Sample records for bispecific monoclonal antibody

  1. Bispecific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kontermann, Roland E; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) combine specificities of two antibodies and simultaneously address different antigens or epitopes. BsAbs with 'two-target' functionality can interfere with multiple surface receptors or ligands associated, for example with cancer, proliferation or inflammatory processes. BsAbs can also place targets into close proximity, either to support protein complex formation on one cell, or to trigger contacts between cells. Examples of 'forced-connection' functionalities are bsAbs that support protein complexation in the clotting cascade, or tumor-targeted immune cell recruiters and/or activators. Following years of research and development (R&D), the first bsAb was approved in 2009. Another bsAb entered the market in December 2014 and several more are in clinical trials. Here, we describe the potentials of bsAbs to become the next wave of antibody-based therapies, focusing on molecules in clinical development. PMID:25728220

  2. Development of Tetravalent, Bispecific CCR5 Antibodies with Antiviral Activity against CCR5 Monoclonal Antibody-Resistant HIV-1 Strains?

    PubMed Central

    Schanzer, Jürgen; Jekle, Andreas; Nezu, Junichi; Lochner, Adriane; Croasdale, Rebecca; Dioszegi, Marianna; Zhang, Jun; Hoffmann, Eike; Dormeyer, Wilma; Stracke, Jan; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Ji, Changhua; Heilek, Gabrielle; Cammack, Nick; Brandt, Michael; Umana, Pablo; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we describe novel tetravalent, bispecific antibody derivatives that bind two different epitopes on the HIV coreceptor CCR5. The basic protein formats that we applied were derived from Morrison-type bispecific antibodies: whole IgGs to which we connected single-chain antibodies (scFvs) via (Gly4Ser)n sequences at either the C or N terminus of the light chain or heavy chain. By design optimization, including disulfide stabilization of scFvs or introduction of 30-amino-acid linkers, stable molecules could be obtained in amounts that were within the same range as or no less than 4-fold lower than those observed with monoclonal antibodies in transient expression assays. In contrast to monospecific CCR5 antibodies, bispecific antibody derivatives block two alternative docking sites of CCR5-tropic HIV strains on the CCR5 coreceptor. Consequently, these molecules showed 18- to 57-fold increased antiviral activities compared to the parent antibodies. Most importantly, one prototypic tetravalent CCR5 antibody had antiviral activity against virus strains resistant to the single parental antibodies. In summary, physical linkage of two CCR5 antibodies targeting different epitopes on the HIV coreceptor CCR5 resulted in tetravalent, bispecific antibodies with enhanced antiviral potency against wild-type and CCR5 antibody-resistant HIV-1 strains. PMID:21300827

  3. A bispecific monoclonal antibody against methotrexate and a human tumour associated antigen augments cytotoxicity of methotrexate-carrier conjugate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MV Pimm; RA Robins; MJ Embleton; E Jacobs; AJ Markham; A Charleston; RW Baldwin

    1990-01-01

    A bispecific monoclonal antibody, reactive with methotrexate (MTX) and a tumour associated antigen (gp72) has been produced by fusing spleen cells from MTX immunised mice with 791T\\/36\\/3 (anti-gp72) hybridoma. The hybrid antibody was purified from anti-MTX and anti-gp72 antibodies present in the hybridoma culture supernatant by combinations of affinity chromatography on a MTX-agarose immunoabsorbent and stepwise acid elution from Sepharose-Protein

  4. Bispecific and human disease-related anti-keratin rabbit monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tao, Guo-Zhong; Nakamichi, Ikuo; Ku, Nam-On; Wang, Jing; Frolkis, Maria; Gong, Xiaosong; Zhu, Weimin; Pytela, Robert; Omary, M Bishr

    2006-02-15

    Rabbit antibodies may have favorable properties compared to mouse antibodies, including high affinities and better antigen recognition. We used a biochemical and reverse immunologic approach to generate and characterize rabbit anti-phospho-keratin and anti-keratin monoclonal antibodies (MAb). Human keratins 8 and 18 (K8/K18) were used as immunogens after isolation from cells pretreated with okadaic acid or pervanadate to promote Ser/Thr or Tyr hyperphosphorylation, respectively. Selected rabbit MAb were tested by immunofluorescence staining, immunoprecipitation, and 2-dimensional gels. Keratin phospho and non-phospho-mutants were used for detailed characterization of two unique antibodies. One antibody recognizes a K8 G61-containing epitope, an important epitope given that K8 G61C is a frequent mutation in human liver diseases. This antibody binds K8 that is not phosphorylated on S73, but its binding is ablated by G61 but not S73 mutation. The second antibody is bispecific in that it simultaneously recognizes two epitopes: one phospho (K8 pS431) conformation-independent and one non-phospho conformation-dependent, with both epitopes residing in the K8 tail domain. Therefore, a reverse immunologic and biochemical approach is a viable tool for generating versatile rabbit MAb for a variety of cell biologic applications including the potential identification of physiologic phosphorylation sites. PMID:16343483

  5. Bispecific Antibodies for Diagnostic Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Archana Parashar; Susmita Sarkar; Advaita Ganguly; Sai Kiran Sharma; Mavanur R. Suresh

    \\u000a Bispecific monoclonal antibodies (BsMAb) are unique engineered macromolecules that have two different pre-determined binding\\u000a specificities. Their ability to simultaneously bind to a specific antigen and a given detection moiety enables them to function\\u000a as excellent bifunctional immunoprobes in diagnostic assays. BsMAb are being exploited for the development of simple, rapid,\\u000a and highly sensitive immunoassays for diagnosis of bacterial and viral

  6. Development and characterization of anti-renal cell carcinoma x antichelate bispecific monoclonal antibodies for two-phase targeting of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kranenborg, M H; Boerman, O C; Oosterwijk-Wakka, J C; de Weijert, M C; Corstens, F H; Oosterwijk, E

    1995-12-01

    To test a two-step approach for radioimmunotargeting of renal cell cancer, quadroma cells secreting antichelate x anti-renal cell carcinoma bispecific antibodies were obtained by somatic cell fusion. Five monoclonal antibodies against the chelate 1,4,7-triazaheptane-N,N',N"-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) were produced and characterized. Competitive binding assays indicated that the anti-DTPA antibodies reacted with DTPA chelated with indium, yttrium, chromium, iron, or zinc. The affinity constants of the anti-DTPA antibodies for 111In-DTPA ranged from 0.19 to 0.23 nM-1. Using different chelates, a remarkable chelate specificity of the anti-DTPA antibodies was demonstrated. The chelates recognized by the antibodies DTIn1, DTIn2, and DTIn4 share a N(N")-diacetic acid group, whereas the chelates recognized by DTIn3 share a N'-acetic acid group, suggesting the presence of different essential structures within the DTPA molecule that determine the reactivity of the antibodies. Five anti-DTPA antibody-producing hybridomas were used for somatic cell fusion with hybridoma G250 directed against renal cell carcinoma, resulting in three bispecific antibody-producing quadroma cell lines. The bispecific monoclonal antibodies were purified from ascites fluid using protein A affinity chromatography followed by hydroxylapatite chromatography and/or cation exchange chromatography. Of the total IgG amount present in the ascites fluid, 10-15% represented the bispecific antibodies. These bispecific antibodies will allow testing and optimization of a two-step approach for radioimmunotargeting of chelated radionuclides. PMID:7493361

  7. A bispecific monoclonal antibody against methotrexate and a human tumour associated antigen augments cytotoxicity of methotrexate-carrier conjugate.

    PubMed

    Pimm, M V; Robins, R A; Embleton, M J; Jacobs, E; Markham, A J; Charleston, A; Baldwin, R W

    1990-04-01

    A bispecific monoclonal antibody, reactive with methotrexate (MTX) and a tumour associated antigen (gp72) has been produced by fusing spleen cells from MTX immunised mice with 791T/36/3 (anti-gp72) hybridoma. The hybrid antibody was purified from anti-MTX and anti-gp72 antibodies present in the hybridoma culture supernatant by combinations of affinity chromatography on a MTX-agarose immunoabsorbent and stepwise acid elution from Sepharose-Protein A. A particular feature of the present antibody is that it reacts with conjugated MTX; this would allow in vivo targeting of conjugates, increasing many fold the number of molecules of drug carried or localising to pre-targeted antibody. Dual binding between tumour cell surface antigen and MTX was demonstrated by the ability of the hybrid antibody to bridge between tumour cells and MTX as MTX-HSA conjugate, reaction here being detected by flow cytofluorimetry. Purified hybrid antibody specifically enhanced the in vitro cytotoxicity of MTX-HSA for gp72 positive tumour cells. PMID:2331436

  8. Chemiluminescence reaction kinetics-resolved multianalyte immunoassay strategy using a bispecific monoclonal antibody as the unique recognition reagent.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hui; Wang, Limin; Yang, Shijia; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Lin; Liu, Fengquan; Fu, Zhifeng

    2015-03-01

    The multianalyte immunoassay (MIA) has attracted increasing attention due to its high sample throughput, short assay time, low sample consumption, and reduced overall cost. However, up to now, the reported MIA methods commonly require multiple antibodies since each antibody can recognize only one antigen. Herein, a novel bispecific monoclonal antibody (BsMcAb) that could bind methyl parathion and imidacloprid simultaneously was produced by a hybrid hybridomas strategy. A chemiluminescence (CL) reaction kinetics-resolved strategy was designed for MIA of methyl parathion and imidacloprid using the BsMcAb as the unique recognition reagent. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were adopted as the signal probes to tag the haptens of the two pesticides due to their very different CL kinetic characteristics. After competitive immunoreactions, the HRP-tagged methyl parathion hapten and the ALP-tagged imidacloprid hapten were simultaneously bound to the BsMcAb since there were two different antigen-binding sites in it. Then, two CL reactions were simultaneously triggered by adding the CL coreactants, and the signals for methyl parathion and imidacloprid detections were collected at 0.6 and 1000 s, respectively. The linear ranges for methyl parathion and imidacloprid were both 1.0-500 ng/mL, with detection limits of 0.33 ng/mL (S/N = 3). The proposed method was successfully used to detect pesticides spiked in ginseng and American ginseng with acceptable recoveries of 80-118%. This proof-of-principle work demonstrated the feasibility of MIA using only one antibody. PMID:25622025

  9. Antitumor Effects of a Bispecific Antibody Targeting CA19-9 Antigen and CD161

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irma Garcia de Palazzo; Michele Holmes; Cicek Gercel-Taylor; Louis M. Weiner

    1992-01-01

    Bispecific murine monoclonal antibodies that target tumor and Fc-fRIII (CD 16) can promote relevant tumor lysis by large granular lymphocytes. For these antibodies to be clinically useful, their proper ties should be maintained in vivo, where competing human immunoglo- bulin, shed target antigen, and shed CD16 may be encountered. At a minimum, bispecific antibody antitumor effects should be preserved in

  10. ?? T cell activation by bispecific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Hans-Heinrich; Kellner, Christian; Gonnermann, Daniel; Peipp, Matthias; Peters, Christian; Sebens, Susanne; Kabelitz, Dieter; Wesch, Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Bispecific antibodies have been successfully introduced into clinical application. ?? T cells are of special interest for tumor immunotherapy, due to their recognition of pyrophosphates that are overproduced by many tumor cells resulting in HLA-nonrestricted tumor cell killing. Here we describe in detail a [(Her2)2×V?9] tribody construct that targets human V?9 T cells to HER2-expressing tumor cells. The direct comparison with other selective V?9 T cell agonists including phosphoantigens and nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates revealed the superiority of the [(Her2)2×V?9] tribody in triggering ?? T cell-mediated tumor cell killing with negligible induction of ?? T cell death. In contrast, phosphoantigens and bisphosphonates are potent inducers of ?? T cell proliferation but less efficient enhancers of ?? T cell-mediated tumor cell killing. Collectively, our data identify unique properties of a ?? T cell-targeting [(Her2)2×V?9] tribody which make it an attractive candidate for clinical application in ?? T cell-based tumor immunotherapy. PMID:25979810

  11. Bispecific antibody generated with sortase and click chemistry has broad antiinfluenza virus activity

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Koen; Kwakkenbos, Mark J.; Claassen, Yvonne B.; Maijoor, Kelly; Böhne, Martino; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F.; Witte, Martin D.; van Zoelen, Diana J.; Cornelissen, Lisette A.; Beaumont, Tim; Bakker, Arjen Q.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Spits, Hergen

    2014-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies have therapeutic potential by expanding the functions of conventional antibodies. Many different formats of bispecific antibodies have meanwhile been developed. Most are genetic modifications of the antibody backbone to facilitate incorporation of two different variable domains into a single molecule. Here, we present a bispecific format where we have fused two full-sized IgG antibodies via their C termini using sortase transpeptidation and click chemistry to create a covalently linked IgG antibody heterodimer. By linking two potent anti-influenza A antibodies together, we have generated a full antibody dimer with bispecific activity that retains the activity and stability of the two fusion partners. PMID:25385586

  12. Targeting of Indium Ill-labeled Bivalent Hapten to Human Melanoma Mediated by Bispecific Monoclonal Antibody Conjugates: Imaging of Tumors Hosted in Nude Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marc Le Doussal; Anne Gruaz-Guyon; Marie Martin; Emmanuel Gautherot; Michel Delaage; Jacques Barbet

    1990-01-01

    Antibody conjugates were prepared by coupling F(ab')2 or Fab' frag ments of an antibody specific for the human high molecular weight- melanoma associated antigen to Fab' fragments of an antibody specific for indium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate complexes. Monovalent and bivalent haptens were synthesized by reacting the dipeptide tyrosyl-lysine with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic cyclic anhydride. In vitro, the anti body conjugate mediated binding of the '''In-labeled

  13. Bispecific small molecule-antibody conjugate targeting prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan Hyuk; Axup, Jun Y; Lawson, Brian R; Yun, Hwayoung; Tardif, Virginie; Choi, Sei Hyun; Zhou, Quan; Dubrovska, Anna; Biroc, Sandra L; Marsden, Robin; Pinstaff, Jason; Smider, Vaughn V; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-10-29

    Bispecific antibodies, which simultaneously target CD3 on T cells and tumor-associated antigens to recruit cytotoxic T cells to cancer cells, are a promising new approach to the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Here we report a site-specific, semisynthetic method for the production of bispecific antibody-like therapeutics in which a derivative of the prostate-specific membrane antigen-binding small molecule DUPA was selectively conjugated to a mutant ?CD3 Fab containing the unnatural amino acid, p-acetylphenylalanine, at a defined site. Homogeneous conjugates were generated in excellent yields and had good solubility. The efficacy of the conjugate was optimized by modifying the linker structure, relative binding orientation, and stoichiometry of the ligand. The optimized conjugate showed potent and selective in vitro activity (EC50 ~ 100 pM), good serum half-life, and potent in vivo activity in prophylactic and treatment xenograft mouse models. This semisynthetic approach is likely to be applicable to the generation of additional bispecific agents using drug-like ligands selective for other cell-surface receptors. PMID:24127589

  14. Bispecific Antibody Pretargeting for Improving Cancer Imaging and Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Robert M.

    2005-02-04

    The main objective of this project was to evaluate pretargeting systems that use a bispecific antibody (bsMAb) to improve the detection and treatment of cancer. A bsMAb has specificity to a tumor antigen, which is used to bind the tumor, while the other specificity is to a peptide that can be radiolabeled. Pretargeting is the process by which the unlabeled bsMAb is given first, and after a sufficient time (1-2 days) is given for it to localize in the tumor and clear from the blood, a small molecular weight radiolabeled peptide is given. According to a dynamic imaging study using a 99mTc-labeled peptide, the radiolabeled peptide localizes in the tumor in less than 1 hour, with > 80% of it clearing from the blood and body within this same time. Tumor/nontumor targeting ratios that are nearly 50 times better than that with a directly radiolabeled Fab fragment have been observed (Sharkey et al., ''Signal amplification in molecular imaging by a multivalent bispecific nanobody'' submitted). The bsMAbs used in this project have been composed of 3 antibodies that will target antigens found in colorectal and pancreatic cancers (CEA, CSAp, and MUC1). For the ''peptide binding moiety'' of the bsMAb, we initially examined an antibody directed to DOTA, but subsequently focused on another antibody directed against a novel compound, HSG (histamine-succinyl-glycine).

  15. Camel Single-domain Antibodies as Modular Building Units in Bispecific and Bivalent Antibody Constructs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katja Els Conrath; Mark Lauwereys; Lode Wyns; Serge Muyldermans

    2001-01-01

    Single-domain antibodies against various antigens are isolated from the unique heavy-chain antibodies of immunized camels and llamas. These minimal sized binders are very robust and bind the antigen with high affinity in a monomeric state. We evaluated the feasibil- ity to produce soluble, functional bispecific and bivalent antibodies in Escherichia coli with camel single-domain antibody fragments as building blocks. Two

  16. Bispecific antibodies target operationally tumor-specific antigens in two leukemia relapse models.

    PubMed

    Lindhofer, H; Menzel, H; Günther, W; Hültner, L; Thierfelder, S

    1996-12-15

    Despite improved procedures in chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation (BMT), post-BMT leukemia relapse rates have remained rather constant in the last decade. Immunotherapy with monoclonal or bispecific antibodies (bsAb) is a promising approach to improve this situation, but is hampered by the absence of tumor-specific antigens on the majority of tumors. To evade this problem, we developed a new tumor-specific approach in which bispecific antibodies exploit chimerism after allogeneic BMT by redirecting donor T cells against recipient-specific antigens on tumor cells. Two different leukemia relapse models were established using a T-cell lymphoma (ST-1) and a B-cell lymphoma (BCL1) to evaluate the efficiency of such a therapy. In these experiments, irradiated BALB/c (Thy-1.2+, I-Ad) mice were transplanted with C57BL/6 Thy-1.1 (I-Ab) BM cells under the protection of graft-versus-host disease-preventing monoclonal antibodies. Forty-five days after BMT, the chimeric mice were injected with either 2 x 10(4) recipient-type, Thy-1.2+, CD3- ST-1 cells or major histocompatability complex (MHC) class II+ (I-Ad)-BCL1 cells. Four days later, the mice were treated with 8 microg bsAb G2 (anti-CD3 x anti-Thy-1.2) or 10 microg (+10 microg, day 6) bsAb BiC (anti-CD3 x anti-I-Ad), respectively. These combinations guaranteed exclusive binding of the bsAbs target arms to tumor cells, leaving the surrounding, donor-type hematopoietic cells unbound. Compared with the parental antibodies, the bsAbs markedly reduced tumor mortality. Between 34% and 83% of mice survived in the bsAb groups compared with 0% of the control groups treated with parental antibodies, clearly documenting the benefit of the redirection principle. Furthermore, cytokine release (interleukin-6) after anti-CD3 antibody or bsAb treatment was decreased by administering a low-dose antibody preinjection. We have shown (1) that 6 weeks after BMT, when donor T-cell reconstitution is still in progress, T-cell-redirecting bsAb are clearly superior to parental antibodies in terms of tumor cell elimination; and (2) that the polymorphism of a common antigen such as Thy-1 or a clinically more relevant target antigen such as MHC class II can be used as an operational tumor-specific antigen after allogeneic BMT. PMID:8977258

  17. Development of a Human IgG4 Bispecific Antibody for Dual Targeting of Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-13 (IL-13) Cytokines*

    PubMed Central

    Spiess, Christoph; Bevers, Jack; Jackman, Janet; Chiang, Nancy; Nakamura, Gerald; Dillon, Michael; Liu, Hongbin; Molina, Patricia; Elliott, J. Michael; Shatz, Whitney; Scheer, Justin M.; Giese, Glen; Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yin; Dennis, Mark S.; Giulianotti, James; Gupta, Prateek; Reilly, Dorothea; Palma, Enzo; Wang, Jianyong; Stefanich, Eric; Scheerens, Heleen; Fuh, Germaine; Wu, Lawren C.

    2013-01-01

    Human bispecific antibodies have great potential for the treatment of human diseases. Although human IgG1 bispecific antibodies have been generated, few attempts have been reported in the scientific literature that extend bispecific antibodies to other human antibody isotypes. In this paper, we report our work expanding the knobs-into-holes bispecific antibody technology to the human IgG4 isotype. We apply this approach to generate a bispecific antibody that targets IL-4 and IL-13, two cytokines that play roles in type 2 inflammation. We show that IgG4 bispecific antibodies can be generated in large quantities with equivalent efficiency and quality and have comparable pharmacokinetic properties and lung partitioning, compared with the IgG1 isotype. This work broadens the range of published therapeutic bispecific antibodies with natural surface architecture and provides additional options for the generation of bispecific antibodies with differing effector functions through the use of different antibody isotypes. PMID:23880771

  18. Bispecific antibodies that mediate killing of cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus of any strain.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, J; Lötscher, E; Steimer, K S; Capon, D J; Baenziger, J; Jäck, H M; Wabl, M

    1991-01-01

    Although AIDS patients lose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T cells, their remaining CD8-positive T lymphocytes maintain cytotoxic function. To exploit this fact we have constructed bispecific antibodies that direct cytotoxic T lymphocytes of any specificity to cells that express gp120 of HIV. These bispecific antibodies comprise one heavy/light chain pair from an antibody to CD3, linked to a heavy chain whose variable region has been replaced with sequences from CD4 plus a second light chain. CD3 is part of the antigen receptor on T cells and is responsible for signal transduction. In the presence of these bispecific antibodies, T cells of irrelevant specificity effectively lyse HIV-infected cells in vitro. Images PMID:1905015

  19. Rational design and generation of recombinant control reagents for bispecific antibodies through CDR mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bryan D.; Gedeon, Patrick C.; Kuan, Chien-Tsun; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Archer, Gary E.; Bigner, Darell D.; Sampson, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Developments in the field of bispecific antibodies have progressed rapidly in recent years, particularly in their potential role for the treatment of malignant disease. However, manufacturing stable molecules has proven to be costly and time-consuming, which in turn has hampered certain aspects of preclinical evaluation including the unavailability of appropriate “negative” controls. Bispecific molecules (e.g., bispecific tandem scFv) exhibit two specificities, often against a tumor antigen as well as an immune-activation ligand such as CD3. While for IgG antibodies, isotype-matched controls are well accepted, when considering smaller antibody fragments it is not possible to adequately control for their biological activity through the use of archetypal isotypes, which differ dramatically in affinity, size, structure, and design. Here, we demonstrate a method for the rapid production of negative control tandem scFvs through complementarity determining region (CDR) mutagenesis, using a recently described bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) targeting a tumor-specific mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) as an example. Four independent control constructs were developed by this method through alteration of residues spanning individual CDR domains. Importantly, while target antigen affinity was completely impaired, CD3 binding affinity was conserved in each molecule. These results have a potential to enhance the sophistication by which bispecific antibodies can be evaluated in the preclinical setting and may have broader applications for an array of alternative antibody-derived therapeutic platforms. PMID:23806556

  20. Preclinical and clinical data with bispecific antibodies recruiting myeloid effector cells for tumor therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H van Ojik; T Valerius

    2001-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies constitute a novel approach to improve antibody efficacy. In vitro, constructs to recruit myeloid effector cells have been extensively investigated, and first animal data in human Fc receptor transgenic mice confirmed their promising therapeutic potential. Clinical experience with these constructs demonstrated acceptable toxicity, and support therapeutic efficacy in subgroups of patients. However, limited availability, unacceptable immunogenicity, and unfavorable

  1. Analysis and purification of IgG4 bispecific antibodies by a mixed-mode chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Fengqiang; Wang, Larry Jin; Richardson, Daisy; Shameem, Mohammed; Ambrogelly, Alexandre

    2015-09-01

    Therapeutic non-hinge-modified IgG4 molecules form bispecific hybrid antibodies with endogenous human IgG4 molecules via a process known as Fab-arm exchange (or called half molecule exchange). Analysis of the bispecific hybrids is critical for studies of half molecule exchange. A number of analytical methods are available to detect IgG4 hybrids. These methods mostly necessitate labeling or alteration of the model IgG4 molecules, or rely on time-consuming immunoassays and mass spectrometry. In addition, these methods do not allow isolation of hybrid antibodies. We report here the only analytical method to date that relies on chromatographic separation for detection of hybrids formed from intact antibodies in their native forms using pembrolizumab as an example. This method employs a mixed-mode chromatography using a Sepax Zenix SEC-300 column to separate a bispecific hybrid from the parental antibodies. The simultaneous quantitative monitoring of the newly formed hybrid and parental antibodies was achieved by UV absorption and/or protein fluorescence. The bispecific hybrid antibodies were purified with the same method for further biochemical characterization. The method has allowed monitoring of half molecule exchange between a human serum IgG4 and a tested IgG4 molecule, and has been implemented for the analysis of in vitro as well as in vivo samples. PMID:26091837

  2. Biophysical Signatures of Monoclonal Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Harn; T. Spitznagel; M. Perkins; C. Allan; S. Shire; C. R. Middaugh

    \\u000a Monoclonal antibodies are the most common protein that is being developed by many companies as therapies against a wide range\\u000a of diseases (Andreakos et al. 2002; Campbell and Marcus 2003; Trikha et al. 2002; Untch et al. 2003). With increasing interest\\u000a in the use of monoclonal antibodies therapeutics, it is apparent that the combination of specificity and safety offered by

  3. Radioimmunoguided surgery using monoclonal antibody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. W. Jr. Martin; C. M. Mojzisik; G. H. Jr. Hinkle; J. Sampsel; M. A. Siddiqi; S. E. Tuttle; B. Sickle-Santanello; D. Colcher; M. O. Thurston; J. G. Bell

    1988-01-01

    The potential proficiency of radioimmunoguided surgery in the intraoperative detection of tumors was assessed using labeled monoclonal antibody B72.3 in 66 patients with tissue-proved tumor. Monoclonal antibody B72.3 was injected 5 to 42 days preoperatively, and the hand-held gamma-detecting probe was used intraoperatively to detect the presence of tumor. Intraoperative probe counts of less than 20 every 2 seconds, or

  4. Bispecific antibody to ErbB2 overcomes trastuzumab resistance through comprehensive blockade of ErbB2 heterodimerization.

    PubMed

    Li, Bohua; Meng, Yanchun; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Xunmin; Tong, Qing; Tan, Wenlong; Hu, Shi; Li, Hui; Chen, Yang; Song, Jinjing; Zhang, Ge; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Dapeng; Hou, Sheng; Qian, Weizhu; Guo, Yajun

    2013-11-01

    The anti-ErbB2 antibody trastuzumab has shown significant clinical benefits in metastatic breast cancer. However, resistance to trastuzumab is common. Heterodimerization between ErbB2 and other ErbBs may redundantly trigger cell proliferation signals and confer trastuzumab resistance. Here, we developed a bispecific anti-ErbB2 antibody using trastuzumab and pertuzumab, another ErbB2-specific humanized antibody that binds to a distinct epitope from trastuzumab. This bispecific antibody, denoted as TPL, retained the full binding activities of both parental antibodies and exhibited pharmacokinetic properties similar to those of a conventional immunoglobulin G molecule. Unexpectedly, TPL showed superior ErbB2 heterodimerization-blocking activity over the combination of both parental monoclonal antibodies, possibly through steric hindrance and/or inducing ErbB2 conformational change. Further data indicated that TPL potently abrogated ErbB2 signaling in trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cell lines. In addition, we showed that TPL was far more effective than trastuzumab plus pertuzumab in inhibiting the growth of trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cell lines, both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, TPL treatment eradicated established trastuzumab-resistant tumors in tumor-bearing nude mice. Our results suggest that trastuzumab-resistant breast tumors remain dependent on ErbB2 signaling and that comprehensive blockade of ErbB2 heterodimerization may be an effective therapeutic avenue. The unique potential of TPL to overcome trastuzumab resistance warrants its consideration as a promising treatment in the clinic. PMID:24046294

  5. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  6. Monoclonal Antibodies in Diagnosis and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Thomas A.

    1991-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have been applied clinically to the diagnosis and therapy of an array of human disorders, including cancer and infectious diseases, and have been used for the modulation of immune responses. Effective therapy using unmodified monoclonal antibodies has, however, been elusive. Recently, monoclonal antibody-mediated therapy has been revolutionized by advances such as the definition of cell-surface structures on abnormal cells as targets for effective monoclonal antibody action, genetic engineering to create less immunogenic and more effective monoclonal antibodies, and the arming of such antibodies with toxins or radionuclides to enhance their effector function.

  7. Chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies to retarget T cells in pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Maya; Curran, Kevin J; Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2015-08-01

    Cancer immunotherapy using antigen-specific T cells has broad therapeutic potential. Chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies can redirect T cells to kill tumors without human leukocyte antigens (HLA) restriction. Key determinants of clinical potential include the choice of target antigen, antibody specificity, antibody affinity, tumor accessibility, T cell persistence, and tumor immune evasion. For pediatric cancers, additional constraints include their propensity for bulky metastatic disease and the concern for late toxicities from treatment. Nonetheless, the recent preclinical and clinical developments of these T cell based therapies are highly encouraging. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:1326-1336. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25832831

  8. Insights into the molecular basis of a bispecific antibody's target selectivity.

    PubMed

    Mazor, Yariv; Hansen, Anna; Yang, Chunning; Chowdhury, Partha S; Wang, Jihong; Stephens, Geoffrey; Wu, Herren; Dall'Acqua, William F

    2015-05-01

    Bispecific antibodies constitute a valuable class of therapeutics owing to their ability to bind 2 distinct targets. Dual targeting is thought to enhance biological efficacy, limit escape mechanisms, and increase target selectivity via a strong avidity effect mediated by concurrent binding to both antigens on the surface of the same cell. However, factors that regulate the extent of target selectivity are not well understood. We show that dual targeting alone is not sufficient to promote efficient target selectivity, and report the substantial roles played by the affinity of the individual arms, overall avidity and valence. More particularly, various monovalent bispecific IgGs composed of an anti-CD70 moiety paired with variants of the anti-CD4 mAb ibalizumab were tested for preferential binding and selective depletion of CD4(+)/CD70(+) T cells over cells expressing only one of the target antigens that resulted from antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Variants exhibiting reduced CD4 affinity showed a greater degree of target selectivity, while the overall efficacy of the bispecific molecule was not affected. PMID:25730144

  9. Engineering anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mahiuddin; Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2014-01-21

    Ganglioside GD2 is highly expressed on neuroectoderm-derived tumors and sarcomas, including neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, melanoma, small cell lung cancer, brain tumors, osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma in children and adolescents, as well as liposarcoma, fibrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma and other soft tissue sarcomas in adults. Since GD2 expression in normal tissues is restricted to the brain, which is inaccessible to circulating antibodies, and in selected peripheral nerves and melanocytes, it was deemed a suitable target for systemic tumor immunotherapy. Anti-GD2 antibodies have been actively tested in clinical trials for neuroblastoma for over the past two decades, with proven safety and efficacy. The main limitations have been acute pain toxicity associated with GD2 expression on peripheral nerve fibers and the inability of antibodies to treat bulky tumor. Several strategies have been developed to reduce pain toxicity, including bypassing complement activation, using blocking antibodies, or targeting of O-acetyl-GD2 derivative that is not expressed on peripheral nerves. To enhance anti-tumor efficacy, anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies and fragments have been engineered into immunocytokines, immunotoxins, antibody drug conjugates, radiolabeled antibodies, targeted nanoparticles, T-cell engaging bispecific antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptors. The challenges of these approaches will be reviewed to build a perspective for next generation anti-GD2 therapeutics in cancer therapy. PMID:24295643

  10. Xenogeneic monoclonal antibodies in the management of cancer: control of their in vivo immunogenicity and induction of specific unresponsiveness using an antibody-drug immunoconjugate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GB Sivolapenko; C Moreno; W Smith; J Corválan; MA Ritter; AA Epenetos

    1991-01-01

    A bispecific mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognises carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with one binding site and vinblastine (VLB) with the other was used, and its in vivo immunosuppressive effect specific for anti-mouse immunoglobulin (Ig) was studied. The antibody was incubated with VLB at a molar ratio (MR) of 1:1, and administered i.v. to rabbits. Control animals received either the MAb

  11. Anti-CD22/CD20 Bispecific antibody with enhanced trogocytosis for treatment of Lupus.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Edmund A; Chang, Chien-Hsing; Goldenberg, David M

    2014-01-01

    The humanized anti-CD22 antibody, epratuzumab, has demonstrated therapeutic activity in clinical trials of lymphoma, leukemia and autoimmune diseases, treating currently over 1500 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemias, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Because epratuzumab reduces on average only 35% of circulating B cells in patients, and has minimal antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and negligible complement-dependent cytotoxicity when evaluated in vitro, its therapeutic activity may not result completely from B-cell depletion. We reported recently that epratuzumab mediates Fc/FcR-dependent membrane transfer from B cells to effector cells via trogocytosis, resulting in a substantial reduction of multiple BCR modulators, including CD22, CD19, CD21, and CD79b, as well as key cell adhesion molecules, including CD44, CD62L, and ?7 integrin, on the surface of B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from normal donors or SLE patients. Rituximab has clinical activity in lupus, but failed to achieve primary endpoints in a Phase III trial. This is the first study of trogocytosis mediated by bispecific antibodies targeting neighboring cell-surface proteins, CD22, CD20, and CD19, as demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. We show that, compared to epratuzumab, a bispecific hexavalent antibody comprising epratuzumab and veltuzumab (humanized anti-CD20 mAb) exhibits enhanced trogocytosis resulting in major reductions in B-cell surface levels of CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD79b, CD44, CD62L and ?7-integrin, and with considerably less immunocompromising B-cell depletion that would result with anti-CD20 mAbs such as veltuzumab or rituximab, given either alone or in combination with epratuzumab. A CD22/CD19 bispecific hexavalent antibody, which exhibited enhanced trogocytosis of some antigens and minimal B-cell depletion, may also be therapeutically useful. The bispecific antibody is a candidate for improved treatment of lupus and other autoimmune diseases, offering advantages over administration of the two parental antibodies in combination. PMID:24841238

  12. Anti-CD22/CD20 Bispecific Antibody with Enhanced Trogocytosis for Treatment of Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Edmund A.; Chang, Chien-Hsing; Goldenberg, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The humanized anti-CD22 antibody, epratuzumab, has demonstrated therapeutic activity in clinical trials of lymphoma, leukemia and autoimmune diseases, treating currently over 1500 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemias, Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia, Sjögren’s syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Because epratuzumab reduces on average only 35% of circulating B cells in patients, and has minimal antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and negligible complement-dependent cytotoxicity when evaluated in vitro, its therapeutic activity may not result completely from B-cell depletion. We reported recently that epratuzumab mediates Fc/FcR-dependent membrane transfer from B cells to effector cells via trogocytosis, resulting in a substantial reduction of multiple BCR modulators, including CD22, CD19, CD21, and CD79b, as well as key cell adhesion molecules, including CD44, CD62L, and ?7 integrin, on the surface of B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from normal donors or SLE patients. Rituximab has clinical activity in lupus, but failed to achieve primary endpoints in a Phase III trial. This is the first study of trogocytosis mediated by bispecific antibodies targeting neighboring cell-surface proteins, CD22, CD20, and CD19, as demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. We show that, compared to epratuzumab, a bispecific hexavalent antibody comprising epratuzumab and veltuzumab (humanized anti-CD20 mAb) exhibits enhanced trogocytosis resulting in major reductions in B-cell surface levels of CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD79b, CD44, CD62L and ?7-integrin, and with considerably less immunocompromising B-cell depletion that would result with anti-CD20 mAbs such as veltuzumab or rituximab, given either alone or in combination with epratuzumab. A CD22/CD19 bispecific hexavalent antibody, which exhibited enhanced trogocytosis of some antigens and minimal B-cell depletion, may also be therapeutically useful. The bispecific antibody is a candidate for improved treatment of lupus and other autoimmune diseases, offering advantages over administration of the two parental antibodies in combination. PMID:24841238

  13. Original article Production of monoclonal antibodies against

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Production of monoclonal antibodies against equine influenza : application 1988) Summary ― Monoclonal antibodies (Mo Abs) were prepared against influenza/A/equine/Prague/1. These monoclonals were tested against the 2 reference strains, 8 field strains of equine influenza virus, 3 human

  14. [Therapeutic efficacy of three bispecific antibodies on rheumatoid arthritis mice models].

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Cui; Han, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Bing; Wang, Wen-Fei; Ren, Gui-Ping; Sun, Cui-Yu; Wu, Qiang; Yu, Yin-Hang; Xu, Li-Ming; Wang, Qiu-Ying; Qi, Jian-Ying; Wei, Yu-Quan; Cao, Hong-Wei; Han, Jun-Yan; Li, De-Shan

    2014-03-01

    In order to obtain the lead compound for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in this study, therapeutic efficacy of three bispecific antibodies (BsAB-1, BsAB-2 and BsAB-3) against both hIL-1beta and hIL-17 were compared on CIA model mice. First, by ELISA method we compared the binding capacity of the three bispecific antibodies to the two antigens. The results showed that all three antibodies could simultaneously bind both antigens, among these antibodies, BsAB-1 was superior over BsAB-2 and BsAB-3. CIA model was established with chicken type II collagen (CII) and developed RA-like symptoms such as ankle swelling, skin tight, hind foot skin hyperemia. The CIA mice were treated with three antibodies once every two days for total of 29 days. Compared with the CIA model mice, the RA-like symptoms of the antibody treated-mice significantly relieved, while the BsAB-1 treated-mice were almost recovered. CII antibody level in the serum and cytokines (IL-2, IL-1beta, IL-17A and TNF-alpha) expression in the spleen were examined. Compared with the CIA model mice, all three antibodies could significantly reduce CII antibody and cytokine expression levels. BsAB-1 antibody was more potent than BsAB-2 and BsAB-3. In summary, BsAB-1 is superior over BsAB-2 and BsAB-3 in amelioration of RA symptoms and regulation of CII antibody production and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, therefore, BsAB-1 can be chosen as a lead compound for further development of drug candidate for treatment of RA. PMID:24961102

  15. Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in ophthalmology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo B. Rodrigues; Michel E. Farah; Maurício Maia; Fernando M. Penha; Caio Regatieri; Gustavo B. Melo; Marcelo M. Pinheiro; Carlos R. Zanetti

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can be used therapeutically by binding to molecular targets with high specificity. Therefore, they have excellent therapeutic applications in ophthalmology. This manuscript presents four aspects of the therapeutic use of mAbs in ophthalmology: the scientific rationale, the unique characteristics of selected mAbs, the current state-of-the-art application, and relevant therapeutic mAbs for future applications in ophthalmology. We identified

  16. Elimination mechanisms of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Mohammad A; Tseng, Chih-Ming L; Roskos, Lorin K

    2006-01-01

    Targeted therapies using monoclonal antibodies have achieved important therapeutic applications in the treatment of various human diseases. Understanding the factors that impact the pharmacokinetics of monoclonal antibodies is of high importance for effective therapy. Many factors related to the target antigen, antibody and patients can affect antibody elimination. Evaluation of these factors will facilitate the understanding of the processes involved in antibody elimination. PMID:16478695

  17. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Rader

    \\u000a Since the approval of rituximab (Rituxan®) for the treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL) in 1997, nine additional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been\\u000a approved by the FDA for cancer therapy. Currently, more than 1,300 clinical studies registered at ClinicalTrials.gov investigate\\u000a mAb therapy of cancer, including more than 150 phase III clinical trials. In concert with their clinical acceptance, mAbs\\u000a in

  18. Targeting CD133high Colorectal Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo With an Asymmetric Bispecific Antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Yang, Yudan; Zhou, Pengfei; Ma, Hong; Zhao, Xiaolai; He, Xin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    A critical obstacle in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment is the insufficient improvement on survival of conventional chemotherapy. Cancer stem cells are reported to be one of the crucial explanations. CD133 has been identified as a surface marker of CRC stem cells. Bispecific antibodies (BiAbs) targeting tumor-specific antigens are promising therapeutics for malignant diseases, yet that targeting CD133 produced by genetic engineering has not been published. In the current research, CD133 expression in primary CRC was detected by immunohistochemistry, and an asymmetric BiAb consisting of monomer of chimeric AC133 (mouse anti-human CD133 monoclonal antibody) and single chain of humanized OKT3 was developed to eradicate CD133-expressing tumor cells by arming activated T cells in vitro and in vivo. In immunohistochemical examination, CD133 overexpression (>50% of stained cells) frequency was significantly correlated with lymphatic invasion and clinical stage. The new molecular revealed dual-antigen-binding specificity to CD133 and CD3, its distinct structure not only facilitated the purification procedure but also conferred the antibody to ensure a longer and stronger cytotoxic activity. By arming activated T cells, the new antibody displayed impressive cytotoxicity toward CD133 but not CD133 CRC cells in vitro, produced amounts of cytokines (interferon-? and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), and could inhibit tumor growth and retard tumor development in nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient mice without apparent toxicity. Taken together, the new BiAb possesses prosperities that support that the molecule has the potential of being a promising candidate of new therapeutics for CRC therapy. PMID:26049545

  19. Identification and Multidimensional Optimization of an Asymmetric Bispecific IgG Antibody Mimicking the Function of Factor VIII Cofactor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sampei, Zenjiro; Igawa, Tomoyuki; Soeda, Tetsuhiro; Okuyama-Nishida, Yukiko; Moriyama, Chifumi; Wakabayashi, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Eriko; Muto, Atsushi; Kojima, Tetsuo; Kitazawa, Takehisa; Yoshihashi, Kazutaka; Harada, Aya; Funaki, Miho; Haraya, Kenta; Tachibana, Tatsuhiko; Suzuki, Sachiyo; Esaki, Keiko; Nabuchi, Yoshiaki; Hattori, Kunihiro

    2013-01-01

    In hemophilia A, routine prophylaxis with exogenous factor VIII (FVIII) requires frequent intravenous injections and can lead to the development of anti-FVIII alloantibodies (FVIII inhibitors). To overcome these drawbacks, we screened asymmetric bispecific IgG antibodies to factor IXa (FIXa) and factor X (FX), mimicking the FVIII cofactor function. Since the therapeutic potential of the lead bispecific antibody was marginal, FVIII-mimetic activity was improved by modifying its binding properties to FIXa and FX, and the pharmacokinetics was improved by engineering the charge properties of the variable region. Difficulties in manufacturing the bispecific antibody were overcome by identifying a common light chain for the anti-FIXa and anti-FX heavy chains through framework/complementarity determining region shuffling, and by pI engineering of the two heavy chains to facilitate ion exchange chromatographic purification of the bispecific antibody from the mixture of byproducts. Engineering to overcome low solubility and deamidation was also performed. The multidimensionally optimized bispecific antibody hBS910 exhibited potent FVIII-mimetic activity in human FVIII-deficient plasma, and had a half-life of 3 weeks and high subcutaneous bioavailability in cynomolgus monkeys. Importantly, the activity of hBS910 was not affected by FVIII inhibitors, while anti-hBS910 antibodies did not inhibit FVIII activity, allowing the use of hBS910 without considering the development or presence of FVIII inhibitors. Furthermore, hBS910 could be purified on a large manufacturing scale and formulated into a subcutaneously injectable liquid formulation for clinical use. These features of hBS910 enable routine prophylaxis by subcutaneous delivery at a long dosing interval without considering the development or presence of FVIII inhibitors. We expect that hBS910 (investigational drug name: ACE910) will provide significant benefit for severe hemophilia A patients. PMID:23468998

  20. An Alternative Chemical Redox Method for the Production of Bispecific Antibodies: Implication in Rapid Detection of Food Borne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Owais, Mohammad; Kazmi, Shadab; Tufail, Saba; Zubair, Swaleha

    2014-01-01

    Bi-functional antibodies with the ability to bind two unrelated epitopes have remarkable potential in diagnostic and bio-sensing applications. In the present study, bispecific antibodies that recognize human red blood cell (RBC) and the food borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) were engineered. The procedure involves initial reduction of a mixture of anti-RBC and anti-Listeria antibodies followed by gradual re-oxidation of the reduced disulphides. This facilitates association of the separated antibody chains and formation of hybrid immunoglobulins with affinity for the L. monocytogenes and human RBC. The bispecific antibodies caused the agglutination of the RBCs only in the presence of L. monocytogenes cells. The agglutination process necessitated the specific presence of L. monocytogenes and the red colored clumps formed were readily visible with naked eyes. The RBC agglutination assay described here provides a remarkably simple approach for the rapid and highly specific screening of various pathogens in their biological niches. PMID:24637674

  1. Fab-based bispecific antibody formats with robust biophysical properties and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiufeng; Sereno, Arlene J; Huang, Flora; Lewis, Steven M; Lieu, Ricky L; Weldon, Caroline; Torres, Carina; Fine, Cody; Batt, Micheal A; Fitchett, Jonathan R; Glasebrook, Andrew L; Kuhlman, Brian; Demarest, Stephen J

    2015-05-01

    A myriad of innovative bispecific antibody (BsAb) platforms have been reported. Most require significant protein engineering to be viable from a development and manufacturing perspective. Single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) and diabodies that consist only of antibody variable domains have been used as building blocks for making BsAbs for decades. The drawback with Fv-only moieties is that they lack the native-like interactions with CH1/CL domains that make antibody Fab regions stable and soluble. Here, we utilize a redesigned Fab interface to explore 2 novel Fab-based BsAbs platforms. The redesigned Fab interface designs limit heavy and light chain mixing when 2 Fabs are co-expressed simultaneously, thus allowing the use of 2 different Fabs within a BsAb construct without the requirement of one or more scFvs. We describe the stability and activity of a HER2×HER2 IgG-Fab BsAb, and compare its biophysical and activity properties with those of an IgG-scFv that utilizes the variable domains of the same parental antibodies. We also generated an EGFR × CD3 tandem Fab protein with a similar format to a tandem scFv (otherwise known as a bispecific T cell engager or BiTE). We show that the Fab-based BsAbs have superior biophysical properties compared to the scFv-based BsAbs. Additionally, the Fab-based BsAbs do not simply recapitulate the activity of their scFv counterparts, but are shown to possess unique biological activity. PMID:25774965

  2. Monoclonal Antibodies for the Treatment of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shuptrine, Casey; Surana, Rishi; Weiner, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, the clinical utility of monoclonal antibodies has been realized and antibodies are now a mainstay for the treatment of cancer. Antibodies have the unique capacity to target and kill tumor cells while simultaneously activating immune effectors to kill tumor cells through the complement cascade or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). This multifaceted mechanism of action combined with target specificity underlies the capacity of antibodies to elicit anti-tumor responses while minimizing the frequency and magnitude of adverse events. This review will focus on mechanisms of action, clinical applications and putative mechanisms of resistance to monoclonal antibody therapy in the context of cancer. PMID:22245472

  3. Improving biophysical properties of a bispecific antibody scaffold to aid developability: quality by molecular design.

    PubMed

    Von Kreudenstein, Thomas Spreter; Escobar-Carbrera, Eric; Lario, Paula I; D'Angelo, Igor; Brault, Karine; Kelly, John; Durocher, Yves; Baardsnes, Jason; Woods, R Jeremy; Xie, Michael Hongwei; Girod, Pierre-Alain; Suits, Michael D L; Boulanger, Martin J; Poon, David K Y; Ng, Gordon Y K; Dixit, Surjit B

    2013-01-01

    While the concept of Quality-by-Design is addressed at the upstream and downstream process development stages, we questioned whether there are advantages to addressing the issues of biologics quality early in the design of the molecule based on fundamental biophysical characterization, and thereby reduce complexities in the product development stages. Although limited number of bispecific therapeutics are in clinic, these developments have been plagued with difficulty in producing materials of sufficient quality and quantity for both preclinical and clinical studies. The engineered heterodimeric Fc is an industry-wide favorite scaffold for the design of bispecific protein therapeutics because of its structural, and potentially pharmacokinetic, similarity to the natural antibody. Development of molecules based on this concept, however, is challenged by the presence of potential homodimer contamination and stability loss relative to the natural Fc. We engineered a heterodimeric Fc with high heterodimeric specificity that also retains natural Fc-like biophysical properties, and demonstrate here that use of engineered Fc domains that mirror the natural system translates into an efficient and robust upstream stable cell line selection process as a first step toward a more developable therapeutic. PMID:23924797

  4. Monoclonal Antibody Therapies against Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhaochun; Moayeri, Mahtab; Purcell, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Anthrax is a highly lethal infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It not only causes natural infection in humans but also poses a great threat as an emerging bioterror agent. The lethality of anthrax is primarily attributed to the two major virulence factors: toxins and capsule. An extensive effort has been made to generate therapeutically useful monoclonal antibodies to each of the virulence components: protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), and the capsule of B. anthracis. This review summarizes the current status of anti-anthrax mAb development and argues for the potential therapeutic advantage of a cocktail of mAbs that recognize different epitopes or different virulence factors. PMID:22069754

  5. Monoclonal antibody therapies against anthrax.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaochun; Moayeri, Mahtab; Purcell, Robert

    2011-08-01

    Anthrax is a highly lethal infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It not only causes natural infection in humans but also poses a great threat as an emerging bioterror agent. The lethality of anthrax is primarily attributed to the two major virulence factors: toxins and capsule. An extensive effort has been made to generate therapeutically useful monoclonal antibodies to each of the virulence components: protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), and the capsule of B. anthracis. This review summarizes the current status of anti-anthrax mAb development and argues for the potential therapeutic advantage of a cocktail of mAbs that recognize different epitopes or different virulence factors. PMID:22069754

  6. Monoclonal antibodies as neural cell surface markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. K. Langley; M. S. Ghandour; G. Gombos; M. Hirn; C. Goridis

    1982-01-01

    A comparison is made of the immunohistochemistry at the ultrastructural level of three monoclonal antibodies directed against surface components of CNS cells. Hybridomas secreting these antibodies were obtained from two cell fusions of a rat myeloma cell line and immune splenocytes derived from rats immunized either with primary mouse brain cultured cells or membrane components. In cultures one antibody, anti-BSP-2

  7. Multiformat T-cell-engaging bispecific antibodies targeting human breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Axup, Jun Y; Ma, Jennifer S Y; Wang, Rongsheng E; Choi, Seihyun; Tardif, Virginie; Lim, Reyna K V; Pugh, Holly M; Lawson, Brian R; Welzel, Gus; Kazane, Stephanie A; Sun, Ying; Tian, Feng; Srinagesh, Shailaja; Javahishvili, Tsotne; Schultz, Peter G; Kim, Chan Hyuk

    2015-06-01

    Four different formats of bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) were generated that consist of anti-Her2 IgG or Fab site-specifically conjugated to anti-CD3 Fab using the genetically encoded noncanonical amino acid. These bsAbs varied in valency or in the presence or absence of an Fc domain. Different valencies did not significantly affect antitumor efficacy, whereas the presence of an Fc domain enhanced cytotoxic activity, but triggered antigen-independent T-cell activation. We show that the bsAbs can efficiently redirect T?cells to kill all Her2 expressing cancer cells, including Her2 1+ cancers, both in?vitro and in rodent xenograft models. This work increases our understanding of the structural features that affect bsAb activity, and underscores the potential of bsAbs as a promising therapeutic option for breast cancer patients with low or heterogeneous Her2 expression. PMID:25919418

  8. A novel bispecific single-chain antibody for ADAM17 and CD3 induces T-cell-mediated lysis of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kosuke; Trad, Ahmad; Baumgart, Anja; Hüske, Linda; Lorenzen, Inken; Chalaris, Athena; Grötzinger, Joachim; Dechow, Tobias; Scheller, Jürgen; Rose-John, Stefan

    2012-07-01

    ADAM17 (A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17) is a membrane-bound protease that cleaves various cell surface proteins, including cytokines and cytokine receptors. Recently it was shown that ADAM17 is highly expressed on the surface of many cancer cells, whereas normal cells express low levels of ADAM17, implying that ADAM17 is a potential immunotherapeutic target. We have generated a monoclonal antibody against human ADAM17, which recognized the membrane proximal cysteine-rich extension of the ADAM17 protein. Unlike normal cells, tumour cell lines, such as a prostate cancer cell line, pancreatic cancer cell lines, a breast cancer cell line and a non-small lung cancer cell line, expressed ADAM17 on the cell surface. Using the sequence of the antibody we generated an ADAM17-specific scFv (single-chain variable fragment) and fused this to a CD3-specific scFv to generate a bispecific T-cell engager antibody [A300E-BiTE (bispecific T-cell engager antibody)]. Specificity was demonstrated on cells in which ADAM17 was knocked down with a specific shRNA (short hairpin RNA). A300E-BiTE recognized ADAM17 and CD3 on the cell surface of tumour cells and T-cells respectively. In the presence of primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells or human T-cells the addition of A300E-BiTE led to ADAM17-specific killing of prostate tumour cells indicating a novel strategy for the treatment of cancer. PMID:22509934

  9. Preparation of astatine-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Milesz, S.; Norseev, Yu.V.; Szucs, Z. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)]|[Central Inst. of Physical Research, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-07-01

    In the cationic state astatine forms a stable complex with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Thanks to this complex, astatine can be bound to monoclonal antibodies of the RYa{sub 1} type. The most favorable conditions for preparing astatine-labeled antibodies are established. The chromatographic analysis and electromigration experiments showed that astatine is firmly linked to a biomolecule in vitro and it did not escape from labeled monoclonal antibodies even under treatment with such highly effective astatine-complexing agent as thiourea. The immune activity of astatine-labeled antibodies did not change even after 20 h.

  10. Chemically Programmed Bispecific Antibody Targeting Legumain Protease and ?v?3 Integrin Mediates Strong Antitumor Effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Goswami, Rajib K; Liu, Cheng; Sinha, Subhash C

    2015-07-01

    A chemically programmed bispecific antibody (cp-bsAb) that targeted cysteine protease legumain and ?v?3 integrin has been prepared using the aldolase antibody chemical programming (AACP) strategy. In vitro evaluation of the anti-legumain, anti-integrin cp-bsAb and its comparison with cpAbs targeting either integrin or legumain have shown that the former possesses superior functions, including receptor binding and inhibitory effects on cell proliferation as well as capillary tube formation, among all three cpAbs. The anti-legumain, anti-integrin cp-bsAb also inhibited growth of primary tumor more effectively than either anti-legumain or anti-integrin cpAb as observed in the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer mouse model. The AACP-based cp-bsAb, which contains a generic aldolase antibody, can also serve as a suitable platform for combination therapy, where two equally potent compounds are used to target extracellular receptors. PMID:26024761

  11. Monoclonal antibodies in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Elias; O'Brien, Susan; Ravandi, Farhad; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2015-06-25

    With modern intensive combination polychemotherapy, the complete response (CR) rate in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is 80% to 90%, and the cure rate is 40% to 50%. Hence, there is a need to develop effective salvage therapies and combine novel agents with standard effective chemotherapy. ALL leukemic cells express several surface antigens amenable to target therapies, including CD20, CD22, and CD19. Monoclonal antibodies target these leukemic surface antigens selectively and minimize off-target toxicity. When added to frontline chemotherapy, rituximab, an antibody directed against CD20, increases cure rates of adults with Burkitt leukemia from 40% to 80% and those with pre-B ALL from 35% to 50%. Inotuzumab ozogamicin, a CD22 monoclonal antibody bound to calicheamicin, has resulted in marrow CR rates of 55% and a median survival of 6 to 7 months when given to patients with refractory-relapsed ALL. Blinatumomab, a biallelic T cell engaging the CD3-CD19 monoclonal antibody, also resulted in overall response rates of 40% to 50% and a median survival of 6.5 months in a similar refractory-relapsed population. Other promising monoclonal antibodies targeting CD20 (ofatumumab and obinutuzumab) or CD19 or CD20 and bound to different cytotoxins or immunotoxins are under development. Combined modalities of chemotherapy and the novel monoclonal antibodies are under investigation. PMID:25999456

  12. A novel bispecific EGFR/Met antibody blocks tumor-promoting phenotypic effects induced by resistance to EGFR inhibition and has potent antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Castoldi, R; Ecker, V; Wiehle, L; Majety, M; Busl-Schuller, R; Asmussen, M; Nopora, A; Jucknischke, U; Osl, F; Kobold, S; Scheuer, W; Venturi, M; Klein, C; Niederfellner, G; Sustmann, C

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous targeting of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Met in cancer therapy is under pre-clinical and clinical evaluation. Here, we report the finding that treatment with EGFR inhibitors of various tumor cells, when stimulated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and EGF, results in transient upregulation of phosphorylated AKT. Furthermore, EGFR inhibition in this setting stimulates a pro-invasive phenotype as assessed in Matrigel-based assays. Simultaneous treatment with AKT and EGFR inhibitors abrogates this invasive growth, hence functionally linking signaling and phenotype. This observation implies that during treatment of tumors a balanced ratio of EGFR and Met inhibition is required. To address this, we designed a bispecific antibody targeting EGFR and Met, which has the advantage of a fixed 2:1 stoichiometry. This bispecific antibody inhibits proliferation in tumor cell cultures and co-cultures with fibroblasts in an additive manner compared with treatment with both single agents. In addition, cell migration assays reveal a higher potency of the bispecific antibody in comparison with the antibodies' combination at low doses. We demonstrate that the bispecific antibody inhibits invasive growth, which is specifically observed with cetuximab. Finally, the bispecific antibody potently inhibits tumor growth in a non-small cell lung cancer xenograft model bearing a strong autocrine HGF-loop. Together, our findings strongly support a combination treatment of EGFR and Met inhibitors and further evaluation of resistance mechanisms to EGFR inhibition in the context of active Met signaling. PMID:23812422

  13. Targeted inhibition of tumour cell growth by a bispecific single-chain toxin containing an antibody domain and TGF alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, M.; Wels, W.

