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Sample records for bispecific monoclonal antibody

  1. Dual targeting strategies with bispecific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are widely used for the treatment of cancer, inflammatory and infectious diseases and other disorders. Most of the marketed antibodies are monospecific and therefore capable of interacting and interfering with a single target. However, complex diseases are often multifactorial in nature, and involve redundant or synergistic action of disease mediators or upregulation of different receptors, including crosstalk between their signaling networks. Consequently, blockade of multiple, different pathological factors and pathways may result in improved therapeutic efficacy. This result can be achieved by combining different drugs, or use of the dual targeting strategies applying bispecific antibodies that have emerged as an alternative to combination therapy. This review discusses the various dual targeting strategies for which bispecific antibodies have been developed and provides an overview of the established bispecific antibody formats. PMID:22453100

  2. Chemiluminescence reaction kinetics-resolved multianalyte immunoassay strategy using a bispecific monoclonal antibody as the unique recognition reagent.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hui; Wang, Limin; Yang, Shijia; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Lin; Liu, Fengquan; Fu, Zhifeng

    2015-03-01

    The multianalyte immunoassay (MIA) has attracted increasing attention due to its high sample throughput, short assay time, low sample consumption, and reduced overall cost. However, up to now, the reported MIA methods commonly require multiple antibodies since each antibody can recognize only one antigen. Herein, a novel bispecific monoclonal antibody (BsMcAb) that could bind methyl parathion and imidacloprid simultaneously was produced by a hybrid hybridomas strategy. A chemiluminescence (CL) reaction kinetics-resolved strategy was designed for MIA of methyl parathion and imidacloprid using the BsMcAb as the unique recognition reagent. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were adopted as the signal probes to tag the haptens of the two pesticides due to their very different CL kinetic characteristics. After competitive immunoreactions, the HRP-tagged methyl parathion hapten and the ALP-tagged imidacloprid hapten were simultaneously bound to the BsMcAb since there were two different antigen-binding sites in it. Then, two CL reactions were simultaneously triggered by adding the CL coreactants, and the signals for methyl parathion and imidacloprid detections were collected at 0.6 and 1000 s, respectively. The linear ranges for methyl parathion and imidacloprid were both 1.0-500 ng/mL, with detection limits of 0.33 ng/mL (S/N = 3). The proposed method was successfully used to detect pesticides spiked in ginseng and American ginseng with acceptable recoveries of 80-118%. This proof-of-principle work demonstrated the feasibility of MIA using only one antibody. PMID:25622025

  3. Cancer therapy with bispecific antibodies: Clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Archana; Lum, Lawrence G

    2013-01-01

    The binding of at least two molecular targets simultaneously with a single bispecific antibody is an attractive concept. The use of bispecific antibodies as possible therapeutic agents for cancer treatment was proposed in the mid-1980s. The design and production of bispecific antibodies using antibody- and/or receptor-based platform technology has improved significantly with advances in the knowledge of molecular manipulations, protein engineering techniques, and the expression of antigens and receptors on healthy and malignant cells. The common strategy for making bispecific antibodies involves combining the variable domains of the desired mAbs into a single bispecific structure. Many different formats of bispecific antibodies have been generated within the research field of bispecific immunotherapeutics, including the chemical heteroconjugation of two complete molecules or fragments of mAbs, quadromas, F(ab’)2, diabodies, tandem diabodies and single-chain antibodies. This review describes key modifications in the development of bispecific antibodies that can improve their efficacy and stability, and provides a clinical perspective on the application of bispecific antibodies for the treatment of solid and liquid tumors, including the promises and research limitations of this approach. PMID:20521223

  4. Monoclonal Antibodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killington, R. A.; Powell, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have provided an exciting addition to the "armory" of the molecular biologist and immunologist. This article discusses briefly the concept of, techniques available for, production of, and possible uses of monoclonal antibodies. (Author)

  5. Targeting T Cells with Bispecific Antibodies for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Lawrence G.; Thakur, Archana

    2013-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies (BiAbs) offer a unique opportunity to redirect immune effector cells to kill cancer cells. BiAbs combine the benefits of different binding specificities of two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) into a single construct. This unique feature of BiAbs enables approaches that are not possible with single mAbs. Advances in antibody engineering and antigen profiling of malignant cells have led to the development of a number of BiAb formats and their combinations for redirecting effector cells to tumor targets. There have been significant advances in the design and application of BiAbs for intravenous and local injection. The initial barrier of cytokine storm has been partially overcome by more recent constructs that have improved clinical effectiveness without dose-limiting toxicities. Since the recent revival of BiAbs, there has been multiple, ongoing, phase I/II and III trials, and some promising clinical outcomes have been reported in completed clinical studies. This review focuses on arming T cells with BiAbs to create the ‘poor man's cytotoxic lymphocyte’. PMID:22050339

  6. Redirecting adenoviruses to tumour cells using therapeutic antibodies: Generation of a versatile human bispecific adaptor.

    PubMed

    Vasiljevic, Snezana; Beale, Emma V; Bonomelli, Camille; Easthope, Iona S; Pritchard, Laura K; Seabright, Gemma E; Caputo, Alessandro T; Scanlan, Christopher N; Dalziel, Martin; Crispin, Max

    2015-12-01

    Effective use of adenovirus-5 (Ad5) in cancer therapy is heavily dependent on the degree to which the virus's natural tropism can be subverted to one that favours tumour cells. This is normally achieved through either engineering of the viral fiber knob or the use of bispecific adaptors that display both adenovirus and tumour antigen receptors. One of the main limitations of these strategies is the need to tailor each engineering event to any given tumour antigen. Here, we explore bispecific adaptors that can utilise established anti-cancer therapeutic antibodies. Conjugates containing bacterially derived antibody binding motifs are efficient at retargeting virus to antibody targets. Here, we develop a humanized strategy whereby we synthesise a re-targeting adaptor based on a chimeric Ad5 ligand/antibody receptor construct. This adaptor acts as a molecular bridge analogous to therapeutic antibody mediated cross-linking of cytotoxic effector and tumour cells during immunotherapy. As a proof or principle, we demonstrate how this adaptor allows efficient viral recognition and entry into carcinoma cells through the therapeutic monoclonal antibodies Herceptin/trastuzumab and bavituximab. We show that targeting can be augmented by use of contemporary antibody enhancement strategies such as the selective elimination of competing serum IgG using "receptor refocusing" enzymes and we envisage that further improvements are achievable by enhancing the affinities between the adaptor and its ligands. Humanized bispecific adaptors offer the promise of a versatile retargeting technology that can exploit both clinically approved adenovirus and therapeutic antibodies. PMID:26391350

  7. Monoclonal AntibodiesMonoclonal Antibodies Raymond LiuRaymond Liu

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Monoclonal AntibodiesMonoclonal Antibodies Raymond LiuRaymond Liu Biochemistry 118QBiochemistry 118Q Spring 2004Spring 2004 #12;OverviewOverview Monoclonal AntibodiesMonoclonal Antibodies SpecificitySpecificity TargetingTargeting VarietyVariety #12;Antibodies and the Immune SystemAntibodies

  8. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  9. Bispecific Antibody Pretargeting for Improving Cancer Imaging and Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Robert M.

    2005-02-04

    The main objective of this project was to evaluate pretargeting systems that use a bispecific antibody (bsMAb) to improve the detection and treatment of cancer. A bsMAb has specificity to a tumor antigen, which is used to bind the tumor, while the other specificity is to a peptide that can be radiolabeled. Pretargeting is the process by which the unlabeled bsMAb is given first, and after a sufficient time (1-2 days) is given for it to localize in the tumor and clear from the blood, a small molecular weight radiolabeled peptide is given. According to a dynamic imaging study using a 99mTc-labeled peptide, the radiolabeled peptide localizes in the tumor in less than 1 hour, with > 80% of it clearing from the blood and body within this same time. Tumor/nontumor targeting ratios that are nearly 50 times better than that with a directly radiolabeled Fab fragment have been observed (Sharkey et al., ''Signal amplification in molecular imaging by a multivalent bispecific nanobody'' submitted). The bsMAbs used in this project have been composed of 3 antibodies that will target antigens found in colorectal and pancreatic cancers (CEA, CSAp, and MUC1). For the ''peptide binding moiety'' of the bsMAb, we initially examined an antibody directed to DOTA, but subsequently focused on another antibody directed against a novel compound, HSG (histamine-succinyl-glycine).

  10. A Novel Bispecific Antibody, S-Fab, Induces Potent Cancer Cell Killing.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; He, Ping; Zhou, Changhua; Jing, Li; Dong, Bin; Chen, Siqi; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Yawei; Miao, Ji; Wang, Zhong; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies that engage immune cells to kill cancer cells have been actively studied in cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we present a novel bispecific format, S-Fab, fabricated by linking a single-domain anti-carcinoembryonic antigen VHH to a conventional anti-CD3 Fab. In contrast to most bispecific antibodies, the S-Fab bispecific antibody can be efficiently expressed and purified from bacteria. The purified S-Fab is stable in serum and is able to recruit T cells to drive potent cancer cell killing. In xenograft models, the S-Fab antibody suppresses tumor growth in the presence of human immune cells. Our study suggested that the bispecific S-Fab format can be applied to a wide range of immunotherapies. PMID:26448579

  11. Monoclonal antibodies to gonadotropin subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, P.H.; Moyle, W.R.; Canfield, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The production of monoclonal antibodies to peptide hormones, with their unifocal binding sites, can provide tools for understanding hormone structure and function. The paper focuses on techniques that are important for the study of monoclonal antibodies to chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), including hybridoma production, methods of screening for desired clones, properties of the monoclonal antibodies, effect of antibodies on hormone-receptor interaction, inhibition of binding of radiolabeled hCG, inhibition of hCG induced steroidogenesis, determination of relative orientation of epitopes, and synergistic actions of monoclonal antibodies to hCG.

  12. Development of a Human IgG4 Bispecific Antibody for Dual Targeting of Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-13 (IL-13) Cytokines*

    PubMed Central

    Spiess, Christoph; Bevers, Jack; Jackman, Janet; Chiang, Nancy; Nakamura, Gerald; Dillon, Michael; Liu, Hongbin; Molina, Patricia; Elliott, J. Michael; Shatz, Whitney; Scheer, Justin M.; Giese, Glen; Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yin; Dennis, Mark S.; Giulianotti, James; Gupta, Prateek; Reilly, Dorothea; Palma, Enzo; Wang, Jianyong; Stefanich, Eric; Scheerens, Heleen; Fuh, Germaine; Wu, Lawren C.

    2013-01-01

    Human bispecific antibodies have great potential for the treatment of human diseases. Although human IgG1 bispecific antibodies have been generated, few attempts have been reported in the scientific literature that extend bispecific antibodies to other human antibody isotypes. In this paper, we report our work expanding the knobs-into-holes bispecific antibody technology to the human IgG4 isotype. We apply this approach to generate a bispecific antibody that targets IL-4 and IL-13, two cytokines that play roles in type 2 inflammation. We show that IgG4 bispecific antibodies can be generated in large quantities with equivalent efficiency and quality and have comparable pharmacokinetic properties and lung partitioning, compared with the IgG1 isotype. This work broadens the range of published therapeutic bispecific antibodies with natural surface architecture and provides additional options for the generation of bispecific antibodies with differing effector functions through the use of different antibody isotypes. PMID:23880771

  13. Biomimetic engineering of modular bispecific antibodies for biomolecule immobilization.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hideki; Kanazaki, Kengo; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Shiotsuka, Hidenori; Hatakeyama, Satoru; Kaieda, Masaru; Imamura, Takeshi; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Kumagai, Izumi

    2011-08-16

    Modular bispecific antibodies (BsAb's) that interact directly with a gold surface were engineered for immobilization on biosensing devices. The BsAb's consist of the variable fragments of antigold and antilysozyme antibodies connected via one of three linkers derived from naturally occurring proteins. The BsAb's were bound tightly to both the gold surface and to lysozyme, thus functioning as interface molecules between lysozyme and the gold surface without a substantial loss of antigen-binding activity. The antigen-binding capacity (the ratio of the amount of immobilized lysozyme to the amount of immobilized BsAb) on the gold surface reached 82%. An analysis of the correlation between binding capacity and linker characteristics indicated that the presence of a long, rigid linker sequence derived from a cellulase resulted in a higher antigen-binding capacity than did the presence of a long but relatively flexible glycine-rich linker. This result suggests a strategy for designing linkers suitable for BsAb-based biomolecular immobilization. PMID:21736316

  14. Therapeutic bispecific T-cell engager antibody targeting the intracellular oncoprotein WT1.

    PubMed

    Dao, Tao; Pankov, Dmitry; Scott, Andrew; Korontsvit, Tatyana; Zakhaleva, Victoriya; Xu, Yiyang; Xiang, Jingyi; Yan, Su; de Morais Guerreiro, Manuel Direito; Veomett, Nicholas; Dubrovsky, Leonid; Curcio, Michael; Doubrovina, Ekaterina; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Liu, Cheng; O'Reilly, Richard J; Scheinberg, David A

    2015-10-01

    Intracellular tumor antigens presented on the cell surface in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules have been targeted by T cell-based therapies, but there has been little progress in developing small-molecule drugs or antibodies directed to these antigens. Here we describe a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody derived from a T-cell receptor (TCR)-mimic monoclonal antibody (mAb) ESK1, which binds a peptide derived from the intracellular oncoprotein WT1 presented on HLA-A*02:01. Despite the very low density of the complexes at the cell surface, ESK1-BiTE selectively activated and induced proliferation of cytolytic human T cells that killed cells from multiple leukemias and solid tumors in vitro and in mice. We also discovered that in an autologous in vitro setting, ESK1-BiTE induced a robust secondary CD8 T-cell response specific for tumor-associated antigens other than WT1. Our study provides an approach that targets tumor-specific intracellular antigens without using cell therapy and suggests that epitope spreading could contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of this BiTE. PMID:26389576

  15. Novel therapeutic strategies in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia--a focus on emerging monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Daver, Naval; O'Brien, Susan

    2013-06-01

    The outcomes in adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remain inferior to those achieved in pediatric populations. Targeted therapy with monoclonal antibodies may improve outcomes in adult B-cell ALL without significant additive toxicity. Rituximab is the best known monoclonal antibody and is routinely used in combination chemo-immunotherapy for treatment of adult B-cell ALL and Burkitts leukemia. A number of other monoclonal antibodies are currently under investigation for treatment of adult B-cell ALL including unconjugated antibodies (eg., ofatumumab, alemtuzumab and epratuzumab), antibodies conjugated to cytotoxic agents (eg., inotuzumab ozogamycin and SAR3419), antibodies conjugated to toxins such Pseudomonas or Diptheria toxins (eg., BL22 and moxetumomab pasudotox), and T-cell engaging bi-specific antibodies that redirect cytotoxic T lymphocytes to lyse target ALL cells (eg., blinatumomab). In this article we review the therapeutic implications, current status and results of monoclonal antibody-based therapy in adult B-cell ALL. PMID:23539383

  16. A novel antibody engineering strategy for making monovalent bispecific heterodimeric IgG antibodies by electrostatic steering mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Leng, Esther C; Gunasekaran, Kannan; Pentony, Martin; Shen, Min; Howard, Monique; Stoops, Janelle; Manchulenko, Kathy; Razinkov, Vladimir; Liu, Hua; Fanslow, William; Hu, Zhonghua; Sun, Nancy; Hasegawa, Haruki; Clark, Rutilio; Foltz, Ian N; Yan, Wei

    2015-03-20

    Producing pure and well behaved bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) on a large scale for preclinical and clinical testing is a challenging task. Here, we describe a new strategy for making monovalent bispecific heterodimeric IgG antibodies in mammalian cells. We applied an electrostatic steering mechanism to engineer antibody light chain-heavy chain (LC-HC) interface residues in such a way that each LC strongly favors its cognate HC when two different HCs and two different LCs are co-expressed in the same cell to assemble a functional bispecific antibody. We produced heterodimeric IgGs from transiently and stably transfected mammalian cells. The engineered heterodimeric IgG molecules maintain the overall IgG structure with correct LC-HC pairings, bind to two different antigens with comparable affinity when compared with their parental antibodies, and retain the functionality of parental antibodies in biological assays. In addition, the bispecific heterodimeric IgG derived from anti-HER2 and anti-EGF receptor (EGFR) antibody was shown to induce a higher level of receptor internalization than the combination of two parental antibodies. Mouse xenograft BxPC-3, Panc-1, and Calu-3 human tumor models showed that the heterodimeric IgGs strongly inhibited tumor growth. The described approach can be used to generate tools from two pre-existent antibodies and explore the potential of bispecific antibodies. The asymmetrically engineered Fc variants for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity enhancement could be embedded in monovalent bispecific heterodimeric IgG to make best-in-class therapeutic antibodies. PMID:25583986

  17. Monoclonal antibodies and neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Miraldi, F. )

    1989-10-01

    Several antineuroblastoma monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) have been described and two have been used in radioimmunoimaging and radioimmunotherapy in patients. MoAb 3F8 is a murine IgG3 antibody specific for the ganglioside GD2. Radioiodine-labeled 3F8 has been shown to specifically target human neuroblastoma in patients, and radioimmunoimaging with this agent has provided consistently high uptakes with tumor-to-background ratios of greater than or equal to 10:1. Radioimmunotherapy has been attempted with both MoAb 3F8 and MoAb UJ13A, and although encouraging results have been obtained, dosimetry data and tissue dose response information for these agents is lacking, which impedes the development of such therapy. 124I, a positron emitter, can be used with 3F8 in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning to provide dosimetry information for radioimmunotherapy. The tumor radiation dose response from radiolabeled MoAb also can be followed with PET images with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scanning of neuroblastoma tumors. Results to date indicate that radioimmunoimaging has clinical use in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma and the potential for radioimmunotherapy for this cancer remains high.48 references.

