoichiometric zirconia films were found to be amorphous, whereas stoichiometric zirconia films were found to be polycrystalline with grain sizes in the range 10--20 nm. A model has been developed to predict the composition of deposited films.

  9. Plasmonic silicon solar cell based on silver nanoparticles using ultra-thin anodic aluminum oxide template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Wen-Jeng; Cheng, Po-Yueh; Hsiao, Kuan-Yu

    2015-11-01

    This study fabricated a plasmonic silicon solar cell covered with silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) using an ultra-thin anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template as a deposition mask. An ultra-thin AAO template of approximately 200 nm was produced using a single-step anodization process in which an Al substrate was etched with phosphoric acid (H3PO4) for 3 min. We then used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the thickness and density of the AAO as a function of anodization duration, the results of which were confirmed by optical transmission measurement. The photovoltaic performance of the resulting silicon solar cell with Ag NPs was characterized according to photovoltaic current-voltage and external quantum efficiency. The inclusion of Ag NPs resulted in a 32.92% increase in conversion efficiency, compared with reference solar cells produced without Ag NPs.

  10. Interaction of silicon-based quantum dots with gibel carp liver: oxidative and structural modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanca, Loredana; Petrache, Sorina Nicoleta; Serban, Andreea Iren; Staicu, Andrea Cristina; Sima, Cornelia; Munteanu, Maria Cristina; Zărnescu, Otilia; Dinu, Diana; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2013-05-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) interaction with living organisms is of central interest due to their various biological and medical applications. One of the most important mechanisms proposed for various silicon nanoparticle-mediated toxicity is oxidative stress. We investigated the basic processes of cellular damage by oxidative stress and tissue injury following QD accumulation in the gibel carp liver after intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 2 mg/kg body weight Si/SiO2 QDs after 1, 3, and 7 days from their administration. QDs gradual accumulation was highlighted by fluorescence microscopy, and subsequent histological changes in the hepatic tissue were noted. After 1 and 3 days, QD-treated fish showed an increased number of macrophage clusters and fibrosis, while hepatocyte basophilia and isolated hepatolytic microlesions were observed only after substantial QDs accumulation in the liver parenchyma, at 7 days after IP injection. Induction of oxidative stress in fish liver was revealed by the formation of malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products, as well as a decrease in protein thiol groups and reduced glutathione levels. The liver enzymatic antioxidant defense was modulated to maintain the redox status in response to the changes initiated by Si/SiO2 QDs. So, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were upregulated starting from the first day after injection, while the activity of superoxide dismutase increased only after 7 days. The oxidative damage that still occurred may impair the activity of more sensitive enzymes. A significant inhibition in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione-S-transferase activity was noted, while glutathione reductase remained unaltered. Taking into account that the reduced glutathione level had a deep decline and the level of lipid peroxidation products remained highly increased in the time interval we studied, it appears that the liver antioxidant defense of Carassius gibelio does not counteract the oxidative stress induced 7 days after silicon-based QDs exposure in an efficient manner.

  11. Interaction of silicon-based quantum dots with gibel carp liver: oxidative and structural modifications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) interaction with living organisms is of central interest due to their various biological and medical applications. One of the most important mechanisms proposed for various silicon nanoparticle-mediated toxicity is oxidative stress. We investigated the basic processes of cellular damage by oxidative stress and tissue injury following QD accumulation in the gibel carp liver after intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 2 mg/kg body weight Si/SiO2 QDs after 1, 3, and 7 days from their administration. QDs gradual accumulation was highlighted by fluorescence microscopy, and subsequent histological changes in the hepatic tissue were noted. After 1 and 3 days, QD-treated fish showed an increased number of macrophage clusters and fibrosis, while hepatocyte basophilia and isolated hepatolytic microlesions were observed only after substantial QDs accumulation in the liver parenchyma, at 7 days after IP injection. Induction of oxidative stress in fish liver was revealed by the formation of malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products, as well as a decrease in protein thiol groups and reduced glutathione levels. The liver enzymatic antioxidant defense was modulated to maintain the redox status in response to the changes initiated by Si/SiO2 QDs. So, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were upregulated starting from the first day after injection, while the activity of superoxide dismutase increased only after 7 days. The oxidative damage that still occurred may impair the activity of more sensitive enzymes. A significant inhibition in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione-S-transferase activity was noted, while glutathione reductase remained unaltered. Taking into account that the reduced glutathione level had a deep decline and the level of lipid peroxidation products remained highly increased in the time interval we studied, it appears that the liver antioxidant defense of Carassius gibelio does not counteract the oxidative stress induced 7 days after silicon-based QDs exposure in an efficient manner. PMID:23718202

  12. Composition, process, and apparatus, for removal of water and silicon mu-oxides from chlorosilanes

    DOEpatents

    Tom, Glenn M.; McManus, James V.

    1991-10-15

    A scavenger composition having utility for removal of water and silicon mu-oxide impurities from chlorosilanes, such scavenger composition comprising: (a) a support; and (b) associated with the support, one or more compound(s) selected from the group consisting of compounds of the formula: R.sub.a-x MCl.sub.x wherein: M is a metal selected from the group consisting of the monovalent metals lithium, sodium, and potassium; the divalent metals magnesium, strontium, barium, and calcium; and the trivalent metal aluminum; R is alkyl; a is a number equal to the valency of metal M; and x is a number having a value from 0 to a, inclusive; and wherein said compound(s) of the formula R.sub.a-x MCl.sub.x have been activated for impurity-removal service by a reaction scheme selected from those of the group consisting of: (i) reaction of such compound(s) with hydrogen chloride to form a first reaction product therefrom, followed by reaction of the first reaction product with a chlorosilane of the formula: SiH.sub.4"y Cl.sub.y, wherein y is a number having a value of from 1 to 3, inclusive; and (ii) reaction of such compound(s) with a chlorosilane of the formula: SiH.sub.4-y Cl.sub.y wherein y is a number having a value of 1 to 3, inclusive. A corresponding method of making the scavenger composition, and of purifying a chlorosilane which contains oxygen and silicon mu-oxide impurities, likewise are disclosed, together with a purifier apparatus, in which a bed of the scavenger composition is disposed. The composition, purification process, and purifier apparatus of the invention have utility in purifying gaseous chlorosilanes which are employed in the semiconductor industry as silicon source reagents for forming epitaxial silicon layers.

  13. Process for removal of water and silicon mu-oxides from chlorosilanes

    DOEpatents

    Tom, Glenn M.; McManus, James V.

    1992-03-10

    A scavenger composition having utility for removal of water and silicon mu-oxide impurities from chlorosilanes, such scavenger composition comprising: (a) a support; and (b) associated with the support, one or more compound(s) selected from the group consisting of compounds of the formula: R.sub.a-x MCl.sub.x wherein: M is a metal selected from the group consisting of the monovalent metals lithium, sodium, and potassium; the divalent metals magnesium, strontium, barium, and calcium; and the trivalent metal aluminum; R is alkyl; a is a number equal to the valency of metal M; and x is a number having a value of from 0 to a, inclusive; and wherein said compound(s) of the formula R.sub.a-x MCl.sub.x have been activated for impurity-removal service by a reaction scheme selected from those of the group consisting of: (i) reaction of such compound(s) with hydrogen chloride to form a first reaction product therefrom, followed by reaction of the first reaction product with a chlorosilane of the formula: SiH.sub.4-y Cl.sub.y, wherein y is a number having a value of from 1 to 3, inclusive; and (ii) reaction of such compound(s) with a chlorosilane of the formula: SiH.sub.4-y Cl.sub.y wherein y is a number having a value of 1 to 3, inclusive. A corresponding method of making the scavenger composition, and of purifying a chlorosilane which contains oxygen and silicon mu-oxide impurities, likewise are disclosed, together with a purifier apparatus, in which a bed of the scavenger composition is disposed. The composition, purification process, and purifier apparatus of the invention have utility in purifying gaseous chlorosilanes which are employed in the semiconductor industry as silicon source reagents for forming epitaxial silicon layers.

  14. A Modified Oxidative Refinement Process for Removing Boron from Molten Silicon Under Enhanced Electromagnetic Force.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Kyu; Lee, Jin-Seok; Jang, Bo-Yun; Kim, Joon-Soo; Ahn, Young-Soo; Kang, Gi-Hwan; Cho, Churl-Hee

    2015-11-01

    The removal of boron is one of the main challenges in the purification of metallurgical grade silicon destined for low-cost photovoltaic applications. However, boron is very difficult to remove in its elemental form due to its large segregation coefficient in silicon and its low vapor pressure. The removal of boron by slag treatment is today regarded as a highly promising method, but its refining efficiency is relatively low. Also, the reduction of boron by plasma treatment exhibits a high refining efficiency, but the processing cost is high due to the large amount of electricity consumed by the process. In this regard, the use of an oxidizing reactive gas in the refinement process offers some advantages both in terms of low energy consumption and promising refinement rates. Boron can be extracted in various gaseous forms as B(x)O(y) and/or B(x)H(z)O(y) phases, but the vapor pressure of B(x)H(z)O(y) is much greater than that of the other specie at a temperature of 1700 K. The present study reports a modified oxidative refining method designed to enhance the vaporization of boron as B(x)H(z)O(y) by blowing gaseous water onto the silicon melt in a segmented crucible to enhance the electromagnetic force, whereby the processing cost can be dramatically reduced due to the use of a reusable quartz crucible in a graphite crucible. An initial boron content of 13 ppm in the metallurgical grade silicon was significantly decreased to 0.3 ppm by the employment of 1.7SLM Ar + 100 ml/h H2O. Also, a mechanism capable of reducing boron based on thermodynamic considerations is proposed. PMID:26726550

  15. Hydrogen passivation of silicon(100) used as templates for low-temperature epitaxy and oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atluri, Vasudeva Prasad

    Epitaxial growth, oxidation and ohmic contacts require surfaces as free as possible of physical defects and chemical contaminants, especially, oxygen and hydrocarbons. Wet chemical cleaning typically involves a RCA clean to remove contaminants by stripping the native oxide and regrowing a chemical oxide with only trace levels of carbon and metallic impurities. Low temperature epitaxy, T<800sp° C, limits the thermal budget for the desorption of impurities and surface oxides, and can be performed on processed structures. But, silicon dioxide cannot be desorbed at temperatures lower than 800sp°C. Recently, hydrogen passivation of Si(111) has been reported to produce stable and ordered surfaces at low temperatures. Hydrogen can then be desorbed between 200sp°C and 600sp°C prior to deposition. In this work, Si(100) is passivated via a solution of hydrofluoric acid in alcohol (methanol, ethanol, or isopropyl alcohol) with HF concentrations between 0.5 to 10%. A rinse in water or alcohol is performed after etching to remove excess fluorine. This work investigates wet chemical cleaning of Si(100) to produce ordered, hydrogen-terminated, oxygen- and carbon-free surfaces to be used as templates for low temperature epitaxial growth and rapid thermal oxidation. Ion beam analysis, Tapping mode atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Secondary ion mass spectroscopy, Chemical etching, Capacitance-voltage measurements and Ellipsometry are used to measure, at the surface and interface, impurities concentration, residual disorder, crystalline order, surface topography, roughness, chemical composition, defects density, electrical characteristics, thickness, and refractive index as a function of cleaning conditions for homoepitaxial silicon growth and oxidation. The wetting characteristics of the Si(100) surfaces are measured with a tilting plate technique. Different materials are analyzed by ion beam analysis for use as hydrogen standards in elastic recoil detection of hydrogen on sample surfaces. The results obtained in this study provide a quantitative optimization of passivation of Si(100) surfaces and their use as templates for low temperature epitaxy and rapid thermal oxidation. Ion beam analysis shows that the total coverage of H increases during passivation of Si(100) via HF in alcohol, while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates that more complex termination than the formation of simple silicon hydrides occurs.

  16. Pull-test adhesion measurements of diamondlike carbon films on silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, and zirconium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Erck, R.A.; Nichols, F.A.; Dierks, J.F.

    1993-10-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon films or diamondlike carbon (DLC) films were formed by ion-beam deposition of 400 eV methane (CH{sub 4}) ions on several smooth and rough ceramics, as well as on ceramics coated with a layer of Si and Ti. Adhesion was measured by the pin-pull method. Excellent adhesion was measured for smooth SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, but adhesion of DLC to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} was negligible. The use of a Si bonding interlayer produced good adhesion to all the substrates, but a Ti layer was ineffective because bonding between the DLC film and Ti was poor. The presence of surface roughness appeared to greatly increase the measured adhesion in all cases. Bulk thermodynamic calculations are not directly applicable to bonding at the interface. If the standard enthalpy of formation for reaction between CH{sub 4} and substrate is calculated assumpting a carbide or carbon phase is produced, a relation is seen between reaction enthalpy and relative adhesion. Large positive enthalpies are associated with poor adhesion; negative or small positive enthalpies are associated with good adhesion. This relation between enthalpy and adhesion was also observed for DLC deposited on Si. Lack of adhesion to Ti was attributed to inadvertent formation of a surface oxide layer that rendered the enthalpy for reaction with CH{sub 4} strongly positive and similar in magnitude to that for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}.

  17. Band offsets of a ruthenium gate on ultrathin high-{kappa} oxide films on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Rangan, Sylvie; Bersch, Eric; Bartynski, Robert Allen; Garfunkel, Eric; Vescovo, Elio

    2009-02-15

    Valence-band and conduction-band edges of ultrathin oxides (SiO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, Hf{sub 0.7}Si{sub 0.3}O{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown on silicon) and their shifts upon sequential metallization with ruthenium have been measured using synchrotron-radiation-excited x-ray, ultraviolet, and inverse photoemissions. From these techniques, the offsets between the valence-band and conduction-band edges of the oxides, and the ruthenium metal gate Fermi edge have been directly measured. In addition the core levels of the oxides and the ruthenium have been characterized. Upon deposition, Ru remains metallic and no chemical alteration of the underlying oxide gates, or interfacial SiO{sub 2} in the case of the high-{kappa} thin films, can be detected. However a clear shift of the band edges is measured for all samples due to the creation of an interface dipole at the ruthenium-oxide interface. Using the energy gap, the electron affinity of the oxides, and the ruthenium work function that have been directly measured on these samples, the experimental band offsets are compared to those predicted by the induced gap states model.

  18. Reliability of potassium ion electret in silicon oxide for vibrational energy harvester applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Kensuke; Sugiyama, Tatsuhiko; Hashiguchi, Gen; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the long-term reliability of potassium ion electret included in a thermally grown silicon oxide. The electret in this work is used in a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) energy harvester to generate electrical current from mechanical vibration. A spring-mass system similar to a comb-drive electrostatic actuator is developed by silicon micromachining, and the surface is oxidized by wet-oxidation through a potassium hydroxide bubbler, thereby including potassium atoms at a high concentration. The potassium is then electrically polarized by an applied voltage of 150 V at 650 C for 5 min. Degradation of the stored polarization potential is monitored in a vacuum of 1 10-3 Pa at elevated temperatures of 350, 400, and 450 C. The time needed to cause a -1 dB decay of the potential is used as the lifetime of the electret, and the Arrhenius extrapolation plot suggested a life time of more than 400 years at 25 C.

  19. Silicon improves seed germination and alleviates oxidative stress of bud seedlings in tomato under water deficit stress.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Yao, Hejin; Wu, Jiawen; Sun, Hao; Gong, Haijun

    2014-05-01

    The beneficial effects of silicon on plant growth and development under drought have been widely reported. However, little information is available on the effects of silicon on seed germination under drought. In this work, the effects of exogenous silicon (0.5 mM) on the seed germination and tolerance performance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) bud seedlings under water deficit stress simulated by 10% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) were investigated in four cultivars ('Jinpengchaoguan', 'Zhongza No.9', 'Houpi L402' and 'Oubao318'). The results showed that the seed germination percentage was notably decreased in the four cultivars under water stress, and it was significantly improved by added silicon. Compared with the non-silicon treatment, silicon addition increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and decreased the production of superoxide anion (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the radicles of bud seedlings under water stress. Addition of silicon decreased the total phenol concentrations in radicles under water stress, which might contribute to the decrease of peroxidase (POD) activity, as observed in the in vivo and in vitro experiments. The decrease of POD activity might contribute to a less accumulation of hydroxyl radical (OH) under water stress. Silicon addition also decreased the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the radicles under stress, indicating decreased lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that exogenous silicon could improve seed germination and alleviate oxidative stress to bud seedling of tomato by enhancing antioxidant defense. The positive effects of silicon observed in a silicon-excluder also suggest the active involvement of silicon in biochemical processes in plants. PMID:24607576

  20. An investigation of Si-SiO2 interface charges in thermally oxidated (100), (110), (111), (511) silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkavage, Susan C.; Irene, Eugene A.; Massoud, Hisham Z.

    1990-12-01

    Trends in the electronic properties of the Si-SiO2 interface with various processing have been frequently reported. The present study focuses on silicon substrate orientation dependent trends in fixed oxide charge, Q(sub f), and interface trap charge, D(sub it), for four silicon orientations: (100), (110), (111), and (511), for oxidation temperatures in the 750 to 1100 C range, with and without hydrogen-containing post-metal anneals, and for processing within and without a cleanroom. It is found that the presence of mobile ionic charge in non-cleanroom processing and the lack of post-metal annealing can either obscure or enhance some trends. Both Q(sub f) and D(sub it) increase for decreasing oxidation temperature for all silicon orientations. The orientational ordering of the charges varies with oxidation temperature and is dominated by the silicon atom areal density at the lowest temperatures with (110) Si having the highest charge, but a change to the (111) orientation is observed at higher oxidation temperatures. This orientational charge parallels the orientational oxidation rate ordering but not the intrinsic stress. A model is proposed that considers the orientationally dominated oxidation rate, viscous relaxation, and strain accommodation across the interface as crucial processes.

  1. In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial Layers on Silicon Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yang; Piper, Daniela M.; Gu, Meng; Travis, Jonathan J.; George, Steven M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Genc, Arda; Pullan, Lee; Liu, Jun; Mao, Scott X.; Zhang, Jiguang; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-11-25

    Surface modification of silicon nanoparticle via molecular layer deposition (MLD) has been recently proved to be an effective way for dramatically enhancing the cyclic performance in lithium ion batteries. However, the fundamental mechanism as how this thin layer of coating function is not known, which is even complicated by the inevitable presence of native oxide of several nanometers on the silicon nanoparticle. Using in-situ TEM, we probed in detail the structural and chemical evolution of both uncoated and coated silicon particles upon cyclic lithiation/delithation. We discovered that upon initial lithiation, the native oxide layer converts to crystalline Li2O islands, which essentially increases the impedance on the particle, resulting in ineffective lithiation/delithiation, and therefore low coulombic efficiency. In contrast, the alucone MLD coated particles show extremely fast, thorough and highly reversible lithiation behaviors, which are clarified to be associated with the mechanical flexibility and fast Li+/e- conductivity of the alucone coating. Surprisingly, the alucone MLD coating process chemically changes the silicon surface, essentially removing the native oxide layer and therefore mitigates side reaction and detrimental effects of the native oxide. This study provides a vivid picture of how the MLD coating works to enhance the coulombic efficiency and preserve capacity and clarifies the role of the native oxide on silicon nanoparticles during cyclic lithiation and delithiation. More broadly, this work also demonstrated that the effect of the subtle chemical modification of the surface during the coating process may be of equal importance as the coating layer itself.

  2. Oxidation behavior in reaction-bonded aluminum-silicon alloy/alumina powder compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, S.H.

    1992-12-01

    Goal of this research is to determine the feasibility of producing low-shrinkage mullite/alumina composites by applying the reaction-bonded alumina (RBAO) process to an aluminum-silicon alloy/alumina system. Mirostructural and compositional changes during heat treatment were studied by removing samples from the furnace at different steps in the heating schedule and then using optical and scanning electron microscopy, EDS and XRD to characterize the powder compacts. Results suggest that the oxidation behavior of the alloy compact is different from the model proposed for the pure Al/alumina system.

  3. Fast and simple specimen preparation for TEM studies of oxide films deposited on silicon wafers.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Valentin S; Blanchin, Marie-Genevieve

    2009-02-01

    We present a fast and simple method to prepare specimens for transmission electron microscopy studies of oxide thin films deposited on silicon substrates. The method consists of scratching the film surface using a pointed diamond tip, in a special manner. Small and thin fragments are then detached from the film and its substrate. Depending on the scratching direction, the fragments can be used for plan-view or cross-section imaging. High-resolution images can be also obtained from thin edges of the film fragments. The method is demonstrated in the case of HfO2 sol-gel films deposited on [100] Si wafer substrates. PMID:19144253

  4. Scattering strength of the scatterer inducing variability in graphene on silicon oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoch, Jyoti; Le, Duy; Singh, Simranjeet; Rao, Rahul; Rahman, Talat S.; Ishigami, Masa

    2016-03-01

    Large variability of carrier mobility of graphene-based field effect transistors hampers graphene science and technology. We show that the number of the scatterer responsible for the observed variability on graphene devices on silicon oxide can be determined by finding the number of hydrogen that can be chemisorbed on graphene. We use the relationship between the number of the scatterer and the mobility of graphene devices to determine that the variability-inducing scatterer possesses scattering strength 10 times smaller than that of adsorbed potassium atoms and 50 times smaller than that of ion-beam induced vacancies. Our results provide an important, quantitative input towards determining the origin of the variability.

  5. Epitaxial ferromagnetic oxide thin films on silicon with atomically sharp interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Coux, P. de; Bachelet, R.; Fontcuberta, J.; Sánchez, F.; Warot-Fonrose, B.; Skumryev, V.; Lupina, L.; Niu, G.; Schroeder, T.

    2014-07-07

    A bottleneck in the integration of functional oxides with silicon, either directly grown or using a buffer, is the usual formation of an amorphous interfacial layer. Here, we demonstrate that ferromagnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films can be grown epitaxially on Si(111) using a Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layer, and remarkably the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(111) interface is stable and remains atomically sharp. CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films present high crystal quality and high saturation magnetization.

  6. Low voltage resistive switching devices based on chemically produced silicon oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei

    2013-08-01

    We developed nonvolatile metal/SiOx/Si memristive devices based on ultrathin (˜1 nm) silicon oxide that was produced in a Piranha solution. The devices exhibited repeatable resistive switching behavior with low programming voltages (as low as 0.5 V) and high ON/OFF conductance ratio. Devices with active metals as top electrodes were bipolar switches, while those with inert metal electrodes were unipolar. We also studied the switching mechanisms for both types of devices based on the filament formation and rupture, and proposed conduction models for Pt/SiOx/Si devices.

  7. Impact of thermal oxidation, surface chemistry and porous silicon morphology for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmychek, I. A.; Kopylov, D. A.; Murzina, T. V.; Baldini, F.; Berneschi, S.; Farnesi, D.; Giannetti, A.; Tombelli, S.; Nunzi Conti, G.; Soria, S.

    2013-03-01

    An ideal diagnostic device should be inexpensive, easy-to-use, rapid and reliable. Nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) satisfies these criterions including label-free optical detection and high throughput detection. Pore morphology (size, porosity) must be tailored for each specific application, and for immunosensing applications PSi morphology has been optimized for maximal pore infiltration of larger proteins as immuno gamma globlulin (IgG). Sensor degradation by high salt concentration induces a baseline drift. Different thermal oxidation procedures have been studied in order to obtain a stable sensor in the 3 hour incubation period of the immunoassay with negligible drift

  8. Ultrasensitive food toxin biosensor using frequency based signals of silicon oxide nanoporous structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, H.; RoyChaudhuri, C.

    2013-06-01

    We report an electrochemically fabricated silicon oxide nanoporous structure for ultrasensitive detection of AfB1 in food by shift in peak frequency corresponding to maximum sensitivity. It has been observed that the impedance sensitivity changes from 19% to 40% (which is only twice) where as the peak frequency shifts from 500 Hz to 50 kHz, for a change in concentration from 1 fg/ml to 1 pg/ml. This has been attributed to the combined effect of the significant pore narrowing with increasing AfB1 concentration and the opposing nature of impedance change within the nanopores and the conducting substrate immediately below the nanoporous layer.

  9. The electroluminescence mechanism of Er³⁺ in different silicon oxide and silicon nitride environments

    SciTech Connect

    Rebohle, L. Wutzler, R.; Braun, M.; Helm, M.; Skorupa, W.; Berencén, Y.; Ramírez, J. M.; Garrido, B.; Hiller, D.