    1996-01-01

    Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB-2 has been observed in a variety of human tumours, making these receptors promising targets for directed tumour therapy. Since many tumour cells express both ErbB-2 and EGFR and these receptors synergise in cellular transformation, therapeutic reagents simultaneously binding to ErbB-2 and EGFR might offer advantages for tumour therapy. We have previously described the potent anti-tumoral activity of a bispecific antibody toxin that contains ErbB-2- and EGFR-specific single-chain Fv (scFv) domains. Here we report the construction and functional characterisation of a novel bispecific recombinant toxin, scFv(FRP5)-TGF alpha-ETA. The fusion protein consists of the antigen-binding domain of the ErbB-2-specific MAb, FRP5, and the natural EGFR ligand, TGF alpha, inserted at different positions in truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin A. ScFv(FRP5)-TGF alpha-ETA protein displayed binding to EGFR and ErbB-2, thereby inducing activation of the receptors, which was dependent on the cellular context and the level of EGFR and ErbB-2 expression. The bispecific molecule was cytotoxic in vitro for tumour cells expressing various levels of the target receptors. In vivo scFv(FRP5)-TGF alpha-ETA potently inhibited the growth of established A431 tumour xenografts in nude mice. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:8826849

  14. A Monoclonal Antibody to Saxitoxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rüdiger Hack; Volker Renz; Erwin Märtlbauer; Gerhard Terplan

    1990-01-01

    After immunization of six BALB\\/c mice with saxitoxin (STX) coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin only one mouse developed serum antibodies specific to STX. By hybridizing the splenocytes of this mouse with X63?Ag8.653 myeloma cells one hybridoma line secreting antibodies to STX was produced. The antibody was designated 5C2 and proved to be IgM. In an indirect enzyme immunoassay using STX

  15. Immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Hervas-Stubbs; Martin Glennie; Drew M. Pardoll; Ignacio Melero; Lieping Chen

    2007-01-01

    Increasing immune responses with immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to immune-receptor molecules is a new and exciting strategy in cancer therapy. This expanding class of agents functions on crucial receptors, either antagonizing those that suppress immune responses or activating others that amplify immune responses. Complications such as autoimmunity and systemic inflammation are problematic side effects associated with these agents. However,

  16. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies in metastatic melanoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Steffens; Dean F. Bajorin; Alan N. Houghton

    1992-01-01

    Therapy for metastatic melanoma has been disappointing to date. Treatment with chemotherapy only uncommonly results in complete responses and rarely results in long-term survivors. The identification of human melanoma cell surface antigens has led to the development of an array of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAb) for use in the diagnosis and therapy of patients with metastatic melanoma. Strategies utilizing MAbs

  17. Innovative monoclonal antibody therapies in multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf A. Linker; Bernd C. Kieseier

    The recent years have witnessed great efforts in establishing new therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis (MS), especially for relapsing-remitting disease courses. In particular, the application of monoclonal antibodies provide innovative approaches allowing for blocking or depleting specific molecular targets, which are of interest in the pathogenesis of MS. While natalizumab received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration and

  18. Development trends for human monoclonal antibody therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron L. Nelson; Eugen Dhimolea; Janice M. Reichert

    2010-01-01

    Fully human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a promising and rapidly growing category of targeted therapeutic agents. The first such agents were developed during the 1980s, but none achieved clinical or commercial success. Advances in technology to generate the molecules for study — in particular, transgenic mice and yeast or phage display — renewed interest in the development of human mAbs

  19. Subcutaneous Administration of Monoclonal Antibodies in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, C.; Müller, V.; Maintz, C.; Hell, S.; Ataseven, B.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment with monoclonal antibodies (mabs) has become an established component of oncological therapy. The monoclonal antibodies available for this purpose are mainly administered intravenously in individually adapted doses according to body weight over longer treatment times. For other chronic diseases such as, for example, diabetes mellitus, the subcutaneous administration of drugs is an established therapy option. For the subcutaneous administration of larger volumes as needed for mab solutions the extracellular matrix of the subcutaneous tissue represents a problem. The co-formulation with recombinant human hyaluronidase makes the relatively pain-free administration of larger fluid volumes and thus the subcutaneous administration of monoclonal antibodies possible, as illustrated by the development of a subcutaneous formulation of trastuzumab. This constitutes a less invasive, time-optimised and flexible form of administration for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer that, with its fixed dosing possibilities, contributes to therapeutic safety. The example of trastuzumab shows that the subcutaneous administration of monoclonal antibodies can simplify oncological long-term therapy not only for the patients but also for the medical personnel. PMID:25076790

  20. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with chicken interleukin-17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous study chicken interleukin -17 (chIL-17) gene was cloned from the expressed sequence tag (EST) cDNA library and initially analyzed. To further investigate biological properties of chicken IL-17, six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against bacterially expressed protein were produced and c...

  1. Microbials for the production of monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments

    PubMed Central

    Spadiut, Oliver; Capone, Simona; Krainer, Florian; Glieder, Anton; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments represent the most important biopharmaceutical products today. Because full length antibodies are glycosylated, mammalian cells, which allow human-like N-glycosylation, are currently used for their production. However, mammalian cells have several drawbacks when it comes to bioprocessing and scale-up, resulting in long processing times and elevated costs. By contrast, antibody fragments, that are not glycosylated but still exhibit antigen binding properties, can be produced in microbial organisms, which are easy to manipulate and cultivate. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the expression systems, strain engineering, and production processes for the three main microbials used in antibody and antibody fragment production, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli. PMID:24183828

  2. Human Monoclonal Antibodies from Transgenic Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Lonberg

    Since the 1986 regulatory approval of muromonomab-CD3, a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against the T cell CD3?\\u000a antigen, MAbs have become an increasingly important class of therapeutic compounds in a variety of disease areas ranging from\\u000a cancer and autoimmune indications to infectious and cardiac diseases. However, the pathway to the present acceptance of therapeutic\\u000a MAbs within the pharmaceutical industry

  3. Monoclonal antibodies specific for mercuric ions.

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, D E; Lu, D; Carlson, L D; Carlson, R; Babacan, K F; Schuster, S M; Wagner, F W

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that react with soluble mercuric ions have been produced by injection of BALB/c mice with a hapten-carrier complex designed to maximize exposure of the metal to the immune system. Three hybridomas producing antibodies that reacted with bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glutathione-HgCl, but not with BSA-glutathione, were isolated from the spleen of a mouse given multiple injections with glutathione-HgCl conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Stable subclones were established from two of these antibodies, designated mAb 4A10 and mAb 1F10. The binding of both antibodies to immobilized BSA-glutathione-HgCl was inhibited by soluble HgCl2, and dissociation constants for mercuric chloride binding were 2.3 and 3.7 nM for mAbs 4A10 and 1F10, respectively. Both antibodies bound mercuric acetate with similar affinities, demonstrating that the antibodies were capable of binding to mercuric ions in the presence of a different counterion than the one used in the immunogen. Reactions were not observed with other metal cations by either antibody. These data demonstrate the successful induction of antibodies that react very specifically with mercuric ions in solution regardless of the presence of a carrier. PMID:1570337

  4. Critical evaluation of bispecific antibodies as targeting agents for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Barth, R F; Adams, D M; Soloway, A H; Reisfeld, R A

    1996-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear capture reaction that occurs when 10B, a stable isotope, is irradiated with low energy neutrons to produce high linear energy transfer (LET) alpha particles and recoiling 7Li nuclei. In order for BNCT to be successful in treating cancer, approximately 10(9) boron atoms must be delivered per tumor cell to sustain a lethal 10B, (n,a) 7Li capture reaction. In the present study, we have produced and characterized a bispecific antibody (BsAbB8), which was reactive with both human glioma and melanoma cell lines, as well as with a variety of polyhedral borane anions (PBA). The affinity constants (KA) of BsAb-B8 with D-54 MG and M21 cells were 3.49 and 2.57 x 10(8) M-1, respectively, which were almost identical to those of the parental mAb 9.2.27 with these cell lines. In vivo tumor localizing properties were studied in nude mice bearing subcutaneous xenografts of the D-54 MG glioma. Following intravenous injection of 131I-labeled BsAb-B8, 3.4 +/- 0.2% of the injected dose/g was detected in the tumor at 24 hours, and then slowly declined to 2.0 +/- 0.4% at 96 hours compared to 1.34 +/- 0.07% and 0.03 +/- 0.01%, respectively, for normal mouse IgG. Based on the assumption that all the tumor cell antigenic receptor sites could be saturated, the following calculations have been carried out. The maximum concentration of BsAb-B8 that could be delivered to 1 g of D-54 MG glioma cells would be 99.6 micrograms, which could bind 71.7 ng of a PBA. However, since at least 500 x more boron would be required per gram of tumor to sustain a lethal 10B (n,a) 7Li capture reaction, a macromolecule containing -10(3)-10(4) boron atoms rather than a low molecular weight PBA would be required to deliver this amount. Such boron containing macromolecules have been synthesized by us, and future studies should provide information on the feasibility of using them in combination with BsAb-B8 to deliver the requisite amount of 10B. PMID:8917355

  5. UTILIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES FOR ANTIGENIC CHARACTERIZATION OF CORONAVIRUSES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    UTILIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES FOR ANTIGENIC CHARACTERIZATION OF CORONAVIRUSES J.F. VAUTHEROT antibodies against Bovine Enteric Coronavirus (BECV strain G110) were obtained by fusion between SP2 monoclonal antibodies was established to be anti-GP105 by immunochemical staining of viral polypeptides

  6. Monoclonal antibodies specific for sickle cell hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Grabske, R.J.; Branscomb, E.W.; Bigbee, W.L.; Stanker, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    Two mouse hybridoma cell lines were isolated which produce monoclonal antibodies that bind hemoglobin S. The mice were immunized with peptide-protein conjugates to stimulate a response to the amino terminal peptide of the beta chain of hemoglobin S, where the single amino acid difference between A and S occurs. Immunocharacterization of the antibodies shows that they bind specifically to the immunogen peptide and to hemoglobin S. The specificity for S is high enough that one AS cell in a mixture with a million AA cells is labeled by antibody, and such cells can be analyzed by flow cytometry. Immunoblotting of electrophoretic gels allows definitive identification of hemoglobin S as compared with other hemoglobins with similar electrophoretic mobility. 12 references, 4 figures.

  7. Homogeneous Bispecifics by Disulfide Bridging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report on a chemical platform to generate site-specific, homogeneous, antibody–antibody conjugates by targeting and bridging disulfide bonds. A bispecific antibody construct was produced in good yield through simple reduction and bridging of antibody fragment disulfide bonds, using a readily synthesized bis-dibromomaleimide cross-linker. Binding activity of antibodies was maintained, and in vitro binding of target antigens was observed. This technology is demonstrated through linking scFv and Fab antibody fragments, showing its potential for the construction of a diverse range of bispecifics. PMID:25033024

  8. The Role of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Management of Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ameri, Ali; Cherry, Mohamad; Al-Kali, Aref; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    This article will review the monoclonal antibodies more commonly used in leukemias. In the last three decades, scientists have made considerable progress understanding the structure and the functions of various surface antigens, such as CD20, CD33. The introduction of rituximab, an anti CD20 monoclonal antibody, had a great impact in the treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders. Gemtuzumab, an anti CD 33 conjugated monoclonal antibody has activity in acute mylegenous leukemia (AML). As this field is undergoing a rapid growth, the years will see an increasing use of monoclonal antibodies in hematological malignancies.

  9. Orientation and density control of bispecific anti-HER2 antibody on functionalized carbon nanotubes for amplifying effective binding reactivity to cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-In; Hwang, Dobeen; Jeon, Su-Ji; Lee, Sangyeop; Park, Jung Hyun; Yim, DaBin; Yang, Jin-Kyoung; Kang, Homan; Choo, Jaebum; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Chung, Junho; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2015-04-14

    Nanomaterial bioconjugates have gained unabated interest in the field of sensing, imaging and therapy. As a conjugation process significantly affects the biological functions of proteins, it is crucial to attach them to nanomaterials with control over their orientation and the nanomaterial-to-protein ratio in order to amplify the binding efficiency of nanomaterial bioconjugates to targets. Here, we describe a targeting nanomaterial platform utilizing carbon nanotubes functionalized with a cotinine-modified dextran polymer and a bispecific anti-HER2 × cotinine tandem antibody. This new approach provides an effective control over antibody orientation and density on the surface of carbon nanotubes through site-specific binding between the anti-cotinine domain of the bispecific tandem antibody and the cotinine group of the functionalized carbon nanotubes. The developed synthetic carbon nanotube/bispecific tandem antibody conjugates (denoted as SNAs) show an effective binding affinity against HER2 that is three orders of magnitude higher than that of the carbon nanotubes bearing a randomly conjugated tandem antibody prepared by carbodiimide chemistry. As the density of a tandem antibody on SNAs increases, their effective binding affinity to HER2 increases as well. SNAs exhibit strong resonance Raman signals for signal transduction, and are successfully applied to the selective detection of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. PMID:25785370

  10. Monoclonal antibodies against chicken interleukin-6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Scott; H. S. Lillehoj

    2006-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were produced against a recombinant (r) chicken interleukin-6 (IL-6). Eight mAbs produced were tested for isotype; ability to inhibit recombinant forms of chicken (ch), human (h) and murine (m) IL-6; and recognition of rchIL-6 by Western immunoblotting. The mAb isotypes were represented by IgG1 (one), IgG2a (six) and IgG2b (one). In a mouse B9 hybridoma cell bioassay

  11. Phylogenetic study of transcortin using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Faict, D; De Moor, P

    1986-08-14

    We produced monoclonal antibodies that recognise three distinct epitopes of human transcortin. These epitopes are present on transcortin of humans with normal and altered transcortin levels, as well as on a variant with lower affinity for cortisol. One epitope is present on transcortin of Old World Monkeys and apes, the others are only present on transcortin of apes. The epitopes are not present on transcortin of other species. These results indicate that human transcortin contains a highly evolved and a more conserved part. PMID:2428359

  12. The Fc-region of a new class of intact bispecific antibody mediates activation of accessory cells and NK cells and induces direct phagocytosis of tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeidler, R; Mysliwietz, J; Csánady, M; Walz, A; Ziegler, I; Schmitt, B; Wollenberg, B; Lindhofer, H

    2000-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies (bsAb) are considered as promising tools for the elimination of disseminated tumour cells in a minimal residual disease situation. The bsAb-mediated recruitment of an immune effector cell in close vicinity of a tumour cell is thought to induce an antitumoural immune response. However, classical bispecific molecules activate only a single class of immune effector cell that may not yield optimal immune responses. We therefore constructed an intact bispecific antibody, BiUII (anti-CD3 × anti-EpCAM), that not only recognizes tumour cells and T lymphocytes with its two binding arms, but also binds and activates Fc?-receptor positive accessory cells through its Fc-region. We have demonstrated recently that activated accessory cells contribute to the bsAb-induced antitumoural activity. We now analyse this stimulation in more detail and demonstrate here the BiUll-induced upregulation of activation markers like CD83 and CD95 on accessory cells and the induction of neopterin and biopterin synthesis. Experiments with pure cell subpopulations revealed binding of BiUll to CD64+ accessory cells and CD16+ NK cells, but not to CD32+ B lymphocytes. We provide further evidence for the importance of the Fc-region in that this bispecific molecule stimulates Fc?-R-positive accessory cells to eliminate tumour cells in vitro by direct phagocytosis. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10901380

  13. NCI Requests Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, NCI's Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution.

  14. NCI Requests Cancer Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, NCI's Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution.

  15. Screening individual hybridomas by microengraving to discover monoclonal antibodies

    E-print Network

    Ogunniyi, Adebola Oluwakayode

    The demand for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in biomedical research is significant, but the current methodologies used to discover them are both lengthy and costly. Consequently, the diversity of antibodies available for ...

  16. Monoclonal antibody to growth hormone receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.S.A.; Friesen, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Using hybridoma technology, monoclonal antibodies to growth hormone receptors can be prepared in large quantities with only a few micrograms of purified antigen by in vitro immunization or by immunization of larger quantities of less pure material. The discussion centers on areas most pertinent to receptors such as receptor preparation, immunization procedure, fusion method, screening assay, and identification of the immunoglobulin class. The specificity of the antibody for growth hormone receptor was examined by testing the ability of the ascitic fluid to inhibit binding of (/sup 125/I) growth hormone to the prolactin receptors on rabbit mammary gland membranes and the inhibition of /sup 125/I-labelled rat growth hormone binding to rabbit liver membrane.

  17. Production and characterization of monospecific and bispecific antibodies against dengue virus NS1 protein.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Advaita; Malabadi, Ravindra B; Bhatnagar, Pravin K; Tang, Xinli; Das, Dipankar; Loebenberg, Raimer; Suresh, Mavanur R; Sunwoo, Hoon H

    2015-08-01

    Dengue is a mosquito borne infection, which in recent years has become a major international public health concern. Annually, 100 million dengue virus infections are reported worldwide. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of dengue virus is a useful target for diagnostics of dengue infection since the protein is abundantly circulating in the blood during acute phase of the disease, in both primary and secondary infections. This research paper highlights the development of a panel of Mab and bsMab for dengue NS1 detection. The P148 series of Mabs showed high specificity for recombinant dengue NS1 antigen. These antibodies showed no cross reactivity with recombinant dengue envelope protein and other viral proteins. The hybrid-hybridoma approach to generate the P156.1 and P156.2 bsMabs from the P148 monoclonal antibody method was used during this study. Furthermore, the affinity purification provided good yields of quadromas associated with HRPO in two steps. Direct detection method involved coating of plates with different concentrations of recombinant antigen and detecting with bsMab. Sensitive sandwich assay with Mabs and bsMabs was also done. Detection of nonstructural dengue antigens may be of benefit for early and rapid diagnosis of dengue infection due to their long half-life in the blood. PMID:25869657

  18. Doxorubicin Conjugates of Monoclonal Antibodies to Hepatoma-Associated Antigens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Shouval; Ruth Adler; Jack R. Wands; Esther Hurwitz; Kurt J. Isselbacher; Michael Sela

    1988-01-01

    A panel of six murine monoclonal antibodies against hepatocellular carcinoma-associated antigens, reactive with PLC\\/PRF\\/5 human hepatoma cells, was conjugated to Adriamycin (doxorubicin) via a dextran bridge. This library of antibodies includes three monoclonal antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen, one anti-alpha -fetoprotein, and two other IgG2a antibodies against PLC\\/PRF\\/5 hepatoma-associated antigens. The use of dextran for conjugation of Adriamycin

  19. Kinetics of intralymphatically delivered monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, R.L.; Geatti, O.; Liebert, M.; Beers, B.; Jackson, G.; Laino, L.; Kronberg, S.; Wilson, B.S.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1985-05-01

    Radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) administration subcutaneously (sq), so that preferential uptake is to the lymphatics, holds significant promise for the detection of lymph node metastases. Only limited information is available about clearance rates of intralymphatically administered MoAbs. I-131 labeled intact IgG (225.28S), F(ab's)2 (225.28S) or IgM (FT162) were administered sq to anesthetized Balb/C mice. Eight mice were studied with each MoAb, 4 with a foot-pad injection, 4 with an anterior abdominal injection. Gamma camera images were collected into a computer, over the first 6 hrs after injection with the animals anesthetized and immobile. Animals were then allowed to move about freely. Additional images were then acquired out to 48 hrs. Regions of interest wre selected over the injection site and the kinetics of antibody egress determined. Clearance rates from local sq injection sites are influenced by motion and somewhat by location. The class and fragment status of the MoAb appear relatively less important in determining clearance rates from sq injections than they are in determining whole-body clearance after iv injections. Additional studies using Fab fragments and additional monoclonals will be useful in extending these observations.

  20. Modulation of neurotrophin signaling by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, A; Lin, J C

    2014-01-01

    The neurotrophin family is comprised of the structurally related secreted proteins nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophine-4 (NT-4). They bind and activate the tyrosine kinase receptors Trk A, B, and C in a ligand-specific manner and additionally bind a shared p75NTR receptor. The neurotrophins were originally defined by their ability to support the survival and maturation of embryonic neurons. However, they also control important physiological functions of the adult nervous system including learning and memory, sensation, and energy homeostasis. For example, NGF/trkA signaling is critical for normal and pathological sensation of pain. Likewise, the BDNF/trkB pathway controls feeding and metabolism, and its dysfunction leads to severe obesity. Antibodies can modulate neurotrophin signaling. Thus, NGF blocking agents can attenuate pain in several animal models, and a recombinant humanized NGF blocking antibody (Tanezumab) has shown promising results in human clinical trials for osteoarthritic pain. On the other hand trkB agonist antibodies can modulate food intake and body weight in rodents and nonhuman primates. The power of monoclonal antibodies to modulate neurotrophin signaling promises to turn the rich biological insights into novel human medicines. PMID:24668485

  1. Orientation and density control of bispecific anti-HER2 antibody on functionalized carbon nanotubes for amplifying effective binding reactivity to cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hye-In; Hwang, Dobeen; Jeon, Su-Ji; Lee, Sangyeop; Park, Jung Hyun; Yim, Dabin; Yang, Jin-Kyoung; Kang, Homan; Choo, Jaebum; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Chung, Junho; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Nanomaterial bioconjugates have gained unabated interest in the field of sensing, imaging and therapy. As a conjugation process significantly affects the biological functions of proteins, it is crucial to attach them to nanomaterials with control over their orientation and the nanomaterial-to-protein ratio in order to amplify the binding efficiency of nanomaterial bioconjugates to targets. Here, we describe a targeting nanomaterial platform utilizing carbon nanotubes functionalized with a cotinine-modified dextran polymer and a bispecific anti-HER2 × cotinine tandem antibody. This new approach provides an effective control over antibody orientation and density on the surface of carbon nanotubes through site-specific binding between the anti-cotinine domain of the bispecific tandem antibody and the cotinine group of the functionalized carbon nanotubes. The developed synthetic carbon nanotube/bispecific tandem antibody conjugates (denoted as SNAs) show an effective binding affinity against HER2 that is three orders of magnitude higher than that of the carbon nanotubes bearing a randomly conjugated tandem antibody prepared by carbodiimide chemistry. As the density of a tandem antibody on SNAs increases, their effective binding affinity to HER2 increases as well. SNAs exhibit strong resonance Raman signals for signal transduction, and are successfully applied to the selective detection of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells.Nanomaterial bioconjugates have gained unabated interest in the field of sensing, imaging and therapy. As a conjugation process significantly affects the biological functions of proteins, it is crucial to attach them to nanomaterials with control over their orientation and the nanomaterial-to-protein ratio in order to amplify the binding efficiency of nanomaterial bioconjugates to targets. Here, we describe a targeting nanomaterial platform utilizing carbon nanotubes functionalized with a cotinine-modified dextran polymer and a bispecific anti-HER2 × cotinine tandem antibody. This new approach provides an effective control over antibody orientation and density on the surface of carbon nanotubes through site-specific binding between the anti-cotinine domain of the bispecific tandem antibody and the cotinine group of the functionalized carbon nanotubes. The developed synthetic carbon nanotube/bispecific tandem antibody conjugates (denoted as SNAs) show an effective binding affinity against HER2 that is three orders of magnitude higher than that of the carbon nanotubes bearing a randomly conjugated tandem antibody prepared by carbodiimide chemistry. As the density of a tandem antibody on SNAs increases, their effective binding affinity to HER2 increases as well. SNAs exhibit strong resonance Raman signals for signal transduction, and are successfully applied to the selective detection of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials; synthesis of carboxymethylated phenoxy dextran (CM-PhO-dex); synthesis of the SWNT bioconjugate prepared by EDC coupling; NMR results; Raman Instrument for detection of cancer cells with SNAs; NIR fluorescence spectrophotometer; quantification of the bispecific tandem antibody bound to the SWNT; all supplementary figures, table and scheme. This material is available from the Wiley Online Library or from the author. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07305c

  2. Monoclonal antibodies based on hybridoma technology.

    PubMed

    Yagami, Hisanori; Kato, Hiroshi; Tsumoto, Kanta; Tomita, Masahiro

    2013-03-01

    Based on the size and scope of the present global market for medicine, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a very promising future, with applications for cancers through autoimmune ailments to infectious disease. Since mAbs recognize only their target antigens and not other unrelated proteins, pinpoint medical treatment is possible. Global demand is dramatically expanding. Hybridoma technology, which allows production of mAbs directed against antigens of interest is therefore privileged. However, there are some pivotal points for further development to generate therapeutic antibodies. One is selective generation of human mAbs. Employment of transgenic mice producing human antibodies would overcome this problem. Another focus is recognition sites and conformational epitopes in antigens may be just as important as linear epitopes, especially when membrane proteins such as receptors are targeted. Recognition of intact structures is of critical importance for medical purposes. In this review, we describe patent related information for therapeutic mAbs based on hybridoma technology and also discuss new advances in hybridoma technology that facilitate selective production of stereospecific mAbs. PMID:24237029

  3. Complement in Monoclonal Antibody Therapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Laura M.; Veeramani, Suresh; Weiner, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been used as targeted treatments against cancer for more than a decade, with mixed results. Research is needed to understand mAb mechanisms of action with the goal of improving the efficacy of currently used mAbs, and guiding the design of novel mAbs. While some mAb-induced tumor cell killing is a result of direct effects on tumor cell signaling, mAb opsonization of tumor cells also triggers activation of immune responses due to complement activation and engagement of antibody receptors on immune effector cells. In fact, complement has been shown to play an important role in modulating the anti-tumor activity of many mAb through complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), and through indirect effects by modulating the tumor microenvironment. Complement activity can have both agonistic and antagonistic effects on these processes, and which mechanisms are most responsible for effective elimination of malignant cells remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the mAbs currently approved for cancer treatment, and examine how complement can impact their efficacy with a focus on how this information might be used to improve the clinical efficacy of mAb treatment. PMID:24906530

  4. Highly Efficient Elimination of Colorectal Tumor-Initiating Cells by an EpCAM\\/CD3-Bispecific Antibody Engaging Human T Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ines Herrmann; Patrick A. Baeuerle; Matthias Friedrich; Alexander Murr; Susanne Filusch; Dominik Rüttinger; Mariam W. Majdoub; Sherven Sharma; Peter Kufer; Tobias Raum; Markus Münz; Dominik Hartl

    2010-01-01

    With their resistance to genotoxic and anti-proliferative drugs and potential to grow tumors and metastases from very few cells, cancer stem or tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are a severe limitation for the treatment of cancer by conventional therapies. Here, we explored whether human T cells that are redirected via an EpCAM\\/CD3-bispecific antibody called MT110 can lyse colorectal TICs and prevent tumor

  5. Preclinical evaluation of multistep targeting of diasialoganglioside GD2 using a IgG-scFv bispecific antibody with high affinity for GD2 and DOTA metal complex

    PubMed Central

    Cheal, Sarah M.; Xu, Hong; Guo, Hong-fen; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Larson, Steven M.; Cheung, Nai-Kong

    2014-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies (BsAb) have proven to be useful targeting vectors for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT). We sought to overcome key PRIT limitations such as high renal radiation exposure and immunogenicity (e.g. of streptavidin-antibody fusions), to advance clinical translation of this PRIT strategy for diasialoganglioside GD2-positive (GD2(+)) tumors. For this purpose, a IgG-scFv BsAb was engineered using the sequences for the anti-GD2 humanized monoclonal antibody hu3F8 (1) and C825, a murine scFv antibody with high affinity for the chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) complexed with beta-particle emitting radiometals such as 177Lu and 90Y (2, 3). A three-step regimen including hu3F8-C825, a dextran-based clearing agent, and p-aminobenzyl-DOTA radiolabeled with 177Lu (as 177Lu-DOTA-Bn; t1/2 = 6.71 days (d)) was optimized in immunocompromised mice carrying subcutaneous (s.c.) human GD2(+) neuroblastoma (NB) xenografts. Absorbed doses for tumor and normal tissues were ?85 cGy/MBq and ?3.7 cGy/MBq, respectively, with therapeutic indicies (TI) of 142 for blood and 23 for kidney. A therapy study (n = 5 per group; tumor volume: 240 ± 160 mm3) with three successive PRIT cycles (total 177Lu: ?33 MBq; tumor dose ?3400 cGy), revealed complete tumor response in 5/5 animals, with no recurrence up to 28 d post-treatment. Tumor ablation was confirmed histologically in 4/5 mice, and normal organs showed minimal overall toxicities. All non-treated mice required sacrifice within 12 d (>1.0 cm3 tumor volume). We conclude that this novel anti-GD2 PRIT approach has sufficient TI to successfully ablate s.c. GD2(+)–NB in mice while sparing kidney and bone marrow. PMID:24944121

  6. Monoclonal antibody therapies and neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Novak, John C; Lovett-Racke, Amy E; Racke, Michael K

    2008-09-01

    The role of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies in treating medical conditions has expanded tremendously since its inception in the 1970s, and their use in neurologic conditions has increased in just the past few years. Currently, mAb treatments are being tested in conditions ranging from neuromuscular disorders to demyelinating diseases. What is now considered experimental therapy may soon become common. In addition, neurologic adverse effects have been reported during the use of mAb therapy in nonneurologic conditions that neurologists should be able to recognize. Because of the rapid increase in the use of mAb treatments, this review highlights their use in neurologic conditions and their neurologic adverse effects. PMID:18779418

  7. Review on modeling anti-antibody responses to monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Mantilla, José David; Trocóniz, Iñaki F; Parra-Guillén, Zinnia; Garrido, María J

    2014-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represent a therapeutic strategy that has been increasingly used in different diseases. mAbs are highly specific for their targets leading to induce specific effector functions. Despite their therapeutic benefits, the presence of immunogenic reactions is of growing concern. The immunogenicity identified as anti-drug antibodies (ADA) production due to the continuous administration of mAbs may affect the pharmacokinetics (PK) and/or the pharmacodynamics (PD) of mAbs administered to patients. Therefore, the immunogenicity and its clinical impact have been studied by several authors using PK modeling approaches. In this review, the authors try to present all those models under a unique theoretical mechanism-based framework incorporating the main considerations related to ADA formation, and how ADA may affect the efficacy or toxicity profile of some therapeutic biomolecules. PMID:25027160

  8. Bispecific antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens and neutralizing complement regulators increase the efficacy of antibody-based immunotherapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Macor, P; Secco, E; Mezzaroba, N; Zorzet, S; Durigutto, P; Gaiotto, T; De Maso, L; Biffi, S; Garrovo, C; Capolla, S; Tripodo, C; Gattei, V; Marzari, R; Tedesco, F; Sblattero, D

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy of antibody-based immunotherapy is due to the activation of apoptosis, the engagement of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). We developed a novel strategy to enhance CDC using bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) that neutralize the C-regulators CD55 and CD59 to enhance C-mediated functions. Two bsAbs (MB20/55 and MB20/59) were designed to recognize CD20 on one side. The other side neutralizes CD55 or CD59. Analysis of CDC revealed that bsAbs could kill 4-25 times more cells than anti-CD20 recombinant antibody in cell lines or cells isolated from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The pharmacokinetics of the bsAbs was evaluated in a human-SCID model of Burkitt lymphoma. The distribution profile of bsAbs mimics the data obtained by studying the pharmacokinetics of anti-CD20 antibodies, showing a peak in the tumor mass 3-4 days after injection. The treatment with bsAbs completely prevented the development of human/SCID lymphoma. The tumor growth was blocked by the activation of the C cascade and by the recruitment of macrophages, polymorphonuclear and natural killer cells. This strategy can easily be applied to the other anti-tumor C-fixing antibodies currently used in the clinic or tested in preclinical studies using the same vector with the appropriate modifications. PMID:24903480

  9. Bispecific antibodies as targeting agents for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Barth, R F; Adams, D M; Soloway, A H; Reisfeld, R A

    1995-10-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when boron-10, a stable isotope, is irradiated with low energy (< or = 0.025 eV) or thermal neutrons to yield alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. A major requirement for the success of BNCT is the selective delivery of a sufficient number of boron atoms (approximately 10(9)) to individual cancer cells to sustain a lethal 10B (n, alpha) 7Li capture reaction. A panel of BsAb reactive with polyhedral borane anions (PBA) and a tumor-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan has been produced. All of these BsAb showed strong reactivity with a panel of human glioblastoma and melanoma cell lines, as demonstrated by indirect membrane immunofluorescence. Two of them (H6 and B8) also reacted with cells that had been exposed to PBA (Na2B10H10 and Na2B12H11SH) and a boronated starburst dendrimer, which contained approximately 250-400 B atoms per molecule. The affinity constant (Ka) of BsAb-B8 was 2.57 x 10(8) M-1 on M21 human melanoma cell and 3.49 x 10(8) M-1 on A172 glioblastoma cells, which were almost identical to those of the parental monoclonal antibody (mAb) 9.2.27 on the same cell lines (2.62 x 10(8) M-1). Since our BsAb recognize both human glioblastoma and melanoma-associated antigens, as well as PBA, they potentially could be used to target 10B to these tumors for BNCT. PMID:8581388

  10. Monoclonal antibodies to lampbrush chromosome antigens of Pleurodeles waltlii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Lacroix; R. Azzouz; D. Boucher; C. Abbadie; C. K. Pyne; J. Charlemagne

    1985-01-01

    Germinal vesicles of oocytes from Pleurodeles waltlii were used for immunization of BALB\\/c mice to obtain hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies. The hybridomas were screened for reactivity of their antibodies against lampbrush chromosomes of oocytes, as revealed by indirect immunostaining. Antibodies labelling the lampbrush chromosomes were also tested on histological sections of oocytes, embryos, and larvae of Pleurodeles. Characterization of the

  11. Antigens of infectious laryngotracheitis herpesvirus defined by monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer J. York; S. Sonza; M. R. Brandon; K. J. Fahey

    1990-01-01

    Summary Monoclonal antibodies to glycoprotein and protein antigens of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) were divided into five groups on the basis of their reactivity in immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Group I antibodies recognised a single band of 60 k and Group II antibodies recognised bands of 205, 160, 115, 90 and 85 k in Western blotting. In immunofluorescence both these

  12. Aged venous thrombi: radioimmunoimaging with fibrin-specific monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Rosebrough, S.F.; Grossman, Z.D.; McAfee, J.G.; Kudryk, B.J.; Subramanian, G.; Ritter-Hrncirik, C.A.; Witanowski, L.S.; Tillapaugh-Fay, G.; Urrutia, E.

    1987-02-01

    Radioimmunoimaging of fresh canine venous thrombi with a murine monoclonal antibody specific for human and dog fibrin has been reported. Successful imaging of canine deep venous thrombi 1, 3, and 5 days old at the time of antibody injection is reported. Images were positive in all dogs, and the uptake of fibrin-specific antibody was equivalent to that of fresh thrombi.

  13. Monoclonal antibodies distinguish identifiable neurones in the leech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Zipser; Ronald McKay

    1981-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were isolated by screening 475 hybridomas obtained from mice immunized with whole leech nerve cords. The majority (about 300) reacted with leech nervous tissue, but only about 40 made antibodies that identified single kinds or small sets of cells. Twenty of the antibodies which react with specific neurones were studied in greater detail and are described here. They

  14. Monoclonal antibodies in animal production; their use in diagnostics and passive immunization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Booman

    1989-01-01

    One of the landmarks in immunology was the invention and development of monoclonal antibody-secreting hybridomas by Milstein and his coworkers. The enormous promise of monoclonal antibody technology, which became apparent soon after its discovery, may explain the unusual speed with which monoclonal antibodies have been applied to biological and medical sciences.In animal production monoclonal antibodies are increasingly finding application in

  15. Monoclonal antibody therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Jakobovits, A

    2008-01-01

    Early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and advances in hormonal and chemotherapy treatments have provided great clinical benefits to patients with early stages of the disease. However, a significant proportion of patients still progress to advanced, metastatic disease, for which no effective therapies are available. Therefore, there is a critical need for new treatment modalities, ideally targeted specifically to prostate cancer cells. The recent clinical and commercial successes of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have made them the most rapidly expanding class of therapeutics being developed for many disease indications, including cancer. PCa is well suited for antibody-based therapy due to the size and location of recurrent and metastatic tumors, and the lack of necessity to avoid targeting the normal prostate, a nonessential organ. These properties have fostered interest in the development and clinical evaluation of therapeutic MAbs directed to both well established and newly discovered targets in PCa. MAbs directed to established targets include those approved for other solid tumors, including anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) MAb trastuzumab, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) MAbs cetuximab and panitumumab, and the antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) MAb bevacizumab. Genomics efforts have yielded a large number of novel, clinically relevant targets in PCa with the desirable expression profiling in tumor and normal tissues, and with an implicated role in tumor growth and spread. Growing efforts are directed to the development of naked or payload-conjugated therapeutic antibodies to these targets, and a variety of MAb products are currently progressing through preclinical and various stages of clinical development. The clinical experience with some of the commercialized MAb products points out specific challenges in conducting clinical trials with targeted therapy in PCa. PMID:18071949

  16. Localization and quantification of the chicken gonadotropins using monoclonal antibodies 

    E-print Network

    Puebla, Nahum Osorio

    2000-01-01

    Specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) have been used to develop novel tools for the study of the chicken gonadotropins. Earlier studies have identified separate LH...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) VITELLOGENIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have obtained a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against fathead minnow vitellogenin (Vtg) for use in sensitive ELISAs to quantify the response of exposure in vivo to estrogen or estrogen mimics....

  18. Western blot screening for monoclonal antibodies against human separase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anton Chestukhin; James A. DeCaprio

    2003-01-01

    Separase is a cysteine protease that participates in separation of sister chromatids during mitosis. Human separase is a 230-kDa enzyme that is inhibited by binding to its protein inhibitor securin, specific phosphorylation, and subcellular localization. To further characterize human separase, we raised monoclonal antibodies specific against a C-terminal fragment of the protein. A critical step in monoclonal antibody production procedure

  19. Preparation of a specific monoclonal antibody against 2?-deoxycytidine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibrahim Darwish; Toshifumi Akizawa; Kenji Hirose; Kenzi Omura; Nawal EL-Rabbat; Masanori Yoshioka

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the plasma 2?-deoxycytidine (2?dCyd) level as a prognostic marker for breast cancer patients, a specific monoclonal antibody was required to develop a immunoassay system for the accurate determination of plasma 2?dCyd concentration. In this study, a highly specific monoclonal antibody against 2?dCyd has been prepared. 3?-Hemisuccinyl-2?dCyd-Keyhole limpet hemocyanin protein conjugate (3?sdCyd-KLH) was used as an immunogen. WKY\\/NCrj rats

  20. Monoclonal Antibody-Mediated Tumor Regression by Induction of Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard C. Trauth; Christiane Klas; Anke M. J. Peters; Siegfried Matzku; Peter Moller; Werner Falk; Klaus-Michael Debatin; Peter H. Krammer

    1989-01-01

    To characterize cell surface molecules involved in control of growth of malignant lymphocytes, monoclonal antibodies were raised against the human B lymphoblast cell line SKW6.4. One monoclonal antibody, anti-APO-1, reacted with a 52-kilodalton antigen (APO-1) on a set of activated human lymphocytes, on malignant human lymphocyte lines, and on some patient-derived leukemic cells. Nanogram quantities of anti-APO-1 completely blocked proliferation

  1. Specific immunofluorescent staining of pathogenic treponemes with a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, F; Hunter, E F; George, R W; Pope, V; Larsen, S A

    1992-01-01

    Two hybrid cell lines which produced mouse monoclonal antibody to the DAL-1 street strain of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum were established. These monoclonal antibodies strongly reacted with T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (Nichols strain, DAL-1, and two other street strains, strains MN-1 and MN-3) and T. pallidum subsp. pertenue by indirect microimmunofluorescent antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques, but they did not react with normal rabbit testicular tissue. These monoclonal antibodies did not react with nonpathogenic treponemes, such as T. phagedenis Reiter, T. denticola MRB, T. refringens Noguchi, or other spirochetes, such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona in microimmunofluorescent antibody smear slides or in Western blots (immunoblots). While unlabeled antibodies are useful for investigating the antigenic structures of T. pallidum, we labeled these monoclonal antibodies with fluorescein isothiocyanate and used them for diagnosing syphilis by direct staining of lesion exudate or T. pallidum subsp. pallidum in formalin-fixed tissues from patients suspected of having syphilis. Both monoclonal antibodies were directed against antigens of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum with a molecular weight of 37,000 as determined by the Western blotting technique. Images PMID:1374079

  2. Monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2012-04-01

    Immune thrombocytopenic purpura is characterized by antibody-mediated destruction of platelets and suboptimal platelet production. Initially the treatment of ITP includes corticosteroids, IgG-anti-D, and intravenous immunoglobulins. Splenectomy and monoclonal antibodies are usually considered for refractory and chronic ITP patients. There are new data suggesting that early administration of rituximab is important, and this antibody has been used as first-line therapy in adults. In this concise review the role of rituximab and other monoclonal antibodies is analyzed. These agents have the capability of sparing splenectomy and possibly curing the disease in some patients. PMID:22507772

  3. Cation-exchange chromatography of monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Urmann, Marina; Graalfs, Heiner; Joehnck, Matthias; Jacob, Lothar R

    2010-01-01

    A novel cation-exchange resin, Eshmuno™ S, was compared to Fractogel® SO3? (M) and Toyopearl GigaCap S-650M. The stationary phases have different base matrices and carry specific types of polymeric surface modifications. Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used as model proteins to characterize these chromatographic resins. Results from gradient elutions, stirred batch adsorptions and confocal laser scanning microscopic investigations were used to elucidate binding behavior of mAbs onto Eshmuno™ S and Fractogel® SO3? and the corresponding transport mechanisms on these two resins. The number of charges involved in mAb binding for Eshmuno™ S is lower than for Fractogel® SO3?, indicating a slightly weaker electrostatic interaction. Kinetics from batch uptake experiments are compared to kinetic data obtained from confocal laser scanning microscopy images. Both experimental approaches show an accelerated protein adsorption for the novel stationary phase. The influence of pH, salt concentrations and residence times on dynamic binding capacities was determined. A higher dynamic binding capacity for Eshmuno™ S over a wider range of pH values and residence times was found compared to Fractogel® SO3? and Toyopearl GigaCap S-650M. The capture of antibodies from cell culture supernatant, as well as post-protein A eluates, were analyzed with respect to their host cell protein (hcp) removal capabilities. Comparable or even better hcp clearance was observed at much higher protein loading for Eshmuno™ S than Fractogel® SO3? or Toyopearl GigaCap S-650M. PMID:20559022

  4. Boronated monoclonal antibody conjugates for neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, D.C.; Elmore, J.J. Jr.; Ferrone, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the effectiveness of /sup 10/B-labeled monoclonal antibodies against Colo-38 human melanoma in vitro. The authors obtained high boron to antibody ratios while maintaining antibody activity by using dextran intermediate carriers to link /sup 10/B to the antibody. They developed a double cell quasi-competitive binding bioassay to minimize the effects of nonspecific binding of boronated complexes to cells. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Effect of Small Molecule Binding Affinity on Tumor Uptake In Vivo: A Systematic Study Using a Pretargeted Bispecific Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Orcutt, Kelly Davis; Rhoden, John J; Ruiz-Yi, Benjamin; Frangioni, John V; Wittrup, K Dane

    2014-01-01

    Small molecule ligands specific for tumor-associated surface receptors have wide applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Achieving high-affinity binding to the desired target is important for improving detection limits and for increasing therapeutic efficacy. However, the affinity required for maximal binding and retention remains unknown. Here, we present a systematic study of the effect of small molecule affinity on tumor uptake in vivo with affinities spanning a range of three orders of magnitude. A pretargeted bispecific antibody with different binding affinities to different DOTA-based small molecules is used as a receptor proxy. In this particular system targeting carcinoembryonic antigen, a small-molecule binding affinity of 400 pM was sufficient to achieve maximal tumor targeting, and an improvement in affinity to 10 pM showed no significant improvement in tumor uptake at 24 h post-injection. We derive a simple mathematical model of tumor targeting using measurable parameters that correlates well with experimental observations. We use relations derived from the model to develop design criteria for the future development of small molecule agents for targeted cancer therapeutics. PMID:22491799

  6. Targeting Cytomegalovirus-Infected Cells Using T Cells Armed with Anti-CD3 × Anti-CMV Bispecific Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Lawrence G.; Ramesh, Mayur; Thakur, Archana; Mitra, Subhashis; Deol, Abhinav; Uberti, Joseph P.; Pellett, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and infection can lead to poor outcomes after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We hypothesized that anti-CD3 activated T cells (ATCs) armed with chemically heteroconjugated anti-CD3 × polyclonal anti-CMV bispecific antibody (CMVBi) will target and eliminate CMV-infected cells. Arming doses of CMVBi as low as 0.01 ng/106 ATCs was able to mediate specific cytotoxicity (SC) directed at CMV-infected target cells significant above unarmed ATCs at mutiplicities of infection (MOI) between 0.01 and 1. At effector-to-target ratios (E:T) of 25:1, 12.5:1, 6.25:1, and 3.125:1, armed ATCs significantly enhanced killing of CMV-infected targets compared with unarmed ATCs. At an MOI of 1.0, the mean % SC directed at CMV-infected targets cells for CMVBi-armed ATCs at E:T of 3.12, 6.25, and 12.5 were 79%, 81%, and 82%, respectively; whereas the mean % SC for unarmed ATCs at the same E:T were all <20%. ATCs, Cytogam®, or CMVBi alone did not lyse uninfected or CMV-infected targets. Co-cultures of CMVBi-armed ATCs with CMV-infected targets induced cytokine and chemokine release from armed ATCs. This nonmajor histocompatibility complex restricted strategy for targeting CMV could be used to prevent or treat CMV infections after allogeneic stem cell transplantation or organ transplantation. PMID:22313635

  7. Monoclonal Antibodies Identify Novel Neural Antigens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkes, Richard; Niday, Evelyn; Matus, Andrew

    1982-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were raised against synaptic plasma membranes from rat cerebellum. The hybridomas were screened with a solid-phase immunoassay, the positive lines were characterized by their immunoperoxidase staining pattern on cerebellum, and the specific polypeptide antigens were identified on protein blots. Among the Mabs described are some that stain only neurons or only glia and others that react with specific parts of cells, such as axons, dendrites, and synapses. Many Mabs reveal novel relationships between antigens and the cells in which they occur. For example, a Mab designated 7D5 reacts with a family of > 30 proteins but stains only glial cells. Several Mabs stain punctate sites of synaptic size and distribution in the cerebellar cortex but each reacts with a different subset of polypeptides. One of the most restricted cytological staining patterns is given by 12D5, which stains punctate sites in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and reacts with a single polypeptide band of apparent Mr 270,000. These results illustrate the feasibility of raising Mabs that can be used to follow the expression of specific gene products during brain development.

  8. Targeting of lymphocytes with 111In-labelled monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Loutfi, I; Batchelor, J R; Chisholm, P M; Epenetos, A A; Lavender, J P

    1988-10-01

    In this paper, we emphasize the rationale and work-up studies for using two radiolabelled anti-lymphocyte monoclonal antibodies for in vivo application as radiolabelling agents for T and B cells. In vitro experimental work involved radioimmunoassays on human lymphoid cell lines and anticoagulated whole blood with identification of relevant binding kinetics in terms of antibody internalization and elution. We tested also for the effect of the radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies on in vitro cell function defined as mitogen-induced proliferation in whole blood. As a final work-up in an animal model, the distribution of both unlabelled and 111In-labelled anti-Pan T cell monoclonal antibody was studied in the rat. Results from the in vitro experiments pointed to the possibility of using the described technique for specific lymphocyte radiolabelling. The in vivo application enabled us to identify optimal doses of antibody and radioactivity which showed agreement with the in vitro data. PMID:3211438

  9. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody to bovine xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Kaetzel, C S; Mather, I H; Bruder, G; Madara, P J

    1984-01-01

    The isolation of a hybridoma cell line, C-41, secreting monoclonal antibody to bovine xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2), is described. The specificity of this antibody was determined by solid-phase immunoassay, immunoblotting procedures, affinity chromatography, immunoelectrophoresis and precipitation techniques. The results are compared with those obtained in similar specificity studies on a previously described monoclonal antibody secreted by hybridoma cell line A-94 [Mather, Nace, Johnson & Goldsby (1980) Biochem. J. 188, 925-928]. This latter antibody appears to bind to xanthine oxidase only when the enzyme is immobilized on a solid support such as a plastic plate or nitrocellulose paper. Potential problems in the determination of the specificity of monoclonal antibodies, especially towards membrane proteins of unknown biological activity, are discussed. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6378181

  10. Intracellular uptake and catabolism of anti-IgM antibodies and bi-specific antibody-targeted hapten by B-lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Manetti, C; Le Doussal, J M; Rouvier, E; Gruaz-Guyon, A; Barbet, J

    1995-10-01

    The efficiency of radioimmunotherapy with iodine-labelled antibodies is often limited by intracellular internalisation and catabolism after initial binding to the cellular targets. We have developed a technique called affinity enhancement system (AES) which uses bi-specific antibodies to target radiolabelled bivalent haptens to cells. This targeting method has been applied successfully to tumour imaging in colorectal cancer patients and is now considered for therapy. We have investigated the potential of this technique to target iodine radioisotopes by comparing it to targeting with covalently iodine-labelled antibodies in a rapidly internalising antigenic system, the surface IgM of a B-lymphoma cell line. A 5-fold increase in the intracellular retention time of activity as compared to 125I-labelled F(ab')2 or IgG was observed. The radiolabelled hapten did not undergo any catabolism after internalisation. Resistance to cellular proteases and failure of recognition of the hapten by amino acid transporter systems may be potential explanations for these observations. This should make non-covalent targeting, particularly the AES, a method of choice to target modulating antigens for the therapy of malignant hemopathies. PMID:7591213

  11. Palladium-109 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    The invention consists of new monoclonal antibodies labelled with Palladium 109, a beta-emitting radionuclide, the method of preparing this material, and its use in the radiotherapy of melanoma. The antibodies are chelate-conjugated and demonstrate a high uptake in melanomas. (ACR)

  12. The Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Newcastle Disease Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Russell; P. C. Griffiths; K. K. A. Goswami; D. J. Alexander; M. J. Cannon; W. C. Russell

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Monoclonal antibodies to the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), fusion (F), polymerase and nucleocapsid polypeptides of Newcastle disease virus were prepared. Two epitopes were recognized on the HN polypeptide: one was associated with inhibition of haemagglutination and poor neutralization and the other with good neutralization and no inhibition of haemagglutination. The most effective neutralizing antibody was that produced against the F polypeptide.

  13. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with mucin expressed in breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P-X Xing; JJ Tjandra; SA Stacker; JG Teh; CH Thompson; PJ McLaughlin; IFC McKenzie

    1989-01-01

    Three murine monoclonal antibodies (BC 1, BC2 and BC3) were developed against human milk fat globule membrane (HMFGM). By immunoperoxidase staining, it was found that the antigenic determinants had a predominant distribution in breast cancer tissue. In addition, the antibodies reacted preferentially with mucin derived from human milk rather than that derived from the breast cancer cell line ZR75; they

  14. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY TO FENBENDAZOLE: UTILITY IN RESIDUE STUDIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A monoclonal antibody-based ELISA was developed for fenbendazole, a widely used benzimidazole anthelmintic, with approved uses in cattle and other food animals. The antibody was elicited using as hapten 2-succinamido-5(6)-phenylthiobenzimidazole, which was conjugated with bovine serum albumin to pro...

  15. Radioimmunodetection of human melanoma tumor xenografts with human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gomibuchi, M; Saxton, R E; Lake, R R; Katano, M; Irie, R F

    1986-01-01

    We established a human IgM monoclonal antibody that defines a tumor-associated membrane antigen expressed on human melanoma cells. The antigen has been identified as the ganglioside GD2. In this paper, we describe the potential usefulness of the human monoclonal antibody for radioimaging. Nude mice bearing tumors derived from a human melanoma cell line were used as a model. Antibody activity was degradated significantly after labeling with 131I by the use of a modified chloramine-T method. After testing various concentrations, labeled antibody of a specific activity of 2.8 microCi/micrograms produced the best results. Balb/c nude mice bearing a GD2-positive M14 melanoma cell line were injected with 10-30 micrograms of labeled antibody, and its radiolocalization in different organs and in the whole body were evaluated. The best tumor image was obtained on Day 6. The labeled antibody uptake ratio between tumor and muscle was 9.2:1; the ratio between tumor and liver was 1.4:1. These studies represent the first report of experimental tumor imaging with human monoclonal antibody. Human monoclonals with probably prove to be superior reagents for tumor imaging in melanoma patients if the problem of antibody radiolysis is resolved. PMID:3771234

  16. Diagnosis of infectious laryngotracheitis using a monoclonal antibody ELISA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer J. York; K. J. Fahey

    1988-01-01

    An ELISA has been developed which uses a selected monoclonal antibody specific for ILT virus. The ELISA proved to be as accurate as, yet faster than, virus isolation, more accurate than the fluorescent antibody test and more accurate and rapid than the relatively simple agar gel precipitin test.The ELISA clearly differentiated between chickens from commercial flocks infected with ILT virus

  17. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Relapsed or Treatment-Resistant Neuroblastoma

    Cancer.gov

    NCI is sponsoring two clinical trials of a monoclonal antibody called ch14.18, in combination with other drugs, to see if the antibody may be helpful for children or young adults (up to age 21) with relapsed or refractory high-risk neuroblastoma.

  18. Monitoring Monoclonal Antibody Delivery in Oncology: The Example of Bevacizumab

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Monitoring Monoclonal Antibody Delivery in Oncology: The Example of Bevacizumab Guillaume Nugue1 antibodies paves the way for new strategies in oncology using targeted therapy which should improve in Oncology: The Example of Bevacizumab. PLoS ONE 8(8): e72021. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072021 Editor

  19. A novel glycoengineered bispecific antibody format for targeted inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and insulin-like growth factor receptor type I (IGF-1R) demonstrating unique molecular properties.