  18. The therapeutic monoclonal antibody market.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Dawn M; Jones, Susan Dana; Levine, Howard L

    2015-01-01

    Since the commercialization of the first therapeutic monoclonal antibody product in 1986, this class of biopharmaceutical products has grown significantly so that, as of November 10, 2014, forty-seven monoclonal antibody products have been approved in the US or Europe for the treatment of a variety of diseases, and many of these products have also been approved for other global markets. At the current approval rate of ? four new products per year, ? 70 monoclonal antibody products will be on the market by 2020, and combined world-wide sales will be nearly $125 billion. PMID:25529996

  19. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2010-06-22

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

  20. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2013-04-09

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

  1. The Bs20x22 anti-CD20-CD22 bispecific antibody has more lymphomacidal activity than do the parent antibodies alone.

    PubMed

    Tuscano, Joseph M; Ma, Yunpeng; Martin, Shiloh M; Kato, Jason; O'Donnell, Robert T

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that bispecific antibodies that target both CD20 and CD22 have in vivo lymphomacidal properties. We developed a CD20-CD22 bispecific antibody (Bs20x22) from anti-CD20 and the anti-CD22 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), rituximab and HB22.7, respectively. Bs20x22 was constructed using standard methods and was shown to specifically bind CD20 and CD22. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that Bs20x22 was three times more effective than either parent mAb alone and twice as effective as a combination of both parent mAb used at equimolar concentrations. Bs20x22 was also nearly four times more effective at inducing apoptosis than either mAb alone. Examination of the MAPK and SAPK signaling cascades revealed that Bs20x22 induced significantly more p38 phosphorylation than either mAb alone. In an in vivo human NHL xenograft model, treatment with Bs20x22 resulted in significantly greater tumor shrinkage and improved overall survival when compared to either mAb alone or treatment with a combination of HB22.7 and rituximab. The effect of the initial tumor volume was assessed by comparing the efficacy of Bs20x22 administered before xenografts grew versus treatment of established tumors; significantly, greater efficacy was found when treatment was initiated before tumors could become established. PMID:21347809

  2. Production of bispecific antibodies in “knobs-into-holes” using a cell-free expression system

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yiren; Lee, John; Tran, Cuong; Heibeck, Tyler H; Wang, Willie D; Yang, Junhao; Stafford, Ryan L; Steiner, Alexander R; Sato, Aaron K; Hallam, Trevor J; Yin, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies have emerged in recent years as a promising field of research for therapies in oncology, inflammable diseases, and infectious diseases. Their capability of dual target recognition allows for novel therapeutic hypothesis to be tested, where traditional mono-specific antibodies would lack the needed mode of target engagement. Among extremely diverse architectures of bispecific antibodies, knobs-into-holes (KIHs) technology, which involves engineering CH3 domains to create either a “knob” or a “hole” in each heavy chain to promote heterodimerization, has been widely applied. Here, we describe the use of a cell-free expression system (Xpress CF) to produce KIH bispecific antibodies in multiple scaffolds, including 2-armed heterodimeric scFv-KIH and one-armed asymmetric BiTE-KIH with tandem scFv. Efficient KIH production can be achieved by manipulating the plasmid ratio between knob and hole, and further improved by addition of prefabricated knob or hole. These studies demonstrate the versatility of Xpress CF in KIH production and provide valuable insights into KIH construct design for better assembly and expression titer. PMID:25427258

  3. Lysis of prostate carcinoma cells by trifunctional bispecific antibodies (alpha EpCAM x alpha CD3).

    PubMed

    Riesenberg, R; Buchner, A; Pohla, H; Lindhofer, H

    2001-07-01

    Bispecific monoclonal antibodies (bsAbs) are a promising immunotherapeutic option for treatment of cancer, especially in situations of minimal residual disease. The combination of an anti-CD3 and anti-tumor-associated antigen antibody redirects cytotoxic T-lymphocytes towards malignant cells. Using a trifunctional bispecific antibody against EpCAM x CD3, that additionally activates Fc gamma R(+) accessory cells via its Fc region, we investigated the interaction between three EpCAM(+) prostate carcinoma cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy donors and patients with prostate carcinoma (PC). Visualization was performed by double immunocytochemical methods and computerized sequential video microscopy. Tumor cells and PBMCs supplemented with alpha EpCAM x alpha CD3 in 16-well chamber slides resulted in lysis of tumor cells within 1--3 days without any differences between patient and healthy donor PBMCs. The characteristic necrotic way of tumor cell killing (rounding, swelling, disrupting) could be observed in computerized sequences of video frames. Simultaneously, we could not reveal any form of apoptotic signal using three different apoptotic markers (TUNEL, M30 cyto death, anti-active caspase 3). Within the first 48 hr we observed typical PBMC cluster formation with increasing cell proliferation. PBMCs surrounding the tumor cells were not dominated by CD4(+), CD8(+), or CD14(+) cells. Lymphocytes with pore-forming perforin proteins concentrated towards the tumor target cells. Our combination of double immunocytochemical and computerized video microscopic techniques may serve as an important improvement of validity of cell-cell interaction experiments using in vitro models. (J Histochem Cytochem 49:911-917, 2001) PMID:11410615

  4. Radioimmunoguided surgery using monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.W. Jr.; Mojzisik, C.M.; Hinkle, G.H. Jr.; Sampsel, J.; Siddiqi, M.A.; Tuttle, S.E.; Sickle-Santanello, B.; Colcher, D.; Thurston, M.O.; Bell, J.G.

    1988-11-01

    The potential proficiency of radioimmunoguided surgery in the intraoperative detection of tumors was assessed using labeled monoclonal antibody B72.3 in 66 patients with tissue-proved tumor. Monoclonal antibody B72.3 was injected 5 to 42 days preoperatively, and the hand-held gamma-detecting probe was used intraoperatively to detect the presence of tumor. Intraoperative probe counts of less than 20 every 2 seconds, or tumor-to-adjacent normal tissue ratios less than 2:1 were considered negative (system failure). Positive probe counts were detected in 5 of 6 patients with primary colon cancer (83 percent), in 31 of 39 patients with recurrent colon cancer (79 percent), in 4 of 5 patients with gastric cancer (80 percent), in 3 of 8 patients with breast cancer (37.5 percent), and in 4 of 8 patients with ovarian cancer (50 percent) undergoing second-look procedures. Additional patients in each group were scored as borderline positive. Overall, radioimmunoguided surgery using B72.3 identified tumors in 47 patients (71.2 percent), bordered on positive in 6 patients (9.1 percent), and failed to identify tumor in 13 patients (19.7 percent). Improved selection of patients for antigen-positive tumors, the use of higher affinity second-generation antibodies, alternate routes of antibody administration, alternate radionuclides, and more sophisticatedly bioengineered antibodies and antibody combinations should all lead to improvements in radioimmunoguided surgery.

  5. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2013-08-06

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides a method of inhibiting the growth of tumor cells comprising contacting said tumor cells with an appropriate amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof.

  6. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2010-06-15

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides a method of inhibiting the growth of tumor cells comprising contacting said tumor cells with an appropriate amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof.

  7. The future of monoclonal antibody technology

    PubMed Central

    Zider, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid growth of monoclonal antibody-based products, new technologies have emerged for creating modified forms of antibodies, including fragments, conjugates and multi-specific antibodies. We created a database of 450 therapeutic antibodies in development to determine which technologies and indications will constitute the “next generation” of antibody products. We conclude that the antibodies of the future will closely resemble the antibodies that have already been approved for commercial sale. PMID:20676053

  8. Improved monoclonal antibodies to halodeoxyuridine

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, M.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Gray, J.W.; Thomas, C.B.

    1983-10-18

    The development, method of production, characterization and methods of use of two hybridomas, CIdU-1 (ATCC Accession No. HB-8321) and CIdU-2 (ATCC Accession No. HB-8320), are described. These secrete IgG/sub 1/(K) immunoglobulins that react with halodeoxyuridine (HdU or halodU) such as bromo, chloro, fluoro and iodo deoxyuridine (BrdU, CldU, FdU and IdU), whether these are free in solution or incorporated into single stranded DNA in whole cells. The antibodies do not react with naturally occurring free nucleic acids or with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymers. These antibodies are suitable for use in enzyme immunoassays for free CldU, FdU, IdU and BrdU and for detecting cells with these nucleotides incorporated into them. The monoclonal antibodies are useful in the detection of the sensitivity of tumor cells to specific chemotherapeutic agents, in the measurement of the rate of cellular DNA synthesis, in the measurement of the rate of proliferation of normal and malignant cells and in the detection of HPRT deficiency in cells. 1 tab.

  9. Monoclonal Antibodies for the Treatment of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shuptrine, Casey; Surana, Rishi; Weiner, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, the clinical utility of monoclonal antibodies has been realized and antibodies are now a mainstay for the treatment of cancer. Antibodies have the unique capacity to target and kill tumor cells while simultaneously activating immune effectors to kill tumor cells through the complement cascade or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). This multifaceted mechanism of action combined with target specificity underlies the capacity of antibodies to elicit anti-tumor responses while minimizing the frequency and magnitude of adverse events. This review will focus on mechanisms of action, clinical applications and putative mechanisms of resistance to monoclonal antibody therapy in the context of cancer. PMID:22245472

  10. A novel, native-format bispecific antibody triggering T-cell killing of B-cells is robustly active in mouse tumor models and cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Eric J.; Olson, Kara; Haber, Lauric J.; Varghese, Bindu; Duramad, Paurene; Tustian, Andrew D.; Oyejide, Adelekan; Kirshner, Jessica R.; Canova, Lauren; Menon, Jayanthi; Principio, Jennifer; MacDonald, Douglas; Kantrowitz, Joel; Papadopoulos, Nicholas; Stahl, Neil; Yancopoulos, George D.; Thurston, Gavin; Davis, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies, while showing great therapeutic potential, pose formidable challenges with respect to their assembly, stability, immunogenicity, and pharmacodynamics. Here we describe a novel class of bispecific antibodies with native human immunoglobulin format. The design exploits differences in the affinities of the immunoglobulin isotypes for Protein A, allowing efficient large-scale purification. Using this format, we generated a bispecific antibody, REGN1979, targeting the B cell marker, CD20, and the CD3 component of the T cell receptor, which triggers redirected killing of B cells. In mice, this antibody prevented growth of B cell tumors and also caused regression of large established tumors. In cynomolgus monkeys, low doses of REGN1979 caused prolonged depletion of B cells in peripheral blood with a serum half-life of approximately 14 days. Further, the antibody induced a deeper depletion of B cells in lymphoid organs than rituximab. This format has broad applicability for development of clinical bispecific antibodies. PMID:26659273

  11. Immunologic and pharmacologic concepts of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Zuckier, L S; Rodriguez, L D; Scharff, M D

    1989-07-01

    While monoclonal antibodies have solved many of the difficulties of using immunologic reagents for radioimmunodiagnosis and therapy, in the 13 years since their introduction a number of persistent problems remain, most notably a low yield of antibody-producing cells from the fusion process, difficulty in obtaining high-affinity antibodies, and the potential immunogenicity of murine immunoglobulins (Igs). Several solutions are under development, including fusion techniques that enrich for cells producing desired antibodies, production of human-mouse chimeric antibodies by recombinant DNA technology, and the generation of human monoclonal antibodies by promising new approaches. Until these upcoming methodologies are established, and to better direct their development and application, a sound understanding of the pharmacology of presently available native and modified monoclonal antibodies is crucial. Although much has been already determined in this area, a great deal of further clarification remains necessary. PMID:2669128

  12. Structure and specificity of lamprey monoclonal antibodies

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    Structure and specificity of lamprey monoclonal antibodies Brantley R. Herrin*§ , Matthew N. Alder with particulate antigens induces VLR-B-bearing lymphocytes to secrete antigen-specific VLR-B antibodies. Here, we describe the production of recombinant VLR-B antibodies specific for BclA, a major coat protein of Bacillus

  13. Cost modeling for monoclonal antibody manufacturing

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Christina M. (Christina Margaret)

    2011-01-01

    The Novartis BioPharmOps division is responsible for manufacturing large molecule products, including monoclonal antibodies, for late stage clinical trials and commercial sales. The BioPharmOps site in Huningue, France is ...

  14. Preparation of astatine-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Milesz, S.; Norseev, Yu.V.; Szucs, Z. |

    1995-07-01

    In the cationic state astatine forms a stable complex with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Thanks to this complex, astatine can be bound to monoclonal antibodies of the RYa{sub 1} type. The most favorable conditions for preparing astatine-labeled antibodies are established. The chromatographic analysis and electromigration experiments showed that astatine is firmly linked to a biomolecule in vitro and it did not escape from labeled monoclonal antibodies even under treatment with such highly effective astatine-complexing agent as thiourea. The immune activity of astatine-labeled antibodies did not change even after 20 h.

  15. Monoclonal Antibody That Defines Human Myoepithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dairkee, Shahnaz Hashmi; Blayney, Carlene; Smith, Helene S.; Hackett, Adeline J.

    1985-11-01

    We have isolated a mouse monoclonal antibody that, upon immunohistochemical localization in frozen sections, displays specificity for human myoepithelial cells in the resting mammary gland, sweat glands, and salivary glands. Furthermore, this antibody was strongly and homogeneously reactive with frozen sections of 3 of 60 breast carcinoma specimens. Using immunolocalization techniques in conjunction with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we have determined that the reactivity of this monoclonal antibody is directed toward a 51,000-dalton keratin polypeptide. The potential uses of this antibody in the prognosis of human mammary carcinoma and in understanding the role of the myoepithelium in development and differentiation are discussed.

  16. [New hemophilia treatment employing a bispecific antibody to factors IXa and X].

    PubMed

    Shima, Midori

    2015-06-01

    Unmet needs of current hemophilia A treatment include the requirement for frequent intravenous infusions, inhibitor development, and containment of high medical costs. In order to overcome these issues, we produced FVIII which mimics a bispecific antibody against FIXa/FX. ACE910 demonstrated hemostatic effects on both ongoing and spontaneous joint bleeding in the primate acquired hemophilia A model. Recently, a phase 1 study for PK, PD, and the safety of ACE910 was initiated. The t1/2 was approximately 30 days. There were no severe ACE910 related adverse events. Furthermore, bleeding was remarkably decreased by weekly subcutaneous administration in patients with severe hemophilia A, regardless of whether an inhibitor was used. ACE910 has the remarkable advantages of prophylactic efficacy which can be achieved by convenient subcutaneous administrations at a markedly reduced frequency. PMID:26256871

  17. Noninvasive brain cancer imaging with a bispecific antibody fragment, generated via click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haiming; Hernandez, Reinier; Hong, Hao; Graves, Stephen A; Yang, Yunan; England, Christopher G; Theuer, Charles P; Nickles, Robert J; Cai, Weibo

    2015-10-13

    Early diagnosis remains a task of upmost importance for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. Successful development of highly specific companion diagnostics targeting aberrant molecular pathways of cancer is needed for sensitive detection, accurate diagnosis, and opportune therapeutic intervention. Herein, we generated a bispecific immunoconjugate [denoted as Bs-F(ab)2] by linking two antibody Fab fragments, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Fab and an anti-CD105 Fab, via bioorthogonal "click" ligation of trans-cyclooctene and tetrazine. PET imaging of mice bearing U87MG (EGFR/CD105(+/+)) tumors with (64)Cu-labeled Bs-F(ab)2 revealed a significantly enhanced tumor uptake [42.9 ± 9.5 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g); n = 4] and tumor-to-background ratio (tumor/muscle ratio of 120.2 ± 44.4 at 36 h postinjection; n = 4) compared with each monospecific Fab tracer. Thus, we demonstrated that dual targeting of EGFR and CD105 provides a synergistic improvement on both affinity and specificity of (64)Cu-NOTA-Bs-F(ab)2. (64)Cu-NOTA-Bs-F(ab)2 was able to visualize small U87MG tumor nodules (<5 mm in diameter), owing to high tumor uptake (31.4 ± 10.8%ID/g at 36 h postinjection) and a tumor/muscle ratio of 76.4 ± 52.3, which provided excellent sensitivity for early detection. Finally, we successfully confirmed the feasibility of a ZW800-1-labeled Bs-F(ab)2 for near-infrared fluorescence imaging and image-guided surgical resection of U87MG tumors. More importantly, our rationale can be used in the construction of other disease-targeting bispecific antibody fragments for early detection and diagnosis of small malignant lesions. PMID:26417085

  18. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Advanced Neuroblastoma

    Cancer.gov

    NCI is sponsoring two clinical trials of a monoclonal antibody called ch14.18, in combination with other drugs, to see if the antibody may be helpful for children or young adults (up to age 21) with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma.

  19. Monoclonal Antibodies as Diagnostics; an Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, M. Z.

    2010-01-01

    Ever since the development of Hybridoma Technology in 1975 by Kohler and Milstein, our vision for antibodies as tools for research for prevention, detection and treatment of diseases, vaccine production, antigenic characterization of pathogens and in the study of genetic regulation of immune responses and disease susceptibility has been revolutionized. The monoclonal antibodies being directed against single epitopes are homogeneous, highly specific and can be produced in unlimited quantities. In animal disease diagnosis, they are very useful for identification and antigenic characterization of pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies have tremendous applications in the field of diagnostics, therapeutics and targeted drug delivery systems, not only for infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and protozoa but also for cancer, metabolic and hormonal disorders. They are also used in the diagnosis of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies, tissue typing, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, radio immunoassay, serotyping of microorganisms, immunological intervention with passive antibody, antiidiotype inhibition, or magic bullet therapy with cytotoxic agents coupled with anti mouse specific antibody. Recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology through genetic engineering has successfully led to the possibility of reconstruction of monoclonal antibodies viz. chimeric antibodies, humanized antibodies and complementarily determining region grafted antibodies and their enormous therapeutic use. PMID:20582184

  20. Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Farah, Michel E; Maia, Maurício; Penha, Fernando M; Regatieri, Caio; Melo, Gustavo B; Pinheiro, Marcelo M; Zanetti, Carlos R

    2009-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can be used therapeutically by binding to molecular targets with high specificity. Therefore, they have excellent therapeutic applications in ophthalmology. This manuscript presents four aspects of the therapeutic use of mAbs in ophthalmology: the scientific rationale, the unique characteristics of selected mAbs, the current state-of-the-art application, and relevant therapeutic mAbs for future applications in ophthalmology. We identified in the literature various single-agent therapies that inhibit the following targets: tumor necrosis factor (TNF), epithelial growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor, and cluster of differentiation antigens. The roles of all biochemical targets in ocular diseases were evaluated. Current and future mAbs against various cytokines were assessed for the treatment of ocular diseases. The medical literature showed the clinical benefits of mAbs for treating angiogenic and inflammatory ocular diseases. Two anti-VEGF mAbs, bevacizumab and ranibizumab, and three anti-TNF agents, infliximab, etanercept, and adalimumab, control ocular neovascularization and intraocular inflammation. Other mAbs such as rituximab, daclizumab, efalizumab, and alemtuzumab showed positive results in animal and early clinical studies and may represent useful adjuvant therapies for ocular lymphoma or ocular inflammation. Ranibizumab is the only FDA-approved therapy; for other mAbs the so-called off-label application remains the standard. Intravenous administration of mAbs has demonstrated acceptable toxicity profiles, while intraocular injection may decrease the chances of systemic complications and increase the amount of drug available to the retina and choroid. In conclusion, effective clinical use of mAbs in ophthalmology is more commonly seen in the field of angiogenic vitreoretinal and autoimmune inflammatory diseases. The challenge for the future is combining biologic therapies to improve the quality and duration of responses while diminishing side effects. The role of mAbs within ophthalmic treatments will be defined according to future clinical experience and the results of randomized clinical trials. PMID:19114125

  1. Hapten-Binding Bispecific Antibodies for the Targeted Delivery of SiRNA and SiRNA-Containing Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Thorey, Irmgard S; Grote, Michael; Mayer, Klaus; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Hapten-binding bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) are effective and versatile tools for targeting diverse payloads, including siRNAs, to specific cells and tissues. In this chapter, we provide examples for successful SiRNA delivery using this powerful targeting platform. We further provide protocols for designing and producing bsAbs, for combining bsAbs with SiRNA into functional complexes, and achieving specific mRNA knockdown in cells by using these functional complexes. PMID:26472454

  2. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with chicken interleukin-17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous study chicken interleukin -17 (chIL-17) gene was cloned from the expressed sequence tag (EST) cDNA library and initially analyzed. To further investigate biological properties of chicken IL-17, six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against bacterially expressed protein were produced and c...

  3. SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Jaszczak, R.J.

    1991-05-01

    The accurate determination of the biodistribution of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) is important for calculation of dosimetry and evaluation of pharmacokinetic variables such as antibody dose and route of administration. A major long-term objective of this proposal is to determine the utility of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for quantifying the biodistribution of monoclonal antibodies labeled with the clinically relevant radionuclide iodine-123 (I-123). The pharmacokinetics of I-123 labeled MoAbs will be determined by the SPECT in non-human primates. The errors associated with the SPECT measurements will be assessed with Monte Carlo simulations and by scanning phantoms containing I-123 activity in regions of uniform and nonuniform attenuation. The ability of SPECT to quantify I-123 distributions will be assessed, and new acquisition geometries and reconstruction algorithms for improved quantification will be evaluated. 33 refs.