    2014-09-28

    Rare earth doped metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures are of great interest for Si-based light emission. However, several physical limitations make it difficult to achieve the performance of light emitters based on compound semiconductors. To address this point, in this work the electroluminescence (EL) excitation and quenching mechanism of Er-implanted MOS structures with different designs of the dielectric stack are investigated. The devices usually consist of an injection layer made of SiO₂ and an Er-implanted layer made of SiO₂, Si-rich SiO₂, silicon nitride, or Si-rich silicon nitride. All structures implanted with Er show intense EL around 1540 nm with EL power efficiencies in the order of 2 × 10⁻³ (for SiO₂:Er) or 2 × 10⁻⁴(all other matrices) for lower current densities. The EL is excited by the impact of hot electrons with an excitation cross section in the range of 0.5–1.5 × 10⁻¹⁵cm⁻². Whereas the fraction of potentially excitable Er ions in SiO₂ can reach values up to 50%, five times lower values were observed for other matrices. The decrease of the EL decay time for devices with Si-rich SiO₂ or Si nitride compared to SiO₂ as host matrix implies an increase of the number of defects adding additional non-radiative de-excitation paths for Er³⁺. For all investigated devices, EL quenching cross sections in the 10⁻²⁰ cm² range and charge-to-breakdown values in the range of 1–10 C cm⁻² were measured. For the present design with a SiO₂ acceleration layer, thickness reduction and the use of different host matrices did not improve the EL power efficiency or the operation lifetime, but strongly lowered the operation voltage needed to achieve intense EL.

  10. The oxidized porous silicon vacuum microtriode: A revolutionary new type of field emission array

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.D.; Demroff, H.P.; Elliott, T.S.; Faber, J.S.; Lee, B.; Mazumdar, T.; McIntyre, P.M.; Trost, H.J.; Pang, Y.

    1997-08-01

    Yue began studying porous silicon-based vacuum microelectronic devices i n1990. Results from a device he dubbed the Oxidized Porous Silicon Field Emission Diode (OPSFED) showed that porous silicon (PS) offered an attractive alternative to standard field emission devices. Emission sites are reduced to near-atomic dimensions and site density is increased by six orders of magnitude. Yue, and later Madduri extracted electrons into the vacuum in a diode configuration, but no attempt to build a triode device had ever been successful. Using a novel metallization technique developed by Dr. R.C. Jaklevic et al. for use in STM imaging, the authors have successfully fabricated the first working PS-based vacuum microtriodes. Results are extremely encouraging. Collector currents up to 700 {micro}A were extracted across {approximately}3mm of vacuum with a pulsed DC gate bias of less than 20V. Simultaneous measurement of the gate current showed current densities to 700A/cm{sup 2}. Modulation of the emission to 5MH: was observed. Fowler-Nordheim plots show a slight curvature, as would be expected from extremely sharp emission tips, although it is stressed that the electroemissive mechanism is as yet unknown. Fowler-Nordheim plots for OPSFED`s made from the same material show an opposite curvature as predicted for emission from a large number of sites. Density of emitters approach a true two-dimensional limit, and many applications exist if the technology can be matured.

  11. ZnO transparent conductive oxide for thin film silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderström, T.; Dominé, D.; Feltrin, A.; Despeisse, M.; Meillaud, F.; Bugnon, G.; Boccard, M.; Cuony, P.; Haug, F.-J.; Faÿ, S.; Nicolay, S.; Ballif, C.

    2010-03-01

    There is general agreement that the future production of electric energy has to be renewable and sustainable in the long term. Photovoltaic (PV) is booming with more than 7GW produced in 2008 and will therefore play an important role in the future electricity supply mix. Currently, crystalline silicon (c-Si) dominates the market with a share of about 90%. Reducing the cost per watt peak and energy pay back time of PV was the major concern of the last decade and remains the main challenge today. For that, thin film silicon solar cells has a strong potential because it allies the strength of c-Si (i.e. durability, abundancy, non toxicity) together with reduced material usage, lower temperature processes and monolithic interconnection. One of the technological key points is the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) used for front contact, barrier layer or intermediate reflector. In this paper, we report on the versatility of ZnO grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (ZnO LP-CVD) and its application in thin film silicon solar cells. In particular, we focus on the transparency, the morphology of the textured surface and its effects on the light in-coupling for micromorph tandem cells in both the substrate (n-i-p) and superstrate (p-i-n) configurations. The stabilized efficiencies achieved in Neuchâtel are 11.2% and 9.8% for p-i-n (without ARC) and n-i-p (plastic substrate), respectively.

  12. Bismuth ochers from San Diego Co., California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaller, W.T.

    1911-01-01

    The chief points brought out in this paper may be briefly summarized as follows: (1) The existence of natural Bi2O3 has not been established. (2) Natural bismite or bismuth ocher, when pure, is more probably a bismuth hydroxide. (3) The bismuth ochers from San Diego County, California, are either a bismuth hydroxide or bismuth vanadate, pucherite, or mixtures of these two. (4) Pucherite has been found noncrystallin and determined for the first time in the United States.

  13. High k nanophase zinc oxide on biomimetic silicon nanotip array as supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Han, Hsieh-Cheng; Chong, Cheong-Wei; Wang, Sheng-Bo; Heh, Dawei; Tseng, Chi-Ang; Huang, Yi-Fan; Chattopadhyay, Surojit; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Feng; Lee, Jiun-Haw; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2013-04-10

    A 3D trenched-structure metal-insulator-metal (MIM) nanocapacitor array with an ultrahigh equivalent planar capacitance (EPC) of ~300 ?F cm(-2) is demonstrated. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) bilayer dielectric is deposited on 1 ?m high biomimetic silicon nanotip (SiNT) substrate using the atomic layer deposition method. The large EPC is achieved by utilizing the large surface area of the densely packed SiNT (!5 10(10) cm(-2)) coated conformally with an ultrahigh dielectric constant of ZnO. The EPC value is 30 times higher than those previously reported in metal-insulator-metal or metal-insulator-semiconductor nanocapacitors using similar porosity dimensions of the support materials. PMID:23432577

  14. Charge separation technique for metal-oxide-silicon capacitors in the presence of hydrogen deactivated dopants

    SciTech Connect

    WITCZAK,STEVEN C.; WINOKUR,PETER S.; LACOE,RONALD C.; MAYER,DONALD C.

    2000-02-01

    An improved charge separation technique for metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) capacitors is presented which accounts for the deactivation of substrate dopants by hydrogen at elevated irradiation temperatures or small irradiation biases. Using high-frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements, radiation-induced inversion voltage shifts are separated into components due to oxide trapped charge, interface traps and deactivated dopants, where the latter is computed from a reduction in Si capacitance. In the limit of no radiation-induced dopant deactivation, this approach reduces to the standard midgap charge separation technique used widely for the analysis of room-temperature irradiations. The technique is demonstrated on a p-type MOS capacitor irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays at 100 C and zero bias, where the dopant deactivation is significant.

  15. Location of holes in silicon-rich oxide as memory states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, I.; Lombardo, S.; Rimini, E.; Gerardi, C.; Fazio, B.; Melanotte, M.

    2002-11-01

    The induced changes of the flatband voltage by the location of holes in a silicon-rich oxide (SRO) film sandwiched between two thin SiO2 layers [used as gate dielectric in a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor] can be used as the two states of a memory cell. The principle of operation is based on holes permanently trapped in the SRO layer and reversibly moved up and down, close to the metal and the semiconductor, in order to obtain the two logic states of the memory. The concept has been verified by suitable experiments on MOS structures. The device exhibits an excellent endurance behavior and, due to the low mobility of the holes at low field in the SRO layer, a much longer refresh time compared to conventional dynamic random access memory cells.

  16. Charge separation technique for metal-oxide-silicon capacitors in the presence of hydrogen deactivated dopants

    SciTech Connect

    Witczak, Steven C.; Winokur, Peter S.; Lacoe, Ronald C.; Mayer, Donald C.

    2000-06-01

    An improved charge separation technique for metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) capacitors is presented which accounts for the deactivation of substrate dopants by hydrogen at elevated irradiation temperatures or small irradiation biases. Using high-frequency capacitance-voltage measurements, radiation-induced inversion voltage shifts are separated into components due to oxide trapped charge, interface traps, and deactivated dopants, where the latter is computed from a reduction in Si capacitance. In the limit of no radiation-induced dopant deactivation, this approach reduces to the standard midgap charge separation technique used widely for the analysis of room-temperature irradiations. The technique is demonstrated on a p-type MOS capacitor irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays at 100 degree sign C and zero bias, where the dopant deactivation is significant.(c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Fatigue failure in thin-film polycrystalline silicon is due to subcritical cracking within the oxide layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsem, D. H.; Stach, E. A.; Muhlstein, C. L.; Ritchie, R. O.

    2005-01-01

    It has been established that microelectromechanical systems created from polycrystalline silicon thin films are subject to cyclic fatigue. Prior work by the authors has suggested that although bulk silicon is not susceptible to fatigue failure in ambient air, fatigue in micron-scale silicon is a result of a "reaction-layer" process, whereby high stresses induce a thickening of the post-release oxide at stress concentrations such as notches, which subsequently undergoing moisture-assisted cracking. However, there exists some controversy regarding the post-release oxide thickness of the samples used in the prior study. In this letter, we present data from devices from a more recent fabrication run that confirm our prior observations. Additionally, new data from tests in high vacuum show that these devices do not fatigue when oxidation and moisture are suppressed. Each of these observations lends credence to the "reaction-layer" mechanism.

  18. Oxidatively stable nanoporous silicon photocathodes with enhanced onset voltage for photoelectrochemical proton reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Anderson, N C; Zhu, K; Aguiar, J A; Seabold, J A; van de Lagemaat, J; Branz, H M; Neale, N R; Oh, J

    2015-04-01

    Stable and high-performance nanoporous "black silicon" photoelectrodes with electrolessly deposited Pt nanoparticle (NP) catalysts are made with two metal-assisted etching steps. Doubly etched samples exhibit an ?300 mV positive shift in photocurrent onset for photoelectrochemical proton reduction compared to oxide-free planar Si with identical catalysts. We find that the photocurrent onset voltage of black Si photocathodes prepared from single-crystal planar Si wafers by an Ag-assisted etching process increases in oxidative environments (e.g., aqueous electrolyte) owing to a positive flat-band potential shift caused by surface oxidation. However, within 24 h, the surface oxide layer becomes a kinetic barrier to interfacial charge transfer that inhibits proton reduction. To mitigate this issue, we developed a novel second Pt-assisted etch process that buries the Pt NPs deep into the nanoporous Si surface. This second etch shifts the onset voltage positively, from +0.25 V to +0.4 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, and reduces the charge-transfer resistance with no performance decrease seen for at least two months. PEC performance was stable owing to Pt NP catalysts that were buried deeply in the photoelectrode by the second etch, below a thick surface layer comprised primarily of amorphous SiO2 along with some degree of remaining crystalline Si as observed by scanning and transmission electron micrographs. Electrochemical impedance studies reveal that the second etch leads to a considerably smaller interfacial charge-transfer resistance than samples without the additional etch, suggesting that burying the Pt NPs improves the interfacial contact to the crystalline silicon surface. PMID:25723908

  19. Silicon nanowire arrays-induced graphene oxide reduction under UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fellahi, Ouarda; Das, Manash R; Coffinier, Yannick; Szunerits, Sabine; Hadjersi, Toufik; Maamache, Mustapha; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on efficient UV irradiation-induced reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide. Direct illumination of an aqueous solution of graphene oxide at ? = 312 nm for 6 h resulted in the formation of graphene nanosheets dispersible in water. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) suggest a restoration of the sp(2) carbon network. The results were compared with graphene nanosheets prepared by photochemical irradiation of a GO aqueous solution in the presence of hydrogenated silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays or silicon nanowire arrays decorated with silver (SiNW/Ag NPs) or copper nanoparticles (SiNW/Cu NPs). Graphene nanosheets obtained by illumination of the GO aqueous solution at 312 nm for 6 h in the presence of SiNW/Cu NPs exhibited superior electrochemical charge transfer characteristics. This is mainly due to the higher amount of sp(2)-hybridized carbon in these graphene sheets found by XPS analysis. The high level of extended conjugated carbon network was also evident by the water insoluble nature of the resulting graphene nanosheets, which precipitated upon photochemical reduction. PMID:21960142

  20. Inkjet printing as a tool for the patterned deposition of octadecylsiloxane monolayers on silicon oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Belgardt, Christian; Sowade, Enrico; Blaudeck, Thomas; Baumgrtel, Thomas; Graaf, Harald; von Borczyskowski, Christian; Baumann, Reinhard R

    2013-05-28

    We present a case study about inkjet printing as a tool for molecular patterning of silicon oxide surfaces with hydrophobic functionality, mediated by n-octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) molecules. In contrast to state-of-the-art techniques such as micro contact printing or chemical immersion with subsequent lithography processes, piezo drop-on-demand inkjet printing does not depend on physical masters, which allows an effective direct-write patterning of rigid or flexible substrates and enables short run-lengths of the individual pattern. In this paper, we used mesithylene-based OTS inks, jetted them in droplets of 10 pL on a silicon oxide surface, evaluated the water contact angle of the patterned areas and fitted the results with Cassie's law. For inks of 2.0 mM OTS concentration, we found that effective area coverages of 38% can be obtained. Our results hence show that contact times of the order of hundred milliseconds are sufficient to form a pattern of regions with OTS molecules adsorbed to the surface, representing at least a fragmented, inhomogeneous self-assembled OTS monolayer (OTS-SAM). PMID:23417102

  1. Improvement of silicon oxide film properties by ultraviolet excimer lamp annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parada, E. G.; Gonzlez, P.; Serra, J.; Len, B.; Prez-Amor, M.; Flicstein, J.; Devine, R. A. B.

    1995-02-01

    A novel technology of excimer lamps has been applied to improve the properties of silicon oxide films by VUV photon annealing. Silicon oxide films were deposited at low temperature by ArF laser-CVD in parallel configuration using SiH 4 and N 2O as precursors. Post-deposition irradiation by VUV photons provided by a Xe excimer lamp (? = 172 nm) at room temperature and in an inert atmosphere was performed. The films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), single-wavelength ellipsometry and electron spin resonance (ESR) to analyze the changes in the composition, the refractive index and the paramagnetic defects in the film structure. The VUV irradiation time was successively increased until saturation of film properties was reached. As observed by FTIR, the Si-H and Si-O bands show a clear evolution. While the Si-H bonds are broken until reaching their total elimination, an increase in the number of Si-O bonds takes place. These results are in agreement with the ellipsometric measurements in which a decrease in the refractive index towards stoichiometric values ( n = 1.46) is observed. Moreover, ESR measurements show an increase in the concentration of paramagnetic defects in the structure by the VUV photon annealing, reaching a lower saturation value in comparison with samples obtained by other deposition methods.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Ophthalmic Lens Materials Containing Titanium Silicon Oxide and Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    No, Jung-Won; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Min-Jae; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Hun; Sung, A-Young

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogel ophthalmic lenses containing fluorine-substituted aniline group, titanium silicon oxide nartoparticles, and silver nanoparticles were copolymerized, and the physical and optical properties of the hydrogel lenses were measured. To produce the hydrophilic ophthalmic lenses, the additives were added to the mixture containing HEMA, NVP, MA, EGDMA, and AIBN. The cast mold method was used for the manufacture of the hydrogel ophthalmic lenses, and the produced lenses were completely soaked in a 0.9% NaCl normal saline solution for 24 hours for hydration. The physical properties of the produced macromolecule showed that the water content was 32.5-37.6%, the refractive index was 1.450-1.464, the UV-B transmittance was 0.5-35.2%, and the contact angle was between 56 and 69. Also, the addition of aniline, titanium silicon oxide, and silver nanoparticles allowed the ophthalmic lenses to block UV. These results show that the produced macromolecule can be used as hydrophilic lenses for ophthalmologic purposes that can block UV. PMID:26726456

  3. Silicon carbide: A unique platform for metal-oxide-semiconductor physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Tuttle, Blair R.; Dhar, Sarit

    2015-06-01

    A sustainable energy future requires power electronics that can enable significantly higher efficiencies in the generation, distribution, and usage of electrical energy. Silicon carbide (4H-SiC) is one of the most technologically advanced wide bandgap semiconductor that can outperform conventional silicon in terms of power handling, maximum operating temperature, and power conversion efficiency in power modules. While SiC Schottky diode is a mature technology, SiC power Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors are relatively novel and there is large room for performance improvement. Specifically, major initiatives are under way to improve the inversion channel mobility and gate oxide stability in order to further reduce the on-resistance and enhance the gate reliability. Both problems relate to the defects near the SiO2/SiC interface, which have been the focus of intensive studies for more than a decade. Here we review research on the SiC MOS physics and technology, including its brief history, the state-of-art, and the latest progress in this field. We focus on the two main scientific problems, namely, low channel mobility and bias temperature instability. The possible mechanisms behind these issues are discussed at the device physics level as well as the atomic scale, with the support of published physical analysis and theoretical studies results. Some of the most exciting recent progress in interface engineering for improving the channel mobility and fundamental understanding of channel transport is reviewed.

  4. Carrier Selective, Passivated Contacts for High Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells based on Transparent Conducting Oxides

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Young, David L.; Nemeth, William; Grover, Sachit; Norman, Andrew; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Lee, Benjamin G.; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and results of passivated contacts to n-type silicon utilizing thin SiO2 and transparent conducting oxide layers. High temperature silicon dioxide is grown on both surfaces of an n-type wafer to a thickness <50 Å, followed by deposition of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) and a patterned metal contacting layer. As deposited, the thin-film stack has a very high J0,contact, and a non-ohmic, high contact resistance. However, after a forming gas anneal, the passivation quality and the contact resistivity improve significantly. The contacts are characterized by measuring the recombination parameter of the contact (J0,contact) and the specificmore » contact resistivity (ρcontact) using a TLM pattern. The best ITO/SiO2 passivated contact in this study has J0,contact = 92.5 fA/cm2 and ρcontact = 11.5 mOhm-cm2. These values are placed in context with other passivating contacts using an analysis that determines the ultimate efficiency and the optimal area fraction for contacts for a given set of (J0,contact, ρcontact) values. The ITO/SiO2 contacts are found to have a higher J0,contact, but a similar ρcontact compared to the best reported passivated contacts.« less

  5. An Overview of Buried Oxides on Silicon: New Processes and Radiation Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Jean-Luc; Paillet, Philippe; Autran, Jean-Luc

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents a review of the main properties of the two types of buried oxides that currently dominate the Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technologies: SIMOX (Separation by IMplantation of OXygen) and BESOI (Bond and Etch-Back SOI) materials. After examining the main advantages of SOI structure for radiation-hardened electronics, we present different advanced technological processes of such buried oxides and review their physical characteristics as well as their charge trapping properties under ionizing radiations. Cet article prsente une revue des principales proprits des deux types d'oxyde enterrs qui dominent actuellement les technologies Silicium-sur-Isolant (Silicon-On-Insulator, SOI) de la microlectronique : le matriau SIMOX (Separation by IMplantation of OXygen) et le matriau BESOI (Bond and Etch-Back SOI). Aprs avoir rappel les principaux avantages d'une architecture Silicium-sur-Isolant pour une lectronique ddie aux environnements radiatifs, nous prsentons les diffrents procds de fabrication actuels de ces couches d'oxyde enterres et passons en revue leurs caractristiques physiques ainsi que leurs proprits de pigeage de charge sous rayonnement ionisant.

  6. The n-silicon/thallium(III) oxide heterojunction photoelectrochemical solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer, J. A.

    1986-04-01

    A protective thallium(III) oxide film was deposited on an n-silicon electrode, and the characteristics of the modified electrode were investigated. A photoelectrochemical cell consisting of the n-silicon/thallium oxide photoanode and a platinum cathode in an alkaline solution of ferrocyanide/ferricyanide redox couple produced a 0.512 V open-circuit photovoltage, 33.5 mA/sq cm short-circuit photocurrent density, 0.643 fill factor, and 13.8 percent photovoltaic efficiency with 80 mW/sq cm IR-filtered xenon light. With natural sunlight, the efficiency was 11.0 percent, and with 800 nm monochromatic light, it was 22.3 percent. A solid-state photovoltaic cell, fabricated by making a low-pressure point contact to the front surface of a dry photoanode, was found to have photovoltaic characteristics that were nearly identical with those of the photoelectrochemical cell. This suggests that the photoelectrochemical cell functions like a Schottky-barrier or SIS solid-state photovoltaic cell in series with a highly reversible electrochemical cell.

  7. Homogeneity of bismuth-distribution in bismuth-doped alkali germanate laser glasses towards superbroad fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanqi; Wondraczek, Lothar; Mermet, Alain; Peng, Mingying; Zhang, Qinyuan; Qiu, Jianrong

    2015-05-01

    Compared to rare-earth doped glasses, bismuth-doped glasses hold promise for super-broadband near-infrared (NIR) photoemission and potential applications in optical amplification. However, optically active bismuth centers are extremely sensitive to the properties of the surrounding matrix, and also to processing conditions. This is strongly complicating the exploitation of this class of materials, because functional devices require a very delicate adjustment of the redox state of the bismuth species, and its distribution throughout the bulk of the material. It also largely limits some of the conventional processing routes for glass fiber, which start from gas phase deposition and may require very high processing temperature. Here, we investigate the influence of melting time and alkali addition on bismuth-related NIR photoluminescence from melt-derived germanate glasses. We show that the effect of melting time on bismuth-related absorption and NIR photoemission is primarily through bismuth volatilization. Adding alkali oxides as fluxing agents, the melt viscosity can be lowered to reduce either the glass melting temperature, or the melting time, or both. At the same time, however, alkali addition also leads to increasing mean-field basicity, what may reduce the intensity of bismuth-related NIR emission. Preferentially using Li2O over Na2O or K2O presents the best trade-off between those above factors, because its local effect may be adverse to the generally assumed trend of the negative influence of more basic matrix composition. This observation provides an important guideline for the design of melt-derived Bi-doped glasses with efficient NIR photoemission and high optical homogeneity. PMID:25969328

  8. An amorphous phase formation at palladium / silicon oxide (Pd/SiOx) interface through electron irradiation - electronic excitation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Takeshi; Yamashita, Ryo; Yabuuchi, Atsushi; Lee, Jung-Goo

    2015-11-01

    A Pd-Si amorphous phase was formed at a palladium/silicon oxide (Pd/SiOx) interface at room temperature by electron irradiation at acceleration voltages ranging between 25 kV and 200 kV. Solid-state amorphization was stimulated without the electron knock-on effects. The total dose required for the solid-state amorphization decreases with decreasing acceleration voltage. This is the first report on electron irradiation induced metallic amorphous formation caused by the electronic excitation at metal/silicon oxide interface.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of a Bismuth(II) Radical.

    PubMed

    Schwamm, Ryan J; Harmer, Jeffrey R; Lein, Matthias; Fitchett, Christopher M; Granville, Simon; Coles, Martyn P

    2015-09-01

    More than 80?years after Paneth's report of dimethyl bismuth, the first monomeric Bi(II) radical that is stable in the solid state has been isolated and characterized. Reduction of the diamidobismuth(III) chloride Bi(NON(Ar))Cl (NON(Ar)=[O(SiMe2NAr)2](2-); Ar=2,6-iPr2C6H3) with magnesium affords the Bi(II) radical ?Bi(NON(Ar)). X-ray crystallographic measurements are consistent with a two-coordinate bismuth in the +2 oxidation state with no short intermolecular contacts, and solid-state SQUID magnetic measurements indicate a paramagnetic compound with a single unpaired electron. EPR and density functional calculations show a metal-centered radical with >90% spin density in a p-type orbital on bismuth. PMID:26215838

  10. Understanding the mechanism by which bismuth improves lead-acid battery capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Haigh, N. P.; Rand, D. A. J.

    To elucidate the mechanism by which bismuth enhances the capacity of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, model experiments are performed on pulverized positive electrodes produced either from leady oxide, which contains virtually no bismuth (termed 'Bi-free oxide'), or from Pasminco VRLA Refined oxide, which is of high purity and contains a specified amount (0.05 wt.%) of bismuth. The electrodes are compressed under a range of pressures (1.4 to 60 kPa). Below 40 kPa, the presence of bismuth increases the initial capacity. At all pressures, bismuth enhances the rate at which the capacity develops during cycling. Reconnection of the separated agglomerates of lead dioxide is the key factor in restoring the capacity of the pulverized electrode. Electron micrographs reveal that there are two essential types of contact in the positive material: (i) 'micro-contact' between individual irregular-shaped or individual needle-like crystals, to form the agglomerates; (ii) 'macro-contact' between individual agglomerates, to form the skeleton of the positive mass. Bismuth encourages the growth of fine needle-like crystals on the surface of the agglomerates. These crystals spread out and inter-weld to form 'bridges' between the agglomerates and, thereby, consolidate the porous mass of the electrode. This influence of bismuth on morphology is considered to be responsible for the demonstrated improvements in capacity performance.