    PubMed

    Schanzer, Juergen M; Wartha, Katharina; Croasdale, Rebecca; Moser, Samuel; Künkele, Klaus-Peter; Ries, Carola; Scheuer, Werner; Duerr, Harald; Pompiati, Sandra; Pollman, Jan; Stracke, Jan; Lau, Wilma; Ries, Stefan; Brinkmann, Ulrich; Klein, Christian; Umana, Pablo

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, we have developed a novel one-arm single chain Fab heterodimeric bispecific IgG (OAscFab-IgG) antibody format targeting the insulin-like growth factor receptor type I (IGF-1R) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with one binding site for each target antigen. The bispecific antibody XGFR is based on the "knob-into-hole" technology for heavy chain heterodimerization with one heavy chain consisting of a single chain Fab to prevent wrong pairing of light chains. XGFR was produced with high expression yields and showed simultaneous binding to IGF-1R and EGFR with high affinity. Due to monovalent binding of XGFR to IGF-1R, IGF-1R internalization was strongly reduced compared with the bivalent parental antibody, leading to enhanced Fc-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. To further increase immune effector functions triggered by XGFR, the Fc portion of the bispecific antibody was glycoengineered, which resulted in strong antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity. XGFR-mediated inhibition of IGF-1R and EGFR phosphorylation as well as A549 tumor cell proliferation was highly effective and was comparable with a combined treatment with EGFR (GA201) and IGF-1R (R1507) antibodies. XGFR also demonstrated potent anti-tumor efficacy in multiple mouse xenograft tumor models with a complete growth inhibition of AsPC1 human pancreatic tumors and improved survival of SCID beige mice carrying A549 human lung tumors compared with treatment with antibodies targeting either IGF-1R or EGFR. In summary, we have applied rational antibody engineering technology to develop a heterodimeric OAscFab-IgG bispecific antibody, which combines potent signaling inhibition with antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity induction and results in superior molecular properties over two established tetravalent bispecific formats. PMID:24841203

  20. Second Generation Anti-MUCl Peptide Monoclonal Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei-xiang Xing; Julie Prenzoska; Kaylene Quelch; Ian F. C. McKenzie

    Second generation antibodies to mammary mucins were produced by immunizing mice with a peptide with a sequence deduced from that of the MUC1 complementary DNA sequence (PAHGVTSAPDTRPAPGS- TAP). Four monoclonal antibodies (BCP7-10) were produced which gave different reactions. BCP8 was similar in tissue reactivity (by immunoper- oxidase staining) to anti-breast cancer or anti-human milk fat globule membranes (HMFG) antibodies and

  1. Polymorphism of normal factor IX detected by mouse monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Wallmark, A; Ljung, R; Nilsson, I M; Holmberg, L; Hedner, U; Lindvall, M; Sjögren, H O

    1985-01-01

    Hemophilia B is an X-chromosomal recessive disease due to deficiency of coagulation factor IX. Three monoclonal antibodies against factor IX were prepared and used to develop immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs) of factor IX antigen (IX-Ag). IX-Ag was measured in 65 normal individuals with one IRMA based on polyclonal anti-IX antibodies and two IRMAs based on three monoclonal anti-IX antibodies. One of the monoclonal antibodies differed in specificity since it neutralized less than 50% of the clotting activity of factor IX (IX-C), whereas the other two monoclonal antibodies neutralized 80-95%. When the former antibody was used as the solid phase in IRMA, two groups of normal individuals were distinguished: group A with measurable IX-Ag, and group B without demonstrable IX-Ag. There were no differences between the groups either in IX-C or in IX-Ag measured with polyclonal antibodies. A subgroup comprising only women could be distinguished in group A, in whom intermediate IX-Ag concentrations were found. Family studies showed the group B variant of normal factor IX to be transmitted according to the pattern of X-linked recessive inheritance. The allelic frequency of group A was 0.66, and that of group B was 0.34. PMID:3873655

  2. Antibody discovery: the use of transgenic mice to generate human monoclonal antibodies for therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kellermann, Sirid Aimée; Green, Larry L

    2002-12-01

    Technical advances made in the 1980s and early 1990s resulted in monoclonal antibodies that are now approved for human therapy. Novel transgenic mouse strains provide a powerful technology platform for creating fully human monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics; ten such antibodies have entered clinical trials since 1998 and more are in preclinical testing. Improved transgenic mouse strains provide a powerful technology platform for creating human therapeutics in the future. PMID:12482519

  3. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with human myeloid leukaemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, E D; Fanger, M W

    1982-01-01

    Hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies that bind to determinants on myelogenous leukaemia blast cells were developed using fresh leukaemia blasts as immunogens. These monoclonal antibodies were used to quantitate the amount of a variety of antigens on both leukaemia and normal blood cells in a radioimmunoassay. The ability of these antibodies to mediate complement-dependent lysis of leukaemia cells and normal blood cells was evaluated. Significant quantitative differences in the expression of a variety of cell surface antigens were observed among different myeloid leukaemia cell samples, normal cells, and other forms of leukaemia. However, none of the monoclonal antibodies studied were found to be specific for myeloblasts. Despite the fact that these antibodies bound to both leukaemia and normal cells, several of them mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity which was restricted to leukaemic myeloblasts (AML-1-211, AML-2-30, CML-18, CML-75, CML-115, and CML-150). None of these clones, alone or in any combination, were capable of lysing normal lymphocytes or monocytes. Others were specifically cytotoxic to leukaemia cell lines (AML-1-99), B cells and some leukaemia samples (AML-2-9), and myelomonocytic leukaemia cell samples and normal monocytes (AML-2-23). Several of the monoclonal antibodies from this panel appear to be promising for future clinical applications. PMID:6956470

  4. Use of monoclonal antibodies in a radioimmunoassay for human transcortin.

    PubMed

    Faict, D; De Moor, P

    1984-03-01

    We describe the production of monoclonal antibodies to human transcortin and their use in a radioimmunoassay (RIA). A high-affinity antibody (Ka = 4 X 10(10) L/mol) made possible a sensitive RIA for transcortin (detection limit = 0.23 ng per tube), whereas use of an antibody of moderate affinity (Ka = 5 X 10(8) L/mol) was more suitable for the routine measurement of transcortin in serum, only a 25-fold dilution of the sample being required instead of 1500-fold. The correlation was good between both RIAs (r = 0.959) and between each of the RIAs and radial immunodiffusion (r = 0.955 and 0.976 for the methods with high- and low-affinity antibody, respectively). Although monoclonal antibodies were used in the RIAs and polyclonal ones in the radial immunodiffusion procedure, similar values were obtained by all techniques. PMID:6421509

  5. Bispecific antibodies for treatment of cancer in experimental animal models and man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J Kroesen; W Helfrich; G Molema; L de Leij

    1998-01-01

    Immunotherapy is a powerful anti-cancer treatment modality. However, despite numerous encouraging results obtained in pre-clinical studies, a definite breakthrough towards an established clinical treatment modality has as yet not occurred. Antibodies against tumor antigens have been shown to localise at the site of the tumor, but inadequate triggering of immune effector mechanisms have thwarted clinical efficacy thus far. Cellular immunotherapy

  6. Redirected lysis of human melanoma cells by a MCSP/CD3-bispecific BiTE antibody that engages patient-derived T cells.

    PubMed

    Torisu-Itakura, Hitoe; Schoellhammer, Hans F; Sim, Myung-Shin; Irie, Reiko F; Hausmann, Susanne; Raum, Tobias; Baeuerle, Patrick A; Morton, Donald L

    2011-10-01

    Melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP; also called HMW-MAA, CSPG4, NG2, MSK16, MCSPG, MEL-CSPG, or gp240) is a well characterized melanoma cell-surface antigen. In this study, a new bispecific T-cell engaging (BiTE) antibody that binds to MCSP and human CD3 (MCSP-BiTE) was tested for its cytotoxic activity against human melanoma cell lines. When unstimulated peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) derived from healthy donors were cocultured with melanoma cells at effector:target ratios of 1:1, 1:5, or 1:10, and treated with MCSP-BiTE antibody at doses of 10, 100, or 1000 ng/mL, all MCSP-expressing melanoma cell lines (n=23) were lysed in a dose-dependent and effector:target ratio-dependent manner, whereas there was no cytotoxic activity against MCSP-negative melanoma cell lines (n=2). To investigate whether T cells from melanoma patients could act as effector cells, we cocultured unstimulated PBMCs with allogeneic melanoma cells from 13 patients (4 stage I/II, 3 stage III, and 6 stage IV) or with autologous melanoma cells from 2 patients (stage IV). Although cytotoxic activity varied, all 15 PBMC samples mediated significant redirected lysis by the BiTE antibody. When PBMC or CD8 T cells were prestimulated by anti-CD3 antibody OKT-3 and interleukin-2, the MCSP-BiTE concentrations needed for melanoma cell lysis decreased up to 1000-fold. As MCSP is expressed on most human melanomas, immunotherapy with MCSP/CD3-bispecific antibodies merits clinical investigation. PMID:21904216

  7. Redirected Lysis of Human Melanoma Cells by a MCSP/CD3-bispecific BiTE Antibody that Engages Patient-derived T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torisu-Itakura, Hitoe; Schoellhammer, Hans F.; Sim, Myung-Shin; Irie, Reiko F.; Hausmann, Susanne; Raum, Tobias; Baeuerle, Patrick A.; Morton, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP; also called HMW-MAA, CSPG4, NG2, MSK16, MCSPG, MEL-CSPG, or gp240) is a well characterized melanoma cell-surface antigen. In this study, a new bispecific T-cell engaging (BiTE) antibody that binds to MCSP and human CD3 (MCSP-BiTE) was tested for its cytotoxic activity against human melanoma cell lines. When unstimulated peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMC) derived from healthy donors were co-cultured with melanoma cells at effector: target (E:T) ratios of 1:1, 1:5 or 1:10, and treated with MCSP-BiTE antibody at doses of 10, 100 or 1,000 ng/mL, all MCSP-expressing melanoma cell lines (n=23) were lysed in a dose- and E:T ratio-dependent fashion, whereas there was no cytotoxic activity against MCSP-negative melanoma cell lines (n=2). To investigate whether T cells from melanoma patients could act as effector cells, we co-cultured unstimulated PBMC with allogeneic melanoma cells from 13 patients (4 stage I/II, 3 stage III, and 6 stage IV) or with autologous melanoma cells from 2 patients (stage IV). Although cytotoxic activity varied, all 15 PBMC samples mediated significant redirected lysis by the BiTE antibody. When PBMC or CD8+ T cells were pre-stimulated by anti-CD3 antibody OKT3 and IL-2, the MCSP-BiTE concentrations needed for melanoma cell lysis decreased up to 1000-fold. Because MCSP is expressed on most human melanomas, immunotherapy with MCSP/CD3-bispecific antibodies merits clinical investigation. PMID:21904216

  8. Mechanisms of monoclonal antibody stabilization and release from silk biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Guziewicz, Nicholas A.; Massetti, Andrew J.; Perez-Ramirez, Bernardo J.; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of stabilization and sustained delivery systems for antibody therapeutics remains a major clinical challenge, despite the growing development of antibodies for a wide range of therapeutic applications due to their specificity and efficacy. A mechanistic understanding of protein-matrix interactions is critical for the development of such systems and is currently lacking as a mode to guide the field. We report mechanistic insight to address this need by using well-defined matrices based on silk gels, in combination with a monoclonal antibody. Variables including antibody loading, matrix density, charge interactions, hydrophobicity and water access were assessed to clarify mechanisms involved in the release of antibody from the biomaterial matrix. The results indicate that antibody release is primarily governed by hydrophobic interactions and hydration resistance, which are controlled by silk matrix chemistry, peptide domain distribution and protein density. Secondary ionic repulsions are also critical in antibody stabilization and release. Matrix modification by free methionine incorporation was found to be an effective strategy for mitigating encapsulation induced antibody oxidation. Additionally, these studies highlight a characterization approach to improve the understanding and development of other protein sustained delivery systems, with broad applicability to the rapidly developing monoclonal antibody field. PMID:23859659

  9. Anti-idiotypic response to antigrowth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Tosi; O. Valota; S. Canevari; E. Adobati; P. Casalini; P. Perez; M. I. Colnaghi

    1996-01-01

    The immunogenicity of the idiotypic portions of two antigrowth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was studied. Immunisation of allogeneic but not syngeneic mice with antihuman epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) MAb MINT5 or anti-HER-2\\/neu MGR6 MAb elicited a detectable titre of circulating antibodies, particularly when the MAb was coupled with the keyhole limpet haemocyanin and administered together with Freund's adjuvant.

  10. Monoclonal anti-claudin 1 antibodies prevent hepatitis C virus infection of primary human hepatocytes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Monoclonal anti-claudin 1 antibodies prevent hepatitis C virus infection of primary human virus; HCVcc - cell culture-derived HCV; HCVpp - HCV pseudoparticles; mAb - monoclonal antibody; Ig. The monoclonal15 antibodies against CLDN1 efficiently inhibited infection by HCV of all major genotypes as well

  11. Enhanced recognition of human colorectal tumour cells using combinations of monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LG Durrant; RA Robins; KC Ballantyne; RA Marksman; JD Hardcastle; RW Baldwin

    1989-01-01

    Murine monoclonal antibodies directed against tumour associated antigens are potentially useful in tumour diagnosis and therapy. However, all the antigens they recognise may be heterogeneously expressed on tumours and this may allow escape of cells from therapy if a single monoclonal antibody is used. One approach is to use combinations of monoclonal antibodies recognising complementary cell surface antigens. A flow

  12. Isolation of monoclonal antibody charge variants by displacement chromatography.

    PubMed

    McAtee, C Patrick; Hornbuckle, Jacob

    2012-08-01

    This unit discusses the important parameters in designing and optimizing a separation of monoclonal antibody (mAb) charge variants from process streams by ion-exchange displacement chromatography, including sample preparation and selection of matrix, column, and appropriate buffer. A protocol is provided for determination of optimal column binding and displacement conditions, including cleaning and regeneration of the displacement columns. PMID:22851499

  13. Monoclonal antibody identification of infiltrating mononuclear leukocytes in lupus nephritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivette D D'Agati; Gerald B Appel; Dorothy Estes; Daniel M Knowles; Conrad L Pirani

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody identification of infiltrating mononuclear leukocytes in lupus nephritis (LN). Populations of mononuclear inflammatory cells infiltrating the renal interstitium in LN were studied by means of an avidin–biotin immunoperoxidase technique applied to cryostat sections of 26 renal biopsies (3 WHO class IIb; 4 class III; 8 class IV; 4 class V; 4 class III and V; and 3 class

  14. Indium-111 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    A monoclonal antibody to a high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen was chelated and radiolabeled with indium-111. This material shows high affinity for melanoma and thus can be used in the detection, localization and imaging of melanoma. 1 figure.

  15. Biochemical differentiation in the tobacco flower probed with monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip T. Evans; Brian L. Holaway; Russell L. Malmberg

    1988-01-01

    We have isolated a series of monoclonal antibodies that react to antigens in flowers of Nicotiana tabacum L. (tobacco) displaying specificity or preferentiality in their cell and tissue distributions. We immunized mice with extracts from tobacco flowers and then screened the hybridomas by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against extracts from leaves, sepals, petals, stamens and pistils; twenty five were chosen

  16. Monoclonal antibodies to the alternative oxidase of higher plant mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Elthon; R. L. Nickels; L. McIntosh

    1989-01-01

    The higher plant mitochondrial electron transport chain contains, in addition to the cytochrome chain which terminates with cytochrome oxidase, an alternative pathway that terminates with an alternative oxidase. The alternative oxidase of Sauromatum guttatum Schott has recently been identified as a cluster of proteins with apparent M{sub r} of 37, 36, and 35 kilodaltons (kD). Monoclonal antibodies have now been

  17. Antigenic analysis of West Nile virus strains using monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry G. Besselaar; N. K. Blackburn

    1988-01-01

    Summary Seventeen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared against the flavivirus West Nile strain H442. While the majority of these were specific for the major envelope protein, MAbs directed against the NS1 and ns4a nonstructural proteins were also identified. The MAbs were tested by indirect immunofluorescence against 16 southern African West Nile (WN) isolates, representative strains from the two main WN

  18. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies produced against Avian metapneumovirus Sybtype C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared against avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C (aMPV/Minnesota/turkey/1a/97). Six MAbs were selected based on ELISA activities and characterized by isotyping, neutralization test, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. The results show...

  19. Monoclonal antibodies for B-cell lymphomas: rituximab and beyond.

    PubMed

    Bello, Celeste; Sotomayor, Eduardo M

    2007-01-01

    The year 2007 marks the 10th anniversary of approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Adminstration of the first monoclonal antibody for the treatment of cancer. Rituximab, an anti-CD20 chimeric monoclonal antibody, was approved for the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. From an immunologic perspective, this therapeutic indication provided the long-elusive validation of immunotherapy as the fourth modality of treatment for patients with cancer. From a clinical perspective, it was hard to imagine then that this nonchemotherapeutic approach would dramatically impact the management of patients with almost every type of B-cell malignancy and that it would even find a place as a therapeutic option for patients with non-malignant disorders. Although thousands of patients have been treated worldwide with rituximab, there is still debate regarding its mechanism(s) of action. The demonstration that a number of patients do not benefit with this treatment and that no cures have been achieved with single-agent rituximab prompted several investigators to identify those barriers limiting the efficacy of this monoclonal antibody. Here, we summarize what we have learned in the past 10 years about rituximab efficacy and its mechanisms of action and resistance. We also discuss the new generation of monoclonal antibodies, the development of which has been spurred by the widespread success of anti-CD20 MAb therapy. PMID:18024635

  20. Structure and specificity of lamprey monoclonal antibodies

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    anthracis spores. The recombinant VLR-B antibodies possess 8­10 uniform subunits that collectively bind describe the production of recombinant VLR-B antibodies specific for BclA, a major coat protein of Bacillus abortus, and human red blood cells (6­10). More recently, we demonstrated that immunization with Bacillus

  1. Monoclonal antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen: production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Hlozánek, I; Dostálová, V; Korec, E; Zelený, V; König, J; N?mecek, V

    1986-01-01

    Hybridomas secreting anti-HBsAg antibodies were produced by fusion of the mouse myeloma cell line SP2/0 with lymphocytes from mice immunized with purified HBsAg. All clones produced antibodies of the IgG1 idiotype that react with the subtype a determinant of HBsAg. An enzyme immunoassay for detection of HBsAg in human sera using monoclonal antibodies was developed and compared with commercial Sevatest ELISA HBsAg/micro I kit for detection of HBsAg in clinical serum samples. PMID:3527770

  2. Protective murine and human monoclonal antibodies against eczema vaccinatum

    PubMed Central

    Tomimori, Yoshiaki; Kawakami, Yuko; McCausland, Megan M.; Ando, Tomoaki; Koriazova, Lilia; Kato, Shinichiro; Kawakami, Toshi; Crotty, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Background Eczema vaccinatum is the most common severe pathology associated with smallpox vaccination (vaccinia virus), occurring at high rates among individuals with a previous history of atopic dermatitis (atopic eczema). Methods Monoclonal antibodies capable of neutralizing vaccinia virus, anti-H3 and anti-B5, have been developed as a potential therapy for treatment of human eczema vaccinatum. Results Using a small animal model of eczema vaccinatum, here we demonstrate that both murine and fully human monoclonal antibodies effectively limit eczema vaccinatum disease, foreshortening both the disease kinetics and the severity of the erosive viral skin lesions. Conclusions These neutralizing antibodies would likely be effective at reducing or eliminating clinical disease in people with eczema vaccinatum or other severe side effects of the smallpox vaccine. PMID:21311110

  3. Monoclonal antibodies to Escherichia coli 50S ribosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, V; King, T C; Kumar, V; Daugherty, B

    1980-01-01

    Hybridoma cell lines that produce monoclonal antibodies directed against 50S Ribosomal proteins have been isolated. Spleen cells (from BALB/c mice immunized with 50S ribosomal subunits extracted from Escherichia coli) were fused to mouse myeloma cell line SP2/O-Ag 14. The initial screening for antibody producing hybridomas was carried out by a double antibody sandwich method; hybridomas were subsequently cloned in soft agar. Antibodies were characterized by their specific binding to individual 50S ribsomal proteins separated on phosphocellulose columns and in two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. The assignments were confirmed with purified single ribosomal proteins. Of four clones analyzed thus far, two are identical with specificity for r-protein L5. The other clones produce two different antibodies directed against r-protein L20. Each monoclonal antibody formed ribosome dimers visualizable in the electron microscope. Dimers could be reacted with a different second antibody to form chains containing 8 or more ribosomes, which may be useful for structural studies. Images PMID:6160475

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of potent neutralizing HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies in SHIV-infected rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Barouch, Dan H; Whitney, James B; Moldt, Brian; Klein, Florian; Oliveira, Thiago Y; Liu, Jinyan; Stephenson, Kathryn E; Chang, Hui-Wen; Shekhar, Karthik; Gupta, Sanjana; Nkolola, Joseph P; Seaman, Michael S; Smith, Kaitlin M; Borducchi, Erica N; Cabral, Crystal; Smith, Jeffrey Y; Blackmore, Stephen; Sanisetty, Srisowmya; Perry, James R; Beck, Matthew; Lewis, Mark G; Rinaldi, William; Chakraborty, Arup K; Poignard, Pascal; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Burton, Dennis R

    2013-11-14

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific monoclonal antibodies with extraordinary potency and breadth have recently been described. In humanized mice, combinations of monoclonal antibodies have been shown to suppress viraemia, but the therapeutic potential of these monoclonal antibodies has not yet been evaluated in primates with an intact immune system. Here we show that administration of a cocktail of HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies, as well as the single glycan-dependent monoclonal antibody PGT121, resulted in a rapid and precipitous decline of plasma viraemia to undetectable levels in rhesus monkeys chronically infected with the pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-SF162P3. A single monoclonal antibody infusion afforded up to a 3.1 log decline of plasma viral RNA in 7?days and also reduced proviral DNA in peripheral blood, gastrointestinal mucosa and lymph nodes without the development of viral resistance. Moreover, after monoclonal antibody administration, host Gag-specific T-lymphocyte responses showed improved functionality. Virus rebounded in most animals after a median of 56?days when serum monoclonal antibody titres had declined to undetectable levels, although, notably, a subset of animals maintained long-term virological control in the absence of further monoclonal antibody infusions. These data demonstrate a profound therapeutic effect of potent neutralizing HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies in SHIV-infected rhesus monkeys as well as an impact on host immune responses. Our findings strongly encourage the investigation of monoclonal antibody therapy for HIV-1 in humans. PMID:24172905

  5. Proteomic Identification of Monoclonal Antibodies from Serum

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the in vivo dynamics of the polyclonal antibody repertoire in serum, such as that which might arise in response to stimulation with an antigen, is difficult due to the presence of many highly similar immunoglobulin proteins, each specified by distinct B lymphocytes. These challenges have precluded the use of conventional mass spectrometry for antibody identification based on peptide mass spectral matches to a genomic reference database. Recently, progress has been made using bottom-up analysis of serum antibodies by nanoflow liquid chromatography/high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry combined with a sample-specific antibody sequence database generated by high-throughput sequencing of individual B cell immunoglobulin variable domains (V genes). Here, we describe how intrinsic features of antibody primary structure, most notably the interspersed segments of variable and conserved amino acid sequences, generate recurring patterns in the corresponding peptide mass spectra of V gene peptides, greatly complicating the assignment of correct sequences to mass spectral data. We show that the standard method of decoy-based error modeling fails to account for the error introduced by these highly similar sequences, leading to a significant underestimation of the false discovery rate. Because of these effects, antibody-derived peptide mass spectra require increased stringency in their interpretation. The use of filters based on the mean precursor ion mass accuracy of peptide-spectrum matches is shown to be particularly effective in distinguishing between “true” and “false” identifications. These findings highlight important caveats associated with the use of standard database search and error-modeling methods with nonstandard data sets and custom sequence databases. PMID:24684310

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to novel myeloid antigens reveal human neutrophil heterogeneity.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, E D; Graziano, R F; Shen, L; Fanger, M W

    1982-01-01

    Three cytotoxic murine monoclonal antibodies that recognize myeloid-specific antigens have been produced by immunization with normal human neutrophils or myeloblasts from a patient with acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Two of these, PMN 6 and PMN 29, are specific for neutrophils; the third monoclonal antibody, AML-2-23, is reactive with the majority of normal monocytes as well as a subpopulation of mature neutrophils. Although neutrophils from all individuals tested expressed these antigens, cytofluorographic analysis revealed that the percentage of cells bearing the PMN 6 and AML-2-23 antigens varied among individuals. Significant additional heterogeneity in the density of each antigen among antigen-bearing cells was also observed. All three antibodies efficiently mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity of acute myelocytic leukemia cells yet were unreactive with lymphocytic leukemia cells. Neutrophil cytotoxicity was mediated by PMN 6 and PMN 29 but not by AML-2-23. On the other hand, AML-2-23, but not PMN 6 or PMN 29, was cytotoxic for normal monocytes and macrophages. These monoclonal antibodies may be of value in the study of normal neutrophil function and differentiation and may have clinical utility in diagnosis and therapy of myeloid leukemia. PMID:6752945

  7. Affinity of monoclonal antibodies for Globo-series glycans

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Chelcie H.; Yang, Guangbin; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Raines, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    Globo-series glycans are human cell-surface carbohydrates that include stem-cell marker SSEA-4 and cancer-cell antigen Globo H. These two hexasaccharides differ only in their terminal saccharide: N-acetylneuraminic acid in SSEA-4 and l-fucose in Globo H. Herein, we evaluated the affinity of the monoclonal antibodies ?-SSEA-4 and ?-GH for the glycans SSEA-4 and Globo H. Using fluorescence polarization, we find that the two monoclonal antibodies have affinity for their cognate glycanin the low nanomolar range, and have negligible affinity for the non-cognate glycan. Using surface plasmon resonance, we find that each cognate affinity is ~20-fold greater if the glycanis immobilized on a surface rather than free in solution. We conclude that the terminal saccharide plays a dominant role in the ability of monoclonal antibodies to recognize these Globo-series glycans and that the extraordinary specificity of these antibodies supports their use for identifying and sorting stem-cells (?-SSEA-4) and as an agent in cancer immunotherapy (?-GH). PMID:25163606

  8. Current status of cancer immunodetection with radiolabeled human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    De Jager, R; Abdel-Nabi, H; Serafini, A; Pecking, A; Klein, J L; Hanna, M G

    1993-04-01

    The use of radiolabeled murine monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) for cancer immunodetection has been limited by the development of human antimouse antibodies (HAMA). Human monoclonal antibodies do not elicit a significant human antihuman (HAHA) response. The generation and production of human monoclonal antibodies met with technical difficulties that resulted in delaying their clinical testing. Human monoclonal antibodies of all isotypes have been obtained. Most were immunoglobulin (Ig) M directed against intracellular antigens. Two antibodies, 16.88 (IgM) and 88BV59 (IgG3k), recognize different epitopes on a tumor-associated antigen, CTA 16.88, homologous to cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. CTA 16.88 is expressed by most epithelial-derived tumors including carcinomas of the colon, pancreas, breast, ovary, and lung. The in vivo targeting by these antibodies is related to their localization in nonnecrotic areas of tumors. Repeated administration of 16.88 over 5 weeks to a cumulative dose of 1,000 mg did not elicit a HAHA response. Two of 53 patients developed a low titer of HAHA 1 to 3 months after a single administration of 88BV59. Planar imaging of colorectal cancer with Iodine-131 (131I)-16.88 was positive in two studies in 9 of 12 and 16 of 20 patients preselected by immunohistochemistry. Tumors less than 2 cm in diameter are usually not detected. The lack of immunogenicity and long tumor residence time (average = 17 days) makes 16.88 a good candidate for therapy. Radioimmunlymphoscintigraphy with indium-111 (111In)-LiLo-16.88 administered by an intramammary route was used in the presurgical staging of primary breast cancer. The negative predictive value of lymph node metastases for tumors less than 3 cm was 90.5%. Planar and single photon emission computed tomography imaging of colorectal carcinoma with technetium-99m (99mTc) 88BV59 was compared with computed tomography (CT) scan in 36 surgical patients. The antibody scan was more sensitive than the CT scan in detecting abdominal and pelvic tumors: 68% versus 40% (P < .05). The combination of antibody scan and CT scan was superior to CT scan alone: 80% versus 40% (P < .01). Lesions as small as 0.5 cm in diameter were detected by antibody scan. The CT scan appears superior to the antibody scan for liver metastases. Patients with a high serum titer of HAMA from previous exposure to murine antibodies were successfully imaged. Antibody scans obtained with 99mTc-88BV59 have imaging characteristics similar to murine antibody scans obtained with radiolabeled IgGs. The absence or weak immunogenicity of the human monoclonal antibodies makes them good candidates for radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy. PMID:8511602

  9. Monoclonal Antibody Epitope Mapping Describes Tailspike -Helix Folding and Aggregation Intermediates*S

    E-print Network

    Clark, Patricia L.

    Monoclonal Antibody Epitope Mapping Describes Tailspike -Helix Folding and Aggregation, nine -tailspike antibody binding epitopes were characterized by measuring the binding of these mono that the antibody epitopes are distributed throughout the tailspike struc- ture, with several clustered

  10. Antigenic analysis of gonococcal pili using monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    A bank of mouse monoclonal antibodies has been produced with reactivity to gonococcal pili to investigate epitopes of the pilus structural protein, pilin. Pili of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains R10 and MS11 were used as immunogens to elicit 19 monoclonal antibodies reactive with the homologous pili type in ELISA. Of the 19 antibodies, 16 demonstrated type-specific reactivity and 3 were cross-reactive with heterologous pili. Reactivity of the antibodies with the carboxyterminal, cyanogen bromide fragment (CB-3) of R10 pilin allowed their classification into three groups. The first group (10 antibodies) were R10 specific and equally reactive with the R10 CB-3 fragment. The second group (6) were also type specific but demonstrated poor reactivity with the CB-3 fragment. This suggested that the epitopes of the first group are linear, and those of the second group, nonlinear. The third group (3), consisting of the cross-reactive antibodies, were not reactive with the CB-3 fragment. Two of the antibodies in group 3 were examined in detail to localize their epitopes. The epitope of one, 9B9/H5, was shown to be a linear determinant. This antibody was reactive with a fragment of MS11 pilin (residues 31-111) and to a synthetic peptide representing residues 69-84 in MS11 pilin. The epitope was more finely mapped, with shorter synthetic peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin, to an eight amino acid segment (residues 69-76). The epitope of 1E8/G8, a strongly reactive antibody, proved elusive to this type of analysis and probably results from conformational restraints. The significance of species-specific epitopes in the pilin protein is discussed. PMID:6210338

  11. Development of a monoclonal antibody specific for serotype 3 rotavirus strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Grunert; H.-J. Streckert; W. Liedtke; C. Houly; C. Mietens; H. Werchau

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against serotype 3 simian rotavirus SA11. Antigenic analysis of 18 hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies by radioimmunoprecipitation and Western blot revealed that seven monoclonals were directed against the major inner capsid protein VP6, four against VP3, an outer capsid protein with hemagglutinating activity, and one against VP7, the main outer capsid protein of the virus.

  12. Adverse Events of Monoclonal Antibodies Used for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Mei; Zhou, Yan-Ping; Sun, Jin-Lu; Chen, Shu-Chang

    2015-01-01

    In 1997, the first monoclonal antibody (MoAb), the chimeric anti-CD20 molecule rituximab, was approved by the US Food and Drug administration for use in cancer patients. Since then, the panel of MoAbs that are approved by international regulatory agencies for the treatment of hematopoietic and solid malignancies has continued to expand, currently encompassing a stunning amount of 20 distinct molecules for 11 targets. We provide a brief scientific background on the use of MoAbs in cancer therapy, review all types of monoclonal antibodies-related adverse events (e.g., allergy, immune-related adverse events, cardiovascular adverse events, and pulmonary adverse events), and discuss the mechanism and treatment of adverse events.

  13. Targeted ?-Particle Radiotherapy with 211At-labeled Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Zalutsky, Michael R.; Reardon, David A.; Pozzi, Oscar R.; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Bigner, Darell D.

    2007-01-01

    An attractive feature of targeted radionuclide therapy is the ability to select radionuclides and targeting vehicles with characteristics that are best suited for a particular clinical application. One combination that has been receiving increasing attention is the use of monoclonal antibodies specifically reactive to receptors and antigens that are expressed on tumor cells to selectively deliver the ?-particle emitting radiohalogen 211At to malignant cell populations. Promising results have been obtained in preclinical models with multiple 211At-labeled mAbs; however, translation of concept to the clinic has been slow. Impediments to this process include limited radionuclide availability, the need for suitable radiochemistry methods operant at high activity levels, and the lack of data concerning toxicity of ?-particle emitters in humans. Nonetheless, two clinical trials have been initiated to date with 211At-labeled monoclonal antibodies and others are planned for the near future. PMID:17921029

  14. A monoclonal antibody against a new differentiation antigen of thymocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles L. Sidman; Luciana Forni; G K ohler; Jean Langhorne; Kirsten Fischer Lindahl

    1983-01-01

    B14-2-14 is a monoclonal cytotoxic IgM antibody which reacts with thymocytes of all mouse strains tested. The fraction of positive cells (by visual immunofluorescence) varies between strains from about 25-45% in A.CA to 65-85% in C57BL\\/6, and high levels are dominant in F1 hybrids. In the periphery, the antigen is found on a few percent of lymph node and not

  15. Monoclonal antibody drug immunoconjugates for targeted treatment of cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela A. Trail; Dalton H. King; Gene M. Dubowchik

    2003-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed to tumor-associated antigens (TAA) or antigens differentially expressed on the tumor vasculature have been covalently linked to drugs that have different mechanisms of action and various levels of potency. The use of these mAb immunoconjugates to selectively deliver drugs to tumors has the potential to both improve antitumor efficacy and reduce the systemic toxicity of therapy.

  16. Monoclonal antibodies directed against surface molecules of multicell spheroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andrew O.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this project is to generate a library of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to surface molecules of mammalian tumor and transformed cells grown as multicell spheroids (MCS). These MCS are highly organized, three dimensional multicellular structures which exhibit many characteristics of in vivo organized tissues not found in conventional monolayer or suspension culture; therefore, MCS make better in vitro model systems to study the interactions of mammalian cells. Additionally, they provide a functional assay for surface adhesion molecules.

  17. Monoclonal Antibodies Defining Shared Human Macrophage-Endothelial Antigens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alisa E. Koch; James C. Burrows; Peter H. Domer; Richard A. Ashmun; Thomas Look; Joseph Leibovich

    1992-01-01

    We have selected several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) produced using human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial macrophages (m?s) as immunogen. Of these, mAbs 8H2, 10G7 and 10G9 showed cross reactivity with endothelium, suggesting common antigens between these cell types. We have determined the spectrum of reactivity of these mAbs on hematopoietic cell lines, peripheral blood cells, and inflammatory and non-inflammatory tissues by

  18. Immunotherapy with Monoclonal Antibody (Mab) in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Tempero; F. Haga; C. Sivinski; Z. Steplewski; H. Do Kay; P. Pour

    1991-01-01

    Summary  Conventional therapy of pancreatic exocrine cancer is disappointing. The poor prognosis of the disease challenges development\\u000a of novel therapeutic strategies. We report the results of clinical trials of the monoclonal antibody (Mab) 17-1A in patients\\u000a with histologically verified unresectable pancreatic exocrine cancer. No antitumor response was seen in 18 patients treated\\u000a with Mab 17-1A (500 mg) admixed with 109 autologous

  19. Monoclonal antibody production and immunochemical detection of polyether antibiotics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyo Jeong Lee; Seung Sik Cho; Jaya Ram Simkhada; Jin Cheol Yoo

    2009-01-01

    Polyether antibiotics such as monensin and salinomycin have been primarily used as coccidiostat and growth promoter. Since\\u000a residues of these antibiotic in food may pose a health risk for sensitive individuals, their use should be carefully monitored.\\u000a An immunochemical method was developed for the determination of polyether antibiotic using monoclonal antibody (Mab) produced\\u000a by immunized mice. Conjugates of monensin, salinomycin

  20. Monoclonal antibodies defining distinctive human T cell surface antigens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Kung; G. Goldstein; E. L. Reinherz; S. F. Schlossman

    1979-01-01

    Three novel monoclonal antibodies (designated OKT1, OKT3, and OKT4) were generated against surface determinants of human peripheral T cells. Both OKT1 and OKT3 reacted with all human peripheral T cells and 5 to 10 percent of thymocytes but differed in their reactivities with T cell lines. By contrast, OKT4 reacted with 55 percent of human peripheral T cells and 80

  1. Arthritogenic Monoclonal Antibodies from K\\/BxN Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Maccioni; Gabrielle Zeder-Lutz; Haochu Huang; Claudine Ebel; Philippe Gerber; Josiane Hergueux; Patricia Marchal; Veronique Duchatelle; Claude Degott; Marc van Regenmortel; Christophe Benoist; Diane Mathis

    2002-01-01

    Arthritis in the K\\/BxN mouse model is provoked by pathogenic antibodies (Abs) directed against a ubiquitously expressed protein, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI). To begin dis- secting the repertoire of arthritogenic immunoglobulins (Igs) in the K\\/BxN model, and to pro- vide a basis for comparison with RA patientswe have generated anti-GPI monoclonal Abs (mAbs) from spontaneously activated B cells in the lymphoid

  2. Tumor Specificity of Monoclonal Antibodies to Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fairouz Zoubir; Jan Zeromski; Jan Sikora; Jan Szmeja; Anders Hedin; Sten Hammarström

    1990-01-01

    The tumor specificity of twelve different monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The Mabs had previously been classified into three specificity groups (I–III) on the basis of their reactivity with purified CEA-related antigens by ELISA. Mabs belonging to specificity group III (n = 4) did not cross-react with any CEA-related antigen, including normal cross-reactive antigen

  3. Recovery and purification process development for monoclonal antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junfen; Winter, Charles; Bayer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Hundreds of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently in development, and many companies have multiple antibodies in their pipelines. Current methodology used in recovery processes for these molecules are reviewed here. Basic unit operations such as harvest, Protein A affinity chromatography and additional polishing steps are surveyed. Alternative processes such as flocculation, precipitation and membrane chromatography are discussed. We also cover platform approaches to purification methods development, use of high throughput screening methods, and offer a view on future developments in purification methodology as applied to mAbs. PMID:20647768

  4. Monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhi-Qiang; Buchsbaum, Donald J

    2009-01-01

    Human pancreatic cancer is a malignant disease with almost equal incidence and mortality. Effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are still urgently needed to improve its survival rate. With advances in structural and functional genomics, recent work has focused on targeted molecular therapy using monoclonal antibodies. This review summarizes the target molecules on the tumor cell surface and normal tissue stroma, which are related to pancreatic cancer oncogenesis, tumor growth or resistance to chemotherapy, as well as molecules involved in regulating inflammation and host immunoresponses. Targeted molecules include cell-surface receptors, such as the EGF receptor, HER2, death receptor 5 and IGF-1 receptor. Effects of monoclonal antibodies against these target molecules alone or in combination with chemotherapy, small-molecule signal transduction inhibitors, or radiation therapy are also discussed. Also discussed are the use of toxin or radioisotope conjugates, and information relating to the use of these targeting agents in pancreatic cancer clinical trials. Although targeted molecular therapy with monoclonal antibodies has made some progress in pancreatic cancer treatment, especially in preclinical studies, its clinical application to improve the survival rate of pancreatic cancer patients requires further investigation. PMID:20046965

  5. [Characterisation of a monoclonal antibody against Trypanosoma evansi and its application for detecting circulating antibodies].

    PubMed

    Monzón, C M

    2006-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were obtained against Trypanosoma evansi. The 2-4F6 IgM monoclonal antibody (Mab) was chosen for the study because of its ability to detect antigens and its specificity (as it did not recognise T. cruzi, T. equiperdum, Babesia equi or B. caballi). The immunoblot test revealed that the 2-4F6 IgM Mab recognises epitopes in two antigenic bands, one measuring 85 kDa and the other 122 kDa. An immunoassay for antigen detection in serum using polyclonal antibodies for capture, the Mab 2-4F6 as primary antibody and an antimouse IgM as secondary antibody gave positive results in 10 of the 11 equidae infected with T. evansi, whereas 20 controls gave negative results. These research results show that the Mab 2-4F6 and the antigen it recognises are useful in identifying equidae infected with T. evansi. PMID:17361770

  6. Monoclonal antibody C38 recognizes retinal ganglion cells in cats and rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taketoshi Wakabayashi; Yutaka Fukuda; Jun Kosaka

    1996-01-01

    We developed monoclonal antibody C38 which specifically recognizes retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in flatmount preparations of cat and rat retinas. We first induced immunological tolerance in Balb\\/c mice against axotomized rat retinas which lack most of the RGCs. Then the mice were immunized with intact rat retinas to produce antibodies against RGCs. Monoclonal antibody C38 appeared to be specific for

  7. Adenovirus hexon monoclonal antibody that is group specific and potentially useful as a diagnostic reagent.

    PubMed Central

    Cepko, C L; Whetstone, C A; Sharp, P A

    1983-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody to the adenovirus 2 hexon protein was produced and characterized as a group-specific antibody. Positive reactivity in immunoprecipitation, indirect immunofluorescence, and radioimmunoassays was observed with human, canine, swine, bovine, murine, and simian adenoviruses. This monoclonal antibody should provide a specific and sensitive diagnostic reagent for detection of all mammalian adenoviruses. Images PMID:6339552

  8. Using monoclonal antibodies to prevent mucosal transmission of epidemic infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlin, L.; Cone, R. A.; Whaley, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    Passive immunization with antibodies has been shown to prevent a wide variety of diseases. Recent advances in monoclonal antibody technology are enabling the development of new methods for passive immunization of mucosal surfaces. Human monoclonal antibodies, produced rapidly, inexpensively, and in large quantities, may help prevent respiratory, diarrheal, and sexually transmitted diseases on a public health scale. PMID:10081672

  9. Monkey-derived monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, H.A.; Reese, R.T.

    1985-09-01

    A system has been developed that allows efficient production of monkey monoclonal antibodies from owl monkeys. Splenocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes from monkeys immune to the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, were fused with P3X63 Ag8.653 mouse myelomas. The resulting hybridomas were screened by an indirect fluorescent antibody test for the production of monkey monoclonal antibodies (mAb) reactive with P. falciparum. Most of the mAb reacted with the P. falciparum merozoites and immunoprecipitated a parasite-derived glycoprotein having a relative molecular weight of 185,000. These mAb gave a minimum of five different immunoprecipitation patterns, thus demonstrating that a large number of polypeptides obtained when parasitized erythrocytes are solubilized share epitopes with this large glycoprotein. In addition, mAb were obtained that reacted with antigens associated with the infected erythrocyte membrane. One of these mAb bound a M/sub r/ 95,000 antigen. Radioimmunoprecipitation assays using /sup 125/T-antibodies were done.

  10. Efficient generation of human IgA monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lorin, Valérie; Mouquet, Hugo

    2015-07-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundant antibody isotype produced in humans. IgA antibodies primarily ensure immune protection of mucosal surfaces against invading pathogens, but also circulate and are present in large quantities in blood. IgAs are heterogeneous at a molecular level, with two IgA subtypes and the capacity to form multimers by interacting with the joining (J) chain. Here, we have developed an efficient strategy to rapidly generate human IgA1 and IgA2 monoclonal antibodies in their monomeric and dimeric forms. Recombinant monomeric and dimeric IgA1/IgA2 counterparts of a prototypical IgG1 monoclonal antibody, 10-1074, targeting the HIV-1 envelope protein, were produced in large amounts after expression cloning and transient transfection of 293-F cells. 10-1074 IgAs were FPLC-purified using a novel affinity-based resin engrafted with anti-IgA chimeric Fabs, followed by a monomers/multimers separation using size exclusion-based FPLC. ELISA binding experiments confirmed that the artificial IgA class switching of 10-1074 did not alter its antigen recognition. In summary, our technical approach allows the very efficient production of various forms of purified recombinant human IgA molecules, which are precious tools in dissecting IgA B-cell responses in physiological and pathophysiological conditions, and studying the biology, function and therapeutic potential of IgAs. PMID:25910833

  11. Efficient generation of monoclonal antibodies from single rhesus macaque antibody secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Weixu; Li, Leike; Xiong, Wei; Fan, Xuejun; Deng, Hui; Bett, Andrew J; Chen, Zhifeng; Tang, Aimin; Cox, Kara S; Joyce, Joseph G; Freed, Daniel C; Thoryk, Elizabeth; Fu, Tong-Ming; Casimiro, Danilo R; Zhang, Ningyan; A Vora, Kalpit; An, Zhiqiang

    2015-07-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are used as a preclinical model for vaccine development, and the antibody profiles to experimental vaccines in NHPs can provide critical information for both vaccine design and translation to clinical efficacy. However, an efficient protocol for generating monoclonal antibodies from single antibody secreting cells of NHPs is currently lacking. In this study we established a robust protocol for cloning immunoglobulin (IG) variable domain genes from single rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) antibody secreting cells. A sorting strategy was developed using a panel of molecular markers (CD3, CD19, CD20, surface IgG, intracellular IgG, CD27, Ki67 and CD38) to identify the kinetics of B cell response after vaccination. Specific primers for the rhesus macaque IG genes were designed and validated using cDNA isolated from macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cloning efficiency was averaged at 90% for variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) domains, and 78.5% of the clones (n = 335) were matched VH and VL pairs. Sequence analysis revealed that diverse IGHV subgroups (for VH) and IGKV and IGLV subgroups (for VL) were represented in the cloned antibodies. The protocol was tested in a study using an experimental dengue vaccine candidate. About 26.6% of the monoclonal antibodies cloned from the vaccinated rhesus macaques react with the dengue vaccine antigens. These results validate the protocol for cloning monoclonal antibodies in response to vaccination from single macaque antibody secreting cells, which have general applicability for determining monoclonal antibody profiles in response to other immunogens or vaccine studies of interest in NHPs. PMID:25996084

  12. Bispecific antibodies directed to CD4 domain 2 and HIV envelope exhibit exceptional breadth and picomolar potency against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Pace, Craig S; Song, Ruijiang; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Andrews, Chasity D; Franco, David; Yu, Jian; Oren, Deena A; Seaman, Michael S; Ho, David D

    2013-08-13

    In the absence of an effective HIV-1 vaccine, passive immunization using broadly neutralizing Abs or Ab-like molecules could provide an alternative to the daily administration of oral antiretroviral agents that has recently shown promise as preexposure prophylaxis. Currently, no single broadly neutralizing Ab (bNAb) or combination of bNAbs neutralizes all HIV-1 strains at practically achievable concentrations in vivo. To address this problem, we created bispecific Abs that combine the HIV-1 inhibitory activity of ibalizumab (iMab), a humanized mAb directed to domain 2 of human CD4, with that of anti-gp120 bNAbs. These bispecific bNAbs (BibNAbs) exploit iMab's potent anti-HIV-1 activity and demonstrated clinical efficacy and safety to anchor and thereby concentrate a second broadly neutralizing agent at the site of viral entry. Two BibNabs, PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, exhibit exceptional breadth and potency, neutralizing 100% of the 118 viruses tested at low picomolar concentrations, including viruses resistant to both parental mAbs. The enhanced potency of these BibNAbs was entirely dependent on CD4 anchoring, not on membrane anchoring per se, and required optimal Ab geometry and linker length. We propose that iMab-based BibNAbs, such as PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, are promising candidates for passive immunization to prevent HIV-1 infection. PMID:23878231

  13. Bispecific antibodies directed to CD4 domain 2 and HIV envelope exhibit exceptional breadth and picomolar potency against HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Craig S.; Song, Ruijiang; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Andrews, Chasity D.; Franco, David; Yu, Jian; Oren, Deena A.; Seaman, Michael S.; Ho, David D.

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of an effective HIV-1 vaccine, passive immunization using broadly neutralizing Abs or Ab-like molecules could provide an alternative to the daily administration of oral antiretroviral agents that has recently shown promise as preexposure prophylaxis. Currently, no single broadly neutralizing Ab (bNAb) or combination of bNAbs neutralizes all HIV-1 strains at practically achievable concentrations in vivo. To address this problem, we created bispecific Abs that combine the HIV-1 inhibitory activity of ibalizumab (iMab), a humanized mAb directed to domain 2 of human CD4, with that of anti-gp120 bNAbs. These bispecific bNAbs (BibNAbs) exploit iMab’s potent anti–HIV-1 activity and demonstrated clinical efficacy and safety to anchor and thereby concentrate a second broadly neutralizing agent at the site of viral entry. Two BibNabs, PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, exhibit exceptional breadth and potency, neutralizing 100% of the 118 viruses tested at low picomolar concentrations, including viruses resistant to both parental mAbs. The enhanced potency of these BibNAbs was entirely dependent on CD4 anchoring, not on membrane anchoring per se, and required optimal Ab geometry and linker length. We propose that iMab-based BibNAbs, such as PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, are promising candidates for passive immunization to prevent HIV-1 infection. PMID:23878231

  14. Monoclonal and specific polyclonal antibodies for immunoassay of Clostridium difficile toxin A.

    PubMed Central

    Lyerly, D M; Phelps, C J; Wilkins, T D

    1985-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody, affinity-purified antibody, and monospecific antiserum against toxin A were produced. The monoclonal antibody was an immunoglobulin G2a kappa chain isotype that immunoprecipitated toxin A, as shown by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. These antibodies were compared by counterimmunoelectrophoresis, latex agglutination, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for their sensitivity in detecting toxin A. Our findings indicate that these antibodies may be useful as immunodiagnostic reagents for Clostridium difficile disease. Images PMID:3968199

  15. The unexpected side effects and safety of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Li, Y

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have ushered in a new era of targeted therapy, particularly in the fields of immunotherapy and oncology. MAbs have been developed from murine antibodies to fully human antibodies, with significant improvements in immunogenicity and safety. Nevertheless, the safety of these agents is being paid close attention with relative side effects being reported. These side effects have caused many researchers' confidence in MAbs to waver. This review comprehensively summarizes the side effects of MAbs in clinical use, highlighting the prevention and management of adverse effects. Although many MAbs are well tolerated, with new MAbs continuing to be innovated, it is hard to ensure that every fresh stock of MAbs is absolutely safe. The clinical use of MAbs will face greater challenges in the future. Physicians should be on the alert for lethal side effects and treat them as soon as possible. PMID:24524104

  16. Solidphase peptide quantitation assay using labeled monoclonal antibody and glutaraldehyde fixation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip G. Kasprzyk; Frank Cuttitta; Ingalill Avis; Yoichi Nakanishi; Anthony Treston; Helen Wong; John H. Walsh; James L. Mulshine

    1988-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay utilizing iodinated peptide-specific monoclonal antibody as a detection system instead of labeled peptide has been developed. Regional specific monoclonal antibodies to either gastrin-releasing peptide or gastrin were used as models to validate the general application of our modified assay. Conditions for radioactive labeling of the monoclonal antibody were determined to minimize oxidant damage, which compromises the sensitivity

  17. Pharmacodynamic mechanisms of monoclonal antibody-based antagonism of (+)-methamphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Byrnes-Blake, Kelly A; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M; Carroll, F Ivy; Abraham, Philip; Gentry, W Brooks; Landes, Reid D; Owens, S Michael

    2003-02-14

    Our studies examined pharmacokinetic mechanisms involved in high-affinity (K(d) approximately 11 nM) monoclonal antibody-based antagonism of (+)-methamphetamine-induced locomotor effects. Male rats received (+)-methamphetamine (0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg i.v.) followed 30 min later by saline or anti-(+)-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody. All groups received a constant dose of monoclonal antibody that was equimolar in binding sites to the body burden of a 1 mg/kg i.v. (+)-methamphetamine dose 30 min after administration. The monoclonal antibody antagonized locomotor effects due to 0.3 and 1 mg/kg (+)-methamphetamine. In contrast, monoclonal antibody treatment increased locomotor activity due to 3 mg/kg (+)-methamphetamine. We also investigated the serum and brain pharmacokinetics of (+)-methamphetamine without and with the monoclonal antibody. Rats received (+)-methamphetamine (1 mg/kg i.v.) followed by saline or monoclonal antibody treatment at 30 min. The monoclonal antibody significantly increased serum methamphetamine concentrations and significantly decreased brain methamphetamine concentrations. These data indicate that anti-(+)-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody-induced pharmacodynamics are complex, but are related to time-dependent changes in (+)-methamphetamine brain distribution. PMID:12586207

  18. Monoclonal antibodies against type II rat brain protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Nakabayashi, C.H.; Huang, K.P.

    1987-05-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (8/1, 10/10, and 25/3) against rat brain type II protein kinase C (PKC) were used to carry out the immunochemical characterization of this kinase. These antibodies immunoprecipitated the type II PKC in a dose-dependent manner but did neither to type I nor type III isozyme. Purified type II PKC has a molecular weight of 82,000 and consists of heterogeneous isoelectric point species, all of which are cross reactive with these antibodies. Immunoblot analysis of the tryptic fragments from PKC revealed that all three antibodies recognized the 33-38-KDa fragments, the phospholipid/phorbol ester-binding domain, but not the 45-48-KDa fragments, the kinase catalytic domain. The immune complexes of the kinase and the antibodies retained the kinase activity which was dependent on Ca/sup 2 +/ and phosphatidylserine (PS) and further activated by diacylglycerol. With antibody 8/1, the apparent Km values of the kinase for Ca/sup 2 +/ and PS were not influenced. The initial rate and final extent of autophosphorylation were reduced. The concentration of PS required for half-maximal (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) binding was increased and the total PDBu binding was reduced. In the presence of optimum concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/ and PS, the Kd of PDBu was unaffected by the antibody but the total binding was reduced. These results demonstrate that the PS/PDBu-binding domain contains the major epitope for the antibodies and the antibody mainly influences the PS/PDBu binding to the kinase.

  19. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES, APTAMERS AND SINGLE CHAIN ANTIBODIES TO MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paratuberculosis (MAP) was identified as an unmet need at the 7th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis in Bilbao, Spain. To fill this gap in Johne’s disease research, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MAP were produced from BALB/c mice immunized with sonicated MAP extracts or recombinant...

  20. Evaluation of oriented lysozyme immobilized with monoclonal antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Satoka; Okada, Keigo; Shigyo, Ayako; Man, Naoki; Karen, Akiya

    2008-12-01

    The orientation of a lysozyme immobilized with a monoclonal antibody was evaluated based on determination of the uppermost surface structure using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Specific peaks of the oriented lysozyme immobilized with monoclonal anti-lysozyme antibody were obtained in comparison with reference samples, non-oriented immobilized lysozyme and immobilized anti-lysozyme antibody. All samples were freeze-dried before TOF-SIMS measurement, and then each sample was measured using TOF-SIMS with a bismuth cluster ion source. TOF-SIMS spectra were analyzed to select peaks specific to the oriented immobilized lysozyme as well as to identify their chemical formula and ensemble of amino acids. The possible chemical formulae of the lysozyme fragments were then investigated with an element matching program and a residue matching program. The results from TOF-SIMS spectra analysis were compared to the amino acid sequence of the lysozyme and its three-dimensional structure registered in the protein data bank. Finally, the fragment-ion-generating regions of the oriented immobilized lysozyme were determined based on the suggested residues and the three-dimensional structure.

  1. Precipitation of a Monoclonal Antibody by Soluble Tungsten

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Jared S.; Nelson, Stephanie A.; Freund, Erwin; Carpenter, John F.; Randolph, Theodore W.