  4. SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Jaszczak, R.J.

    1992-02-01

    The accurate determination of the biodistribution of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) is important for calculation of dosimetry and evaluation of pharmacokinetic variables such as antibody dose and route of administration. The hypothesis of this application is that the biodistribution of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) can be quantitatively determined using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The major thrusts during the third year include the continued development and evaluation of improved 3D SPECT acquisition and reconstruction approaches to improve quantitative imaging of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), and the implementation and evaluation of algorithms to register serial SPECT image data sets, or to register 3D SPECT images with 3D image data sets acquired from positron emission tomography (PEI) and magnetic resonance images (MRI). The research has involved the investigation of statistical models and iterative reconstruction algorithms that accurately account for the physical characteristics of the SPECT acquisition system. It is our belief that SPECT quantification can be improved by accurately modeling the physical processes such as attenuation, scatter, geometric collimator response, and other factors that affect the measured projection data.

  5. Monoclonal antibody to chicken oviduct progesterone receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Radanyi, C; Joab, I; Renoir, J M; Richard-Foy, H; Baulieu, E E

    1983-01-01

    Antibodies to molybdate-stabilized chicken oviduct progesterone receptor were raised in a Wistar rat and detected by interaction with homogeneous radioiodinated progesterone receptor. Spleen cells of this rat were then fused with mouse Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells and the antibodies produced by the hybrid cells were detected by double immunoprecipitation using the 125I-labeled receptor. Cells of one of the positive cultures were then cloned by limiting dilution and one hybridoma cell line was studied. The monoclonal antibody produced was an IgG2b, and it reacted with the molybdate-stabilized "8-9S" form of the chicken oviduct progesterone receptor, labeled with either [3H]progesterone or [3H]ORG 2058 (a high-affinity synthetic progestin). Kd for the 8-9S progesterone receptor was approximately equal to 1 nM. Progesterone receptor-monoclonal antibody complexes were labeled with radioactive progesterone, suggesting that antibody does not prevent hormone binding. By using a [35S]methionine-labeled antibody, we were able to detect the progesterone receptor independently of its characteristic function of binding radioactive hormone. No crossreaction with human progesterone receptor was detected. PMID:6574454

  6. The bi-specific CD3 × NCAM antibody: a model to preactivate T cells prior to tumour cell lysis

    PubMed Central

    JENSEN, M; ERNESTUS, K; KEMSHEAD, J; KLEHR, M; VON BERGWELT-BAILDON, M S; SCHINKÖTHE, T; SCHULTZE, J L; BERTHOLD, F

    2003-01-01

    To target the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, CD56) on neuroblastoma by T cell-based immunotherapy we have generated a bi-specific CD3 × NCAM antibody (OE-1). This antibody can be used to redirect T cells to NCAM+ cells. Expectedly, the antibody binds specifically to NCAM+ neuroblastoma cells and CD3+ T cells. OE-1 induces T cell activation, expansion and effector function in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. T cell activation was shown to depend on the presence of normal natural killer (NK) cells in the culture. Interestingly, while PBMC- derived T cells were activated by OE-1, NK cells were almost completely depleted, suggesting that T cells activated by OE-1 deleted the NK cells. Activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells differentiate into a larger CCR7+ central memory and a smaller CCR7– effector memory cell population. Most importantly, preactivated T cells were highly cytotoxic for neuroblastoma cells. In eight of 11 experiments tumour-directed cytotoxicity was enhanced when NK cells were present during preactivation with OE-1. These data strongly support a bi-phasic therapeutic concept of primarily stimulating T cells with the bi-specific antibody in the presence of normal NCAM+ cells to induce T cell activation, migratory capacity and finally tumour cell lysis. PMID:14616785

  7. Recent developments in monoclonal antibody radiolabeling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mease, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have shown the potential to serve as selective carriers of radionuclides to specific in vivo antigens. Accordingly, there has been an intense surge of research activity in an effort to develop and evaluate MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging (radioimmunoscintigraphy) and therapy (radioimmunotherapy), as well as for diagnosing nonmalignant diseases. A number of problems have recently been identified, related to the MAbs themselves and to radiolabeling techniques, that comprise both the selectivity and the specificity of the in vivo distribution of radiolabeled MAbs. This paper will address some of these issues and primarily discuss recent developments in the techniques for radiolabeling monoclonal antibodies that may help resolve problems related to the poor in vivo stability of the radiolabel and may thus produce improved biodistribution. Even though many issues are identical with therapeutic radionuclides, the discussion will focus mainly on radioimmunoscintigraphic labels. 78 refs., 6 tabs.

  8. Next generation and biosimilar monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Next Generation and Biosimilar Monoclonal Antibodies: Essential Considerations Towards Regulatory Acceptance in Europe workshop, organized by the European Centre of Regulatory Affairs Freiburg (EUCRAF), was held February 3–4, 2011 in Freiburg, Germany. The workshop attracted over 100 attendees from 15 countries, including regulators from 11 agencies, who interacted over the course of two days. The speakers presented their authoritative views on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as attractive targets for development, the experience to date with the regulatory process for biosimilar medicinal products, the European Medicines Agency draft guideline on biosimilar mAbs, as well as key elements in the development of mAbs. Participants engaged in many lively discussions, and much speculation on the nature of the quality, non-clinical and clinical requirements for authorization of biosimilar mAbs. PMID:21487235

  9. Process analytics for purification of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Flatman, Stephen; Alam, Imtiaz; Gerard, Jeffery; Mussa, Nesredin

    2007-03-15

    The application of appropriate analytical methods is an essential requirement for the purification of therapeutic antibodies. A range of analytical methods need to be employed to effectively determine the purity, identity, integrity and activity of these important class of pharmaceuticals. These include notably electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography and immunoassays. Regulatory and industry demands in recent years have brought the need for improvements and many have been successfully implemented. This article reviews the current analytical methods applied to support the purification of monoclonal antibodies. PMID:17161664

  10. Monoclonal antibodies specific for mercuric ions.

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, D E; Lu, D; Carlson, L D; Carlson, R; Babacan, K F; Schuster, S M; Wagner, F W

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that react with soluble mercuric ions have been produced by injection of BALB/c mice with a hapten-carrier complex designed to maximize exposure of the metal to the immune system. Three hybridomas producing antibodies that reacted with bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glutathione-HgCl, but not with BSA-glutathione, were isolated from the spleen of a mouse given multiple injections with glutathione-HgCl conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Stable subclones were established from two of these antibodies, designated mAb 4A10 and mAb 1F10. The binding of both antibodies to immobilized BSA-glutathione-HgCl was inhibited by soluble HgCl2, and dissociation constants for mercuric chloride binding were 2.3 and 3.7 nM for mAbs 4A10 and 1F10, respectively. Both antibodies bound mercuric acetate with similar affinities, demonstrating that the antibodies were capable of binding to mercuric ions in the presence of a different counterion than the one used in the immunogen. Reactions were not observed with other metal cations by either antibody. These data demonstrate the successful induction of antibodies that react very specifically with mercuric ions in solution regardless of the presence of a carrier. PMID:1570337

  11. A Fc?RIII-engaging bispecific antibody expands the range of HER2-expressing breast tumors eligible to antibody therapy

    PubMed Central

    Turini, Marc; Chames, Patrick; Bruhns, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Trastuzumab is established as treatment of HER2high metastatic breast cancers but many limitations impair its efficacy. Here, we report the design of a Fab-like bispecific antibody (HER2bsFab) that displays a moderate affinity for HER2 and a unique, specific and high affinity for Fc?RIII. In vitro characterization showed that ADCC was the major mechanism of action of HER2bsFab as no significant HER2-driven effect was observed. HER2bsFab mediated ADCC at picomolar concentration against HER2high, HER2low as well as trastuzumab-refractive cell lines. In vivo HER2bsFab potently inhibited HER2high tumor growth by recruitment of mouse Fc?RIII and IV-positive resident effector cells and more importantly, exhibited a net superiority over trastuzumab at inhibiting HER2low tumor growth. Moreover, Fc?RIIIA-engagement by HER2bsFab was independent of V/F158 polymorphism and induced a stronger NK cells activation in response to target cell recognition. Thus, taking advantage of its epitope specificity and affinity for HER2 and Fc?RIIIA, HER2bsFab exhibits potent anti-tumor activity against HER2low tumors while evading most of trastuzumab Fc-linked limitations thereby potentially enlarging the number of patients eligible for breast cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24979648

  12. Research paper Measuring affinity constants of 1450 monoclonal antibodies to

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Xiangdong

    Research paper Measuring affinity constants of 1450 monoclonal antibodies to peptide targets antibodies (mAbs) are major reagents for research and clinical diagnosis. For their inherently high classes of new drugs. Yet binding properties of most monoclonal antibodies are not well characterized

  13. Monoclonal antibodies and method for detecting dioxins and dibenzofurans

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, Martin (San Ramon, CA); Stanker, Larry H. (Livermore, CA); Watkins, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Bailey, Nina R. (Berkley, CA)

    1989-01-01

    Compositions of matter are described which include five monoclonal antibodies that react with dioxins and dibenzofurans, and the five hybridomas that produce these monoclonal antibodies. In addition, a method for the use of these antibodies in a sensitive immunoassay for dioxins and dibenzofurans is given, which permits detection of these pollutants in samples at concentrations in the range of a few parts per billion.

  14. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against three serotypes of porcine rotavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Nagesha, H S; Brown, L E; Holmes, I H

    1989-01-01

    Using three serotypes (four strains) of cultivable porcine rotavirus as immunizing antigens, 10 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were characterized. One VP4-specific monoclonal antibody directed against porcine rotavirus BEN-144 (serotype G4) neutralized human rotavirus strain ST-3 in addition to the homologous porcine virus. All nine VP7-specific monoclonal antibodies were highly specific for viruses of the same serotype as the immunizing rotavirus strain. One exception was the VP7-specific monoclonal antibody C3/1, which neutralized both serotype G3 and G5 rotaviruses. However, this monoclonal antibody did not neutralize the porcine rotavirus AT/76, also of serotype G3, nor mutants of SA-11 virus (serotype G3) which were selected with monoclonal antibody A10/N3 and are known to have mutations affecting the C antigenic region. Images PMID:2545925

  15. Monoclonal antibodies specific for sickle cell hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Grabske, R.J.; Branscomb, E.W.; Bigbee, W.L.; Stanker, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    Two mouse hybridoma cell lines were isolated which produce monoclonal antibodies that bind hemoglobin S. The mice were immunized with peptide-protein conjugates to stimulate a response to the amino terminal peptide of the beta chain of hemoglobin S, where the single amino acid difference between A and S occurs. Immunocharacterization of the antibodies shows that they bind specifically to the immunogen peptide and to hemoglobin S. The specificity for S is high enough that one AS cell in a mixture with a million AA cells is labeled by antibody, and such cells can be analyzed by flow cytometry. Immunoblotting of electrophoretic gels allows definitive identification of hemoglobin S as compared with other hemoglobins with similar electrophoretic mobility. 12 references, 4 figures.

  16. Taxonomic investigation of Legionella pneumophila using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Brindle, R J; Bryant, T N; Draper, P W

    1989-03-01

    A panel of 19 monoclonal antibodies was used to produce patterns of immunofluorescent staining of 468 isolates of Legionella pneumophila. Twelve monoclonal antibodies were selected that divided L. pneumophila into 17 phenons which, in the majority of cases, conform to serogroup divisions. These phenons are more easily defined than the present serogroups, and isolates can be placed in them with little ambiguity. The standardized set of monoclonal antibodies was also used to define the subgroups of serogroup 1. PMID:2654183

  17. Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies and Fragments: Ranibizumab.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adiel G; Kaiser, Peter K

    2016-01-01

    Ranibizumab is a recombinant, humanized, affinity-matured, monoclonal antibody Fab fragment against all isoforms of vascular endothelial growth factor-A, which was developed specifically for intraocular use. Ranibizumab has been extensively investigated in clinical trials on choroidal neovascularization from wet age-related macular degeneration and pathologic myopia, as well as macular edema due to diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion. Numerous randomized, controlled clinical trials have shown this medication to be effective in improving both vision as well as anatomical outcomes, and the medication has repeatedly shown to have an acceptable safety profile. PMID:26501149

  18. NCI Requests Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, NCI's Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution.

  19. NCI Requests Cancer Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, NCI's Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution.

  20. Screening individual hybridomas by microengraving to discover monoclonal antibodies

    E-print Network

    Ogunniyi, Adebola Oluwakayode

    The demand for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in biomedical research is significant, but the current methodologies used to discover them are both lengthy and costly. Consequently, the diversity of antibodies available for ...

  1. Monoclonal antibody to growth hormone receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.S.A.; Friesen, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Using hybridoma technology, monoclonal antibodies to growth hormone receptors can be prepared in large quantities with only a few micrograms of purified antigen by in vitro immunization or by immunization of larger quantities of less pure material. The discussion centers on areas most pertinent to receptors such as receptor preparation, immunization procedure, fusion method, screening assay, and identification of the immunoglobulin class. The specificity of the antibody for growth hormone receptor was examined by testing the ability of the ascitic fluid to inhibit binding of (/sup 125/I) growth hormone to the prolactin receptors on rabbit mammary gland membranes and the inhibition of /sup 125/I-labelled rat growth hormone binding to rabbit liver membrane.

  2. Monoclonal antibodies reveal multiple forms of expression of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Monoclonal antibodies reveal multiple forms of expression of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase January 2012 Keywords: Microsomal epoxide hydrolase Drug metabolism Monoclonal antibodies Flow cytometry Topology In a previous study, we developed five kinds of monoclonal antibodies against different portions

  3. DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS IN HUMAN STOOLS BY USING MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monoclonal antibody, 3F7, which reacts with the common rotavirus antigen on the sixth viral gene product was prepared. It was used in a direct monoclonal antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA) as a diagnostic reagent for detection in 3.5 hours of rotavirus in human pediatric stool spe...

  4. A new tool for monoclonal antibody analysis

    PubMed Central

    An, Yan; Zhang, Ying; Mueller, Hans-Martin; Shameem, Mohammed; Chen, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (mAb) products are extraordinarily heterogeneous due to the presence of a variety of enzymatic and chemical modifications, such as deamidation, isomerization, oxidation, glycosylation, glycation, and terminal cyclization. The modifications in different domains of the antibody molecule can result in different biological consequences. Therefore, characterization and routine monitoring of domain-specific modifications are essential to ensure the quality of the therapeutic antibody products. For this purpose, a rapid and informative methodology was developed to examine the heterogeneity of individual domains in mAb products. A recently discovered endopeptidase, IdeS, cleaves heavy chains below the hinge region, producing F(ab')2 and Fc fragments. Following reduction of disulfide bonds, three antibody domains (LC, Fd, and Fc/2) can be released for further characterization. Subsequent analyses by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, capillary isoelectric focusing, and glycan mapping enable domain-specific profiling of oxidation, charge heterogeneity, and glycoform distribution. When coupled with reversed phase chromatography, the unique chromatographic profile of each molecule offers a simple strategy for an identity test, which is an important formal test for biopharmaceutical quality control purposes. This methodology is demonstrated for a number of IgGs of different subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG4), as well as an Fc fusion protein. The presented technique provides a convenient platform approach for scientific and formal therapeutic mAb product characterization. It can also be applied in regulated drug substance batch release and stability testing of antibody and Fc fusion protein products, in particular for identity and routine monitoring of domain-specific modifications. PMID:24927271

  5. Monoclonal antibodies against Xenopus greatwall kinase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Fisher, Laura A; Wahl, James K; Peng, Aimin

    2011-10-01

    Mitosis is known to be regulated by protein kinases, including MPF, Plk1, Aurora kinases, and so on, which become active in M-phase and phosphorylate a wide range of substrates to control multiple aspects of mitotic entry, progression, and exit. Mechanistic investigations of these kinases not only provide key insights into cell cycle regulation, but also hold great promise for cancer therapy. Recent studies, largely in Xenopus, characterized a new mitotic kinase named Greatwall (Gwl) that plays essential roles in both mitotic entry and maintenance. In this study, we generated a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for Xenopus Gwl and characterized these antibodies for their utility in immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunodepletion in Xenopus egg extracts. Importantly, we generated an MAb that is capable of neutralizing endogenous Gwl. The addition of this antibody into M-phase extracts results in loss of mitotic phosphorylation of Gwl, Plk1, and Cdk1 substrates. These results illustrate a new tool to study loss-of-function of Gwl, and support its essential role in mitosis. Finally, we demonstrated the usefulness of the MAb against human Gwl/MASTL. PMID:22008075

  6. Chitinase 3-like 2 protein monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Avdieiev, Stanislav; Savinska, Liliia; Filonenko, Valeriy; Kavsan, Vadym

    2012-02-01

    Chitinase 3-like 2 (CHI3L2) is one of the most overexpressed genes in glioblastoma. Despite this, both the CHI3L2 gene and its protein product CHI3L2 are poorly characterized. Here we report the generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to CHI3L2 protein (CHI3L2 MAbs). Bacterially expressed 6 His-tagged full-length CHI3L2 was used as antigen. Spleen cells from immunized mice were collected and fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells. Hybridoma clones 2D3 and 4D2 producing high titer CHI3L2 MAbs were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and further examined for their activity with the CHI3L2 protein by Western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation. The 2D3 clone was chosen for mouse inoculation and ascites formation. Antibodies derived from the ascitic fluid specifically recognized the recombinant CHI3L2 protein and strongly interacted with CHI3L2 in glioblastoma tissue lysate, as determined by Western blot analysis. The antibodies generated may be useful as a tool in various aspects of CHI3L2 investigation. PMID:22316483

  7. Large-Scale Purification of r28M: A Bispecific scFv Antibody Targeting Human Melanoma Produced in Transgenic Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Spiesberger, Katrin; Paulfranz, Florian; Egger, Anton; Reiser, Judith; Vogl, Claus; Rudolf-Scholik, Judith; Mayrhofer, Corina; Grosse-Hovest, Ludger; Brem, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Background 30 years ago, the potential of bispecific antibodies to engage cytotoxic T cells for the lysis of cancer cells was discovered. Today a variety of bispecific antibodies against diverse cell surface structures have been developed, the majority of them produced in mammalian cell culture systems. Beside the r28M, described here, no such bispecific antibody is known to be expressed by transgenic livestock, although various biologicals for medical needs are already harvested—mostly from the milk—of these transgenics. In this study we investigated the large-scale purification and biological activity of the bispecific antibody r28M, expressed in the blood of transgenic cattle. This tandem single-chain variable fragment antibody is designed to target human CD28 and the melanoma/glioblastoma-associated cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4). Results With the described optimized purification protocol an average yield of 30 mg enriched r28M fraction out of 2 liters bovine plasma could be obtained. Separation of this enriched fraction by size exclusion chromatography into monomers, dimers and aggregates and further testing regarding the biological activity revealed the monomer fraction as being the most appropriate one to continue working with. The detailed characterization of the antibody’s activity confirmed its high specificity to induce the killing of CSPG4 positive cells. In addition, first insights into tumor cell death pathways mediated by r28M-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were gained. In consideration of possible applications in vivo we also tested the effect of the addition of different excipients to r28M. Conclusion Summing up, we managed to purify monomeric r28M from bovine plasma in a large-scale preparation and could prove that its biological activity is unaffected and still highly specific and thus, might be applicable for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:26469402

  8. Monitoring therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Ait-Belkacem, Rima; Berenguer, Caroline; Villard, Claude; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Beck, Alain; Chinot, Olivier; Lafitte, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bevacizumab induces normalization of abnormal blood vessels, making them less leaky. By binding to vascular endothelial growth factor, it indirectly attacks the vascular tumor mass. The optimal delivery of targeted therapies including monoclonal antibodies or anti-angiogenesis drugs to the target tissue highly depends on the blood-brain barrier permeability. It is therefore critical to investigate how drugs effectively reach the tumor. In situ investigation of drug distribution could provide a better understanding of pharmacological agent action and optimize chemotherapies for solid tumors. We developed an imaging method coupled to protein identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This approach monitored bevacizumab distribution within the brain structures, and especially within the tumor, without any labeling. PMID:25484065

  9. Hofmeister Effects in Monoclonal Antibody Solution Interactions.

    PubMed

    Arzenšek, Dejan; Kuzman, Drago; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-08-20

    By using static and dynamic light scattering (SLS and DLS), we investigate the effect of ion specificity and solution conditions on the solution behavior of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The extracted second virial coefficient, a global measure of the strength of protein-protein interactions, shows a complicated, nonmonotonic behavior. It can be connected on one side with the Hofmeister effect, and on the other with the interplay of screening and charge fluctuations in inhomogeneous, patchy charge distribution of these particular proteins. Although direct quantification in terms of the underlying long and short-range potentials is out of reach, the observed effects do point toward important features of mAbs solution aggregation processes that are governed by the identity of the solution ions as well as by details of the charge distribution of interacting proteins. PMID:26207819

  10. Building better monoclonal antibody-based therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, George J.

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been a standard component of cancer therapy, yet there is still much room for improvement. Efforts continue to build better cancer therapeutics based on mAbs. Anti-cancer mAbs function via a variety of mechanisms including directly targeting the malignant cells, modifying the host response to the malignant cells, delivering cytotoxic moieties to the malignant cells or retargeting cellular immunity towards the malignant cells. Characteristics of mAbs that affect their efficacy include antigen specificity, overall structure, affinity for the target antigen and how a mAb component is incorporated into a construct that can trigger target cell death. This article reviews the various approaches to using mAb-based therapeutics to treat cancer, the strategies used to take advantage of the unique potential of each approach, and provides examples of current mAb-based treatments. PMID:25998715

  11. SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Jaszczak, R.J.

    1992-02-01

    The long-term goal of this research project is to develop methods to improve the utility of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECI) to quantify the biodistribution of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) labeled with clinically relevant radionuclides ({sup 123}I, {sup 131}I, and {sup 111}In) and with another radionuclide,{sup 211}At, recently used in therapy. We describe here our progress in developing quantitative SPECT methodology for {sup 111}In and {sup 123}I. We have focused our recent research thrusts on the following aspects of SPECT: (1) The development of improved SPECT hardware, such as improved acquisition geometries. (2) The development of better reconstruction methods that provide accurate compensation for the physical factors that affect SPECT quantification. (3) The application of carefully designed simulations and experiments to validate our hardware and software approaches.