  11. Single- and double energy N+ ion irradiated planar optical waveguides in Er: Tungsten-tellurite oxide glass and sillenite type Bismuth Germanate crystals working up to telecommunications wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bnysz, I.; Zolnai, Z.; Fried, M.; Lohner, T.; Berneschi, S.; Righini, G. C.; Pelli, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G.

    2013-07-01

    Ion implantation proved to be a universal technique for producing waveguides in most optical materials. Tellurite glasses are good hosts of rare-earth elements for the development of fibre and integrated optical amplifiers and lasers covering all the main telecommunication bands. Er3+-doped tellurite glasses are good candidates for the fabrication of broadband amplifiers in wavelength division multiplexing around 1.55 ?m, as they exhibit large stimulated cross sections and broad emission bandwidth. Fabrication of channel waveguides in such a material via N+ ion implantation was reported recently. Sillenite type Bismuth Germanate (BGO) crystals are good nonlinear optical materials. Parameters of waveguide fabrication in both materials via implantation of MeV-energy N+ ions were optimized. First single-energy implantations at 3.5 MeV at various fluences were applied. Waveguide operation up to 1.5 ?m was observed in both materials. Then double-energy implantations at a fixed upper energy of 3.5 MeV and lower energies between 2.5 and 3.1 MeV were performed to suppress leaky modes by increasing barrier width. Improvement of waveguide characteristics was found by m-line spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  12. Thermodynamics Calculation and Experimental Study on Separation of Bismuth from a Bismuth Glance Concentrate Through a Low-Temperature Molten Salt Smelting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian-Guang; He, De-Wen; Tang, Chao-Bo; Chen, Yong-Ming; Sun, Ya-Hui; Tang, Mo-Tang

    2011-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to characterize and separate bismuth from a bismuth glance concentrate through a low-temperature, sulfur-fixing smelting process. This article reports on a study conducted on the optimization of process parameters, such as Na2CO3 and zinc oxide wt pct in charging, smelting temperature, smelting duration on the bismuth yield, resultant crude bismuth grade, and sulfur-fixing rate. A maximum bismuth recovery of 97.31 pct, crude bismuth grade of 96.93 pct, and 98.23 pct sulfur-fixing rate are obtained when a charge (containing 63.50 wt pct of Na2CO3 and 22.50 wt pct of bismuth glance, as well as 5 pct in excess of the stoichiometric requirement of zinc oxide dosage) is smelted at 1000 K (727 °C) for 150 minutes. This smelting operation is free from atmospheric pollution because zinc oxide is used as the sulfur-fixing agent, which can capture sulfur from bismuth sulfide and form the more thermodynamic-stable compound, zinc sulfide. The solid residue is subjected to a mineral dressing operation to obtain suspension, which is filtered to produce a cake, representing the solid particles of zinc sulfide. Based on the results of the chemical content analysis of the as-resultant zinc sulfide, more than 93 pct zinc sulfide can be recovered, and the recovered zinc sulfide grade can reach 60.20 pct. This material can be sold as zinc sulfide concentrate or roasted to be regenerated as zinc oxide.

  13. Design, microstructure, and high-temperature behavior of silicon nitride sintered with rate-earth oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ciniculk, M.K. . Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering)

    1991-08-01

    The processing-microstructure-property relations of silicon nitride ceramics sintered with rare-earth oxide additives have been investigated with the aim of improving their high-temperature behavior. The additions of the oxides of Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, or Yb were compositionally controlled to tailor the intergranular phase. The resulting microstructure consisted of {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grains and a crystalline secondary phase of RE{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}, with a thin residual amorphous phase present at grain boundaries. The lanthanide oxides were found to be as effective as Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} in densifying Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, resulting in identical microstructures. The crystallization behavior of all six disilicates was similar, characterized by a limited nucleation and rapid growth mechanism resulting in large single crystals. Complete crystallization of the intergranular phase was obtained with the exception of a residual amorphous, observed at interfaces and believed to be rich in impurities, the cause of incomplete devitrification. The low resistance to oxidation of these materials was attributed to the minimization of amorphous phases via devitrification to disilicates, compatible with SiO{sub 2}, the oxidation product of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The strength retention of these materials at 1300{degrees}C was found to be between 80% and 91% of room-temperature strength, due to crystallization of the secondary phase and a residual but refractory amorphous grain-boundary phase. The creep behavior was found to be strongly dependent on residual amorphous phase viscosity as well as on the oxidation behavior, as evidenced by the nonsteady-state creep rates of all materials. 122 refs., 51 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Optical and structural characterization of thermal oxidation effects of erbium thin films deposited by electron beam on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kamineni, Himani S.; Kamineni, Vimal K.; Moore, Richard L.; Gallis, Spyros; Diebold, Alain C.; Huang Mengbing; Kaloyeros, Alain E.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal oxidation effects on the structural, compositional, and optical properties of erbium films deposited on silicon via electron beam evaporation were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. A gradual rise in oxidation temperature from 700 to 900 deg. C resulted in a transition from ErO- to Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich phase. Additional increase in oxidation temperature above 1000 deg. C led to the formation of erbium silicate due to further oxygen incorporation, as well as silicon out-diffusion from the substrate. A silicon oxide interfacial layer was also detected, with its thickness increasing with higher oxidation temperature. Additionally, film refractive index decreased, while its Tauc bandgap value increased from {approx}5.2 eV to {approx}6.4 eV, as the oxidation temperature was raised from 700 deg. C to above 900 deg. C. These transformations were accompanied by the appearance of an intense and broad absorption band below the optical gap. Thermal oxidation effects are discussed in the context of film structural characteristics and defect states.

  15. High performance of graphene oxide-doped silicon oxide-based resistance random access memory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, a double active layer (Zr:SiO x /C:SiO x ) resistive switching memory device with outstanding performance is presented. Through current fitting, hopping conduction mechanism is found in both high-resistance state (HRS) and low-resistance state (LRS) of double active layer RRAM devices. By analyzing Raman and FTIR spectra, we observed that graphene oxide exists in C:SiO x layer. Compared with single Zr:SiO x layer structure, Zr:SiO x /C:SiO x structure has superior performance, including low operating current, improved uniformity in both set and reset processes, and satisfactory endurance characteristics, all of which are attributed to the double-layer structure and the existence of graphene oxide flakes formed by the sputter process. PMID:24261454

  16. High performance of graphene oxide-doped silicon oxide-based resistance random access memory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Kai-Huang; Lou, Jen-Chung; Chen, Jung-Hui; Young, Tai-Fa; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Yang, Ya-Liang; Pan, Yin-Chih; Chu, Tian-Jian; Huang, Syuan-Yong; Pan, Chih-Hung; Su, Yu-Ting; Syu, Yong-En; Sze, Simon M

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, a double active layer (Zr:SiOx/C:SiOx) resistive switching memory device with outstanding performance is presented. Through current fitting, hopping conduction mechanism is found in both high-resistance state (HRS) and low-resistance state (LRS) of double active layer RRAM devices. By analyzing Raman and FTIR spectra, we observed that graphene oxide exists in C:SiOx layer. Compared with single Zr:SiOx layer structure, Zr:SiOx/C:SiOx structure has superior performance, including low operating current, improved uniformity in both set and reset processes, and satisfactory endurance characteristics, all of which are attributed to the double-layer structure and the existence of graphene oxide flakes formed by the sputter process. PMID:24261454

  17. High performance of graphene oxide-doped silicon oxide-based resistance random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Kai-Huang; Lou, Jen-Chung; Chen, Jung-Hui; Young, Tai-Fa; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Yang, Ya-Liang; Pan, Yin-Chih; Chu, Tian-Jian; Huang, Syuan-Yong; Pan, Chih-Hung; Su, Yu-Ting; Syu, Yong-En; Sze, Simon M.

    2013-11-01

    In this letter, a double active layer (Zr:SiO x /C:SiO x ) resistive switching memory device with outstanding performance is presented. Through current fitting, hopping conduction mechanism is found in both high-resistance state (HRS) and low-resistance state (LRS) of double active layer RRAM devices. By analyzing Raman and FTIR spectra, we observed that graphene oxide exists in C:SiO x layer. Compared with single Zr:SiO x layer structure, Zr:SiO x /C:SiO x structure has superior performance, including low operating current, improved uniformity in both set and reset processes, and satisfactory endurance characteristics, all of which are attributed to the double-layer structure and the existence of graphene oxide flakes formed by the sputter process.

  18. Facile synthesis of binder-free reduced graphene oxide/silicon anode for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Cheng; Ma, Yulin; Cheng, Xinqun; Du, Chunyu; Gao, Yunzhi; Yin, Geping

    2016-04-01

    A novel binder-free reduced graphene oxide/silicon (RGO/Si) composite anode has been fabricated by a facile doctor-blade coating method. The relatively low C/O ratio plays an important role for the fabrication of the bind-free multilayered RGO/Si electrode with silicon nanoparticles encapsulating among the RGO sheet layers. The RGO provides the electron transport pathway and prevents the electrode fracture caused by the volume changes of active silicon particles during cycling. The RGO/Si composite anode with a silicon content of 66.7% delivers a reversible capacity of 1931 mAh g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 and still remains 92% of the initial capacity after 50 cycles.

  19. Tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by ion implantation for applications in silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichel, Christian; Feldmann, Frank; Mller, Ralph; Reedy, Robert C.; Lee, Benjamin G.; Young, David L.; Stradins, Paul; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan W.

    2015-11-01

    Passivated contacts (poly-Si/SiOx/c-Si) doped by shallow ion implantation are an appealing technology for high efficiency silicon solar cells, especially for interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cells where a masked ion implantation facilitates their fabrication. This paper presents a study on tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by low-energy ion implantation into amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers and examines the influence of the ion species (P, B, or BF2), the ion implantation dose (5 1014 cm-2 to 1 1016 cm-2), and the subsequent high-temperature anneal (800 C or 900 C) on the passivation quality and junction characteristics using double-sided contacted silicon solar cells. Excellent passivation quality is achieved for n-type passivated contacts by P implantations into either intrinsic (undoped) or in-situ B-doped a-Si layers with implied open-circuit voltages (iVoc) of 725 and 720 mV, respectively. For p-type passivated contacts, BF2 implantations into intrinsic a-Si yield well passivated contacts and allow for iVoc of 690 mV, whereas implanted B gives poor passivation with iVoc of only 640 mV. While solar cells featuring in-situ B-doped selective hole contacts and selective electron contacts with P implanted into intrinsic a-Si layers achieved Voc of 690 mV and fill factor (FF) of 79.1%, selective hole contacts realized by BF2 implantation into intrinsic a-Si suffer from drastically reduced FF which is caused by a non-Ohmic Schottky contact. Finally, implanting P into in-situ B-doped a-Si layers for the purpose of overcompensation (counterdoping) allowed for solar cells with Voc of 680 mV and FF of 80.4%, providing a simplified and promising fabrication process for IBC solar cells featuring passivated contacts.

  20. Hot-pressed silicon nitride with various lanthanide oxides as sintering additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, K.; Toibana, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of addition of various lanthanide oxides and their mixture with Y2O3 on the sintering of Si3N4 were investigated. The addition of simple and mixed lanthanide oxides promoted the densification of Si3N4 in hot-pressing at 1800 C under 300-400kg/ centimeters squared for 60 min. The crystallization of yttrium and lanthanide-silicon oxynitrides which was observed inn the sintered body containing yttrium-lanthanide mixed oxides as additives led to the formation of a highly refractory Si3N4 ceramic having a bending strength of 82 and 84 kg/millimeters squared at room temperature and 1300 C respectively. In a Y2O3+La2O3 system, a higher molar ratio of La2O3 to Y2O3 gave a higher hardness and strength at high temperatures. It was found that 90 min was an optimum sintering time for the highest strength.

  1. Density profile in thin films of polybutadiene on silicon oxide substrates: a TOF-NR study.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, E Tilo; Sepe, Alessandro; Haese-Seiller, Martin; Moulin, Jean-Franois; Papadakis, Christine M

    2013-08-27

    We have investigated thin films from fully deuterated polybutadiene (PB-d6) on silicon substrates with the aim of detecting and characterizing a possible interphase in the polymer film near the substrate using time-of-flight neutron reflectometry (TOF-NR). As substrates, thermally oxidized silicon wafers were either used as such or they were coated with triethylethoxysilyl modified 1,2-PB prior to deposition of the PB-d6 film. TOF-NR reveals that, for both substrates, the scattering length density (SLD) of the PB films decreases near the solid interface. The reduction of SLD is converted to an excess fraction of free volume. To further verify the existence of the interphase in PB-d6, we attempt to model the TOF-NR curves with density profiles which do not feature an interphase. These density profiles do not describe the TOF-NR curves adequately. We conclude that, near the solid interface, an interphase having an SLD lower than the bulk of the film is present. PMID:23941468

  2. Missing dimer defects investigated by adsorption of nitric oxide (NO) on silicon (100) 2 × 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasse, A. G. B. M.; Kleinherenbrink, P. M.; Van Silfhout, A.

    This paper describes a study concerning the interaction of nitric oxide (NO) with the clean Si(100)2×1 surface in ultra-high vacuum at room temperature. Differential reflectometry (DR) in the photon energy range of 2.4-4.4 eV. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) have been used to investigate the chemisorption of NO on Si(100)2×1. With this combination of techniques it is possible to make an analysis of the geometric and electronic structure and chemical composition of the surface layer. The aim of the present study was to explain the experimental results of the adsorption of NO on the clean Si(100)2×1 at 300 K. Analysing the electronic and geometric structure of a simplified stepped 2×1 reconstructed Si(100) surface and of the NO molecule in combination with the use of Woodward-Hoffmann rules (WHR) we were able to model a surface defect specific adsorption mechanism. Surface defects such as missing dimer defects seem to play an important role in the adsorption mechanism of NO on the silicon surface. The experimental results are consistent with this developed model. We also suggest a relation between the missing dimer defects and the number of steps on the silicon surface.

  3. Electronic passivation of silicon surfaces by thin films of atomic layer deposited gallium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T. G. Cuevas, A.

    2014-07-21

    This paper proposes the application of gallium oxide (Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films to crystalline silicon solar cells. Effective passivation of n- and p-type crystalline silicon surfaces has been achieved by the application of very thin Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films prepared by atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMGa) and ozone (O{sub 3}) as the reactants. Surface recombination velocities as low as 6.1 cm/s have been recorded with films less than 4.5 nm thick. A range of deposition parameters has been explored, with growth rates of approximately 0.2 Å/cycle providing optimum passivation. The thermal activation energy for passivation of the Si-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface has been found to be approximately 0.5 eV. Depassivation of the interface was observed for prolonged annealing at increased temperatures. The activation energy for depassivation was measured to be 1.9 eV.

  4. Field emission from zinc oxide nanorod bundles grown on silicon nanoporous pillar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling Li; Gong, Shang Dong; Wu, Li Hong; Li, Xin Jian

    2013-04-01

    A large-area zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod bundle array was grown on a silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) substrate by a chemical vapor deposition method, and its field-emission properties was studied. The structural characterization disclosed that the bundles were composed of hexagonal ZnO nanorods growing along c-axis and taking roots into the silicon pillars of Si-NPA. The average diameter and length of the ZnO nanorods were ?145 nm and ?10 ?m, respectively. The field-emission measurements showed that the turn-on field of ZnO/Si-NPA was 4.6 V/?m with an emission current density (ECD) of 1 ?A/cm2, and an ECD of 420 ?A/cm2 was achieved at an applied field of 8.89 V/?m. The field enhancement factor was calculated to be ?1700 based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. According to the obtained charge coupled device (CCD) image, the density and brightness of the emission dots increased with the applied field, and the high emission dot density was attributed to the formation of a large number of ZnO nanorod emitting tips. Our results indicated that ZnO/Si-NPA might be a promising electron emission source.

  5. Damp and dry heat degradation of thermal oxide passivation of p+ silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Andrew; Gardner, Matthew; McIntosh, Keith; Shalav, Avi; Bullock, James

    2014-03-01

    Thermal SiO2 passivates both moderately and heavily doped silicon surfaces irrespective of the dopant type, which is advantageous in high-efficiency solar cell designs. Commercial photovoltaic cells are submitted to accelerated ageing tests, such as damp-heat exposure, to ensure they maintain their performance for at least 20 yr. We find damp-heat exposure causes a severe and rapid degradation of thermal SiO2 passivation on p+ silicon surfaces. The reaction is so severe that the diffused-region recombination in the degraded state is limited by the diffusion of minority carriers to the Si-SiO2 interface not the density of interface defects Dit. Certainly, this effect renders the thermal-oxide passivation useless if employed on a solar cell. To study the cause of the degradation, we also test the effects of storage in dry heat and room ambient conditions. Examination of the rate of degradation in the tested storage conditions in comparison with modelled diffusion of moisture in SiO2, we find a significant correlation between the time dependent J0e and moisture supplied to the interface, leading us to the conclusion that moisture ingression and subsequent reaction at the SiO2-Si interface are the cause of both damp-heat and room- ambient degradation.

  6. Polycrystalline silicon ring resonator photodiodes in a bulk complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Karan K; Orcutt, Jason S; Shainline, Jeffrey M; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Sternberg, Zvi; Meade, Roy; Popovi?, Milo A; Ram, Rajeev J

    2014-02-15

    We present measurements on resonant photodetectors utilizing sub-bandgap absorption in polycrystalline silicon ring resonators, in which light is localized in the intrinsic region of a p+/p/i/n/n+ diode. The devices, operating both at ?=1280 and ?=1550??nm and fabricated in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) dynamic random-access memory emulation process, exhibit detection quantum efficiencies around 20% and few-gigahertz response bandwidths. We observe this performance at low reverse biases in the range of a few volts and in devices with dark currents below 50 pA at 10 V. These results demonstrate that such photodetector behavior, previously reported by Preston et al. [Opt. Lett. 36, 52 (2011)], is achievable in bulk CMOS processes, with significant improvements with respect to the previous work in quantum efficiency, dark current, linearity, bandwidth, and operating bias due to additional midlevel doping implants and different material deposition. The present work thus offers a robust realization of a fully CMOS-fabricated all-silicon photodetector functional across a wide wavelength range. PMID:24562278

  7. Acoustic Properties of Polyurethane Composition Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes and Silicon Oxide Nano-powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfali, Wasim A.

    This article demonstrates the acoustic properties of added small amount of carbon-nanotube and siliconoxide nano powder (S-type, P-Type) to the host material polyurethane composition. By adding CNT and/or nano-silica in the form of powder at different concentrations up to 2% within the PU composition to improve the sound absorption were investigated in the frequency range up to 1600 Hz. Sound transmission loss measurement of the samples were determined using large impedance tube. The tests showed that addition of 0.2 wt.% Silicon Oxide Nano-powder and 0.35 wt.% carbon nanotube to polyurethane composition improved sound transmissions loss (Sound Absorption) up to 80 dB than that of pure polyurethane foam sample.

  8. Integrated atomistic chemical imaging and reactive force field molecular dynamic simulations on silicon oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Dumpala, Santoshrupa; Broderick, Scott R.; Rajan, Krishna; Khalilov, Umedjon; Neyts, Erik C.; Duin, Adri C. T. van; Provine, J; Howe, Roger T.

    2015-01-05

    In this paper, we quantitatively investigate with atom probe tomography, the effect of temperature on the interfacial transition layer suboxide species due to the thermal oxidation of silicon. The chemistry at the interface was measured with atomic scale resolution, and the changes in chemistry and intermixing at the interface were identified on a nanometer scale. We find an increase of suboxide (SiOx) concentration relative to SiO{sub 2} and increased oxygen ingress with elevated temperatures. Our experimental findings are in agreement with reactive force field molecular dynamics simulations. This work demonstrates the direct comparison between atom probe derived chemical profiles and atomistic-scale simulations for transitional interfacial layer of suboxides as a function of temperature.

  9. Scattering strength of the scatterer inducing variability in graphene on silicon oxide.

    PubMed

    Katoch, Jyoti; Le, Duy; Singh, Simranjeet; Rao, Rahul; Rahman, Talat S; Ishigami, Masa

    2016-03-23

    Large variability of carrier mobility of graphene-based field effect transistors hampers graphene science and technology. We show that the number of the scatterer responsible for the observed variability on graphene devices on silicon oxide can be determined by finding the number of hydrogen that can be chemisorbed on graphene. We use the relationship between the number of the scatterer and the mobility of graphene devices to determine that the variability-inducing scatterer possesses scattering strength 10 times smaller than that of adsorbed potassium atoms and 50 times smaller than that of ion-beam induced vacancies. Our results provide an important, quantitative input towards determining the origin of the variability. PMID:26902181

  10. The formation of light emitting cerium silicates in cerium-doped silicon oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing; Zalloum, Othman; Roschuk, Tyler; Heng Chenglin; Wojcik, Jacek; Mascher, Peter

    2009-01-05

    Cerium-doped silicon oxides with cerium concentrations of up to 0.9 at. % were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Bright cerium related photoluminescence, easily seen even under room lighting conditions, was observed from the films and found to be sensitive to film composition and annealing temperature. The film containing 0.9 at. % Ce subjected to anneal in N{sub 2} at 1200 deg. C for 3 h showed the most intense cerium-related emission, easily visible under bright room lighting conditions. This is attributed to the formation of cerium silicate [Ce{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} or Ce{sub 4.667} (SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}O], the presence of which was confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  11. Effect of thermal treatment on carbon-doped silicon oxide low dielectric constant materials.