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten microparticles may be introduced into some pre-filled syringes during the creation of the needle hole. In turn, these microcontaminants may interact with protein therapeutics to produce visible particles. We found that soluble tungsten polyanions formed in acidic buffer below pH 6.0 can precipitate a monoclonal antibody within seconds. Soluble tungsten in pH 5.0 buffer at about 3 ppm was enough to cause precipitation of a mAb formulated at 0.02 mg/mL. The secondary structure of the protein was near-native in the collected precipitate. Our observations are consistent with the coagulation of a monoclonal antibody by tungsten polyanions. Tungsten-induced precipitation should only be a concern for proteins formulated below about pH 6.0 since tungsten polyanions are not formed at higher pHs. We speculate that the heterogenous nature of particle contamination within the poorly mixed syringe tip volume could mean that a specification for tungsten contamination based on the entire syringe volume is not appropriate. The potential potency of tungsten metal contamination is highlighted by the small number of particles that would be required to generate soluble tungsten levels needed to coagulate this antibody at pH 5.0. PMID:19230018

  2. Practical considerations for nonclinical safety evaluation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Carmel M; Hart, Bruce W

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a well established class of therapeutics as evidenced by a large number of FDA approved mAbs for the treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases. Monoclonal antibodies that are molecularly engineered for enhanced functions and pharmacokinetic properties are routinely being considered for development by many biotechnology companies. Safety evaluation of current generation of mAbs poses new challenges due to the highly complex nature of engineering aspects and variability induced by the diverse recombinant cell systems to generate them. This review provides a basic outline for nonclinical safety evaluation of therapeutic antibodies. Important considerations for planning a preclinical program, the types of nonclinical safety studies, and a general timeline for their conduct in relation to clinical trials are described. A list of relevant regulatory documents issued by government agencies is also provided. Adoption of these principles will greatly enhance the quality and relevance of the nonclinical safety data generated and will facilitate future development of mAb therapeutics. PMID:20046568

  3. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy and Renal Transplantation: Focus on Adverse Effects

    PubMed Central

    Zaza, Gianluigi; Tomei, Paola; Granata, Simona; Boschiero, Luigino; Lupo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A series of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are commonly utilized in renal transplantation as induction therapy (a period of intense immunosuppression immediately before and following the implant of the allograft), to treat steroid-resistant acute rejections, to decrease the incidence and mitigate effects of delayed graft function, and to allow immunosuppressive minimization. Additionally, in the last few years, their use has been proposed for the treatment of chronic antibody-mediated rejection, a major cause of late renal allograft loss. Although the exact mechanism of immunosuppression and allograft tolerance with any of the currently used induction agents is not completely defined, the majority of these medications are targeted against specific CD proteins on the T or B cells surface (e.g., CD3, CD25, CD52). Moreover, some of them have different mechanisms of action. In particular, eculizumab, interrupting the complement pathway, is a new promising treatment tool for acute graft complications and for post-transplant hemolytic uremic syndrome. While it is clear their utility in renal transplantation, it is also unquestionable that by using these highly potent immunosuppressive agents, the body loses much of its innate ability to mount an adequate immune response, thereby increasing the risk of severe adverse effects (e.g., infections, malignancies, haematological complications). Therefore, it is extremely important for clinicians involved in renal transplantation to know the potential side effects of monoclonal antibodies in order to plan a correct therapeutic strategy minimizing/avoiding the onset and development of severe clinical complications. PMID:24590384

  4. Monoclonal antibodies specific for ganglion cells in the embryonic chicken neural retina.

    PubMed

    Cole, G J; Bond, R; Glaser, L

    1986-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have been produced which recognize antigens on the surface of embryonic chicken neural retina cells. Two monoclonal antibodies, obtained from separate fusions, have been shown by fluorescence-activated cell-sorter analysis to bind to antigens on a subpopulation of neural retina cells. Immunohistochemical methods demonstrate that both monoclonal antibodies bind to the nerve fiber and inner plexiform layers of the embryonic neural retina. These monoclonal antibodies also bind to cell bodies and neurites of cultured retinal neurons and therefore selectively recognize antigens localized to the surface ganglion cells. One of the monoclonal antibodies binds to a 260 kdalton polypeptide, which has been shown to be developmentally regulated by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry, as it is not detected in late embryonic neural retina. The second monoclonal antibody appears to bind to different antigens in neural and non-neural tissue. In liver extracts the monoclonal antibody recognizes a trypsin-sensitive antigen, but the antibody reacts with trypsin-resistant molecules in neural tissue. This monoclonal antibody may therefore bind a glycolipid component in the neural retina, although this remains to be determined. These antibodies can be used to obtain cell populations highly enriched in retinal ganglion cells. PMID:3513904

  5. Imaging thrombus with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody to platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, A M; Lavender, J P; Needham, S G; Loutfi, I; Snook, D; Epenetos, A A; Lumley, P; Keery, R J; Hogg, N

    1986-01-01

    Indium-111-hydroxyquinoline labelled platelets, though useful in the detection of thrombus, have not gained widespread use owing to the time and technical skill required for their preparation. A study was therefore conducted evaluating a new method of imaging thrombus with platelets radiolabelled with a 111In labelled monoclonal antibody, P256, directed to the platelet surface glycoprotein complex IIb/IIIa. When the number of receptors occupied by P256 was less than 3% of the total available on the platelet surface platelet function, as assessed by platelet aggregometry, was undisturbed. P256 was radiolabelled with 111In using diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid, which achieved a specific activity of 185 MBq (5 mCi)/mg. No impairment of immunoreactivity was detected at this specific activity. Platelets were labelled with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody in vitro in two patients at a receptor occupancy of 6% and in vivo--that is, by direct intravenous injection of P256--in six patients at a receptor occupancy of 1%. In vivo recovery and biodistribution kinetics suggested that after in vitro labelling platelets were minimally activated. The 111In kinetics recorded after intravenous P256 suggested rapid and efficient radiolabelling of platelets and gave no indication of platelet activation. Of the six patients who received intravenous P256, three had documented thrombus, two of whom gave positive results on P256 platelet scintigraphy. The third subject had chronic deep venous thrombosis and was scintigraphically negative. Imaging thrombus using a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody directed to platelets appears to offer great potential as a simple, non-invasive approach to the diagnosis of thrombosis. Images FIG 2 PMID:3099941

  6. Monoclonal antibodies directed against surface molecules of multicell spheroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andrew O.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this project is to generate a library of monoclonal antibodies (MAb's) to surface molecules involved in the cell-cell interactions of mammalian cells grown as multicell spheroids (MCS). MCS are highly organized 3-dimensional multicellular structures which exhibit many characteristics in vivo tissues not found in conventional monolayer or suspension culture. They also provide a functional assay for surface adhesion molecules. In brief, MCS combine the relevance of organized tissues with the accuracy of in vitro methodology. Further, one can manipulate these MCS experimentally to discern important information about their biology.

  7. Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies against Defined Oligosaccharide Antigens.

    PubMed

    Broecker, Felix; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Unique carbohydrate antigens are expressed on the surface of various pathogens, including bacteria, parasites, and viruses, and aberrant glycosylation is a frequent feature of cancer cells. Antibodies recognizing such carbohydrate antigens may be used for the specific detection of potentially harmful cells, immunohistochemistry, and diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The generation of specific and strongly binding antibodies against defined carbohydrate epitopes is challenging, since isolated carbohydrates often suffer from low purity, usually have limited immunogenicity, and induce antibodies of low affinity. We describe a protocol to generate highly affine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against pure and defined synthetic carbohydrate antigens. First, an oligosaccharide is covalently coupled to an immunogenic carrier protein to obtain a glycoconjugate. This glycoconjugate is used to raise oligosaccharide-specific antibodies in mice, and splenocytes are fused with myeloma cells to form hybridomas. Hybridoma clones producing oligosaccharide-specific mAbs are selected by glycan microarray screening. Selected clones are expanded and mAbs are purified from the cell culture supernatant. This protocol is suitable to procure carbohydrate-specific mAbs of high specificity, selectivity, and affinity that may be useful for a variety of biochemical and medical applications. PMID:26169735

  8. Monoclonal Antibody-Based Candidate Therapeutics Against HIV Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of HIV-1 infection has been highly successful with small molecule drugs. However, resistance still develops. In addition, long-term use can lead to toxicity with unpredictable effects on health. Finally, current drugs do not lead to HIV-1 eradication. The presence of the virus leads to chronic inflammation, which can result in increased morbidity and mortality after prolonged periods of infection. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been highly successful during the past two decades for therapy of many diseases, primarily cancers and immune disorders. They are relatively safe, especially human mAbs that have evolved in humans at high concentrations to fight diseases and long-term use may not lead to toxicities. Several broadly neutralizing mAbs (bnmAbs) against HIV-1 can protect animals but are not effective when used for therapy of an established infection. We have hypothesized that HIV-1 has evolved strategies to effectively escape neutralization by full-size antibodies in natural infections but not by smaller antibody fragments. Therefore, a promising direction of research is to discover and exploit antibody fragments as potential candidate therapeutics against HIV-1. Here we review several bnmAbs and engineered antibody domains (eAds), their in vitro and in vivo antiviral efficacy, mechanisms used by HIV-1 to escape them, and strategies that could be effective to develop more powerful mAb-based HIV-1 therapeutics. PMID:21827278

  9. Mass Spectrometry for the Biophysical Characterization of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Cui, Weidong; Gross, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are powerful therapeutics, and their characterization has drawn considerable attention and urgency. Unlike small-molecular drugs (150-600 Da) that have rigid structures, mAbs (~150 kDa) are engineered proteins that undergo complicated folding and can exist in a number of low-energy structures, posing a challenge for traditional methods in structural biology. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based biophysical characterization approaches can provide structural information, bringing high sensitivity, fast turnaround, and small sample consumption. This review outlines various MS-based strategies for protein biophysical characterization and then reviews how these strategies provide structural information of mAbs at the protein level (intact or top-down approaches), peptide, and residue level (bottom-up approaches), affording information on higher order structure, aggregation, and the nature of antibody complexes. PMID:24291257

  10. Moving through three-dimensional phase diagrams of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rakel, Natalie; Baum, Miriam; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Protein phase behavior characterization is a multivariate problem due to the high amount of influencing parameters and the diversity of the proteins. Single influences on the protein are not understood and fundamental knowledge remains to be obtained. For this purpose, a systematic screening method was developed to characterize the influence of fluid phase conditions on the phase behavior of proteins in three-dimensional phase diagrams. This approach was applied to three monoclonal antibodies to investigate influences of pH, protein and salt concentrations, with five different salts being tested. Although differences exist between the antibodies, this extensive study confirmed the general applicability of the Hofmeister series over the broad parameter range analyzed. The influence of the different salts on the aggregation (crystallization and precipitation) probability was described qualitatively using this Hofmeister series, with a differentiation between crystallization and precipitation being impossible, however. PMID:25044865

  11. Human monoclonal IgM antibodies with apoptotic activity isolated from cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Br Andlein; Judith Lorenz; Nele Ruoff; Frank Hensel; Ines Beyer; Justus M Uller; Konrad Neukam; Bertram Illert; Matthias Eck; Hans Konrad M Uller-hermelink; H. Peter Vollmers

    Abstract. Monoclonal antibodies are accepted as ideal adjuvant therapeutic reagents for all kinds of diseases. Polyvalent (cross- linking) and low-mutated IgM antibodies (less immunogenic),are believed to be the most effective weapons,against cancer. The best sources for these types of antibodies are the cancer patients themselves. Using conventional hybridoma technology, not only are fully human monoclonal IgM antibodies isolated, but also

  12. Epitope mapping of broadly neutralizing HIV-2 human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kong, Rui; Li, Hui; Georgiev, Ivelin; Changela, Anita; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Decker, Julie M; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L; Jaye, Assan; Guan, Yongjun; Lewis, George K; Langedijk, Johannes P M; Hahn, Beatrice H; Kwong, Peter D; Robinson, James E; Shaw, George M

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that natural infection by HIV-2 leads to the elicitation of high titers of broadly neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against primary HIV-2 strains (T. I. de Silva, et al., J. Virol. 86:930-946, 2012; R. Kong, et al., J. Virol. 86:947-960, 2012; G. Ozkaya Sahin, et al., J. Virol. 86:961-971, 2012). Here, we describe the envelope (Env) binding and neutralization properties of 15 anti-HIV-2 human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 14 of which were newly generated from 9 chronically infected subjects. All 15 MAbs bound specifically to HIV-2 gp120 monomers and neutralized heterologous primary virus strains HIV-2(7312A) and HIV-2(ST). Ten of 15 MAbs neutralized a third heterologous primary virus strain, HIV-2(UC1). The median 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) for these MAbs were surprisingly low, ranging from 0.007 to 0.028 ?g/ml. Competitive Env binding studies revealed three MAb competition groups: CG-I, CG-II, and CG-III. Using peptide scanning, site-directed mutagenesis, chimeric Env constructions, and single-cycle virus neutralization assays, we mapped the epitope of CG-I antibodies to a linear region in variable loop 3 (V3), the epitope of CG-II antibodies to a conformational region centered on the carboxy terminus of V4, and the epitope(s) of CG-III antibodies to conformational regions associated with CD4- and coreceptor-binding sites. HIV-2 Env is thus highly immunogenic in vivo and elicits antibodies having diverse epitope specificities, high potency, and wide breadth. In contrast to the HIV-1 Env trimer, which is generally well shielded from antibody binding and neutralization, HIV-2 is surprisingly vulnerable to broadly reactive NAbs. The availability of 15 human MAbs targeting diverse HIV-2 Env epitopes can facilitate comparative studies of HIV/SIV Env structure, function, antigenicity, and immunogenicity. PMID:22933274

  13. Epitope Mapping of Broadly Neutralizing HIV-2 Human Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Rui; Li, Hui; Georgiev, Ivelin; Changela, Anita; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Decker, Julie M.; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.; Jaye, Assan; Guan, Yongjun; Lewis, George K.; Langedijk, Johannes P. M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Kwong, Peter D.; Robinson, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that natural infection by HIV-2 leads to the elicitation of high titers of broadly neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against primary HIV-2 strains (T. I. de Silva, et al., J. Virol. 86:930–946, 2012; R. Kong, et al., J. Virol. 86:947–960, 2012; G. Ozkaya Sahin, et al., J. Virol. 86:961–971, 2012). Here, we describe the envelope (Env) binding and neutralization properties of 15 anti-HIV-2 human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 14 of which were newly generated from 9 chronically infected subjects. All 15 MAbs bound specifically to HIV-2 gp120 monomers and neutralized heterologous primary virus strains HIV-27312A and HIV-2ST. Ten of 15 MAbs neutralized a third heterologous primary virus strain, HIV-2UC1. The median 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) for these MAbs were surprisingly low, ranging from 0.007 to 0.028 ?g/ml. Competitive Env binding studies revealed three MAb competition groups: CG-I, CG-II, and CG-III. Using peptide scanning, site-directed mutagenesis, chimeric Env constructions, and single-cycle virus neutralization assays, we mapped the epitope of CG-I antibodies to a linear region in variable loop 3 (V3), the epitope of CG-II antibodies to a conformational region centered on the carboxy terminus of V4, and the epitope(s) of CG-III antibodies to conformational regions associated with CD4- and coreceptor-binding sites. HIV-2 Env is thus highly immunogenic in vivo and elicits antibodies having diverse epitope specificities, high potency, and wide breadth. In contrast to the HIV-1 Env trimer, which is generally well shielded from antibody binding and neutralization, HIV-2 is surprisingly vulnerable to broadly reactive NAbs. The availability of 15 human MAbs targeting diverse HIV-2 Env epitopes can facilitate comparative studies of HIV/SIV Env structure, function, antigenicity, and immunogenicity. PMID:22933274

  14. Monoclonal antibodies: a target therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorefice, Lorena; Fenu, Giuseppe; Frau, Jessica; Coghe, Giancarlo; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. It is characterized by a proinflammatory and neurodegenerative process that results in neuroaxonal damage. Over the last two decades, a wide range of immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive treatments have been used for the management of MS. Several treatments have been developed or are under evaluation for reducing relapses, disease progression and long-term MS-related disability. Recently, a growing interest has emerged for therapeutics with very selective actions, particularly monoclonal antibodies, to target several biological pathways involved in MS. To date, only Natalizumab (Tysabri(®)) has been approved for the treatment of active MS forms. Its therapeutic mechanism is the blockade of the a4-integrin molecule of many leukocytes, which leads to a decrease of immune cells migration, in particular of lymphocytes, across the blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, other promising molecules are under study in clinical trials. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics and safety of monoclonal antibodies that have been approved or are under evaluation for the selective treatment of MS. PMID:24479836

  15. Modification of monoclonal antibody carbohydrates by oxidation, conjugation, or deoxymannojirimycin does not interfere with antibody effector functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Awwad; Phoebe G. Strome; Steven C. Gilman; Helena R. Axelrod

    1994-01-01

    Site-specific attachment of metal chelators or cytotoxic agents to the carbohydrate region of monoclonal antibodies results in clinically useful immunoconjugates [Doerr et al. (1991) Ann Surg 214: 118, Wynant et al. (1991) Prostate 18: 229]. Since the capacity of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to mediate tumor cell lysis via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) or complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) may accentuate the therapeutic

  16. Monoclonal antibodies to cyclodiene insecticides and method for detecting the same

    DOEpatents

    Stanker, Larry H. (Livermore, CA); Vanderlaan, Martin (Danville, CA); Watkins, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies useful for detection of cyclodienes in foods and environmental samples. Monoclonal antibodies specifically reactive with cyclodienes can detect accumulated pesticides in food, tissue or environmental samples. Extraction and preparation of organic samples for immunoassay in a polar-nonpolar reaction medium permits detection of halogenated organic ring structures at concentrations in samples.

  17. Monoclonal antibodies to cyclodiene insecticides and method for detecting the same

    DOEpatents

    Stanker, L.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-08-02

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies useful for detection of cyclodienes in foods and environmental samples. Monoclonal antibodies specifically reactive with cyclodienes can detect accumulated pesticides in food, tissue or environmental samples. Extraction and preparation of organic samples for immunoassay in a polar-nonpolar reaction medium permits detection of halogenated organic ring structures at concentrations in samples. 13 figs.

  18. A Novel Monoclonal Anti-CD81 Antibody Produced by Genetic Immunization Efficiently Inhibits Hepatitis C

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    strategies. Methods: Using genetic immunization, we produced four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) againstA Novel Monoclonal Anti-CD81 Antibody Produced by Genetic Immunization Efficiently Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Cell-Cell Transmission Isabel Fofana1,2 , Fei Xiao1,2 , Christine Thumann1,2 , Marine

  19. STRUCTURE OF ADENOASSOCIATED VIRUS2 IN COMPLEX WITH NEUTRALIZING MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY A20

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    STRUCTURE OF ADENOASSOCIATED VIRUS2 IN COMPLEX WITH NEUTRALIZING MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY A20 Dustin Adenoassociated virus; Antibody; A20, Epitope; Fab'; Gene therapy; Monoclonal ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS AAV The use of adenoassociated virus (AAV) as a gene therapy vector is limited by the host neutralizing

  20. Immunopathology of renal allograft rejection analyzed with monoclonal antibodies to mononuclear cell markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Alex Bishop; Bruce M Hall; Geoffrey G Duggin; John S Horvath; A G Ross Sheil; David J Tiller

    1986-01-01

    Immunopathology of renal allograft rejection analyzed with monoclonal antibodies to mononuclear cell markers. The composition of the mononuclear cell infiltrate in rejecting renal allografts was determined on 96 renal biopsies and 22 nephrectomy specimens by the use of monoclonal antibodies to mononuclear cell surface markers and an indirect immunoperoxidase staining technique. During rejection the composition of the infiltrate was heterogeneous,

  1. Monoclonal antibody typing of Chlamydia psittaci strains derived from avian and mammalian species.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushi, H; Nojiri, K; Hirai, K

    1987-01-01

    A total of 77 Chlamydia psittaci strains of avian, human, and mammalian origin were grouped into four serovars with 11 monoclonal antibodies recognizing the lipopolysaccharide and the major outer membrane protein antigens. The avian and human strains, which were closely related to each other, were distinct from the mammalian strains. Immunological typing of C. psittaci with monoclonal antibodies seems practical. PMID:3667918

  2. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for chicken interleukin 18

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which are specific for chicken interleukin 18 (chIL18) were produced and characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR and neutralization assays. Monoclonal antibodies specific for chIL18 identified a ...

  3. [Production and characteristics of monoclonal antibodies to the diphtheria toxin].

    PubMed

    Valiakina, T I; Lakhtina, O E; Komaleva, R L; Simonova, M A; Samokhvalova, L V; Shoshina, N S; Kalinina, N A; Rubina, A Iu; Filippova, M A; Vertiev, Iu V; Grishin, E V

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to the diphtheria toxin were produced without cross reactivity with the thermolabile toxin (LT) from Escherichia coli; ricin; choleraic toxin; the SeA, SeB, SeE, SeI, and SeG toxins of staphylococcus; the lethal factor of the anthrax toxin; and the protective antigen of the anthrax toxin. A pair of antibodies for the quantitative determination of the diphtheria toxin in the sandwich variation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was chosen. The determination limit of the toxin was 0.7 ng/ml in plate and 1.6 ng/ml in microchip ELISA. The presence of a secretion from the nasopharynx lavage did not decrease the sensitivity of the toxin determination by sandwich ELISA. The immunization of mice with the diphtheria toxin and with a conjugate of the diphtheria toxin with polystyrene microspheres demonstrated that the conjugate immunization resulted in the formation of hybridoma clones which produced antibodies only to the epitopes of the A fragment of the diphtheria toxin. The immunization with the native toxin caused the production of hybridoma clones which predominantly produced antibodies to the epitopes of the B fragment. PMID:19915639

  4. Examination of HER3 targeting in cancer using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gaborit, Nadège; Abdul-Hai, Ali; Mancini, Maicol; Lindzen, Moshit; Lavi, Sara; Leitner, Orith; Mounier, Lucile; Chentouf, Myriam; Dunoyer, Sai; Ghosh, Manjusha; Larbouret, Christel; Chardès, Thierry; Bazin, Hervé; Pèlegrin, André; Sela, Michael; Yarden, Yosef

    2015-01-20

    The human EGF receptor (HER/EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases serves as a key target for cancer therapy. Specifically, EGFR and HER2 have been repeatedly targeted because of their genetic aberrations in tumors. The therapeutic potential of targeting HER3 has long been underestimated, due to relatively low expression in tumors and impaired kinase activity. Nevertheless, in addition to serving as a dimerization partner of EGFR and HER2, HER3 acts as a key player in tumor cells' ability to acquire resistance to cancer drugs. In this study, we generated several monoclonal antibodies to HER3. Comparisons of their ability to degrade HER3, decrease downstream signaling, and inhibit growth of cultured cells, as well as recruit immune effector cells, selected an antibody that later emerged as the most potent inhibitor of pancreatic cancer cells grown as tumors in animals. Our data predict that anti-HER3 antibodies able to intercept autocrine and stroma-tumor interactions might strongly inhibit tumor growth, in analogy to the mechanism of action of anti-EGFR antibodies routinely used now to treat colorectal cancer patients. PMID:25564668

  5. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against FABP4.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, Olena; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan

    2006-04-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is a key mediator of intracellular transport and metabolism of fatty acids in adipose tissues. FABP4 binds fatty acids with high affinity and transports them to various compartments in the cell. When in complex with fatty acids, FABP4 interacts with and modulates the activity of two important regulators of metabolism: hormone-sensitive lipase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Genetic studies in mice clearly indicated that deregulation of FABP4 function may lead to the development of severe diseases such as diabetes II type and atherosclerosis. In this study, we report the production and detailed characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against FABP4. Recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST)-FABP4 or His-FABP4 was expressed in bacteria, affinity purified, and used for immunization of mice, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening, and characterization of selected clones. We have isolated two hybridoma clones that produced antibodies specific for recombinant and native FABP4, as shown by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. The specificity of generated antibodies was further tested in a cell-based model of adipogenesis. In this analysis, the accumulation of FABP4 during NIH 3T3-L1 differentiation into adipocytes was detected by generated antibodies, which correlates well with previously published data. Taken together, we produced MAbs that will be useful for the scientific community working on fatty acid-binding proteins and lipid metabolism. PMID:16704309

  6. Antibodies in infectious diseases: polyclonals, monoclonals and niche biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jody D; Gaudet, Ryan G

    2011-09-01

    Antibody preparations have a long history of providing protection from infectious diseases. Although antibodies remain the only natural host-derived defense mechanism capable of completely preventing infection, as products, they compete against inexpensive therapeutics such as antibiotics, small molecule inhibitors and active vaccines. The continued discovery in the monoclonal antibody (mAb) field of leads with broadened cross neutralization of viruses and demonstrable synergy of antibody with antibiotics for bacterial diseases, clearly show that innovation remains. The commercial success of mAbs in chronic disease has not been paralleled in infectious diseases for several reasons. Infectious disease immunotherapeutics are limited in scope as endemic diseases necessitate active vaccine development. Also, the complexity of these small markets draws the interest of niche companies rather than big pharmaceutical corporations. Lastly, the cost of goods for mAb therapeutics is inherently high for infectious agents due to the need for antibody cocktails, which better mimic polyclonal immunoglobulin preparations and prevent antigenic escape. In cases where vaccine or convalescent populations are available, current polyclonal hyperimmune immunoglobulin preparations (pIgG), with modern and highly efficient purification technology and standardized assays for potency, can make economic sense. Recent innovations to broaden the potency of mAb therapies, while reducing cost of production, are discussed herein. On the basis of centuries of effective use of Ab treatments, and with growing immunocompromised populations, the question is not whether antibodies have a bright future for infectious agents, but rather what formats are cost effective and generate safe and efficacious treatments to satisfy regulatory approval. PMID:21473942

  7. Immunologic characterization and specificity of three monoclonal antibodies against the 58-kilodalton protein of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, J S; Plikaytis, B B; Aloisio, C H; Carlone, G M; Pau, C P; Stinson, A R

    1991-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies against the Legionella pneumophila 58-kDa protein were produced. By using immunoblot analysis, the percentages of reactivity against 47 serogroups of Legionella representing 29 species were determined to be 80.9, 87.2, and 95.6 for monoclonal antibodies GB5BE8, GB5AF6, and CA4AF5, respectively. Specificities obtained from testing 63 heterologous organisms representing 22 genera and 46 species were 90.7, 92.2, and 95.3% for monoclonal antibodies GB5BE8, GB5AF6, and CA4AF5, respectively. No single heterologous strain was reactive with all three monoclonal antibodies. These monoclonal antibodies successfully identified all 10 clinical isolates of Legionella examined in a dot blot assay and should be excellent reagents for use in genuswide diagnostic immunoassays. Images PMID:1890189

  8. Granulocyte function after labeling with monoclonal antigranulocyte antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Geatti, O.; Petry, N.; Wahl, R.L.; Juni, J.

    1985-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) raised against blood elements such as granulocytes (G) hold potential as radioimmunoimaging agents. The functional status of G labeled in this fashion has not been studied. Chemiluminescence (CL), a test measuring light output related to the phagocytic respiratory burst, was used to make such an assessment. G from 5 donors were separately purified by sedimentation and differential centrifugation. An aliquot of cells from each donor was washed with saline only (controls). Aliquots of donor cells were also reacted with 1 ..mu..Ci of I-131-NEI-044 murine monoclonal anti-granulocyte antibody (IgM), 1 ..mu..Ci of I-125 UPC-10 (a murine mycloma protein of no known specificity), and with 20 ..mu..Ci of In-111 oxine. After labeling, CL was determined over 30 minutes after presenting the WBC's with opsonized zymosan A particles. Approximately 15% of the I-131 NEI-44 added bound to the white cells, while only 1-2% of the UPC-10 bound to the granulocyte targets. Although there was considerable variability in the data, the mean CL of the control cells was 243.2 CL units/cell. NEI-044 labeled cells mean CL was 281.4 CL/cell, while granulocytes reacted with UPC-10 had a mean CL of 227.8. In-111 labeled cells mean CL was considerably lower at 71.2 CL units/cell. CL intensity for NEI-044 labeled cells was overall comparable to control cells, though in 2 cases NEI-044 labeled cell's CL was much higher than controls. Cross-linking of the antibody on the cell surface may be responsible. Indium-111 cells appear to have a marked diminution in CL intensity in contrast to MoAb labeled and control cells. Additional studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical significance of these findings.

  9. Fully human HER2/cluster of differentiation 3 bispecific antibody triggers potent and specific cytotoxicity of T lymphocytes against breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, YAN; GOU, LAN-TU; GUO, ZHI-HUI; LIU, HAI-RONG; WANG, JIANG-MAN; ZHOU, SHU-XIAN; YANG, JIN-LIANG; LI, XIAO-AN

    2015-01-01

    The use of a bispecific antibody (BsAb) is a promising and highly specific approach to cancer therapy. In the present study, a fully human recombinant single chain variable fragment BsAb against human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2 and cluster of differentiation (CD)3 was constructed with the aim of developing an effective treatment for breast cancer. HER2/CD3 BsAb was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and purified via nickel column chromatography. Flow cytometry revealed that the HER2/CD3 BsAb was able to specifically bind to HER2 and CD3-positive cells. HER2/CD3 BsAb was able to stimulate T-cell activation and induce the lysis of cultured SKBR-3 and BT474 cells in the presence of unstimulated T lymphocytes. HER2/CD3 BsAb efficiently inhibited the growth of breast cancer tissue by activating and inducing the proliferation of tumor tissue infiltrating lymphocytes. Therefore, HER2/CD3 BsAb is a potent tool which may be a suitable candidate for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25760691

  10. Fully human HER2/cluster of differentiation 3 bispecific antibody triggers potent and specific cytotoxicity of T lymphocytes against breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Gou, Lan-Tu; Guo, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Hai-Rong; Wang, Jiang-Man; Zhou, Shu-Xian; Yang, Jin-Liang; Li, Xiao-An

    2015-07-01

    The use of a bispecific antibody (BsAb) is a promising and highly specific approach to cancer therapy. In the present study, a fully human recombinant single chain variable fragment BsAb against human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2 and cluster of differentiation (CD)3 was constructed with the aim of developing an effective treatment for breast cancer. HER2/CD3 BsAb was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and purified via nickel column chromatography. Flow cytometry revealed that the HER2/CD3 BsAb was able to specifically bind to HER2 and CD3?positive cells. HER2/CD3 BsAb was able to stimulate T-cell activation and induce the lysis of cultured SKBR?3 and BT474 cells in the presence of unstimulated T lymphocytes. HER2/CD3 BsAb efficiently inhibited the growth of breast cancer tissue by activating and inducing the proliferation of tumor tissue infiltrating lymphocytes. Therefore, HER2/CD3 BsAb is a potent tool which may be a suitable candidate for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25760691

  11. One-step mixing with humanized anti-mPEG bispecific antibody enhances tumor accumulation and therapeutic efficacy of mPEGylated nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chien-Han; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Chuang, Kuo-Hsiang; Chuang, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Ta-Chun; Hsieh, Yuan-Chin; Tseng, Yun-Long; Chen, Bing-Mae; Roffler, Steve R; Cheng, Tian-Lu

    2014-12-01

    Methoxy PEGylated nanoparticles (mPEG-NPs) are increasingly used for cancer imaging and therapy. Here we describe a general and simple approach to confer tumor tropism to any mPEG-NP. We demonstrate this approach with humanized bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) that can bind to both mPEG molecules on mPEG-NPs and to EGFR or HER2 molecules overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells. Simple mixing of BsAbs with mPEG-NPs can mediate preferential binding of diverse mPEG-NPs to cancer cells that overexpress EGFR or HER2 under physiological conditions and significantly increase cancer cell killing by liposomal doxorubicin to EGFR(+) and HER2(+) cancer cells. BsAbs modification also enhanced accumulation of fluorescence-labeled NPs and significantly increased the anticancer activity of drug-loaded NPs to antigen-positive human tumors in a mouse model. Anti-mPEG BsAbs offer a simple one-step method to confer tumor specificity to mPEG-NPs for enhanced tumor accumulation and improved therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25212525

  12. A phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13 in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Achim; Sasse, Stephanie; Topp, Max S; Eichenauer, Dennis A; Hummel, Horst; Reiners, Katrin S; Dietlein, Markus; Kuhnert, Georg; Kessler, Joerg; Buerkle, Carolin; Ravic, Miroslav; Knackmuss, Stefan; Marschner, Jens-Peter; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke; Borchmann, Peter; Engert, Andreas

    2015-06-25

    AFM13 is a bispecific, tetravalent chimeric antibody construct (TandAb) designed for the treatment of CD30-expressing malignancies. AFM13 recruits natural killer (NK) cells via binding to CD16A as immune effector cells. In this phase 1 dose-escalation study, 28 patients with heavily pretreated relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma received AFM13 at doses of 0.01 to 7 mg/kg body weight. Primary objectives were safety and tolerability. Secondary objectives included pharmacokinetics, antitumor activity, and pharmacodynamics. Adverse events were generally mild to moderate. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached. Pharmacokinetics assessment revealed a half-life of up to 19 hours. Three of 26 evaluable patients achieved partial remission (11.5%) and 13 patients achieved stable disease (50%), with an overall disease control rate of 61.5%. AFM13 was also active in brentuximab vedotin-refractory patients. In 13 patients who received doses of ?1.5 mg/kg AFM13, the overall response rate was 23% and the disease control rate was 77%. AFM13 treatment resulted in a significant NK-cell activation and a decrease of soluble CD30 in peripheral blood. In conclusion, AFM13 represents a well-tolerated, safe, and active targeted immunotherapy of Hodgkin lymphoma. A phase 2 study is currently planned to optimize the dosing schedule in order to further improve the therapeutic efficacy. This phase 1 study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01221571. PMID:25887777

  13. A monoclonal antibody to brush border and passive Heymann nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Ronco, P; Allegri, L; Melcion, C; Pirotsky, E; Appay, M D; Bariety, J; Pontillon, F; Verroust, P

    1984-01-01

    An IgG2a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) reacting with the brush border of the renal proximal tubule and glomerular capillary wall was produced by fusion of NS1 myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with renal brush border preparations from rat kidney cortex. This antibody reacts with a 90,000 mol. wt protein which can be isolated by immunoprecipitation of radiolabelled brush border or glomerular preparations and localized on these structures by immunoperoxidase electron microscopy, thus demonstrating the presence of common antigenic determinants. Survey of various organs showed that the MoAb reacted with the brush border of the gut, but also with antigens associated with the distal vascular system. In the liver antigenic determinants were located along the sinusoid walls but mainly on bile canaliculi. Specific glomerular binding could be demonstrated in vivo by immunofluorescence after an intravenous injection of 2 mg of antibody or by paired label methodology using tracer amounts. Kinetics however were dramatically different from those observed in classical passive Heymann nephritis since glomerular binding was transient during the first hours after injection. Binding was also found in tubular structures, as well as in lung, liver, spleen and heart. These results identify a well defined antigen-antibody system responsible for the formation of transient extramembranous glomerular deposits and may be relevant to some human cases of glomerulonephritis. They may also provide new models to study glomerular and tubular transfer of membrane bound antibodies. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 PMID:6365376

  14. Biodistributions of intact monoclonal antibodies and fragments of BLCA-38, a new prostate cancer directed antibody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Carter; Katy Sterling-Levis; Kim Ow; Larissa Doughty; Meghan Hattarki; Deborah Shapira; Dean Hewish; Alexander A. Kortt; Pamela J. Russell

    2004-01-01

    Background: Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are used for targeting agents to tumours while minimizing normal tissue exposure. Methods: A new anti–prostate cancer MAb, BLCA-38, was radioiodinated (I 125) and assessed for its ability to target subcutaneous human prostate cancer (DU-145) xenografts after systemic intraperitoneal administration. For comparison, the profile of J591 MAb (now in clinical trial) against LNCaP-LN3 tumours was examined.

  15. A novel method of Multiplexed Competitive Antibody Binning for the characterization of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiao-Chi; Raya, Robert; Zhang, Li; Foord, Orit; Walker, Wynn L; Gallo, Michael L; Haak-Frendscho, Mary; Green, Larry L; Davis, C Geoffrey

    2004-05-01

    We have developed a novel method of high-throughput Multiplexed Competitive Antibody Binning (MCAB). Using only a small amount of antibody and antigen, this method enables the sorting of a large, complex panel of monoclonal antibodies into different bins based on cross-competition for antigen binding. The MCAB assay builds on Luminex multiplexing bead-based technology to detect antibody competition. Because of its high sensitivity, the MCAB method is immediately applicable after identification of antigen-positive mAbs, providing information useful for advancing mAb candidates into further testing. The MCAB assay also can be used for sorting mAbs into binding groups after screening for functional activity. PMID:15183088

  16. Kinetics of interstitially administered monoclonal antibodies for purposes of lymphoscintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R L; Geatti, O; Liebert, M; Wilson, B; Shreve, P; Beers, B A

    1987-11-01

    The clearance rates of radiolabeled murine monoclonal intact IgG, F(ab')2 Fab and of an IgM following subcutaneous administration were evaluated in normal mice and rats using nuclear imaging and counting techniques. These studies suggest no significant difference in clearance rate exists between intact IgG and its F(ab')2 fragment, and little difference between these moieties and intact IgM. Fab is cleared considerably faster than the others, however. While significant differences in clearance rates exist, the magnitude of the differences are not as large as those following intravenous injection particularly when ambulation by the animal is allowed. When ambulation is allowed, clearance rates of all classes and fragments are accelerated and quite similar. Injection into the subcutaneous tissues of the footpad results in consistently faster clearance than an injection into the subcutaneous tissues of the abdomen. Ambulation considerably increased the clearance of antibodies, presumably by increasing lymph flow. These studies imply that the choice of intact antibody versus fragments for kinetic reasons may be less critical (particularly if ambulation is allowed) by the subcutaneous as compared with the intravenous delivery route. This kinetic information should be useful in designing imaging protocols with radiolabeled antibodies administered subcutaneously for purposes of imaging disease processes involving the lymphatics. PMID:3668665

  17. Microchip assays for screening monoclonal antibody product quality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Tang, Kaiyan; Lee, Maximilian; Flynn, Gregory C

    2008-12-01

    Microchip CE-SDS was evaluated as a high-throughput alternative to conventional CE-SDS for monitoring monoclonal antibody protein quality. A commercial instrument (LabChip) 90) was used to separate dodecyl sulfate coated proteins through a sieving polymer based on the proteins' sizes. Under reducing conditions, the microchip CE-SDS separation was similar to that of conventional CE-SDS, providing reasonable resolution of the non-glycosylated and the glycosylated heavy chains. The fluorescence detection on LabChip 90 using non-covalent fluorescent labeling method was about as sensitive as the 220 nm UV detection used in a conventional CE instrument. A simple glycan typing assay was developed for the reducing microchip CE-SDS format. Antibodies, either pure or in crude cell culture media are treated with Endoglycosidase H, which specifically cleaves the hybrid and high mannose type glycans. A heavy chain migration shift on reducing CE-SDS resulting from the loss of glycan is used to measure the level of high mannose/hybrid type glycans as a percentage of the total glycans. Microchip CE-SDS, under both non-reducing and reducing conditions, can be used in a variety of antibody product screening assays. The microchip analyses provide sufficient resolution and sensitivity for this purpose but on a time scale approximately 70 times faster (41 s versus 50 min per sample) than conventional CE separation under typical operational conditions. PMID:19130579

  18. Monoclonal Antibody Analysis of Keratin Expression in the Central Nervous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franko, Maryellen C.; Gibbs, Clarence J.; Rhoades, Dorothy A.; Carleton Gajdusek, D.

    1987-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody directed against a 65-kDa brain protein demonstrates an epitope found in keratin from human epidermis. By indirect immunofluorescence, the antibody decorates intracytoplasmic filaments in a subclass of astrocytes and Purkinje cells of adult hamster brain. Double-label immunofluorescence study using antibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein and this antibody reveals the 65-kDa protein to be closely associated with glial filaments in astrocytes of fetal mouse brain cultures. Immunoblot analysis of purified human epidermal keratin and hamster brain homogenate confirms the reactivity of this antibody to epidermal keratin polypeptides. All the major epidermal keratins were recognized by this antibody. It did not bind to the remaining major intermediate filament proteins. These findings suggest that monoclonal antibody 34C9 recognizes a cytoskeletal structure connected with intermediate filaments. In addition, the monoclonal antibody demonstrates that epidermal keratins share an epitope not only among themselves but also with a ``neural keratin.''

  19. Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Effector Cells Selectively Lyse Human Melanoma Cells in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Gregor; Bumol, Thomas F.; Reisfeld, Ralph A.

    1983-09-01

    Monoclonal antibody 9.2.27 (mAb 9.2.27) directed to a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan on human melanoma cells was able to suppress tumor growth in athymic (nu/nu) mice more effectively when bound with polyethylene glycol to murine effector cells than when injected alone. These ``armed'' effector cells also proved more effective than the monoclonal antibody in eliciting antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against human melanoma target cells in vitro.

  20. Neutralization of Yellow Fever Virus Studied Using Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Buckley; E. A. Gould

    1985-01-01

    SUMMARY Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies with known specificity for either the 54K envelope glycoprotein or the 48K non-structural glycoprotein of yellow fever (YF) virus-infected cells were studied in plaque reduction neutralization tests. Viruses employed in the tests comprised wild-type and vaccine strains of YF and a selection of other flaviviruses. Of 17 monoclonal antibodies examined, six of the 54K-specific antibodies

  1. [Preparation of monoclonal antibody against bovine phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Meilei; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yanfei; Wang, Ying; Dai, Yifan

    2015-06-01

    Objective To prepare the monoclonal antibody against bovine phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and characterize its biological functions. Methods The recombinant plasmid containing PEPCK gene was constructed and used to transfect Escherichia coli. After expression induction in E.coli, the recombinant protein PEPCK was purified and used to immunize BALB/c mice. After the spleen B cells in the immunized mice were fused with murine myeloma cells, the positive clones were identified and selected by indirect ELISA for titer determination. PEPCK mAb produced by the positive hybridoma cells was enriched and its biological functions were examined by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunoprecipitation. Results One hybridoma cell line steadily secreting PEPCK mAb was successfully generated, namely 3D36H. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunoprecipitation showed that the PEPCK mAb was able to specifically bind to bovine PEPCK protein. Conclusion The bovine PEPCK mAb was prepared successfully and had a good ability and specificity. PMID:26062429

  2. Monoclonal Antibodies Against NS2B of Japanese Encephalitis Virus.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Xu, Qiuping; Ruan, Xindi; Huang, Shaomei; Cao, Shengbo

    2015-04-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most important viral encephalitis, caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). The function of non-structural protein 2B (NS2B) mostly remains unclear. In our study, NS2B of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by dialysis. After fusing mouse myeloma cell line SP2/0 with spleen lymphocytes from NS2B protein immunized mice, three clones of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), named 1B9, 3E12, and 4E6, were generated. The specificity and sensitivity of MAbs were demonstrated by ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and Western blot. These MAbs will be useful in further exploration of the functions of NS2B and the pathogenesis of Japanese encephalitis virus. PMID:25897607

  3. [Monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Seco, Victoria Galán; Casanova Peño, Ignacio; Arroyo González, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    Until the mid 1990s, with the appearance of interferon beta and glatiramer acetate, there was no treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). However, due to their moderate therapeutic potential in some patients, a broad search was continued to find new and more effective treatment strategies, largely concentrated on monoclonal antibodies (MOAB). Natalizumab, the first MOAB for the treatment of MS, was approved at the end of 2004, representing a major advance in the field of neuroimmunology. Today, there is broad experience with natalizumab and other MOAB (alemtuzumab, daclizumab, rituximab, ocrelizumab, ofatumumab and anti-lingo-1) that are pending commercialization or are under phase II or III of development with promising results. The present review analyzes the efficacy and safety results of all these drugs. PMID:25732947

  4. Novel CD20 monoclonal antibodies for lymphoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Cang, Shundong; Mukhi, Nikhil; Wang, Kemeng; Liu, Delong

    2012-01-01

    Rituximab (RTX), a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against CD20, has been widely used for lymphoma therapy. RTX in combination with cyclophosphamide /doxorubicin /vincristine /prednisone (R-CHOP) remains the standard frontline regimen for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. However, suboptimal response and /or resistance to rituximab have remained a challenge in the therapy of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Novel agents are under active clinical trials. This review will summarize the latest development in new mAbs against CD20, which include second-generation mAbs, ofatumumab, veltuzumab (IMMU-106), ocrelizumab (PRO70769), and third-generation mAbs, AME-133v (ocaratuzumab), PRO131921 and GA101 (obinutumumab). PMID:23057966

  5. Novel CD20 monoclonal antibodies for lymphoma therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rituximab (RTX), a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against CD20, has been widely used for lymphoma therapy. RTX in combination with cyclophosphamide /doxorubicin /vincristine /prednisone (R-CHOP) remains the standard frontline regimen for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. However, suboptimal response and /or resistance to rituximab have remained a challenge in the therapy of B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Novel agents are under active clinical trials. This review will summarize the latest development in new mAbs against CD20, which include second-generation mAbs, ofatumumab, veltuzumab (IMMU-106), ocrelizumab (PRO70769), and third-generation mAbs, AME-133v (ocaratuzumab), PRO131921 and GA101 (obinutumumab). PMID:23057966

  6. Monoclonal Antibodies for Specific Detection of Encephalitozoon cuniculi

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Lan; Drancourt, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Seven species-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against Encephalitozoon cuniculi and characterized. The MAbs were immunoglobulin G, and when used for indirect microimmunofluorescence microscopy and Western immunoblot assays, they detected E. cuniculi originating from clinical samples. They did not cross-react with other Encephalitozoon species (E. intestinalis and E. hellem) or with a collection of gram-negative bacteria, yeast, and other parasites. The MAbs reacted primarily with 121-, 56-, 45-, 43-, and 41-kDa protein epitopes of E. cuniculi. These epitopes were demonstrated to be E. cuniculi species specific by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We developed MAbs to strains of E. cuniculi that can be used successfully to distinguish E. cuniculi from other microsporidial species in cultures established from clinical specimens. These MAbs may provide a specific, simple, rapid, and low-cost tool for the identification and diagnosis of infections due to microsporidia. PMID:15539506

  7. Rapid purification of monoclonal antibodies using magnetic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Malinge, Pauline; Magistrelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic microspheres represent an interesting alternative to conventional chromatography resins in automated high-throughput protocols replacing centrifugation and filtration by magnetic separation. Some magnetic microspheres have unique features like high magnetite content and non-porous surface which allows them to migrate very fast in magnetic fields while binding target molecules with a low unspecific adsorption. Here, we describe the use of protein A or protein G-coated magnetic microspheres to purify quickly monoclonal antibodies from crude serum-free supernatants without the need of preliminary clarification or purification step. Using this method, multiple samples can be processed in parallel, a high level of purity can be obtained, and the purified IgG maintain their biological activity. PMID:24515471

  8. A highly sensitive caffeine immunoassay based on a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, José João; Weller, Michael G; Panne, Ulrich; Schneider, Rudolf J

    2010-04-01

    A new immunoassay has been developed based on a commercially available anti-caffeine monoclonal antibody and a de novo synthesized tracer, using horseradish peroxidase and UV-visible detection. Caffeine, which is frequently found in surface waters, can be quantified with a relative error lower than 20% for concentrations above 0.025 microg L(-1) (limit of quantitation, direct analysis). The limit of detection is 0.001 microg L(-1) and can be reduced by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Moreover, with minor adaptations, the assay can be used to quantify caffeine in several beverages, shampoo, and caffeine tablets. The results obtained by ELISA correlate well with those from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) for the tested matrices. Several surface waters from Berlin were analysed and all tested positive for caffeine, with concentrations higher than 0.030 microg L(-1). In one run 66 samples can be analysed within 2 h. PMID:20155491

  9. Separation of monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab monomer and dimers using ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yinhua; Vasan, Seshadri; Ghosh, Raja; Hale, Geoff; Cui, Zhanfeng

    2005-05-20

    This article examines the feasibility of using ultrafiltration to separate the monomer of the monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab (Campath or Campath-1H) from a mixture of dimer and higher-order oligomers (collectively called "dimers" here). Using parameter scanning ultrafiltration, we initially assessed the suitability of the following membranes: 100 kDa and 300 kDa polyethersulfone (PES) membranes, and a 100 kDa polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. A detailed study was then carried out to examine the effects of operating conditions (such as solution pH, ionic strength, stirring speed, and permeate flux) on the separation of the monomer from the dimers using 300 kDa PES and 100 kDa PVDF membranes. Results of the experiments carried out in the carrier phase ultrafiltration (CPUF) mode indicate that the size-based protein-protein separation critically depends on the membrane used as well as the system hydrodynamics. The separation of the monoclonal antibody monomer and dimers using 100 kDa PVDF membranes in the diafiltration mode was also examined. Experimental results demonstrate that under suitable conditions, it is feasible to obtain the alemtuzumab monomer with a purity of more than 93% and a yield of more than 85% (from a mixture of 75% monomer and 25% dimers, which is the typical composition obtained after affinity chromatography). Simulation study indicates that this could be further improved to a purity of more than 96% and a monomer yield of more than 96% by increasing the selectivity of separation or by employing a two-stage diafiltration process. PMID:15812802

  10. The history of monoclonal antibody development - Progress, remaining challenges and future innovations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Justin K H

    2014-12-01

    As medicine progresses into a new era of personalised therapy, the use of monoclonal antibodies to treat a wide range of diseases lies at the heart of this new forefront. Since the licencing of the first monoclonal antibody for clinical use 30 years ago, the monoclonal antibody industry has expanded exponentially and is now valued at billions of dollars. With major advances in genetic sequencing and biomedical research, much research into monoclonal antibodies now focuses on identifying new targets for development and maximising their efficacy for use in clinical practice. However, a balance has to be struck with regards to reducing numbers of side-effects and overall economic cost, which arguably somewhat blighted their early clinical and commercial successes. Nowadays, there are approximately 30 monoclonal antibodies that have been approved for use in clinical practice with many more currently being tested in clinical trials. Some of the current major limitations include: the use of inefficient models for generation, a lack of efficacy and issues of cost-effectiveness. Some of the current research focuses on ways to improve the efficacy of existing monoclonal antibodies through optimising their effects and the addition of beneficial modifications. This review will focus on the history of monoclonal antibody development - how it has increasingly moved away from using laborious animal models to a more effective phage display system, some of the major drawbacks from a clinical and economical point of view and future innovations that are currently being researched to maximise their effectiveness for future clinical use. PMID:25568796

  11. Mapping the idiotopes of a monoclonal anti-myoglobin antibody with syngeneic monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies: detection of a common idiotope.

    PubMed

    Streicher, H Z; Cuttitta, F; Buckenmeyer, G K; Kawamura, H; Minna, J; Berzofsky, J A

    1986-02-01

    A panel of syngeneic monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies was prepared by immunizing A.SW mice with keyhole limpet hemocyanin-coupled A.SW monoclonal anti-myoglobin (HAL 19, IgG1) and screening the cloned hybridomas for production of IgG2 binding to idiotype but not to certain other anti-myoglobin antibodies of the same subclass in an ELISA. With these antibodies, we identified three nonoverlapping idiotopes, based on three clusters of monoclonal anti-idiotopes that mutually inhibit within each cluster, but not between clusters (Cluster I: S2, S6, S8; Cluster II: S5, S7; Cluster III: S9). Only Cluster II antibodies block the binding of myoglobin to HAL 19 and so identify a binding site-related idiotope(s). Binding of both Cluster II monoclonals (S5 and S7) to Hal 19 is inhibited by a rabbit anti-idiotype that we previously reported detects a common cross-reactive anti-myoglobin idiotope in immune sera. However, only one of these, S7, and not S5, identifies an idiotope that is present on 20 to 30% of A.SW anti-myoglobin antibodies in immune sera and ascites. The panel of syngeneic monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies also detects new idiotopes not detected by the rabbit anti-idiotype. The development of a panel of syngeneic monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies to different clusters of idiotopes on the same antibody molecule, including one that identifies a major common idiotope in immune sera, should allow the analysis of possible idiotype network regulation in vivo and in vitro in a completely syngeneic system. PMID:3484497

  12. Tumour localization of monoclonal antibody against a rat mammary carcinoma and suppression of tumour growth with adriamycin-antibody conjugates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm V. Pimm; Jean A. Jones; Michael R. Price; John G. Middle; Michael J. Embleton; Robert W. Baldwin

    1995-01-01

    Summary  Monoclonal antibody to the rat mammary carcinoma Sp4 isolated from hybridoma supernatants and labelled with 125I showed preferential in vivo localization into subcutaneous growths of Sp4 compared with normal tissues and a range of other transplanted tumours. No specific localization was seen with 125I-labelled normal rat immunoglobulin. Adriamycin conjugated to monoclonal antibody significantly retarded Sp4 tumour growth at 1\\/25th of

  13. Monoclonal antibodies neutralizing the haemolytic activity of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) tentacle extracts.

    PubMed

    Collins, S P; Comis, A; Marshall, M; Hartwick, R F; Howden, M E

    1993-09-01

    1. Three monoclonal antibodies have been produced which neutralize in vitro the haemolytic activity present in tentacle extracts of the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri). 2. Two of these monoclonal antibodies bound specifically to a component of relative molecular mass 50,000 in tentacle extract on Western blots. 3. This binding only occurred when the extracts were electrophoresed under non-reducing conditions. 4. The third monoclonal antibody did not display binding to Western blots of tentacle extract under any of our experimental conditions. PMID:8104761

  14. Production of monoclonal antibodies against human 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase and immunocytochemical localization of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Guzman, J; Schoedon, G; Blau, N

    1992-01-31

    Monoclonal antibodies were produced against human pituitary gland 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase, one of the key enzymes in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, by in vitro immunization with the antigen directly blotted from SDS-PAGE to polyvinylidene difluoride membranes. The antibodies produced show crossreactivity in the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, not only with the human 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase but some also with the same enzyme isolated from salmon liver. 6-Pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase was localized immuno-enzymatically in peripheral blood smears and in skin fibroblasts by the use of these monoclonal antibodies and the alkaline phosphatase monoclonal anti-alkaline phosphatase labeling technique. PMID:1734883

  15. Toxoplasma gondii: a monoclonal antibody that inhibits intracellular replication.

    PubMed

    Mineo, J R; Khan, I A; Kasper, L H

    1994-11-01

    During its intracellular life cycle within the infected host cell, Toxoplasma gondii is able to undergo rapid asexual replication. Neither the mechanism by which the parasite initiates this process nor the requirements for maintaining it are understood. We produced a monoclonal antibody, 1B8, that identifies a parasite antigen of approximate M(r) 97 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. The epitope recognized by mAb 1B8 appears as a collection of vesicular structures scattered throughout the cell cytoplasm. When RH strain parasites are incubated with mAb 1B8 in the absence of serum complement, parasite growth is inhibited by > 90% as determined by radioisotope incorporation. Both attachment and invasion assays show that neither of these parasite-host cell interactions are inhibited by the mAb. However, a marked reduction in the number of intracellular rosettes was observed following mAb treatment of the parasites. Viable extracellular parasites are able to endocytose mAb 1B8. Once within the parasite cytosol the antibody recognizes the vesicular structures similar to those observed with fixed parasites. Immunofluorescence assays with Besnoitia jellisoni and Plasmodium falciparum show that the epitope recognized by mAb 1B8 is conserved among Coccidiae but not the kinetoplastid Leishmania. PMID:7525337

  16. Macrophages eliminate circulating tumor cells after monoclonal antibody therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gül, Nuray; Babes, Liane; Siegmund, Kerstin; Korthouwer, Rianne; Bögels, Marijn; Braster, Rens; Vidarsson, Gestur; ten Hagen, Timo L.M.; Kubes, Paul; van Egmond, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as therapeutic tools has increased dramatically in the last decade and is now one of the mainstream strategies to treat cancer. Nonetheless, it is still not completely understood how mAbs mediate tumor cell elimination or the effector cells that are involved. Using intravital microscopy, we found that antibody-dependent phagocytosis (ADPh) by macrophages is a prominent mechanism for removal of tumor cells from the circulation in a murine tumor cell opsonization model. Tumor cells were rapidly recognized and arrested by liver macrophages (Kupffer cells). In the absence of mAbs, Kupffer cells sampled tumor cells; however, this sampling was not sufficient for elimination. By contrast, antitumor mAb treatment resulted in rapid phagocytosis of tumor cells by Kupffer cells that was dependent on the high-affinity IgG-binding Fc receptor (Fc?RI) and the low-affinity IgG-binding Fc receptor (Fc?RIV). Uptake and intracellular degradation were independent of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species production. Importantly, ADPh prevented the development of liver metastases. Tumor cell capture and therapeutic efficacy were lost after Kupffer cell depletion. Our data indicate that macrophages play a prominent role in mAb-mediated eradication of tumor cells. These findings may help to optimize mAb therapeutic strategies for patients with cancer by helping us to aim to enhance macrophage recruitment and activity. PMID:24430180

  17. Natalizumab: AN 100226, anti-4alpha integrin monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Natalizumab [AN 100226, anti-alpha4 integrin monoclonal antibody, Antegren] is a humanised monoclonal antibody that blocks alpha4beta1 integrin-mediated leukocyte migration. Natalizumab is in phase III trials for the treatment of multiple sclerosis in North America and the UK, and for the treatment of Crohn's disease also in the UK. It may have potential in the treatment of other immune-related inflammatory disease. Elan Corporation intends to examine the potential of natalizumab in rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis. 4beta1 integrin on circulating leukocytes binds to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, which is expressed at high levels in the blood vessels in the CNS during exacerbations of multiple sclerosis. This allows leukocytes expressing alpha4beta1 integrin (very late antigen-4) to move from the peripheral blood into the CNS. Inflammatory proteins and other factors released from lymphocytes in the brain lead to the progression of symptoms. A limitation of natalizumab is that it must be injected and cannot be administered orally. Scientists have transformed the large anti-alpha4 monoclonal antibody into much smaller, drug-like molecules suitable for oral administration. Protein Design Labs has granted a worldwide nonexclusive licence under its antibody humanisation patents to Elan Pharmaceuticals for natalizumab. Biogen Inc. has entered into an agreement with Elan for a worldwide exclusive collaboration to develop, manufacture and commercialise natalizumab for multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Development of natalizumab is also being funded, in part, by Axogen (acquired by Elan in 1999). In November 2003, Biogen and IDEC Pharmaceuticals merged to form Biogen Idec. Elan repurchased royalty rights on a package of products, including natalizumab, from Autoimmune Disease Research Company. Elan and Genzyme Transgenics Corporation signed an agreement to produce natalizumab in GTC's genetically engineered goats, which will express the compound in their milk. Genzyme Transgenics Corporation changed its name to GTC Biotherapeutics in June 2002; it is no longer a subsidiary of Genzyme Corporation. Following discussions with the US FDA, Elan completed enrolment in a second phase III trial, involving approximately 420 patients with Crohn's disease. This Evaluation of Natalizumab as Continuous Therapy-2 (ENACT-2) trial evaluated the effect of natalizumab on duration of response and remission in patients with Crohn's disease. In January 2004, Elan Corporation and Biogen Idec announced that the phase III, ENACT-2 maintenance trial of natalizumab in Crohn's disease met the primary endpoint of maintenance of response. Elan and Biogen Idec will discuss these data with regulatory authorities in both the US and Europe and determine the appropriate path forward for natalizumab in Crohn's disease. An NDA for Antegren in Crohn's disease was expected to be filed at the end of 2003; however, due to failing to meet the primary endpoint in the induction trial, Elan is unable to predict when and if a regulatory filing will be made. Earlier, on 23 January 2001, the Wall Street Journal reported that the Biogen CEO expects Antegren to become a blockbuster drug, with sales of at least $US1 billion. He also predicted that Antegren could be on the market as early as 2003 for the indication of Crohn's disease and in 2004 for multiple sclerosis. The Journal stated that Biogen is under pressure to develop new drugs since its flagship product Avonex will be losing its US Orphan Drug Act protection in 2003. Antegren has a different mechanism to that of Avonex and could be used either alone or as a combination therapy. PMID:15293871

  18. Development of Oligodendrocytes and Schwann Cells Studied with a Monoclonal Antibody against Galactocerebroside

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Ranscht; P. A. Clapshaw; J. Price; M. Noble; W. Seifert

    1982-01-01

    We have generated a hybridoma cell line secreting a monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to the surfaces of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, the cells involved in myelin formation in the central and peripheral nervous systems, respectively. Binding studies using purified sphingolipids showed that this antibody reacts strongly with galactocerebroside (GalC), the major galactosphingolipid of myelin. The antibody was used in

  19. Immunohistochemical Profiles of 30 Monoclonal Antibodies against Cytokeratins 8, 18 and 19

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nap; Th. van Wel; C. Andrés; L. Bellanger; H. Bodenmüller; H. Bonfrer; J. Brundell; R. Einarsson; A. Erlandsson; A. Johansson; J. F. Leca; T. Meier; P. Seguin; A. Sjödin; T. Stigbrand; B. E. Sundström; A. van Dalen; E. Wiebelhaus; B. Wiklund; J. Hilgers

    2001-01-01

    In the first report of the TD5 workshop (TD5-1), the epitope specificities of 30 different monoclonal antibodies against cytokeratins 8, 18 and 19 were determined. This second report presents the immunohistochemical profiles of these antibodies using human appendix and normal skin for evaluation. Each antibody was tested by one or two different laboratories recruited from the Dutch Working Group on

  20. Lyophilized silk fibroin hydrogels for the sustained local delivery of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Guziewicz; Annie Best; Bernardo Perez-Ramirez; David L. Kaplan

    2011-01-01

    The development of sustained delivery systems compatible with protein therapeutics continues to be a significant unmet need. A lyophilized silk fibroin hydrogel matrix (lyogel) for the sustained release of pharmaceutically relevant monoclonal antibodies is described. Sonication of silk fibroin prior to antibody incorporation avoids exposing the antibody to the sol–gel transition inducing shear stress. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis showed

  1. Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

    A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the monoclonal antibody 2QD45 specifically immunoprecipitated the {rm M_ R} 67,000 ECF-binding protein from ^{125}{rm I}-labeled mouse, rat, and human eosinophils as assessed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that this ECF-binding protein has a lower PI point than either mouse or bovine albumin.