  12. Antibacterial monoclonal antibodies: the next generation?

    PubMed

    DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Sellman, Bret R

    2015-10-01

    There is a clear need for renewed efforts to combat the increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance. While the antibiotic resistance epidemic is due in part to the misuse of antibiotics, even proper empiric antibiotic therapy increases the selective pressure and potential for drug-resistance and spread of resistance mechanisms between bacteria. Antibiotic resistance coupled with the detrimental effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics on the healthy microbiome, have led the field to explore pathogen specific antibacterials such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Medical need along with advances in mAb discovery, engineering, and production have driven significant effort developing mAb-based antibacterials. If successful, they will provide physicians with precision weapons to combat bacterial infections and can help prevent a return to a pre-antibiotic era. PMID:26302478

  13. The birth pangs of monoclonal antibody therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the development and termination of nebacumab (Centoxin®), a human IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb) drug frequently cited as one of the notable failures of the early biopharmaceutical industry. The non-approval of Centoxin in the United States in 1992 generated major concerns at the time about the future viability of any mAb therapeutics. For Centocor, the biotechnology company that developed Centoxin, the drug posed formidable challenges in terms of safety, clinical efficacy, patient selection, the overall economic costs of health care, as well as financial backing. Indeed, Centocor's development of the drug brought it to the brink of bankruptcy. This article shows how many of the experiences learned with Centoxin paved the way for the current successes in therapeutic mAb development. PMID:22531443

  14. Monitoring therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in brain tumor

    PubMed Central

    Ait-Belkacem, Rima; Berenguer, Caroline; Villard, Claude; Ouafik, L’Houcine; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Beck, Alain; Chinot, Olivier; Lafitte, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bevacizumab induces normalization of abnormal blood vessels, making them less leaky. By binding to vascular endothelial growth factor, it indirectly attacks the vascular tumor mass. The optimal delivery of targeted therapies including monoclonal antibodies or anti-angiogenesis drugs to the target tissue highly depends on the blood-brain barrier permeability. It is therefore critical to investigate how drugs effectively reach the tumor. In situ investigation of drug distribution could provide a better understanding of pharmacological agent action and optimize chemotherapies for solid tumors. We developed an imaging method coupled to protein identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This approach monitored bevacizumab distribution within the brain structures, and especially within the tumor, without any labeling. PMID:25484065

  15. Induction of protective and therapeutic anti-cancer immunity by using bispecific anti-idiotype antibody G22-I50 for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Jia; Liu, Yan-Hong; Li, Guan-Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested that bispecific and multivalent antibodies which have more antigen binding sites will improve their immunogenicity. The bispecific anti-idiotype antibody vaccine G22-I50 was obtained through genetic engineering to enhance the immunogenicity of anti-idiotype antibody vaccines G22 and I50. G22-I50 vaccination could induce anti-tumor immunity in the Balb/c mouse model. The protective and therapeutic efficacy of G22-I50 was also evaluated using the hu-PBL-SCID mouse model injected three times with G22-I50, G22, or I50 mixed with Freund's adjuvant. Results demonstrated that the protective anti-tumor effect of G22-I50 could be relevant with the production of Ab3 antibody and activation of CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. In preventive and therapeutic experiments, G22-I50 could reduce tumor size and prolong the survival time of HNE2-bearing mice (p<0.05). Human CD8(+) T lymphocytes infiltrated the tumor sites, and high levels of human IFN-?, TNF-?, and caspase-3 were also detected in the tumors from G22-I50-vaccinated and -treated mice. Therefore, the bispecific anti-idiotype antibody vaccine G22-I50 can induce strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. This vaccine can be potentially applied to prevent and treat nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:26303768

  16. Clinical laboratory applications of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, W J; Marshall, D L; Shockley, R K; Martin, W J

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) technology is well recognized as a significant development for producing specific serologic reagents to a wide variety of antigens in unlimited amounts. These reagents have provided the means for developing a number of highly specific and reproducible immunological assays for rapid and accurate diagnosis of an extensive list of diseases, including infectious diseases. The impact that MAbs have had in characterizing infectious disease pathogens, as well as their current and future applications for use in clinical microbiology laboratories, is reviewed. In addition, the advantages (and disadvantages) of the use of MAbs in a number of immunoassays, such as particle agglutination, radioimmunoassays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunofluorescent-antibody assays, and immunohistology, are explored, including the use of these reagents in novel test system assays. Also, nucleic acid probe technology is compared with the use of MAbs from the perspective of their respective applications in the diagnosis of infectious disease agents. There is no question that hybridoma technology has the potential to alter significantly the methods currently used in most clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:3058298

  17. Sub-Nanogram Detection of RDX Explosive by Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Alistair P.; Nicklin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised to protein carrier molecules haptenized with RDX, a major component of many plastic explosives including Semtex. Sera from immunized mice detected RDX protein conjugates in standard ELISA. Clonally purified monoclonal antibodies had detection limits in the sub-ng/mL range for underivatized RDX in competition ELISA. The monoclonal antibodies are not dependent on the presence of taggants added during the manufacturing process, and are likely to have utility in the detection of any explosive containing RDX, or RDX contamination of environmental sites. PMID:26252765

  18. Sub-Nanogram Detection of RDX Explosive by Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ulaeto, David O; Hutchinson, Alistair P; Nicklin, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised to protein carrier molecules haptenized with RDX, a major component of many plastic explosives including Semtex. Sera from immunized mice detected RDX protein conjugates in standard ELISA. Clonally purified monoclonal antibodies had detection limits in the sub-ng/mL range for underivatized RDX in competition ELISA. The monoclonal antibodies are not dependent on the presence of taggants added during the manufacturing process, and are likely to have utility in the detection of any explosive containing RDX, or RDX contamination of environmental sites. PMID:26252765

  19. Aged venous thrombi: radioimmunoimaging with fibrin-specific monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Rosebrough, S.F.; Grossman, Z.D.; McAfee, J.G.; Kudryk, B.J.; Subramanian, G.; Ritter-Hrncirik, C.A.; Witanowski, L.S.; Tillapaugh-Fay, G.; Urrutia, E.

    1987-02-01

    Radioimmunoimaging of fresh canine venous thrombi with a murine monoclonal antibody specific for human and dog fibrin has been reported. Successful imaging of canine deep venous thrombi 1, 3, and 5 days old at the time of antibody injection is reported. Images were positive in all dogs, and the uptake of fibrin-specific antibody was equivalent to that of fresh thrombi.

  20. Monoclonal antibody specific for a pigmentation associated antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, T.M.; Mattes, M.J.; Old, L.J.; Lloyd, K.O

    1989-01-17

    Monoclonal antibody TA99, which specifically binds to a pigmentation associated antigen present on melanoma cells is described. Additionally, the hybridoma cell line deposited with the ATCC under Accession Number HB 8704 from which the antibody is derived, as well as methods for using the antibody are described.

  1. Orientation and density control of bispecific anti-HER2 antibody on functionalized carbon nanotubes for amplifying effective binding reactivity to cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hye-In; Hwang, Dobeen; Jeon, Su-Ji; Lee, Sangyeop; Park, Jung Hyun; Yim, Dabin; Yang, Jin-Kyoung; Kang, Homan; Choo, Jaebum; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Chung, Junho; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Nanomaterial bioconjugates have gained unabated interest in the field of sensing, imaging and therapy. As a conjugation process significantly affects the biological functions of proteins, it is crucial to attach them to nanomaterials with control over their orientation and the nanomaterial-to-protein ratio in order to amplify the binding efficiency of nanomaterial bioconjugates to targets. Here, we describe a targeting nanomaterial platform utilizing carbon nanotubes functionalized with a cotinine-modified dextran polymer and a bispecific anti-HER2 × cotinine tandem antibody. This new approach provides an effective control over antibody orientation and density on the surface of carbon nanotubes through site-specific binding between the anti-cotinine domain of the bispecific tandem antibody and the cotinine group of the functionalized carbon nanotubes. The developed synthetic carbon nanotube/bispecific tandem antibody conjugates (denoted as SNAs) show an effective binding affinity against HER2 that is three orders of magnitude higher than that of the carbon nanotubes bearing a randomly conjugated tandem antibody prepared by carbodiimide chemistry. As the density of a tandem antibody on SNAs increases, their effective binding affinity to HER2 increases as well. SNAs exhibit strong resonance Raman signals for signal transduction, and are successfully applied to the selective detection of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells.Nanomaterial bioconjugates have gained unabated interest in the field of sensing, imaging and therapy. As a conjugation process significantly affects the biological functions of proteins, it is crucial to attach them to nanomaterials with control over their orientation and the nanomaterial-to-protein ratio in order to amplify the binding efficiency of nanomaterial bioconjugates to targets. Here, we describe a targeting nanomaterial platform utilizing carbon nanotubes functionalized with a cotinine-modified dextran polymer and a bispecific anti-HER2 × cotinine tandem antibody. This new approach provides an effective control over antibody orientation and density on the surface of carbon nanotubes through site-specific binding between the anti-cotinine domain of the bispecific tandem antibody and the cotinine group of the functionalized carbon nanotubes. The developed synthetic carbon nanotube/bispecific tandem antibody conjugates (denoted as SNAs) show an effective binding affinity against HER2 that is three orders of magnitude higher than that of the carbon nanotubes bearing a randomly conjugated tandem antibody prepared by carbodiimide chemistry. As the density of a tandem antibody on SNAs increases, their effective binding affinity to HER2 increases as well. SNAs exhibit strong resonance Raman signals for signal transduction, and are successfully applied to the selective detection of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials; synthesis of carboxymethylated phenoxy dextran (CM-PhO-dex); synthesis of the SWNT bioconjugate prepared by EDC coupling; NMR results; Raman Instrument for detection of cancer cells with SNAs; NIR fluorescence spectrophotometer; quantification of the bispecific tandem antibody bound to the SWNT; all supplementary figures, table and scheme. This material is available from the Wiley Online Library or from the author. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07305c

  2. Serial killing of tumor cells by cytotoxic T cells redirected with a CD19-/CD3-bispecific single-chain antibody construct.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Patrick; Hofmeister, Robert; Brischwein, Klaus; Brandl, Christian; Crommer, Sandrine; Bargou, Ralf; Itin, Christian; Prang, Nadja; Baeuerle, Patrick A

    2005-05-20

    Certain bispecific antibodies exhibit an extraordinary potency and efficacy for target cell lysis by eliciting a polyclonal T-cell response. One example is a CD19-/CD3-bispecific single-chain antibody construct (bscCD19xCD3), which at femtomolar concentrations can redirect cytotoxic T cells to eliminate human B lymphocytes, B lymphoma cell lines and patient-derived malignant B cells. Here we have further explored the basis for this high potency. Using video-assisted microscopy, bscCD19xCD3 was found to alter the motility and activity of T cells from a scanning to a killing mode. Individual T cells could eliminate multiple target cells within a 9 hr time period, resulting in nuclear fragmentation and membrane blebbing of target cells. Complete target cell elimination was observed within 24 hr at effector-to-target cell ratios as low as 1:5. Under optimal conditions, cell killing started within minutes after addition of bscCD19xCD3, suggesting that the rate of serial killing was mostly determined by T-cell movement and target cell scanning and lysis. At all times, T cells remained highly motile, and no clusters of T and target cells were induced by the bispecific antibody. Bystanding target-negative cells were not detectably affected. Repeated target cell lysis by bscCD19xCD3-activated T cells increased the proportion of CD19/CD3 double-positive T cells, which was most likely a consequence of transfer of CD19 from B to T cells during cytolytic synapse formation. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that a bispecific antibody can sustain multiple rounds of target cell lysis by T cells. PMID:15688411

  3. Anti-Mesothelin Monoclonal Antibodies for the Treatment of Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute, Laboratory of Molecular Biology seeks parties interested in collaborative research to further co-develop monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of mesothelin-expressing cancers.

  4. [Preparation of monoclonal antibodies to barley yellow mosaic virus].

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Ma, H; We, X; Xu, A; Huang, C

    1997-10-01

    Using hybridoma techniques, six hybridoma celllines: 4D6, 4D4, 4F10, 3H6, 3H8 and 4E9 secreting monoclonal antibodies to Shanghai Isolate of Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) were prepared by fusion between myeloma cells NS-1 and spleen cells of BALB/C mouse immunized with BaYMV. The subclasses of monoclonal antibodies obtained belong to IgG2a. The cross-reaction test with different viruses (SMV, TMV and three isolates of TuMV) showed that six monoclonal antibodies were specific to BaYMV. The titers of six monoclonal antibodies to BaYMV in their cell cultured supernatauts were 1:1-5 x 10(4), and that of 4F10 in ascitic fluid was 1:6.4 x 10(5) by using indirected ELISA test respectively. PMID:11189368

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) VITELLOGENIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have obtained a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against fathead minnow vitellogenin (Vtg) for use in sensitive ELISAs to quantify the response of exposure in vivo to estrogen or estrogen mimics.

  6. Localization and quantification of the chicken gonadotropins using monoclonal antibodies 

    E-print Network

    Puebla, Nahum Osorio

    2000-01-01

    Specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) have been used to develop novel tools for the study of the chicken gonadotropins. Earlier studies have identified separate LH...

  7. Production of Monoclonal Catalytic Antibodies: Principles and Practice

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Ehud

    different ways, and the diversity of the published approaches reflects specific biological problems489 18 Production of Monoclonal Catalytic Antibodies: Principles and Practice Diane Kubitz, Ehud is de- pendent on conceptual insight and creative design, success reflects the quality

  8. Preclinical evaluation of multistep targeting of diasialoganglioside GD2 using a IgG-scFv bispecific antibody with high affinity for GD2 and DOTA metal complex

    PubMed Central

    Cheal, Sarah M.; Xu, Hong; Guo, Hong-fen; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Larson, Steven M.; Cheung, Nai-Kong

    2014-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies (BsAb) have proven to be useful targeting vectors for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT). We sought to overcome key PRIT limitations such as high renal radiation exposure and immunogenicity (e.g. of streptavidin-antibody fusions), to advance clinical translation of this PRIT strategy for diasialoganglioside GD2-positive (GD2(+)) tumors. For this purpose, a IgG-scFv BsAb was engineered using the sequences for the anti-GD2 humanized monoclonal antibody hu3F8 (1) and C825, a murine scFv antibody with high affinity for the chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) complexed with beta-particle emitting radiometals such as 177Lu and 90Y (2, 3). A three-step regimen including hu3F8-C825, a dextran-based clearing agent, and p-aminobenzyl-DOTA radiolabeled with 177Lu (as 177Lu-DOTA-Bn; t1/2 = 6.71 days (d)) was optimized in immunocompromised mice carrying subcutaneous (s.c.) human GD2(+) neuroblastoma (NB) xenografts. Absorbed doses for tumor and normal tissues were ?85 cGy/MBq and ?3.7 cGy/MBq, respectively, with therapeutic indicies (TI) of 142 for blood and 23 for kidney. A therapy study (n = 5 per group; tumor volume: 240 ± 160 mm3) with three successive PRIT cycles (total 177Lu: ?33 MBq; tumor dose ?3400 cGy), revealed complete tumor response in 5/5 animals, with no recurrence up to 28 d post-treatment. Tumor ablation was confirmed histologically in 4/5 mice, and normal organs showed minimal overall toxicities. All non-treated mice required sacrifice within 12 d (>1.0 cm3 tumor volume). We conclude that this novel anti-GD2 PRIT approach has sufficient TI to successfully ablate s.c. GD2(+)–NB in mice while sparing kidney and bone marrow. PMID:24944121

  9. Bispecific antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens and neutralizing complement regulators increase the efficacy of antibody-based immunotherapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Macor, P; Secco, E; Mezzaroba, N; Zorzet, S; Durigutto, P; Gaiotto, T; De Maso, L; Biffi, S; Garrovo, C; Capolla, S; Tripodo, C; Gattei, V; Marzari, R; Tedesco, F; Sblattero, D

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy of antibody-based immunotherapy is due to the activation of apoptosis, the engagement of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). We developed a novel strategy to enhance CDC using bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) that neutralize the C-regulators CD55 and CD59 to enhance C-mediated functions. Two bsAbs (MB20/55 and MB20/59) were designed to recognize CD20 on one side. The other side neutralizes CD55 or CD59. Analysis of CDC revealed that bsAbs could kill 4-25 times more cells than anti-CD20 recombinant antibody in cell lines or cells isolated from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The pharmacokinetics of the bsAbs was evaluated in a human-SCID model of Burkitt lymphoma. The distribution profile of bsAbs mimics the data obtained by studying the pharmacokinetics of anti-CD20 antibodies, showing a peak in the tumor mass 3-4 days after injection. The treatment with bsAbs completely prevented the development of human/SCID lymphoma. The tumor growth was blocked by the activation of the C cascade and by the recruitment of macrophages, polymorphonuclear and natural killer cells. This strategy can easily be applied to the other anti-tumor C-fixing antibodies currently used in the clinic or tested in preclinical studies using the same vector with the appropriate modifications. PMID:24903480

  10. Specific monoclonal antibodies to Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Maleewong, W; Intapan, P M; Wongkham, C; Sripa, B; Sukolapong, V; Ieamviteevanich, K

    1997-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against soluble metabolic products (excretory/secretory; ES) of the liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica. The ES antigen was obtained from spent culture medium in which the adult flukes had been maintained in vitro. From two cell fusions, the mAbs produces were exclusively associated with either IgG or IgM isotypes. When screened against a panel of homologous and heterologous parasite antigens by indirect ELISA, two mAbs were highly specific for F. gigantica. The remainder cross-reacted extensively with other parasites. Results from immunoblotting and immunofluorescence exhibited two patterns of reactivity. The first group of mAbs which recognized the multiple bands between > 14.4-27.5 kDa gave extremely bright fluorescence over all major muscular systems, vitelline gland, testes and intestinal caeca. The second group which reacted with the 185 kDa band showed a bright fluorescence over a thinner muscular layer underlying the tegument, intestinal caeca and testes. PMID:9251848

  11. [Monoclonal antibodies from neurological and neuropsychological perspective].