    PubMed

    Xie, J L; Lin, J Y; Wang, Y H; Narayanan, B; Wang, M R; Kumar, R

    2005-04-01

    Carbon-doped silicon oxide (SiOCH) low dielectric constant (low-k) material is a good candidate for advanced interconnect technology. Good thermal stability of the dielectric is required due to the many thermal processes involved during IC fabrication. The thermal stability of tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMCTS) based plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) carbon doped low-k material with annealing temperature from 400 to 800 degrees C in N2 was studied. The thermal stability temperature of TMCTS based carbon doped low-k material is 600 degrees C. Above 600 degrees C annealing, the thermal energy can break Si-CH3, Si-C, Si-H, and C-H bonds leading to outgasing, which results in film composition change, weight loss, and thickness shrinkage. Film composition changes, especially carbon loss and oxygen incorporation, can degrade its reliability extremely. Carbon is desorbed in the form of CH4, CO, and other hydrocarbon. PMID:16004118

  12. Synthesis of magnetite-silica core-shell nanoparticles via direct silicon oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxian; Tang, Jing; Zhao, Hongfu; Wan, Jiaqi; Chen, Kezheng

    2014-10-15

    Magnetite-silica core-shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs) were prepared from silicon powder by direct oxidation without using any expensive precursors (such as TEOS) and organic solvents. The as-prepared Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs were characterized by TEM, DLS, XRD, FT-IR, zeta potential and NMR Analyzer. The results show that the Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs are monodispersed core-shell nanostructures with single cores that were uniformly coated by silica shells. The relaxation property indicates that Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs have desirable characteristics for T2 MRI contrast agents. This facile and green method is promising for large-scale production, which would open new opportunities for preparing core-shell nanostructures for biomedical applications. PMID:25072518

  13. Soft lithographic functionalization and patterning oxide-free silicon and germanium.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Carleen M; Toone, Eric J; Clark, Robert L; Shestopalov, Alexander A

    2011-01-01

    The development of hybrid electronic devices relies in large part on the integration of (bio)organic materials and inorganic semiconductors through a stable interface that permits efficient electron transport and protects underlying substrates from oxidative degradation. Group IV semiconductors can be effectively protected with highly-ordered self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) composed of simple alkyl chains that act as impervious barriers to both organic and aqueous solutions. Simple alkyl SAMs, however, are inert and not amenable to traditional patterning techniques. The motivation for immobilizing organic molecular systems on semiconductors is to impart new functionality to the surface that can provide optical, electronic, and mechanical function, as well as chemical and biological activity. Microcontact printing (?CP) is a soft-lithographic technique for patterning SAMs on myriad surfaces. Despite its simplicity and versatility, the approach has been largely limited to noble metal surfaces and has not been well developed for pattern transfer to technologically important substrates such as oxide-free silicon and germanium. Furthermore, because this technique relies on the ink diffusion to transfer pattern from the elastomer to substrate, the resolution of such traditional printing is essentially limited to near 1 ?m. In contrast to traditional printing, inkless ?CP patterning relies on a specific reaction between a surface-immobilized substrate and a stamp-bound catalyst. Because the technique does not rely on diffusive SAM formation, it significantly expands the diversity of patternable surfaces. In addition, the inkless technique obviates the feature size limitations imposed by molecular diffusion, facilitating replication of very small (<200 nm) features. However, up till now, inkless ?CP has been mainly used for patterning relatively disordered molecular systems, which do not protect underlying surfaces from degradation. Here, we report a simple, reliable high-throughput method for patterning passivated silicon and germanium with reactive organic monolayers and demonstrate selective functionalization of the patterned substrates with both small molecules and proteins. The technique utilizes a preformed NHS-reactive bilayered system on oxide-free silicon and germanium. The NHS moiety is hydrolyzed in a pattern-specific manner with a sulfonic acid-modified acrylate stamp to produce chemically distinct patterns of NHS-activated and free carboxylic acids. A significant limitation to the resolution of many ?CP techniques is the use of PDMS material which lacks the mechanical rigidity necessary for high fidelity transfer. To alleviate this limitation we utilized a polyurethane acrylate polymer, a relatively rigid material that can be easily functionalized with different organic moieties. Our patterning approach completely protects both silicon and germanium from chemical oxidation, provides precise control over the shape and size of the patterned features, and gives ready access to chemically discriminated patterns that can be further functionalized with both organic and biological molecules. The approach is general and applicable to other technologically-relevant surfaces. PMID:22214997

  14. Light-induced water oxidation at silicon electrodes functionalized with a cobalt oxygen-evolving catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Pijpers, Joep J. H.; Winkler, Mark T.; Surendranath, Yogesh; Buonassisi, Tonio; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    Integrating a silicon solar cell with a recently developed cobalt-based water-splitting catalyst (Co-Pi) yields a robust, monolithic, photo-assisted anode for the solar fuels process of water splitting to O2 at neutral pH. Deposition of the Co-Pi catalyst on the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-passivated p-side of a np-Si junction enables the majority of the voltage generated by the solar cell to be utilized for driving the water-splitting reaction. Operation under neutral pH conditions fosters enhanced stability of the anode as compared to operation under alkaline conditions (pH14) for which long-term stability is much more problematic. This demonstration of a simple, robust construct for photo-assisted water splitting is an important step towards the development of inexpensive direct solar-to-fuel energy conversion technologies. PMID:21646536

  15. Radiation response of silicon carbide metaloxidesemiconductor transistors in high dose region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, Takeshi; Yokoseki, Takashi; Murata, Koichi; Matsuda, Takuma; Mitomo, Satoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Makino, Takahiro; Onoda, Shinobu; Hijikata, Yasuto; Tanaka, Yuki; Kandori, Mikio; Okubo, Shuichi; Yoshie, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Radiation response of vertical structure hexagonal (4H) silicon carbide (SiC) power metaloxidesemiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) was investigated up to 5.8 MGy. The drain currentgate voltage curves for the MOSFETs shifted from positive to negative voltages due to irradiation. However, the drain currentgate voltage curve shifts for the MOSFETs irradiated at 150 C was smaller than those irradiated at room temperature. Thus, the shift of threshold voltage due to irradiation was suppressed by irradiation at 150 C. No significant change or slight decrease in subthreshold voltage swing for the MOSFETs irradiated at 150 C was observed. The value of channel mobility increased due to irradiation, and the increase was enhanced by irradiation at 150 C comparing to irradiation at RT.

  16. The location and doping effect of boron in Si nanocrystals embedded silicon oxide film

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Min; Li, Dongsheng; Chen, Le; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yang, Deren

    2013-03-25

    Electrically activated doping of boron (B) atoms into the Si-nanocrystals (Si-NCs) embedded silicon oxide film is achieved by co-sputtering technique following with the annealing treatment. The evolution of the size, the shape, and the density of Si-NCs with the doping of B atoms is investigated. The observation of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of Si 2p and B 1s and the decrease in lattice spacing of Si (111) plane suggest that B atoms are doped into Si-NCs. The activated doping is confirmed by the Fano effect of the micro-Raman spectra for Si-NCs and the drastic decrease of the sheet resistance.

  17. Quantum dot made in metal oxide silicon-nanowire field effect transistor working at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Lavieville, Romain; Triozon, Franois; Barraud, Sylvain; Corna, Andrea; Jehl, Xavier; Sanquer, Marc; Li, Jing; Abisset, Antoine; Duchemin, Ivan; Niquet, Yann-Michel

    2015-05-13

    We report the observation of an atomic like behavior from T = 4.2 K up to room temperature in n- and p-type ?-gate silicon nanowire (NW) transistors. For that purpose, we modified the design of a NW transistor and introduced long spacers between the source/drain and the channel in order to separate the channel from the electrodes. The channel was made extremely small (3.4 nm in diameter with 10 nm gate length) with a thick gate oxide (7 nm) in order to enhance the Coulomb repulsion between carriers, which can be as large as 200 meV when surface roughness promotes charge confinement. Parasitic stochastic Coulomb blockade effect can be eliminated in our devices by choosing proper control voltages. Moreover, the quantum dot can be tuned so that the resonant current at T = 4.2 K exceeds that at room temperature. PMID:25923197

  18. Selective growth of vertical silicon nanowire array guided by anodic aluminum oxide template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang Nguyen, Van; Hoshi, Yusuke; Usami, Noritaka; Konagai, Makoto

    2015-09-01

    We report on the selective growth of vertical silicon nanowire arrays guided by an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template without the introduction of any metallic catalyst. Gas-source molecular beam epitaxy using disilane as a source gas was carried out. The growth conditions such as flow rate and growth temperature were changed to optimize the Si nanowire growth. It was found that the selective growth was promoted at a flow rate of 0.5 sccm, whereas the selective growth was poor at high flow rates of 1 and 2 sccm. One-micrometer-long Si nanowire arrays were obtained at a low flow rate of 0.5 sccm only at the growth temperature of 700 C. The obtained Si grown at a temperature of 650 C exhibited conglomerated structures with Si grains piled up inside the nanopores of the AAO template. We found that increasing the growth temperature and decreasing the flow rate are useful for improving the growth selectivity.

  19. Patterns of discoloration and oxidation by direct and scattered fluxes on LDEF, including oxygen on silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Filz, R. C.; Rich, F. J.; Sagalyn, P. L.

    1992-01-01

    A number of interesting discoloration patterns are clearly evident on MOOO2-1 which resides on the three faces of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Most interesting is the pattern of blue oxidation on polished single crystal silicon apparently produced by scattered or direct ram oxygen atoms along the earth face. A complete explanation for the patterns has not yet been obtained. All honeycomb outgassing holes have a small discoloration ring around them that varies in color. The shadow cast by a suspended wire on the earth face surface is not easily explained by either solar photons or by ram flux. The shadows and the dark/light regions cannot be explained consistently by the process of solar ultraviolet paint-darkening modulated by ram flux oxygen bleaching of the paint.

  20. Paralinear Oxidation of Silicon Nitride in a Water Vapor/Oxygen Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Dennis S.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Nguyen, QuynhGiao; Humphrey, Donald L.; Lewton, Susan M.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Three silicon nitride materials were exposed to dry oxygen flowing at 0.44 cm/s at temperatures between 1200 and 1400 C. Reaction kinetics were measured with a continuously recording microbalance. Parabolic kinetics were observed. When the same materials were exposed to a 50% H2O - 50% O2 gas mixture flowing at 4.4 cm/s, all three types exhibited paralinear kinetics. The material is oxidized by water vapor to form solid silica. The protective silica is in turn volatilized by water vapor to form primarily gaseous Si(OH)4. Nonlinear least squares analysis and a paralinear kinetic model were used to determine both parabolic and linear rate constants from the kinetic data. Volatilization of the protective silica scale can result in accelerated consumption of Si3N4. Recession rates under conditions more representative of actual combustors are compared to the furnace data.

  1. Carrier Selective, Passivated Contacts for High Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells based on Transparent Conducting Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Young, David L.; Nemeth, William; Grover, Sachit; Norman, Andrew; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Lee, Benjamin G.; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and results of passivated contacts to n-type silicon utilizing thin SiO2 and transparent conducting oxide layers. High temperature silicon dioxide is grown on both surfaces of an n-type wafer to a thickness <50 Å, followed by deposition of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) and a patterned metal contacting layer. As deposited, the thin-film stack has a very high J0,contact, and a non-ohmic, high contact resistance. However, after a forming gas anneal, the passivation quality and the contact resistivity improve significantly. The contacts are characterized by measuring the recombination parameter of the contact (J0,contact) and the specific contact resistivity (ρcontact) using a TLM pattern. The best ITO/SiO2 passivated contact in this study has J0,contact = 92.5 fA/cm2 and ρcontact = 11.5 mOhm-cm2. These values are placed in context with other passivating contacts using an analysis that determines the ultimate efficiency and the optimal area fraction for contacts for a given set of (J0,contact, ρcontact) values. The ITO/SiO2 contacts are found to have a higher J0,contact, but a similar ρcontact compared to the best reported passivated contacts.

  2. Comparative cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of cobalt (II, III) oxide, iron (III) oxide, silicon dioxide, and aluminum oxide nanoparticles on human lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rajiv, S; Jerobin, J; Saranya, V; Nainawat, M; Sharma, A; Makwana, P; Gayathri, C; Bharath, L; Singh, M; Kumar, M; Mukherjee, A; Chandrasekaran, N

    2016-02-01

    Despite the extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in various fields, adequate knowledge of human health risk and potential toxicity is still lacking. The human lymphocytes play a major role in the immune system, and it can alter the antioxidant level when exposed to NPs. Identification of the hazardous NPs was done using in vitro toxicity tests and this study mainly focuses on the comparative in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of four different NPs including cobalt (II, III) oxide (Co3O4), iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) on human lymphocytes. The Co3O4 NPs showed decrease in cellular viability and increase in cell membrane damage followed by Fe2O3, SiO2, and Al2O3 NPs in a dose-dependent manner after 24 h of exposure to human lymphocytes. The oxidative stress was evidenced in human lymphocytes by the induction of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and depletion of catalase, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase. The Al2O3 NPs showed the least DNA damage when compared with all the other NPs. Chromosomal aberration was observed at 100 g/ml when exposed to Co3O4 NPs and Fe2O3 NPs. The alteration in the level of antioxidant caused DNA damage and chromosomal aberration in human lymphocytes. PMID:25829403

  3. Corrosion of ODS steels in lead bismuth eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosemann, P.; Thau, H. T.; Johnson, A. L.; Maloy, S. A.; Li, N.

    2008-02-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are advanced materials being developed for high temperature applications. Their properties (high temperature strength, creep resistance, corrosion/oxidation resistance) make them potentially usable for high temperature applications in liquid metal cooled systems like liquid lead-bismuth eutectic cooled reactors and spallation sources. Corrosion tests on five different ODS alloys were performed in flowing liquid lead-bismuth eutectic in the DELTA Loop at the Los Alamos National Laboratory at 535 C for 200 h and 600 h. The tested materials were chromium alloyed ferritic/martensitic steels (12YWT, 14YWT, MA957) and Cr-Al alloyed steels (PM2000, MA956). It was shown that the Al alloyed ODS steel above 5.5 wt% Al (PM2000) is highly resistant to corrosion and oxidation in the conditions examined, and that the corrosion properties of the ODS steels depend strongly on their grain size.

  4. Corrosion by liquid lead and lead-bismuth: experimental results review and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jinsuo

    2008-01-01

    Liquid metal technologies for liquid lead and lead-bismuth alloy are under wide investigation and development for advanced nuclear energy systems and waste transmutation systems. Material corrosion is one of the main issues studied a lot recently in the development of the liquid metal technology. This study reviews corrosion by liquid lead and lead bismuth, including the corrosion mechanisms, corrosion inhibitor and the formation of the protective oxide layer. The available experimental data are analyzed by using a corrosion model in which the oxidation and scale removal are coupled. Based on the model, long-term behaviors of steels in liquid lead and lead-bismuth are predictable. This report provides information for the selection of structural materials for typical nuclear reactor coolant systems when selecting liquid lead or lead bismuth as heat transfer media.

  5. Thermal oxidation of 6 nm aerosolized silicon nanoparticles: size and surface chemistry changes.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jason; Roberts, Jeffrey T

    2007-10-23

    The earliest stages of thermal oxidation of 6 nm diameter silicon nanoparticles by molecular oxygen are examined using a tandem differential mobility analysis (TDMA) apparatus, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Particles are synthesized in and then extracted from a nonthermal RF plasma operating at approximately 20 Torr into the atmospheric pressure TDMA apparatus. The TDMA apparatus was used to measure oxidation-induced size changes over a broad range of temperature settings and N2-O2 carrier gas composition. Surface chemistry changes are evaluated in situ with an FTIR spectrometer and a hybrid flow-through cell, and ex situ with ToF-SIMS and XPS. Particle size measurements show that, at temperatures less than approximately 500 degrees C, particles shrink regardless of the carrier gas oxygen concentration, while FTIR and ToF-SIMS spectra demonstrate a loss of hydrogen from the particles and minimal oxide formation. At higher temperatures, FTIR and XPS spectra indicate that an oxide forms which tends toward, but does not fully reach, stoichiometric SiO2 with increasing temperature. Between 500 and 800 degrees C, size measurements show a small increase in particle diameter with increasing carrier gas oxygen content and temperature. Above 800 degrees C, particle growth rapidly reaches a plateau while FTIR and XPS spectra change little. ToF-SIMS signals associated with O-Si species also show an increase in intensity at 800 degrees C. PMID:17910484

  6. Photothermal laser processing of thin silicon nanoparticle films: on the impact of oxide formation on film morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrenberg, Dennis; Franzka, Steffen; Petermann, Nils; Wiggers, Hartmut; Hartmann, Nils

    2012-03-01

    Photothermal laser processing of thin films of H-terminated silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) is investigated. Ethanolic dispersions of Si NPs with an average diameter of 45 nm are spin-coated on silicon substrates yielding films with thicknesses ?500 nm. Small-area laser processing is carried out using a microfocused scanning cw-laser setup operating at a wavelength of 532 nm and a 1/e laser spot size of 1.4 ?m. In conjunction with microscopic techniques, this provides a highly reproducible and convenient approach in order to study the dependence of the resulting film morphology and composition on the experimental parameters. Processing in air results in strongly oxidized granular structures with sizes between 100 and 200 nm. The formation of these structures is dominated by surface oxidation. In particular, changing the processing parameters (i.e., laser power, writing speed, and/or the background air pressure) has little effect on the morphology. Only in vacuum at pressures <1 mbar, oxygen adsorption, and hence oxide formation, is largely suppressed. Under these conditions, irradiation at low laser powers results in mesoporous surface layers, whereas compact silicon films are formed at high laser powers. In agreement with these results, comparative experiments with films of H-terminated and surface-oxidized Si NPs reveal a strong impact of the surface oxide layer on the film morphology. Mechanistic aspects and implications for photothermal processing techniques, e.g., targeting photovoltaic and thermoelectric applications, are discussed.

  7. Mineral resource of the month: bismuth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlin, James F.

    2006-01-01

    Bismuth compounds are most known for their soothing effects on the stomach, wounds and sores. These properties make the compounds an essential part of many medicinal and cosmetic preparations, which until 1930 accounted for about 90 percent of the bismuth used. The subsequent development of low-melting alloys and chemical catalysts containing bismuth, as well as its use as an additive to casting alloys, has resulted in a wider variety of industrial applications for bismuth.

  8. Continuous-flow Mass Production of Silicon Nanowires via Substrate-Enhanced Metal-Catalyzed Electroless Etching of Silicon with Dissolved Oxygen as an Oxidant

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ya; Peng, Kui-Qing; Liu, Lin; Qiao, Zhen; Huang, Xing; Wu, Xiao-Ling; Meng, Xiang-Min; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are attracting growing interest due to their unique properties and promising applications in photovoltaic devices, thermoelectric devices, lithium-ion batteries, and biotechnology. Low-cost mass production of SiNWs is essential for SiNWs-based nanotechnology commercialization. However, economic, controlled large-scale production of SiNWs remains challenging and rarely attainable. Here, we demonstrate a facile strategy capable of low-cost, continuous-flow mass production of SiNWs on an industrial scale. The strategy relies on substrate-enhanced metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) of silicon using dissolved oxygen in aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution as an oxidant. The distinct advantages of this novel MCEE approach, such as simplicity, scalability and flexibility, make it an attractive alternative to conventional MCEE methods. PMID:24413157

  9. Valence band offset in heterojunctions between crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon (sub)oxides (a-SiO{sub x}:H, 0 < x < 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Liebhaber, M.; Mews, M.; Schulze, T. F.; Korte, L. Rech, B.; Lips, K.

    2015-01-19

    The heterojunction between amorphous silicon (sub)oxides (a-SiO{sub x}:H, 0?silicon (c-Si) is investigated. We combine chemical vapor deposition with in-system photoelectron spectroscopy in order to determine the valence band offset ?E{sub V} and the interface defect density, being technologically important junction parameters. ?E{sub V} increases from ?0.3?eV for the a-Si:H/c-Si interface to >4?eV for the a-SiO{sub 2}/c-Si interface, while the electronic quality of the heterointerface deteriorates. High-bandgap a-SiO{sub x}:H is therefore unsuitable for the hole contact in heterojunction solar cells, due to electronic transport hindrance resulting from the large ?E{sub V}. Our method is readily applicable to other heterojunctions.

  10. Low temperature direct bonding mechanisms of tetraethyl orthosilicate based silicon oxide films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbione, C.; Di Cioccio, L.; Vandroux, L.; Nieto, J.-P.; Rieutord, F.

    2012-09-01

    Bonding behaviour and surface adhesion mechanisms of tetraethyl orthosilicate silicon oxide films are investigated. Prior to the bonding, infrared absorption spectroscopy was used to assess chemical composition of the bonding layers. The incorporation of -OH groups during the deposition process and the moisture absorption is shown and a specific effect of the applied RF power is highlighted. A strong correlation is found between trapped species and the evolution of the bonded layers during subsequent thermal annealing. The first observed phenomenon is an overall hardness reduction of the film deposited at low RF power which results in an increase of local adhesion area, hence an enhancement of the bonding energy. In the meantime, in this configuration water production is promoted in the volume of the film through silanol condensation and silicon oxidation occurs at the interface between the bonding layer and the silicon bulk. As a by-product of this reaction, hydrogen is released and it migrates towards the bonding interface. As a consequence, defects appear at the bonding interface. Thanks to the use of a stop barrier at the bulk interface, silicon oxidation is prevented, defect free bonding is obtained and the described scenario is confirmed.

  11. Surface etching, chemical modification and characterization of silicon nitride and silicon oxide-selective functionalization of Si3N4 and SiO2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Hong; Michalak, David J; Chopra, Tatiana P; Pujari, Sidharam P; Cabrera, Wilfredo; Dick, Don; Veyan, Jean-François; Hourani, Rami; Halls, Mathew D; Zuilhof, Han; Chabal, Yves J

    2016-03-01

    The ability to selectively chemically functionalize silicon nitride (Si3N4) or silicon dioxide (SiO2) surfaces after cleaning would open interesting technological applications. In order to achieve this goal, the chemical composition of surfaces needs to be carefully characterized so that target chemical reactions can proceed on only one surface at a time. While wet-chemically cleaned silicon dioxide surfaces have been shown to be terminated with surficial Si-OH sites, chemical composition of the HF-etched silicon nitride surfaces is more controversial. In this work, we removed the native oxide under various aqueous HF-etching conditions and studied the chemical nature of the resulting Si3N4 surfaces using infrared absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (LEIS), and contact angle measurements. We find that HF-etched silicon nitride surfaces are terminated by surficial Si-F and Si-OH bonds, with slightly subsurface Si-OH, Si-O-Si, and Si-NH2 groups. The concentration of surficial Si-F sites is not dependent on HF concentration, but the distribution of oxygen and Si-NH2 displays a weak dependence. The Si-OH groups of the etched nitride surface are shown to react in a similar manner to the Si-OH sites on SiO2, and therefore no selectivity was found. Chemical selectivity was, however, demonstrated by first reacting the -NH2 groups on the etched nitride surface with aldehyde molecules, which do not react with the Si-OH sites on a SiO2 surface, and then using trichloro-organosilanes for selective reaction only on the SiO2 surface (no reactivity on the aldehyde-terminated Si3N4 surface). PMID:26870908

  12. 21 CFR 73.1162 - Bismuth oxychloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bismuth oxychloride. 73.1162 Section 73.1162 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1162 Bismuth oxychloride. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bismuth oxychloride is...

  13. Size control, quantum confinement, and oxidation kinetics of silicon nanocrystals synthesized at a high rate by expanding thermal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Lihao E-mail: A.H.M.Smets@tudelft.nl; Zeman, Miro; Smets, Arno H. M. E-mail: A.H.M.Smets@tudelft.nl

    2015-05-25

    The growth mechanism of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) synthesized at a high rate by means of expanding thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition technique are studied in this letter. A bimodal Gaussian size distribution is revealed from the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images, and routes to reduce the unwanted large Si NCs are discussed. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopies are employed to study the size-dependent quantum confinement effect, from which the average diameters of the small Si NCs are determined. The surface oxidation kinetics of Si NCs are studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the importance of post-deposition passivation treatments of hydrogenated crystalline silicon surfaces are demonstrated.

  14. Characterization of the charge trapping properties in p-channel silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon memory devices including SiO2/Si3N4 interfacial transition layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Yung-Yueh; Yang, Bo-Jun; Li, Fu-Hai; Chang, Ru-Wei; Sun, Wein-Town; Lo, Chun-Yuan; Hsu, Chia-Jung; Kuo, Chao-Wei; Shirota, Riichiro

    2015-10-01

    The role of SiO2/Si3N4 interfacial transition (IFT) layer in the oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) tri-layer is quantitatively analyzed for the first time by simulating the temperature and stress-accelerated retention characteristics of p-channel silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) devices. The ONO tri-layer is modeled as an alloy-dielectric by changing the atomic concentration of silicon, oxygen and nitrogen. It is revealed that simulated results including the IFT layer are more consistent with the experimental data than those neglecting the IFT layer. In addition, the results show that the trapped charge density in IFT layer is two times larger than in the bulk Si3N4 film, due to the oxygen atoms penetrated from SiO2 cause the extrinsic defects in the IFT layer. The energy levels of the trapped charge are continuously distributed, and the peak value is 1.6 eV below the conduction band of the ONO tri-layer with a full width at half maximum of 0.45 eV.

  15. Effect of ultraviolet light exposure to boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seungsin; Iftiquar, S. M.; Jang, Juyeon; Lee, Sunhwa; Kim, Minbum; Jung, Junhee; Park, Hyeongsik; Park, Jinjoo; Kim, Youngkuk; Shin, Chonghoon; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin

    2012-11-01

    We have investigated the effect of ultraviolet (UV) light exposure to boron doped (p-type) hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide (p-a-SiO:H) thin semiconductor films by measuring changes in its structural, electrical and optical properties. After a 50 h of UV light soaking (LS) of the films, that have 1.2, 6.9, 15.2, 25.3 at.% oxygen content (C(O)) and optical gap (E04) of 1.897, 2.080, 2.146 and 2.033 eV, show a relative increase in the C(O) by 28.0%, 9.8%, 2.0%, 3.1%, a relative increase in the Urbach energy (Eu) by 42%, 24%, 8%, 0%, decrease in the E04 by 66, 2, 12, 19 meV and the gap state defect density (Nd) show an increase by 6.5%, 3.4%, 0.7%, 0.1%. At higher oxygen content the observed UV light induced degradation (LID) is relatively less than that for films with lower oxygen content, indicating that higher oxides face less changes under the UV light.