  2. A novel high affinity human monoclonal antibody to mesothelin

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Mitchell; Feng, Mingqian; Fisher, Robert J.; Rader, Christoph; Pastan, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Mesothelin is a glycosylphosphatidylinisotol-anchored glycoprotein that is highly expressed on the cell surface of mesothelioma, ovarian cancer and other malignant tumors. The interaction between mesothelin and CA125 (also called MUC16) may facilitate the implantation and metastasis of tumors in the peritoneal cavity. A desirable therapeutic agent involves finding a fully human monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds to mesothelin or CA125 and inhibits their interaction. Here we report the identification of a novel human mAb to mesothelin. HN1, a human single chain Fv specific for mesothelin, was isolated from a naïve human scFv phage display library. To investigate HN1 as a potential therapeutic, we generated a fully human IgG with the ? 1 heavy chain and the ? light chain, and an immuntoxin by fusing the HN1 scFv to a truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin A. The HN1 IgG kills cancer cells with very strong antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. HN1 binds a conformation-sensitive epitope in human mesothelin with high affinity (KD = 3 nM). The HN1 epitope is different from that of SS1, a mouse Fv used to develop therapeutic antibodies that are currently in clinical trials. HN1 binds to cell surface-associated mesothelin on human mesothelioma, ovarian cancer, lung adenocarcinoma and pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, HN1 can functionally block the interaction of mesothelin and CA125 on cancer cells. Most importantly, because the HN1 immuntoxin kills mesothelin-expressing cancer cells with high cytotoxic activity, we believe that it has significant potential for mesothelin-expressing cancer treatment and diagnosis. PMID:20635390

  3. [The isolation and testing of syngeneic anti-idiotypic antibodies against antimycobacterial monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Avdienko, V G; Kramnik, I B; Apt, A S; Litvinov, V I

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were obtained to cell walls (CW) of M. bovinus-8, two of them were limited specific against human and bovine mycobacteria. One MAb reacted in immunoblotting with a protein having molecular mass of 19.1 kDa. It was also found that all MAb bind with the antigen determinants of mycobacterial proteins. The competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) helped reveal that the antigenic determinants "recognized" by two MAb are located in the same area despite the fact that one reacted in immunoblotting with a denatured protein and the other "recognized" only a native antigen in EIA. The syngeneic antiidiotypic (anti-ID) immune response was induced by these MAb in BALB/c mice. The EIA showed the binding of anti-ID-antibodies isolated from mice serum both MAb inducing their synthesis and to antimycobacterial serum antibodies of caws with tuberculosis. Data suggesting a similarity existing between the mycobacterial antigen and anti-ID-antibodies were also obtained in the blast transformation reaction: in M. bovinus antigen stimulation of 8 mice lymph node cells sensitized by anti-ID-antibodies and in the reverse situation when the cells sensitive to KC M. bovinus-8 proliferated in response to stimulation by anti-ID-antibodies. PMID:7687055

  4. New monoclonal antibodies directed against human renin. Powerful tools for the investigation of the renin system.

    PubMed Central

    Galen, F X; Devaux, C; Atlas, S; Guyenne, T; Menard, J; Corvol, P; Simon, D; Cazaubon, C; Richer, P; Badouaille, G

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against human renin were obtained by the fusing of myeloma cells with spleen cells from Balb/c or high-responder Biozzi mice injected with pure tumoral or highly purified renal renin. These procedures resulted in the production of seven stable monoclonal antibodies to human renin. Antibodies in the hybridoma culture medium were screened by binding to pure iodinated renin or insolubilized renin in a solid phase assay. The concentration of purified antibodies that provided a 50% binding to iodinated renin varied from 1 X 10(-10) to 1 X 10(-7) M. Two monoclonal antibodies were found to be potent inhibitors of renin enzymatic activity in vitro, behaving as noncompetitive inhibitors (Ki, 1 to 4 X 10(-10) M). They were specific for primate renin. Three monoclonal antibodies provided suitable immunoadsorbants for renin purification. One of these immunoadsorbants was used for large-scale purification of the renal enzyme, resulting in an 825-fold renin enrichment in a single step. Two antibodies were able to distinguish between active and inactive renin and enabled concomitant separation and purification of the two enzyme forms in various biological fluids. Monoclonal antibodies also stained human and monkey renal renin when indirect immunofluorescence and peroxidase-antiperoxidase techniques were used. A highly sensitive radioimmunometric assay of renin was constructed with two monoclonal antibodies. The sensitivity of this improved assay should permit the detection of renin in normal human plasma. Monoclonal antibodies have been shown to be superior to polyclonal antibodies in the following areas: the separation of active from inactive renin, the purification of renin from biological fluids, and the setting up of a direct assay of plasma renin. Images PMID:6381539

  5. Pediatric posttransplant relapsed/refractory B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia shows durable remission by therapy with the T-cell engaging bispecific antibody blinatumomab.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Patrick; Lang, Peter; Zugmaier, Gerhard; Ebinger, Martin; Kreyenberg, Hermann; Witte, Kai-Erik; Feucht, Judith; Pfeiffer, Matthias; Teltschik, Heiko-Manuel; Kyzirakos, Christina; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Handgretinger, Rupert

    2014-07-01

    We report on posttransplant relapsed pediatric patients with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia with no further standard of care therapy who were treated with the T-cell engaging CD19/CD3-bispecific single-chain antibody construct blinatumomab on a compassionate use basis. Blast load was assessed prior to, during and after blinatumomab cycle using flow cytometry to detect minimal residual disease, quantitative polymerase chain reaction for rearrangements of the immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes, and bcr/abl mutation detection in one patient with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blinatumomab was administered as a 4-week continuous intravenous infusion at a dosage of 5 or 15 ?g/m(2)/day. Nine patients received a total of 18 cycles. Four patients achieved complete remission after the first cycle of treatment; 2 patients showed a complete remission from the second cycle after previous reduction of blast load by chemotherapy. Three patients did not respond, of whom one patient proceeded to a second cycle without additional chemotherapy and again did not respond. Four patients were successfully retransplanted in molecular remission from haploidentical donors. After a median follow up of 398 days, the probability of hematologic event-free survival is 30%. Major toxicities were grade 3 seizures in one patient and grade 3 cytokine release syndrome in 2 patients. Blinatumomab can induce molecular remission in pediatric patients with posttransplant relapsed B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and facilitate subsequent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donor with subsequent long-term leukemia-free survival. PMID:24727818

  6. Delivery of saporin to human B-cell lymphoma using bispecific antibody: targeting via CD22 but not CD19, CD37, or immunoglobulin results in efficient killing.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, M A; French, R R; Amlot, P; Gromo, G; Modena, D; Glennie, M J

    1993-07-01

    A panel of bispecific F(ab')2 antibodies (BsAb) have been constructed for delivering the ribosome-inactivating protein saporin to human B cell lymphoma. Each derivative was prepared with specificity for saporin and CD19, CD22, CD37, or immunoglobulin. In vitro studies measuring inhibition of [3H]leucine uptake by cultured Daudi and Raji cells demonstrated that, despite all BsAb capturing saporin on the cell surface, BsAb targeting through CD22 were far more cytotoxic than those functioning via CD19, CD37, or surface immunoglobulin. This exceptional activity of the CD22-specific BsAb appears to derive from its ability to deliver and accumulate saporin inside the target cells. Further studies showed that four CD22-specific BsAb all performed with equal potency and were able to increase saporin toxicity (50% inhibitory concentration) up to 1000-fold, from 2 x 10(-7) M to 2 x 10(-10) M. Pairs of anti-CD22 BsAb which recognized different nonblocking epitopes on the saporin molecule were able to bind saporin more avidly to the target cell and, as a consequence, increased cytotoxicity by at least an additional 10-fold, resulting in 50% inhibitory concentration for protein synthesis of 2 x 10(-11) M. These results suggest that selected combinations of BsAb which bind cooperatively to a toxin and the cell surface may provide an efficient way of delivering toxins to unwanted cells in patients. PMID:7686448

  7. Fasciola hepatica: development of monoclonal antibodies against somatic antigens and their characterization by ultrastructural localization of antibody binding.

    PubMed

    Hanna, R E; Trudgett, A G; Anderson, A

    1988-03-01

    A series of monoclonal antibodies was prepared against tegumental and internal antigens of Fasciola hepatica by immunizing mice with whole adult-fluke homogenates prior to harvesting the splenic lymphocytes for fusion. Preliminary screening by the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody technique indicated the occurrence of discrete groups of monoclonals differing from one another in tissue-specificity but within which IFA labelling patterns were fairly consistent. Representative hybridomas for 5 of these groups were stabilized and used to produce ascites fluid in mice. By application of an immunogold labelling technique it was possible to map the distribution of antigens for which each monoclonal antibody had affinity throughout the tissues of 4-week and 12-week flukes. Several monoclonals specifically labelled antigenic determinants on the important tegumental antigen T1. However the distribution of gold colloid labelling suggested that epitopes other than that normally exposed to the infected host were recognized; and several monoclonals specifically attached to T1 antigen in the tegument of juvenile worms only. The glycocalyx of the gut and excretory system of flukes shared T1 antigenicity with the tegument. Monoclonal antibodies were produced against an internal immunogen associated with ribosomes and heterochromatin in active protein-producing cells, and against interstitial material of adult flukes. Monoclonals against antigens in parenchymal cell cytoplasm and in mature vitelline cells were recognized but the corresponding hybridomas were not stabilized. PMID:2453552

  8. Antigenicity of the carboxyl terminus of insulin: isolation of human insulin-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, I H; Wilkin, T J

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal technology was used to isolate antibodies binding the B30 (carboxy) terminal residue in the polyclonal-provoked immune response to human insulin. Although both spleen and lymph node cell fusions were carried out, only the latter were successful in isolating monoclonal antibodies that bound the carboxy terminal of human insulin. The binding of such antibodies was abolished or diminished by substitutions of the B30 residue. Studies with insulin species variants showed that the molecular binding between antibody and insulin may be critically determined by a subresidue feature, e.g. presence or absence of a single methyl group, as shown by the binding of the monoclonal antibody D10 to human insulin (threonine at B30) but not to rabbit insulin (serine at B30). Such studies are of interest in the study of the molecular basis of antibody-antigen interaction. PMID:3053426

  9. Monoclonal Antibodies to Ferric Pseudobactin, the Siderophore of Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonas putida B10

    PubMed Central

    Buyer, Jeffrey S.; Sikora, Lawrence J.; Kratzke, Marian G.

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to ferric pseudobactin, the siderophore (microbial iron transport agent) of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida B10, have been developed. Three immunoglobulin G subclass 1-type monoclonal antibodies have been characterized. Each antibody appears to be unique on the basis of their reactions with ferric pseudobactin and with culture supernatants from other pseudomonads. None of the three cross-reacts with ferric pseudobactin-type siderophores produced by seven other pseudomonads. However, P. aeruginosa ATCC 15692 and P. fluorescens ATCC 17400 produced relatively high-molecular-mass compounds (mass greater than approximately 30,000 daltons) that did react with the antibodies. The compound from P. aeruginosa was not iron regulated, while the compound from P. fluorescens was produced only under iron-limiting conditions. A competitive assay using these antibodies has a detection limit of 5 × 10?12 mol of ferric pseudobactin. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of monoclonal antibodies reactive with siderophores. PMID:16348116

  10. Effect of monoclonal anti-ANP antibodies on the acute functional adaptation to unilateral nephrectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Valentin; Jean Ribstein; Dominik Neuser; Jürg Nüssberger; Albert Mimran

    1993-01-01

    Effect of monoclonal anti-ANP antibodies on the acute functional adaptation to unilateral nephrectomy. The role of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in the immediate response of sodium excretion to unilateral nephrectomy (UNX) was investigated in anesthetized euvolemic rats through measurement of UNX-induced change in plasma ANP concentration and the response of the remaining kidney to UNX following administration of monoclonal

  11. The application of monoclonal antibody panels to characterize pestivirus isolates from ruminants in Great Britain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Edwards; J. J. Sands; J. W. Harkness

    1988-01-01

    Summary Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against bovine virus diarrhoea virus and hog cholera virus. They were used to test 101 field isolates of ruminant pestivirus in a simple binding assay using an indirect immunoperoxidase label on fixed cell cultures. The monoclonals were divided into three panels: (1) pestivirus group specific, (2) hog cholera specific, (3) selectively reactive with ruminant pestiviruses.

  12. Computational Prediction of Neutralization Epitopes Targeted by Human Anti-V3 HIV Monoclonal Antibodies

    E-print Network

    Statnikov, Alexander

    -1 vaccine design. Although antibodies (Abs) can neutralize HIV-1 and potentially protect againstComputational Prediction of Neutralization Epitopes Targeted by Human Anti-V3 HIV Monoclonal of Dynamic Epitopes, for identification of neutralization epitopes targeted by anti-HIV-1 monoclonal

  13. Monoclonal Antibody 14F7, Which Recognizes a Stage-Specific Immature Oligodendrocyte

    E-print Network

    Kawato, Suguru

    Monoclonal Antibody 14F7, Which Recognizes a Stage-Specific Immature Oligodendrocyte Surface Molecule, Inhibits Oligodendrocyte Differentiation Mediated in Co-Culture With Astrocytes Kazunori Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan Cells at an intermediate stage of oligodendrocyte lineage

  14. Preparation of species-specific murine monoclonal antibodies against the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, J I; Hamilton, A J; Bartholomew, M A; Harada, T; Fenelon, L; Hay, R J

    1990-01-01

    A panel of four murine monoclonal antibodies showing species specificity for the yeast phase of the pathogenic dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was produced by using a modification of the standard monoclonal antibody technology. This involved the use of the immunosuppressive drug cyclophosphamide to suppress the immune response of test animals to fungi showing cross-reactivity, i.e., to Histoplasma capsulatum. One monoclonal antibody, P4, which had a high titer by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was shown to recognize a linear antigenic epitope of P. brasiliensis at a molecular size of 70,000 to 75,000 daltons by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. The potential use of these monoclonal antibodies, which are the first species-specific probes to P. brasiliensis that have been produced, in the field of serodiagnosis is discussed. Images PMID:2394802

  15. Phase separation in solutions of monoclonal antibodies and the effect of human serum albumin

    E-print Network

    Wang, Ying

    We report the observation of liquid-liquid phase separation in a solution of human monoclonal antibody, IgG2, and the effects of human serum albumin, a major blood protein, on this phase separation. We find a significant ...

  16. Development of antibody arrays for monoclonal antibody Higher Order Structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Li, Qing; Davies, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Antibody arrays were developed to probe a monoclonal antibody's three-dimensional structure (3-D structure). Peptides with overlapping regions were designed to cover the whole mAb light chain and heavy chain, respectively, and used to generate polyclonal antibodies after the conjugation of the peptides to a carrier protein, KLH. It was shown that good peptide specificity was achieved from the antibodies generated. Using more than 30 different polyclonal antibodies to measure the surface epitope distribution, it was shown that the mAb antibody array can detect epitope exposure as low as 0.1% of defined mAb populations. This ELISA-based analysis of mAb epitope exposure can be considered as a measurement of "conformational impurity" in biologics development, similar to the analysis of other product-related impurities such as different forms of glycosylation, deamidation, and oxidation. This analysis of "conformational impurity" could provide valuable information on the mAb conformational comparability for biosimilar mAbs as well as novel mAbs, especially in the area of protein immunogenicity. Furthermore, stability studies indicated that there are several conformational "hot spots" in many mAbs tested, especially in the hinge region. This antibody array technology can be used for novel mAb Higher Order Structure (HOS) analysis during process and formulation development. Another important area of application is for biosimilar mAb development where the innovator molecule and biosimilar molecule could be compared based on their systemic "fingerprint" from the 30 plus antibodies. PMID:23970865

  17. Directed Selection of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins from Phage Display Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Williamson, R. Anthony; de Logu, Alessandro; Bloom, Floyd E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    1995-07-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies have considerable potential in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral disease. However, only a few such antibodies suitable for clinical use have been produced to date. We have previously shown that large panels of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of infectious agents, including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, can be established from phage display libraries. Here we demonstrate that facile cloning of recombinant Fab fragments against specific viral proteins in their native conformation can be accomplished by panning phage display libraries against viral glycoproteins "captured" from infected cell extracts by specific monoclonal antibodies immobilized on ELISA plates. We have tested this strategy by isolating six neutralizing recombinant antibodies specific for herpes simplex glycoprotein gD or gB, some of which are against conformationally sensitive epitopes. By using defined monoclonal antibodies for the antigen-capture step, this method can be used for the isolation of antibodies to specific regions and epitopes within the target viral protein. For instance, monoclonal antibodies to a nonneutralizing epitope can be used in the capture step to clone antibodies to neutralizing epitopes, or antibodies to a neutralizing epitope can be used to clone antibodies to a different neutralizing epitope. Furthermore, by using capturing antibodies to more immunodominant epitopes, one can direct the cloning to less immunogenic ones. This method should be of value in generating antibodies to be used both in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections and in the characterization of the mechanisms of antibody protective actions at the molecular level.

  18. Monoclonal Antibody-Based Quantitation of Poly(ethylene glycol)-Derivatized Proteins, Liposomes, and Nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian-Lu Cheng; Chiu-Min Cheng; Bing-Mae Chen; Der-An Tsao; Kuo-Hsiang Chuang; Sheng-Wen Hsiao; Yi-Hung Lin; Steve R. Roffler

    2005-01-01

    Covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules to drugs, proteins, and liposomes is a proven technology for improving their bioavailability, safety, and efficacy. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of PEG-derivatized molecules is important for both drug development and clinical applications. We previously reported the development of a monoclonal IgM antibody (AGP3) to PEG. We now describe a new IgG1 monoclonal antibody

  19. Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibody Indium 111-Labeled CYT356 Localizes Extraprostatic Recurrent Carcinoma After Prostatectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter E Levesque; Peter T Nieh; Leonard N Zinman; David W Seldin; John A Libertino

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. The sites of recurrent carcinoma of the prostate were localized with radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, and these sites were correlated with the response of patients treated with pelvic radiation after prostatectomy.Methods. Radionuclide scans were performed with indium 111-labeled CYT-356, a monoclonal antibody that binds to prostate epithelial cells, in 48 men diagnosed with recurrent carcinoma detected by prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

  20. Common Antigenic Determinants of Fasciola gigantica as Defined by Monoclonal Antibodies to Phosphocholine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Rao; S. C. Yadav; G. C. Ram; P. R. S. Raghav; R. B. Lal

    1996-01-01

    Rao, J.R., Yadav, S.C., Ram, G.C., Raghav P.R.S. and Lal, R.B. 1996. Common antigenic determinants of Fasciola gigantica as defined by monoclonal antibodies to phosphocholine. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 9: 95–104.Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against the circulating filarial antigens (CA101, CA86) and the excretory-secretory (ES) antigens (ES-1, ES- 3) of Brugia malayi and subsequently shown to be directed against the

  1. Human Glioma-Mesenchymal Extracellular Matrix Antigen Defined by Monoclonal Antibody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario A. Bourdon; Carol J. Wikstrand; Heinz Furthmayr; Thomas J. Matthews; Dareil D. Bigner

    1983-01-01

    The distribution and localization of a glioma-associated antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 81C6 has been examined using human cultured cell lines and tissues. Monoclonal antibody 81C6 was selected from a hybridoma fusion of spleen cells of mice immunized with the glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive human glioma cell line U-251 MG. Results of cell surface radioimmu- noassay and absorption analysis demonstrated

  2. Cell surface antigens on osteoclasts and related cells in the quail studied with monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Nijweide; T. Vrijheid-Lammers; R. J. P. Mulder; J. Blok

    1985-01-01

    Summary  The properties of five monoclonal antibodies raised against isolated osteoclasts are described.\\u000a \\u000a Osteoclasts were isolated from medullary bone of egglaying female quails. Mice were immunized with cell preparations consisting\\u000a for about 10% of multinucleated osteoclasts. A large number of monoclonal antibodies against cell surface antigens were obtained,\\u000a five of which were extensively characterized by their interactions with different tissues of

  3. Epitope mapping of human herpesvirus-7 gp65 using monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Skrincosky; R. A. Willis; P. K. Hocknell; J. G. Frelinger; P. Mirandola; X. Wang; S. Dewhurst

    2001-01-01

    Summary.  ?Human herpesvirus (HHV)-7 encodes a unique 65-kDa heparin- binding glycoprotein, designated gp65. This molecule is thought\\u000a to play a role in virus attachment and entry. To obtain reagents to map the structure and function of HHV-7 gp65, we produced\\u000a monoclonal antibodies to this molecule. Ten monoclonal antibodies reacting with gp65 on ELISA were subdivided in four groups\\u000a on the basis

  4. Monoclonal antibody TOP 71 recognizes a tonoplast protein of wide distribution in the plant kingdom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Liedtke; G. Martiny-Baron; D. Volkmann; G. F. E. Scherer

    1993-01-01

    Highly purified tonoplast and plasma-membrane vesicles isolated from roots of Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) were used as a starting material for generating a monoclonal antibody against plant tonoplast. Tonoplast vesicles were isolated by discontinuous-sucrose-gradient centrifugation followed by free-flow electrophoresis. The deglycosylated tonoplast fraction was used to generate monoclonal antibodies by immunization of Balb\\/c-mice and by fusion of their ß-lymphocytes

  5. Production and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies to phytoene synthase of lycopersicon esculentum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D Fraser; Norihiko Misawa; Gerhard Sandmann; Julie Johnson; Wolfgang Schuch; Peter M Bramley

    1998-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have been prepared against the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit ripening-enhanced phytoene synthase (PSY1). The antigen was prepared as a fn2fn2d-thiogalactopyranoside; mab = monoclonal antibody; PMSF = phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride; PVDF = polyvinylidene difluoride; TBST = Tris-buffered saline\\\\Tween; TBS = Tris-buffered saline.-galactosidase fusion protein by cloning a 1.13 kb fragment of Psy1 cDNA into pUR291, followed by transformation of

  6. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis by radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: new imaging strategies to guide molecular therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Malviya; F. Conti; M. Chianelli; F. Scopinaro; R. A. Dierckx; A. Signore

    2010-01-01

    The closing of the last century opened a wide variety of approaches for inflammation imaging and treatment of patients with\\u000a rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The introduction of biological therapies for the management of RA started a revolution in the therapeutic\\u000a armamentarium with the development of several novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can be murine, chimeric, humanised\\u000a and fully human antibodies. Monoclonal

  7. Assignment of a fibronectin gene to human chromosome 2 using monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Koch; R. C. Schoen; R. J. Klebe; T. B. Shows

    1982-01-01

    The locus coding for the presumed structural gene for fibronectin has been mapped to human chromosome 2 using human-mouse somatic cell hybrids. The assignment of fibronectin has been made by testing man-mouse somatic cell hybrids with two anti-human fibronectin monoclonal antibodies which recognize different antigenic determinants of human, but not mouse, fibronectin. Both monoclonal antibodies demonstrate a highly concordant association

  8. Quality control of murine monoclonal antibodies using isoelectric focusing affinity immunoblot analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Robert G.; Rodkey, L. Scott; Reimer, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The quality control of murine hybridoma secretory products has been performed using two approaches for isoelectric focusing affinity immunoblot analysis: (1) a method in which antigen-coated nitrocellulose is placed on top of an acrylamide gel containing isoelectrically focused ascites to bind the antigen specific monoclonal antibody; and (2) a method in which focused ascite proteins were passively blotted onto nitrocellulose and specific monoclonal antibodies were detected with enzyme-conjugated antigen. Analysis by both methods of batches of ascites containing antihuman IgG antibodies that were produced by six hybridomas permitted effective monitoring of immunoreactive antibodies for pI microheterogeneity.

  9. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Naja naja oxiana neurotoxin I.

    PubMed

    Stiles, B G; Sexton, F W; Guest, S B; Olson, M A; Hack, D C

    1994-10-01

    Seven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were developed against neurotoxin I (NT-1), a protein from central Asian cobra (Naja naja oxiana) venom which binds specifically to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AchR). All of the mAbs cross-reacted with another long-chain post-synaptic neurotoxin, Bungarus multicinctus alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BT), but not Naja naja kaouthia alpha-cobratoxin, in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (e.l.i.s.a.). Short-chain post-synaptic neurotoxins like Naja naja atra cobrotoxin, Laticauda semifasciata erabutoxin b, or N. n. oxiana neurotoxin II did not cross-react with the NT-1 mAbs, but an antigen(s) found in Dendroaspis polylepis, Acanthophis antarcticus and Pseudechis australis venoms was immunoreactive. The e.l.i.s.a. readings for dithiothreitol-reduced NT-1 and NT-1 mAbs ranged from 13 to 27% of those for native toxin but reduced alpha-BT was not immunoreactive. Synthetic NT-1 peptides were used in epitope-mapping studies and two, non-contiguous regions (Cys15-Tyr23 and Lys25-Gly33 or Pro17-Lys25 and Asp29-Lys37) were recognized by the NT-1 mAbs. The NT-1 mAbs individually inhibited 31-71% of alpha-BT binding to AchR in vitro and afforded a slight protective effect in vivo with a toxin: antibody mole ratio of 1:1.5. This report is the first to describe mAbs which recognize and protect against a heterologous, long-chain, post-synaptic neurotoxin from snake venom. PMID:7945236

  10. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against waterfowl parvoviruses VP3 protein

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The VP3 protein of goose parvovirus (GPV) or Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV), a major structural protein, can induce neutralizing antibodies in geese and ducks, but monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against VP3 protein has never been characterized. Results Three hybridoma cell lines secreting anti-GPV VP3 MAbs were obtained and designated 4A8, 4E2, and 2D5. Immunoglobulin subclass tests differentiated them as IgG2b (4A8 and 4E2) and IgG2a (2D5). Dot blotting assays showed that three MAbs reacted with His-VP3 protein in a conformation-independent manner. A competitive binding assay indicated that the MAbs delineated two epitopes, A and B of VP3. Immunofluorescence assay showed that MAbs 4A8, 4E2, and 2D5 could specifically bind to goose embryo fibroblast cells (GEF) or duck fibroblast cells (DEF) infected with GPV and MDPV. Dot blotting also showed that the MAbs recognized both nature GPV and MDPV antigen. Western blotting confirmed that the MAbs recognized VP3 proteins derived from purified GPV and MDPV particles. The MAbs 4A8 and 2D5 had universal reactivity to heterologous GPV and MDPV tested in an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Conclusions Preparation and characterization of these the MAbs suggests that they may be useful for the development of a MAb-capture ELISA for rapid detection of both GPV and MDPV. Virus isolation and PCR are reliable for detecting GPV and MDPV infection, but these procedures are laborious, time-consuming, and requiring instruments. These diagnosis problems highlight the ongoing demand for rapid, reproducible, and automatic methods for the sensitive detection of both GPV and MDPV infection. PMID:23176172

  11. Comparison of the distribution and binding of monoclonal antibodies labeled with 131-iodine or 111-indium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Buchsbaum; Brian Randall; David Hanna; Robert Chandler; Merle Loken; Eugene Johnson

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of two monoclonal antibodies with reactivity against human leukemia\\/lymphoma associated antigens (BA-1 antibody) and carcinoembryonic antigen (202 antibody) when labeled with 131I or 111In was studied in normal Balb\\/c mice. The BA-1 antibody of the IgM subclass was labeled with 131I by the micro iodine monochloride method at a 12:1 molar ratio and with 111In by the cyclic

  12. Characterization of a new monoclonal antibody against mercury (II)

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, A.; Hock, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Dept. of Botany

    1998-07-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced against mercury (II) and an enzyme immunoassay was developed for the detection of mercury (II) in water. Since mercury (II) ions are too small to elicit an immune response, they were coupled via glutathione (GSH) to the immunogenic carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Several mice were immunized with this KLH-GSH-Hg immunoconjugate. Spleen cells of immunized mice were fused with myeloma cells. The resulting hybridoma cells were screened for the production of specific anti-Hg mabs. Five positive cells were detected. The hybridoma cell line K3C6 was adjusted to protein free medium; it produced mabs with high selectivity and sensitivity. A detection limit of 2.8 {micro}g/L HgCl{sub 2} (= 2.1 {micro}g/L Hg{sup 2+}) was achieved with a non-competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Cross-reactivities with other metals were below 1%. Measurement of spiked water samples with this EIA showed good correlation with results obtained by mass spectrometry with inductive coupled plasma (ICP-MS).

  13. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against human Chibby protein.

    PubMed

    Cyge, Benjamin; Fischer, Victoria; Takemaru, Ken-Ichi; Li, Feng-Qian

    2011-04-01

    Chibby (Cby) was originally identified as an antagonist of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. It physically interacts with the key co-activator ?-catenin and inhibits ?-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation. More recently, we demonstrated that Cby protein localizes to the base of motile cilia and is required for ciliogenesis in the respiratory epithelium of mice. To gain further insight into the physiological function of Cby, we developed mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against human Cby protein and characterized two Cby MAbs, designated 8-2 and 27-11, in depth. Western blot analysis revealed that 8-2 reacts with both human and mouse Cby proteins, whereas 27-11 is specific to human Cby. The epitopes of 8-2 and 27-11 were narrowed down to the middle portion (aa 49-63) and N-terminal region (aa 1-31) of the protein, respectively. We also determined their isotypes and found that 8-2 and 27-11 belong to IgG2a and IgG1 with ? light chains, respectively. Both MAbs can be employed for immunoprecipitation assays. Moreover, 8-2 detects endogenous Cby protein on Western blots, and marks the ciliary base of motile cilia in the murine lung and trachea as shown by immunofluorescence staining. These Cby MAbs therefore hold promise as useful tools for the investigation of Wnt signaling and ciliogenesis. PMID:21529289

  14. Monoclonal antibodies against pili of serologically distinct Bacteroides nodosus.

    PubMed Central

    Gradin, J L; Marta, K M; Kaattari, S L; Pluhar, G E; Stephens, J A; Sonn, A E; Smith, A W

    1991-01-01

    Several monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against pili of Bacteroides nodosus were examined to determine their reactivity with 11 different serotypes. One McAb was identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis that bound to nine of the 11 serotypes and another that bound to the remaining two serotypes tested. In addition, some McAbs demonstrated specificity for a single serotype, while others displayed specificities for up to five other serotypes. Comparison of immunoblot analysis with the ELISA revealed that the former method was not as sensitive in that all McAbs positive by the ELISA, were not positive by immunoblot. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed. There appear to be several antigenic determinants on B. nodosus pili and considerable sharing of these determinants between pili types. The 11 serotypes analyzed by the McAbs in this report are representative of all 20 US serotypes as well as the A-set and D-set categories of Australia. Therefore, the two epitopes recognized by two of the McAbs reported herein encompass all of the currently characterized B. nodosus serotypes and may provide a basis for bivalent vaccines efficacious for all types of B. nodosus induced footrot in sheep. PMID:1715810

  15. Production of a Chaetomium globosum Enolase Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajay P.; Lemons, Angela R.; Rittenour, William R.; Hettick, Justin M.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2014-01-01

    Chaetomium globosum is a hydrophilic fungal species and a contaminant of water-damaged building materials in North America. Methods to detect Chaetomium species include subjective identification of ascospores, viable culture, or molecular-based detection methods. In this study, we describe the production and initial characterization of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) for C. globosum enolase. MAb 1C7, a murine IgG1 isotype MAb, was produced and reacted with recombinant C. globosum enolase (rCgEno) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and with a putative C. globosum enolase in a Western blot. Epitope mapping showed MAb 1C7 specific reactivity to an enolase decapeptide, LTYEELANLY, that is highly conserved within the fungal class Sordariomycetes. Cross-reactivity studies showed MAb 1C7 reactivity to C. atrobrunneum but not C. indicum. MAb 1C7 did not react with enolase from Aspergillus fumigatus, which is divergent in only two amino acids within this epitope. The results of this study suggest potential utility of MAb 1C7 in Western blot applications for the detection of Chaetomium and other Sordariomycetes species. PMID:25495488

  16. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies to a rat liver vasopressin receptor.

    PubMed

    Trinder, D; Mooser, V; Kelly, J M; Phillips, P A; Casley, D; Johnston, C I

    1991-05-01

    1. Balb/c mice were immunized against a vasopressin binding protein purified from rat liver. The hybrids produced from two cell fusions were screened against this receptor. Three hybrids were selected, cloned and expanded in serum-free media. The monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) secreted by these three hybrids were of the subclass IgM and were able to immunoprecipitate [125I]-labelled purified receptor. 2. All three MoAb bound to the purified solubilized receptor, crude liver and kidney membranes in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the binding of MoAb to the membranes did not inhibit the binding of [125I]-[d(CH2)5,Sar7]AVP, a selective V1 receptor radioligand, to the liver membrane-bound receptor. 3. These results suggest that the three MoAb recognize epitopes on the V1 receptor which are not denatured by solubilization, but are common to both rat liver and kidney membranes. PMID:1829665

  17. Monoclonal antibodies directed against surface molecules of multicell spheroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andrew O.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this project is to generate a library of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against surface molecules of tumor and transformed cells grown as multicell spheroids (MCS). These MCS are highly organized, 3-dimensional multicellular structures which exhibit many characteristics of in vivo organized tissues not found in conventional monolayer or suspension culture. Therefore MCS make better in vitro model systems to study the interactions of mammalian cells, and provide a functional assay for surface adhesion molecules. This project also involves investigations of cell-cell interactions in a gravity-based environment. It will provide a base of scientific information necessary to expand the focus of the project in future years to microgravity and hypergravity-based environments. This project also has the potential to yield important materials (e.g., cellular products) which may prove useful in the diagnosis and/or treatment of certain human diseases. Moreover, this project supports the training of both undergraduate and graduate students; thus, it will assist in developing a pool of future scientists with research experience in an area (gravitational biology) of interest to NASA.

  18. Polyelectrolyte Nanogels Decorated with Monoclonal Antibody for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Nukolova, Nataliya V.; Yang, Zigang; Kim, Jong Oh; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Bronich, Tatiana K.

    2010-01-01

    Novel surface-functionalized cross-linked nanogels were developed as a platform to allow conjugation of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) for targeted drug delivery. Well-defined diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(methacrylic acid) (PEG-b-PMA) with PEG terminal aldehyde functionality were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and characterized by GPC and 1H NMR. These copolymers were used to prepare nanogels via condensation of PEG-b-PMA with Ca2+ ions into micelle-like aggregates, cross-linking of the PMA/Ca2+ cores and removal of Ca2+ ions. The resulting nanogels represent highly swollen spherical polyelectrolyte particles with free terminal aldehyde functionalities at the nonionic PEG chains. A reductive amination reaction between aldehyde groups and amino groups of mAb resulted in effective conjugation to the nanogels of mAb CC49 against tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG-72). The mAb retained the binding affinity to bovine submaxillary mucin after conjugation as shown by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Therefore, aldehyde functionalized nanogels can be linked to mAb using a simple, one-step approach. They may have potential for targeted delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to tumors. PMID:21503276

  19. Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody with therapeutic potential against West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Oliphant, Theodore; Engle, Michael; Nybakken, Grant E; Doane, Chris; Johnson, Syd; Huang, Ling; Gorlatov, Sergey; Mehlhop, Erin; Marri, Anantha; Chung, Kyung Min; Ebel, Gregory D; Kramer, Laura D; Fremont, Daved H; Diamond, Michael S

    2005-05-01

    Neutralization of West Nile virus (WNV) in vivo correlates with the development of an antibody response against the viral envelope (E) protein. Using random mutagenesis and yeast surface display, we defined individual contact residues of 14 newly generated monoclonal antibodies against domain III of the WNV E protein. Monoclonal antibodies that strongly neutralized WNV localized to a surface patch on the lateral face of domain III. Convalescent antibodies from individuals who had recovered from WNV infection also detected this epitope. One monoclonal antibody, E16, neutralized 10 different strains in vitro, and showed therapeutic efficacy in mice, even when administered as a single dose 5 d after infection. A humanized version of E16 was generated that retained antigen specificity, avidity and neutralizing activity. In postexposure therapeutic trials in mice, a single dose of humanized E16 protected mice against WNV-induced mortality, and may therefore be a viable treatment option against WNV infection in humans. PMID:15852016

  20. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Glycoprotein and Monoclonal Antibody for Detecting Antibodies to Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Serotype New Jersey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyang-Sim Lee; Eun-Jeong Heo; Hye-Young Jeoung; Hyo-Rim Ko; Chang-Hee Kweon; Hee-Jeong Youn; Young-Joon Ko

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using glycoprotein and a monoclonal antibody (MAb) was developed for the detection of antibodies to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) serotype New Jersey (NJ). The glycoprotein to be used as a diagnostic antigen was extracted from partially purified VSV-NJ, and a neutralizing MAb specific to VSV-NJ was incorporated to compete with antibodies in

  1. Radioimmunological imaging of metastatic prostatic cancer with 111indium-labeled monoclonal antibody PAY 276

    SciTech Connect

    Babaian, R.J.; Murray, J.L.; Lamki, L.M.; Haynie, T.P.; Hersh, E.M.; Rosenblum, M.G.; Glenn, H.J.; Unger, M.W.; Carlo, D.J.; von Eschenbach, A.C.

    1987-03-01

    A total of 25 patients with histologically proved adenocarcinoma of the prostate, whose disease was staged clinically as D2 by appropriate radiographic and nuclear medicine studies, received increasing doses of PAY 276, an antiprostatic acid phosphatase monoclonal antibody for radioimmunological imaging. The patients were divided into 5 groups of 5. Groups 1 through 5 received an infusion of 5, 10, 20, 40 or 80 mg. monoclonal antibody, respectively, 1 mg. of which was labeled to 5 mCi. of /sup 111/indium, while stable monoclonal antibody was added to achieve the desired antibody concentration. No patient had an allergic reaction, and no significant change in serial hemoglobin levels, platelet count, chemistry profile or results of urinalyses was noted. The monoclonal antibody scan visualized at least 1 lesion in 19 of 25 patients (76 per cent): 4 in groups 1 and 2, and all 15 in groups 3 to 5. With results of conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy considered definitive for metastases, monoclonal antibody scans detected 7 of 32 metastases (21.8 per cent) in group 3 (20 mg.), 31 of 58 (53.4 per cent) in group 4 (40 mg.) and 101 of 134 (75.4 per cent) in group 5 (80 mg). In group 5 the incidence of false positive and false negative scans was 2.3 per cent (3 of 132) and 24.6 per cent (33 of 134), respectively. The detection of metastatic lesions increased as the concentration of unlabeled monoclonal antibody increased. Radioimmunological imaging of prostatic cancer with antiprostatic acid phosphatase monoclonal antibody seems to be feasible.

  2. Two monoclonal antibodies raised against different epitopes of chloroplast fructose-1. 6-bisphosphatase (FBPase)

    SciTech Connect

    Hermoso, R.; Fonolla, J.; Lopez-Gorge, J. (Estacion Experimental del Zaidin, Granada (Spain)); Ruiz-Cabello, F.; Garrido, F. (C.S. Virgen de las Nieves, Granada (Spain))

    1990-05-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (GR-BP5 and GR-BP8) were obtained by fusion of spleen cells of mice immunized against pea photosynthetic FBPase with cells of myeloma NSI. Both mAbs showed by double immunodiffusion a {chi} light chain, and the GR-BP8 secreted an IgM. By Western-blotting and immunoprecipitation of the in vivo labelled pea FBPase, GR-BP5 and GR-BP8 showed specificity for the chloroplast enzyme. Competition binding of the {sup 125}I-labelled mAbs against pea FBPase showed specific binding sites to different epitopes of the enzyme molecule. Cross reaction assays between both monoclonal antibodies and pea and spinach chloroplast FBPases showed a 90-100% homology in the corresponding epitopes of both enzymes. Preliminary assays showed a moderate inhibition of FBPase by GR-BP5 monoclonal antibody, but a weak enhancement by the GR-BP8 monoclonal one.

  3. Generation of Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibodies against Parvovirus B19 Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREAS GIGLER; SIMONE DORSCH; ANDREA HEMAUER; CONSTANCE WILLIAMS; SONNIE KIM; NEAL S. YOUNG; SUSAN ZOLLA-PAZNER; HANS WOLF; MIROSLAW K. GORNY; SUSANNE MODROW; Hematology Branch

    1974-01-01

    Infections caused by human parvovirus B19 are known to be controlled mainly by neutralizing antibodies. To analyze the immune reaction against parvovirus B19 proteins, four cell lines secreting human immuno- globulin G monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were generated from two healthy donors and one human immuno- deficiency virus type 1-seropositive individual with high serum titers against parvovirus. One MAb is specific

  4. PRODUCTION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO 'LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA' SEROGROUPS 1 AND 6

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better define the surface antigens of Legionella pneumophila for clinical and experimental purposes, were produced monoclonal antibodies to L. pneumophila serogroups 1 and 6. Two hybridomas were produced in serogroup 1. One antibody, LP-I-17, recognized a serogroup-common anti...

  5. The generation of monoclonal antibodies and their use in rapid diagnostic tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibodies are the most important component of an immunoassay. In these proceedings we outline novel methods used to generate and select monoclonal antibodies that meet performance criteria for use in rapid lateral flow and microfluidic immunoassay tests for the detection of agricultural pathogens ...

  6. Rapid diagnosis of infectious laryngotracheitis using a monoclonal antibody?based immunoperoxidase procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Guy; H. J. Barnes; Lynda G. Smith

    1992-01-01

    An indirect immunoperoxidase (IP) procedure using monoclonal antibody was developed for detection of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus antigen in frozen tissue sections. This IP procedure was compared with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody (FA) procedure, histo?pathology and virus isolation for detection of ILT virus in tracheas of experimentally infected chickens. Compared with virus isolation, sensitivity and specificity of IP were 72

  7. Mapping of monoclonal antibody-defined epitopes associated with carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Price; Susan Edwards; Elizabeth Jacobs; Izabella Z. A. Pawluczyk; Vera S. Byers; Robert W. Baldwin

    1987-01-01

    Six immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibodies reactive with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were evaluated with respect to parameters implicated in their potential diagnostic application and use as tumor targeting agents for cytotoxic drugs or plant or bacterial toxins. Antibody reactivity with surface antigens of the MKN-45 gastric tumor cell line was demonstrated by flow cytofluorimetry. In a subcellular membrane binding assay, each

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Human Monoclonal Antibodies from Individuals Infected with West Nile Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Throsby; Cecile Geuijen; Jaap Goudsmit; Arjen Q. Bakker; Jehanara Korimbocus; R. Arjen Kramer; Marieke Clijsters-van der Horst; Maureen de Jong; Mandy Jongeneelen; Sandra Thijsse; Renate Smit; Therese J. Visser; Nora Bijl; Wilfred E. Marissen; Mark Loeb; David J. Kelvin; Wolfgang Preiser; J. ter Meulen; J. de Kruif

    2006-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) neutralizing West Nile Virus (WNV) have been shown to protect against infection in animal models and have been identified as a correlate of protection in WNV vaccine studies. In the present study, antibody repertoires from three convalescent WNV-infected patients were cloned into an scFv phage library, and 138 human MAbs binding to WNV were identified. One hundred

  9. A Monoclonal Antibody That Induces Neuronal Apoptosis Binds a Metastasis Marker1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-tao Zhong; Adriana Manzi; Evan Skowronski; Lucia Notterpek; Arvan L. Fluharty; Kym F. Faull; Irene Masada; Shahrooz Rabizadeh; Maria Varsanyi-Nagy; Youlin Ruan; Justin D. Oh; Larry L. Butcher; Dale E. Bredesen

    2001-01-01

    The cell surface molecules controlling apoptosis in cortical neurons are largely unknown. A monoclonal antibody was derived that induces cul- tured neocortical neurons to undergo apoptosis. A Fab fragment of the antibody, however, lacked the ability to induce cell death. The antigen was purified, and characterized by compositional analysis, fast atom bom- bardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, sequential exoglycosidase treat- ments,

  10. Monoclonal antibodies to surface and cytoskeletal components of the spermatozoid of Pteridium aquilinum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Marc; B. E. S. Gunning; A. R. Hardham; J. L. Perkin; S. M. Wick

    1988-01-01

    Summary Detergent extracted spermatozoids of the fernPteridium aquilinum were used as mixed antigen preparations for raising monoclonal antibodies in order to obtain reagents for detecting as yet uncharacterized components of the plant cytoskeleton. Selected antibodies were studied by immunofluorescence microscopy of developing spermatids and mature spermatozoids. Some reacted directly with fixed cells, others required permeabilization treatments with cold methanol or

  11. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies and Aptamers Against Major Antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specific antibodies, available in unlimited quantities, have not been produced against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the bacterium that causes Johne’s disease (JD). To fill this gap in JD research, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were produced fr...

  12. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies Which Specifically Recognize Entamoeba histolytica in Preserved Stool Samples

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne C. W.; Crandall, Ian; Kain, Kevin C.

    2001-01-01

    We report the generation of monoclonal antibodies against a recombinant 170-kDa subunit of the Gal or GalNAc lectin of Entamoeba histolytica that specifically recognize E. histolytica but not Entamoeba dispar in preserved stool samples. These antibodies do not cross-react with other bowel protozoa, including Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia, and Dientamoeba fragilis. PMID:11158133

  13. A Spectrum of Monoclonal Antibodies Reactive with Human Mammary Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colcher, D.; Horan Hand, P.; Nuti, M.; Schlom, J.

    1981-05-01

    Splenic lymphocytes of mice, immunized with membrane-enriched fractions of metastatic human mammary carcinoma tissues, were fused with the NS-1 non-immunoglobulin-secreting murine myeloma cell line. This resulted in the generation of hybridoma cultures secreting immunoglobulins reactive in solid-phase radioimmunoassays with extracts of metastatic mammary carcinoma cells from involved livers, but not with extracts of apparently normal human liver. As a result of further screening of immunoglobulin reactivities and double cloning of cultures, 11 monoclonal antibodies were chosen that demonstrated reactivities with human mammary tumor cells and not with apparently normal human tissues. These monoclonal antibodies could be placed into at least five major groups on the basis of their differential binding to the surface of various live human mammary tumor cells in culture, to extracts of mammary tumor tissues, or to tissue sections of mammary tumor cells studied by the immunoperoxidase technique. Whereas a spectrum of reactivities to mammary tumors was observed with the 11 monoclonal antibodies, no reactivity was observed to apparently normal cells of the following human tissues: breast, lymph node, lung, skin, testis, kidney, thymus, bone marrow, spleen, uterus, thyroid, intestine, liver, bladder, tonsils, stomach, prostate, and salivary gland. Several of the antibodies also demonstrated a ``pancarcinoma'' reactivity, showing binding to selected non-breast carcinomas. None of the monoclonal antibodies showed binding to purified ferritin or carcinoembryonic antigen. Monoclonal antibodies of all five major groups, however, demonstrated binding to human metastatic mammary carcinoma cells both in axillary lymph nodes and at distal sites.

  14. Simple diagnosis of Encephalitozoon sp. microsporidial infections by using a panspecific antiexospore monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Enriquez, F J; Ditrich, O; Palting, J D; Smith, K

    1997-01-01

    Microsporidia (phylum Microsproa) have recently become recognized as common opportunistic protozoans in the United States and worldwide, particularly affecting immunodeficient patients. Microsporidian organisms within the genus Encephalitozoon are the cause of nephrologic, ophthalmic, pneumologic, gastroenteric, and systemic infections. However, diagnosis of the small spores by light microscopy is difficult, even with newly developed and improved staining techniques. We have developed an anti-Encephalitozoon species monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay for easy diagnosis. A hybridoma was produced and selected following one main criterion: recognition by immunofluorescence of all known Encephalitozoon spores affecting humans. The selected monoclonal antibody-secreting hybridomas were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and immunoelectron microscopy using Encephalitozoon species from fresh and fixed samples from patients and from in vitro cultures. In the immunofluorescence assay, one monoclonal antibody, termed 3B6, strongly recognized Encephalitozoon cuniculi, E. hellem, and E. intestinalis. Monoclonal antibody 3B6 bound to other microsporidia (Nosema and Vairimorpha spp.) without cross-reacting with any other parasite, including Enterocytozoon bieneusi, fungus, or bacterium tested. In immunoelectron microscopy assays, monoclonal antibody 3B6 bound to the exospore of Encephalitozoon species, while in Western blot assays, it recognized three to seven antigens with molecular masses ranging from 34 to 117 kDa. We have developed a sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay to diagnose common microsporidian infections, particularly with Encephalitozoon species. This is a new tool for identifying spores in bodily fluids and biopsy samples and is an efficient diagnostic test. Additionally, monoclonal antibody 3B6 can serve to assess the prevalence of microsporidial infections in immunodeficient and immunocompetent patients. PMID:9041420

  15. Selection and performance of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in an IgM antibody capture enzyme immunoassay for rubella.

    PubMed

    Chantler, S; Evans, C J

    1986-02-27

    Monoclonal anti-human IgM and anti-rubella antibodies were prepared and tested in an IgM capture enzyme immunoassay (MACEIA) for rubella-specific IgM and compared with polyclonal reagents. Assay sensitivity was increased with monoclonal antibodies resulting in the improved discrimination of adult sera with low levels of specific IgM. Despite high IgM binding, interference by IgM anti-Ig was not a major problem. The use of monoclonal antibodies allowed assay simplification by the simultaneous rather than sequential addition of antigen and conjugate. Although comparable results were obtained with 33 test samples in the sequential and simultaneous MACEIA, the specificity and sensitivity of this modification requires further evaluation. PMID:3512718

  16. Response of a Concentrated Monoclonal Antibody Formulation to High Shear

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Jared S.; Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Mehta, Bhavya; Svitel, Juraj; Pollastrini, Joey; Platz, Robert; Freund, Erwin; Carpenter, John F.

    2009-01-01

    There is concern that shear could cause protein unfolding or aggregation during commercial biopharmaceutical production. In this work we exposed two concentrated immunoglobulin-G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody (mAb, at >100 mg/mL) formulations to shear rates of between 20,000 and 250,000 s-1 for between 5 minutes and 30 ms using a parallel-plate and capillary rheometer respectively. The maximum shear and force exposures were far in excess of those expected during normal processing operations (20,000 s-1 and 0.06 pN respectively). We used multiple characterization techniques to determine if there was any detectable aggregation. We found that shear alone did not cause aggregation, but that prolonged exposure to shear in the stainless steel parallel-plate rheometer caused a very minor reversible aggregation (<0.3%). Additionally, shear did not alter aggregate populations in formulations containing 17% preformed heat-induced aggregates of a mAb. We calculate that that the forces applied to a protein by production shear exposures (<0.06 pN) are small when compared with the 140 pN force expected at the air-water interface or the 20 to 150 pN forces required to mechanically unfold proteins described in the atomic force microscope (AFM) literature. Therefore, we suggest that in many cases air-bubble entrainment, adsorption to solid surfaces (with possible shear synergy), contamination by particulates, or pump cavitation stresses could be much more important causes of aggregation than shear exposure during production. PMID:19370772

  17. Monoclonal antibodies: Longitudinal prescribing information analysis of hypersensitivity reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kleyman, Konstantin; Weintraub, Debra S.