    PubMed

    Piusi?ska-Macoch, Renata

    2013-05-01

    The role of monoclonal antibodies and other proinflammatory cytokines in the regulatory processes of the central and peripheral nervous system is not yet fully understood. Clinical studies show that they are involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease or other neurodegenerative disabilities with cognitive impairments. Genetic basis of these disorders is still in research. In the past few years it has been shown that increased levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in plasma play role in patients with ischemic stroke in the acute phase as well as transient ischemic episodes. Also the negative impact of TNF-alpha has been demonstrated on neck and coronary vessels, including the composition of plaques in the carotid arteries. A few reports indicate the involvement of tumor necrosis factor in such complex processes such as emotions, behavior or personality. Recent studies point to the important role of proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of sleep disorders such as narcolepsy, cataplexy and sleep paralysis. TNF-alpha can also activate nociceptive pathways, causing the intensity of neuropathic pain. However discloses asymmetric subtypes share TNF-1, TNF-2 in the induction and the maintenance of pain. The phenomenon of complex neurohormonal control mechanism support the proinflammatory cytokines is not fully understood and needs further empirical verification. PMID:23894773

  12. Monoclonal antibodies against plant cell wall polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.G.; Bucheli, E.; Darvill, A.; Albersheim, P. )

    1989-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) are useful tools to probe the structure of plant cell wall polysaccharides and to localize these polysaccharides in plant cells and tissues. Murine McAbs were generated against the pectic polysaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), isolated from suspension-cultured sycamore cells. The McAbs that were obtained were grouped into three classes based upon their reactivities with a variety of plant polysaccharides and membrane glycoproteins. Eleven McAbs (Class I) recognize epitope(s) that appear to be immunodominant and are found in RG-I from sycamore and maize, citrus pectin, polygalacturonic acid, and membrane glycoproteins from suspension-cultured cells of sycamore, maize, tobacco, parsley, and soybean. A second group of five McAbs (Class II) recognize epitope(s) present in sycamore RG-I, but do not bind to any of the other polysaccharides or glycoproteins recognized by Class I. Lastly, one McAb (Class III) reacts with sycamore RG-I, sycamore and tamarind xyloglucan, and sycamore and rice glucuronoarabinoxylan, but does not bind to maize RG-I, polygalacturonic acid or the plant membrane glycoproteins recognized by Class I. McAbs in Classes II and III are likely to be useful in studies of the structure, biosynthesis and localization of plant cell wall polysaccharides.

  13. Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies and Fragments: Bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ainat; Loewenstein, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Bevacizumab (Avastin) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal immunoglobulin antibody that has two antigen-binding domains and blocks all active forms of vascular endothelial growth factor-A. It was originally designed and is still in use as antitumor agent (for colorectal and non-small cell lung cancers). Besides inhibiting vessel growth and neovascularization, the drug promotes the regression of existing microvessels and induces 'normalization' of surviving mature vasculature, stabilizes vessels and prevents leakage. Its molecular weight is 149 kDa and its estimated terminal half-life is approximately 20 days for both men and women. The effectiveness and safety of bevacizumab was proven in retrospective and prospective controlled clinical trials for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, neovascularization in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, retinal vein occlusion and retinopathy of prematurity, especially for zone I. Uncontrolled trials have shown its effectiveness in various other conditions as myopic and uveitic choroidal neovascularization and neovascular glaucoma. There are no absolute contraindications to intravitreal injection though it is recommended to withhold treatment in patients who have recently suffered from a cardiovascular or cerebrovascular event and during pregnancy. Ocular complications from intravitreal use are usually mild and transient (corneal abrasion, chemosis, subconjunctival hemorrhage and vitreous hemorrhage). Bacterial endophthalmitis is rare (about 0.1%). New or progressive subretinal hemorrhages, tears of the retinal pigment epithelium and an increased incidence of geographic atrophy have also been reported. PMID:26502311

  14. Characterization and utilization of a monoclonal antibody against pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtzman, S.H.; Sindelar, W.F.; Atcher, R.W.; Mitchell, J.B.; DeGraff, W.G.; Gamson, J.; Russo, A.; Friedman, A.M.; Hines, J.J.

    1994-10-01

    A monoclonal antibody was produced against a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma line and was found to react with several different human carcinomas by immunoperoxidase staining of fixed tissues. The original cells used to generate the monoclonal antibody were treated with detergent to lyse the cell membrane. A membrane associated protein of molecular weight 35kD was isolated from this detergent lysed preparation and found to be recognized by the monoclonal antibody. The binding constant of the antigen antibody reaction on the cells is 5 x 10{sup {minus}5}. It was further determined that there are 700,000 binding sites per cell. Kinetics of the antigen-antibody reaction under several conditions were also explored.

  15. Examination of the Macronuclear Replication Band in Euplotes eurystomuswith Monoclonal Antibodies

    E-print Network

    Olins, Ada L.

    Examination of the Macronuclear Replication Band in Euplotes eurystomuswith Monoclonal Antibodies Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 Abstract. A panel of eight monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was prepared Euplotes eurystomus. Antibodies were in- vestigated with a solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) using either

  16. Application of monoclonal antibodies to investigate plant cell wall deconstruction for biofuels production

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    Application of monoclonal antibodies to investigate plant cell wall deconstruction for biofuels glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies to monitor structural/extractability changes in Populus biomass. The results of glycome profiling studies were verified by immunolabeling using selected antibodies from

  17. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY TO FENBENDAZOLE: UTILITY IN RESIDUE STUDIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A monoclonal antibody-based ELISA was developed for fenbendazole, a widely used benzimidazole anthelmintic, with approved uses in cattle and other food animals. The antibody was elicited using as hapten 2-succinamido-5(6)-phenylthiobenzimidazole, which was conjugated with bovine serum albumin to pro...

  18. Palladium-109 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    The invention consists of new monoclonal antibodies labelled with Palladium 109, a beta-emitting radionuclide, the method of preparing this material, and its use in the radiotherapy of melanoma. The antibodies are chelate-conjugated and demonstrate a high uptake in melanomas. (ACR)

  19. Mechanisms of Allergen-Antibody Interaction of Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2 with Monoclonal Antibodies

    E-print Network

    Mechanisms of Allergen-Antibody Interaction of Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2 with Monoclonal Antibodies That Inhibit IgE Antibody Binding Jill Glesner1 , Sabina Wu¨ nschmann1 , Mi Li2,3 , Alla Gustchina is strongly associated with asthma, and involves the production of IgE antibodies against inhaled allergens

  20. Screening panels of monoclonal antibodies using phage-displayed antigen.

    PubMed

    Lijnen, H R; Lasters, I; Verstreken, M; Collen, D; Jespers, L

    1997-06-01

    A procedure is described to screen panels of hybridomas or purified monoclonal antibodies using antigen displayed on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage. In this system, samples containing murine monoclonal antibodies are incubated with phage-displayed antigen in microtiter plates coated with rabbit anti-mouse IgG, and bound antibody-phage complex is detected with horseradish peroxidase-sheep anti-phage M13 conjugate. The assay has been validated with a panel of 16 monoclonal antibodies directed against human plasminogen, using phage-displayed miniplasmin-(ogen) (amino acids Ala444 through Asn791 comprising kringle 5 and the proteinase domain of plasminogen) or microplasminogen (amino acids Ala543 through Asn791 comprising the proteinase domain). Six monoclonal antibodies were identified directed against miniplasminogen and miniplasmin; this was confirmed using a microtiter plate coated with antigens. One of these monoclonal antibodies (MA-42B12) did not react with microplasminogen, suggesting that its epitope is comprised within the kringle 5 domain. This test is rapid and sensitive (detecting 10-20 ng/ml of monoclonal antibody), and screening can be performed using phage-displayed zymogens or active enzymes or selected domains thereof. The procedure eliminates the need for large amounts of purified antigen for screening. Furthermore, immunization can be performed with partially purified antigen because only antibodies raised against the antigen of interest will be identified with the use of phage-displayed antigen. Therefore, this test may offer distinct advantages over the classical one-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microtiter plates. PMID:9177746

  1. Polymorphism of normal factor IX detected by mouse monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Wallmark, A; Ljung, R; Nilsson, I M; Holmberg, L; Hedner, U; Lindvall, M; Sjögren, H O

    1985-01-01

    Hemophilia B is an X-chromosomal recessive disease due to deficiency of coagulation factor IX. Three monoclonal antibodies against factor IX were prepared and used to develop immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs) of factor IX antigen (IX-Ag). IX-Ag was measured in 65 normal individuals with one IRMA based on polyclonal anti-IX antibodies and two IRMAs based on three monoclonal anti-IX antibodies. One of the monoclonal antibodies differed in specificity since it neutralized less than 50% of the clotting activity of factor IX (IX-C), whereas the other two monoclonal antibodies neutralized 80-95%. When the former antibody was used as the solid phase in IRMA, two groups of normal individuals were distinguished: group A with measurable IX-Ag, and group B without demonstrable IX-Ag. There were no differences between the groups either in IX-C or in IX-Ag measured with polyclonal antibodies. A subgroup comprising only women could be distinguished in group A, in whom intermediate IX-Ag concentrations were found. Family studies showed the group B variant of normal factor IX to be transmitted according to the pattern of X-linked recessive inheritance. The allelic frequency of group A was 0.66, and that of group B was 0.34. PMID:3873655

  2. TriFabs-Trivalent IgG-Shaped Bispecific Antibody Derivatives: Design, Generation, Characterization and Application for Targeted Payload Delivery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Klaus; Baumann, Anna-Lena; Grote, Michael; Seeber, Stefan; Kettenberger, Hubert; Breuer, Sebastian; Killian, Tobias; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    TriFabs are IgG-shaped bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) composed of two regular Fab arms fused via flexible linker peptides to one asymmetric third Fab-sized binding module. This third module replaces the IgG Fc region and is composed of the variable region of the heavy chain (VH) fused to CH3 with "knob"-mutations, and the variable region of the light chain (VL) fused to CH3 with matching "holes". The hinge region does not contain disulfides to facilitate antigen access to the third binding site. To compensate for the loss of hinge-disulfides between heavy chains, CH3 knob-hole heterodimers are linked by S354C-Y349C disulphides, and VH and VL of the stem region may be linked via VH44C-VL100C disulphides. TriFabs which bind one antigen bivalent in the same manner as IgGs and the second antigen monovalent "in between" these Fabs can be applied to simultaneously engage two antigens, or for targeted delivery of small and large (fluorescent or cytotoxic) payloads. PMID:26593903

  3. Bispecific antibody releasing-mesenchymal stromal cell machinery for retargeting T cells towards acute myeloid leukemia blasts

    PubMed Central

    Aliperta, R; Cartellieri, M; Feldmann, A; Arndt, C; Koristka, S; Michalk, I; von Bonin, M; Ehninger, A; Bachmann, J; Ehninger, G; Bornhäuser, M; Bachmann, M P

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) engaging T cells are emerging as a promising immunotherapeutic tool for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Because their low molecular mass, bsAbs have short half-lives. To achieve clinical responses, they have to be infused into patients continously, for a long period of time. As a valid alternative we examined the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as autonomous cellular machines for the constant production of a recently described, fully humanized anti-CD33-anti-CD3 bsAb, which is capable of redirecting human T cells against CD33-expressing leukemic cells. The immortalized human MSC line SCP-1 was genetically modified into expressing bsAb at sufficient amounts to redirect T cells efficiently against CD33 presenting target cells, both in vitro and in an immunodeficient mouse model. Moreover, T cells of patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in blast crisis eliminated autologous leukemic cells in the presence of the bsAb secreting MSCs over time. The immune response against AML cells could be enhanced further by providing T cells an additional co-stimulus via the CD137-CD137 ligand axis through CD137L expression on MSCs. This study demonstrates that MSCs have the potential to be used as cellular production machines for bsAb-based tumor immunotherapy in the future. PMID:26383821

  4. TriFabs—Trivalent IgG-Shaped Bispecific Antibody Derivatives: Design, Generation, Characterization and Application for Targeted Payload Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Klaus; Baumann, Anna-Lena; Grote, Michael; Seeber, Stefan; Kettenberger, Hubert; Breuer, Sebastian; Killian, Tobias; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    TriFabs are IgG-shaped bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) composed of two regular Fab arms fused via flexible linker peptides to one asymmetric third Fab-sized binding module. This third module replaces the IgG Fc region and is composed of the variable region of the heavy chain (VH) fused to CH3 with “knob”-mutations, and the variable region of the light chain (VL) fused to CH3 with matching “holes”. The hinge region does not contain disulfides to facilitate antigen access to the third binding site. To compensate for the loss of hinge-disulfides between heavy chains, CH3 knob-hole heterodimers are linked by S354C-Y349C disulphides, and VH and VL of the stem region may be linked via VH44C-VL100C disulphides. TriFabs which bind one antigen bivalent in the same manner as IgGs and the second antigen monovalent “in between” these Fabs can be applied to simultaneously engage two antigens, or for targeted delivery of small and large (fluorescent or cytotoxic) payloads. PMID:26593903

  5. Choriocarcinoma: blocking factor and monoclonal antibody iodine 131 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pattillo, R.A.; Khazaeli, M.B.; Ruckert, A.C.; Hussa, R.O.; Collier, B.D.; Beierwaltes, W.; Mattingly, R.F.

    1984-04-01

    Postoperative iodine 131 monoclonal antibody localization in metastatic choriocarcinoma was accomplished in this study. The monoclonal antibody was prepared to male choriocarcinoma which cross reacted with gestational choriocarcinoma. The antibody was raised against whole choriocarcinoma cells and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) cross reactivity was excluded. The purified antibody was iodinated with /sup 131/I and successfully imaged BeWo choriocarcinoma transplanted in nude mice; however, imaging of choriocarcinoma in a patient was verified only after resection. It is our belief that failure to sufficiently concentrate the antibody in the tumor before operation was due to blocking factor in the serum of the patient. Blocking factor and hCG dropped postoperatively. Blocking factor activity in 15 patients with metastatic trophoblastic disease was monitored and, like hCG, was found to be a sensitive indicator of the presence of disease. Its efficacy may be in the small number of patients without hCG but with persistent disease.

  6. Development of monoclonal antibodies to human microsomal epoxide hydrolase and analysis of "preneoplastic antigen"-like molecules

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Development of monoclonal antibodies to human microsomal epoxide hydrolase and analysis epoxide hydrolase Drug-metabolism Monoclonal antibodies Immunoassay Tumor-associated antigens Microsomal the antigenic structures of mEH in physiological and pathological conditions, we developed monoclonal antibodies

  7. Monoclonal antibody-defined human endothelial antigens as vascular markers.

    PubMed

    Ruiter, D J; Schlingemann, R O; Rietveld, F J; de Waal, R M

    1989-08-01

    A review is given of human endothelial antigens recognized by monoclonal antibodies and used as vascular markers. These antigens can be classified tentatively into two categories that partly overlap: 1) differentiation markers and 2) antigens involved in specific cellular functions. Monoclonal antibodies recognizing endothelial differentiation markers reacting with all types of human endothelium can be regarded as constitutive endothelial markers. Other differentiation markers have a restricted distribution that is associated with a subtype of endothelium. Although sensitivity of the markers is high in general, specificity for endothelium is not absolute, based on distribution studies in tissues or in cell lines. With the exception of PAL-E and EN-3/EN-4, it is not clear from the literature whether the antibodies also react with lymphatic endothelium. Immunohistochemical examination of other species indicate that only BW 200 is restricted to humans. Immunoelectron microscopy of microvascular cells in tissue specimens has revealed that the monoclonal antibodies recognizing differentiation antigens show different subcellular distribution patterns. PAL-E and BW 200 react with the luminal endothelial surface, in a local and diffuse pattern, respectively. Anti-Von Willebrand factor (i.e., Factor VIII-related ag) antibodies react with Weibel-Palade bodies but also with subendothelial structures. Applications of immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies in diagnostic pathology include assessment of vascular invasion by cancer cells, and identification of endothelial neoplasms and related disorders. Because anti-Factor VIII-related antigen and BW 200 are applicable on formaldehyde-fixed and paraplast-embedded tissue, they are most suitable for histodiagnostic application. Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies recognizing endothelial antigens involved in specific cellular functions also may contribute to pathobiologic research on the characterization of blood-tissue barriers, e.g., in the tumor vascular bed. PMID:2666520

  8. Therapeutic efficacy of potent neutralizing HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies in SHIV-infected rhesus monkeys

    E-print Network

    Barouch, Dan H.

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific monoclonal antibodies with extraordinary potency and breadth have recently been described. In humanized mice, combinations of monoclonal antibodies have been shown to ...

  9. Mechanisms of monoclonal antibody stabilization and release from silk biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Guziewicz, Nicholas A.; Massetti, Andrew J.; Perez-Ramirez, Bernardo J.; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of stabilization and sustained delivery systems for antibody therapeutics remains a major clinical challenge, despite the growing development of antibodies for a wide range of therapeutic applications due to their specificity and efficacy. A mechanistic understanding of protein-matrix interactions is critical for the development of such systems and is currently lacking as a mode to guide the field. We report mechanistic insight to address this need by using well-defined matrices based on silk gels, in combination with a monoclonal antibody. Variables including antibody loading, matrix density, charge interactions, hydrophobicity and water access were assessed to clarify mechanisms involved in the release of antibody from the biomaterial matrix. The results indicate that antibody release is primarily governed by hydrophobic interactions and hydration resistance, which are controlled by silk matrix chemistry, peptide domain distribution and protein density. Secondary ionic repulsions are also critical in antibody stabilization and release. Matrix modification by free methionine incorporation was found to be an effective strategy for mitigating encapsulation induced antibody oxidation. Additionally, these studies highlight a characterization approach to improve the understanding and development of other protein sustained delivery systems, with broad applicability to the rapidly developing monoclonal antibody field. PMID:23859659

  10. Cooperative Immunoassays: Ultrasensitive Assays with Mixed Monoclonal Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, Paul H.; Moyle, William R.

    1983-07-01

    Mixtures of certain monoclonal antibodies appear to bind human chorionic gonadotropin in a ``cooperative'' fashion because they form circular complexes with the hormone. Experiments illustrate how this property might be exploited to develop very sensitive immunoassays for human chorionic gonadotropin or any other antigen. Since the assays are not based on competitive inhibition between radiolabeled and unlabeled antigen, they are much more sensitive than a traditional radioimmunoassay in which either one of the same antibodies is used alone.