  16. Silicon rib waveguide electro-absorption optical modulator using transparent conductive oxide bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayata, Masafumi; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Tanemura, Takuo

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel ultra compact electro-absorption optical modulator based on a silicon rib waveguide and numerically demonstrate its performance. The proposed design employs two types of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers with different carrier densities to achieve both high modulation efficiency and low optical insertion loss. The thin TCO layer with high carrier density enables efficient modulation through the metal–oxide–semiconductor structure. On the other hand, the upper TCO layer with low carrier density allows low-resistance electrical contact for the top electrode without large optical loss. Using an indium tin oxide bilayer with optimized carrier densities, we numerically demonstrate a 4.3 dB extinction ratio and a 2.6 dB optical insertion loss with 1 µm device length. We estimate that the modulator operates under a low driving voltage of 1.3 V, exhibiting an ultra low energy consumption of 22.5 fJ/bit and a broad RC modulation bandwidth of over 40 GHz.

  17. Characterization of High-Performance Polycrystalline Silicon Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawachi, Genshiro; Nakazaki, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Jyumonji, Masayuki; Akita, Noritaka; Hiramatu, Masato; Azuma, Kazufumi; Warabisako, Terunori; Matsumura, Masakiyo

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits have been fabricated by using an advanced excimer-laser annealing method and a plasma-oxidation method. The 1-?m-long thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated on arrays of laterally grown long and narrow grains, so that the majority of carriers were free from scattering at grain boundaries during propagation through the channel. The propagation delay time measured by a 21-stage ring oscillator was 175 ps and a power-delay product of 9 10-13 J/gate was obtained at a supply voltage of 3.3 V. The obtained propagation delay time was almost the same as those of bulk Si devices having the same gate length. Furthermore, we expect that 1-?m-long CMOS TFT circuits on glass will have a performance superior to that of 1-?m-long bulk Si devices when the short channel effect and threshold voltage fluctuation are controlled well.

  18. Peak spacing statistics in silicon single-electron transistors: Size and gate oxide thickness dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehl, X.; Hofheinz, M.; Boehm, M.; Sanquer, M.; Molas, G.; Vinet, M.; Deleonibus, S.

    2006-08-01

    We measured the fluctuations of the addition spectra versus the size of the quantum dot in low-mobility gated nanowires etched in silicon-on-insulator thin films. The standard deviation of the peak spacing distribution in the high electron concentration regime is found to scale as the inverse surface area of the dot and its absolute value is comparable to the energy spacing ? of the one-particle spectrum. We have also varied the gate oxide thickness for dots with the same size. Away from the first oscillations we observe that the gate capacitance is remarkably constant over a large gate voltage range, whatever the dimensions of the dot and the gate oxide thickness. In these nanowires the confinement of the electronic wavefunctions is not provided by intentional tunnel junctions but by the quasi-1D nanowire itself, which behaves at low temperature like a disordered insulator. Coulomb blockade diamonds give a direct measurement of the small capacitance of those access regions.

  19. Controllably Interfacing with Ferroelectric Layer: A Strategy for Enhancing Water Oxidation on Silicon by Surface Polarization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Xia, Zhouhui; Wu, Shan; Chen, Fengjiao; Li, Yanguang; Sun, Baoquan

    2015-11-25

    Silicon (Si) is an important material in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting because of its good light-harvesting capability as well as excellent charge-transport properties. However, the shallow valence band edge of Si hinders its PEC performance for water oxidation. Generally, thanks to their deep valence band edge, metal oxides are incorporated with Si to improve the performance, but they also decrease the transportation of carriers in the electrode. Here, we integrated a ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] layer with Si to increase the photovoltage as well as the saturated current density. Because of the prominent ferroelectric property from P(VDF-TrFE), the Schottky barrier between Si and the electrolyte can be facially tuned by manipulating the poling direction of the ferroelectric domains. The photovoltage is improved from 460 to 540 mV with a forward-poled P(VDF-TrFE) layer, while the current density increased from 5.8 to 12.4 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 V bias versus reversible hydrogen electrode. PMID:25844486

  20. Deactivation of titanium dioxide photocatalyst by oxidation of polydimethylsiloxane and silicon sealant off-gas in a recirculating batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Chemweno, Maurice K; Cernohlavek, Leemer G; Jacoby, William A

    2008-01-01

    We have studied deactivation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst by oxidation of polydimethylsiloxane and silicone sealant off-gas in a recirculating batch reactor. Polydimethylsiloxane vapor is a model indoor air pollutant. It does not adsorb strongly on TiO2 in the dark, but undergoes oxidation when the ultraviolet (UV) photons are also present. Commercial silicone (room-temperature vulcanizing) sealant off-gas is an actual indoor air pollutant subject to short-term spikes in concentration. It does adsorb on the TiO2 surface in the dark, but UV photons also catalyze its oxidation. The oxidation of the Si-containing vapors was monitored using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscope equipped with a gas cell. Subsequent to each incremental exposure, a hexane oxidation reaction was performed to track the titania catalyst's activity. The exposures were repeated until substantial deactivation was achieved. We have also documented the regenerative effect of washing the catalyst surface with water. Surface science techniques were used to view the topography of the catalyst and to identify the elements causing the deactivation. Procedural observations of interest in the context of our recirculating batch reactor include the following: the rate of oxidation of hexane was used to assess the activity of a photocatalyst sample; hexane is an appropriate choice of a probe molecule because it does not adsorb in the dark and it undergoes photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) completely, forming CO2; and hexane does not deactivate the photocatalyst surface. PMID:18236790

  1. Light-emitting device with monolithic integration on bulk silicon in standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kaikai; Li, Guannpyng

    2013-01-01

    A silicon light-emitting device is designed and realized in standard 3-?m complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuitry. Accordingly, it can be integrated with its signal processing CMOS and BiCMOS circuits on the same chip, thus enabling the fabrication of much needed all-silicon monolithic optoelectronic systems operated by a single supply. The device emitted light in a broad, bell-shaped spectrum from 500 to 850 nm with characteristic peaks at 650 and 750 nm. Initial investigations indicate that the quantum efficiency is of the order of 10-8 and the electric-to-optical power conversion efficiency is of the order of 10-9. This silicon light-emitting device has obvious applications in the electro-optical interconnect.

  2. Bismuth-ring-doped fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Zlenko, Aleksandr S; Dvoirin, Vladislav V; Bogatyrev, Vladimir A; Firstov, Sergei V; Akhmetshin, Ural G

    2009-11-30

    A new process for bismuth doping of optical fibres is proposed in which the dopant is introduced into a thin layer surrounding the fibre core. This enables bismuth stabilisation in the silica glass, with no limitations on the core composition. In particular, the GeO{sub 2} content of the fibre core in this study is 16 mol %. Spectroscopic characterisation of such fibres and optical gain measurements suggest that the proposed approach has considerable potential for laser applications. (optical fibres and fibreoptic sensors)

  3. Bismuth bronze from machu picchu, peru.

    PubMed

    Gordon, R B; Rutledge, J W

    1984-02-10

    The decorative bronze handle of a tumi excavated at the Inca city of Machu Picchu, Peru, contains 18 percent bismuth and appears to be the first known example of the use of bismuth with tin to make bronze. The alloy is not embrittled by the bismuth because the bismuth-rich constituent does not penetrate the grain boundaries of the matrix phase. The use of bismuth facilitates the duplex casting process by which the tumi was made and forms an alloy of unusual color. PMID:17749940

  4. Oxidation Behavior of Germanium- and/or Silicon-Bearing Near-α Titanium Alloys in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitashima, Tomonori; Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko

    2015-06-01

    The effect of germanium (Ge) and/or silicon (Si) addition on the oxidation behavior of the near-α alloy Ti-5Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo was investigated in air at 973 K (700 °C). Ge addition decreased the oxidation resistance because of the formation of a Ge-rich layer in the substrate at the TiO2/substrate interface, enhancing Sn segregation at the interface. In addition, a small amount of Ge dissolved in the external Al2O3 layer. These results reduced the aluminum activity at the interface, suppressed the formation of Al2O3, and increased the diffusivity of oxygen in the oxide scales. The addition of 0.2 and 0.9 wt pct Si was beneficial for improving oxidation resistance. The effect of germanide and silicide precipitates in the matrix on the oxide growth process was also discussed.

  5. Third order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth zinc borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugavelu, B.; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.; Kuladeep, R.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2013-12-28

    Third order nonlinear optical characterization of bismuth zinc borate glasses are reported here using different laser pulse durations. Bismuth zinc borate glasses with compositions xBi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30ZnO-(70-x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x = 30, 35, 40, and 45 mol. %) have been prepared by melt quenching method. These glasses were characterized by Raman, UV-Vis absorption, and Z scan measurements. Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopic results indicate that non-bridging oxygens increase with increase of bismuth content in the glass. Nonlinear absorption and refraction behavior in the nanosecond (ns), picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) time domains were studied in detail. Strong reverse saturable absorption due to dominant two-photon absorption (TPA) was observed with both ps and fs excitations. In the case of ns pulse excitations, TPA and free-carrier absorption processes contribute for the nonlinear absorption. Two-photon absorption coefficient (β) and the absorption cross section due to free carriers (σ{sub e}) are estimated by theoretical fit of the open aperture Z-scan measurements and found to be dependent on the amount of bismuth oxide in the glass composition. In both ns and fs regimes the sign and magnitude of the third order nonlinearity are evaluated, and the optical limiting characteristics are also reported.

  6. Comparison between transient and frequency modulated excitation: application to silicon nitride and aluminum oxide coatings of silicon.

    PubMed

    Klein, D; Ohm, W; Fengler, S; Kunst, M

    2014-06-01

    Contactless measurements of the lifetime of charge carriers are presented with varying ways of photo excitation: with and without bias light and pulsed and frequency modulated. These methods are applied to the study of the surface passivation of single crystalline silicon by a-SiN(x):H and Al2O3 coatings. The properties of these coatings are investigated under consideration of the merits of the different methods. PMID:24985850

  7. Bismuth Passivation Technique for High-Resolution X-Ray Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chervenak, James; Hess, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The Athena-plus team requires X-ray sensors with energy resolution of better than one part in 3,000 at 6 keV X-rays. While bismuth is an excellent material for high X-ray stopping power and low heat capacity (for large signal when an X-ray is stopped by the absorber), oxidation of the bismuth surface can lead to electron traps and other effects that degrade the energy resolution. Bismuth oxide reduction and nitride passivation techniques analogous to those used in indium passivation are being applied in a new technique. The technique will enable improved energy resolution and resistance to aging in bismuth-absorber-coupled X-ray sensors. Elemental bismuth is lithographically integrated into X-ray detector circuits. It encounters several steps where the Bi oxidizes. The technology discussed here will remove oxide from the surface of the Bi and replace it with nitridized surface. Removal of the native oxide and passivating to prevent the growth of the oxide will improve detector performance and insulate the detector against future degradation from oxide growth. Placing the Bi coated sensor in a vacuum system, a reduction chemistry in a plasma (nitrogen/hydrogen (N2/H2) + argon) is used to remove the oxide and promote nitridization of the cleaned Bi surface. Once passivated, the Bi will perform as a better X-ray thermalizer since energy will not be trapped in the bismuth oxides on the surface. A simple additional step, which can be added at various stages of the current fabrication process, can then be applied to encapsulate the Bi film. After plasma passivation, the Bi can be capped with a non-diffusive layer of metal or dielectric. A non-superconducting layer is required such as tungsten or tungsten nitride (WNx).

  8. Cobalt-silicon mixed oxide nanocomposites by modified sol-gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, Serena; Turco, Maria; Ramis, Gianguido; Bagnasco, Giovanni; Pernice, Pasquale; Pagliuca, Concetta; Bevilacqua, Maria; Aronne, Antonio

    2007-12-15

    Cobalt-silicon mixed oxide materials (Co/Si=0.111, 0.250 and 0.428) were synthesised starting from Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O and Si(OC{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4} using a modified sol-gel method. Structural, textural and surface chemical properties were investigated by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA), XRD, UV-vis, FT-IR spectroscopy and N{sub 2} adsorption at -196 deg. C. The nature of cobalt species and their interactions with the siloxane matrix were strongly depending on both the cobalt loading and the heat treatment. All dried gels were amorphous and contained Co{sup 2+} ions forming both tetrahedral and octahedral complexes with the siloxane matrix. After treatment at 400 deg. C, the sample with lowest Co content appeared amorphous and contained only Co{sup 2+} tetrahedral complexes, while at higher cobalt loading Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was present as the only crystalline phase, besides Co{sup 2+} ions strongly interacting with siloxane matrix. At 850 deg. C, in all samples crystalline Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} was formed and was the only crystallising phase for the nanocomposite with the lowest cobalt content. All materials retained high surface areas also after treatments at 600 deg. C and exhibited surface Lewis acidity, due to cationic sites. The presence of cobalt affected the textural properties of the siloxane matrix decreasing microporosity and increasing mesoporosity. - Graphical abstract: Highly dispersed cobalt-silicon mixed oxide nanocomposites (Co/Si=0.111, 0.250 and 0.428) were obtained by a modified sol-gel method using almost solely aqueous solutions. The nature of cobalt species and their interactions with the siloxane matrix are strongly depending on both the cobalt loading and the heat treatment. All materials retained high surface areas also after treatments at 600 deg. C and exhibited surface Lewis acidity.

  9. Role of surface oxides in the formation of solid-electrolyte interphases at silicon electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Kjell W; Dylla, Anthony G; Harris, Stephen J; Webb, Lauren J; Stevenson, Keith J

    2014-12-10

    Nonaqueous solvents in modern battery technologies undergo electroreduction at negative electrodes, leading to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). The mechanisms and reactions leading to a stable SEI on silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries are still poorly understood. This lack of understanding inhibits the rational design of electrolyte additives, active material coatings, and the prediction of Li-ion battery life in general. We prepared SEI with a common nonaqueous solvent (LiPF6 in PC and in EC/DEC 1:1 by wt %) on silicon oxide and etched silicon (001) surfaces in various states of lithiation to understand the role of surface chemistry on the SEI formation mechanism and SEI structure. Anhydrous and anoxic techniques were used to prevent air and moisture contamination of prepared SEI films, allowing for more accurate characterization of SEI chemical stratification and composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) depth profiling. Additionally, multivariate statistical methods were used to better understand TOF-SIMS depth profiling studies. We conclude that the absence of native-oxide layer on silicon has a significant impact on the formation, composition, structure, and thickness of the SEI. PMID:25402271

  10. Room temperature NO2 gas sensing of Au-loaded tungsten oxide nanowires/porous silicon hybrid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng-Feng, Wang; Ji-Ran, Liang; Chang-Qing, Li; Wen-Jun, Yan; Ming, Hu

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we report an enhanced nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas sensor based on tungsten oxide (WO3) nanowires/porous silicon (PS) decorated with gold (Au) nanoparticles. Au-loaded WO3 nanowires with diameters of 10 nm–25 nm and lengths of 300 nm–500 nm are fabricated by the sputtering method on a porous silicon substrate. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) micrographs show that Au nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the surfaces of WO3 nanowires. The effect of the Au nanoparticles on the NO2-sensing performance of WO3 nanowires/porous silicon is investigated over a low concentration range of 0.2 ppm–5 ppm of NO2 at room temperature (25 °C). It is found that the 10-Å Au-loaded WO3 nanowires/porous silicon-based sensor possesses the highest gas response characteristic. The underlying mechanism of the enhanced sensing properties of the Au-loaded WO3 nanowires/porous silicon is also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274074 and 61271070) and the Key Research Program of Application Foundation and Advanced Technology of Tianjin, China (Grant No. 11JCZDJC15300).

  11. Electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxides as a switching element and methods for production and use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Tour, James M; Yao, Jun; Natelson, Douglas; Zhong, Lin; He, Tao

    2013-11-26

    In various embodiments, electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxide as a switching element are described herein. The electronic devices are two-terminal devices containing a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact in which at least one of the first electrical contact or the second electrical contact is deposed on a substrate to define a gap region therebetween. A switching layer containing a switchably conductive silicon oxide resides in the the gap region between the first electical contact and the second electrical contact. The electronic devices exhibit hysteretic current versus voltage properties, enabling their use in switching and memory applications. Methods for configuring, operating and constructing the electronic devices are also presented herein.

  12. Electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxides as a switching element and methods for production and use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Tour, James M.; Yao, Jun; Natelson, Douglas; Zhong, Lin; He, Tao

    2015-09-08

    In various embodiments, electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxide as a switching element are described herein. The electronic devices are two-terminal devices containing a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact in which at least one of the first electrical contact or the second electrical contact is deposed on a substrate to define a gap region therebetween. A switching layer containing a switchably conductive silicon oxide resides in the gap region between the first electrical contact and the second electrical contact. The electronic devices exhibit hysteretic current versus voltage properties, enabling their use in switching and memory applications. Methods for configuring, operating and constructing the electronic devices are also presented herein.

  13. Cross-Sectional X-Ray Topographic Study of Lattice Distortion in Silicon Crstal with Oxide Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Yoichi; Isomae, Seiichi; Horiuchi, Masatada

    1990-06-01

    Cross-Sectinal X-ray topography, in which a specimen is prepared as a thin section perpendicular to the specimen surface, is proposed to quantitavely evaluate depth profiles of lattice distortion. The topographs obatined in silicon wafer with an oxide film show a black speck near the film edge. Such a diffraction image is obseved to be apparently deflected as a consequence of strain relaxation caused by the surface effect on the cross sections.

  14. Corrosion behavior of Si-enriched steels for nuclear applications in liquid lead-bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, Yuji

    2013-06-01

    The corrosion behavior of Si-enriched steels in liquid lead-bismuth was studied in order to develop accelerator driven systems for transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes and lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors. The corrosion tests of 316SS, Si-enriched 316SS, Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel (T91) and Si-enriched T91 were conducted at 550 C in liquid lead-bismuth at the two controlled oxygen levels. Both the additions of 2.5 wt.% Si to 316SS and 1.5 wt.% Si to T91 had the effect of reducing the thickness of oxide layer in liquid lead-bismuth at the high oxygen concentration (2.5 10-5 wt.%). Although the Si addition to 316SS reduced the depth of ferritization caused by Ni dissolution in liquid lead-bismuth at the low oxygen concentration (4.4 10-8 wt.%), it could not suppress the ferritization and the penetration of Pb and Bi completely. The Si addition to T91 did not have the effect of preventing the penetration of Pb and Bi in the liquid lead-bismuth at the low oxygen concentration. The oxide scales formed on both Si-enriched steels did not have sufficient corrosion resistance under the low oxygen condition.

  15. Fabrication of silicon nanowire/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)-graphene oxide hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uma, Kasimayan; Subramani, Thiyagu; Syu, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2015-03-01

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW)/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) Schottky junctions have shown great promise as high efficiency, cost effective solar cells. Here, hybrid SiNWs/PEDOT:PSS blended graphene oxide (GO) solar cells are prepared and investigated. The SiNWs/PEDOT:PSS blended GO cells show enhanced light trapping and a large junction area when compared to pure PEDOT:PSS structures. SiNWs combined with GO solar cells show energy conversion efficiencies of up to 9.57% under the AM 1.5G condition, opening the possibility of using semiconductor/graphene oxide in photovoltaic applications.

  16. Characterization of hybrid cobalt-porous silicon systems: protective effect of the Matrix in the metal oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the characterization of cobalt-porous silicon (Co-PSi) hybrid systems is performed by a combination of magnetic, spectroscopic, and structural techniques. The Co-PSi structures are composed by a columnar matrix of PSi with Co nanoparticles embedded inside, as determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The oxidation state, crystalline structure, and magnetic behavior are determined by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and Alternating Gradient Field Magnetometry (AGFM). Additionally, the Co concentration profile inside the matrix has been studied by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS). It is concluded that the PSi matrix can be tailored to provide the Co nanoparticles with extra protection against oxidation. PMID:22938050

  17. Moisture-assisted cracking and atomistic crack path meandering in oxidized hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Yusuke; King, Sean W.; Oliver, Mark; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2013-02-01

    Moisture-assisted cracking of silica-derived materials results from a stress-enhanced reaction between water molecules and moisture-sensitive SiOSi bonds at the crack tip. We report the moisture-assisted cracking of oxidized hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide films (a-SiCO:H) consisting of both moisture-sensitive SiOSi bonds and moisture-insensitive bonds. The sensitivity of the films to moisture-assisted cracking was observed to increase with the SiOSi bond density, ρSiOSi. This sensitivity was correlated with the number of SiOSi bonds ruptured, NSiOSi, through an atomistic kinetic fracture model. By comparing these correlated NSiOSi values with those estimated by a planar crack model, we demonstrated that at the atomistic scale the crack path meanders three-dimensionally so as to intercept the most SiOSi bonds. This atomistic crack path meandering was verified by a computational method based on graph theory and molecular dynamics. Our findings could provide a basis for better understanding of moisture-assisted cracking in materials consisting of other types of moisture-sensitive and moisture-insensitive bonds.

  18. Demonstration of Synaptic Behaviors and Resistive Switching Characterizations by Proton Exchange Reactions in Silicon Oxide.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Feng; Fowler, Burt; Chen, Ying-Chen; Zhou, Fei; Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lee, Jack C

    2016-01-01

    We realize a device with biological synaptic behaviors by integrating silicon oxide (SiOx) resistive switching memory with Si diodes. Minimal synaptic power consumption due to sneak-path current is achieved and the capability for spike-induced synaptic behaviors is demonstrated, representing critical milestones for the use of SiO2-based materials in future neuromorphic computing applications. Biological synaptic behaviors such as long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) are demonstrated systematically using a comprehensive analysis of spike-induced waveforms, and represent interesting potential applications for SiOx-based resistive switching materials. The resistive switching SET transition is modeled as hydrogen (proton) release from (SiH)2 to generate the hydrogen bridge defect, and the RESET transition is modeled as an electrochemical reaction (proton capture) that re-forms (SiH)2. The experimental results suggest a simple, robust approach to realize programmable neuromorphic chips compatible with large-scale CMOS manufacturing technology. PMID:26880381

  19. The catalytic effect of Pt nanoparticles supported on silicon oxide nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Woo, Hee Jin; Kim, Chang Kyung; Yoon, Chong Seung

    2009-06-01

    3.5 nm sized Pt nanocatalysts supported on silicon oxide nanowires (SiOXNWs) were fabricated by decorating the SiOXNWs with Pt nanoparticles using a simple physical deposition system without any surface pretreatment. High curvature of the nanowire surface together with the weak metal-substrate interaction helped to maintain discrete particle morphology with spherical shapes during deposition. Catalytic efficiency of the SiOXNWs coated with Pt nanoparticles was demonstrated through reduction of methylene blue in the presence of sodium borohydride. It was demonstrated that the highly curved nanowire surface allowed the Pt nanoparticles to be loaded with increased particle density, providing a larger surface area for the catalytic reaction. It was also shown that a simple heat treatment in vacuum improves the effectiveness of the Pt nanoparticles as a catalyst without loss of catalytic activity when used repeatedly. We expect that this metal nanoparticle-decorated nanowire can be easily extended to other heterogeneous reactions and can also be used as a template for building three-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures.

  20. Silicon nanowires/reduced graphene oxide composites for enhanced photoelectrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhipeng; Zhong, Peng; Wang, Chifang; Zhang, Xuanxiong; Zhang, Chi

    2013-03-01

    The top of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) arrays was coated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by the facile spin-coating method. The resulting SiNWs/rGO composite exhibits enhanced photoelectrochemical properties, with short-circuit photocurrent density more than 4 times higher than that of the pristine SiNWs and more than 600 times higher than that of planar Si/rGO composite. The trapping and recombination of photogenerated carriers at the surface state of SiNWs were reduced after the application of rGO. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that the reduction of trapping and recombination of photogenerated carriers as well as remarkably enhancement of photoelectrochemical properties can be attributed to the low charge transfer resistance at the SiNWs-rGO interface and rGO-electrolyte interface. The method and results shown here indicate a convenient and applicable approach to further exploitation of high activity materials for photoelectrochemical applications. PMID:23432521

  1. Demonstration of Synaptic Behaviors and Resistive Switching Characterizations by Proton Exchange Reactions in Silicon Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yao-Feng; Fowler, Burt; Chen, Ying-Chen; Zhou, Fei; Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lee, Jack C.

    2016-02-01

    We realize a device with biological synaptic behaviors by integrating silicon oxide (SiOx) resistive switching memory with Si diodes. Minimal synaptic power consumption due to sneak-path current is achieved and the capability for spike-induced synaptic behaviors is demonstrated, representing critical milestones for the use of SiO2–based materials in future neuromorphic computing applications. Biological synaptic behaviors such as long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) are demonstrated systematically using a comprehensive analysis of spike-induced waveforms, and represent interesting potential applications for SiOx-based resistive switching materials. The resistive switching SET transition is modeled as hydrogen (proton) release from (SiH)2 to generate the hydrogen bridge defect, and the RESET transition is modeled as an electrochemical reaction (proton capture) that re-forms (SiH)2. The experimental results suggest a simple, robust approach to realize programmable neuromorphic chips compatible with large-scale CMOS manufacturing technology.