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are known to cause hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs). The reactions pose a significant challenge to investigators, regulators, and health providers. Because HSRs cannot be predicted through the pharmacological basis of a therapy, clinical data are often relied upon to detect the reactions. Unfortunately, clinical studies are often unable to adequately characterize HSRs especially in therapies for orphan diseases. HSRs can go undetected until post-marketing safety surveillance when a large number of patients have been exposed to the therapy. The presented data demonstrates how hypersensitivity reaction warnings have changed over time in the prescribing information (PI), i.e., the drug package insert, through August 1, 2011 for 28 US-marketed mAbs. Tracking all PI revisions for each mAb over time revealed that hypersensitivity warning statements were expanded to include more severe manifestations. Over the course of a mAb therapy’s life cycle, the hypersensitivity warning is twice more likely to be upgraded than downgraded in priority. Approximately 85% of hypersensitivity-associated fatality warnings were added in PI revisions as a result of post-marketing experience. Over 60% (20/33) of revisions to hypersensitivity warnings occurred within 3–4 y of product approval. While HSRs are generally recognized and described in the initial PI of mAbs, fatal HSRs are most commonly observed in post-marketing surveillance. Results of this study suggest that initial product labeling information may not describe rare but clinically significant occurrences of severe or fatal HSRs, but subsequent label revisions include rare events observed during post-marketed product use. PMID:22531444

  18. Immunocytochemical study on internalization of anti-carbohydrate monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kusano, A; Ohta, S; Shitara, K; Hanai, N

    1993-01-01

    The fate of anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) after binding to the cell surface is one of the important factors for application of mAbs in therapy. For mAbs to remain on the cell surface for a long time is preferable character for complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). On the other hand, quick internalization of mAbs into cytoplasm is advantageous for cytotoxic effects of toxins or cytotoxic drugs conjugated with mAbs. In this study we investigated the localization of anti-carbohydrate mAbs in vitro by immunocytochemical methods at the electron microscopic level. Anti-ganglioside GM3 mAb (mouse IgM) was localized both in cytoplasmic vesicles and on the cell surface membrane of mouse melanoma cells after incubation for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Anti-ganglioside GM2 mAb (mouse IgM), anti-ganglioside GD2 mAb (mouse IgG3) anti-ganglioside GD3 mAb (mouse IgG3) mainly existed on the cell surface of human small cell lung carcinoma cells, human neuroblastoma cells and human melanoma cells, respectively, after incubation for 30 min at 37 degrees C. On the other hand, anti-sialyl Lea mAb (mouse IgG1) was intensively incorporated into the cytoplasm of human colon tumor cells under the same conditions. Anti-ganglioside GD3 mAb and anti-sialyl Lea mAb were radiolabelled with 125Iodine and traced in in vitro culture. When the cells were incubated in the presence of the 125I-mAb for 90 min on ice, the ratio of intracellular counts to surface counts was 8/92 for anti-ganglioside GD3 mAb and 31/69 for anti-sialyl Lea mAb respectively. After the subsequent incubation for 60 min at 37 degrees C, the ratio altered to 13/87 for anti-ganglioside GD3 mAb and 54/46 for anti-sialyl Lea antigen mAb. This study suggested that internalization of anti-carbohydrate mAbs after the binding to the cell surface was different among the mAbs depending on the character of antigens. In conclusion, anti-ganglioside mAbs have beneficial characters for CDC or ADCC while anti-sialyl Lea mAb is suitable for immunoconjugates. PMID:8297135

  19. The intraperitoneal delivery of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies: studies on the regional delivery advantage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Wahl; Jeffrey Barrett; Onelio Geatti; Monica Liebert; Barry S. Wilson; Susan Fisher; John G. Wagner

    1988-01-01

    The i.p. delivery of murine monoclonal antibody was compared with i.v. delivery in normal mice and rats, in normal nude mice and in those with i.p. human ovarian carcinoma xenografts. In normal rats, all classes of antibodies and antibody fragments evaluated were cleared from the peritoneal cavity at comparable rates. The regional delivery (Rd1) advantage to the peritoneal cavity following

  20. Monoclonal Antibodies Directed against Preneoplastic and Neoplastic Murine Mammary Lesions1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol W. Johnson; Wei-Zen Wei; Rolf F. Barth; Steven E. Tuttle; Cathy A. Andrews

    1985-01-01

    We have produced a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against a dimethylbenzanthracene-induced murine mammary tu mor. Five rat-mouse hybridomas produced antibodies that bound to some murine mammary tumors, but not to normal renal adherent cells, lymphocytes, 3T3 fibroblasts, red blood cells, or mammary gland. One of these antibodies, designated AMT8, was selected for further evaluation based on its relatively strong

  1. Development of new versions of anti-human CD34 monoclonal antibodies with potentially reduced immunogenicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weizhu Qian; Ling Wang; Bohua Li; Hao Wang; Sheng Hou; Xueyu Hong; Dapeng Zhang; Yajun Guo

    2008-01-01

    Despite the widespread clinical use of CD34 antibodies for the purification of human hematopoietic stem\\/progenitor cells, all the current anti-human CD34 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are murine, which have the potential to elicit human antimouse antibody (HAMA) immune response. In the present study, we developed three new mouse anti-human CD34 mAbs which, respectively, belonged to class I, class II and class

  2. The Purification and Characterization of Rat Gamma Interferon by Use of Two Monoclonal Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER H. VAN DER MEIDE; MARTIN DUBBELD; KITTY VIJVERBERG; T. Kos; H. Schellekens

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY Two mouse monoclonal antibodies, designated DB-1 and DB-2, were isolated and used for the purification and characterization of recombinant rat interferon gamma (rRIF-~,) derived from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The two antibodies belong to different classes (DB-1 is an IgGl and DB-2 an IgA) and display similar epitope specificities as shown in competition binding experiments. Both antibodies, raised

  3. Characterization of Norwalk virus GI specific monoclonal antibodies generated against Escherichia coli expressed capsid protein and the reactivity of two broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies generated against GII capsid towards GI recombinant fragments

    PubMed Central

    Yoda, Tomoko; Terano, Yoshitake; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Yamazaki, Kenji; Oishi, Isao; Kuzuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Kawamoto, Hiroyoshi; Utagawa, Etsuko; Takino, Koichi; Oda, Hajime; Shibata, Tadayoshi

    2001-01-01

    Background Norwalk virus causes outbreaks of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The virus capsid is composed of a single 60 kDa protein. In a previous study, the capsid protein of recombinant Norwalk virus genogroup II was expressed in an E. coli system and monoclonal antibodies were generated against it. The analysis of the reactivity of those monoclonal antibodies suggested that the N-terminal domain might contain more antigenic epitopes than the C-terminal domain. In the same study, two broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies were observed to react with genogroup I recombinant protein. Results In the present study, we used the recombinant capsid protein of genogroup I and characterized the obtained 17 monoclonal antibodies by using 19 overlapping fragments. Sixteen monoclonal antibodies recognized sequential epitopes on three antigenic regions, and the only exceptional monoclonal antibody recognized a conformational epitope. As for the two broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies generated against genogroup II, we indicated that they recognized fragment 2 of genogroup I. Furthermore, genogroup I antigen from a patient's stool was detected by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using genogroup I specific monoclonal antibody and biotinated broadly reactive monoclonal antibody. Conclusion The reactivity analysis of above monoclonal antibodies suggests that the N-terminal domain may contain more antigenic epitopes than the C-terminal domain as suggested in our previous study. The detection of genogroup I antigen from a patient's stool by our system suggested that the monoclonal antibodies generated against E. coli expressed capsid protein can be used to detect genogroup I antigens in clinical material. PMID:11710959

  4. Human peripheral blood monocytes display surface antigens recognized by monoclonal antinuclear antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Holers, V.M.; Kotzin, B.L.

    1985-09-01

    The authors used monoclonal anti-nuclear autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence to examine normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes for the presence of cell surface nuclear antigens. Only one monoclonal anti-histone antibody (MH-2) was found to bind to freshly isolated PBL, staining approximately 10% of large cells. However, after cells were placed into culture for 16-24 h, a high percentage (up to 60%) of large-sized cells were recognized by an anti-DNA (BWD-1) and several different antihistone monoclonal antibodies (BWH-1, MH-1, and MH-2). These antibodies recognize separate antigenic determinants on chromatin and histones extracted from chromatin. The histone antigen-positive cells were viable, and the monoclonal antibodies could be shown to be binding to the cell surface and not to the nucleus. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for monocytes and T cells, and complement-mediated cytotoxicity, the cells bearing histone antigens were shown to be primarily monocytes. The appearance of histone and DNA antigen-positive cells was nearly completely inhibited by the addition of low concentrations of cycloheximide at initiation of the cultures. In contrast, little effect on the percentage of positive cells was detected if cells were exposed to high doses of gamma irradiation before culture. These data further support the existence of cell surface nuclear antigens on selected cell subsets, which may provide insight into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and related autoimmune diseases.

  5. Radioimmunoassay for detecting antibodies against murine malarial parasite antigens: monoclonal antibodies recognizing Plasmodium yoelii antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Taylor, D.W.; Evans, C.B.; Asofsky, R.

    1980-12-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) in microtiter wells was established for detecting antibodies against Plasmodium yoelii Ag. The SPRIA was found (1) to require as little as 5 ..mu..g of crude parasite Ag per well, (2) to be able to detect 0.5 ng of monoclonal Ab, and (3) to be 10/sup 4/ times more sensitive than the indirect fluorescent Ab staining technique. In a modification of the above assay using intact RBC as an Ag, hyperimmune serum showed significant binding to the surface of erythrocytes of mice infected with P. yoelii parasites but not to RBC of normal mice. Hybridomas were prepared by fusing infected mouse spleen cells with myeloma cells. Using the SPRIA, hybrids secreting Ab against P. yoelii 17XL Ag were detected.

  6. DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS WITH A NEW POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (ROTAZYME 2) AND A COMMERCIAL LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEXT (ROTALEX): COMPARISON WITH A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 176 human fecal specimens were examined for the presence of rotavirus using four different assays: a monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay; the original polyclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay marketed by Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL (Rotazyme I); a modification of...

  7. Monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA for simultaneous detection of rinderpest virus and peste des petits ruminants virus antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kang-Seuk Choi; Jin-Ju Nah; Cheong-Up Choi; Young-Joon Ko; Hyun-Joo Sohn; Genevieve Libeau; Shien-Young Kang; Yi-Seok Joo

    2003-01-01

    An experimental competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (morbillivirus cELISA) using a recombinant N antigen (rRPV N) expressed in a baculovirus and a ruminant morbillivirus (RPV and PPRV)-specific monoclonal antibody (P-13A9) was developed for simultaneous detection of rinderpest virus (RPV) and peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) antibodies and its diagnostic performance was evaluated. A set of known reference antisera against RPV

  8. Validation of a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA to detect antibodies directed against swine vesicular disease virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Chénard; M. Bloemraad; J. A. Kramps; C. Terpstra; A. Dekker

    1998-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive competitive monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the detection of antibodies directed against swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) was developed. The ELISA was validated using field sera originating from SVDV-infected and non-infected Dutch pig herds, reference sera obtained from the Community Reference Laboratory for Swine Vesicular Disease at the Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright Laboratory, UK, and

  9. Monoclonal antibody against non-dominant epitopes of HBV e Ag was raised by antigen–antibody co-immunization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Chen Yan; Cai Ying Jing; Chao Feng Huang; Yong Yong Ji; Gang Yao; Xing Feng Cai; Bing Sun

    2007-01-01

    Detection of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in the sera of individuals infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can indicate both a high infectivity of the disease and a poor prognosis of disease treatment. Most of monoclonal antibodies raised against HBV e proteins interact with immuno-dominant epitopes, such as HBeAg-?. In order to raise antibodies against non-dominant epitopes of HBV

  10. Development of monoclonal antibodies against parathyroid hormone: genetic control of the immune response to human PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Nussbaum, S.R.; Lin, C.S.; Potts, J.T. Jr.; Rosenthal, A.S.; Rosenblatt, M.

    1985-01-01

    Seventeen monocloanl antibodies against the aminoterminal portion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) were generated by using BALB/c mouse for immunization fully biologically active synthetic human PTH-(1-34) and bovine PTH-(1-84) as immunogens, monoclonal antibody methods, and a solid-phase screening assay. Isotypic analysis of these monoclonal antibodies was performed using affinity purified goat antimouse immunoglobulins specific for IgG heavy chains and ..mu..(IgM). All antibodies were IgM as evidenced by 40 times greater than background activity when 25,000 cpm of /sup 125/I-labelled goat anti-mouse IgM was used as second antibody in a radioimmunoassay.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies showing sequence specificity in their interaction with single-stranded DNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J S; Lewis, J R; Morgan, A R; Mosmann, T R; Singh, B

    1981-01-01

    Six hybridoma cell lines which secrete monoclonal antibodies binding to nucleic acids were produced from autoimmune NZB/NZW mice. Four of the antibodies were IgG's and the other two were IgM's. Using a solid phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) the binding of the antibodies to over thirty different nucleic acids was estimated. All the antibodies were extremely specific. There was no detectable interaction with various RNAs, and single-stranded DNAs bound more antibodies than duplex or multi-stranded DNAs. In every case the antibodies also showed considerable sequence preferences. For example one monoclonal antibody bound to d(TTC)n but not to d(TCC)n while another interacted strongly with D(TG)n and d(CA)n but not with d(TC)n, d(GA)n or homopolymers. In other cases the patterns of sequence specificity were extremely difficult to interpret although it seems clear that monoclonal antibodies have the potential to distinguish between any two nucleic acids however similar. PMID:6164993

  12. Monoclonal antibodies to the recombinant protein TmpA of the Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed

    Brito Moreno, Adys I; Acosta Bas, Carmen; Rodríguez, Maya; Baluja Conde, Ileana B; Feal Carballo, Sadys; Martínez, Luisa

    2003-12-01

    Spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant TmpA were fused with mouse myeloma cells (P3/X63-Ag8), and five hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies were obtained. These hybridomas specifically recognize TmpA and do not cross-react with other molecules such as recombinant HBsAg of HBV and synthetic HCV core peptides. The monoclonal antibodies were IgG1 subclass and ascitic fluid from these hybridomas was purified by affinity chromatography on Protein A-Sepharose CL-4B column to isolate the IgG1 active fraction. The affinity constant of these monoclonal antibodies ranged from 6.4 x 10(8) and 1.73 x 10(10) M(-1). PMID:14683600

  13. The effect of space flight on monoclonal antibody synthesis in a hybridoma mouse cell line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smiley, S. A.; Gillock, E. T.; Black, M. C.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The hybridoma cell line, 3G10G5, producing a monoclonal antibody to the major capsid protein VP1 from the avian polyomavirus budgerigar fledgling disease virus, was produced from a Balb/C mouse. This cell line was used to test the effects of microgravity on cellular processes, specifically protein synthesis. A time course study utilizing incorporation of [35S]methionine into newly synthesized monoclonal antibody was performed on STS-77. After 5.5 days, it was observed that cell counts for the samples exposed to microgravity were lower than those of ground-based samples. However, radiolabel incorporation of the synthesized monoclonal antibody was similar in both orbiter and ground control samples. Overall, microgravity does not seem to have an effect on this cell line's ability to synthesize IgG protein.

  14. Studies on the syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. III. Development of a monoclonal antibody with specificity for autoreactive T cells

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies with specificity for autoreactive murine T cells have been developed. These antibodies inhibit proliferative response of splenic T cells activated by syngeneic spleen cells. These antibodies have no effect on the proliferative response of T cells activated by allogeneic spleen cells or PHA. The number of splenic T cells that react with these monoclonal antibodies is comparable in several normal mouse strains. PMID:6225824

  15. Gaining insights into the consequences of target-mediated drug disposition of monoclonal antibodies using quasi-steady-state approximations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Peter Grimm

    2009-01-01

    Target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) is frequently reported for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and is linked to the\\u000a high affinity and high specificity of antibody molecules for their target. Understanding TMDD of a monoclonal antibody should\\u000a go beyond the empirical description of its non-linear PK since valuable insights on the antibody-target interaction itself\\u000a can be gained. This makes its mechanistic understanding precious

  16. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies against Aspartate Aminotransferase-P1 from Lupin Root Nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, W. T.; Jones, S. D.; Harvey, D.; Rodber, K. R.; Ryan, G. B.; Reynolds, PHS.

    1994-01-01

    Six hybridoma clones were obtained that secreted monoclonal antibodies against the aspartate aminotransferase-P1 (AAT-P1) isoenzyme from root nodules of Lupinus angustifolius [L.] cv Uniharvest. This enzyme is found constitutively in the plant cytosol fraction. The monoclonal antibodies produced were all of the immunoglobulin G1 class, recognized two distinct epitopes on the protein, and represented the major paratopes found in the immunoglobulin fraction of sera taken from mice and rabbits immunized with the pure AAT-P1 protein. One of these epitopes was unique to lupin nodule AAT-P1. The other epitope was shown to be present on enzyme from lupin bean, white clover and tobacco leaves, lupin roots and nodules, and potato tubers. Both epitopes were recognized by the appropriate monoclonal antibodies in both their native and denatured forms. None of the monoclonal antibodies produced reacted with Rhizobium lupini NZP2257, Escherichia coli extracts, or with the inducible aspartate aminotransferase-P2 (AAT-P2) isoform also found in root nodules. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay utilizing two monoclonal antibodies recognizing the two distinct epitopes was developed and was capable of quantitating AAT-P1 in plant extracts. The limit of detection of AAT-P1 was less than 15 pg/mL and AAT-P1 protein could be quantified in the range 80 to 1000 pg/mL. Using this assay, AAT-P1 protein was shown to remain relatively constant during nodule development. Use of an AAT-P2-specific monoclonal antibody that inhibits the enzyme activity of this isoform enabled the direct determination of AAT-P1 enzyme activity in nodule extracts. Using these assays, specific activities of the individual isoforms were calculated; that of the AAT-P1 isoform was shown to be 7.5-fold higher than that of the AAT-P2 isoform. PMID:12232065

  17. Preparation of hapten-specific monoclonal antibody for cadmium and its ELISA application to aqueous samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huan He; Bo Tang; Cheng Sun; Shaogui Yang; Weijuan Zheng; Zichun Hua

    High-affinity and specific monoclonal antibodies against cadmium-ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) complex have been\\u000a produced using the hybridoma technique. A hapten was synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy\\u000a (FT-IR) and UV-Vis. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative detection of cadmium in aqueous\\u000a sample was developed. The monoclonal antibody with high level of binding affinity for Cd-IEDTA-BSA and

  18. Monoclonal antibodies against hepatitis B s antigen: production, characterization, and use for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Acosta, C; Baluja, I; Amores, I; Brito, A; Valdivia, I; Delhanty, A; Ventura, J; Soto, V

    2000-06-01

    Three different hybridoma clones secreting anti-HBsAg antibody were constructed by fusing cells of mouse myeloma line Ag8-X63 with splenocytes from BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant HBsAg and natural HBV. The monoclonal antibodies obtained were characterized immunologically, and two were used to develop UMELISA for detection of HBsAg. This monoclonal assay enabled the detection of 0.1 UPE/mL with reference to the standard of the Paul Ehrlich Institute (Frankfurt, Germany). The assay compared well with a commercially available kit (UMELISA HBsAg) and was used for detection of HBsAg in blood donors. PMID:10952414

  19. Monoclonal antibodies to antigens on human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemia blast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miterev, G.Yu.; Burova, G.F.; Puzhitskaya, M.S.; Danilevich, S.V.; Bulycheva, T.I.

    1987-11-01

    The authors describe the production of two mouse hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to antigenic determinants of the surface membranes of human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemic blast cells. The degree of lymphocyte stimulation was estimated from incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine with parallel microculture. Monoclonal antibodies of supernatants of hybridoma cultures shown here reacted in both immunofluorescence test and cytotoxicity test with surface membrane antigens on the majority of neutrophils and PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects, but did not give positive reactions with unactivated lymphocytes, adherent monocytes, erythrocytes, and alloantigen-stimulated lymphocytes.

  20. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against feline infectious peritonitis virus type II and antigenic relationship between feline, porcine, and canine coronaviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hohdatsu; S. Okada; H. Koyama

    1991-01-01

    Summary Seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with neutralizing activity against feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) strain 79-1149 (type II) were prepared. When the polypeptide specificity recognized by these monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was investigated by Western immunoblotting, all of the MAbs reacted with peplomer glycoprotein (S) of the virus. By competitive binding assay these MAbs were found to recognize at least 3

  1. Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)-specific Monoclonal Antibodies in the Treatment of Prostate and Other Cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Gong; Sam S. Chang; Michel Sadelain; Neil H. Bander; Warren D. W. Heston

    1999-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a cell surface glycoprotein that is expressed by prostate epithelial cells. PSMA-specific monoclonal antibodies have been utilized to characterize the biologic function and in vivo biodistribution of PSMA. PSMA is an attractive target protein for monoclonal antibody directed imaging or therapeutics for prostate cancer since its expression is relatively restricted to prostate epithelial cells and

  2. Monoclonal antibody, mAb 4C13, an effective detoxicant antibody against ricin poisoning.

    PubMed

    Dong, Na; Luo, Longlong; Wu, Junhua; Jia, Peiyuan; Li, Qian; Wang, Yuxia; Gao, Zhongcai; Peng, Hui; Lv, Ming; Huang, Chunqian; Feng, Jiannan; Li, Hua; Shan, Junjie; Han, Gang; Shen, Beifen

    2015-07-31

    Ricin is a glycoprotein produced in castor seeds and consists of two polypeptide chains named Ricin Toxin A Chain (RTA) and Ricin Toxin B Chain (RTB), linked via a disulfide bridge. Due to its high toxicity, ricin is regarded as a high terrorist risk for the public. However, antibodies can play a pivotal role in neutralizing the toxin. In this research, the anti-toxicant effect of mAb 4C13, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) established using detoxicated ricin as the immunized antigen, was evaluated. Compared with mAb 4F2 and mAb 5G6, the effective mechanism of mAb 4C13 was analyzed by experiments relating to its cytotoxicity, epitope on ricin, binding kinetics with the toxin, its blockage on the protein synthesis inhibition induced by ricin and the intracelluar tracing of its complex with ricin. Our result indicated that mAb 4C13 could recognize and bind to RTA, RTB and exert its high affinity to the holotoxin. Both cytotoxicity and animal toxicity of ricin were well blocked by pre-incubating the toxin with mAb 4C13. By intravenous injection, mAb 4C13 could rescue the mouse intraperitoneally (ip) injected with a lethal dose of ricin (20?g/kg) even at 6h after the intoxication and its efficacy was dependent on its dosage. This research indicated that mAb 4C13 could be an excellent candidate for therapeutic antibodies. Its potent antitoxic efficiency was related to its recognition on the specific epitope with very high affinity and its blockage of protein synthesis inhibition in cytoplasm followed by cellular internalization with ricin. PMID:26141013

  3. Hybridoma-derived monoclonal immunoglobulin M antibodies to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 with diagnostic potential.

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, K K; Drüeke, V; Brandis, H

    1983-01-01

    Mouse hybridomas were isolated by fusing P3-X63-Ag 8.653 myeloma cells with spleen cells from mice that had been repeatedly immunized with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 organisms. In one fusion, three independent hybridoma cultures which secreted antibodies that reacted with the immunizing strain in the indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test were selected for cloning. Representative continuously growing clones, one of each hybridoma, which remained stable in producing high-titer antibodies were examined in detail. Extensive specificity tests revealed that these hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibodies were specifically directed against L. pneumophila serogroup 1 organisms and showed no cross-reactions in the indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test either with the other known serogroups of L. pneumophila or with other unrelated bacterial species. The three monoclonal antibodies F4/CB5/K18, F/4CB5/K104, and F4/JD3.8/K101 belonged to the immunoglobulin M class and were capable of agglutinating serogroup 1 organisms of L. pneumophila exquisitely. These monoclonal antibodies against L. pneumophila with defined fine specificity should enable purification and subsequent analysis of the corresponding antigenic determinant(s) and can also be used for the preparation of unlimited supplies of standard diagnostic reagents for the identification of L. pneumophila in the tissues and body fluids. PMID:6874913

  4. In-situ Detection of Squalane in Sedimentary Organic Matter Using Monoclonal Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. V.; Corsetti, F. A.; Moldowan, J. M.; Fago, F.; Caron, D.

    2008-12-01

    Sedimentary geolipids can serve as powerful tools for reconstructing ancient ecosystems, but only if investigators can demonstrate that the hydrocarbons are indigenous to their host rocks. The association of molecules with primary sedimentary fabrics could indicate a syngenetic relationship. However, traditional biomarker analyses require extraction from large quantities of powdered rock, confounding detailed spatial correlations. Biological studies commonly use antibodies as extremely sensitive molecular probes. When coupled with fluorescent labels, antibodies allow for the visual localization of molecules. Here we show that monoclonal antibodies that bind specifically to geolipid compounds can be used for in situ detection and labeling of such compounds in mineral-bound organic macerals. Monoclonal antibodies to squalene, produced for human health studies, also react with the geolipid, squalane. We show that squalene antibodies do not react with other common sedimentary hydrocarbons. We also show that squalane antibodies bind specifically to isolated organic-rich lamina in Eocene-age, squalane-containing rocks. These results suggest that squalane is confined to discrete organo-sedimentary fabrics within those rocks, providing evidence for its syngeneity. The chemical similarity of squalane to other sedimentary hydrocarbons hints at the potential for developing monoclonal antibodies to a variety of biomarkers that could then be localized in rocks, sediments, and extant cells.

  5. Effect of kinase inhibitors on the therapeutic properties of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Duong, Minh Ngoc; Matera, Eva-Laure; Mathé, Doriane; Evesque, Anne; Valsesia-Wittmann, Sandrine; Clémenceau, Béatrice; Dumontet, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Targeted therapies of malignancies currently consist of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and small molecule kinase inhibitors. The combination of these novel agents raises the issue of potential antagonisms. We evaluated the potential effect of 4 kinase inhibitors, including the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib, and 3 PI3K inhibitors idelalisib, NVP-BEZ235 and LY294002, on the effects of the 3 monoclonal antibodies, rituximab and obinutuzumab (directed against CD20) and trastuzumab (directed against HER2). We found that ibrutinib potently inhibits antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity exerted by all antibodies, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.2 microM for trastuzumab, 0.5 microM for rituximab and 2 microM for obinutuzumab, suggesting a lesser effect in combination with obinutuzumab than with rituximab. The 4 kinase inhibitors were found to inhibit phagocytosis by fresh human neutrophils, as well as antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis induced by the 3 antibodies. Conversely co-administration of ibrutinib with rituximab, obinutuzumab or trastuzumab did not demonstrate any inhibitory effect of ibrutinib in vivo in murine xenograft models. In conclusion, some kinase inhibitors, in particular, ibrutinib, are likely to exert inhibitory effects on innate immune cells. However, these effects do not compromise the antitumor activity of monoclonal antibodies in vivo in the models that were evaluated. PMID:25523586

  6. Targeting endogenous nuclear antigens by electrotransfer of monoclonal antibodies in living cells.

    PubMed

    Freund, Guillaume; Sibler, Annie-Paule; Desplancq, Dominique; Oulad-Abdelghani, Mustapha; Vigneron, Marc; Gannon, Julian; Van Regenmortel, Marc H; Weiss, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies are valuable tools for functional studies in vitro, but their use in living cells remains challenging because they do not naturally cross the cell membrane. Here, we present a simple and highly efficient method for the intracytoplasmic delivery of any antibody into cultured cells. By following the fate of monoclonal antibodies that bind to nuclear antigens, it was possible to image endogenous targets and to show that inhibitory antibodies are able to induce cell growth suppression or cell death. Our electrotransfer system allowed the cancer cells we studied to be transduced without loss of viability and may have applications for a variety of intracellular immuno-interventions. PMID:23765067

  7. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against listeriolysin: mapping of epitopes involved in pore formation.

    PubMed Central

    Darji, A; Niebuhr, K; Hense, M; Wehland, J; Chakraborty, T; Weiss, S

    1996-01-01

    Six different mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and a specific rabbit polygonal antibody were raised against listeriolysin. Four of the MAbs also recognized seeligeriolysin, and five cross-reacted with ivanolysin. The hemolytic activity could be neutralized by the polygonal antibody as well as by five of the MAbs. None of the neutralizing antibodies interfered with the binding of listeriolysin to the cellular membrane. The epitopes recognized by the MAbs were localized by using overlapping synthetic peptides between positions 59 and 279, a region hitherto not implicated in mediating hemolytic activity. PMID:8675351

  8. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fattaey, A.; Lenz, L.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Eleven hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intact budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) virions were produced and characterized. These antibodies were selected for their ability to react with BFD virions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each of these antibodies was reactive in the immunofluorescent detection of BFD virus-infected cells. These antibodies immunoprecipitated intact virions and specifically recognized the major capsid protein, VP1, of the dissociated virion. The MAbs were found to preferentially recognize native BFD virus capsid protein when compared with denatured virus protein. These MAbs were capable of detecting BFD virus protein in chicken embryonated cell-culture lysates by dot-blot analysis.

  9. Human Monoclonal Antibodies Against a Plethora of Viral Pathogens From Single Combinatorial Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, R. Anthony; Burioni, Roberto; Sanna, Pietro P.; Partridge, Lynda J.; Barbas, Carlos F., III; Burton, Dennis R.

    1993-05-01

    Conventional antibody generation usually requires active immunization with antigen immediately prior to the preparation procedure. Combinatorial antibody library technology offers the possibility of cloning a range of antibody specificities at a single point in time and then accessing these specificities at will. Here we show that human monoclonal antibody Fab fragments against a plethora of infectious agents can be readily derived from a single library. Further examination of a number of libraries shows that whenever antibody against a pathogen can be detected in the serum of the donor, then specific antibodies can be derived from the corresponding library. We describe the generation of human Fab fragments against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, human cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus, rubella, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and respiratory syncytial virus. The antibodies are shown to be highly specific and a number are effective in neutralizing virus in vitro.

  10. A cell surface monoclonal antibody (H366) helps to discriminate human cytotoxic from suppressor T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sakkaf, L; Pozzilli, P; Sensi, M; Irving, W L; Bottazzo, G F

    1985-01-01

    A study has been undertaken to differentiate T cytotoxic (Tc) and T suppressor (Ts) cell subsets using a monoclonal antibody termed H366 (mouse IgG2b) previously reported to phenotype natural killer and killer (NK/K) cells. Mononuclear cell suspensions from 14 normal subjects were depleted of H366+ cells by means of complement dependent cytotoxicity and the remaining cells were phenotyped with CD8 and CD4 monoclonal antibodies. The effects of depletion with H366 plus complement (C1) on the induction and activity of suppressor and cytotoxic T cells was also examined. The results indicate that H366 antibody recognizes in addition to NK/K cells, a population of Tc but not Ts or helper cells. Therefore, H366 antibody can be useful for obtaining Ts enriched lymphocyte subpopulations and this property may also be used for the enumeration of suppressor cells in the peripheral blood in disease states. PMID:2935341

  11. Monoclonal antibodies to human hemoglobin S and cell lines for the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, R.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Bigbee, W.L.; Stanker, L.H.; Branscomb, E.W.; Grabske, R.J.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention provides monoclonal antibodies specific to and distinguishing between hemoglobin S and hemoglobin A and methods for their production and use. These antibodies are capable of distinguishing between two hemoglobin types which differ from each other by only a single amino acid residue. The antibodies produced according to the present method are useful as immunofluorescent markers to enumerate circulating red blood cells which have the property of altered expression of the hemoglobin gene due to somatic mutation in stem cells. Such a measurement is contemplated as an assay for in vivo cellular somatic mutations in humans. Since the monoclonal antibodies produced in accordance with the instant invention exhibit a high degree of specificity to and greater affinity for hemoglobin S, they are suitable for labeling human red blood cells for flow cytometric detection of hemoglobin genotype. 4 figs.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies to human hemoglobin S and cell lines for the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Ronald H. (Livermore, CA); Vanderlaan, Martin (San Ramon, CA); Bigbee, William L. (Livermore, CA); Stanker, Larry H. (Livermore, CA); Branscomb, Elbert W. (Walnut Creek, CA); Grabske, Robert J. (Berkeley, CA)

    1988-01-01

    The present invention provides monoclonal antibodies specific to and distinguish between hemoglobin S and hemoglobin A and methods for their production and use. These antibodies are capable of distinguishing between two hemoglobin types which differ from each other by only a single amino acid residue. The antibodies produced according to the present method are useful as immunofluorescent markers to enumerate circulating red blood cells which have the property of altered expression of the hemoglobin gene due to somatic mutation in stem cells. Such a measurement is contemplated as an assay for in vivo cellular somatic mutations in humans. Since the monoclonal antibodies produced in accordance with the instant invention exhibit a high degree of specificity to and greater affinity for hemoglobin S, they are suitable for labeling human red blood cells for flow cytometric detection of hemoglobin genotype.

  13. Analysis of reduced monoclonal antibodies using size exclusion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongcheng; Gaza-Bulseco, Georgeen; Chumsae, Chris

    2009-12-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) has been widely used to detect antibody aggregates, monomer, and fragments. SEC coupled to mass spectrometry has been reported to measure the molecular weights of antibody; antibody conjugates, and antibody light chain and heavy chain. In this study, separation of antibody light chain and heavy chain by SEC and direct coupling to a mass spectrometer was further studied. It was determined that employing mobile phases containing acetonitrile, trifluoroacetic acid, and formic acid allowed the separation of antibody light chain and heavy chain after reduction by SEC. In addition, this mobile phase allowed the coupling of SEC to a mass spectrometer to obtain a direct molecular weight measurement. The application of the SEC-MS method was demonstrated by the separation of the light chain and the heavy chain of multiple recombinant monoclonal antibodies. In addition, separation of a thioether linked light chain and heavy chain from the free light chain and the free heavy chain of a recombinant monoclonal antibody after reduction was also achieved. This optimized method provided a separation of antibody light chain and heavy chain based on size and allowed a direct measurement of molecular weights by mass spectrometry. In addition, this method may help to identify peaks eluting from SEC column directly.

  14. Development of Aflatoxin B1Lysine Adduct Monoclonal Antibody for Human Exposure Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JIA-SHENG WANG; SALAHADDIN ABUBAKER; XIA HE; GUIJU SUN; PAUL T. STRICKLAND; J. D. Groopman

    2001-01-01

    Mouse monoclonal antibodies were developed against a synthetic aflatoxin B1 (AFB)-lysine-cationized bovine serum albumin conjugate. The isotype of one of these antibodies, IIA4B3, has been classified as immunoglobulin G1(l). The affinity and specificity of IIA4B3 were further characterized by a competitive radioimmunoassay. The affinities of IIA4B3 for AFB and its associated adducts and metabolites are ranked as follows: AFB-lysine >

  15. Characterization of a Mouse Monoclonal Antibody Specific for O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank I. Comer; Keith Vosseller; Lance Wells; Mary Ann Accavitti; Gerald W. Hart

    2001-01-01

    ?-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is an abundant posttranslational modification of resident nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in eukaryotes. Increasing evidence suggests that O-GlcNAc plays a regulatory role in numerous cellular processes. Here we report on the production and characterization of a highly specific mouse monoclonal antibody, MAb CTD110.6, that specifically reacts with O-GlcNAc. The antibody recognizes O-GlcNAc in ?-O-glycosidic linkage to both

  16. Pharmacokinetic modeling for evaluating dosing strategies of anti-p185HER2 monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Schoenhoff; Daniel Maneval; Beth Hutchins; Greg Blank; David Vetterlein; Joyce Mordenti; James Green

    1992-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic modeling can be a valuable tool In the development of potential therapeutics. To Illustrate its use In evaluating dosing regimens, an example with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) directed against the extracellular domain of the protooncogene product (p185HER2) is presented. Preclinical studies have shown that these MAb have an antiproliferative effect on tumors that overexpress P185HER2. Intact antibodies (4D5, HER2) or

  17. In vivo Therapy with Monoclonal Anti-I-A Antibody Suppresses Immune Responses to Acetylcholine Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldor, Matthew K.; Sriram, Subramaniam; McDevitt, Hugh O.; Steinman, Lawrence

    1983-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody to I-A gene products of the immune response gene complex attenuates both humoral and cellular responses to acetylcholine receptor and appears to suppress clinical manifestations of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. This demonstrates that use of antibodies against immune response gene products that are associated with susceptibility to disease may be feasible for therapy in autoimmune conditions such as myasthenia gravis.

  18. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of ovarian tumours with technetium-99m labelled monoclonal antibody-170: first clinical experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christof Alexander; Carlos E. Villena-Heinsen; Ludwin Trampert; Sabine Lung-Kurt; Erich Oberhausen; Carl-Martin Kirsch; Werner Schmidt

    1995-01-01

    The recently developed technetium-99m-labelled monoclonal antibody-170 (MAb-170) was designed for diagnostic use in patients suffering from gynaecological adenocarcinoma. Following in vitro studies which showed immunoreactivity of this antibody to more than 90% of human adenocarcinomas, the present investigation was initiated to verify its usefulness for radioimmunoscintigraphy of ovarian tumours. Most of the 30 patients participating in this study underwent immunoscintigraphy

  19. Immobilization of gene vector on polyurethane surface using monoclonal antibody for site-specific gene therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cunxian Song; Manyan Wang; R. J. Levy

    2005-01-01

    Conventional strategies of gene therapy using viral vectors result in suboptimal localization and potentially dangerous distal spread of vector. We hypothesized that site-specific delivery of adenoviral gene vectors could be achieved from a polyurethane (PU) film through a mechanism involving anti-viral antibody tethering. PU films were formulated with a collagen coating. Anti-adenoviral monoclonal antibodies were covalently bound to the collagen

  20. Monoclonal Antibodies to Rat Calcitonin: Their Use in Antigenic Mapping and Immunohistochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUSHENG ZHANG; NEAL SCHERBERG; LESLIE J. DEGROOT

    2010-01-01

    A library of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to rat calcitonin (rCT) was raised from several fusions. Antibodies were screened by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay with solid phase rCT. Affinities for rCT ranged from 109-1011 M21. Some mAbs reacted preferentially with solid phase rCT, but not with liquid phase, 125I-labeled rCT. Cross- reactivity with human CT (hCT) was assessed using solid phase

  1. Modulation of cardiac physiology by an anti-Trypanosoma cruzi monoclonal antibody after interaction with myocardium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GRACIELA CREMASCHI; NORBERTO W. ZWIRNER; GABRIELA GORELIK; EMILIO L. MALCHIODI; MONICA G. CHIARAMONTE; CARLOS A. FOSSATI; LEONOR STERIN-BORDA

    Circulating antibodies from human and murme chagasic sera are able to interact with myo- cardium, activating neurotransmitter receptors. Here, we studied the effects of a monoclonal antibody (MAb CAK2O.12), which recognizes a 150 kilodal- ton antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi and reacts with normal human and murine striated muscles and with cardiac tissue. The MAb CAK2O.12 binds to purified cardiac membranes

  2. Development of a minimally immunogenic variant of humanized anti-carcinoma monoclonal antibody CC49

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. S. Kashmiri; M. Iwahashi; M. Tamura; E. A. Padlan; D. E. Milenic; J. Schlom

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) CC49 reacts with a pancarcinoma antigen, tumor associated glycoprotein (TAG)-72. To circumvent human anti-murine antibody (HAMA) responses in patients, we earlier developed a humanized CC49 (HuCC49) by grafting the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of MAb CC49 onto variable light (VL) and variable heavy (VH) frameworks of the human MAbs LEN and 21\\/28'CL, respectively. With the aim of minimizing

  3. Membrane antigens of human bronchial epithelial cells identified by monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bernal; K. Weinberg; M. Kakefuda; R. Stahel; C. O'Hara; Y. C. Wong

    1988-01-01

    Summary  Subpopulations of normal bronchial epithelial cells were identified using a series of murine monoclonal antibodies. These\\u000a antibodies were used to stain intact bronchial epithelial cells in culture by indirect immunofluorescence. LAM 2 reacted with\\u000a 80%, LAM 6 with 75%, LAM 7 with 60%, and LAM 8 with 5% of these cells. Sections of human bronchial epithelium were also stained\\u000a with

  4. A monoclonal blocking-ELISA for detection of orthopoxvirus antibodies in feline sera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus-Peter Czerny; Karin Wagner; Kurt Gessler; Anton Mayr; Oskar-Rüger Kaaden

    1996-01-01

    A double sandwich blocking-ELISA using a genus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the vaccinia virus 32 kD adsorption protein (D8L open reading frame; ORF) was developed to detect orthopoxvirus (OPV) antibodies in sera. A collection of 2173 feline serum samples was examined in an epidemiological study. The blocking-ELISA revealed 44 (2%) sera with positive titres of 1:2-1:256. ELISA results were

  5. Neutralization of Human Papillomavirus with Monoclonal Antibodies Reveals Different Mechanisms of Inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia M. Day; Cynthia D. Thompson; Christopher B. Buck; Yuk-Ying S. Pang; Douglas R. Lowy; John T. Schiller

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of human papillomavirus (HPV) neutralization by antibodies are incompletely understood. We have used HPV16 pseudovirus infection of HaCaT cells to analyze how several neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) generated against HPV16 L1 interfere with the process of keratinocyte infection. HPV16 capsids normally bind to both the cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) of HaCaT cells. Surprisingly, two strongly neutralizing

  6. Monoclonal Antibody against Babesia equi: Characterization and Potential Application of Antigen for Serodiagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ABGAANDORJIIN AVARZED; IKUO IGARASHI; DANIEL T. DE WAAL; SATORU KAWAI; YUKIO OOMORI; NOBORU INOUE; YOSHIYUKI MAKI; YOSHITAKA OMATA; ATSUSHI SAITO; HIDEYUKI NAGASAWA; YUTAKA TOYODA; NAOYOSHI SUZUKI

    1998-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) BEG3 was produced against Babesia equi parasites to define a species-specific antigen for diagnostic use. The MAb reacted with single, paired, and Maltese cross forms of B. equi, and no reaction was observed with this MAb on acetone-fixed Babesia caballi, Babesia ovata ,o rBabesia microti parasites in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Confocal laser and immunoelectron microscopic

  7. Inhibitory effect of monoclonal antibodies on the growth of Babesia caballi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromi Ikadai; You Tamaki; Xuenan Xuan; Ikuo Igarashi; Satoru Kawai; Hideyuki Nagasawa; Kozo Fujisaki; Yutaka Toyoda; Naoyoshi Suzuki; Takeshi Mikami

    1999-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against Babesia caballi (USDA strain) to define a species-specific antigen for use in diagnosis and vaccine development. Eight positive clones of B. caballi mAbs determined by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test were selected for purification and further characterisation. Confocal laser microscopy showed that the antigens recognised by the mAbs were located on the surface\\/cytoplasm, central part,

  8. Adipose tissue development in the fetal pig examined using monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Wright; G. J. Hausman

    ABSTRACT Two anti-adipocyte monoclonal,antibodies (MAbs; AD-I and AD-2) have been used to study the development,of dorsal S.C. adipose tissue in fetuses from 50 to 110 d of gestation. Immunofluorescent staining of cryostat sections with each antibody,revealed anhgen- positive cells in fetal S.C. mesenchyme,prior to lipid deposition. Lipid droplets as well as AD-I and AD-2 positive cells were detected within the

  9. Expression of a colorectal antigen defined by a new monoclonal antibody, CO-TL1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerdy B ten Dam; Lambert G Poels; Rogier Pullens; Paul H K Jap; Fred J J M van de Molengraft

    2004-01-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb CO-TL1, IgG1) has been raised by differential screening of hybridoma supernatants on sections of human large and small intestines, followed by screening on colon adenomas as well as on colorectal carcinomas. In both paraffin sections and cryostat sections, the antibody stained strongly all cell types in adult, neonatal and fetal human colorectal epithelium, that is,

  10. Immunoscintigraphy of colorectal carcinoma with F (ab')2 fragments of anti-CEA monoclonal antibody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Buraggi; L. Callegaro; A. Turrin; L. Gennari; E. Bombardieri; G. Mariani; G. Deleide; M. Dovis; M. Gasparini; R. Doci

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (F023C5), belonging to IgG1 class, was obtained by cell fusion technique. Preliminary screening on different tissues was performed with immunoperoxidase staining, which showed good specificity of the antibody for gastric and colorectal carcinomas. F(ab')2 fragments were subsequently prepared and labeled with ¹³¹I and ¹¹¹In. After immunoreactivity check the radiopharmaceuticals were injected intravenously. Sixteen

  11. Isolation of Highly Active Monoclonal Antibodies against Multiresistant Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rossmann, Friederike S.; Laverde, Diana; Kropec, Andrea; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Meyer-Buehn, Melanie; Huebner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Multiresistant nosocomial pathogens often cause life-threatening infections that are sometimes untreatable with currently available antibiotics. Staphylococci and enterococci are the predominant Gram-positive species associated with hospital-acquired infections. These infections often lead to extended hospital stay and excess mortality. In this study, a panel of fully human monoclonal antibodies was isolated from a healthy individual by selection of B-cells producing antibodies with high opsonic killing against E. faecalis 12030. Variable domains (VH and VL) of these immunoglobulin genes were amplified by PCR and cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector containing the constant domains of a human IgG1 molecule and the human lambda constant domain. These constructs were transfected into CHO cells and culture supernatants were collected and tested by opsonophagocytic assay against E. faecalis and S. aureus strains (including MRSA). At concentrations of 600 pg/ml, opsonic killing was between 40% and 70% against all strains tested. Monoclonal antibodies were also evaluated in a mouse sepsis model (using S. aureus LAC and E. faecium), a mouse peritonitis model (using S. aureus Newman and LAC) and a rat endocarditis model (using E. faecalis 12030) and were shown to provide protection in all models at a concentration of 4 ?g/kg per animal. Here we present a method to produce fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibodies that are opsonic in vitro and protective in vivo against several multiresistant Gram-positive bacteria. The monoclonal antibodies presented in this study are significantly more effective compared to another monoclonal antibody currently in clinical trials. PMID:25706415

  12. B cell responses to HIV and the development of human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, J E; James, K

    1992-01-01

    In this review B cell responses in HIV-infected individuals are summarized together with the techniques used to date to produce human monoclonals to HIV and the properties of these antibodies. Profound disturbances in B cell responses are apparent both in vivo and in vitro. While there is evidence in vivo of marked polyclonal B cell activation, primary and secondary antibody responses are impaired. Similarly these cells exhibit spontaneous immunoglobulin secretion upon in vitro culture but do not readily respond to B cell mitogens and recall antigens including HIV. Furthermore, certain of these defects can be reproduced in normal B cells in vitro by incubation with HIV or HIV coded peptides. Individuals infected with HIV develop antibodies to HIV structural proteins (e.g. p17, p24, gp41 and gp120) and regulatory proteins (e.g. vif, nef, RT). Autoantibodies against a number of immunologically important molecules are also frequently observed. The anti-HIV antibodies are predominantly of the IgG1 isotype and exhibit a variety of effects on the virus in vitro. To date, using conventional immortalization strategies, an appreciable number of human monoclonals to HIV have been developed. These have been specific for gp41, gp120 and gag with antibodies of the former specificity predominating. The majority of these antibodies have been of the IgG1 isotype. Only a small number of the antibodies neutralize virus in vitro and most of these react with gp120. The neutralizing antibodies recognize conformational and carbohydrate epitopes or epitopes in amino acid positions 306-322. The predominant epitopes recognized by the anti-gp41 antibodies were in amino acid positions 579-620 and 644-662. A high percentage (congruent to 25%) of these antibodies enhance viral growth in vitro. The problems relating to the production of human monoclonals to HIV are discussed together with strategies that could be used in the future. PMID:1572084

  13. Monoclonal antibody specific for human colon fibroblast-derived T-PA

    SciTech Connect

    Schaumann, J.P.; Olander, J.V.; Harakas, N.K.; Feder, J

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a murine-derived hybridoma cell line capable of producing monoclonal antibody against human colon fibroblast-derived tissue plasminogen activator and the cell line selected from the group consisting of cell lines 63-4 (ATCC HB 9155), 54-2 (ATCC HB 9157) or 79-7 (ATCC HB 9156).

  14. Development and Characterization of Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies Reactive with Chicken CD83

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to develop and characterize mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against chicken CD83 (chCD83), a membrane-bound glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily that is primarily expressed on mature dendritic cells (DCs). A recombinant chCD83/IgG4 fusion protein con...

  15. Detection of Substance P in the Central Nervous System by a Monoclonal Antibody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Cuello; G. Galfre; C. Milstein

    1979-01-01

    Peptides with transmitter-like characteristics are being found in many brain areas. The application of immunocytochemical and radioimmunoassay methods has contributed much to the clarification of these neuronal systems. Here we report the development of a rat monoclonal antibody produced by a hybrid myeloma and its application to the study of one of these peptides, substance P. The hybrid clone, isolated

  16. Partial characterization of the antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody to Ascaris suum ovary extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Inoue; M. Takashima; S. Murakami; T. Watanabe

    2007-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody produced against ovary extracts from the worm Ascaris suum showed immunoreactivity against granules in the rachis and oocytes, the inner layer of the eggshell and the middle layer of some egg, but not against either ovary wall or uterus wall. Furthermore, the same antigens were detected on the body surface of migrated larva in guinea pig lung,

  17. Synthesis of Haptens and Derivation of Monoclonal Antibodies for Immunoassay of the Phenylurea Herbicide Diuron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander E. Karu; Marvin H. Goodrow; Douglas J. Schmidt; Bruce D. Hammock; Michael W. Bigelow

    1994-01-01

    Diuron and related phenylurea herbicides and their metabolites are important candidates for sensitive and specific immunodetection. This paper describes a scheme for the synthesis of two different types of phenylurea haptens for immunization and use as detecting conjugates in enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). The haptens were used to develop indirect and direct EIAs and to derive a panel of monoclonal antibodies

  18. Monoclonal Antibody and Synthetic Peptide Inhibitors of Human Tumor Cell Migration1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth M. Yamada; Dorothy W. Kennedy; Susan S. Yamada; Harvey Gralnick; Wen-Tien Chen; Steven K. Akiyama

    1990-01-01

    The processes of migration and invasion by human tumor cells are likely to involve specific cell surface receptors, such as receptors for the extracellular matrix molecules fibronectin, laminili, and collagen. We have examined the roles of several of these receptors using a set of monoclonal antibodies directed against the 0¡ integrin family, as well as a series of synthetic peptides

  19. Antigenic variation of Newcastle disease virus strains detected by monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Russell; D. J. Alexander

    1983-01-01

    Summary Forty Newcastle disease virus strains and isolates could be placed in eight distinct antigenic groups on their ability to induce binding of nine mouse monoclonal antibodies, raised against strain NDV-Ulster 2C, to infected MDBK cells as assessed by an indirect immuno-peroxidase test. Viruses placed in each group appeared to share both biological and epizootiological properties.

  20. INITIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST THE FUNGAL HEMOLYSIN STACHYLYSIN FROM STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stachybotrys chartarum is known to produce the hemolysin stachylysin and its detection in human serum has been proposed as a biomarker for exposure to the fungus. In this study we report the initial characterization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against stachylysin and the dev...

  1. ANTIGEN DETECTION WITH MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF ADENOVIRUS GASTROENTERITIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for direct detection of enteric adenoviruses in stool specimens from patients with gastroenteritis. Tests specific for each of the enteric adenoviruses, adenovirus type 40 (Ad40) and type 41 (Ad41) we...

  2. Monoclonal antibody-based therapy as a new treatment strategy in multiple myeloma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N W C J van de Donk; S Kamps; T Mutis; H M Lokhorst; NWCJ van de Donk

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of autologous stem cell transplantation combined with the introduction of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) and proteasome inhibitors has significantly improved survival of multiple myeloma patients. However, ultimately the majority of patients will develop refractory disease, indicating the need for new treatment modalities. In preclinical and clinical studies, promising results have been obtained with several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the

  3. Cross-reacting and Heterospecific Monoclonal Antibodies Produced Against Arabis Mosaic Nepovirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Frison; R. Stace-Smith

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against arabis mosaic nepovirus (AMV). A hybridoma screen- ing procedure was applied which involved the testing of culture supernatants, before the hybridomas were cloned to single cell lines, for their reaction with eight nepoviruses (AMV, cherry leafroll virus (CLRV), grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), peach rosette mosaic virus, raspberry ringspot virus (RRSV), tobacco ring- spot virus,

  4. Development of human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for prevention and therapy of MERS-CoV infections.

    PubMed

    Ying, Tianlei; Li, Haoyang; Lu, Lu; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Jiang, Shibo

    2015-02-01

    The recent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak poses a serious threat to public health. Here, we summarize recent advances in identifying human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MERS-CoV, describe their mechanisms of action, and analyze their potential for treatment of MERS-CoV infections. PMID:25456101

  5. Characterization of the allergen filarial tropomyosin with an invertebrate specific monoclonal antibody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal J. Sereda; Susanne Hartmann; Dietrich W. Büttner; Rudolf Volkmer; Marc Hovestädt; Norbert Brattig; Richard Lucius

    2010-01-01

    Tropomyosins of invertebrates are pan-allergens responsible for wide spread allergic reactions against seafood and arthropods. As invertebrate tropomyosins are highly conserved, helminth tropomyosins are likely to show properties similar to these medically important allergens. Studies with a monoclonal antibody, NR1, raised against tropomyosin of the rodent filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae revealed a B cell epitope common to helminths and marine

  6. Topographical and Functional Mapping of Epitopes on Hog Cholera Virus with Monoclonal Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Wensvoort

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY Competitive binding studies and antigen capture assays were done with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against hog cholera virus (HCV) to map the corresponding epitopes. A model was constructed in which the 13 epitopes were situated in four distinct antigenic domains: A, B, C and D. Domain A was subdivided into A1, A2 and A3. The functional relevance of this

  7. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to the O-acetylated peptidoglycan of Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Gyorffy, S; Clarke, A J

    1992-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (PmPG5-3) specific for the O-acetylated peptidoglycan of Proteus mirabilis 19 was produced by an NS-1 myeloma cell line and purified from ascites fluid by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation and affinity chromatography. The monoclonal antibody (an immunoglobulin M) was characterized by a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to be equally specific for both insoluble and soluble O-acetylated peptidoglycan but weakly recognized chemically de-O-acetylated P. mirabilis peptidoglycan, the non-O-acetylated peptidoglycans from Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, and the peptidoglycan monosaccharide precursors N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid dipeptide. The monoclonal antibody did not react with D-alanine or lipopolysaccharide isolated from P. mirabilis. Based on this evidence, the binding epitope on the P. mirabilis peptidoglycan is predicted to be linear and to comprise the glycan backbone, including both the N- and O-acetyl moieties. Monoclonal antibody PmPG5-3 was used to localize the O acetylation of the P. mirabilis peptidoglycan by immunoelectron microscopy. Murein sacculi of P. mirabilis were heavily and randomly labelled with the immunogold, whereas very little labelling and no labelling were observed on the sacculi isolated from de-O-acetylated P. mirabilis and E. coli, respectively. Based on the apparent pattern of immunogold labelling, a physiological role for peptidoglycan O acetylation in P. mirabilis is proposed. Images PMID:1629161

  8. Functional Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen by Using Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabien Brossier; Martine Levy; Annie Landier; Pierre Lafaye; Michele Mock

    2004-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA) is central to the action of the lethal and edema toxins produced by Bacillus anthracis. It is the common cell-binding component, mediating the translocation of the enzymatic moieties (lethal factor (LF) and edema factor) into the cytoplasm of the host cell. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against PA, able to neutralize the activities of the toxins in vitro and

  9. Cross-reaction of an anti-Cryptosporidium monoclonal antibody with sporocysts of Monocystis species.

    PubMed

    Bull, S; Chalmers, R; Sturdee, A P; Curry, A; Kennaugh, J

    1998-06-15

    The non-specific cross-reaction of a fluorescently labelled anti-Cryptosporidium monoclonal antibody was observed microscopically when testing faecal specimens from small mammals. The reactive particles were identified as sporocysts of the Gregarine family Monocystidae, and indicate that considerable care should be taken so that false positives are not recorded. PMID:9746290

  10. Analysis of hepatitis E virus neutralization sites using monoclonal antibodies directed against a virus capsid protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Zhang; Ying Gu; Sheng X. Ge; Shao W. Li; Zhi Q. He; Guo Y. Huang; Hui Zhuang; Mun H. Ng; Ning S. Xia

    2005-01-01

    The dimeric form of the recombinant peptide (E2), comprising amino acid 394–606 of the capsid protein of hepatitis E virus (HEV), is strongly recognized by HEV reactive human serum, and when used as a vaccine, it protects rhesus monkeys against experimental HEV infection. In this work, the relationship of E2 to HEV has been probed using three murine monoclonal antibodies,

  11. An analysis of the properties of monoclonal antibodies directed to epitopes on influenza virus hemagglutinin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Brown; J. M. Murray; D. O. White; D. C. Jackson

    1990-01-01

    Summary Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the hemagglutinin (HA) of the H3 subtype of influenza A virus were grouped according to their inability to bind to particular MAb-selected neutralization escape mutants of the virus having an amino acid substitution in one of the five postulated antigenic sites on the molecule. Additional residues critical to the binding of the MAbs were

  12. NEUTRALIZING MECHANISM OF A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY AGAINST JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS GLYCOPROTEIN E

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SIRITORN BUTRAPET; JUNKO KIMURA-KURODA; DE-SHAN ZHOU; KOTARO YASUI

    1998-01-01

    The neutralization of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was studied using JEV-specific neutralizing (NT) monoclonal antibody (MAb) 503 that recognizes the envelope glycoprotein. Analysis using radiolabeled JEV and observations by confocal laser microscopy and electron microscopy indicated that the NT and protection activities of MAb 503 did not result from the prevention of the first step of JEV infection, binding of

  13. Phytochrome in photosynthetically competent plants characterization by monoclonal antibodies: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, L.H.

    1983-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to oat and to pea phytochrome have been characterized and immunopurified. In addition a fully automated, microcomputer-based, dual wavelength spectrophotometer was designed and constructed. An ELISA that is sensitive to subfemtomol levels of phytochrome has been developed. 1 fig.

  14. Monoclonal antibodies to synthetic pyrethroids and method for detecting the same

    DOEpatents

    Stanker, Larry H. (Livermore, CA); Vanderlaan, Martin (Danville, CA); Watkins, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Van Emon, Jeanette M. (Henderson, NV); Bigbee, Carolyn L. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies which may be used in a sensitive immunoassay for detection of synthetic pyrethroids in foods and environmental samples. Appropriate sample preparation and enzyme amplification of the immunoassay for this widely-used class of pesticides permits detection at low levels in laboratory and field tested samples.

  15. Monoclonal antibodies to synthetic pyrethroids and method for detecting the same

    DOEpatents

    Stanker, L.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.; Van Emon, J.M.; Bigbee, C.L.