  11. Generation of monoclonal antibodies to recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Shein, S A; Gurina, O I; Leopol'd, A V; Baklaushev, V P; Korchagina, A A; Grinenko, N F; Ivanova, N V; Volgina, N E; Ryabukhin, I A; Chekhonin, V P

    2012-05-01

    Female BALB/c mice were subcutaneously immunized with recombinant VEGF-164. After 3 immunization cycles, splenic B cells from immunized mouse were fused with immortalized myeloma culture SP2/0-Ag14 cells. Screening of hybrid cells producing anti-VEGF antibodies was performed by ELISA and immunocytochemical analysis on cultured C6 glioma cells. Subsequent cloning yielded hybridoma stably expressing monoclonal anti-VEGF antibodies recognizing recombinant and native VEGF. PMID:22808513

  12. Anti-CD3 × Anti-GD2 Bispecific Antibody Redirects T-Cell Cytolytic Activity to Neuroblastoma Targets

    PubMed Central

    Yankelevich, Maxim; Kondadasula, Sri Vidya; Thakur, Archana; Buck, Steven; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The ganglioside GD2 is an attractive target for immunotherapy of neuroectodermal tumors. We tested a unique bispecific antibody anti-CD3 × anti-GD2 (3F8BiAb) for its ability to redirect activated T cells (ATC) to target GD2-positive neuroblastomas. Procedure ATC were generated from normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by stimulating the PBMC with OKT3 and expanding the T cells in the presence of interleukin 2 (IL-2) for 14 days. ATC were armed with 3F8BiAb (100 ng/106 cells) or Her2BiAb (50 ng/106 cells) prior to use. 3F8 BiAb were tested for its dual-binding specificity to GD2 expressed on cancer cell lines and CD3 expressed on ATC. 3F8BiAb-armed ATC were further tested ex vivo for their cytotoxicity against GD2 positive tumor targets and its ability to induce cytokine response upon binding to targets. Results GD2 expression in neuroblastoma cells was confirmed by FACS analysis. Specific binding of 3F8BiAb to the tumor targets as well as to ATC was confirmed by FACS analysis. 3F8BiAb-armed ATC exhibited specific killing of GD2 positive neuroblastoma cell lines significantly above unarmed ATC (P < 0.001). GD2BiAb-armed ATC secreted significantly higher levels of Th1 cytokines and chemokines compared to unarmed ATC (P < 0.001). Conclusions These preclinical findings support the potential of a novel immunotherapeutic approach to target T cells to neuroblastoma. PMID:22707078

  13. A Novel Bispecific Antibody against Human CD3 and Ephrin Receptor A10 for Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Masaki; Nagano, Kazuya; Mukai, Yohei; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Ephrin receptor A10 (EphA10), a transmembrane receptor that binds to ephrin, is a newly identified breast cancer marker protein that has also been detected in HER2-negative tissue. In this study, we report creation of a novel bispecific antibody (BsAb) binding both EphA10 and CD3, thereby forming a bridge between antigens expressed on both tumor and immune cells and promoting recognition of tumor cells by immune cells and redirection of cytotoxic T cells (CTL). This BsAb (EphA10/CD3) was expressed in supernatants of BsAb gene-transfected cells as monomeric and dimeric molecules. Redirected T-cell lysis was observed when monomeric and dimeric BsAb were added to EphA10-overexpressing tumor cells in vitro. Furthermore, dimeric BsAb (EphA10/CD3) was more cytotoxic than monomeric BsAb, with efficient tumor cell lysis elicited by lower concentrations (?10?1 ?g/mL) and a lower effector to target (E/T) cell ratio (E/T = 2.5). Dimeric BsAb (EphA10/CD3) also showed significant anti-tumor effects in human xenograft mouse models. Together, these results revealed opportunities to redirect the activity of CTL towards tumor cells that express EphA10 using the BsAb (EphA10/CD3), which could be tested in future clinical trials as a novel and potent therapeutic for breast cancer tumors. PMID:26678395

  14. Delivery of the ribosome-inactivating protein, gelonin, to lymphoma cells via CD22 and CD38 using bispecific antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    French, R. R.; Penney, C. A.; Browning, A. C.; Stirpe, F.; George, A. J.; Glennie, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    It is well established that bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) can be used effectively in targeting the ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), saporin, against neoplastic B cells. We have now extended this delivery system for use with gelonin. By measuring antigen-binding characteristics and epitope mapping a panel of anti-gelonin MAbs using the IAsys resonant mirror bisensor, we were able to rapidly select the most suitable for making BaAbs. The Fab' fragments from these MAbs were chemically conjugated with Fab' from either anti-CD22 or anti-CD38. Cytotoxicity assays showed that BsAbs were highly efficient at delivering gelonin to cultured Daudi cells and achieved levels of toxicity which correlated closely with the affinity of the BsAbs. Using pairs of anti-CD22 BsAbs we were able to generate bivalent BsAb-gelonin complexes which achieved IC50 values of 2 x 10(-11) M gelonin, a potency which is equivalent to that reached by saporin in this targeting system. However, because gelonin is 5-10 times less toxic than saporin, the therapeutic ratio for gelonin is superior, making it potentially a more useful agent for human treatment. Cytotoxicity assays and kinetic analysis showed that targeting gelonin via CD38 was 2-5 times less effective than delivery through CD22. However, with a pair of BsAbs designed to co-target gelonin via CD22 and CD38, the cytotoxicity achieved equalled that obtained with a pair of anti-CD22 BsAbs (IC50 = 1 x 10(-11) M). This important result suggests that the anti-CD38 helps bind the gelonin to the cell and is then 'dragged' or 'piggy-backed' into the cell by the anti-CD22 BsAb. The implication of these findings for cancer therapy is discussed. PMID:7734325

  15. Identification of two antigenic determinants in pseudomurein by monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Conway de Macario, E.; Macario, A.J.L.; Kandler, O.; Wolin, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Pseudomurein is a unique peptidoglycan found only in the wall of methanogenic bacteria (MB) of the family Methanobacteriaceae. Although its chemical composition has recently been determined, its immunologic properties have not been elucidated. Methanobacteriaceae elicit antibodies in rabbits and mice. The authors have produced monoclonal antibodies against the bacteria. Antigenic determinants on the MB's surface were resolved with the monoclonal antibodies by means of inhibition-blocking procedures combined with immunoenzymatic assays devised for the structural analysis of bacterial antigens. One monoclonal antibody against Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus DHl recognized a determinant involving the ..gamma..-Glu-Ala end of the pseudomurein peptide. A second antibody did not react with the above determinant but with another involving N-acetylglucosamine. The latter antibody reacted with the immunizing MB, i.e. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum ..delta..H and with another strain of this species, GGl, but it did not react with the rest of the pseudomurein-containing bacteria. The data show that pseudomurein possess at least two different determinants, one in the C-terminus of the peptide moiety and the other in the backbone structure and indicate that the spatial arrangement of the peptidoglycan components is distinctive for the species examined and plays a role in antigenicity.

  16. 75 FR 3244 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Monoclonal Antibodies Against Smallpox/Orthopoxviruses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... SERVICES National Institutes of Health Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Monoclonal Antibodies... following patent applications: E-145-2004/0,1,2,3,4, Purcell et al., ``Monoclonal Antibodies Against... limited to monoclonal antibodies against orthopoxviruses (smallpox) for use in humans. Properly...

  17. Author's personal copy Colloidal interactions between monoclonal antibodies in aqueous solutions

    E-print Network

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    Author's personal copy Colloidal interactions between monoclonal antibodies in aqueous solutions Accepted 2 June 2012 Available online 28 June 2012 Keywords: Monoclonal antibody DLVO theory Second virial such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against their propensity to cluster formation in solution. We study inter

  18. 78 FR 7438 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of Human Monoclonal Antibodies Against DR4

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Human Monoclonal Antibodies Against DR4 AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service... Monoclonal Antibodies Against DR4'' (HHS Ref. No. E-158-2010/0) to Customized Biosciences, Inc., which is... relates to the development of two human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to death receptor 4...

  19. Monoclonal antibodies and method for detecting dioxins and dibenzofurans

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderlaan, M.; Ramon, S.; Stanker, L.H.; Watkins, B.E.; Baitey, N.R.

    1989-01-17

    This patent describes a hybridomas deposited at the American Type Culture Collection under ATCC accession numbers as follows, identified as DD-1 (HB 9471); DD-3, (HB 9742); DD-4, (HB 9743); DD-5 (HB 9744); and DD-6 (HB 9745); which secrete monoclonal antibodies which bind dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

  20. Indium-111 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    A monoclonal antibody to a high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen was chelated and radiolabeled with indium-111. This material shows high affinity for melanoma and thus can be used in the detection, localization and imaging of melanoma. 1 figure.

  1. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies produced against Avian metapneumovirus Sybtype C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared against avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C (aMPV/Minnesota/turkey/1a/97). Six MAbs were selected based on ELISA activities and characterized by isotyping, neutralization test, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. The results show...

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO CHICKEN INTERLEUKIN-15

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chicken IL-15 gene was recently cloned and shown to encode a polypeptide with T cell growth factor activity similar to IL-2. To further characterize the chemical and biological properties of chicken IL-15, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies against bacterially expressed protein and c...

  3. Advances in Antibody Design.

    PubMed

    Tiller, Kathryn E; Tessier, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics requires optimizing several of their key attributes. These include binding affinity and specificity, folding stability, solubility, pharmacokinetics, effector functions, and compatibility with the attachment of additional antibody domains (bispecific antibodies) and cytotoxic drugs (antibody-drug conjugates). Addressing these and other challenges requires the use of systematic design methods that complement powerful immunization and in vitro screening methods. We review advances in designing the binding loops, scaffolds, domain interfaces, constant regions, post-translational and chemical modifications, and bispecific architectures of antibodies and fragments thereof to improve their bioactivity. We also highlight unmet challenges in antibody design that must be overcome to generate potent antibody therapeutics. PMID:26274600

  4. The use of combinations of monoclonal antibodies in clinical oncology.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Linda M; Schellens, Jan H M; Huitema, Alwin D R; Beijnen, Jos H

    2015-12-01

    Treatment with monoclonal antibodies is becoming increasingly important in clinical oncology. These antibodies specifically inhibit signaling pathways in tumor growth and/or induce immunological responses against tumor cells. By combining monoclonal antibodies several pathways may be targeted simultaneously, potentially leading to additive or synergistic effects. Theoretically, antibodies are very suitable for use in combination therapy, because of limited overlapping toxicity and lack of pharmacokinetic interactions. In this article an overview is given of preclinical and clinical data on twenty-five different combinations of antibodies in oncology. Some of these combinations have proven clinical benefit, for example the combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer, which exemplifies an additive or synergistic effect on antitumor activity in clinical studies and the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab, which results in significant increases in progression-free and overall survival in patients with advanced melanoma. However, other combinations may lead to unfavorable results, such as bevacizumab with cetuximab or panitumumab in advanced colorectal cancer. These combinations result in shorter progression-free survival and increased toxicity compared to therapy with a single antibody. In summary, the different published studies showed widely varying results, depending on the combination of antibodies, indication and patient population. More preclinical and clinical studies are necessary to unravel the mechanisms behind synergistic or antagonistic effects of combining monoclonal antibodies. Most research on combination therapies is still in an early stage, but it is expected that for several tumor types the use of combination therapy of antibodies will become standard of care in the near future. PMID:26547132

  5. Production and preliminary characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed at two surface proteins of rhesus rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, H B; Valdesuso, J; van Wyke, K; Midthun, K; Walsh, M; McAuliffe, V; Wyatt, R G; Kalica, A R; Flores, J; Hoshino, Y

    1983-08-01

    A series of monoclonal antibodies was isolated which reacted with one of two major surface proteins of rhesus rotavirus. Thirty-six monoclonal antibodies immunoprecipitated the 82-kilodalton outer capsid protein, the product of the fourth gene, the viral hemagglutinin. These monoclonal antibodies exhibited hemagglutination inhibition activity and neutralized rhesus rotavirus to moderate or high titer. Three monoclonal antibodies immunoprecipitated the 38-kilodalton outer capsid glycoprotein, the eighth or ninth gene product. These three monoclonal antibodies neutralized rhesus rotavirus to high titer and also inhibited viral hemagglutination. PMID:6312065

  6. Production and preliminary characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed at two surface proteins of rhesus rotavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, H B; Valdesuso, J; van Wyke, K; Midthun, K; Walsh, M; McAuliffe, V; Wyatt, R G; Kalica, A R; Flores, J; Hoshino, Y

    1983-01-01

    A series of monoclonal antibodies was isolated which reacted with one of two major surface proteins of rhesus rotavirus. Thirty-six monoclonal antibodies immunoprecipitated the 82-kilodalton outer capsid protein, the product of the fourth gene, the viral hemagglutinin. These monoclonal antibodies exhibited hemagglutination inhibition activity and neutralized rhesus rotavirus to moderate or high titer. Three monoclonal antibodies immunoprecipitated the 38-kilodalton outer capsid glycoprotein, the eighth or ninth gene product. These three monoclonal antibodies neutralized rhesus rotavirus to high titer and also inhibited viral hemagglutination. Images PMID:6312065

  7. Bispecific single-chain antibodies as effective tools for eliminating epithelial cancer cells from human stem cell preparations by redirected cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Maletz, K; Kufer, P; Mack, M; Raum, T; Pantel, K; Riethmüller, G; Gruber, R

    2001-08-01

    High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous bone marrow or peripheral stem cell transplantation is discussed as one option to treat the extensive stage of a variety of tumors. Effective methods to eliminate contaminating tumor cells from human bone marrow or stem cell grafts may improve the outcome of the patients. We investigated 3 recombinant bispecific single-chain antibodies (bscAbs) directed against 17-1A (EpCAM), c-erbB-2 (HER-2/neu) and LeY on the one and CD3 on the other binding site for their ability to induce lysis of epithelial tumor cells by retargeting autochthonous T lymphocytes present in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) and in peripheral stem cell mononuclear cells (PSMC). The bscAbs showed remarkable specific lysis of different epithelial tumor cell lines with BMMCs as well as with PSMCs as effector cells. Investigation of the alpha 17-1A-alpha CD3 bscAb revealed a significant correlation between the percentage of CD3(+) cells present in the BMMCs and the rate of lysis as well as the absence of detrimental effects on the viability of hematopoietic progenitor cells as determined by colony-forming unit assays (CFUs). Our results indicate that recombinant bispecific single-chain antibodies could be new tools for purging of human bone marrow and peripheral stem cell grafts from contaminating epithelial cancer cells for patients receiving autologous stem cell transplantation after HDC. PMID:11433407

  8. Radiolabelling of monoclonal antibodies for radiotherapy

    E-print Network

    Sangsuriyan, J; Iamsam-Ang, W; Ngamprayad, T; Picha, P; Wardwilai, C

    1998-01-01

    Preparation of beta emitting radioisotope and development of labelling techniques with antibodies, peptides and their conjugates was investigated. Samarium-153 was labelled to DTPA - antibody conjugate giving low yields due to instability of labelled products and low specific activity of sup 1 sup 5 sup 3 Sm produced. Rhenium-188 was labelled to antibodies and lanreotide peptides by direct method and indirect method via MAG sub 3 -conjugate giving maximum yields of 86.1% and 79.5% labelling for sup 1 sup 8 sup 8 Re-labelled antibody and 99.3% and 85.0% labelling for sup 1 sup 8 sup 8 Re-labelled lanreotide, respectively. Synthesis of DOTA and DOTA-lanreotide was performed and the products were characterized by instrumental analysis and compared with standard sample. Yttrium-90 was produced by sup 9 sup 0 Sr/ sup 9 sup 0 Y generator system and was labelled to DOTA-lanreotide with more than 97% labelling yields. All radiolabelled products were determined for radiochemical purity by ITLC and HPLC, in vitro and s...

  9. Mouse monoclonal antibodies available for non-exclusive licensing from Montana State University are listed below

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Mouse monoclonal antibodies available for non-exclusive licensing from Montana State University are listed below: Anti-N-formyl peptide receptor antibodies against human neutrophil N-formyl peptide Channel Can Be Added Non-invasively at low Cost Antibodies Available for License Monoclonal Antibodies

  10. Monoclonal antibodies to Ki-67 protein suitable for immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Khoruzhenko, Antonina; Kukharchuk, Viktoriya; Cherednyk, Olga; Tykhonkova, Iryna; Ovcharenko, Galina; Malanchuk, Oksana; Filonenko, Valeriy

    2010-08-01

    Detection of cell proliferation index is widely used in experimental and clinical research. Earlier it was shown that nuclear Ki-67 protein expression is strictly related to cell proliferation. It was revealed during all active phases of the cell cycle in mammals but was absent in G0 phase, so Ki-67 presence in cell nuclei reflects a potential growth fraction of whole cell population. The main area of Ki-67 antibody application is in immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. The aim of our work was to generate mouse monoclonal antibodies for Ki-67 antigen detection in mammalian tissues and in cultured cells. His-tagged fragment of Ki-67 expressed in bacteria was used as an antigen. Antibody-producing hybridoma cells were generated by standard procedure by fusing SP2/0 myeloma cells with splenocytes of immunized mice. Monoclonal antibodies were analyzed using paraffin-embedded human melanoma tissue samples and breast cancer cell line MCF-7. It was shown that generated anti-Ki-67 antibodies revealed proliferating cells in MCF-7 culture and after heat-induced epitope retrieval on paraffin sections of human melanoma tissue. In summary, generated antibodies could be useful for detection of proliferating cells in immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence studies of mammalian cells and tissues. PMID:20795306

  11. [Increases in pharmaceutical expenditures of PHI by monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Wild, F

    2013-06-01

    The dynamics of one of the most innovative segments of health care and its impact on pharmaceutical expenditure of private health insurance (PHI) is examined on the basis of drug prescription data from private health insurance companies. The study shows that the increase in pharmaceutical expenditure can be explained partly by the new treatment possibilities available with monoclonal antibodies. The per capita expenditure on drugs with monoclonal antibodies increased by 255% from 2006 to 2010 in private health insurance, while the corresponding expenditure of all pharmaceuticals has risen by only 19% in the same period. In the coming years, growth on this scale will be a challenge for all payers in the health system. PMID:23926705

  12. Adverse Events of Monoclonal Antibodies Used for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Mei; Zhou, Yan-Ping; Sun, Jin-Lu; Chen, Shu-Chang

    2015-01-01

    In 1997, the first monoclonal antibody (MoAb), the chimeric anti-CD20 molecule rituximab, was approved by the US Food and Drug administration for use in cancer patients. Since then, the panel of MoAbs that are approved by international regulatory agencies for the treatment of hematopoietic and solid malignancies has continued to expand, currently encompassing a stunning amount of 20 distinct molecules for 11 targets. We provide a brief scientific background on the use of MoAbs in cancer therapy, review all types of monoclonal antibodies-related adverse events (e.g., allergy, immune-related adverse events, cardiovascular adverse events, and pulmonary adverse events), and discuss the mechanism and treatment of adverse events. PMID:26075239

  13. A novel strategy for generating monoclonal antibodies from single, isolated lymphocytes producing antibodies of defined specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Babcook, J S; Leslie, K B; Olsen, O A; Salmon, R A; Schrader, J W

    1996-01-01

    We report a novel approach to the generation of monoclonal antibodies based on the molecular cloning and expression of immunoglobulin variable region cDNAs generated from single rabbit or murine lymphocytes that were selected for the production of specific antibodies. Single cells secreting antibodies for a specific peptide either from gp116 of the human cytomegalovirus or from gp120 of HIV-1 or for sheep red blood cells were selected using antigen-specific hemolytic plaque assays. Sheep red blood cells were coated with specific peptides in a procedure applicable to any antigen that can be biotinylated. Heavy- and light-chain variable region cDNAs were rescued from single cells by reverse transcription-PCR and expressed in the context of human immunoglobulin constant regions. These chimeric murine and rabbit monoclonal antibodies replicated the target specificities of the original antibody-forming cells. The selected lymphocyte antibody method exploits the in vivo mechanisms that generate high-affinity antibodies. This method can use lymphocytes from peripheral blood, can exploit a variety of procedures that identify individual lymphocytes producing a particular antibody, and is applicable to the generation of monoclonal antibodies from many species, including humans. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8755564

  14. Monoclonal antibodies to the two most basic papaya proteinases.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, P W; Kilshaw, P J; McEwan, F; Owen, A J

    1986-08-01

    The proteinases from Carica papaya include papain, isoenzymes of chymopapain and two proteinases A and B distinguished by their unusually high pI. The identity of one of the most basic proteinases has been questioned. The present report describes the preparation and characterisation of two monoclonal antibodies that react specifically with papaya proteinases A and B respectively and a third that identifies a common structural feature found in papain and proteinase A. PMID:3545314

  15. Positron emission tomographic imaging of tumors using monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Zalutsky, M.R.