  2. Performance enhancement of ITO/oxide/semiconductor MOS-structure silicon solar cells with voltage biasing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the photovoltaic performance enhancement of a p-n junction silicon solar cell using a transparent-antireflective ITO/oxide film deposited on the spacing of the front-side finger electrodes and with a DC voltage applied on the ITO-electrode. The depletion width of the p-n junction under the ITO-electrode was induced and extended while the absorbed volume and built-in electric field were also increased when the biasing voltage was increased. The photocurrent and conversion efficiency were increased because more photo-carriers are generated in a larger absorbed volume and because the carriers transported and collected more effectively due to higher biasing voltage effects. Compared to a reference solar cell (which was biased at 0V), a conversion efficiency enhancement of 26.57% (from 12.42% to 15.72%) and short-circuit current density enhancement of 42.43% (from 29.51 to 42.03mA/cm2) were obtained as the proposed MOS-structure solar cell biased at 2.5V. In addition, the capacitance-volt (C-V) measurement was also used to examine the mechanism of photovoltaic performance enhancement due to the depletion width being enlarged by applying a DC voltage on an ITO-electrode. PMID:25593550

  3. Optical Properties of dual ion beam sputtered Indium Tin Oxide films on glass and Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Nelson; Geerts, Wilhelmus; Bandyopadhyay, Anup

    2012-03-01

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) is a transparent conducting material that finds application in flat panel displays, solar cells, and photodetectors. High quality ITO films, i.e. films with a large transparency and a high conductivity, are normally deposited above room temperature often at 300-400 C. This high deposition temperature eliminates most plastics as substrates. To lower the substrate deposition temperature we are applying atomic instead of molecular oxygen during the sputtering process. A dual ion beam sputtering system (DIBS) has been modified to allow the substrate to be exposed to an atomic oxygen beam at 45 degrees angle of incidence. Thin films were sputtered as a function of atomic oxygen flux and substrate temperature on glass, silicon, and sapphire substrates. The optical properties were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry, reflectometry, and FTIR. Film thickness and bandgap were determined from the optical properties in the visible part of the spectrum. Mobility was determined from the infrared part of the spectruam. Optical properties appear to vary with the film thickness, the oxygen flux, and the substrate temperature. Roughness of the samples was independently measured by AFM. This work is supported by a grant from research corporation (10775).

  4. Demonstration of Synaptic Behaviors and Resistive Switching Characterizations by Proton Exchange Reactions in Silicon Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yao-Feng; Fowler, Burt; Chen, Ying-Chen; Zhou, Fei; Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lee, Jack C.

    2016-01-01

    We realize a device with biological synaptic behaviors by integrating silicon oxide (SiOx) resistive switching memory with Si diodes. Minimal synaptic power consumption due to sneak-path current is achieved and the capability for spike-induced synaptic behaviors is demonstrated, representing critical milestones for the use of SiO2–based materials in future neuromorphic computing applications. Biological synaptic behaviors such as long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) are demonstrated systematically using a comprehensive analysis of spike-induced waveforms, and represent interesting potential applications for SiOx-based resistive switching materials. The resistive switching SET transition is modeled as hydrogen (proton) release from (SiH)2 to generate the hydrogen bridge defect, and the RESET transition is modeled as an electrochemical reaction (proton capture) that re-forms (SiH)2. The experimental results suggest a simple, robust approach to realize programmable neuromorphic chips compatible with large-scale CMOS manufacturing technology. PMID:26880381

  5. Aluminum oxide passivated radial junction sub-micrometre pillar array textured silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Elam, David; Ayon, Arturo A.

    2013-06-01

    We report radial, p-n junction, sub-micrometre, pillar array textured solar cells, fabricated on an n-type Czochralski silicon wafer. Relatively simple processing schemes such as metal-assisted chemical etching and spin on dopant techniques were employed for the fabrication of the proposed solar cells. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown aluminum oxide (Al2O3) was employed as a surface passivation layer on the B-doped emitter surface. In spite of the fact that the sub-micrometre pillar array textured surface has a relatively high surface-to-volume ratio, we observed an open circuit voltage (VOC) and a short circuit current density (JSC) as high as 572 mV and 29.9 mA cm-2, respectively, which leads to a power conversion efficiency in excess of 11.30%, for the optimized structure of the solar cell described herein. Broadband omnidirectional antireflection effects along with the light trapping property of the sub-micrometre, pillar array textured surface and the excellent passivation quality of the ALD-grown Al2O3 on the B-doped emitter surface were responsible for the enhanced electrical performance of the proposed solar cells.

  6. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxide films with divinyldimethylsilane and tetravinylsilane

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-Gyu; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2006-03-15

    Carbon-doped silicon oxide (SiCOH) low-k films were deposited with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using divinyldimethylsilane (DVDMS) with two vinyl groups and tetravinylsilane (TVS) with four vinyl groups compared with vinyltrimethylsilane (VTMS) with one vinyl group. With more vinyl groups in the precursor, due to the crosslinking of the vinyl groups, the film contains more of an organic phase and organic phase became less volatile. It was confirmed that the deposition rate, refractive index, and k value increase with more vinyl groups in the precursor molecule. After annealing, the SiCOH films deposited with DVDMS and TVS showed a low dielectric constant of 2.2 and 2.4 at optimum conditions, respectively. In both cases, the annealed film had low leakage current density (J=6.7x10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} for SiCOH film of DVDMS and J=1.18x10{sup -8} A/cm{sup 2} for SiCOH film of TVS at 1 MV/cm) and relatively high breakdown field strength (E>4.0 MV/cm at 1 mA/cm{sup 2}), which is comparable to those of PECVD SiO{sub 2}.

  7. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor-compatible silicon nanowire biofield-effect transistors as affinity biosensors.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xuexin; Rajan, Nitin K; Izadi, Mohammad Hadi; Reed, Mark A

    2013-11-01

    Affinity biosensors use biorecognition elements and transducers to convert a biochemical event into a recordable signal. They provides the molecule binding information, which includes the dynamics of biomolecular association and dissociation, and the equilibrium association constant. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor-compatible silicon (Si) nanowires configured as a field-effect transistor (NW FET) have shown significant advantages for real-time, label-free and highly sensitive detection of a wide range of biomolecules. Most research has focused on reducing the detection limit of Si-NW FETs but has provided less information about the real binding parameters of the biomolecular interactions. Recently, Si-NW FETs have been demonstrated as affinity biosensors to quantify biomolecular binding affinities and kinetics. They open new applications for NW FETs in the nanomedicine field and will bring such sensor technology a step closer to commercial point-of-care applications. This article summarizes the recent advances in bioaffinity measurement using Si-NW FETs, with an emphasis on the different approaches used to address the issues of sensor calibration, regeneration, binding kinetic measurements, limit of detection, sensor surface modification, biomolecule charge screening, reference electrode integration and nonspecific molecular binding. PMID:24156488

  8. In-situ infrared spectroscopic analysis of hafnium diethylamide adsorption on hydrogen terminated silicon and oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Parsons, Gregory N.

    2003-03-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) proceeds by a binary reaction process, where metal precursor and oxidizing reactants are introduced sequentially into the deposition reactor. A key challenge in ALD is to control the deposition during the first few adsorption/oxidation cycles that form the heterogeneous semiconductor/dielectric interface. The details of the surface preparation is expected to affect precursor adsorption kinetics and subsequent interface structure, but there are few in-situ surface studies that directly characterize metal organic precursors of interest in metal oxide ALD and CVD. We have used in-situ attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy to observe the effect of time and temperature on the adsorption of hafnium diethylamide on various prepared silicon surfaces. For a HF-last silicon surface at 175C, exposing the surface to precursor for 200mtorr-min resulted in no observable CH stretching modes consistent with no adsorption. On an oxidized surface (preannealed at 650C), exposure at 175C resulted in adsorption and self-limiting saturation after 200mtorr-min. The CH stretching modes disappeared in less than 1 min after exposing the surface to 10-6torr vacuum, consistent with reversible physisorption at 175C. A significantly higher precursor adsorption rate was observed on in-situ prepared CVD hafnium oxide surfaces, and non self-limiting adsorption was observed at 250C. Effect of substrate temperature and models of elementary adsorption reactions consistent with results will be discussed.

  9. Excitation mechanism and thermal emission quenching of Tb ions in silicon rich silicon oxide thin films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour depositionDo we need silicon nanoclusters?

    SciTech Connect

    Podhorodecki, A. Golacki, L. W.; Zatryb, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Wang, J.; Jadwisienczak, W.; Fedus, K.

    2014-04-14

    In this work, we will discuss the excitation and emission properties of Tb ions in a Silicon Rich Silicon Oxide (SRSO) matrix obtained at different technological conditions. By means of electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition, undoped and doped SRSO films have been obtained with different Si content (33, 35, 39, 50 at.%) and were annealed at different temperatures (600, 900, 1100?C). The samples were characterized optically and structurally using photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation, time resolved PL, absorption, cathodoluminescence, temperature dependent PL, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Based on the obtained results, we discuss how the matrix modifications influence excitation and emission properties of Tb ions.

  10. Effects of surface oxide layer on nanocavity formation and silver gettering in hydrogen ion implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Naczas, Sebastian; Huang Mengbing; Yaqoob, Faisal

    2013-07-14

    We have made an investigation of the surface oxide effects on nanocavity formation in hydrogen implanted silicon and the influence of resultant nanocavities on diffusion and gettering of implanted silver atoms. A wafer with a 200-nm SiO{sub 2} surface layer was implanted with 22.5 keV H ions to a dose of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}, yielding the concentration peak of implanted H ions at {approx}140 nm below the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface. Subsequently, two sets of Si samples were prepared, depending on whether the oxide layer was etched off before (Group-A) or after (Group-B) post-H-implantation annealing. As evidenced by transmission electron microscopy, Group-A samples exhibited an array of large-sized nanocavities in hexagon-like shape, extending from the surface to the depth {approx}140 nm, whereas a narrow band of sphere-shaped nanocavities of small size was present around 140 nm below the surface in Group-B samples. These Si samples with pre-existing nanocavities were further implanted with Ag ions in the surface region ({approx}40 nm projected range) and post-Ag-implantation annealing was conducted in the temperature range between 600 and 900 Degree-Sign C. Measurements based on Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy revealed much different behaviors for Ag redistribution and defect accumulation in these two sets of samples. Compared to the case for Group-B Si, Group-A Si exhibited a lower concentration of residual defects and a slower kinetics in Ag diffusion as well. We discuss the role of thick surface oxide in point defect generation and recombination, and the consequence on nanocavity formation and defect retention in Si. The properties of nanocavities, e.g., their depth distribution, size, and even shape, are believed to be responsible for the observed disparities between these samples, including an interesting contrast of surface vs. bulk diffusion phenomena for implanted Ag atoms.

  11. Polarization characteristics of silicon photodiodes and their dependence on oxide thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.; Hughey, L.R.; Proctor, J.E.; OBrian, T.R.

    1996-09-01

    We have studied the polarization dependence of silicon photodiode responsivity as a function of wavelength, the angle of incidence, and the thickness of the silicon dioxide overlayer. The experimental results in the spectral region where there is no absorption in the silicon dioxide are explained well by a purely optical model. The responsivity dependence on polarization in the VUV is found to be smaller than that predicted and to be explainable by the presence of charge injection from the silicon dioxide layer. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Detailed statistical contact angle analyses; "slow moving" drops on inclining silicon-oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, M; Gro, K; Grub, J; Heib, F

    2015-06-01

    Contact angle determination by sessile drop technique is essential to characterise surface properties in science and in industry. Different specific angles can be observed on every solid which are correlated with the advancing or the receding of the triple line. Different procedures and definitions for the determination of specific angles exist which are often not comprehensible or reproducible. Therefore one of the most important things in this area is to build standard, reproducible and valid methods for determining advancing/receding contact angles. This contribution introduces novel techniques to analyse dynamic contact angle measurements (sessile drop) in detail which are applicable for axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric drops. Not only the recently presented fit solution by sigmoid function and the independent analysis of the different parameters (inclination, contact angle, velocity of the triple point) but also the dependent analysis will be firstly explained in detail. These approaches lead to contact angle data and different access on specific contact angles which are independent from "user-skills" and subjectivity of the operator. As example the motion behaviour of droplets on flat silicon-oxide surfaces after different surface treatments is dynamically measured by sessile drop technique when inclining the sample plate. The triple points, the inclination angles, the downhill (advancing motion) and the uphill angles (receding motion) obtained by high-precision drop shape analysis are independently and dependently statistically analysed. Due to the small covered distance for the dependent analysis (<0.4mm) and the dominance of counted events with small velocity the measurements are less influenced by motion dynamics and the procedure can be called "slow moving" analysis. The presented procedures as performed are especially sensitive to the range which reaches from the static to the "slow moving" dynamic contact angle determination. They are characterised by small deviations of the computed values. Additional to the detailed introduction of this novel analytical approaches plus fit solution special motion relations for the drop on inclined surfaces and detailed relations about the reactivity of the freshly cleaned silicon wafer surface resulting in acceleration behaviour (reactive de-wetting) are presented. PMID:25465200

  13. The Application of Strained-Silicon Germanium Heterostructures to Metal-Oxide Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welser, Jeffrey John

    1995-01-01

    The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is currently the device of choice for state-of -the-art digital electronics. Advanced silicon (Si) processing technology has allowed MOSFETs to be scaled to sub-micron dimensions, realizing incredible gains in performance and integration. However, certain physical constraints are being reached that limit continued scaling and the expected performance improvements. Hence, it is important to look for new methods of improving device performance, while taking advantage of the current Si materials' technology base. Enhancing the carrier mobility in the channel of a Si MOSFET has the potential to extend the performance limits of existing MOS technology. Theoretical calculations indicate that inducing strain in Si will split the degeneracies at the conduction and valence band minima. Since relaxed silicon germanium (Si_{1-x}Ge _{x}) has a larger lattice constant than bulk Si, thin Si layers grown pseudomorphically on this material will be strained in biaxial tension. This produces an enhanced in-plane carrier mobility in the strained Si, as well as band offsets between the relaxed Si _{1-x}Ge_{x } and the strained Si, which can be used for carrier confinement in advanced device structures. Using chemical vapor deposition, structures for n- and p-type MOSFETs with strained-Si channels were grown. After epitaxial growth, a standard, self-aligned MOS process, modified slightly for reduced temperature exposure, was used to fabricate devices. While both types of devices exhibited performance enhancements, allowing the possibility of a complementary technology in the future, the particular structures studied here were optimized for n-MOSFET performance. Surface channel n-MOSFETs exhibit low-field electron mobility enhancements of 80% at room temperature, when compared to control devices fabricated in bulk Si. Buried channel devices show peak mobilities about three times that of control devices at low gate voltages. The dependence of the electron mobility, as well as the band offsets, was extracted as a function of strain in the Si. Investigation of low temperature device behavior resulted in the observation of a novel bipolar breakdown mechanism and an empirical model for the temperature dependence of the electron mobility enhancement.

  14. Aspects of the magmatic geochemistry of bismuth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenland, L.P.; Gottfried, D.; Campbell, E.Y.

    1973-01-01

    Bismuth has been determined in 74 rocks from a differentiated tholeiitic dolerite, two calc-alkaline batholith suites and in 66 mineral separates from one of the batholiths. Average bismuth contents, weighted for rock type, of the Great Lake (Tasmania) dolerite, the Southern California batholith and the Idaho batholith are, 32, 50 and 70 ppb respectively. All three bodies demonstrate an enrichment of bismuth in residual magmas with magmatic differentiation. Bismuth is greatly enriched (relative to the host rock) in the calcium-rich accessory minerals, apatite and sphene, but other mineral analyses show that a Bi-Ca association is of little significance to the magmatic geochemistry of bismuth. Most of the bismuth, in the Southern California batholith at least, occurs in a trace mineral phase (possibly sulfides) present as inclusions in the rock-forming minerals. ?? 1973.

  15. Effect of Dielectric Titanium, Yttrium, and Silicon Oxide Nanoparticles on Electro-Optical Characteristics of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, K. R.; Romanenko, A. I.; Zharkova, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Electro-optical characteristics of composite polymer-dispersed liquid crystals doped (implanted) with inorganic SiO2, TiO2, and Y2O3 nanoparticles in strong electric fields are studied. The composites were obtained by the method of phase separation of liquid crystals (5CB) and polymer (polyvinyl acetate). It is revealed that implantation of up to 1 wt.% of nanoparticles does not noticeably affect the morphology of the composites. The implanted particles change the mismatch between the refractive indices of the polymer and the liquid crystal, and the strong particle aggregation increases the light scattering that can improve the electrooptical contrast of the composites. Changes of the dielectric permittivity with the field are correlated with the light transmittance. It is found that the yttrium and silicon oxides decrease and the titanium oxides increase the Fredericks threshold field. The titanium oxides and to a greater extent the silicon oxides decrease the dependence of the light transmittance on the changes in the dielectric permittivity.

  16. New complex bismuth oxides in the Bi2O3-NiO-Sb2O5 system and their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorysheva, A. V.; Ellert, O. G.; Zubavichus, Y. V.; Gajtko, O. M.; Efimov, N. N.; Svetogorov, R. D.; Murzin, V. Yu.

    2015-05-01

    Phase equilibria in the Bi2O3-NiO-Sb2O5 system have been investigated. The isothermal section of the system (650) has been constructed. For the first time the existence of the pyrochlore structure solid solution, (Bi2-xNix)Ni2/3-ySb4/3+yO7?, x=0.1-0.35, y=0-0.1, and a new compound Bi3Ni2/3Sb7/3O11 of KSbO3 structure type have been discovered. The structures and properties of these compounds were studied by XRD, XAFS, diffuse reflection spectroscopy and magnetic methods. Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation-based powder XRD data for pyrochlore sample of 38.43Bi2O3-33.0NiO-28.57Sb2O5 composition and Bi3Ni2/3Sb7/3O11 compound was performed. The best possible refinement of the positional parameters for both pyrochlore and Bi3Ni2/3Sb7/3O11 structures was achieved for disordered models. Magnetic, diffuse reflection and an X-ray absorption spectroscopy study confirmed that in both compounds nickel ions are mainly in a 2+ oxidation state. According to magnetic data, Bi1.84Ni0.16(Ni0.63Sb1.37)O7 pyrochlore and Bi3Ni2/3Sb7/3O11 are overall paramagnetic in nature.

  17. Oxidation characteristics of silicon exposed to O(1D2) and O(3P2) radicals and stress-relaxation oxidation model for O(1D2) radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabe, Yoshiro; Hasunuma, Ryu; Yamabe, Kikuo

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the oxidation of silicon by O(1D2) and O(3P2) radicals in a microwave plasma at 673 K in an Ar/O2 atmosphere containing a small amount of hydrogen. O(1D2) radical oxidation with hydrogen gave a much higher growth rate than wet thermal oxidation at 1223 K. The activation energies for the parabolic rate constant owing to O(1D2) and O(3P2) radical oxidations were respectively 0.18 and 0.40 eV, which are much lower than that (0.71 eV) by thermal oxidation. In time-dependent dielectric breakdown tests, despite SiO2 films formed by radicals having a higher degradation rate than those produced by thermal oxidation, SiO2 films formed by O(1D2) radicals had longer lifetimes. Our dielectric breakdown model indicates this is due to the flat SiO2 surface and interface suppressing two-dimensional local breakdown. A stress-relaxation oxidation model for O(1D2) radicals is proposed that well explains the formation of flat SiO2 surfaces and interfaces.

  18. Judd-Ofelt analysis, frequency upconversion, and infrared photoluminescence of Ho{sup 3+}-doped and Ho{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}-codoped lead bismuth gallate oxide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Bo; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Yang Dianlai; Huang Lihui; Lin Hai

    2009-11-15

    Ho{sup 3+}-doped and Ho{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}-codoped lead bismuth gallate (PBG) oxide glasses were prepared and their spectroscopic properties were investigated. The derived Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (OMEGA{sub 2}=6.81x10{sup -20} cm{sup 2}, OMEGA{sub 4}=2.31x10{sup -20} cm{sup 2}, and OMEGA{sub 6}=0.67x10{sup -20} cm{sup 2}) indicate a higher asymmetry and stronger covalent environment for Ho{sup 3+} sites in PBG glass compared with those in tellurite, fluoride (ZBLAN), and some other lead-contained glasses. Intense frequency upconversion emissions peaking at 547, 662, and 756 nm as well as infrared emissions at 1.20 and 2.05 mum in Ho{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}-codoped PBG glass were observed, confirming that energy transfer between Yb{sup 3+} and Ho{sup 3+} takes place, and a two-phonon-assisted energy transfer from Yb{sup 3+} to Ho{sup 3+} ions was determined by the calculation using phonon sideband theory. The 1.20 mum emission observed was primarily due to the weak multiphonon deexcitation originated from the small phonon energy of PBG glass (approx535 cm{sup -1}). A large product of emission cross-section and measured lifetime (9.93x10{sup -25} cm{sup 2} s) was obtained for the 1.20 mum emission and the gain coefficient dependence on wavelength with population inversion rate (P) was performed. The peak emission cross-section for 2.05 mum emission was calculated to be 4.75x10{sup -21} cm{sup 2}. The relative mechanism of Ho{sup 3+}-doped and Ho{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}-codoped PBG glasses on their spectroscopic properties was also discussed. Our results suggest that Ho{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}-doped PBG glasses are a good potential candidate for the frequency upconversion devices and infrared amplifiers/lasers.