    1992-04-28

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies which may be used in a sensitive immunoassay for detection of synthetic pyrethroids in foods and environmental samples. Appropriate sample preparation and enzyme amplification of the immunoassay for this widely-used class of pesticides permits detection at low levels in laboratory and field tested samples. 6 figs.

  16. Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Pf 155, a Major Antigen of Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachanee Udomsangpetch; Katarina Lundgren; Klavs Berzins; Birgitta Wahlin; Hedvig Perlmann; Marita Troye-Blomberg; Jan Carlsson; Mats Wahlgren; Peter Perlmann; Anders Bjorkman

    1986-01-01

    Pf 155, a protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is strongly immunogenic in humans and is believed to be a prime candidate for the preparation of a vaccine. Human monoclonal antibodies to Pf 155 were obtained by cloning B cells that had been prepared from an immune donor and transformed with Epstein-Barr virus. When examined by indirect immunofluorescence,

  17. Immunoscintigraphy with antigranulocyte monoclonal antibodies for the diagnosis of septic loosening of hip prostheses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Boubaker; A. Bischof Delaloye; C. H. Blanc; M. Dutoit; P. F. Leyvraz; B. Delaloye

    1995-01-01

    To determine the value of immunoscintigraphy (IS) with antigranulocyte monoclonal antibodies (Mab) in the diagnosis of subacute or chronic infection of hip prostheses, we prospectively studied 57 patients (23 women and 34 men; age 29–92 years, mean 72.7 years) sent to our institution in the past 6 years for clinical suspicion of septic loosening of a hip prosthesis. Nineteen patients

  18. Production, characterization and application of monoclonal antibody to spherulocytes: A subpopulation of coelomocytes of Apostichopus japonicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One monoclonal antibody (mAb 3F6) against coelomocytes of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was developed by immunization of Balb/C mice. Analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay test (IIFAT), immunocytochemical assay (ICA),Western blotting and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS), mAb 3...

  19. Monoclonal antibodies: new agents for cancer detection and targeted therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Baldwin; V. S. Byers

    1991-01-01

    Antibodies directed against markers on cancer cells are gaining in importance for the purpose of targeting diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In the past, this approach has had very limited success principally because the classical methods for producing antibodies from blood serum of animals immunized with cancer cells or extracts were unsatisfactory. The situation has changed dramatically since 1975 following the

  20. Monoclonal antibody-based therapies in cancer: advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sapra, Puja; Shor, Boris

    2013-06-01

    Conventional anticancer therapeutics often suffer from lack of specificity, resulting in toxicities to normal healthy tissues and poor therapeutic index. Antibody-mediated delivery of anticancer drugs or toxins to tumor cells through tumor selective or overexpressed antigens is progressively being recognized as an effective strategy for increasing the therapeutic index of anticancer drugs. In this review we focus on three therapeutic modalities in the field of antibody-mediated targeting, including antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), immunotoxins (ITs) and immunoliposomes (ILs). Design considerations for development of each of the above therapeutic modalities are discussed. Furthermore, an overview of ADCs, ITs or ILs approved for use in clinical oncology and those currently in clinical development is provided. Challenges encountered by the field of antibody-based targeting are discussed and concepts around development of the next generation of antibody therapeutics are presented. PMID:23507041

  1. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies against the ``Brain-Specific'' Proteins 14-3-2 and S-100

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Haan; Barbara D. Boss; W. Maxwell Cowan

    1982-01-01

    We have raised mouse hybridomas that secrete monoclonal antibodies against bovine brain-specific proteins 14-3-2 and S-100, and we have characterized the antibodies by immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence methods in sections and in tissue cultures of rat brain. One monoclonal antibody to 14-3-2 (E8.F9) has been found to react strongly with bovine 14-3-2 and with rat neuron-specific enolase in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent

  2. Identification and Initial Characterization of a Rat Monoclonal Antibody Reactive with the Murine Interleukin 2 Receptor-Ligand Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Malek; Richard J. Robb; Ethan M. Shevach

    1983-01-01

    Xenogeneic monoclonal antibodies were prepared to the murine interleukin 2 (IL-2)-dependent HT2 cell line. One rat IgM monoclonal antibody (7D4) was identified that inhibited proliferation of the HT2 cells and of IL-2-dependent CTLL cells in the presence of crude rat IL-2 as well as of purified human IL-2. The level of inhibition was dependent on both antibody and IL-2 concentration.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Human Neutrophil Cathepsin G, Lactoferrin, Eosinophil Peroxidase, and Eosinophil Major Basic Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith M. Skubitz; Neal P. Christiansen; John R. Mendiola

    This report describes the production and characterization of five murine monoclonal antibodies that react with granule proteins of human granulocytes. Monoclonal antibody AHN-1 1 (lgG2a) reacted specifically with neutrophiI cathepsin G; no reactivity with the homologous neutrophll neutral proteases, elastase, protelnase 3, or esterase N was de- tected. Antibodies AHN-9 (IgGi) and AHN-9.1 (lgG2b) each reacted with different epitopes on

  4. Motility assays using myosin attached to surfaces through specific binding to monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, D. A.; Bourdieu, L.; Kinose, F.; Libchaber, A.

    1995-01-01

    We have analyzed the dependence of actin filament movement on the mode of myosin attachment to surfaces. Monoclonal antibodies that bind to three distinct sites were used to tether myosin to nitrocellulose-coated glass. One antibody reacts with an epitope on the regulatory light chain located at the head-rod junction. The other two react with sites in the rod domain, one in the S2 region near the S2-LMM hinge, and the other at the C terminus of the myosin rod. These monoclonal antibodies were used to provide increasing flexibility in the mode of attachment. Fast skeletal muscle myosin monomers were bound to the surfaces through the specific interaction with these monoclonal antibodies and the sliding movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments analyzed by video microscopy. Each of these antibodies produced stable, myosin-coated surfaces that supported uniform movement of actin over the course of several hours. Attachment of myosin through the anti-S2 and anti-LMM monoclonal antibodies yielded a maximum velocity of 10 microns/s at 30 degrees C, whereas attachment through anti-LC2 produced a lower velocity of 4-5 microns/s. Each antibody showed a characteristic minimum myosin density below which sliding movement was no longer supported and an exponential dependence of actin filament velocity on myosin surface density below Vmax. Maximum sliding velocity was achieved over a range of myosin surface densities. Thus, the specific mode of attachment can influence the characteristic velocity of actin filament movement and the surface density needed to support movement. These data are being used to analyze the dynamics of sliding filament assays and evaluate estimates of the average number of motor molecules per unit length of actin required to support movement. PMID:7787107

  5. Motility assays using myosin attached to surfaces through specific binding to monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, D A; Bourdieu, L; Kinose, F; Libchaber, A

    1995-04-01

    We have analyzed the dependence of actin filament movement on the mode of myosin attachment to surfaces. Monoclonal antibodies that bind to three distinct sites were used to tether myosin to nitrocellulose-coated glass. One antibody reacts with an epitope on the regulatory light chain located at the head-rod junction. The other two react with sites in the rod domain, one in the S2 region near the S2-LMM hinge, and the other at the C terminus of the myosin rod. These monoclonal antibodies were used to provide increasing flexibility in the mode of attachment. Fast skeletal muscle myosin monomers were bound to the surfaces through the specific interaction with these monoclonal antibodies and the sliding movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments analyzed by video microscopy. Each of these antibodies produced stable, myosin-coated surfaces that supported uniform movement of actin over the course of several hours. Attachment of myosin through the anti-S2 and anti-LMM monoclonal antibodies yielded a maximum velocity of 10 microns/s at 30 degrees C, whereas attachment through anti-LC2 produced a lower velocity of 4-5 microns/s. Each antibody showed a characteristic minimum myosin density below which sliding movement was no longer supported and an exponential dependence of actin filament velocity on myosin surface density below Vmax. Maximum sliding velocity was achieved over a range of myosin surface densities. Thus, the specific mode of attachment can influence the characteristic velocity of actin filament movement and the surface density needed to support movement. These data are being used to analyze the dynamics of sliding filament assays and evaluate estimates of the average number of motor molecules per unit length of actin required to support movement. PMID:7787107

  6. A monoclonal antibody recognizing a conserved epitope in a group of phospholipases A2.

    PubMed

    Mollier, P; Chwetzoff, S; Ménez, A

    1990-01-01

    Notexin and nigexine are monomeric phospholipases A2(PLA2s) from the venoms of Notechis scutatus scutatus and Naja nigricollis, respectively. Polyclonal antibodies raised in mice against these antigenic proteins displayed non-reciprocal cross-reactivity; anti-notexin antibodies recognized notexin but not nigexine, whereas anti-nigexine antibodies recognized both antigens. Polyclonal antibodies raised by successive immunization with nigexine and notexin contained cross-reacting antibodies with affinities for both antigens that differed from those of antibodies present in anti-nigexine antiserum. A monoclonal antibody has been obtained from a mouse immunized with both PLA2s. This monoclonal antibody, called MN1, recognized notexin and nigexine with comparable high affinity (Kd = 10(-9) M). It also recognized most purified PLA2s from elapid snake venoms and all PLA2-containing venoms from cobras and sea-snakes. This offers the first demonstration that most PLA2s from cobras and sea-snakes share a fine structure which is not restricted to the common catalytic site. PMID:1690350

  7. Cathepsin B-deficient mice as source of monoclonal anti-cathepsin B antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Ekkehard; Barbulescu, Elena; Medek, Rita; Reinheckel, Thomas; Sameni, Mansoureh; Anbalagan, Arulselvi; Moin, Kamiar; Sloane, Bonnie F.

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin B has been demonstrated to be involved in several proteolytic processes that support tumor progression and metastasis and neurodegeneration. To further clarify its role, defined monoclonal antibodies are needed. As the primary structure of human cathepsin B is almost identical to that of the mouse, cathepsin B-deficient mice were used in a novel approach for generating such antibodies, providing the chance of an increased immune response to the antigen, human cathepsin B. Thirty clones were found to produce cathepsin B-specific antibodies. Seven of these antibodies were used to detect cathepsin B in MCF10-DCIS human breast cancer cells by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. Five different binding sites were identified by epitope mapping giving the opportunity to combine these antibodies in oligoclonal antibody mixtures for an improved detection of cathepsin B. PMID:25205719

  8. Cathepsin B-deficient mice as source of monoclonal anti-cathepsin B antibodies.

    PubMed

    Weber, Ekkehard; Barbulescu, Elena; Medek, Rita; Reinheckel, Thomas; Sameni, Mansoureh; Anbalagan, Arulselvi; Moin, Kamiar; Sloane, Bonnie F

    2015-03-01

    Cathepsin B has been demonstrated to be involved in several proteolytic processes that support tumor progression and metastasis and neurodegeneration. To further clarify its role, defined monoclonal antibodies are needed. As the primary structure of human cathepsin B is almost identical to that of the mouse, cathepsin B-deficient mice were used in a novel approach for generating such antibodies, providing the chance of an increased immune response to the antigen, human cathepsin B. Thirty clones were found to produce cathepsin B-specific antibodies. Seven of these antibodies were used to detect cathepsin B in MCF10-DCIS human breast cancer cells by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. Five different binding sites were identified by epitope mapping giving the opportunity to combine these antibodies in oligoclonal antibody mixtures for an improved detection of cathepsin B. PMID:25205719

  9. Novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing the active conformation of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Ise, Nobuyuki; Omi, Kazuya; Miwa, Kyoko; Honda, Hideo; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Goishi, Katsutoshi

    2010-04-01

    The precise regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is crucial for its function in cellular growth control. Although many antibodies against EGFR have been developed and used to analyze its regulation and function, it is not yet easy to analyze activated EGFR specifically. Activated EGFR has been mainly detected by its phosphorylation state using anti-phospho-EGFR and anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. In the present study, we have established novel monoclonal antibodies which recognize the activated EGFR independently of its phosphorylation. Our antibodies detected active state of EGFR in immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence, by recognizing the epitopes which are exposed through the conformational change induced by ligand-binding. Furthermore, we found that our antibodies preferentially detected the conformation of constitutively active EGFR mutants found in lung cancer cell lines. These results indicate that our antibodies may become novel research and diagnostic tools for detecting and analyzing the conformation of active EGFR in various cells and tissues. PMID:20226763

  10. Human immune response to monoclonal antibody-enzyme conjugates in ADEPT pilot clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S K; Bagshawe, K D; Melton, R G; Sherwood, R F

    1992-01-01

    The human immune response to monoclonal antibody-enzyme conjugates has been studied in patients included in the pilot clinical trial of ADEPT. Each patient received murine monoclonal anti-CEA antibody fragments (A5B7-F(ab')2, conjugated to bacterial enzyme, carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) followed by a galactosylated monoclonal anti-CPG2 antibody (SB43), 36-48 h after the conjugate. Some patients were also given a dose of 131I-labeled conjugate (4-8 mg, 7-15 mCi) for blood clearance and gamma camera image studies. All patients studied developed human antimouse antibodies (HAMA) and anti-CPG2 antibodies within 10 d after a single course of treatment with the conjugate. In most cases, IgM response was detected at 7 d after the conjugate followed by the IgG response 14 d later. In one patient, HAMA and anti-CPG2 antibodies of the IgG type could still be detected at 10 mo after treatment. Anti-CPG2 antibodies in serum of one patient were found to inhibit CPG2 activity in vitro. Generation of neutralizing antibodies limits the use of repeat cycles of ADEPT in patients. Use of immunosuppressive agents may allow a useful time window for several ADEPT cycle treatments by delaying the appearance of HAMA and anti-CPG2 antibodies. Patients given cyclosporin A before and during ADEPT are currently being studied for HAMA and anti-CPG2 response. PMID:1285323

  11. Understanding the cellular function of TRPV2 channel through generation of specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Matthew R; Huynh, Kevin W; Cawley, Daniel; Moiseenkova-Bell, Vera Y

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) is a Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel proposed to play a critical role in a wide array of cellular processes. Although TRPV2 surface expression was originally determined to be sensitive to growth factor signaling, regulated trafficking of TRPV2 has remained controversial. TRPV2 has proven difficult to study due to the lack of specific pharmacological tools to modulate channel activity; therefore, most studies of the cellular function of TRPV2 rely on immuno-detection techniques. Polyclonal antibodies against TRPV2 have not been properly validated and characterized, which may contribute to conflicting results regarding its function in the cell. Here, we developed monoclonal antibodies using full-length TRPV2 as an antigen. Extensive characterization of these antibodies and comparison to commonly used commercially available TRPV2 antibodies revealed that while monoclonal antibodies generated in our laboratory were suitable for detection of endogenous TRPV2 by western blot, immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry, the commercially available polyclonal antibodies we tested were not able to recognize endogenous TRPV2. We used our newly generated and validated TRPV2 antibodies to determine the effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on TRPV2 surface expression in heterologous and endogenous expression systems. We found that IGF-1 had little to no effect on trafficking and plasma membrane expression of TRPV2. Overall, these new TRPV2 monoclonal antibodies served to dispel the controversy of the effects of IGF-1 on TRPV2 plasma membrane expression and will clarify the role TRPV2 plays in cellular function. Furthermore, our strategy of using full-length tetrameric TRP channels may allow for the generation of antibodies against other TRP channels of unclear function. PMID:24392006

  12. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Falero, G; Rodríguez, B L; Valmaseda, T; Pérez, M E; Pérez, J L; Fando, R; Robert, A; Campos, J; Silva, A; Sierra, G; Benítez, J A

    1998-02-01

    We have generated murine monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against Vibrio cholerae mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) using conventional hybridoma procedures. Seven hybridomas were obtained and one characterized. Hybridoma 2F12/F1 secreted an antibody of the IgG3 type that reacted with a 17-kDa antigen corresponding to the product of the mshA gene. This MAb inhibited mannose-sensitive agglutination of chicken erythrocytes by EL tor and O139 vibrios. Vibrios expressing MSHA activity inhibited binding of the antibody secreted by 2F12/F1 to MSHA-coated microtiter plates. PMID:9523239

  13. Current and emerging monoclonal antibody treatments for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Robak, Tadeusz

    2014-12-01

    Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), rituximab, ofatumumab and obinutuzumab, have a significant impact in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), particularly in combination with chemotherapy. Over the last few years, several new mAbs have been developed and investigated in CLL. The most promising newer mAbs are directed against CD20, CD19, CD37 and CD40. Combinations of antibodies with targeted drugs like ibrutinib, idelalisib or lenalidomide will probably replace chemotherapy-based combinations in the near future. This review gives a critical overview of established mAbs as well as new antibodies potentially useful in CLL. PMID:25249370

  14. Fully human monoclonal antibodies from antibody secreting cells after vaccination with Pneumovax®23 are serotype specific and facilitate opsonophagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth; Muther, Jennifer J; Duke, Angie L; McKee, Emily; Zheng, Nai-Ying; Wilson, Patrick C; James, Judith A

    2013-05-01

    B lymphocyte memory generates antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) that represent a source of protective antibodies that may be exploited for therapeutics. Here we vaccinated four donors with Pneumovax®23 and produced human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) from ASCs. We have cloned 137 hmAbs and the specificities of these antibodies encompass 19 of the 23 serotypes in the vaccine, as well as cell wall polysaccharide (CWPS). Although the majority of the antibodies are serotype specific, 12% cross-react with two serotypes. The Pneumovax®23 ASC antibody sequences are highly mutated and clonal, indicating an anamnestic response, even though this was a primary vaccination. Hmabs from 64% of the clonal families facilitate opsonophagocytosis. Although 9% of the total antibodies bind to CWPS impurity in the vaccine, none of these clonal families showed opsonophagocytic activity. Overall, these studies have allowed us to address unanswered questions in the field of human immune responses to polysaccharide vaccines, including the cross-reactivity of individual antibodies between serotypes and the percentage of antibodies that are protective after vaccination with Pneumovax®23. PMID:23084371

  15. Epitope mapping of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against duck hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, R C; Robinson, W S; Marion, P L; Greenberg, H B

    1989-01-01

    In this article we report the first topological mapping of neutralizing epitopes of a hepadnavirus. Duck hepatitis B virus is the only hepadnavirus that can replicate and spread from cell to cell in tissue culture. As a result, it is possible to study hepadnaviral neutralization in vitro with this system. To accomplish this goal, we produced a library of monoclonal antibodies against duck hepatitis B virus and identified 12 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies by using an in vitro neutralization assay. The characteristics of six of the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were further studied by epitope mapping. From the results of competitive binding studies, three distinct neutralizing epitopes were identified on the pre-S polypeptides and one was identified on the S polypeptide. Our findings suggest that antibodies to both the pre-S and S gene products of duck hepatitis B virus can neutralize viral infection in vitro. The pre-S gene product is at least as important as the S gene product in eliciting neutralizing antibodies. Images PMID:2470915

  16. Generation and Characterization of Anti-CD34 Monoclonal Antibodies that React with Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aghebati Maleki, Leili; Majidi, Jafar; Baradaran, Behzad; Movassaghpour, Aliakbar; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    CD34 is a type I membrane protein with a molecular mass of approximately 110 kDa. This antigen is associated with human hematopoietic progenitor cells and is a differentiation stage-specific leukocyte antigen. In this study we have generated and characterized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against a CD34 marker. Mice were immunized with two keyhole lympet hemocyanin (KLH)-conjugated CD34 peptides. Fused cells were grown in hypoxanthine, aminopterine and thymidine (HAT) selective medium and cloned by the limiting dilution (L.D) method. Several monoclones were isolated by three rounds of limited dilutions. From these, we chose stable clones that presented sustained antibody production for subsequent characterization. Antibodies were tested for their reactivity and specificity to recognize the CD34 peptides and further screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting analyses. One of the mAbs (3D5) was strongly reactive against the CD34 peptide and with native CD34 from human umbilical cord blood cells (UCB) in ELISA and Western blotting analyses. The results have shown that this antibody is highly specific and functional in biomedical applications such as ELISA and Western blot assays. This monoclonal antibodies (mAb) can be a useful tool for isolation and purification of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). PMID:24611141

  17. Monoclonal antibodies to ?I spectrin Src homology 3 domain associate with macropinocytic vesicles in nonerythroid cells?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiliu; Ziemnicka, Dorota; Scalia, Jason; Kotula, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Spectrins represent a family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for membrane flexibility and cell shape in erythrocytes, and probably in most nonerythroid cells. Spectrin functions as a tetramer consisting of two heterodimers each containing two subunits termed ? and ?. In humans, ?I and ?II spectrins but not ? spectrins are characterized by the presence of an Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. As a tool to investigate the function of spectrin SH3 domains we derived several monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to the recombinant human ?I or ?II spectrin SH3 domain. Immunostaining using these monoclonal antibodies indicated expression of ?I spectrin in cell bodies and ?II spectrin in neurites of granule neurons in mouse primary cerebellar cultures. Monoclonal antibodies reactive to ?I spectrin SH3 domain indicated expression of a protein(s) containing an ?I-like SH3 domain in cytoplasmic vesicular-like structures in GFAP-positive cells in these cultures. In NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, these antibodies label macropinocytic vesicles. Together, these data and Western blotting results suggest expression of at least three spectrin-SH3 domain antibody-reactive proteins. PMID:11292462

  18. Development of rabbit monoclonal antibodies for detection of alpha-dystroglycan in normal and dystrophic tissue.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Marisa J; Ball, Charlotte E; Hollinger, Katrin; Patel, Niraj B; Modi, Jill N; Rajasekaran, Vedika; Nonneman, Dan J; Ross, Jason W; Kennedy, Eileen J; Selsby, Joshua T; Beedle, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-dystroglycan requires a rare O-mannose glycan modification to form its binding epitope for extracellular matrix proteins such as laminin. This functional glycan is disrupted in a cohort of muscular dystrophies, the secondary dystroglycanopathies, and is abnormal in some metastatic cancers. The most commonly used reagent for detection of alpha-dystroglycan is mouse monoclonal antibody IIH6, but it requires the functional O-mannose structure for recognition. Therefore, the ability to detect alpha-dystroglycan protein in disease states where it lacks the full O-mannose glycan has been limited. To overcome this hurdle, rabbit monoclonal antibodies against the alpha-dystroglycan C-terminus were generated. The new antibodies, named 5-2, 29-5, and 45-3, detect alpha-dystroglycan from mouse, rat and pig skeletal muscle by Western blot and immunofluorescence. In a mouse model of fukutin-deficient dystroglycanopathy, all antibodies detected low molecular weight alpha-dystroglycan in disease samples demonstrating a loss of functional glycosylation. Alternately, in a porcine model of Becker muscular dystrophy, relative abundance of alpha-dystroglycan was decreased, consistent with a reduction in expression of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in affected muscle. Therefore, these new rabbit monoclonal antibodies are suitable reagents for alpha-dystroglycan core protein detection and will enhance dystroglycan-related studies. PMID:24824861

  19. Monoclonal antibody recognizing a species-specific protein from Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, H; Tharpe, J A; Wells, D E; White, E H; Johnson, J E

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against a nonencapsulated strain (R36A) of Streptococcus pneumoniae were produced to aid in a search for antigens common to this species. By Western immunoblot analysis, a species-specific 37-kilodalton (kDa) protein was found in lysates of 24 different encapsulated strains of S. pneumoniae. Monoclonal antibodies against the 37-kDa antigen did not react with 55 heterologous strains representing 19 genera and 36 species of bacteria that can also cause acute lower respiratory tract disease. Immunogold staining suggests that the antigen is synthesized inside the pneumococcal cell. However, MAbs to the 37-kDa antigen bound whole cells in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the indirect immunofluorescence assay. Antibody-binding epitopes of the antigen are probably exposed on the outer surface of the pneumococcus cell wall. The effectiveness of the 37-kDa antigen as a useful diagnostic marker is under study. Images PMID:2229341

  20. Antibacterial monoclonal antibodies and the dawn of a new era in the control of infection

    SciTech Connect

    Macario, A.J.L.; Conway de Macario, E.

    1984-01-01

    Literature reports concerned with monoclonal antibodies against bacteria or their toxins, which are pathogens for man and animals were surveyed. These antibodies have important potential uses in human and veterinary pathology and medicine. They are likely to become key elements in a fast progression toward a more complete understanding and control of infectious diseases and of toxin poisoning. A new area of bacteriology relevant to sanitary engineering is also being advanced with the help of antibacterial monoclonal antibodies. This area involves bacteria that produce the biofuel methane, along with other molecules of nutritional value, through a process which brings about the recycling of organic wastes and thereby limits or controls microbial contamination of soil and water. 52 references.

  1. Purification of bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone by a monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, A.J.; van Denderen, J.; Aarden, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody directed against bovine TSH was obtained by hybridoma technology. This antibody was specific for TSH and did not react with bovine LH and FSH. Affinity chromatography of crude TSH was performed on anti-TSH Sepharose. Bovine TSH was purified in a single step to near homogeneity by this technique, as shown by cation exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified TSH. The biological activity of the hormone was not affected during the purification, as determined by (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation of the TSH-dependent FRTL5 cell line. The results indicate that affinity purification of TSH by means of a monoclonal antibody is a simple one-step procedure for the production of biologically active, highly purified TSH.

  2. Production and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies for Identification of Strains of Rhizobium trifolii.

    PubMed

    Wright, S F; Foster, J G; Bennett, O L

    1986-07-01

    We produced a monoclonal antibody against Rhizobium trifolii 162x95. This antibody in cell culture supernatant was used in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to differentiate strain 162x95 from naturalized strains in the Appalachian region. Nodules crushed in 0.1 to 0.2 ml of phosphate-buffered saline and used to charge enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates gave strong absorbance readings. Heat-inactivated and noninactivated portions of 162x95 cultures were strongly reactive, indicating that the antigen is probably a carbohydrate. Of 10 strains from California, where 162x95 was isolated, 6 strongly cross-reacted with the antibody. The cellular protein patterns in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gradient gel of cross-reactive strains were essentially identical. A Western blot analysis indicated that the antibody was against a 19.8-kilodalton band. The Western blot analysis also revealed that the polyvalent antiserum contained other strongly reacting antibodies with molecular weights of approximately 20,000, indicating the possibility that other monoclonal antibodies to detect strain 162x95 may be produced. However, the available antibody has been shown to be useful for short-term experiments. Based upon protein profiles and immunological reactions, there are 4 or 5 California strains rather than 10. PMID:16347098

  3. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to the transcription factor ETS-2 protein.

    PubMed

    Sanij, Elaine; Scott, Bernadette; Wilson, Trevor; Xu, Dakang; Hertzog, Paul; Wolvetang, Ernst

    2003-03-01

    ETS-2 is a member of the ETS family of transcription factors. ETS-2 was initially characterized as a nuclear oncogene and has been shown to play a role in regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Members of the ETS family display high sequence homology, thus, there is considerable controversy concerning the specificity of existing ETS-2 polyclonal antibodies that have been used to define ETS-2 function. We therefore embarked on the production of ETS-2 specific monoclonal antibodies. In this report, we describe the production and characterization of six antibodies and the localization of their target epitopes to distinct domains of the ETS-2 protein. Four antibodies are ETS-2 specific and two antibodies cross-react with ETS-1, an ETS family member with the highest amino acid sequence homology to ETS-2. This report provides a comprehensive evaluation of ETS-2 specific monoclonal antibodies verified using ETS-2 null cells. These antibodies can be used for EMSA, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining experiments. Collectively, these reagents are invaluable molecular tools that should help better understand the biological function of ETS-2. PMID:12600747

  4. Biokinetics of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in heterotransplanted nude rats: Evaluation of corrected specific tissue uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Ingvar, C.; Norrgren, K.; Strand, S.E.; Brodin, T.; Joensson, P.E.S.; Sjoegren, H.O. (Lund Univ. (Sweden))

    1989-07-01

    A tumor model is presented to study the biokinetics and localization of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MAb) in the nude rat (Rowett RNu/RNu) heterotransplanted with human melanoma metastases. The nude rat is larger, less sensitive, and lives longer than the nude mouse. It is, therefore, well suited for in vivo studies of tumor localization with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. The tumor-to-host weight ratio was closer to the human situation for the nude rat than for the mouse, and quantitative imaging could be performed with a parallel hole collimator. We followed the antibody biokinetics for as long as 8 days, with repeated blood sampling and imaging. Specific uptake of MAb was higher in tumor tissue than in all other tissues except blood. Initial high uptake was also recorded in the bone marrow. The lymph glands showed a slow uptake of specific and control antibody. A simple in vitro correction procedure is described to calculate the corrected specific tissue uptake (STUcorr) that takes the blood activity into account. Thus it was shown that 80% of the tissue uptake in the dissected liver at 30 hr was due to labeled antibodies circulating in the blood. The specific tissue uptake ratio of antibodies 96.5 and OKT3 (nonspecific control) was unity for all other organs except for tumor tissue, where the ratio was greater than two and even higher when correction for blood content of labeled antibody was made.

  5. Novel anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies: synergy and antagonism with tumor necrosis factor-?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One-third of breast cancers display amplifications of the ERBB2 gene encoding the HER2 kinase receptor. Trastuzumab, a humanized antibody directed against an epitope on subdomain IV of the extracellular domain of HER2 is used for therapy of HER2-overexpressing mammary tumors. However, many tumors are either natively resistant or acquire resistance against Trastuzumab. Antibodies directed to different epitopes on the extracellular domain of HER2 are promising candidates for replacement or combinatorial therapy. For example, Pertuzumab that binds to subdomain II of HER2 extracellular domain and inhibits receptor dimerization is under clinical trial. Alternative antibodies directed to novel HER2 epitopes may serve as additional tools for breast cancer therapy. Our aim was to generate novel anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cells, either alone or in combination with tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). Methods Mice were immunized against SK-BR-3 cells and recombinant HER2 extracellular domain protein to produce monoclonal antibodies. Anti-HER2 antibodies were characterized with breast cancer cell lines using immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation, western blot techniques. Antibody epitopes were localized using plasmids encoding recombinant HER2 protein variants. Antibodies, either alone or in combination with TNF-?, were tested for their effects on breast cancer cell proliferation. Results We produced five new anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies, all directed against conformational epitope or epitopes restricted to the native form of the extracellular domain. When tested alone, some antibodies inhibited modestly but significantly the growth of SK-BR-3, BT-474 and MDA-MB-361 cells displaying ERBB2 amplification. They had no detectable effect on MCF-7 and T47D cells lacking ERBB2 amplification. When tested in combination with TNF-?, antibodies acted synergistically on SK-BR-3 cells, but antagonistically on BT-474 cells. A representative anti-HER2 antibody inhibited Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation leading to cyclin D1 accumulation and growth arrest in SK-BR-3 cells, independently from TNF-?. Conclusions Novel antibodies against extracellular domain of HER2 may serve as potent anti-cancer bioactive molecules. Cell-dependent synergy and antagonism between anti-HER2 antibodies and TNF-? provide evidence for a complex interplay between HER2 and TNF-? signaling pathways. Such complexity may drastically affect the outcome of HER2-directed therapeutic interventions. PMID:23033967

  6. Identification of circulating antibodies in fasciolosis and localization of 66 kDa antigenic target using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Krailas, D; Viyanant, V; Ardseungnoen, P; Sobhon, P; Upatham, E S; Keawjam, R

    1999-03-01

    We identified three specific circulating antibodies in serum of cattle naturally infected with Fasciola gigantica. Two of the antibodies were found to react specifically to 97 and 66 kDa antigenic molecules of adult worm tegumental membrane extract. The third antibody was identified by the reaction with 26-28 kDa molecule of the excretory/secretory antigens. Monoclonal antibody against 66 kDa protein was developed and used for localization of its antigenic target in adult worm frozen sections. The experiment demonstrated that 66 kDa protein is a component on the outer surface membrane and on the membrane lining of the caecal epithelial of adult worm. The 66 kDa antigen was considered as a promising candidate for immunodiagnosis and vaccine. PMID:10403009

  7. Production and selection of antigen-specific fully human monoclonal antibodies from mice engineered with human Ig loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aya Jakobovits

    1998-01-01

    The ability to produce highly specific fully human monoclonal antibodies to human antigens has potential significant applications to human therapy. This review describes the creation of novel mouse strains engineered to produce a diverse repertoire of fully human antibodies in the absence of mouse antibodies. These mouse strains have been generated by introducing megabase-sized human immunoglobulin loci, containing the majority

  8. Inhomogeneous translational diffusion of monoclonal antibodies on phospholipid Langmuir-Blodgett films.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, L L; Palmer, A G; Thompson, N L

    1988-01-01

    The translational mobility of fluorescent-labeled monoclonal antibodies specifically bound to supported phospholipid bilayers containing hapten-conjugated phospholipids has been measured as a function of the surface concentration of bound antibodies using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Fluorescence recovery curves are fit well by a model that assumes the presence of two populations of antibodies with different lateral diffusion coefficients. The larger diffusion coefficient equals 3.5 x 10(-9) cm2/s, the smaller diffusion coefficient ranges from 1.5 x 10(-9) cm2/s to 2.5 x 10(-10) cm2/s, and the fractional fluorescence recovery associated with the smaller coefficient increases from approximately 0 to approximately 0.7 with increasing concentration of bound antibody. These results suggest that complexes of haptenated phospholipids and antibodies in phospholipid Langmuir-Blodgett films form clusters or domains in a concentration-dependent fashion. PMID:3207834

  9. Developing the next generation of monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jamie; Lowe, David; Sleeman, Matthew A

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the commonest autoimmune diseases affecting 0.8% of the population. Over the last decade the treatment of this chronic disease has been revolutionized by the use of monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins, targeting molecules like tumour necrosis factor alpha. Nevertheless, approximately one-third of subjects fail to respond to these therapies and therefore significant unmet medical need remains. Following a decade of use, clinical, government and regulatory agency expectations have changed for new antibodies therapies entering this highly competitive area. In this review, we discuss the current advances being made in antibody engineering and how they are being considered and used in the development of the next generation of antibodies to meet future expectations of healthcare providers, physicians and patients. Moreover, we discuss how pattern recognition receptors may provide new antibody tractable targets that may break the cycle of autoimmunity in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:21182494

  10. Robustness of iCIEF methodology for the analysis of monoclonal antibodies: an interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Salas-Solano, Oscar; Kennel, Babu; Park, SungAe Suhr; Roby, Kelly; Sosic, Zoran; Boumajny, Boris; Free, Sarah; Reed-Bogan, Angelia; Michels, David; McElroy, Will; Bonasia, Pauline; Hong, Mingfang; He, Xiaoping; Ruesch, Margaret; Moffatt, Frank; Kiessig, Steffen; Nunnally, Brian

    2012-11-01

    An international team including 12 laboratories from 11 independent biopharmaceutical companies in the United States and Switzerland was formed to evaluate the precision and robustness of imaged capillary isoelectric focusing for the charge heterogeneity analysis of monoclonal antibodies. The different laboratories determined the apparent pI and the relative distribution of the charged isoforms for a representative monoclonal antibody sample using the same capillary isoelectric focusing assay. Statistical evaluation of the data was performed to determine within and between laboratory consistencies and outlying information. The apparent pI data generated for each charged variant peak showed very good precision between laboratories with RSD values of less than 0.8%. Similarly, the RSD for the therapeutic monoclonal antibody charged variants percent peak area values are less than 11% across different laboratories using different analyst, different lots of ampholytes and multiple instruments. These results validate the appropriate use of imaged capillary isoelectric focusing in the biopharmaceutical industry in support of process development and regulatory submissions of therapeutic antibodies. PMID:23065998

  11. Production and selection of antigen-specific fully human monoclonal antibodies from mice engineered with human Ig loci.

    PubMed

    Jakobovits

    1998-04-01

    The ability to produce highly specific fully human monoclonal antibodies to human antigens has potential significant applications to human therapy. This review describes the creation of novel mouse strains engineered to produce a diverse repertoire of fully human antibodies in the absence of mouse antibodies. These mouse strains have been generated by introducing megabase-sized human immunoglobulin loci, containing the majority of the human antibody gene repertoire, in nearly germline configuration, into mice deficient in mouse antibody production. The mice produce high levels of human IgMkappa and IgGkappa antibodies with a diverse adult-like repertoire. Upon immunization with multiple human antigens the mice generate high affinity, antigen-specific fully human monoclonal antibodies with neutralization activity. Comparison of these mice to other strains containing limited human antibody gene repertoire underscores the importance of the large number of variable genes for faithful reproduction of functional and diverse human antibody response in mice. PMID:10837616

  12. Characterization and epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Kariwa, Hiroaki; Noda, Hiroshi; Nakauchi, Mina; Ishizuka, Mariko; Hashiguchi, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Shingo; Yoshii, Kentaro; Asano, Atsushi; Agui, Takashi; Kogaki, Hiroyuki; Kurano, Yoshihiro; Uchida, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Nobuyuki; Okada, Masahisa; Takashima, Ikuo

    2008-02-01

    The sudden emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) at the end of 2002 resulted in 774 reported deaths from more than 8000 cases worldwide. As no effective vaccines or antiviral agents are available, the most effective measure to prevent the expansion of a SARS epidemic is the rapid diagnosis and isolation of SARS patients. To establish specific diagnostic methods, we generated nine clones of monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid protein (NP) of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). On immunofluorescent antibody assay and Western blotting analysis, none of the monoclonal antibodies showed cross-reactivity to authentic and recombinant NPs of human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E strain. To determine the region on the NP molecule where the monoclonal antibodies bind, we generated four truncated recombinant NPs and analyzed the reactivity between monoclonal antibodies and truncated NPs. Two monoclonal antibodies reacted with a truncated NP covering from amino acid residues 111 to 230, and seven reacted with another truncated NP covering from amino acid residues 221 to 340. Epitope mapping analysis indicated that monoclonal antibody SN5-25 recognized the amino acid sequence Q(245)TVTKK(250) On SARS-NP. Within the epitope, Q245, T246, V247, K249, and K250 appeared to form an essential motif for monoclonal antibody SN5-25 to bind. The information about binding sites and epitopes of monoclonal antibodies may be useful for the development of new diagnostic methods for SARS and for analyzing the function of N protein of SARS-CoV. PMID:18380153

  13. Detection of experimental myocarditis by monoclonal antimyosin antibody, Fab fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Rezkalla, S.; Kloner, R.A.; Khaw, B.A.; Haber, E.; Fallon, J.T.; Smith, F.E.; Khatib, R.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether monoclonal antimyosin Fab (antigen binding fragment) was capable of labeling hearts with experimental coxsackievirus myocarditis, and to determine whether Fab could be used for detecting myocardial damage in either early or chronic phases of the disease. Sixty-five, 3-week-old cesarean-derived 1 (CD 1) mice were divided into two groups: group I (noninfected animals) and group II (infected with coxsackievirus B3). Mice from each group were killed on days 7, 17, 30, or 90 of infection. Forty-eight hours before killing, mice were injected with monoclonal I-125 antimyosin, Fab (25 microCi/injection) and radioactivity was counted in the heart. Selected heart sections were also examined by autoradiography. Heart radioactivity, count/m/mg (m +/- SEM) on days 7, 17, 30, and 90 of infection was 10.8 +/- 1.7, 21.3 +/- 1.1, 11.2 +/- 3.4, and 12.4 +/- 1.5 for group I, versus 36.7 +/- 8.0 (p less than 0.01), 50.0 +/- 4.5 (p less than 0.001), 33.4 +/- 16.1 (p = NS), and 40.6 +/- 8.5 (p less than 0.01) for group II, respectively. Autoradiography revealed focal uptake within areas of necrotic myocardium. We conclude that I125 Fab may be useful in detecting myocardial damage in the experimental model of murine myocarditis up to day 90 of infection.

  14. Epitope interactions of monoclonal antibodies targeting CD20 and their relationship to functional properties

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Christian; Lammens, Alfred; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Georges, Guy; Schwaiger, Manfred; Mössner, Ekkehard; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Umaña, Pablo; Niederfellner, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Several novel anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies are currently in development with the aim of improving the treatment of B cell malignancies. Mutagenesis and epitope mapping studies have revealed differences between the CD20 epitopes recognized by these antibodies. Recently, X-ray crystallography studies confirmed that the Type I CD20 antibody rituximab and the Type II CD20 antibody obinutuzumab (GA101) differ fundamentally in their interaction with CD20 despite recognizing a partially overlapping epitope on CD20. The Type I CD20 antibodies rituximab and ofatumumab are known to bind to different epitopes. The differences suggest that the biological properties of these antibodies are not solely determined by their core epitope sequences, but also depend on other factors, such as the elbow hinge angle, the orientation of the bound antibody and differential effects mediated by the Fc region of the antibody. Taken together, these factors may explain differences in the preclinical properties and clinical efficacy of anti-CD20 antibodies. PMID:23211638

  15. Lyophilized silk fibroin hydrogels for the sustained local delivery of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Guziewicz, Nicholas; Best, Annie; Perez-Ramirez, Bernardo; Kaplan, David L

    2011-04-01

    The development of sustained delivery systems compatible with protein therapeutics continues to be a significant unmet need. A lyophilized silk fibroin hydrogel matrix (lyogel) for the sustained release of pharmaceutically relevant monoclonal antibodies is described. Sonication of silk fibroin prior to antibody incorporation avoids exposing the antibody to the sol-gel transition inducing shear stress. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis showed no change in silk structural composition between hydrogel and lyogel or with increasing silk fibroin concentration. Antibody release from hydrogels occurred rapidly over 10 days regardless of silk concentration. Upon lyophilization, sustained antibody release was observed over 38 days from lyogels containing 6.2% (w/w) silk fibroin and above. In 3.2% (w/w) silk lyogels, antibody release was comparable to hydrogels. Swelling properties of lyogels followed a similar threshold behavior. Lyogels at 3.2% (w/w) silk recovered approximately 90% of their fluid mass upon rehydration, while approximately 50% fluid recovery was observed at 6.2% (w/w) silk and above. Antibody release was primarily governed by hydrophobic/hydrophilic silk-antibody interactions and secondarily altered by the hydration resistance of the lyogel. Hydration resistance was controlled by altering ?-sheet (crystalline) density of the matrix. The antibody released from lyogels maintained biological activity. Silk lyogels offer an advantage as a delivery matrix over other hydrogel materials for the slow release of the loaded protein, making lyogels suitable for long-term sustained release applications. PMID:21216004

  16. Immunofluorescent technique for the detection of monoclonal internal image anti-idiotypic antibodies of hepatitis B surface antigen.

    PubMed

    Thanavala, Y M; Bond, A; Hay, F C; Roitt, I M

    1985-11-01

    Monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies to HBsAg were screened by immunofluorescence for the presence of a subset behaving as the internal image of the original antigen. We describe the technique and the criteria fulfilled to establish that 2/6 monoclonals studied act as the internal images of the a determinant of hepatitis B surface antigen. PMID:3902976

  17. Instability of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Monoclonal Antibodies Induced by Redox-Active Metal Ions adn Photo-Irradiation

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Shuxia

    2012-08-31

    Since the approval of the first monoclonal antibody (mAb) drug in 1986, mAbs have developed into a major class of therapeutic agents due to their unique properties. Compared to traditional small molecule drug products, the ...

  18. Evaluating delivery of a monoclonal antibody using a linear Lorentz-force actuated needle-free injector

    E-print Network

    Jin, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    The medical application of injection of monoclonal antibodies using a controllable auto-loading needle-free jet injector has been evaluated for two potentially limiting factors: viscosity of the formulation and shearing ...

  19. COORDINATION OF PHYTOCHROME LEVELS IN PHYB MUTANTS OF ARABIDOPSIS AS REVEALED BY APOPROTEIN-SPECIFIC MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulating evidence indicates that individual members of the hytochrome family of photoreceptors have differential but interactive roles in controlling plant responses to light. To investigate possible crossregulation of these receptors, we have identified monoclonal antibodies that specifically d...

  20. Phenotyping of beluga whale blood lymphocytes using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    De Guise, S; Bernier, J; Martineau, D; Béland, P; Fournier, M

    1997-01-01

    Widespread efforts are currently made to classify morphologically indistinguishable lymphocyte subpopulations in several species. In order to increase the knowledge in cetacean immunology, cross-reactivity of antibodies against bovine, human, ovine and mouse cell surface proteins was tested on beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) peripheral blood lymphocytes using flow cytometry. Anti-MHC class I and II as well as anti-CD2 reacted with virtually all peripheral blood lymphocytes. Anti-TCR gamma delta and anti-CD4 reacted with respectively 31% and 30% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. B lymphocytes were identified by an anti-surface IgM which was present on 6% of blood lymphocytes. Specificity of these antibodies was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of beluga proteins with similar molecular weight to that of other species. These results could be useful for further immunotoxicological evaluation of highly versus mildly contaminated populations of belugas. PMID:9397348

  1. Localization of antigenic molecules of adult Fasciola gigantica using monoclonal antibodies against the parasite tegumental antigen.

    PubMed

    Krailas, Duangduen; Ukong, Suluck; Kapuan, Suchada; Jumnearn, Surayut; Janecharat, Tuenta

    2003-01-01

    In this study, monoclonal antibodies were developed from the partially purified surface tegumental antigens of F. gigantica. Nine MoAbs: 2G11, 1G2, 1B12, 2G2, 2G5, 3C6, 3G2, 3G3 and 3F6 were used for anatomical localization of adult F. gigantica. The reaction was demonstrated by Avidin-Biotin method. The results revealed that among the sections stained with non-immune sera and control group, there were no reaction products on either the tegument or the cecal epithelium. The only brownish areas were the vitelline glands. In the sections stained with immune sera, brownish reaction products appeared on the surface membrane, the spine membrane, the cecal lumen and its epithelial cells. The experiment sections of nine monoclonal antibodies revealed that the reaction occurred mainly on the tegument of the adult worm which covered its surface and spine. PMID:19230580

  2. Microglial internalization and degradation of pathological tau is enhanced by an anti-tau monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenjie; Liu, Wencheng; Hu, Xiaoyan; Hanna, Mary; Caravaca, April; Paul, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia have been shown to contribute to the clearance of brain amyloid ? peptides (A?), the major component of amyloid plaques, in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, it is not known whether microglia play a similar role in the clearance of tau, the major component of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). We now report that murine microglia rapidly internalize and degrade hyperphosphorylated pathological tau isolated from AD brain tissue in a time-dependent manner in vitro. We further demonstrate that microglia readily degrade human tau species released from AD brain sections and eliminate NFTs from brain sections of P301S tauopathy mice. The anti-tau monoclonal antibody MC1 enhances microglia-mediated tau degradation in an Fc-dependent manner. Our data identify a potential role for microglia in the degradation and clearance of pathological tau species in brain and provide a mechanism explaining the potential therapeutic actions of passively administered anti-tau monoclonal antibodies. PMID:26057852

  3. Monocyte/macrophage-specific monoclonal antibody Ki-M1 recognizes interdigitating reticulum cells.

    PubMed Central

    Radzun, H. J.; Parwaresch, M. R.; Feller, A. C.; Hansmann, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, Ki-M1, was produced, and its immunoreactivity was tested by light and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry. Ki-M1 was found to react with monocytes, cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), interdigitating reticulum cells (IDC), and the so-called indeterminate dendritic cells of lymphoid tissue. No reactivity was seen in other human tissues or other hematopoietic cells, including granulocytes and cells of the unstimulated promyelocyte cell line HL-60. Thus, Ki-M1 is the first of the monoclonal antibodies to MPS cells to react with both human IDC and MPS cells. This suggests that IDC and MPS cells may have a common cytogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:6391190

  4. Improving impurities clearance by amino acids addition to buffer solutions for chromatographic purifications of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Takashi; Hosono, Mareto

    2015-07-15

    The performance of amino acids in Protein A affinity chromatography, anion exchange chromatography and cation exchange chromatography for monoclonal antibody purification was investigated. Glycine, threonine, arginine, glutamate, and histidine were used as buffer components in the equilibration, washing, and elution steps of these chromatographies. Improved clearance of impurity, high molecular weight species (HMW) and host cell proteins (HCP) was observed in the purification processes when using the amino acids as base-buffer constituents, additives or eluents compared with that of buffers without these amino acids. In addition, we designed a buffer system in which the mobile phases were composed of only a single amino acid, histidine, and applied it to the above three chromatographies. Effective HMW and HCP clearance was also obtained in this manner. These results suggest that amino acids may enhance impurity clearance during the purification of monoclonal antibodies. PMID:26057847

  5. Demonstration of antigenic variation among rabies virus isolates by using monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J S; Reid-Sanden, F L; Roumillat, L F; Trimarchi, C; Clark, K; Baer, G M; Winkler, W G

    1986-01-01

    Rabies virus isolates from terrestrial animals in six areas of the United States were examined with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid proteins. Characteristic differences in immunofluorescence reactions permitted the formation of four antigenically distinct reaction groups from the 231 isolates tested. The geographic distribution of these groups corresponded well with separate rabies enzootic areas recognized by surveillance of sylvatic rabies in the United States. Distinctive reaction patterns were also identified for viral proteins from four infected bat species, and identical patterns were found in eight isolated cases of rabies in terrestrial animals. These findings suggest that monoclonal antibodies can be used to study the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of rabies among wildlife species. PMID:2429983

  6. Adsorption and recovery issues of recombinant monoclonal antibodies in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Beck, Alain; Wagner, Elsa; Vuignier, Karine; Guillarme, Davy

    2015-01-01

    The poor recovery of large biomolecules is a well-known issue in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Several papers have reported this problem, but the reasons behind this behavior are not yet fully understood. In the present study, state-of-the-art reversed-phase wide-pore stationary phases were used to evaluate the adsorption of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. These biomolecules possess molar mass of approximately 150,000 g/mol and isoelectric points between 6.6 and 9.3. Two types of stationary phases were tested, the Phenomenex Aeris Widepore (silica based), with 3.6 ?m superficially porous particles, and the Waters Acquity BEH300 (ethylene-bridged hybrid), with 1.7 ?m fully porous particles. A systematic investigation was carried out using 11 immunoglobulin G1, G2, and G4 antibodies, namely, panitumumab, natalizumab, cetuximab, bevacizumab, trastuzumab, rituximab, palivizumab, belimumab, adalimumab, denosumab, and ofatumumab. All are approved by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency in various therapeutic indications and are considered as reference antibodies. Several test proteins, such as human serum albumin, transferrin, apoferritin, ovalbumin, and others, possessing a molar mass between 42,000 and 443,000 g/mol were also evaluated to draw reliable conclusions. The purpose of this study was to find a correlation between the adsorption of monoclonal antibodies and their physicochemical properties. Therefore, the impact of isoelectric point, molar mass, protein glycosylation, and hydrophobicity was investigated. The adsorption of intact antibodies on the stationary phase was significantly higher than that of proteins of similar size, isoelectric point, or hydrophobicity. The present study also demonstrates the unique behavior of monoclonal antibodies, contributing some unwanted and unpredictable strong secondary interactions. PMID:25359277

  7. Monoclonal Antibodies Detect a Spectrin-Like Protein in Normal and Dystrophic Human Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, S. T.; Dunn, M. J.; Dubowitz, V.; Scott, M. L.; Pittman, S. J.; Shotton, D. M.

    1984-02-01

    Spectrin is the major protein of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton, which is bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane's lipid bilayer and is responsible for cell shape and membrane elasticity. Inability to identify spectrin in other cell types led to the assumption that this protein was unique to erythrocytes. However, spectrin-like proteins have been demonstrated recently in a variety of cell types, including skeletal and cardiac muscle, in several species. We used monoclonal antibodies against human erythrocyte spectrin subunits in an immunocytochemical study to detect related proteins in normal and diseased human skeletal muscle. Six of seven monoclonal antibodies against ? -spectrin determinants were bound at the cytoplasmic surface of muscle fiber plasma membranes, whereas none of six monoclonal antibodies against ? -spectrin determinants was bound. Muscle fibers of patients with neuromuscular diseases showed similar distribution and specificity of antibody binding to those of normal subjects, but the intensity of binding was increased. In contrast, probable regenerating fibers in muscle of patients with muscular dystrophies showed reduced binding of antibodies, but reduced binding was not seen in fetal muscle fibers nor in those of a patient with a myotubular myopathy. We conclude that human skeletal muscle fibers possess a spectrin-related protein associated with their plasma membrane that shows extensive ? -chain similarities to erythrocyte spectrin but differs significantly with respect to the ? -subunit. Its function may be associated with the maintenance of membrane and myofibril integrity during contraction, and the increased antibody binding in diseased muscle may reflect a structural rearrangement of spectrin or a compensatory increase in spectrin abundance in response to increased stress on these systems.