    1992-08-01

    This research project is developing methods for utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to increase the clinical potential of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). This report describes the development of methods for labeling MAbs and their fragments with positron-emitting halogen nuclides, fluorine-18 and iodine-124. These nulides were selected because of the widespread availability of F-18 and because of our extensive experience in the development of new protein radiohalogenation methods.

  16. Monoclonal antibodies directed against surface molecules of multicell spheroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andrew O.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this project is to generate a library of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to surface molecules of mammalian tumor and transformed cells grown as multicell spheroids (MCS). These MCS are highly organized, three dimensional multicellular structures which exhibit many characteristics of in vivo organized tissues not found in conventional monolayer or suspension culture; therefore, MCS make better in vitro model systems to study the interactions of mammalian cells. Additionally, they provide a functional assay for surface adhesion molecules.

  17. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies in Plants for Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Moussavou, Ghislain; Ko, Kisung; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Choo, Young-Kug

    2015-01-01

    Plants are considered as an alternative platform for recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) production due to the improvement and diversification of transgenic techniques. The diversity of plant species offers a multitude of possibilities for the valorization of genetic resources. Moreover, plants can be propagated indefinitely, providing cheap biomass production on a large scale in controlled conditions. Thus, recent studies have shown the successful development of plant systems for the production of mAbs for cancer immunotherapy. However, their several limitations have to be resolved for efficient antibody production in plants. PMID:26550566

  18. Biodistribution of a labeled monoclonal antibody to B lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.; Letvin, N.; Guida, L.; Nadler, L.; Noska, M.; Zalutsky, M.; Lambert, J.

    1985-05-01

    This study was performed to assess the radiobiologic kinetics of a labeled monoclonal antibody to B lymphocytes with the aim of evaluating it for imaging tumor distribution in B cell lymphoma. The antibody to a B1 antigen shared by non-human primates and man was doubly labeled with I-125 and I-131. Two rhesus monkeys weighing 7.0 and 8.4 kg were infused with the labeled antibody. One animal (A) received 0.l4 mg antibody/kg body weight and the other (B) was infused with 2.0 mg/kg. Serial blood samples were obtained over a 6 day period, urine was collected over a 1 week period and axillary lymph nodes from the monkey receiving 2.0 mg/kg were excised at 2 and 6 days. The thyroid uptake of free iodine was blocked with KI in the drinking water. The major component of the blood disappearance curve had a T 1/2 of about 27H in A and 24H in B. The proportion of B lymphocytes to total cellular population of the spleen is low. The ready visualization of the label in the spleen indicates that the use of labeled monoclonal antibody to B1 should be a very sensitive method for detection of sites of involvement in B cell lymphomas.

  19. Impact of Cell-surface Antigen Expression on Target Engagement and Function of an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor × c-MET Bispecific Antibody*

    PubMed Central

    Jarantow, Stephen W.; Bushey, Barbara S.; Pardinas, Jose R.; Boakye, Ken; Lacy, Eilyn R.; Sanders, Renouard; Sepulveda, Manuel A.; Moores, Sheri L.; Chiu, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of engaging multiple drug targets using bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) is affected by the relative cell-surface protein levels of the respective targets. In this work, the receptor density values were correlated to the in vitro activity of a BsAb (JNJ-61186372) targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET). Simultaneous binding of the BsAb to both receptors was confirmed in vitro. By using controlled Fab-arm exchange, a set of BsAbs targeting EGFR and c-MET was generated to establish an accurate receptor quantitation of a panel of lung and gastric cancer cell lines expressing heterogeneous levels of EGFR and c-MET. EGFR and c-MET receptor density levels were correlated to the respective gene expression levels as well as to the respective receptor phosphorylation inhibition values. We observed a bias in BsAb binding toward the more highly expressed of the two receptors, EGFR or c-MET, which resulted in the enhanced in vitro potency of JNJ-61186372 against the less highly expressed target. On the basis of these observations, we propose an avidity model of how JNJ-61186372 engages EGFR and c-MET with potentially broad implications for bispecific drug efficacy and design. PMID:26260789

  20. Human tumor antigens identified with monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    AlSedairy, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    MoAbLc1 (IgM) and MoAbLc2 (IgG/sub 2a/) were produced against human lung carcinoma cell line (ChaGo). Lc1 recognizes a approx. = 330-kd/approx. = 310-kd glycoprotein complexes, and Lc2 recognizes a approx. = 60-kd/approx. = 47-kd protein complex. With a panel of cell lines of different tissue origin, Lc1 showed a more restricted reactivity to ChaGo; it cross-reacted with another lung carcinoma cell line (SK-Lc-2) and two breast carcinoma cell lines, but failed to react with cell lines of fetal lung, of colon, esophageal, prostate, stomach, and ovarian carcinomas, of B and T lymphoblastoid cells, neuroblastomas, glioblastoma, astrocytoma, and human peripheral blood lymphocytes. New and improved methods were developed for the production of indium-111-labeled MoAbs for tumor imaging. To facilitate the application of bicyclic anhydride diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (BADTPA) to In-111 labeling of antibodies, we have modified the original method by using C-14-labeled BADTPA, which allows precise quantitation of DTPA molecules incorporated. A new heterobifunctional reagent, 2,6-dioxo-N-(carboxyl)morpholine (DCM) was synthesized for chelating In-111 to MoAbs, and demonstrated higher retention of immunoreactivity of the labeled antibody.

  1. Impact of Diverse Immune Evasion Mechanisms of Cancer Cells on T Cells Engaged by EpCAM/CD3-Bispecific Antibody Construct AMG 110

    PubMed Central

    Deisting, Wibke; Raum, Tobias; Kufer, Peter; Baeuerle, Patrick A.; Münz, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background Bispecific T cell engager (BiTE®) are single-chain bispecific antibody constructs with dual specificity for CD3 on T cells and a surface antigen on target cells. They can elicit a polyclonal cytotoxic T cell response that is not restricted by T cell receptor (TCR) specificity, and surface expression of MHC class I/peptide antigen complexes. Using human EpCAM/CD3-bispecific BiTE® antibody construct AMG 110, we here assessed to what extent surface expression of PD-L1, cytoplasmic expression of indoleamine-2,3-deoxygenase type 1, Bcl-2 and serpin PI-9, and the presence of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and adenosine in culture medium can impact redirected lysis by AMG 110-engaged T cells. Methods The seven factors, which are all involved in inhibiting T cell functions by cancer cells, were tested with human EpCAM-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) target cells at levels that in most cases exceeded those observed in a number of human cancer cell lines. Co-culture experiments were used to determine the impact of the evasion mechanisms on EC50 values and amplitude of redirected lysis by AMG 110, and on BiTE®-induced proliferation of previously resting human peripheral T cells. Findings An inhibitory effect on redirected lysis by AMG 110-engaged T cells was seen upon overexpression of serpin PI-9, Bcl-2, TGF-?and PD-L1. An inhibitory effect on induction of T cell proliferation was only seen with CHO cells overexpressing IDO. In no case, a single evasion mechanism rendered target cells completely resistant to BiTE®-induced lysis, and even various combinations could not. Conclusions Our data suggest that diverse mechanisms employed by cancer cells to fend off T cells cannot inactivate AMG 110-engaged T cells, and that inhibitory effects observed in vitro may be overcome by increased concentrations of the BiTE® antibody construct. PMID:26510188

  2. Efficient generation of human IgA monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lorin, Valérie; Mouquet, Hugo

    2015-07-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundant antibody isotype produced in humans. IgA antibodies primarily ensure immune protection of mucosal surfaces against invading pathogens, but also circulate and are present in large quantities in blood. IgAs are heterogeneous at a molecular level, with two IgA subtypes and the capacity to form multimers by interacting with the joining (J) chain. Here, we have developed an efficient strategy to rapidly generate human IgA1 and IgA2 monoclonal antibodies in their monomeric and dimeric forms. Recombinant monomeric and dimeric IgA1/IgA2 counterparts of a prototypical IgG1 monoclonal antibody, 10-1074, targeting the HIV-1 envelope protein, were produced in large amounts after expression cloning and transient transfection of 293-F cells. 10-1074 IgAs were FPLC-purified using a novel affinity-based resin engrafted with anti-IgA chimeric Fabs, followed by a monomers/multimers separation using size exclusion-based FPLC. ELISA binding experiments confirmed that the artificial IgA class switching of 10-1074 did not alter its antigen recognition. In summary, our technical approach allows the very efficient production of various forms of purified recombinant human IgA molecules, which are precious tools in dissecting IgA B-cell responses in physiological and pathophysiological conditions, and studying the biology, function and therapeutic potential of IgAs. PMID:25910833

  3. Monkey-derived monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, H.A.; Reese, R.T.

    1985-09-01

    A system has been developed that allows efficient production of monkey monoclonal antibodies from owl monkeys. Splenocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes from monkeys immune to the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, were fused with P3X63 Ag8.653 mouse myelomas. The resulting hybridomas were screened by an indirect fluorescent antibody test for the production of monkey monoclonal antibodies (mAb) reactive with P. falciparum. Most of the mAb reacted with the P. falciparum merozoites and immunoprecipitated a parasite-derived glycoprotein having a relative molecular weight of 185,000. These mAb gave a minimum of five different immunoprecipitation patterns, thus demonstrating that a large number of polypeptides obtained when parasitized erythrocytes are solubilized share epitopes with this large glycoprotein. In addition, mAb were obtained that reacted with antigens associated with the infected erythrocyte membrane. One of these mAb bound a M/sub r/ 95,000 antigen. Radioimmunoprecipitation assays using /sup 125/T-antibodies were done.

  4. Analysis of acetylcholine receptor phosphorylation sites using antibodies to synthetic peptides and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Safran, A; Neumann, D; Fuchs, S

    1986-01-01

    Three peptides corresponding to residues 354-367, 364-374, 373-387 of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) delta subunit were synthesized. These peptides represent the proposed phosphorylation sites of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, the tyrosine-specific protein kinase and the calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase respectively. Using these peptides as substrates for phosphorylation by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase it was shown that only peptides 354-367 was phosphorylated whereas the other two were not. These results verify the location of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site within the AChR delta subunit. Antibodies elicited against these peptides reacted with the delta subunit. The antipeptide antibodies and two monoclonal antibodies (7F2, 5.46) specific for the delta subunit were tested for their binding to non-phosphorylated receptor and to receptor phosphorylated by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Antibodies to peptide 354-367 were found to react preferentially with non-phosphorylated receptor whereas the two other anti-peptide antibodies bound equally to phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated receptors. Monoclonal antibody 7F2 reacted preferentially with the phosphorylated form of the receptor whereas monoclonal antibody 5.46 did not distinguish between the two forms. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3816758

  5. Using monoclonal antibodies to prevent mucosal transmission of epidemic infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlin, L.; Cone, R. A.; Whaley, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    Passive immunization with antibodies has been shown to prevent a wide variety of diseases. Recent advances in monoclonal antibody technology are enabling the development of new methods for passive immunization of mucosal surfaces. Human monoclonal antibodies, produced rapidly, inexpensively, and in large quantities, may help prevent respiratory, diarrheal, and sexually transmitted diseases on a public health scale. PMID:10081672

  6. Mathematical Analysis of the Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic (PKPD) Behaviour of Monoclonal Antibodies: Predicting in vivo

    E-print Network

    Derks, Gianne

    Antibodies: Predicting in vivo Potency Philip J. Astona, , Gianne Derksa , Adewale Rajib,a,c , Balaji M the target affinity of a monoclonal antibody and its in vivo potency. The dynamics of the system is described there is no such effect when increasing kon . Thus, for certain monoclonal antibodies, an increase in potency may

  7. [Preparation and characterization of specific monoclonal antibodies against mercury ions].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Wang, Fenglong; Yang, Hui; Li, Peng; Liu, Manxing; Li, Xia

    2010-06-01

    The environmental pollution by heavy metals such as mercury, cadmium and lead has become a worldwide public health hazard. To rapidly and inexpensively monitor environmental heavy metals is a prerequisite for minimizing human and animal exposure. The development of immunoassays to detect mercury ion residues has been a promising trend with the advantage of rapid and cheap operation. We reported the isolation and characterization of mercury-specific monoclonal antibodies. Because Hg2+ ions are too small to elicit an immune response, the metal was coupled to protein carrier (keyhole limpet, KLH) using a chelator (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, DTPA). After the synthesis of antigen and characterization, monoclonal antibodies against mercury ions were generated by immunizing BALB/c mice with mercury conjugated antigen (Hg-DTPA-KLH). The stable hybridoma cell lines were produced by fusion of murine splenocytes and SP2/0 myeloma cells. The hybridoma cells were subcloned by the limiting dilution and screened by ELISA, two hybridoma cell lines producing stably specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against mercury ions were obtained, named H2H5 and H1H8. The ascites fluid was produced in BABL/c mice by intraperitoneal injection of 1 x 10(7) H2H5 and H1H8 cells, respectively. The titers of ascites were all above 1:51 200. The isotyping of secrete antibodies from two hybridoma cell lines was IgG1, kappa type. These data laid a potency of establishing immunoassays methods of determining Hg2+ ion residues and had the realistic significance for improving the efficiency and quality of risk assessment. PMID:20815254

  8. Immunolocalization of neuroblastoma using radiolabeled monoclonal antibody UJ13A

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, A.; Vivian, G.; Gordon, I.; Pritchard, J.; Kemshead, J.

    1984-08-01

    The monoclonal antibody UJ13A, raised after immunization of mice with human fetal brain, recognized an antigen expressed on human neuroblastoma cell lines and fresh tumors. Antibody was purified and radiolabeled with iodine isotopes using chloramine-T. In preclinical studies, 125I-labeled UJ13A was injected intravenously into nude mice bearing xenografts of human neuroblastoma. Radiolabeled UJ13A uptake by the tumors was four to 23 times greater than that by blood. In control animals, injected with a similar quantity of a monoclonal antibody known not to bind to neuroblastoma cells in vitro (FD44), there was no selective tumor uptake. Nine patients with histologically confirmed neuroblastoma each received 100 to 300 micrograms UJ13A radiolabeled with 1 to 2.8 mCi 123I or 131I. Sixteen positive sites were visible on gamma scans 1 to 7 days after injection: 15 were primary or secondary tumor sites, and one was a false positive; there were two false negatives. In two of the 15 positive sites, tumor had not been demonstrated by other imaging techniques; these were later confirmed as areas of malignant infiltration. No toxicity was encountered.

  9. Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer Therapy: Mechanisms, Successes and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, A; Levy, A; Gossell-Williams, M

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rituximab was the first chemotherapeutic monoclonal antibody (CmAb) approved for clinical use in cancer therapeutics in 1997 and has significantly improved the clinical outcomes in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Since then, numerous CmAbs have been developed and approved for the treatment of various haematologic and solid human cancers. In this review, the classification, efficacy and significantly reduced toxicity of CmAbs available for use in the United States of America are presented. Finally, the limitations of CmAbs and future considerations are explored. PMID:25803383

  10. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies in China: Overview and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mao-Yu; Lu, Jin-Jian; Wang, Liang; Gao, Zi-Chao; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become increasingly important as human therapeutic agents. Yet, current research concentrates on technology itself and pays attention to developed countries. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of mAbs development in China through systematic analysis of drug registry, patent applications, clinical trials, academic publication, and ongoing R&D projects. The trends in therapeutic areas and industrialization process are also highlighted. Development and research trends of mAbs are analyzed to provide a future perspective of mAbs as therapeutic agents in China. PMID:25811022

  11. Monoclonal antibodies directed against surface molecules of multicell spheroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andrew O.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this project is to generate a library of monoclonal antibodies (MAb's) to surface molecules involved in the cell-cell interactions of mammalian cells grown as multicell spheroids (MCS). MCS are highly organized 3-dimensional multicellular structures which exhibit many characteristics in vivo tissues not found in conventional monolayer or suspension culture. They also provide a functional assay for surface adhesion molecules. In brief, MCS combine the relevance of organized tissues with the accuracy of in vitro methodology. Further, one can manipulate these MCS experimentally to discern important information about their biology.

  12. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to TDRD7 protein.

    PubMed

    Skorokhod, Oleksandr; Nemazanyy, Ivan; Breus, Oksana; Filonenko, Valeriy; Panasyuk, Ganna

    2008-06-01

    TDRD7 is a scaffold protein whose specific function is unknown. It has been identified in complexes with proteins that regulate cytoskeleton dynamics and centrosomal movements, mRNA transport, and protein translation apparatus. Here we report the generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against TDRD7 protein. Bacterially expressed His-tagged fragments of TDRD7 were used as antigens. Spleen cells from immunized mice were collected and fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells using PEG 2000. High titer anti-TDRD7 antibody-producing hybridoma cell lines were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then subcloned by limiting dilution. Antibodies produced by E6 clone were further tested for their reactivity with the TDRD7 recombinant proteins. The results obtained clearly indicate that E6 anti-TDRD7 antibodies recognize specifically recombinant 6His-tagged TDRD7 proteins and endogenous TDRD7 in Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunocytochemistry. In summary, these antibodies will be useful for researchers investigating TDRD7 and molecular complexes involving this protein. PMID:18582216

  13. Effects of the orientation of anti-BMP2 monoclonal antibody immobilized on scaffold in antibody-mediated osseous regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Sahar; Freire, Marcelo; Choi, Moon G; Tavari, Azadeh; Almohaimeed, Mohammad; Moshaverinia, Alireza; Zadeh, Homayoun H

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that anti-BMP2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can trap endogenous osteogenic BMP ligands, which can in turn mediate osteodifferentiation of progenitor cells. The effectiveness of this strategy requires the availability of the anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies antigen-binding sites for anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies to bind to the scaffold through a domain that will leave its antigen-binding region exposed and available for binding to an osteogenic ligand. We examined whether antibodies bound to a scaffold by passive adsorption versus through Protein G as a linker will exhibit differences in mediating bone formation. In vitro anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies was immobilized on absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) with Protein G as a linker to bind the antibody through its Fc region and implanted into rat calvarial defects. The biomechanical strength of bone regenerated by absorbable collagen sponge/Protein G/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies immune complex was compared to ACS/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies or ACS/Protein G/isotype mAb control group. Results demonstrated higher binding of anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies/BMPs to C2C12 cells, when the mAb was initially attached to recombinant Protein G or Protein G-coupled microbeads. After eight weeks, micro-CT and histomorphometric analyses revealed increased bone formation within defects implanted with absorbable collagen sponge/Protein G/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies compared with defects implanted with absorbable collagen sponge/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies (p < 0.05). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) confirmed increased BMP-2, -4, and -7 detection in sites implanted with absorbable collagen sponge/Protein G/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies in vivo. Biomechanical analysis revealed the regenerated bone in sites with Protein G/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies had higher mechanical strength in comparison to anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies. The negative control group, Protein G/isotype mAb, did not promote bone regeneration and exhibited significantly lower mechanical properties (p < 0.05). Altogether, our results demonstrated that application of Protein G as a linker to adsorb anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies onto the scaffold was accompanied by increased in vitro binding of the anti-BMP-2 mAb/BMP immune complex to BMP-receptor positive cell, as well as increased volume and strength of de novo bone formation in vivo. PMID:26184354

  14. Effects of the orientation of anti-BMP2 monoclonal antibody immobilized on scaffold in antibody-mediated osseous regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Sahar; Freire, Marcelo; Choi, Moon G; Tavari, Azadeh; Almohaimeed, Mohammad; Moshaverinia, Alireza; Zadeh, Homayoun H

    2015-11-01

    Recently, we have shown that anti-BMP2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can trap endogenous osteogenic BMP ligands, which can in turn mediate osteodifferentiation of progenitor cells. The effectiveness of this strategy requires the availability of the anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies antigen-binding sites for anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies to bind to the scaffold through a domain that will leave its antigen-binding region exposed and available for binding to an osteogenic ligand. We examined whether antibodies bound to a scaffold by passive adsorption versus through Protein G as a linker will exhibit differences in mediating bone formation. In vitro anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies was immobilized on absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) with Protein G as a linker to bind the antibody through its Fc region and implanted into rat calvarial defects. The biomechanical strength of bone regenerated by absorbable collagen sponge/Protein G/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies immune complex was compared to ACS/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies or ACS/Protein G/isotype mAb control group. Results demonstrated higher binding of anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies/BMPs to C2C12 cells, when the mAb was initially attached to recombinant Protein G or Protein G-coupled microbeads. After eight weeks, micro-CT and histomorphometric analyses revealed increased bone formation within defects implanted with absorbable collagen sponge/Protein G/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies compared with defects implanted with absorbable collagen sponge/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies (p?monoclonal antibodies in vivo. Biomechanical analysis revealed the regenerated bone in sites with Protein G/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies had higher mechanical strength in comparison to anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies. The negative control group, Protein G/isotype mAb, did not promote bone regeneration and exhibited significantly lower mechanical properties (p?monoclonal antibodies onto the scaffold was accompanied by increased in vitro binding of the anti-BMP-2 mAb/BMP immune complex to BMP-receptor positive cell, as well as increased volume and strength of de novo bone formation in vivo. PMID:26184354

  15. NCI Requests Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, NCI's Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution.