  19. Porous silicon oxide-PLGA composite microspheres for sustained ocular delivery of daunorubicin.

    PubMed

    Nan, Kaihui; Ma, Feiyan; Hou, Huiyuan; Freeman, William R; Sailor, Michael J; Cheng, Lingyun

    2014-08-01

    A water-soluble anthracycline antibiotic drug (daunorubicin, DNR) was loaded into oxidized porous silicon (pSiO2) microparticles and then encapsulated with a layer of polymer (poly lactide-co-glycolide, PLGA) to investigate their synergistic effects in control of DNR release. Similarly fabricated PLGA-DNR microspheres without pSiO2, and pSiO2 microparticles without PLGA were used as control particles. The composite microparticles synthesized by a solid-in-oil-in-water emulsion method have mean diameters of 52.3316.37?m for PLGA-pSiO2_21/40-DNR and the mean diameter of 49.318.87?m for PLGA-pSiO2_6/20-DNR. The mean size, 26.008?m, of PLGA-DNR was significantly smaller, compared with the other two (P<0.0001). Optical microscopy revealed that PLGA-pSiO2-DNR microspheres contained multiple pSiO2 particles. In vitro release experiments determined that control PLGA-DNR microspheres completely released DNR within 38days and control pSiO2-DNR microparticles (with no PLGA coating) released DNR within 14days, while the PLGA-pSiO2-DNR microspheres released DNR for 74days. Temporal release profiles of DNR from PLGA-pSiO2 composite particles indicated that both PLGA and pSiO2 contribute to the sustained release of the payload. The PLGA-pSiO2 composite displayed a more constant rate of DNR release than the pSiO2 control formulation, and displayed a significantly slower release of DNR than either the PLGA or pSiO2 formulations. We conclude that this system may be useful in managing unwanted ocular proliferation when formulated with antiproliferation compounds such as DNR. PMID:24793657

  20. Nonlinear effects in infrared action spectroscopy of silicon and vanadium oxide clusters: experiment and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Florent; Li, Yejun; Kiawi, Denis M; Bakker, Joost M; Parneix, Pascal; Janssens, Ewald

    2015-10-21

    For structural assignment of gas phase compounds, infrared action spectra are usually compared to computed linear absorption spectra. However, action spectroscopy is highly nonlinear owing to the necessary transfer of the excitation energy and its subsequent redistribution leading to statistical ionization or dissociation. Here, we examine by joint experiment and dedicated modeling how such nonlinear effects affect the spectroscopic features in the case of selected inorganic clusters. Vibrational spectra of neutral silicon clusters are recorded by tunable IR-UV two-color ionization while IR spectra for cationic vanadium oxide clusters are obtained by IR multiphoton absorption followed by dissociation of the bare cluster or of its complex with Xe. Our kinetic modeling accounts for vibrational anharmonicities, for the laser interaction through photon absorption and stimulated emission rates, as well as for the relevant ionization or dissociation rates, all based on input parameters from quantum chemical calculations. Comparison of the measured and calculated spectra indicates an overall agreement as far as trends are concerned, except for the photodissociation of the V3O7(+)-Xe messenger complex, for which anharmonicities are too large and poorly captured by the perturbative anharmonic model. In all systems studied, nonlinear effects are essentially manifested by variations in the intensities as well as spectral broadenings. Differences in some band positions originate from inaccuracies of the quantum chemical data rather than specific nonlinear effects. The simulations further yield information on the average number of photons absorbed, which is otherwise unaccessible information: several to several tens of photons need to be absorbed to observe a band through dissociation, while three to five photons can be sufficient for detection of a band via IR-UV ionization. PMID:26208251

  1. Structural and photoluminescence studies on catalytic growth of silicon/zinc oxide heterostructure nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chong, Su Kong; Dee, Chang Fu; Abdul Rahman, Saadah

    2013-01-01

    Silicon/zinc oxide (Si/ZnO) core-shell nanowires (NWs) were prepared on a p-type Si(111) substrate using a two-step growth process. First, indium seed-coated Si NWs (In/Si NWs) were synthesized using a plasma-assisted hot-wire chemical vapor deposition technique. This was then followed by the growth of a ZnO nanostructure shell layer using a vapor transport and condensation method. By varying the ZnO growth time from 0.5 to 2 h, different morphologies of ZnO nanostructures, such as ZnO nanoparticles, ZnO shell layer, and ZnO nanorods were grown on the In/Si NWs. The In seeds were believed to act as centers to attract the ZnO molecule vapors, further inducing the lateral growth of ZnO nanorods from the Si/ZnO core-shell NWs via a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. The ZnO nanorods had a tendency to grow in the direction of [0001] as indicated by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses. We showed that the Si/ZnO core-shell NWs exhibit a broad visible emission ranging from 400 to 750 nm due to the combination of emissions from oxygen vacancies in ZnO and In2O3 structures and nanocrystallite Si on the Si NWs. The hierarchical growth of straight ZnO nanorods on the core-shell NWs eventually reduced the defect (green) emission and enhanced the near band edge (ultraviolet) emission of the ZnO. PMID:23590803

  2. Statistical contact angle analyses; "slow moving" drops on a horizontal silicon-oxide surface.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, M; Grub, J; Heib, F

    2015-06-01

    Sessile drop experiments on horizontal surfaces are commonly used to characterise surface properties in science and in industry. The advancing angle and the receding angle are measurable on every solid. Specially on horizontal surfaces even the notions themselves are critically questioned by some authors. Building a standard, reproducible and valid method of measuring and defining specific (advancing/receding) contact angles is an important challenge of surface science. Recently we have developed two/three approaches, by sigmoid fitting, by independent and by dependent statistical analyses, which are practicable for the determination of specific angles/slopes if inclining the sample surface. These approaches lead to contact angle data which are independent on "user-skills" and subjectivity of the operator which is also of urgent need to evaluate dynamic measurements of contact angles. We will show in this contribution that the slightly modified procedures are also applicable to find specific angles for experiments on horizontal surfaces. As an example droplets on a flat freshly cleaned silicon-oxide surface (wafer) are dynamically measured by sessile drop technique while the volume of the liquid is increased/decreased. The triple points, the time, the contact angles during the advancing and the receding of the drop obtained by high-precision drop shape analysis are statistically analysed. As stated in the previous contribution the procedure is called "slow movement" analysis due to the small covered distance and the dominance of data points with low velocity. Even smallest variations in velocity such as the minimal advancing motion during the withdrawing of the liquid are identifiable which confirms the flatness and the chemical homogeneity of the sample surface and the high sensitivity of the presented approaches. PMID:25524007

  3. Electronic states at the interface between indium tin oxide and silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Malmbekk, H.; Vines, L.; Monakhov, E. V.; Svensson, B. G.

    2011-10-01

    Electronic properties and thermal stability of interfacial states between indium tin oxide (ITO) and monocrystalline silicon (Si) have been investigated. ITO films with thicknesses of about 300 nm were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering on n- and p-type (100) Si at room temperature. The samples were then annealed for 30 min at different temperatures in the range 100-600 deg. C, and the ITO-Si junction was found to exhibit rectifying behavior. Current-voltage (IV), capacitance-voltage (CV), and deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements have been used to electrically characterize the ITO-Si interface. DLTS measurements on p-type Si samples reveal a dominant hole trap at around 0.37 eV above the valence band edge. In the n-type samples, a broad band of electron traps occur in the range 0.1-0.2 eV below the conduction band edge. These electron traps display wide DLTS peaks, indicating a band of electronic energy levels rather than well-defined states originating from isolated point defects. All the traps in both the p- and n-type samples are found to be located near the ITO-Si interface. Investigations of the thermal stability of the observed electronic states show that the dominant hole trap anneal out after 30 min at 250 deg. C, while the dominant electron traps can be stable up to 500 deg. C. IV and DLTS measurements demonstrate a clear correlation between the annealing of the dominant electronic states and increase in the junction rectification.

  4. The silicon/zinc oxide interface in amorphous silicon-based thin-film solar cells: Understanding an empirically optimized contact

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, D.; Wilks, R. G.; Wimmer, M.; Felix, R.; Gorgoi, M.; Lips, K.; Rech, B.; Wippler, D.; Mueck, A.; Meier, M.; Huepkes, J.; Lozac'h, M.; Ueda, S.; Sumiya, M.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Baer, M.

    2013-07-08

    The electronic structure of the interface between the boron-doped oxygenated amorphous silicon 'window layer' (a-SiO{sub x}:H(B)) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared to that of the boron-doped microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H(B))/ZnO:Al interface. The corresponding valence band offsets have been determined to be (-2.87 {+-} 0.27) eV and (-3.37 {+-} 0.27) eV, respectively. A lower tunnel junction barrier height at the {mu}c-Si:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface compared to that at the a-SiO{sub x}:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface is found and linked to the higher device performances in cells where a {mu}c-Si:H(B) buffer between the a-Si:H p-i-n absorber stack and the ZnO:Al contact is employed.

  5. The silicon/zinc oxide interface in amorphous silicon-based thin-film solar cells: Understanding an empirically optimized contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, D.; Wilks, R. G.; Wippler, D.; Wimmer, M.; Lozac'h, M.; Félix, R.; Mück, A.; Meier, M.; Ueda, S.; Yoshikawa, H.; Gorgoi, M.; Lips, K.; Rech, B.; Sumiya, M.; Hüpkes, J.; Kobayashi, K.; Bär, M.

    2013-07-01

    The electronic structure of the interface between the boron-doped oxygenated amorphous silicon "window layer" (a-SiOx:H(B)) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared to that of the boron-doped microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H(B))/ZnO:Al interface. The corresponding valence band offsets have been determined to be (-2.87 ± 0.27) eV and (-3.37 ± 0.27) eV, respectively. A lower tunnel junction barrier height at the μc-Si:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface compared to that at the a-SiOx:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface is found and linked to the higher device performances in cells where a μc-Si:H(B) buffer between the a-Si:H p-i-n absorber stack and the ZnO:Al contact is employed.

  6. Effects of N{sub 2} addition on chemical dry etching of silicon oxide layers in F{sub 2}/N{sub 2}/Ar remote plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J.Y.; Kim, D.J.; Lee, N.-E.; Jang, Y.C.; Bae, G.H.

    2006-07-15

    In this study, chemical dry etching characteristics of silicon oxide layers were investigated in the F{sub 2}/N{sub 2}/Ar remote plasmas. A toroidal-type remote plasma source was used for the generation of remote plasmas. The effects of additive N{sub 2} gas on the etch rates of various silicon oxide layers deposited using different deposition techniques and precursors were investigated by varying the various process parameters, such as the F{sub 2} flow rate, the additive N{sub 2} flow rate, and the substrate temperature. The etch rates of the various silicon oxide layers at room temperature were initially increased and then decreased with the N{sub 2} flow increased, which indicates an existence of the maximum etch rates. Increase in the oxide etch rates under the decreased optical emission intensity of the F radicals with the N{sub 2} flow increased implies that the chemical etching reaction is in the chemical reaction-limited regime, where the etch rate is governed by the surface chemical reaction rather than the F radical density. The etch rates of the silicon oxide layers were also significantly increased with the substrate temperature increased. In the present experiments, the F{sub 2} gas flow, the additive N{sub 2} flow rate, and the substrate temperature were found to be the critical parameters in determining the etch rate of the silicon oxide layers.

  7. Interaction at the silicon/transition metal oxide heterojunction interface and its effect on the photovoltaic performance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhimin; Su, Mingze; Zhou, Yangyang; Gong, Li; Zhao, Chuanxi; Chen, Keqiu; Xie, Fangyan; Zhang, Weihong; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pengyi; Xie, Weiguang

    2015-11-01

    The interfacial reaction and energy level alignment at the Si/transition metal oxide (TMO, including MoO3-x, V2O5-x, WO3-x) heterojunction are systematically investigated. We confirm that the interfacial reaction appears during the thermal deposition of TMO, with the reaction extent increasing from MoO3-x, to V2O5-x, and to WO3-x. The reaction causes the surface oxidation of silicon for faster electron/hole recombination, and the reduction of TMO for effective hole collection. The photovoltaic performance of the Si/TMO heterojunction devices is affected by the interface reaction. MoO3-x are the best hole selecting materials that induce least surface oxidation but strongest reduction. Compared with H-passivation, methyl group passivation is an effective way to reduce the interface reaction and improve the interfacial energy level alignment for better electron and hole collection. PMID:26422643

  8. Low-coordinate bismuth cations.

    PubMed

    Schwamm, Ryan J; Day, Benjamin M; Coles, Martyn P; Fitchett, Christopher M

    2014-04-01

    Chloride abstraction from the diamido-bismuth compound Bi(Me2Si{NAr}2)Cl (1, Ar = 2,6-i-Pr2C6H3) using MCl3 (M = Al, Ga) is a facile route to cationic species. Stoichiometric reactions afford the tetrachlorometallate salts [Bi(Me2Si{NAr}2)][MCl4] (2a, M = Al; 3a, M = Ga), whereas reaction with 0.5 equiv of the group 13 reagent gives the ?-chlorido bridged cations [{Bi(Me2Si{NAr}2)}2(?-Cl)][MCl4] (2b, M = Al; 3b, M = Ga). The crystal structure of 2a shows a formally two-coordinate bismuth cation, with a BiCl contact to the [AlCl4](-) anion, whereas the structure of 3b shows a total of three BiCl contacts to [GaCl4](-). Both species associate as {1:1}2 dimers in the solid state through additional BiCl interactions. Attempted preparation of cationic complexes using either NaBR4 (R = Ph, Et) or [HNEt3][BPh4] were unsuccessful. Instead of forming the borate salts, the neutral compounds Bi(Me2Si{NAr}2)R (4, R = Et; 5, R = Ph) were isolated as a result of aryl/alkyl transfer from boron to bismuth. PMID:24635124

  9. Sponge-like Si-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite—Morphology studies of spinodally decomposed silicon-rich oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, D.; Schmidt, B.; Heinig, K. H.; Liedke, B.; Mücklich, A.; Hübner, R.; Wolf, D.; Kölling, S.; Mikolajick, T.; Technische Universität Dresden, Nöthnitzer Str. 64, 01187 Dresden

    2013-09-23

    Sponge-like Si nanostructures embedded in SiO{sub 2} were fabricated by spinodal decomposition of sputter-deposited silicon-rich oxide with a stoichiometry close to that of silicon monoxide. After thermal treatment a mean feature size of about 3 nm was found in the phase-separated structure. The structure of the Si-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite was investigated by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), EFTEM tomography, and atom probe tomography, which revealed a percolated Si morphology. It was shown that the percolation of the Si network in 3D can also be proven on the basis of 2D EFTEM images by comparison with 3D kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Electron mobility in scaled silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on off-axis substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Guoxuan; Zhou, Han; Ramayya, Edwin B.; Ma, Zhenqiang; Knezevic, Irena

    2009-02-01

    Off-axis silicon wafers promise monolithic integration of III-V optoelectronics with silicon microelectronics. However, it is unclear how miniaturization affects electronic device performance on off-axis substrates. We present the fabrication and characterization of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with different gate lengths on regular Si(100) and 4 off-axis wafers. The field-effect electron mobility in the off-axis devices is lower than in their (100)-wafer counterparts with equivalent gate length. Monte Carlo simulations have reproduced the experimental data and demonstrated that the mobility degradation in off-axis devices stems from enhanced electron scattering from the Si/SiO2 surface roughness. Short-channel MOSFETs on (100) and off-axis substrates perform comparably.

  11. Effects of traps on charge storage characteristics in metal-oxide-semiconductor memory structures based on silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yi; Saito, Kenichi; Ishikuro, Hiroki; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    1998-08-01

    Charge storage characteristics have been investigated in metal-oxide-semiconductor memory structures based on silicon nanocrystals, where various interface traps and defects were introduced by thermal annealing treatment. The observations demonstrate that traps have strong influence on the charge storage behavior, in which the traps and defects at the internal/surface of silicon nanocrystals and the interface states at the SiO2/Si substrate play different roles, respectively. It is suggested that the injected charges are mainly stored at the deep traps of nanocrystals instead of the conduction band in long-term retention mode. The long-term charge-loss process is dominantly determined by the direct tunneling of the trapped charges to the interface states in the present experiment. An optimum way to improve the retention time would be to introduce a certain number of deep trapping centers in nanocrystals and to decrease the interface states at SiO2/Si substrate.

  12. High-temperature behavior of silicon carbide, sialon, and aluminum oxide ceramics in coal and residual-oil slags

    SciTech Connect

    Tennery, V.J.; Wei, G.C.; Ferber, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    Effects of exposure of commercial silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and sialon ceramic tubes at T approx. = 1200 to 1220/sup 0/C to the combustion products of No. 6 residual fuel oil and a coal-oil mixture containing 10 wt % bituminous coal suspended in a No. 6 oil were determined via two separate exposure experiments. The exposure time for both of these experiments was about 500 h, and air was blown through the inside of the tubes while the hot gases flowed over the outside. When the ash came only from residual oil, the fracture strength of siliconized SiC when subsequently measured at 25/sup 0/C increased, while that of sintered alpha SiC decreased about 30% and that for CVD SiC was essentially unchanged.

  13. Coaxial nanocables of p-type zinc telluride nanowires sheathed with silicon oxide: synthesis, characterization and properties.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y L; Tang, Y B; Liu, Y; Liu, Z T; Luo, L B; He, Z B; Jie, J S; Vellaisamy, Roy; Zhang, W J; Lee, C S; Lee, S T

    2009-11-11

    Coaxial nanocables with a single-crystalline zinc telluride (ZnTe) nanowire core and an amorphous silicon oxide (SiO(x)) shell have been synthesized via a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method on gold-decorated silicon substrates. The single-crystal ZnTe nanowire core is in zinc-blende structure along the [111] direction, while the uniform SiO(x) shell fully covers the core with no observable pin-hole or crack. Formation mechanisms of the ZnTe-SiO(x) nanocables are discussed. The ZnTe nanowire core shows p-type electrical properties while the SiO(x) shell acts as an effective insulating layer. The ZnTe-SiO(x) nanocables may have potential applications in nanoscale devices, such as p-type FETs and nanosensors. PMID:19834241

  14. Development and demonstration of a two-dimensional, accurate and computationally-efficient model for boron implantation into single-crystal silicon through overlying oxide layers

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.; Lim, D.; Yang, S.H.; Tian, S.; Parab, K.; Tasch, A.F.

    1996-12-31

    A 2-D model for boron implantation into (100) silicon through overlying oxide layers has been developed and implemented into the process simulator FLOOPS. This model is both accurate and computationally efficient and shows explicit dependencies on all of the key implant parameters: energy, dose, tilt and rotation angles, oxide layer thickness, mask height, mask edge orientation, and rotation of the wafer during implantation.

  15. High-Resolution Soft X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Studies and Scanning Auger Microscopy Studies of the Air Oxidation of Alkylated Silicon(111) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Lauren J; Biteen, Julie S; Brunschwig, Bruce S; Chan, Ally S; Knapp, David W; Meyer III, Harry M; Michalak, David J; Nemanick, Eric J; Traub, Matthew C; Lewis, Nate S

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to investigate the oxidation of alkylated silicon(111) surfaces under ambient conditions. Silicon(111) surfaces were functionalized through a two-step route involving radical chlorination of the H-terminated surface followed by alkylation with alkylmagnesium halide reagents. After 24 h in air, surface species representing Si+, Si2+, Si3+, and Si4+ were detected on the Cl-terminated surface, with the highest oxidation state (Si4+) oxide signal appearing at +3.79 eV higher in energy than the bulk Si 2p3/2 peak. The growth of silicon oxide was accompanied by a reduction in the surface-bound Cl signal. After 48 h of exposure to air, the Cl-terminated Si(111) surface exhibited 3.63 equivalent monolyers (ML) of silicon oxides. In contrast, after exposure to air for 48 h, CH3-, C2H5-, or C6H5CH2-terminated Si surfaces displayed <0.4 ML of surface oxide, and in most cases only displayed 0.20 ML of oxide. This oxide was principally composed of Si+ and Si3+ species with peaks centered at +0.8 and +3.2 eV above the bulk Si 2p3/2 peak, respectively. The silicon 2p SXPS peaks that have previously been assigned to surface Si-C bonds did not change significantly, either in binding energy or in relative intensity, during such air exposure. Use of a high miscut-angle surface (7 vs e0.5 off of the (111) surface orientation) yielded no increase in the rate of oxidation nor change in binding energy of the resultant oxide that formed on the alkylated Si surfaces. Scanning Auger microscopy indicated that the alkylated surfaces formed oxide in isolated, inhomogeneous patches on the surface.

  16. Water-resistant hard coating on optical material by photo-oxidation of silicone oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murahara, Masataka; Sato, Nobuhiro; Funatsu, Takayuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki

    2005-12-01

    Using photo-excited silicone oil developed a new protective hard coating method for high power laser to present the tolerance in water. The silicone oil was spin-coated onto the surface of an optical material and then irradiated with a xenon excimer lamp in the air, which transformed the organic silicone oil into inorganic glass. This technique has enabled an optical thin film capable of transmitting ultraviolet rays of wavelengths under 200 nm and possessing the characteristics of homogeneity, high density, resistance to environmental effects and to water, anti-reflective in water, and Mohs scale value of 5.

  17. Surface morphology of cellulose films prepared by spin coating on silicon oxide substrates pretreated with cationic polyelectrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Shingo; Kitaoka, Takuya; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2007-02-01

    Flat cellulose films were prepared and morphologically modified by spin coating a cellulose/ N-methylmorpholine- N-oxide/H 2O solution onto silicon oxide substrates pre-coated with a cationic polyelectrolyte. Spin-coated cellulose films were allowed to stably form on the silicon oxide substrates by pretreatment with either polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) or polyvinylamine (PVAm). The film surfaces obtained were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM topographical images of the cellulose film surfaces showed a different morphology depending on the underlying polymer, where PVAm pretreatment brought about an anisotropic surface topology. These results suggest that the specific attraction acting at the cellulose/polymer interface influences both the film formation and surface morphology of the cellulose layer. Differences in the solvent used to precipitate cellulose caused variations in the surface roughness by affecting the cellulose separation behavior. The morphological features of spin-coated cellulose film surfaces could be altered to some extent by these film preparation techniques.

  18. Controlling the shape and gap width of silicon electrodes using local anodic oxidation and anisotropic TMAH wet etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhi, Jalal; Mahmud, Shahrom; Derita Hutagalung, Sabar; Naderi, Nima; Kakooei, Saeid; Johar Abdullah, Mat

    2012-06-01

    A simple method for fabricating silicon electrodes with various shapes and gap widths was designed using the special properties of anisotropic tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) wet etching and local anodic oxidation (LAO). A statistical system was used for the optimization of the parameters of the LAO process to facilitate a better understanding and precise analysis of the process. Analyses of the interaction effects among the significant factors of LAO showed that the relative humidity and applied voltage were interdependent. They had the strongest interaction effect on the dimensions of the oxide mask. TMAH with a concentration of 25% was used as an etchant solution in (1 0 0) silicon with a rectangular oxide mask. The observed undercutting at convex corners, tip shape of emitters and gap widths of electrodes were exactly consistent with theoretical studies. Combination of the LAO method and anisotropic TMAH wet etching was successfully used to fabricate Si nano-gap electrodes. This fabrication method of sharp and round tip emitters was simple, controllable and faster than common techniques. These results indicate that the method can be a new approach for studying the electrical properties of nano-gap electrodes.

  19. Low power zinc-oxide based charge trapping memory with embedded silicon nanoparticles via poole-frenkel hole emission

    SciTech Connect

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Ozcan, Ayse; Alkis, Sabri; Okyay, Ali K.; Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara

    2014-01-06

    A low power zinc-oxide (ZnO) charge trapping memory with embedded silicon (Si) nanoparticles is demonstrated. The charge trapping layer is formed by spin coating 2 nm silicon nanoparticles between Atomic Layer Deposited ZnO steps. The threshold voltage shift (ΔV{sub t}) vs. programming voltage is studied with and without the silicon nanoparticles. Applying −1 V for 5 s at the gate of the memory with nanoparticles results in a ΔV{sub t} of 3.4 V, and the memory window can be up to 8 V with an excellent retention characteristic (>10 yr). Without nanoparticles, at −1 V programming voltage, the ΔV{sub t} is negligible. In order to get ΔV{sub t} of 3.4 V without nanoparticles, programming voltage in excess of 10 V is required. The negative voltage on the gate programs the memory indicating that holes are being trapped in the charge trapping layer. In addition, at 1 V the electric field across the 3.6 nm tunnel oxide is calculated to be 0.36 MV/cm, which is too small for significant tunneling. Moreover, the ΔV{sub t} vs. electric field across the tunnel oxide shows square root dependence at low fields (E < 1 MV/cm) and a square dependence at higher fields (E > 2.7 MV/cm). This indicates that Poole-Frenkel Effect is the main mechanism for holes emission at low fields and Phonon Assisted Tunneling at higher fields.

  20. Surface Area, and Oxidation Effects on Nitridation Kinetics of Silicon Powder Compacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Palczer, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    Commercially available silicon powders were wet-attrition-milled from 2 to 48 hr to achieve surface areas (SA's) ranging from 1.3 to 70 sq m/g. The surface area effects on the nitridation kinetics of silicon powder compacts were determined at 1250 or 1350 C for 4 hr. In addition, the influence of nitridation environment, and preoxidation on nitridation kinetics of a silicon powder of high surface area (approximately equals 63 sq m/g) was investigated. As the surface area increased, so did the percentage nitridation after 4 hr in N2 at 1250 or 1350 C. Silicon powders of high surface area (greater than 40 sq m/g) can be nitrided to greater than 70% at 1250 C in 4 hr. The nitridation kinetics of the high-surface-area powder compacts were significantly delayed by preoxidation treatment. Conversely, the nitridation environment had no significant influence on the nitridation kinetics of the same powder. Impurities present in the starting powder, and those accumulated during attrition milling, appeared to react with the silica layer on the surface of silicon particles to form a molten silicate layer, which provided a path for rapid diffusion of nitrogen and enhanced the nitridation kinetics of high surface area silicon powder.

  1. Study of the use of Metal-Oxide-Silicon (MOS) devices for particulate detection and monitoring in the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, A. D.; Monteith, L. K.; Wortman, J. J.; Mulligan, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-type particulate sensor was evaluated for use in atmospheric measurements. An accelerator system was designed and tested for the purpose of providing the necessary energy to trigger the MOS-type sensor. The accelerator system and the MOS sensor were characterized as a function of particle size and velocity. Diamond particles were used as particulate sources in laboratory tests. Preliminary tests were performed in which the detector was mounted on an aircraft and flown in the vicinity of coal-fired electric generating plants.