  8. Capping and internalization of a monoclonal antibody-surface antigen complex: a possible mode of interaction of monoclonal antibodies and tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Mariani, G; Ito, S; Nayak, R C; Baranowska-Kortylewicz, J; Venkateshan, C N; Van den Abbeele, A D; Eisenbarth, G S; Adelstein, S J; Kassis, A I

    1991-01-01

    Our results demonstrate that upon incubation of 125I-3G5 (a monoclonal IgM against a membrane ganglioside antigen on RINm5F cells) with rat insulinoma RINm5F cell monolayers at 37 degrees C, the IgM is rapidly internalized. Cell-bound radioactivity, detectable within 10 to 15 minutes, reaches a peak at 4 hours. By 24 hours the intracellular radioactivity has decreased to about 37.5% of the 4-hour value, accompanied by an increase in free 125I in the incubation medium. The incubation of 125I-3G5 with RINm5F cell monolayers at 4 degrees C shows that this series of events is inhibited by low temperature. Microautoradiography confirms these events indicating the presence of radiolabeled antibody on the plasma membrane as well as distinct capping processes and diffuse radioactive deposits within the cells as early as 5 to 10 minutes after initiating incubation at 37 degrees C. Electron microscopy autoradiography provides a detailed demonstration of the capping phenomenon and of endocytic vacuoles, followed at later times by the distribution of radioactive deposits throughout the cell. This model constituted by the capping of the 125I-3G5-ganglioside complex on rat insulinoma RINm5F cells may be useful in elucidating a possible mode of interaction of monoclonal antibodies and tumor cells. PMID:1932178

  9. Time course localization of immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody and its fragments in leukemic tumor-bearing mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Maillet; Annie-Claude Roche; Fabienne Thérain; Michel Monsigny

    1985-01-01

    In vivo localization of a mouse monoclonal antibody (F2-10.23 IgM) binding leukemic L 1210 cells was studied in DBA\\/2 mice bearing an L 1210 tumor. F(ab')2 fragments were prepared and their specific binding to L 1210 cells was analyzed by flow cytofluorometry. Radiolocalization studies were performed by using 125I- or 131I-labeled IgM monoclonal antibody or its F(ab')2 fragments to ascertain

  10. A carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) specific monoclonal hybridoma antibody that reacts only with high-molecular-weight CEA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth F. Mitchell

    1980-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody secreted by a hybridoma, formed by the fusion of a spleen cell from an immunized mouse and a myeloma cell, has been shown to react only with a form of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with a molecular weight of 180,000 daltons. The monoclonal antibody precipitates a 180,000-dalton form of CEA from colorectal carcinoma cell lysates, purified iodinated CEA

  11. Characterization of and application of monoclonal antibodies against Rickettsia africae, a newly recognized species of spotted fever group rickettsia.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, W; Beati, L; Raoult, D

    1997-01-01

    Rickettsia africae is a newly described species which causes African tick bite fever. Mediterranean spotted fever caused by R. conorii is endemic in the same regions of Africa as tick bite fever, and differentiation of the two syndromes by characterization of their etiological agents is important for epidemiological studies. R. africae and R. conorii are, however, difficult to distinguish, and therefore, our aim was to produce monoclonal antibodies to address this problem. Monoclonal antibodies were produced against R. africae by fusing splenocytes from BALB/C mice immunized with purified rickettsial organisms and SP2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells. A total of 355 hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies to R. africae were identified by initial screening with six different antigens by microimmunofluorescence assay. A panel of 23 representative monoclonal antibodies were selected and subcloned. This panel was screened with a further 17 different spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsial reference antigens. Of these 23 monoclonal antibodies, 1 cross-reacted with only R. parkeri, whereas the others cross-reacted with more than two different antigens. Immunoblotting indicated that all the monoclonal antibodies were directed against the epitopes on two major high-molecular-mass heat-labile proteins, of which the molecular masses were 128 and 135 kDa, respectively. This monoclonal antibody panel was used successfully to identify R. africae in the blood culture of an infected patient, in infected cells within shell vials, and in infected ticks collected from Africa. Furthermore, the cross-reactivity of each SFG rickettsia with each of these 23 monoclonal antibodies was scored and was used to build a dendrogram of taxonomic relatedness between R. africae and the other SFG rickettsiae on the basis of Jaccard coefficients and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis. The relatedness was generally consistent with that obtained by other methods of comparison. PMID:8968882

  12. The establishment of highly sensitive monoclonal antibodies for influenza viruses and development of the new lateral flow test strip device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Hasegawa; Takashi Yamada; Jyun-ichi Azumi; Tomoe Honda; Takayuki Yanagiya

    2004-01-01

    Fujirebio succeeded in establishing highly sensitive, anti-influenza virus type A&B monoclonal antibodies and developed a new lateral flow assay device (EL INFLUENZA A&B Improved Test) using the newly established monoclonal antibodies. The EL INFLUENZA A&B Improved Test showed superior performance at sensitivity and specificity in clinical studies. The testing principle is a lateral flow assay with the enzyme reaction. Nasal

  13. Bank vole monoclonal antibodies against Puumala virus envelope glycoproteins: identification of epitopes involved in neutralization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Å. Lundkvist; B. Niklasson

    1992-01-01

    Summary Bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the two envelope glycoproteins (G 1 and G 2) of the Puumala (PUU) virus were generated and characterized. Analyses of the MAbs' antigen and epitope specificities showed non-overlapping reactivities of one anti-G 1 and two anti-G 2 MAbs. A significant neutralizing activity was shown by the anti-G 1 and one of

  14. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Singh; S. K. Bandyopadhyay; B. P. Sreenivasa; P. Dhar

    2004-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, febrile viral disease of small ruminants, caused by a virus of the genus Morbillivirus. PPR and rinderpest viruses are antigenically related and need to be differentiated serologically. In the present study,\\u000a 23 mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced by polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-mediated fusion of sensitized lymphocytes and myeloma\\u000a cells. Among these, two belong to

  15. Mapping of Epitopes on Poa p I and Lol p I Allergens with Monoclonal Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengwei Lin; Abul K. M. Ekramoddoullah; Kuldeep S. Jaggi; Jacqie Dzuba-Fischer; Edward Rector; Fred T. Kisil

    1990-01-01

    Allergen Poa p I isolated from the dialysed aqueous extract of Kentucky blue grass pollen by affinity chromatography with an anti-Lol p I murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) 290A-167 was previously shown to consist of a 35.8-kilodalton (kD) component with a pI of 6.4, designated as Poa p Ia, and a 33-kD component with a pI of 9.1, designated as Poa

  16. The efficacy of an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody for HIV1 treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Jeffrey Fessel; Brooke Anderson; Stephen E. Follansbee; Mark A. Winters; Stanley T. Lewis; Steven P. Weinheimer; Christos J. Petropoulos; Robert W. Shafer

    The availability of 24 antiretroviral (ARV) drugs within six distinct drug classes has transformed HIV-1 infection (AIDS) into a treatable chronic disease. However, the ability of HIV-1 to develop resistance to multiple classes continues to present challenges to the treatment of many ARV treatment-experienced patients. In this case report, we describe the response to ibalizumab, an investigational CD4-binding monoclonal antibody

  17. A Monoclonal Antibody against a-Smooth Muscle Actin: A New Probe for Smooth Muscle Differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar Skalli; Patricia Ropraz; Arnold Trzeciak; Gilbert Benzonana; Dieter Gillessen; Giulio Gabbiani

    1986-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (anti-ctsm-1) recog- nizing exclusively a-smooth muscle actin was selected and characterized after immunization of BALB\\/c mice with the NH2-terminal synthetic decapeptide of a-smooth muscle actin coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Anti-ctsm-1 helped in distinguishing smooth muscle cells from fibroblasts in mixed cultures such as rat dermal fibroblasts and chicken embryo fibroblasts. In the aortic media, it recognized

  18. Monoclonal Antibodies Reveal Receptor Specificity among G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Oppermann; Maria Diverse-Pierluissi; Mark H. Drazner; Sara L. Dyer; Neil J. Freedman; Karsten C. Peppel; Robert J. Lefkowitz

    1996-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) constitute a family of serine\\/threonine kinases that play a major role in the agonist-induced phosphorylation and desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors. Herein we describe the generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically react with GRK2 and GRK3 or with GRK4, GRK5, and GRK6. They are used in several different receptor systems to

  19. Radioimmunoguided surgery using the monoclonal antibody B72.3 in colorectal tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda J. Sickle-Santanello; PATRICK J. O'DWYER; Cathy Mojzisik; Steven E. Tuttle; George H. Hinkle; Michel Rousseau; Jeffrey Schlom; David Colcher; Marlin O. Thurston; Carol Nieroda; Armando Sardi; William B. Farrar; John P. Minton; Edward W. Martin

    1987-01-01

    The authors have developed a hand-held gamma-detecting probe (GDP) for intraoperative use that improves the sensitivity of\\u000a external radioimmunodetection. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (MAb) B72.3 was injected in six patients with primary colorectal\\u000a cancer and 31 patients with recurrent colorectal cancer an average of 16 days preoperatively. The GDP localized the MAb B72.3\\u000a in 83 percent of sites. The technique, known

  20. Antigenic differentiation of strains of Turkey rhinotracheitis virus using monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane K. A. Cook; Brenda V. Jones; Marjorie M. Ellis; Li Jing; D. Cavanagh

    1993-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were prepared against one UK isolate of turkey rhinotracheitis virus (TRTV). Those which were virus?neutralizing were selected and used, together with polyclonal antisera raised to each isolate in turkeys, in cross?neutralization tests against TRTV strains isolated in the UK and elsewhere. Whilst the polyclonal antisera showed that there was some diversity between them, all strains examined belonged

  1. Inhibition of the catalytic properties of Staphylococcus aureus nuclease by monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian A. Devaux; David G. Covell; Jacques Barbet; Mona El Gamil; David H. Sachs

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mab) specific for Staphylococcus aureus nuclease (nuclease) were examined for their capacity to inhibit the enzyme-mediated cleavage of DNA. Within a panel of 22 anti-nuclease Mab produced by hybridoma cell lines derived from SJL\\/J, A\\/J or BALB\\/c mice, only five were capable of modifying nuclease activity. Of the five, only one protected DNA from enzymatic degradation whereas the

  2. Clathrin structure characterized with monoclonal antibodies. II. Identification of in vivo forms of clathrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANCES M. BRODSKY

    1985-01-01

    Clathrin was isolated from detergent-solubilized, biosynthetically radiolabeled cells by immunoprecipitation with anti-clathrin monoclonal antibodies. Immunoprecipitates ob- tained after pulse-chase labeling demonstrated that after biosynthesis the LCa light chain of clathrin could be found either complexed to heavy chain or in a free pool (not associated with heavy chain) which decreased steadily over time. More than half of the free LCa

  3. Haemocyte heterogeneity in the cockroach Periplaneta americana analysed using monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BENJAMIN M. CHAIN; KAREN LEYSHON-SØRLAND; MICHAEL T. SIVA-JOTHY

    1992-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against whole haemocytes from Periplaneta americana has revealed two broad categories of immunogens. Three mAbs showed reactivity with membrane-bound antigens on the three major morphological classes of haemocyte as well as the basement membrane of tissues in contact with the haemocoel. Moreover, this reactiv - ity showed heterogeneity within morphotypes: this het- erogeneity

  4. Generation and Characterization of Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for N-Linked Neutral Oligosaccharides of Glycoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Ozawa; Katsuko Yamashita; Hitoshi Sakuraba; Kohji Itoh; Ryoichi Kase; Tadashi Tai

    1997-01-01

    We generated four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for asparagine-linked neutral oligosaccharides of glycoproteins by immunizing mice with neoglycolipids, which were derived from glycoproteins by conjugation to phosphatidylethanolamine dipalmitoyl. The binding specificity of these MAbs was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunostaining on thin-layer chromatography. The four MAbs designated OMB3, OMB4, OMR5, and OMR6 reacted strongly with the neoglycolipids,

  5. Detection of B. anthracis Spores and Vegetative Cells with the Same Monoclonal Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dian-Bing Wang; Ruifu Yang; Zhi-Ping Zhang; Li-Jun Bi; Xiang-Yu You; Hong-Ping Wei; Ya-Feng Zhou; Ziniu Yu; Xian-En Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, could be used as a biothreat reagent. It is vital to develop a rapid, convenient method to detect B. anthracis. In the current study, three high affinity and specificity monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, designated 8G3, 10C6 and 12F6) have been obtained using fully washed B. anthracis spores as an immunogen. These mAbs, confirmed

  6. Study of the diagnosis and treatment of renal cell carcinoma using monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiou

    1987-01-01

    Among the potential applications of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) in the diagnosis and treatment of human cancer is the use in the specific detection of cancer sites and the selective destruction of cancer cells. Fetal kidney was used as an immunogen to develop Mab A6H, which is highly reactive to 16\\/16 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines and to 16\\/19 human

  7. Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies elicited by trimeric HIV1 Env gp140 protein immunogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina R. Derby; Sean Gray; Elizabeth Wayner; Dwayne Campogan; Giorgos Vlahogiannis; Zane Kraft; Susan W. Barnett; Indresh K. Srivastava; Leonidas Stamatatos

    2007-01-01

    Eleven anti-HIV Env monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were isolated from mice immunized with soluble Env proteins derived from the clade B Env, SF162, or ?V2 (a derivative of SF162 lacking the V2 loop). All six anti-gp120 MAbs studied, neutralized SF162 and their activities were dependent by the glycosylation patterns of the V1, V2 or V3 loops. Only one anti-gp120 MAb (an

  8. Development of monoclonal antibodies and a competitive ELISA detection method for glycinin, an allergen in soybean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xi Ma; Peng Sun; Pingli He; Pengfei Han; Junjun Wang; Shiyan Qiao; Defa Li

    2010-01-01

    Soybean glycinin is a major food allergen causing anaphylaxis. A sensitive detection method for glycinin is needed to evaluate soybean allergies in food and feed products. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against glycinin were prepared using purified glycinin as the immunogen. The generated Mabs, named 3B2 and 4B2, were identified as being IgG2b and IgG2a iso-types respectively, and

  9. Monoclonal Antibodies of Predefined Specificity Detect Activated ras Gene Expression in Human Mammary and Colon Carcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Horan Hand; A. Thor; D. Wunderlich; R. Muraro; A. Caruso; J. Schlom

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of predefined specificity have been generated by utilizing a synthetic peptide reflecting amino acid positions 10-17 of the Hu-rasT24 gene product as immunogen. These MAbs, designated RAP-1 through RAP-5 (RA, ras; P, peptide), have been shown to react with the ras gene product p21. Since the Hu-ras reactive determinants (positions 10-17) have been predicted to be within

  10. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to 28-, 35-, and 65-kilodalton proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Damiani, G; Biano, A; Beltrame, A; Vismara, D; Mezzopreti, M F; Colizzi, V; Young, D B; Bloom, B R

    1988-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (H60.15, H61.3, and H105.10) directed to protein antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were obtained and characterized. H60.15 recognizes a protein with a molecular mass of 28 kilodaltons (kDa) with broad cross-reactivity on a panel of 12 species and strains of mycobacteria. H61.3 reacts with a 35-kDa protein present in M. tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and M. africanum. On the basis of the antigen molecular masses and competition experiments with other monoclonal antibodies, H60.15 and H61.3 seem to be the first described monoclonal antibodies to these M. tuberculosis proteins. H105.10 binds to the cross-reactive 65-kDa protein present in mycobacteria. Epitope mapping of H105.10 was performed by using the M. leprae DNA sublibrary available in bacteriophage lambda gt11 for this antigen and revealed that its epitope resides in the region from amino acids 20 to 54. The 28-, 35-, and 65-kDa antigens isolated by immunoblotting and presented on nitrocellulose to pleural effusion T cells from tuberculosis patients induced a proliferative response, indicating the presence of T-cell epitopes. These observations indicate that two protein antigens should be added to the list of antigens detectable in M. tuberculosis by monoclonal antibodies. The common feature of such proteins, the elicitation of an immune response of limited or broad cross-reactivity for mycobacteria, encourages the search for their role in the pathogenesis of mycobacterioses. Images PMID:2451641

  11. Mapping of linear epitopes on the capsid proteins of swine vesicular disease virus using monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Antonio Garci; Alastair Douglas; Emiliana Brocchi; Emilia Romagna

    The antigenic linear map of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) has been studied using a repertoire of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against a recombinant SVDV polyprotein, P1. Peptide-scanning analyses, cross-reactivity studies with homologous and heterologous viruses and predicted location on a computer-generated three-dimensional model of the capsid proteins have allowed the identification of five main linear sites. Two sites, the

  12. Regulatable systemic production of monoclonal antibodies by in vivo muscle electroporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norma Perez; Pascal Bigey; Daniel Scherman; Olivier Danos; Marc Piechaczyk; Mireia Pelegrin

    2004-01-01

    The clinical application of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) potentially concerns a wide range of diseases including, among others, viral infections, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Although intravenous infusion appears to be the simplest and most obvious mode of administration, it is very often not applicable to long-term treatments because of the restrictive cost of mAbs certified for human use and the side

  13. Phenotyping of Cytochromes P-450 in Human Tissues with Monoclonal Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadahiko Fujino; Sang Shin Park; Donna West; Harry V. Gelboin

    1982-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 (P-450)-dependent aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHHase) and 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase (ECDEtase) in human tissues were differentially inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were prepared to inhibit and completely inhibited the activity of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced rat liver P-450. The AHHase and ECDEtase of placentas from individual women who smoked were inhibited by the MAbs by 83-90% and by 34-74%, respectively, Benz[a]anthracene (BaA)-induced

  14. Treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease with anti-CD20 chimeric monoclonal antibody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Voravit Ratanatharathorn; Lois Ayash; Christopher Reynolds; Samuel Silver; Pavan Reddy; Michael Becker; James L. M Ferrara; Joseph P Uberti

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed the clinical outcome of 8 patients with steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) who received an anti-CD20 chimeric monoclonal antibody (rituximab). Rituximab was given by intravenous infusion at a weekly dose of 375 mg\\/m2 for 4 weeks. All patients had received extensive treatment with various immunosuppressive agents; 6 patients had also received extracorporeal photopheresis. All patients had extensive chronic

  15. Lymphoid progenitor cells and acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Studies with monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Kersey

    1981-01-01

    The bone marrow is a major site of development of self renewing lymphoid progenitor cells beginning in early fetal development and continuing through adult life; the enzyme TdT acts as a useful marker for such progenitor cells. Surface markers of these early cells are studied with hetroantisera and more recently with monoclonal antibodies. These cells are often HLA-DR+, gp 100\\/CAL-LA+,

  16. Monoclonal antibodies with selective specificity for Alzheimer Tau are directed against phosphatase-sensitive epitopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Mercken; Marc Vandermeeren; Ursula Liibke; Jan Six; Jef Boons; André Voorde; Jean-Jacques Martin; Jan Gheuens

    1992-01-01

    A modified form of the microtubule-associated protein Tau is the major component of the paired helical filaments (PHF) found in Alzheimer's disease. The characterization of these posttranslational Tau modifications is hindered by the lack of sufficient PHF-Tau-specific markers. Here we describe several monoclonal antibodies, prepared by immunization with PHF, two of which showed a selective specificity for PHF-Tau without cross-reactivity

  17. Human Monoclonal Antibody Combination against SARS Coronavirus: Synergy and Coverage of Escape Mutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan ter Meulen; Edward N. van den Brink; Leo L. M. Poon; Wilfred E. Marissen; Cynthia S. W. Leung; Freek Cox; Chung Y. Cheung; Arjen Q. Bakker; Johannes A. Bogaards; Els van Deventer; Wolfgang Preiser; Hans Wilhelm Doerr; Vincent T. Chow; John de Kruif; Joseph S. M. Peiris; Jaap Goudsmit

    2006-01-01

    Background Experimental animal data show that protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection with human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is feasible. For an effective immune prophylaxis in humans, broad coverage of different strains of SARS-CoV and control of potential neutralization escape variants will be required. Combinations of virus- neutralizing, noncompeting mAbs may have these properties.

  18. Serodiagnosis of cancer, using porcine antigens recognized by human monoclonal antibody, HB4C5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hashizume; K. Mochizuki; H. Murakami; T. Yano; K. Yasumoto; K. Nomoto

    1989-01-01

    Antigens, recognized by human monoclonal antibody (HB4C5) generated from a lung cancer patient, were found to occur in porcine pancreas. The antigens-I and -I1 were purified from crude trypsin of porcine pancreas, only by Mono Q column chromatography, and were eluted at 260 and 300 mM NaCl in 10 mM Tris-HCI buffer, pH 7.4, respectively. These antigens differed from trypsin

  19. Inhibition of kinesin-driven microtubule motility by monoclonal antibodies to kinesin heavy chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amie L. Ingold; Stanley A. Cohn; Jonathan M. Scholey

    1988-01-01

    Abstract, We have prepared and characterized seven mouse,monoclonal,antibodies (SUK 1-7) to the 130-kD heavy chain of sea urchin egg kinesin. On immuno- blots, SUK 3 and SUK 4 cross-reacted with Drosoph- ila embryo ll6-kD heavy chains, and SUK 4, SUK 5, SUK 6, and SUK 7 bound to the 120-kD heavy chains of bovine brain kinesin. Three out of seven

  20. Phytochrome in photosynthetically competent plants characterization by monoclonal antibodies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed information concerning the physicochemical properties of phytochrome is sought, but since only trace quantities are present in plant tissues, it is extremely labile to modification in crude plant extracts, efficient and sensitive methods for its purification and characterization will be required. Towards this end immune serums directed towards oat phytochrome have been prepared. Unfortunately the phytochrome in green oats is immunochemically distinct from phytochrome in etiolated oats. Consequently, effort has been directed at preparation of monoclonal antibodies for green-oat phytochrome.

  1. Monoclonal antibody defines CA 19-9 in pancreatic juices and sera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W H Schmiegel; C Kreiker; W Eberl; R Arndt; M Classen; H Greten; K Jessen; H Kalthoff; N Soehendra; H G Thiele

    1985-01-01

    In a retrospective study pancreatic juice samples (n = 213) and corresponding serum samples (n = 110) were assayed for their concentration of monoclonal antibody defined CA 19-9\\/GICA (gastrointestinal cancer associated antigen). Serum CA 19-9 values were found to be good diagnostic and discriminating markers for pancreatic disorders and were raised (greater than 50 u\\/ml) in more than 80% of

  2. Preparation of monoclonal antibody against apoptosis-associated antigens of hepatoma cells by subtractive immunization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Liang Wang; Lian-Jun Yang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the expression of the apoptosis-associated molecules in human primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and prepare the monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against the apoptosis-associated antigens of HCC cells. METHODS: Human HCC cell line HCC-9204 cells were induced apoptosis with 60 mL·L-1 ethanol for 6 h and their morphological changes were observed by transmission electron microscope. The cell DNA fragmentations

  3. Proliferation rate of intracranial meningiomas as defined by the monoclonal antibody MIB1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Henrique Aguiar; Ana Maria Tsanaclis; Oswaldo Inácio Tella; José Pindaro Plese

    2003-01-01

    Paraffin-embedded surgical specimens from 55 meningiomas were immunostained after microwave processing using the streptavidin\\/peroxidase\\u000a method and the monoclonal antibody (moAb) MIB-1 to the Ki-67 antigen. The authors assessed proliferative labelling index (LI)\\u000a from a series of surgically removed meningiomas using immunohistochemical methods and MIB-1, and they correlated this index\\u000a with clinical, radiological, and histological factors. No relationship was found between

  4. Immunotherapy of head and neck cancer using tumor antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve C. Lee; Andrés López-Albaitero; Robert L. Ferris

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are now commonly used therapeutic agents in cancer patients. Since US Food and Drug Administration\\u000a approval of cetuximab for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, it has been used increasingly in this disease. Several other\\u000a mAbs also are in development or in clinical trials. Recently, evidence has accumulated that mAbs induce activation of cellular\\u000a immunity, including natural

  5. Monoclonal antibodies against Babesia caballi and Babesia equi and their application in serodiagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Brüning; P. Phipps; E. Posnett; E. U. Canning

    1997-01-01

    The production of monoclonal antibodies to the bloodstages of the haemoprotozoan parasites Babesia caballi and Babesia equi and the characterization of their corresponding antigens are described. Species specific and immunogenic proteins of both parasites were identified using SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and ELISA. These proteins were then electroeluted from SDS-PAGE gels and used to immunize BALB\\/c mice for hybridoma production. One

  6. Antitumor effects of a novel monoclonal antibody with high binding affinity to ganglioside GD3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    So Ohta; Ayumi Honda; Yuko Tokutake; Hajime Yoshida; Nobuo Hanai

    1993-01-01

    Ganglioside GD3, which is one of the major gangliosides expressed on the cell surface human tumors of neuroectodermal origin, has been studied as a target molecule for passive immunotherapy. We established ten kinds of anti-GD3 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) of the mouse IgG3 subclass by immunization with purified GD3 and melanoma cells. One of the established mAb, KM641, showed major reactivity

  7. Regulation of cathepsin B activity by 2A2 monoclonal antibody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bojana Mirkovic ´; Aleš Premzl; Vesna Hodnik; Bojan Doljak; Zala Jevnikar; Gregor Anderluh; Janko Kos

    2009-01-01

    Cathepsin B (EC 3.4.22.1) is a lysosomal cysteine protease with both endo- peptidase and exopeptidase activity. The former is associated with the deg- radation of the extracellular matrix proteins, which is a process required for tumour cell invasion and metastasis. In the present study, we show that 2A2 monoclonal antibody, raised by our group, is able to regulate cathep- sin

  8. Adverse Skin Reactions to Anti-TNF-Alpha Monoclonal Antibody Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Devos; N. Van Den Bossche; M. De Vos; J. M. Naeyaert

    2003-01-01

    Various adverse cutaneous reactions to anti-TNF-? monoclonal antibody have been reported. In clinical studies with infliximab (Remicade®) adverse drug reactions were most frequently reported in the respiratory system and in the skin and appendages. We describe here 6 patients receiving anti- TNF-? therapy (infliximab) for Crohn’s disease or rheumatoid arthritis who consulted our out-patient department for adverse cutaneous reactions between

  9. The effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the heavy chain monoclonal antibody production from plant suspension cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter LaCount; Gynheung An; James M. Lee

    1997-01-01

    A heavy chain monoclonal antibody (HC MAb) was produced by the suspension cultures of genetically modified tobacco cells. Though the HC MAb was secreted to the culture medium by the cells, it was unstable in plant cell media. The addition (0.75 g\\/L) of polyvinylpyrrolidone (MW 360,000) to the medium stabilized the extracellular HC MAb and increased its production 35 fold

  10. Detection of truncated midkine in Wilms’ tumor by a monoclonal antibody against human recombinant truncated midkine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharan Paul; Tomohiro Mitsumoto; Yoshiya Asano; Shinsuke Kato; Masako Kato; Takao Shinozawa

    2001-01-01

    Although the expression of a truncated midkine (tMK) mRNA has been detected in many cancer cells, the tMK protein itself has not yet been identified. The expression, purification and characterization of human recombinant tMK were described in the former report [1]. A mouse hybridoma cell line producing an IgG2b monoclonal antibody (mab) against purified recombinant tMK was established. This anti-tMK

  11. Zirconium-labeled monoclonal antibodies and their distribution in tumor-bearing nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Meijs, W.E.; Haisma, H.J.; Klok, R.P. [Vrije Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    A method to label monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with {sup 88}Zr and {sup 89}Zr has been developed and tested on the MAbs 323/A3 and E48. The bifunctional chelating agent desferal (Df) was linked through a thioether bond to the MAbs. Labeling was accomplished by addition of the premodified antibodies to isolated Zr. The retention of the in vivo behavior of the MAbs was determined by comparing the biodistribution of {sup 88}Zr-labeled MAbs with those of {sup 123}I and {sup 99m}Tc in mice bearing tumor xenografts. 45 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Radioimmunoimaging of human small cell lung carcinoma with I-131 tumor specific monoclonal antibody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Zimmer; S. T. Rosen; S. M. Spies; M. R. Polovina; J. D. Minna; W. C. Spies; E. A. Silverstein

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb600D11) directed against human small cell lung cancer (NCI-H69) was radiolabeled with iodine-131, and the biodistribution and image quality of the radiolabeled antibody was evaluated. Radiolabeling was achieved in a solid-phase system consisting of 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3a,6a-diphenylglycoluril. Labeling efficiencies and protein purification were accomplished using gel exclusion chromatography while radioimmunoreactivity was determined using a solid-phase

  13. Development of a monoclonal antibody against a tumor-associated antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, W.W.; Bressler, J.P.; Tiffany-Castiglioni, E.; De Vellis, J.

    1982-02-26

    A monoclonal antibody-producing hybrid cell line was obtained by fusing mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells from a mouse immunized with C6 glioma cells. This antibody binds to a specific cell-surface antigen that is present on C6 rat glioma cells, tranformed astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, and a human glioma cell line but is absent on a normal glial cell line, fibroblasts, and primary cultures of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The antigen also appears on tumor tissue of transformed oligodendrocytes but not on normal brain tissue.

  14. A monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the analysis of azinphos-methyl in fruit juices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josep V. Mercade; Angel Montoya

    1997-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantification of azinphos-methyl (O,O-dimethylS-[(4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazin-3-yl)methyl]phosphorodithioate). The competitive ELISA was performed in the antibody-coated format using a homologous peroxidase-hapten conjugate as enzyme tracer. For standards, the I50 value of the ELISA was around 3 ng ml?1 with a detection limit of 0.4 ng ml?1. On the basis of previous crossreactivity studies,

  15. Immunoglobulin G-Class Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies to Major Brain Gangliosides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L. Schnaar; Susan E. Fromholt; Yanping Gong; Alka A. Vyas; Wouter Laroy; Dawn M. Wayman; Marija Heffer-Lauc; Hiromi Ito; Hideharu Ishida; Makoto Kiso; John W. Griffin; Kazim A. Shiekh

    2002-01-01

    Mice genetically engineered to lack complex gangliosides are improved hosts for raising antibodies against those gangliosides. We report the generation and characterization of nine immunoglobulin G (IgG)-class monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against the four major brain gangliosides in mammals. These include (designated as ganglioside specificity-IgG subclass) two anti-GM1 mAbs (GM1-1, GM1-2b), three anti-GD1a mAbs (GD1a-1, GD1a-2a, GD1a-2b), one anti-GD1b mAb

  16. Monoclonal antibodies to three separate domains on 124 kilodalton phytochrome from Avena

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, S.M.; Quail, P.H.

    1984-11-01

    Forty-six monoclonal antibodies have been prepared against 124 kilodalton phytochrome from Avena sativa cv Garry. Clones grown in mice have yielded ascites fluids wtih antibodies which bind to three distinct regions of the molecule, as visualized by immunoblot analysis of proteolytically produced peptides of the protein. One antibody group (type 1) recognizes an antigenic domain(s) that lies within 6 kilodaltons of the amino terminus of the molecule, a region critical to correct protein-chromophore interaction. The second group (type 2) binds to an antigenic site(s) present within the chromophore-containing half of the molecule that is adjacent to the domain recognized by the type 1 antibodies. The third group (type 3) recognizes an antigenic site(s) that resides in the nonchromophoric, carboxy terminal end.

  17. Antitumor effects of a monoclonal antibody to human CCR9 in leukemia cell xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Sonia; Vela, Maria; Franco-Villanueva, Ana; Carramolino, Laura; Gutiérrez, Julio; Gómez, Lucio; Lozano, María; Salvador, Beatriz; García-Gallo, Mónica; Martínez-A, Carlos; Kremer, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    Tumor expression of certain chemokine receptors is associated with resistance to apoptosis, migration, invasiveness and metastasis. Because CCR9 chemokine receptor expression is very restricted in healthy tissue, whereas it is present in tumors of distinct origins including leukemias, melanomas, prostate and ovary carcinomas, it can be considered a suitable candidate for target-directed therapy. Here, we report the generation and characterization of 91R, a mouse anti-human CCR9 IgG2b monoclonal antibody that recognizes an epitope within the CCR9 N-terminal domain. This antibody inhibits the growth of subcutaneous xenografts from human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 cells in immunodeficient Rag2?/? mice. Tumor size in 91R-treated mice was reduced by 85% compared with isotype-matched antibody-treated controls. Tumor reduction in 91R-treated mice was concomitant with an increase in the apoptotic cell fraction and tumor necrotic areas, as well as a decrease in the fraction of proliferating cells and in tumor vascularization. In the presence of complement or murine natural killer cells, 91R promoted in vitro lysis of MOLT-4 leukemia cells, indicating that this antibody might eliminate tumor cells via complement- and cell-dependent cytotoxicity. The results show the potential of the 91R monoclonal antibody as a therapeutic agent for treatment of CCR9-expressing tumors. PMID:24870448

  18. Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against alkaline phosphatase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Husson, M O; Mielcarek, C; Gavini, F; Caron, C; Izard, D; Leclerc, H

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against the alkaline phosphatase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were produced from spleen cells of BALB/c mice primed with purified alkaline phosphatase of P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145 and SP20/Ag-14 myeloma cells. The eight stable clones established produced antibodies that reacted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and indirect immunofluorescence assays with all bacterial strains of P. aeruginosa, including the 17 serotypes and two nontypable strains. Three of the clones cross-reacted only with some Pseudomonas species of the rRNA homology group I defined by N. J. Palleroni (in N. R. Krieg and J. G. Holt, ed., Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 8th ed., p. 140-218, 1984). The other clones also interacted with other species, including Pseudomonas acidovorans and Xanthomonas maltophilia. Because other species of the genera Aeromonas and Acinetobacter and species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were not detected by these monoclonal antibodies, the antibodies could be used as reagents for routine detection of P. aeruginosa in clinical specimens. Interactions of the antibodies with other Pseudomonas species such as P. fluorescens and P. stutzeri are not important, since these species are susceptible to the same antipseudomonal agents. Images PMID:2501343

  19. Agonistic effects of a monoclonal antibody specific for the interleukin-2 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Eardley, D.D.; Makrides, V.

    1986-03-05

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) mediated immune responses can be blocked by monoclonal antibodies to the IL-2 receptor. The monoclonal antibody, M720, is defined as specific for the IL-2 receptor because it blocks /sup 35/S-IL-2 binding to Con A blasts, reacts with lymphoblasts but not resting splenocytes, and inhibits IL-2 induced proliferation to mitogen, antigen, or allogeneic stimuli. Under appropriate culture conditions, the IL-2 receptor-specific antibody can act like IL-2 in that it will induce proliferation in T cells in the absence of additional antigen or mitogen. This agonistic effect is dependent on time, dose of antibody, and requires fetal calf serum (FCS) in the media. Because the FCS is not mitogenic by itself, the authors propose that the FCS components act as incomplete mitogen to induce appearance of IL-2 receptors but lack a factor which would push the majority of the cells into the S phase of the cell cycle. This factor is usually IL-2, but in the authors experiments, the IL-2 receptor-specific antibody can provide the same stimulus. These data indicate that factors like FCS can induce IL-2 receptors, but without additional IL-2 or receptor triggering, the cells will not proceed through the synthetic and proliferative phases of cell growth.

  20. Production, characterization, and immunohistochemical application of monoclonal antibodies to glutaminase purified from rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, T; Urade, Y; Watanabe, Y; Mizuno, N

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were produced against phosphate-activated glutaminase (EC 3.5.1.2) as a marker for glutamatergic neurons: The enzyme was purified 1000-fold from rat brain mitochondria with a recovery of 27%. Upon SDS-PAGE the purified enzyme showed a single band up to 1.7 micrograms after the silver staining at molecular weight 62,000. Two monoclonal antibodies (IgMs) were produced; these absorbed more than 90% of glutaminase activity in rat brain homogenate. In immunoblotting after PAGE of the homogenate, the antibodies recognized only 1 protein band at the same position as that of the purified enzyme. Thus, the antibodies are specific and sufficient markers for glutaminase. Many neuronal cells in the rat brain were labeled immunohistochemically with these antibodies, but non-neuronal elements such as glial cells and vessels were not. Intense labeling was consistently observed in putative glutamatergic neurons such as pyramidal cells of layers V and VI in the cerebral neocortex. Intense staining was also seen in possible mossy fiber endings in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and in neurons giving off mossy fibers such as those in the pontine nuclei, pontine tegmental reticular nucleus of Bechterew, lateral reticular nucleus of the medulla oblongata, and external cuneate nucleus. PMID:2879897

  1. Evaluation of a surrogate antibody for preclinical safety testing of an anti-CD11a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Janet; Leach, Will; Pippig, Susanne; Joshi, Amita; Wu, Benjamin; House, Robert; Beyer, Joseph

    2004-12-01

    Surrogate antibodies are a potential solution to the limited safety testing possible with humanized monoclonal antibodies with restricted species cross-reactivity. However, there are currently no defined criteria by which a potential surrogate antibody should be judged prior to its use in determining safety issues for the clinical agent. We propose that, potential surrogates should undergo rigorous evaluation to assess pharmacological and toxicological activities in comparison to the clinical agent. The current studies evaluated a chimeric mouse/rat anti-mouse CD11a monoclonal antibody (muM17) as a potential surrogate for efalizumab, a humanized anti-CD11a antibody in development for psoriasis. CD11a is a subunit of lymphocyte function associated antigen-1, an integrin involved in cell-cell interactions important to immune responses and inflammation. In vitro pharmacology studies included binding affinity to whole mouse blood and inhibitory activity of muM17 in a mixed lymphocyte response assay. In vivo pharmacology was examined using a delayed type hypersensitivity assay in female CD-1 mice. The toxicology evaluation included a murine tissue cross-reactivity study and in vivo multiple dose studies in female CD-1 mice which were administered muM17 (0.1-30 mg/kg) via subcutaneous injections once a week for 4 weeks. Clinical observations, body weight, clinical pathology, T cell CD11a expression, immunogenicity, toxicokinetics, and lymphoid organ histopathology were evaluated. Finally, since reproductive safety testing would be an important application of the proposed surrogate antibody, a pilot study in pregnant mice was conducted that demonstrated proportional transfer of muM17 into the fetus. These studies demonstrated that muM17 has pharmacological and toxicological activities similar to efalizumab. The selection of dose and regimen for GLP (Good Laboratory Practice) toxicology studies and extrapolation to clinical dose levels was based on pharmacodynamic activity (CD11a downmodulation on T cells). PMID:15546677

  2. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies against Human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.; Qi, Xin; Velarde-Miranda, Carolina; Plonczynski, Maria W.; Parker, C. Richard; Rainey, William; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Maekawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Sasano, Hironobu; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P.

    2014-01-01

    The final enzymes in the biosynthesis of aldosterone and cortisol are by the cytochrome P450 CYP11B2 and CYP11B1, respectively. The enzymes are 93% homologous at the amino acid level and specific antibodies have been difficult to generate. Mice and rats were immunized with multiple peptides conjugated to various immunogenic proteins and monoclonal antibodies were generated. The only peptide sequences that generated specific antibodies were amino acids 41-52 for the CYP11B2 and amino acids 80-90 for the CYP11B1 enzyme. The mouse monoclonal CYP11B2-41 was specific and sensitive for use in western blots and produced specific staining of the zona glomerulosa of normal adrenal glands. The rat monoclonal CYP11B1-80 also detected a single band by western blot and detected only the zona fasciculata. Triple immunofluorescence of the adrenal demonstrated that the CYP11B1 and the CYP11B2 did not co-localize, while as expected the CYP11B1 co-localized with the 17?-hydroxylase. PMID:24325867

  3. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against excretory-secretory products of Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Solano, M; Ridley, R K; Minocha, H C

    1991-11-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (9.49, 24.27, 46.71 and 179.57) were produced against Fasciola hepatica excretory-secretory products. Isotype analysis revealed the antibodies to be IgM, IgG3, IgG1, and IgM. In immunoblot assays, the mAbs recognized different antigenic polypeptides migrating between 29 and 180 kDa. Specificity of the mAbs was evaluated by ELISA against antigens of Fascioloides magna, Anoplocephala magna, Stichorchis subtriquetrus, Haemonchus contortus, sheep liver extract (SLE), bovine liver extract (BLE), bovine serum albumin (BSA), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Monoclonals 9.49 and 24.27 were specific, and reacted only with Fasciola hepatica antigens. However, mAb 46.71 cross-reacted with antigens of Fascioloides magna, A. magna, Stichorchis subtriquetrus, and H. contortus but not with SLE, BLE, BSA, BVDV or MDBK cells. Monoclonal antibody 179.57 cross-reacted with Fascioloides magna, A. magna, S. subtriquetrus, H. contortus, SLE, and BLE, but not with BSA, BVDV, or MDBK cells. PMID:1788930

  4. Myosin at the apical pole of ciliated epithelial cells as revealed by a monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (CC-212), obtained in a fusion experiment in which basal bodies from quail oviduct were used as immunogen, has been shown to label the apical pole of ciliated cells and to react with a 200-kD protein. This monoclonal antibody was demonstrated to be an anti- myosin from smooth muscle or from nonmuscular cells using the following criteria: On Western blots it reacted with the myosin heavy chains from gizzard and platelet extracts and from cultured cell line extracts, but did not react with striated muscle myosin heavy chains. By immunofluorescence it decorated the stress fibers of well-spread cells with a characteristic striated pattern, while it did not react with myotubes containing organized myofibrils. On native ciliated cells as well as on Triton-extracted ciliated cortices from quail oviduct, this monoclonal antibody decorated the apical pole with a stronger labeling of the periphery of the apical area. Ultrastructural localization was attempted using the immunogold technique on the same preparation. Myosin was associated with a filamentous material present between striated rootlets and the proximal extremities of the basal bodies. No labeling of the basal body itself or of axoneme was observed. PMID:3525577

  5. Monoclonal antibody specific for myelin glycoprotein P0: derivation and characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Franko, M C; Koski, C L; Gibbs, C J; McFarlin, D E; Gajdusek, D C

    1982-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was produced against the major structural glycoprotein (P0) of human peripheral nervous system myelin. The hybridomas were generated by fusion of mouse myeloma line NS-1 with spleen cells of C3H mice immunized with purified human peripheral nervous system myelin. Hybridomas were screened by a two-step solid-phase radioimmunoassay, with P0 adsorbed on microtiter plates and with addition of 125I-labeled rabbit anti-mouse IgG as the second step. One derived clone, designated 41G10, bound P0 in the radioimmunoassay 4-fold over the background value obtained by using bovine serum albumin as the negative control antigen. Clone 41G10 was shown by immunofluorescence to bind to frozen sections of human intercostal nerve. Diffuse fluorescent staining occurred uniformly over the entire myelin sheath. The cylindrical axons were unstained. The same pattern of immunofluorescence was noted on rat, hamster, mouse, and rabbit sciatic nerve. Immunofluorescence was abolished when 41G10 was absorbed by P0. The monoclonal antibody 41G10 was absorbed by P0. The monoclonal antibody 41G10 is of the IgM class and activated complement in the presence of myelin vesicles or P0 liposomes but not in their absence. Images PMID:6179084

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to the cell surface and a soluble form of the human nerve growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Clagett-Dame, M.; Chung, C.; Chao, M.V.; DiStefano, P.S. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (designated IIIG5, VIID1, VIIIC8, and XIF1) have been produced that bind to the human nerve growth factor receptor (NGF-R) as well as to a soluble, truncated form of the receptor (NGF-Rt). The antibodies were generated against partially purified NGF-Rt from the conditioned medium of E9b cells, a transfected mouse fibroblast cell line (Ltk-) that expresses large numbers of the low affinity form of the human NGF-R on its cell surface. Hybridomas were screened by radiometric immunosorbent assay (RISA) and by immunoprecipitation of solubilized cell surface receptor covalently cross-linked to {sup 125}I-NGF. Four positive lines were cloned by limiting dilution and were found to secrete monoclonal antibodies of the IgGl,k subclass. All monoclonal antibodies bound to both NGF-R and NGF-Rt. Two monoclonal antibodies (VIID1, XIF1) immunoblotted the NGF-R from E9b cell preparations resolved on non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gels. The antibodies immunoprecipitated NGF-R from both E9b cells and from SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The monoclonal antibodies bound to monkey (rhesis and cynomolgus) NGF-Rt, but did not cross-react with NGF-R from chick or rat. Results of antibody competition studies demonstrated that three antibodies bound to a similar or overlapping epitope on the NGF-Rt and one monoclonal antibody (IIIG5) recognized a distinct receptor epitope. Antibodies that bound to different sites on the receptor were used to develop a sensitive 2-site RISA. The 2-site RISA can be used to rapidly quantitate NGF-R and NGF-Rt in large numbers of biological samples in the absence of added {sup 125}I-labeled NGF.

  7. Golimumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against TNFalpha.

    PubMed

    Hutas, Gabor

    2008-08-01

    Centocor Inc and licensees Schering-Plough Corp, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corp and Janssen Pharmaceutical KK are developing golimumab, a fully human mAb antibody against TNFalpha, for the potential treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and ulcerative colitis. Golimumab is currently in phase III clinical trials for RA, PsA and AS and preliminary data have shown an improvement in a number of physical functions, disease activity, productivity and quality-of-life measurements. PMID:18683105

  8. The production of monoclonal antibodies to Babesia microti 

    E-print Network

    Ruwe, Kathryn Lyn

    1986-01-01

    cells (PEC) were collected from a BALB/c mouse, centrifuged at 700 x g for 15 min, washed 3 times at the same speed for 10 min each and resuspended in hybridoma medium to 1. 5 x 10 cells/ml. A sample was taken of the cells to be cloned from the 24.... The spleens were removed, made into a single cell suspension and fused with SP2/0-Ag 14 cells. The resulting hybridomas were screened for antibody production by IFA. Selected hybrids were cloned by limiting dilution. After four clonings, the supernatants...

  9. Eradication of Established Tumors by a Fully Human Monoclonal Antibody to the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor without Concomitant Chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Dong Yang; Xiao-Chi Jia; Jose R. F. Corvalan; Ping Wang; C. Geoffrey Davis; Aya Jakobovits

    A fully human IgG2k monoclonal antibody (MAb), E7.6.3, specific to the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFr) was gener- ated from human antibody-producing XenoMouse strains engineered to be deficient in mouse antibody production and to contain the majority of the human antibody gene repertoire on megabase-sized fragments from the human heavy and k light chain loci. The E7.6.3 MAb

  10. Monoclonal antibodies that bind the renal Na/sup +//glucose symport system. 1. Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.S.R.; Lever, J.E.

    1987-09-08

    Phlorizin is a specific, high-affinity ligand that binds the active site of the Na/sup +//glucose symporter by a Na/sup +/-dependent mechanism but is not itself transported across the membrane. The authors have isolated a panel of monoclonal antibodies that influence high-affinity, Na/sup +/-dependent phlorizin binding to pig renal brush border membranes. Antibodies were derived after immunization of mice either with highly purified renal brush border membranes or with apical membranes purified from LLC-PK/sub 1/, a cell line of pig renal proximal tubule origin. Antibody 11A3D6, an IgG/sub 2b/, reproducibly stimulated Na/sup +/-dependent phlorizin binding whereas antibody 18H10B12, an IgM, strongly inhibited specific binding. These effects were maximal after 30-min incubation and exhibited saturation at increased antibody concentrations. Antibodies did not affect Na/sup +/-dependent sugar uptake in vesicles but significantly prevented transport inhibition by bound phlorizin. Antibodies recognized a 75-kDa antigen identified by Western blot analysis of brush border membranes, and a 75-kDa membrane protein could be immunoprecipitated by 18H10B12. These properties, provide compelling evidence that the 75-kDa antigen recognized by these antibodies is a component of the renal Na/sup +//glucose symporter.

  11. Preparation, characterization, and properties of monoclonal antibodies against the lac carrier protein from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, N; Tahara, S M; Patel, L; Goldkorn, T; Kaback, H R

    1982-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against the lac carrier protein purified from the membrane of Escherichia coli were prepared by somatic cell fusion of mouse myeloma cells with splenocytes from an immunized mouse. Several clones produce antibodies that react with the purified protein as demonstrated by solid-phase radioimmunoassay and by immunoblotting experiments; culture supernatants from the clones inhibit active transport of lactose in isolated membrane vesicles. Five stable clones were selected for expansion, formal cloning, and production of ascites fluid, and the antibodies secreted in vivo by each clone also were found to inhibit lactose transport. Antibody from hybridoma 4B1, an IgG2a immunoglobulin, inhibits active transport of lactose in proteoliposomes reconstituted with purified lac carrier and in right-side-out membrane vesicles. In contrast, the antibody has no effect on the generation of the proton electrochemical gradient by membrane vesicles nor does it alter the ability of vesicles containing the lac carrier to bind p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside. In order to achieve 50% inhibition of transport activity, a 2- to 3-fold molar excess of antibody to lac carrier is required, regardless of the amount of lac carrier in the membrane. Thus, the concentration of antibody required for a given degree of inhibition is proportional to the amount of lac carrier in the membrane. Finally, antibody-induced inhibition occurs within seconds, an observation suggesting that the epitope is accessible on the surface of the membrane. Images PMID:6757923

  12. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation of a Monoclonal Antibody and Nonmonotonic Influence of Hofmeister Anions

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Bruce D.; Zhang-van Enk, Jian; Zhang, Le; Remmele, Richard L.; Zhang, Jifeng

    2010-01-01

    Liquid-liquid phase separation was studied for a monoclonal antibody in the monovalent salt solutions of KF, KCl, and KSCN under different pH conditions. A modified Carnahan-Starling hard-sphere model was utilized to fit the experimental data, establish the liquid-liquid coexistence curve, and determine antibody-antibody interactions in the form of Tc (critical temperature) under the different solution conditions. The liquid-liquid phase separation revealed the complex relationships between antibody-antibody interactions and different solution conditions, such as pH, ionic strength, and the type of anion. At pH 7.1, close to the pI of the antibody, a decrease of Tc versus ionic strength was observed at low salt conditions, suggesting that the protein-protein interactions became less attractive. At a pH value below the pI of the antibody, a nonmonotonic relationship of Tc versus ionic strength was apparent: initially as the ionic strength increased, protein-protein interactions became more attractive with the effectiveness of the anions following the inverse Hofmeister series; then the interactions became less attractive following the direct Hofmeister series. This nonmonotonic relationship may be explained by combining the charge neutralization by the anions, perhaps with the ion-correlation force for polarizable anions, and their preferential interactions with the antibody. PMID:21112304

  13. Liquid-liquid phase separation of a monoclonal antibody and nonmonotonic influence of Hofmeister anions.

    PubMed

    Mason, Bruce D; Zhang-van Enk, Jian; Zhang, Le; Remmele, Richard L; Zhang, Jifeng

    2010-12-01

    Liquid-liquid phase separation was studied for a monoclonal antibody in the monovalent salt solutions of KF, KCl, and KSCN under different pH conditions. A modified Carnahan-Starling hard-sphere model was utilized to fit the experimental data, establish the liquid-liquid coexistence curve, and determine antibody-antibody interactions in the form of T(c) (critical temperature) under the different solution conditions. The liquid-liquid phase separation revealed the complex relationships between antibody-antibody interactions and different solution conditions, such as pH, ionic strength, and the type of anion. At pH 7.1, close to the pI of the antibody, a decrease of T(c) versus ionic strength was observed at low salt conditions, suggesting that the protein-protein interactions became less attractive. At a pH value below the pI of the antibody, a nonmonotonic relationship of T(c) versus ionic strength was apparent: initially as the ionic strength increased, protein-protein interactions became more attractive with the effectiveness of the anions following the inverse Hofmeister series; then the interactions became less attractive following the direct Hofmeister series. This nonmonotonic relationship may be explained by combining the charge neutralization by the anions, perhaps with the ion-correlation force for polarizable anions, and their preferential interactions with the antibody. PMID:21112304

  14. The safety of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies: implications for cardiovascular disease and targeting the PCSK9 pathway.

    PubMed

    Catapano, A L; Papadopoulos, N

    2013-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are established therapies for many conditions, including cancers, autoimmune conditions and infectious diseases. mAbs can offer benefits over conventional pharmacotherapy in terms of potency, dosing frequency and specificity for their target antigen. Mouse-derived antibodies were initially used in humans; however, patients often developed human anti-mouse antibodies, resulting in rapid antibody clearance (and a resulting loss of efficacy) and hypersensitivity reactions. Chimeric, humanized, and fully human antibodies were thus developed, with increasing amounts of human sequence, to reduce immunogenicity. Although generally well tolerated, mAbs may be associated with adverse events (AEs). Many AEs are target-related, and will be specific to the antibody target and the therapeutic area of use. However, off-target AEs, such as hypersensitivity reactions, are observed with many antibodies. Within the realm of cardiovascular medicine, new antibody-based therapies are under investigation to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates plasma LDL-C levels by increasing degradation of the LDL receptor (LDLR). Therefore, inhibition of the interaction between PCSK9 and the LDLR with mAbs targeting PCSK9 has great potential for patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Early clinical phase studies suggest these mAbs are effective and well tolerated; however, further studies are required to assess their long-term safety. PMID:23466067

  15. Production of stable bispecific IgG1 by controlled Fab-arm exchange

    PubMed Central

    Gramer, Michael J; van den Bremer, Ewald TJ; van Kampen, Muriel D; Kundu, Amitava; Kopfmann, Peter; Etter, Eric; Stinehelfer, David; Long, Justin; Lannom, Tom; Noordergraaf, Esther H; Gerritsen, Jolanda; Labrijn, Aran F; Schuurman, Janine; van Berkel, Patrick HC; Parren, Paul WHI

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of bispecific antibodies can be challenging for a variety of reasons. For example, protein expression problems, stability issues, or the use of non-standard approaches for manufacturing can result in poor yield or poor facility fit. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of standard antibody platforms for large-scale manufacturing of bispecific IgG1 by controlled Fab-arm exchange. Two parental antibodies that each contain a single matched point mutation in the CH3 region were separately expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and manufactured at 1000 L scale using a platform fed-batch and purification process that was designed for standard antibody production. The bispecific antibody was generated by mixing the two parental molecules under controlled reducing conditions, resulting in efficient Fab-arm exchange of >95% at kg scale. The reductant was removed via diafiltration, resulting in spontaneous reoxidation of interchain disulfide bonds. Aside from the bispecific nature of the molecule, extensive characterization demonstrated that the IgG1 structural integrity was maintained, including function and stability. These results demonstrate the suitability of this bispecific IgG1 format for commercial-scale manufacturing using standard antibody manufacturing techniques. PMID:23995617

  16. Evaluation of the use of monoclonal antibodies to hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins of Newcastle disease virus for virus identification and strain differentiation purposes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Meulemans; M. Gonze; M. C. Carlier; P. Petit; A. Burny; Le Long

    1987-01-01

    Summary Monoclonal antibodies detect evident antigenic variations in NDV HN and F protein. However, the A\\/PMV-1 viruses can be identified by HI test using a preparation made of the combination of two different monoclonals.

  17. Development and characterization of a TAPIR-like mouse monoclonal antibody to amyloid-beta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Hara, Hideo; Makifuchi, Takao; Tabira, Takeshi

    2008-06-01

    Tissue amyloid plaque immuno-reactive (TAPIR) antibody was better related to the effect of immunotherapy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) than ELISA antibody. Here we used a hybridoma technique to develop a TAPIR-like anti-human amyloid-beta (Abeta) mouse monoclonal antibody. The obtained monoclonal antibody, 3.4A10, was an IgG2b isotype and recognized N-terminal portion of Abeta1-42 without binding denatured or native amyloid-beta protein precursor. It had higher affinity to Abeta1-42 than to Abeta1-40 by Biacore affinity analysis and stained preferably the peripheral part of senile plaques and recognized the plaque core less than 4G8. It inhibited the Abeta1-42 fibril formation as well as degraded pre-aggregated Abeta1-42 peptide in a thioflavin T fluorescence spectrophotometry assay. The in vivo studies showed that 3.4A10 treatment decreased amyloid burden compared to the control group and significantly reduced Abeta42 levels rather than Abeta40 levels in brain lysates as well as the Abeta*56 oligomer (12mer) in TBS fraction of the brain lysates. 3.4A10 entered brain and decorated some plaques, which is surrounded by more Iba1-positive microglia. 3.4A10 therapy did not induce lymphocytic infiltration and obvious increase in microhemorrhage. We conclude that 3.4A10 is a TAPIR-like anti-human amyloid monoclonal antibody, and has a potential of therapeutic application for AD. PMID:18560128

  18. Study of rat kidney transamidinase structure and regulation with monoclonal antibodies and the purification and characterization of human kidney transamidinase

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The isolation of monoclonal antibodies to transamidinase made possible the development of an immunosorbent inhibition assay for transamidinase protein using a /sup 125/I-labeled monoclonal antibody. This assay is a more direct measurement of transamidinase protein than the determination of the amount of polyclonal antibody required to precipitate the transamidinase activities. Rats were fed diets supplemented with creatine and/or glycine, and the amounts of transamidinase protein were determined with the assay using the monoclonal antibody. The transamidinase activities of kidneys from the rats fed the various supplemented diets ranged from 10 to 40% of the control values, whereas, the amounts of transamidinase protein were, in all instances no lower than 66% of the control values. Purified homogeneous rat kidney transamidinase and rat kidney supernatants were subjected to isoelectric focussing and four to five fractions of the enzyme were obtained. Polyclonal antibodies, but not the monoclonal antibodies were found by Western blotting experiments to recognize all the forms of the enzyme obtained by the isoelectric focussing. The author concluded that the monoclonal antibodies recognized forms of the enzyme that changed very little in amount, relative to the alterations in enzyme activities, when rats were fed a diet containing creatine.

  19. An anti-organelle antibody in pathology. The chromatolytic reaction studied with a monoclonal antibody against the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed Central

    Croul, S. E.; Mezitis, S. G.; Gonatas, N. K.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the use of an anti-organelle antibody in a pathologic reaction the chromatolytic reaction was chosen for study. Qualitative analysis was made of rat hypoglossal nuclei stained with a cresyl violet method for Nissl substance and a monoclonal antibody against rat Golgi apparatus (10A8) 0 and 3 days, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after section of the right hypoglossal nerve. Marked dispersion of Nissl substance was noted at 2 weeks and of Golgi apparatus at 4 weeks. Reaggregation of staining had occurred for both organelles by 6 weeks. A quantitative light microscopic analysis was carried out for both stains on randomly selected hypoglossal sections from 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The analysis confirmed the qualitative observations and showed them to be highly significant. In addition, it revealed an increase in nuclear area from 0 to 2 weeks, an increase in cytoplasmic area at 4 weeks, decrease in the total area of Nissl substance from 0 to 2 and 4 to 6 weeks, decrease in the percent cytoplasmic areas occupied by Nissl from 0 to 2 weeks and decreases in both the total and percent cytoplasmic area occupied by Golgi apparatus maximal at 4 weeks. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses confirmed the use of this monoclonal antibody to study morphologic changes of the Golgi apparatus secondary to an experimental pathologic lesion. In addition, a previously unrecognized temporal dissociation between the changes of Nissl substance and Golgi apparatus was described. Images Figure 1 PMID:3189512

  20. Specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibody prevents paraquat accumulation into rat lung slices.

    PubMed

    Wright, A F; Green, T P; Robson, R T; Niewola, Z; Wyatt, I; Smith, L L

    1987-04-15

    Sheep polyclonal and mouse monoclonal antibodies have been produced that bind to the bipyridyl herbicide, paraquat. The binding capacities and affinities of the various antibody solutions (serum, ascites, purified tissue culture supernatant) to paraquat were determined using a radioimmunoassay. All antibody solutions bound paraquat with high affinity (Ka = 10(9)-10(10) l/mol). The sheep polyclonal antisera, the mouse ascites fluid, and the purified culture supernatant had mean binding capacities of 8, 1 and 22 micrograms paraquat/ml respectively. All the antibody preparations were able to prevent the in vitro accumulation of paraquat into rat lung tissue. The amount of antibody to achieve this was dependent upon the binding capacity of the antibody solution, i.e. when the binding capacity of the antibody was equal to the amount of paraquat present in the incubation medium a total blockade of uptake was achieved. When antibody was added to lung tissue that had been accumulating paraquat for 1 hr, the inhibition of uptake was immediate and was complete for at least 2 hr. Both the radioimmunoassay and lung slice experiments indicate that an equivalent of 1 mg of IgG is required to bind 2.5 micrograms of paraquat ion. Preincubation of lung tissue with antibody did not affect the subsequent accumulation of paraquat, nor did it result in a detectable degree of intracellular neutralisation of paraquat as measured by paraquat's ability to stimulate the pentose phosphate pathway. The rate of efflux of paraquat from lung slices prepared from rats dosed intravenously with paraquat was not increased by the presence of antibody in the incubation medium. In conclusion, neutralising antibodies to paraquat have been produced. They bind to paraquat in solution with high affinity and render the paraquat unavailable for its in vitro accumulation into lung cells. PMID:3593418