  2. Nanoporous silicon prepared through air-oxidation demagnesiation of Mg2Si and properties of its lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jianwen; Li, Xiaona; Hou, Zhiguo; Guo, Cong; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2015-04-28

    Nanoporous silicon has been prepared through the air-oxidation demagnesiation of Mg2Si at 600 C for 10 hours (Mg2Si + O2 ? Si + MgO), followed by HCl washing. Mg2Si was prepared from 200 mesh commercial Si at 500 C for 5 h in an autoclave. The as-prepared Si exhibits a reversible capacity of 1000 mA h g(-1) at 36 A g(-1) and ?1200 mA h g(-1) at 1.8 A g(-1) over 400 cycles. PMID:25812916

  3. Novel processing of bioglass ceramics from silicone resins containing micro- and nano-sized oxide particle fillers.

    PubMed

    Fiocco, L; Bernardo, E; Colombo, P; Cacciotti, I; Bianco, A; Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

    2014-08-01

    Highly porous scaffolds with composition similar to those of 45S5 and 58S bioglasses were successfully produced by an innovative processing method based on preceramic polymers containing micro- and nano-sized fillers. Silica from the decomposition of the silicone resins reacted with the oxides deriving from the fillers, yielding glass ceramic components after heating at 1000C. Despite the limited mechanical strength, the obtained samples possessed suitable porous architecture and promising biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics, as testified by preliminary in vitro tests. PMID:23946157

  4. High quality of ultra-thin silicon oxynitride films formed by low-energy nitrogen implantation into silicon with additional plasma or thermal oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, J. A.; Sotero, A. P.; Lujan, G. S.; Tatsch, P. J.; Swart, J. W.

    2000-05-01

    Silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) insulators have been obtained by low-energy molecular nitrogen ion (N2+) implantation in Si substrates prior to thermal or high density O2 ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) or N2O RP (remote plasma) plasma oxidation at temperatures of 20C and 350C, respectively. Characterization by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses reveals the high structural quality and very low Si-N bond concentration of oxynitride films. The film thicknesses between 2.5 and 12 nm were found by ellipsometry using a fixed refractive index of 1.46. MOS capacitors, with Al electrodes and final sintering time at 420C for 20-30 min in forming gas, were fabricated. A relative dielectric constant of 3.9 was adopted to extract the effective charge densities from capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves, resulting in values between 4 1010 and 6 1011 cm-2. Breakdown electric fields from 9-26 MV/cm were obtained from current-voltage (I-V) measurements. These results indicate that the obtained SiOxNy films are suitable gate insulators for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices.

  5. High temperature behaviour of silicon carbide and aluminium oxide ceramics in coal and residual-oil slags

    SciTech Connect

    Tennery, V.J.; Wei, G.C.; Ferber, M.K.

    1981-11-01

    Ceramic tubes made of aluminium oxide, sialon, and several commercial silicon carbides were exposed for about 500 h at 1200 to 1220 C to the combustion products from either No. 6 fuel oil or a mixture of 10% bituminous coal in No. 6 fuel oil (COM). After exposure to combustion products from No. 6 fuel oil, the linear thermal expansion at 1000 C for sintered ..gamma..chemically bond-SiC was 17% greater than it was before the experiment. For CVD SiC and siliconized SiC, there was no change. For alumina, it decreased by about 30%. When exposed to COM combustion products, the thermal expansion of the ..gamma..chemically bond-SiC increased slightly, and that of siliconized KT SiC increased by about 16% at 1000 C. Significant thermal expansion differences were observed between the upstream and downstream sides of the tubes for sintered ..gamma..chemically bond-SiC, the KT SiC, and the alumina. The strength after exposure for ..cap alpha..-SiC decreased by about 4%; the others remained unchanged. The helium permeability increased after exposure. The greatest increase occurred for tubes exposed only to residual fuel oil. 6 references.

  6. Methylated bismuth, but not bismuth citrate or bismuth glutathione, induces cyto- and genotoxic effects in human cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    von Recklinghausen, U; Hartmann, L M; Rabieh, S; Hippler, J; Hirner, A V; Rettenmeier, A W; Dopp, E

    2008-06-01

    Bismuth compounds are widely used in industrial processes and products. In medicine, bismuth salts have been applied in combination with antibiotics for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections, for the prevention of diarrhea, and in radioimmunotherapy. In the environment, bismuth ions can be biotransformed to the volatile bismuth compound trimethylbismuth (Me3Bi) by methanobacteria. Preliminary in-house studies have indicated that bismuth ions are methylated in the human colon by intestinal microflora following ingestion of bismuth-containing salts. Information concerning cyto- and genotoxicity of these biomethylated products is limited. In the present study, we investigated the cellular uptake of an organic bismuth compound [monomethylbismuth(III), MeBi(III)] and two other bismuth compounds [bismuth citrate (Bi-Cit) and bismuth glutathione (Bi-GS)] in human hepatocytes, lymphocytes, and erythrocytes using ICP-MS. We also analyzed the cyto- and genotoxic effects of these compounds to investigate their toxic potential. Our results show that the methylbismuth compound was better taken up by the cells than Bi-Cit and Bi-GS. All intracellularly detected bismuth compounds were located in the cytosol of the cells. MeBi(III) was best taken up by erythrocytes (36%), followed by lymphocytes (17%) and hepatocytes (0.04%). Erythrocytes and hepatocytes were more susceptible to MeBi(III) exposure than lymphocytes. Cytotoxic effects of MeBi(III) were detectable in erythrocytes at concentrations >4 microM, in hepatocytes at >130 microM, and in lymphocytes at >430 microM after 24 h of exposure. Cytotoxic effects for Bi-Cit and Bi-GS were much lower or not detectable in the used cell lines up to a tested concentration of 500 microM. Exposure of lymphocytes to MeBi(III) (250 microM for 1 h and 25 microM/50 microM for 24 h) resulted in significantly increased frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), whereas Bi-Cit and Bi-GS induced neither CA nor SCE. Our study also showed an intracellular production of free radicals caused by MeBi(III) in hepatocytes but not in lymphocytes. These data suggest that biomethylation of bismuth ions by the intestinal microflora of the human colon leads to an increase in the toxicity of the primary bismuth salt. PMID:18826176

  7. Enhancement of oxidation resistance of graphite foams by polymer derived-silicon carbide coating for concentrated solar power applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, T.; Singh, D.; Singh, M.

    2015-05-01

    Graphite foam with extremely high thermal conductivity has been investigated to enhance heat transfer of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. However, the use of graphite foam for elevated temperature applications (>600 °C) is limited due to poor oxidation resistance of graphite. In the present study, oxidation resistance of graphite foam coated with silicon carbide (SiC) was investigated. A pre-ceramic polymer derived coating (PDC) method was used to form a SiC coating on the graphite foams. Post coating deposition, the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The oxidation resistance of PDC-SiC coating was quantifiedmore » by measuring the weight of the samples at several measuring points. The experiments were conducted under static argon atmosphere in a furnace. After the experiments, oxidation rates (%/hour) were calculated to predict the lifetime of the graphite foams. The experimental results showed that the PDC-SiC coating could prevent the oxidation of graphite foam under static argon atmosphere up to 900 °C.« less

  8. Enhancement of oxidation resistance of graphite foams by polymer derived-silicon carbide coating for concentrated solar power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T.; Singh, D.; Singh, M.

    2015-05-01

    Graphite foam with extremely high thermal conductivity has been investigated to enhance heat transfer of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. However, the use of graphite foam for elevated temperature applications (>600 °C) is limited due to poor oxidation resistance of graphite. In the present study, oxidation resistance of graphite foam coated with silicon carbide (SiC) was investigated. A pre-ceramic polymer derived coating (PDC) method was used to form a SiC coating on the graphite foams. Post coating deposition, the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The oxidation resistance of PDC-SiC coating was quantified by measuring the weight of the samples at several measuring points. The experiments were conducted under static argon atmosphere in a furnace. After the experiments, oxidation rates (%/hour) were calculated to predict the lifetime of the graphite foams. The experimental results showed that the PDC-SiC coating could prevent the oxidation of graphite foam under static argon atmosphere up to 900 °C.

  9. Preparation of magnetron sputtered thin cerium oxide films with a large surface on silicon substrates using carbonaceous interlayers.

    PubMed

    Dubau, Martin; Lavkov, Jaroslava; Khalakhan, Ivan; Haviar, Stanislav; Potin, Valerie; Matoln, Vladimr; Matolnov, Iva

    2014-01-22

    The study focuses on preparation of thin cerium oxide films with a porous structure prepared by rf magnetron sputtering on a silicon wafer substrate using amorphous carbon (a-C) and nitrogenated amorphous carbon films (CNx) as an interlayer. We show that the structure and morphology of the deposited layers depend on the oxygen concentration in working gas used for cerium oxide deposition. Considerable erosion of the carbonaceous interlayer accompanied by the formation of highly porous carbon/cerium oxide bilayer systems is reported. Etching of the carbon interlayer with oxygen species occurring simultaneously with cerium oxide film growth is considered to be the driving force for this effect resulting in the formation of nanostructured cerium oxide films with large surface. In this regard, results of oxygen plasma treatment of a-C and CNx films are presented. Gradual material erosion with increasing duration of plasma impact accompanied by modification of the surface roughness is reported for both types of films. The CNx films were found to be much less resistant to oxygen etching than the a-C film. PMID:24372305

  10. The photoluminescence and structural properties of (Ce, Yb) co-doped silicon oxides after high temperature annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Heng, C. L. Li, J. T.; Su, W. Y.; Yin, P. G.; Finstad, T. G.

    2015-01-28

    We studied the photoluminescence (PL) and structural properties of Ce and Yb co-doped silicon oxide films after high temperature annealing. The PL spectra of Ce{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions were sensitive to the structural variation of the films, and the Yb PL intensities were significantly enhanced especially upon 1200 °C annealing. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicated that rare earth silicates and the CeO{sub 2} phase had formed in the oxides. The proportions of the phases varied with the “nominal Si-richness” of the films. Energy transfer from the excited Ce{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+} can be inferred from both PL excitation and decay spectra.

  11. Theory and experiments of electron-hole recombination at silicon/silicon dioxide interface traps and tunneling in thin oxide MOS transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jin

    2000-10-01

    Surface recombination and channel have dominated the electrical characteristics, performance and reliability of p/n junction diodes and transistors. This dissertation uses a sensitive direct-current current voltage (DCIV) method to measure base terminal currents (IB) modulated by the gate bias (VGB) and forward p/n junction bias (VPN) in a MOS transistor (MOST). Base terminal currents originate from electron-hole recombination at Si/SiO2 interface traps. Fundamental theories which relate DCIV characteristics to device and material parameters are presented. Three theory-based applications are demonstrated on both the unstressed as well as hot-carrier-stressed MOSTs: (1) determination of interface trap density and energy levels, (2) spatial profile of interface traps in the drain/base junction-space-charge region and in the channel region, and (3) determination of gate oxide thickness and impurity doping concentrations. The results show that interface trap energy levels are discrete, which is consistent with those from silicon dangling bonds; in unstressed MOS transistors interface trap density in the channel region rises sharply toward source and drain, and after channel-hot-carrier stress, interface trap density increases mostly in the junction space-charge region. As the gate oxide thins below 3 nm, the gate oxide leakage current via quantum mechanical tunneling becomes significant. A gate oxide tunneling theory which refined the traditional WKB tunneling probability is developed for modeling tunneling currents at low electric fields through a trapezoidal SiO2 barrier. Correlation with experimental data on thin oxide MOSTs reveals two new results: (1) hole tunneling dominates over electron tunneling in p+gate p-channel MOSTs, and (2) the small gate/drain overlap region passes higher tunneling currents than the channel region under depletion to flatband gate voltages. The good theory-experimental correlation enables the extraction of impurity doping concentrations, which complements the DCIV method. Two fundamental theories of interband tunneling are developed to correlate with the VGB dependence of drain/base p/n junction currents: (1) direct tunneling at the drain/base junction perimeter with and without the quantization effects in the base surface accumulation layer, and (2) interface trap assisted tunneling in the gate/drain overlap region. The second theory gives better correlation, which is further supported by the DCIV peaks originated from interface traps in the gate/drain overlap region.

  12. Bismuth pyrochlore-based thin films for dielectric energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Elizabeth K.

    The drive towards the miniaturization of electronic devices has created a need for dielectric materials with large energy storage densities. These materials, which are used in capacitors, are a critical component in many electrical systems. Here, the development of dielectric energy storage materials for pulsed power applications, which require materials with the ability to accumulate a large amount of energy and then deliver it to the system rapidly, is explored. The amount of electrostatic energy that can be stored by a material is a function of the induced polarization and the dielectric breakdown strength of the material. An ideal energy storage dielectric would possess a high relative permittivity, high dielectric breakdown strength, and low loss tangent under high applied electric fields. The bismuth pyrochlores are a compositionally tunable family of materials that meet these requirements. Thin films of cubic pyrochlore bismuth zinc niobate, bismuth zinc tantalate, and bismuth zinc niobate tantalate, were fabricated using a novel solution chemistry based upon the Pechini method. This solution preparation is advantageous because it avoids the use of teratogenic solvents, such as 2-methoxyethanol. Crystalline films fabricated using this solution chemistry had very small grains that were approximately 27 nm in lateral size and 35 nm through the film thickness. Impedance measurements found that the resistivity of the grain boundaries was two orders of magnitude higher than the resistivity of the grain interior. The presence of many resistive grain boundaries impeded conduction through the films, resulting in high breakdown strengths for these materials. In addition to high breakdown strengths, this family of materials exhibited moderate relative permittivities of between 55 +/- 2 and 145 +/- 5, for bismuth zinc tantalate and bismuth zinc niobate, respectively, and low loss tangents on the order of 0.0008 +/- 0.0001. Increases in the concentration of the tantalum end member increased the dielectric breakdown strength. This combination of a high breakdown strength and a moderate permittivity led to a high discharged energy storage density for all film compositions. For example, at a measurement frequency of 10 kHz, bismuth zinc niobate exhibited a maximum recoverable energy storage density of 60.8 +/- 2.0 J/cm 3, while bismuth zinc tantalate exhibited a recoverable energy storage density of 60.7 +/- 2.0 J/cm3. Intermediate compositions of bismuth zinc niobate tantalate were explored to maximize the energy storage density of the substitutional solid solution. At an optimized concentration of ten mole percent tantalum, the maximum recoverable 10 kHz energy storage density was ˜66.9 +/- 2.4 J/cm3. These films of bismuth zinc niobate tantalate (Bi1.5Zn0.9Nb1.35Ta0.15O 6.9) sustained a maximum field of 5.5 MV/cm at 10 kHz, and demonstrated a relative permittivity of 122 +/- 4. The films maintained a high energy storage density above 20 J/cm3 though temperatures of 200°C. The second major objective of this work was to integrate complex oxides processed at temperatures below 350°C onto flexible polyimide substrates for potential use in flexible energy storage applications. Nanocomposite films consisting of a nanocrystalline fluorite related to delta-bismuth oxide in an amorphous matrix were prepared by reducing the citric acid concentration of the precursor solution, relative to the crystalline films. These solutions were batched with the composition Bi1.5Zn0.9Nb 1.35Ta0.15O6.9. The nanocomposite had a relative permittivity of 50 +/- 2 and dielectric losses on the order of 0.03 +/- 0.01. For measurement frequencies of 1 kHz and 10 kHz, the nanocomposite demonstrated a breakdown strength of 3.8 MV/cm, and a room-temperature energy storage density of approximately 40.2 +/- 1.7 J/cm3. To determine the suitability of the nanocomposite films for use in flexible applications, free-standing flexible nanocomposite films underwent repetitive compressive and tensile bending around a minimum bend diameter of 7 mm, which corresponded to a strain of 0.10%. After bending the films 30,000 times, the energy storage density of the films was unchanged, indicating that nanocomposite bismuth zinc niobate tantalate films may be suitable for flexible energy storage applications. To demonstrate the broader applicability of the nanocomposite approach to developing energy storage dielectrics at low processing temperatures, films of nanocomposite lead titanate, Pb1.1TiO3.1, were deposited using an inverted mixing order solution preparation, and annealed at a maximum temperature of 400°C. X-ray diffraction indicated the presence of nanocrystalline ordering, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the nucleation of isolated nanocrystals of lead oxide in an amorphous lead titanate matrix. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  13. Structural and Oxidative Changes in the Kidney of Crucian Carp Induced by Silicon-Based Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Petrache, Sorina Nicoleta; Stanca, Loredana; Serban, Andreea Iren; Sima, Cornelia; Staicu, Andreia Cristina; Munteanu, Maria Cristina; Costache, Marieta; Burlacu, Radu; Zarnescu, Otilia; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2012-01-01

    Silicon-based quantum dots were intraperitoneally injected in Carassius auratus gibelio specimens and, over one week, the effects on renal tissue were investigated by following their distribution and histological effects, as well as antioxidative system modifications. After three and seven days, detached epithelial cells from the basal lamina, dilated tubules and debris in the lumen of tubules were observed. At day 7, nephrogenesis was noticed. The reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration decreased in the first three days and started to rise later on. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased only after one week, whereas catalase (CAT) was up-regulated in a time-dependent manner. The activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidise (GPX) decreased dramatically by approximately 50% compared to control, whereas the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) increased significantly after 3 and 7 days of treatment. Oxidative modifications of proteins and the time-dependent increase of Hsp70 expression were also registered. Our data suggest that silicon-based quantum dots induced oxidative stress followed by structural damages. However, renal tissue is capable of restoring its integrity by nephron development. PMID:22949855

  14. Process for the deposition of high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates

    DOEpatents

    Sarin, Vinod K. (Lexington, MA)

    1991-01-01

    A process for depositing a high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coating on a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based substrate body. A gas mixture is passed over the substrate at about 900.degree.-1500.degree. C. and about 1 torr to about ambient pressure. The gas mixture includes one or more halide vapors with other suitable reactant gases. The partial pressure ratios, flow rates, and process times are sufficient to deposit a continuous, fully dense, adherent coating. The halide and other reactant gases are gradually varied during deposition so that the coating is a graded coating of at least two layers. Each layer is a graded layer changing in composition from the material over which it is deposited to the material of the layer and further to the material, if any, deposited thereon, so that no clearly defined compositional interfaces exist. The gases and their partial pressures are varied according to a predetermined time schedule and the halide and other reactant gases are selected so that the layers include (a) an adherent, continuous intermediate layer about 0.5-20 microns thick of an aluminum nitride or an aluminum oxynitride material, over and chemically bonded to the substrate body, and (b) an adherent, continuous first outer layer about 0.5-900 microns thick including an oxide of aluminum or zirconium over and chemically bonded to the intermediate layer.

  15. Process for the deposition of high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates

    DOEpatents

    Sarin, V.K.

    1991-07-30

    A process is disclosed for depositing a high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coating on a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based substrate body. A gas mixture is passed over the substrate at about 900--1500 C and about 1 torr to about ambient pressure. The gas mixture includes one or more halide vapors with other suitable reactant gases. The partial pressure ratios, flow rates, and process times are sufficient to deposit a continuous, fully dense, adherent coating. The halide and other reactant gases are gradually varied during deposition so that the coating is a graded coating of at least two layers. Each layer is a graded layer changing in composition from the material over which it is deposited to the material of the layer and further to the material, if any, deposited thereon, so that no clearly defined compositional interfaces exist. The gases and their partial pressures are varied according to a predetermined time schedule and the halide and other reactant gases are selected so that the layers include (a) an adherent, continuous intermediate layer about 0.5-20 microns thick of an aluminum nitride or an aluminum oxynitride material, over and chemically bonded to the substrate body, and (b) an adherent, continuous first outer layer about 0.5-900 microns thick including an oxide of aluminum or zirconium over and chemically bonded to the intermediate layer.

  16. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy study of hysteresis of water and n-alcohol coadsorption on silicon oxide.

    PubMed

    Barnette, Anna L; Kim, Seong H

    2012-11-01

    The structure and thickness of the binary adsorbate layers formed on silicon oxide exposed in n-propanol/water and n-pentanol/water vapor mixtures under atmospheric pressure and room temperature conditions were investigated using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The ATR-IR spectra of the adsorbate layers were analyzed while the vapor composition was varied stepwise by changing the mixing ratios of (a) n-propanol vapor stream with a 94% relative partial pressure (P/P(sat)) and 94% P/P(sat) water stream and (b) 83% P/P(sat)n-pentanol and 85% P/P(sat) water streams. The amount of the adsorbed water with solid-like structure in the binary adsorbate layer was larger in successive cycles of the water/alcohol vapor composition change, while n-alcohol showed negligible hysteresis in the amount adsorbed. The hysteresis behavior of the solid-like water structure was amplified in the coadsorption cycles of alcohol and water as compared to the water-only case. The origin of this behavior must be attributed to the structure of the alcohol/water binary adsorbate layer. The n-alcohol molecules present at the adsorbate/vapor interface can lower the surface energy of the system and stabilize the solid-like water structure in the alcohol-water binary adsorbate layer on silicon oxide. PMID:23098071

  17. Shadow-casted ultrathin surface coatings of titanium and titanium/silicon oxide sol particles via ultrasound-assisted deposition.

    PubMed

    Karahan, H Enis; Birer, Özgür; Karakuş, Kerem; Yıldırım, Cansu

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted deposition (USAD) of sol nanoparticles enables the formation of uniform and inherently stable thin films. However, the technique still suffers in coating hard substrates and the use of fast-reacting sol-gel precursors still remains challenging. Here, we report on the deposition of ultrathin titanium and titanium/silicon hybrid oxide coatings using hydroxylated silicon wafers as a model hard substrate. We use acetic acid as the catalyst which also suppresses the reactivity of titanium tetraisopropoxide while increasing the reactivity of tetraethyl orthosilicate through chemical modifications. Taking the advantage of this peculiar behavior, we successfully prepared titanium and titanium/silicon hybrid oxide coatings by USAD. Varying the amount of acetic acid in the reaction media, we managed to modulate thickness and surface roughness of the coatings in nanoscale. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies showed the formation of conformal coatings having nanoroughness. Quantitative chemical state maps obtained by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested the formation of ultrathin (<10nm) coatings and thickness measurements by rotating analyzer ellipsometry supported this observation. For the first time, XPS chemical maps revealed the transport effect of ultrasonic waves since coatings were directly cast on rectangular substrates as circular shadows of the horn with clear thickness gradient from the center to the edges. In addition to the progress made in coating hard substrates, employing fast-reacting precursors and achieving hybrid coatings; this report provides the first visual evidence on previously suggested "acceleration and smashing" mechanism as the main driving force of USAD. PMID:26964975

  18. Immobilization of catalysts of biological interest on porous oxidized silicon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Alves, Wendel A; Fiorito, Pablo A; Froyer, Gerard; El Haber, Fady; Vellutini, Luc; Torresi, Roberto M; de Torresi, Susana I Córdoba

    2008-07-01

    The present paper deals with the immobilization of redox mediators and proteins onto protected porous silicon surfaces to obtain their direct electrochemical reactions and to retain their bioactivities. This paper shows that MP-11 and viologens are able to establish chemical bonds with 3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane-modified porous silicon surface. The functionalization of the surfaces have been fully characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to examine the immobilization of these mediators onto the solid surface. Amperometric and open circuit potential measurements have shown the direct electron transfer between glucose oxidase and the electrode in the presence of the viologen mediator covalently linked to the 3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane (APTES)-modified porous silicon surfaces. PMID:19051913

  19. IR luminescence in bismuth-doped germanate glasses and fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Pynenkov, A A; Firstov, Sergei V; Panov, A A; Firstova, E G; Nishchev, K N; Bufetov, Igor' A; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2013-02-28

    We have studied the optical properties of lightly bismuth doped ({<=}0.002 mol %) germanate glasses prepared in an alumina crucible. The glasses are shown to contain bismuth-related active centres that have been identified previously only in bismuth-doped fibres produced by MCVD. With increasing bismuth concentration in the glasses, their luminescence spectra change markedly, which is attributable to interaction between individual bismuth centres. (optical fibres)

  20. Stable Organic Monolayers on Oxide-Free Silicon/Germanium in a Supercritical Medium: A New Route to Molecular Electronics.

    PubMed

    Puniredd, Sreenivasa Reddy; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Yeong, Sai Hooi; Troadec, Cedric; Srinivasan, M P

    2013-05-01

    Oxide-free Si and Ge surfaces have been passivated and modified with organic molecules by forming covalent bonds between the surfaces and reactive end groups of linear alkanes and aromatic species using single-step deposition in supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2). The process is suitable for large-scale manufacturing due to short processing times, simplicity, and high resistance to oxidation. It also allows the formation of monolayers with varying reactive terminal groups, thus enabling formation of nanostructures engineered at the molecular level. Ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) spectra performed on the organic monolayer on oxide-free silicon capped by a thin gold layer reveals for the first time an increase in transmission of the ballistic current through the interface of up to three times compared to a control device, in contrast to similar studies reported in the literature suggestive of oxide-free passivation in SCCO2. The SCCO2 process combined with the preliminary BEEM results opens up new avenues for interface engineering, leading to molecular electronic devices. PMID:26282291