  16. Internal radiation dosimetry for clinical testing of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Durham, J.S.; Hui, T.E.; Hill, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In gauging the efficacy of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in cancer treatment, it is important to know the amount of radiation energy absorbed by tumors and normal tissue per unit administered activity. This paper describes methods for estimating absorbed doses to human tumors and normal tissues, including intraperitoneal tissue surfaces, red marrow, and the intestinal tract from incorporated radionuclides. These methods use the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) scheme; however, they also incorporate enhancements designed to solve specific dosimetry problems encountered during clinical studies, such as patient-specific organ masses obtained from computerized tomography (CT) volumetrics, estimates of the dose to tumor masses within normal organs, and multicellular dosimetry for studying dose inhomogeneities in solid tumors. Realistic estimates of absorbed dose are provided within the short time requirements of physicians so that decisions can be made with regard to patient treatment and procurement of radiolabeled antibodies. Some areas in which further research could improve dose assessment are also discussed. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Boronated dextran-monoclonal antibody conjugates for NCT

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, J.J. Jr.; Borg, D.C.; Gabel, D.; Fairchild, R.G.; Temponi, M.; Ferrone, S.

    1985-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to tumor-associated antigens are attractive carriers for concentrating /sup 10/B in target tissues. Since coupling of /sup 10/B compounds directly to MoAb in amounts sufficient for radiotherapy appears to lead to inactive complexes, we have used detrans as intermediate carriers to allow high levels of /sup 10/B to be carried by MoAbs while modifying fewer amino acid residues. Three to five periodate-oxidized dextrans have been attached to anti-IgM polyclonal (IgG) antibodies, followed by coupling of a benzylamine derivative of decachlorocarborane to the extent of ca. 1000 boron atoms per IgG molecule. 41 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Optimization of protein G chromatography for biopharmaceutical monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bill, E; Lutz, U; Karlsson, B M; Sparrman, M; Allgaier, H

    1995-01-01

    Compared to more stable chromatographic media the use of affinity media with biological ligands such as Protein G Sepharose 4 Fast Flow poses special challenges regarding regeneration and sanitization. This is especially critical for the purification of pharmaceutical proteins, where complete regeneration of the column between runs is of paramount importance. Here, the problems encountered during process development and upscaling of regeneration methods for a Protein G Sepharose Fast Flow column intended for the large-scale purification of pharmaceutical monoclonal antibodies are reported. The initially chosen alkaline regeneration buffer led to an increase in the affinity of Protein G towards antibodies which made elution increasingly difficult. A combination of urea and acetic acid was selected to ensure efficient cleaning of the matrix without affecting ligand properties. Validation experiments were done to demonstrate the functional integrity of the matrix after repeated cycles of use and regeneration, as well as the efficiency of the cleaning process. PMID:7598958

  19. Sustained Brown Fat Stimulation and Insulin Sensitization by a Humanized Bispecific Antibody Agonist for Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1/?Klotho Complex.

    PubMed

    Kolumam, Ganesh; Chen, Mark Z; Tong, Raymond; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Kates, Lance; van Bruggen, Nicholas; Ross, Jed; Wyatt, Shelby K; Gandham, Vineela D; Carano, Richard A D; Dunshee, Diana Ronai; Wu, Ai-Luen; Haley, Benjamin; Anderson, Keith; Warming, Sřren; Rairdan, Xin Y; Lewin-Koh, Nicholas; Zhang, Yingnan; Gutierrez, Johnny; Baruch, Amos; Gelzleichter, Thomas R; Stevens, Dale; Rajan, Sharmila; Bainbridge, Travis W; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Meng, Y Gloria; Ziai, James; Soriano, Robert H; Brauer, Matthew J; Chen, Yongmei; Stawicki, Scott; Kim, Hok Seon; Comps-Agrar, Laëtitia; Luis, Elizabeth; Spiess, Christoph; Wu, Yan; Ernst, James A; McGuinness, Owen P; Peterson, Andrew S; Sonoda, Junichiro

    2015-07-01

    Dissipating excess calories as heat through therapeutic stimulation of brown adipose tissues (BAT) has been proposed as a potential treatment for obesity-linked disorders. Here, we describe the generation of a humanized effector-less bispecific antibody that activates fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 1/?Klotho complex, a common receptor for FGF21 and FGF19. Using this molecule, we show that antibody-mediated activation of FGFR1/?Klotho complex in mice induces sustained energy expenditure in BAT, browning of white adipose tissue, weight loss, and improvements in obesity-associated metabolic derangements including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis. In mice and cynomolgus monkeys, FGFR1/?Klotho activation increased serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin, which appears to contribute over time by enhancing the amplitude of the metabolic benefits. At the same time, insulin sensitization by FGFR1/?Klotho activation occurs even before the onset of weight loss in a manner that is independent of adiponectin. Together, selective activation of FGFR1/?Klotho complex with a long acting therapeutic antibody represents an attractive approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-linked disorders through enhanced energy expenditure, insulin sensitization and induction of high-molecular-weight adiponectin. PMID:26288846

  20. Sustained Brown Fat Stimulation and Insulin Sensitization by a Humanized Bispecific Antibody Agonist for Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1/?Klotho Complex

    PubMed Central

    Kolumam, Ganesh; Chen, Mark Z.; Tong, Raymond; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Kates, Lance; van Bruggen, Nicholas; Ross, Jed; Wyatt, Shelby K.; Gandham, Vineela D.; Carano, Richard A.D.; Dunshee, Diana Ronai; Wu, Ai-Luen; Haley, Benjamin; Anderson, Keith; Warming, Sřren; Rairdan, Xin Y.; Lewin-Koh, Nicholas; Zhang, Yingnan; Gutierrez, Johnny; Baruch, Amos; Gelzleichter, Thomas R.; Stevens, Dale; Rajan, Sharmila; Bainbridge, Travis W.; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Meng, Y. Gloria; Ziai, James; Soriano, Robert H.; Brauer, Matthew J.; Chen, Yongmei; Stawicki, Scott; Kim, Hok Seon; Comps-Agrar, Laëtitia; Luis, Elizabeth; Spiess, Christoph; Wu, Yan; Ernst, James A.; McGuinness, Owen P.; Peterson, Andrew S.; Sonoda, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Dissipating excess calories as heat through therapeutic stimulation of brown adipose tissues (BAT) has been proposed as a potential treatment for obesity-linked disorders. Here, we describe the generation of a humanized effector-less bispecific antibody that activates fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 1/?Klotho complex, a common receptor for FGF21 and FGF19. Using this molecule, we show that antibody-mediated activation of FGFR1/?Klotho complex in mice induces sustained energy expenditure in BAT, browning of white adipose tissue, weight loss, and improvements in obesity-associated metabolic derangements including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis. In mice and cynomolgus monkeys, FGFR1/?Klotho activation increased serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin, which appears to contribute over time by enhancing the amplitude of the metabolic benefits. At the same time, insulin sensitization by FGFR1/?Klotho activation occurs even before the onset of weight loss in a manner that is independent of adiponectin. Together, selective activation of FGFR1/?Klotho complex with a long acting therapeutic antibody represents an attractive approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-linked disorders through enhanced energy expenditure, insulin sensitization and induction of high-molecular-weight adiponectin. PMID:26288846

  1. Monoclonal antibody-directed radioimmunoassay of specific cytochromes P-450

    SciTech Connect

    Song, B.J.; Fujino, T.; Park, S.S.; Friedman, F.K.; Gelboin, H.V.

    1984-02-10

    A rapid solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for cytochromes P-450 has been developed utilizing specific monoclonal antibodies to major forms of rat liver cytochrome P-450 that are induced by 3-methylcholanthrene (MC-P-450) and phenobarbital (PB-P-450). Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were endogenously labeled with (/sup 35/S)methionine were used to detect MAb-specific cytochromes P-450 in liver microsomes from untreated rats and rats pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) or phenobarbital. The competitive binding assays are rapid and can detect cytochrome P-450 in less than 100 ng of microsomal protein. Tthe RIA was used to examine the distribution of MAb-specific cytochromes P-450 in extrahepatic tissues of MC-treated rats; an approximately 30- to 50-fold greater amount of MC-P-450 in liver relative to lung and kidney was observed, which corresponds well with aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in these tissues. The inducibility of MAb-specific cytochromes P-450 were observed in MC-treated rats, guinea pigs, and C57BL/6 mice, all highly inducible for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase; little increase was observed for the relatively noninducible DBA/2 mouse strain.

  2. Monoclonal Antibodies Directed to Fucoidan Preparations from Brown Algae

    PubMed Central

    Torode, Thomas A.; Marcus, Susan E.; Jam, Murielle; Tonon, Thierry; Blackburn, Richard S.; Hervé, Cécile; Knox, J. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and BAM4, respectively, bind to a non-sulfated epitope and a sulfated epitope present in the sulfated fucan preparations. BAM2 and BAM3 identified additional distinct epitopes present in the fucoidan preparations. All four epitopes, not yet fully characterised, occur widely within the major brown algal taxonomic groups and show divergent distribution patterns in tissues. The analysis of cell wall extractions and fluorescence imaging reveal differences in the occurrence of the BAM1 to BAM4 epitopes in various tissues of Fucus vesiculosus. In Ectocarpus subulatus, a species closely related to the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus, the BAM4 sulfated epitope was modulated in relation to salinity levels. This new set of monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the dissection of the highly complex and yet poorly resolved sulfated polysaccharides in the brown algae in relation to their ecological and economic significance. PMID:25692870

  3. Examination of HER3 targeting in cancer using monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Gaborit, Nadčge; Abdul-Hai, Ali; Mancini, Maicol; Lindzen, Moshit; Lavi, Sara; Leitner, Orith; Mounier, Lucile; Chentouf, Myriam; Dunoyer, Sai; Ghosh, Manjusha; Larbouret, Christel; Chardčs, Thierry; Bazin, Hervé; Pčlegrin, André; Sela, Michael; Yarden, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    The human EGF receptor (HER/EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases serves as a key target for cancer therapy. Specifically, EGFR and HER2 have been repeatedly targeted because of their genetic aberrations in tumors. The therapeutic potential of targeting HER3 has long been underestimated, due to relatively low expression in tumors and impaired kinase activity. Nevertheless, in addition to serving as a dimerization partner of EGFR and HER2, HER3 acts as a key player in tumor cells’ ability to acquire resistance to cancer drugs. In this study, we generated several monoclonal antibodies to HER3. Comparisons of their ability to degrade HER3, decrease downstream signaling, and inhibit growth of cultured cells, as well as recruit immune effector cells, selected an antibody that later emerged as the most potent inhibitor of pancreatic cancer cells grown as tumors in animals. Our data predict that anti-HER3 antibodies able to intercept autocrine and stroma–tumor interactions might strongly inhibit tumor growth, in analogy to the mechanism of action of anti-EGFR antibodies routinely used now to treat colorectal cancer patients. PMID:25564668

  4. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against FABP4.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, Olena; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan

    2006-04-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is a key mediator of intracellular transport and metabolism of fatty acids in adipose tissues. FABP4 binds fatty acids with high affinity and transports them to various compartments in the cell. When in complex with fatty acids, FABP4 interacts with and modulates the activity of two important regulators of metabolism: hormone-sensitive lipase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Genetic studies in mice clearly indicated that deregulation of FABP4 function may lead to the development of severe diseases such as diabetes II type and atherosclerosis. In this study, we report the production and detailed characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against FABP4. Recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST)-FABP4 or His-FABP4 was expressed in bacteria, affinity purified, and used for immunization of mice, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening, and characterization of selected clones. We have isolated two hybridoma clones that produced antibodies specific for recombinant and native FABP4, as shown by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. The specificity of generated antibodies was further tested in a cell-based model of adipogenesis. In this analysis, the accumulation of FABP4 during NIH 3T3-L1 differentiation into adipocytes was detected by generated antibodies, which correlates well with previously published data. Taken together, we produced MAbs that will be useful for the scientific community working on fatty acid-binding proteins and lipid metabolism. PMID:16704309

  5. Screening individual hybridomas by microengraving to discover monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ogunniyi, Adebola O; Story, Craig M; Papa, Eliseo; Guillen, Eduardo; Love, J Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The demand for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in biomedical research is significant, but the current methodologies used to discover them are both lengthy and costly. Consequently, the diversity of antibodies available for any particular antigen remains limited. Microengraving is a soft lithographic technique that provides a rapid and efficient alternative for discovering new mAbs. This protocol describes how to use microengraving to screen mouse hybridomas to establish new cell lines producing unique mAbs. Single cells from a polyclonal population are isolated into an array of microscale wells (~105 cells per screen). The array is then used to print a protein microarray, where each element contains the antibodies captured from individual wells. The antibodies on the microarray are screened with antigens of interest, and mapped to the corresponding cells, which are then recovered from their microwells by micromanipulation. Screening and retrieval require approximately 1–3 d (9–12 d including the steps for preparing arrays of microwells). PMID:19528952

  6. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for chicken interleukin 18

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which are specific for chicken interleukin 18 (chIL18) were produced and characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR and neutralization assays. Monoclonal antibodies specific for chIL18 identified a ...

  7. Monoclonal antibodies to cyclodiene insecticides and method for detecting the same

    DOEpatents

    Stanker, L.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-08-02

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies useful for detection of cyclodienes in foods and environmental samples. Monoclonal antibodies specifically reactive with cyclodienes can detect accumulated pesticides in food, tissue or environmental samples. Extraction and preparation of organic samples for immunoassay in a polar-nonpolar reaction medium permits detection of halogenated organic ring structures at concentrations in samples. 13 figs.

  8. Method of rapid production of hybridomas expressing monoclonal antibodies on the cell surface

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; Laterza, Vince

    2006-12-12

    The present invention relates to genetically altered hybridomas, myelomas and B cells. The invention also relates to utilizing genetically altered hybridomas, myelomas and B cells in methods of making monoclonal antibodies. The present invention also provides populations of hybridomas and B cells that can be utilized to make a monoclonal antibody of interest.

  9. Monoclonal antibodies to cyclodiene insecticides and method for detecting the same

    DOEpatents

    Stanker, Larry H. (Livermore, CA); Vanderlaan, Martin (Danville, CA); Watkins, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies useful for detection of cyclodienes in foods and environmental samples. Monoclonal antibodies specifically reactive with cyclodienes can detect accumulated pesticides in food, tissue or environmental samples. Extraction and preparation of organic samples for immunoassay in a polar-nonpolar reaction medium permits detection of halogenated organic ring structures at concentrations in samples.

  10. Structural Characterization of a Monoclonal Antibody-Maytansinoid Immunoconjugate.

    PubMed

    Luo, Quanzhou; Chung, Hyo Helen; Borths, Christopher; Janson, Matthew; Wen, Jie; Joubert, Marisa K; Wypych, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Structural characterization was performed on an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), composed of an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb), mertansine drug (DM1), and a noncleavable linker. The DM1 molecules were conjugated through nonspecific modification of the mAb at solvent-exposed lysine residues. Due to the nature of the lysine conjugation process, the ADC molecules are heterogeneous, containing a range of species that differ with respect to the number of DM1 per antibody molecule. The DM1 distribution profile of the ADC was characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF), which showed that 0-8 DM1s were conjugated to an antibody molecule. By taking advantage of the high-quality MS/MS spectra and the accurate mass detection of diagnostic DM1 fragment ions generated from the higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) approach, we were able to identify 76 conjugation sites in the ADC, which covered approximately 83% of all the putative conjugation sites. The diagnostic DM1 fragment ions discovered in this study can be readily used for the characterization of other ADCs with maytansinoid derivatives as payload. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis of the ADC indicated that the conjugation of DM1 destabilized the CH2 domain of the molecule, which is likely due to conjugation of DM1 on lysine residues in the CH2 domain. As a result, methionine at position 258 of the heavy chain, which is located in the CH2 domain of the antibody, is more susceptible to oxidation in thermally stressed ADC samples when compared to that of the naked antibody. PMID:26629796

  11. Non-antigen-contacting region of an asymmetric bispecific antibody to factors IXa/X significantly affects factor VIII-mimetic activity.

    PubMed

    Sampei, Zenjiro; Igawa, Tomoyuki; Soeda, Tetsuhiro; Funaki, Miho; Yoshihashi, Kazutaka; Kitazawa, Takehisa; Muto, Atsushi; Kojima, Tetsuo; Nakamura, Satoshi; Hattori, Kunihiro

    2015-01-01

    While antibody engineering improves the properties of therapeutic antibodies, optimization of regions that do not contact antigens has been mainly focused on modifying the effector functions and pharmacokinetics of antibodies. We recently reported an asymmetric anti-FIXa/FX bispecific IgG4 antibody, ACE910, which mimics the cofactor function of FVIII by placing the two factors into spatial proximity for the treatment of hemophilia A. During the optimization process, we found that the activity was significantly affected by IgG subclass and by modifications to the inter-chain disulfide bonds, upper hinge region, elbow hinge region, and Fc glycan, even though these regions were unlikely to come into direct contact with the antigens. Of these non-antigen-contacting regions, the tertiary structure determined by the inter-chain disulfide bonds was found to strongly affect the FVIII-mimetic activity. Interestingly, IgG4-like disulfide bonds between Cys131 in the heavy chain and Cys114 in the light chain, and disulfide bonds between the two heavy chains at the hinge region were indispensable for the high FVIII-mimetic activity. Moreover, proline mutations in the upper hinge region and removal of the Fc glycan enhanced the FVIII-mimetic activity, suggesting that flexibility of the upper hinge region and the Fc portion structure are important for the FVIII-mimetic activity. This study suggests that these non-antigen-contacting regions can be engineered to improve the biological activity of IgG antibodies with functions similar to ACE910, such as placing two antigens into spatial proximity, retargeting effector cells to target cells, or co-ligating two identical or different antigens on the same cell. PMID:25524207

  12. An amphipathic sulphated glycoconjugate of Leishmania: characterization with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Handman, E; Greenblatt, C L; Goding, J W

    1984-01-01

    A major glycoconjugate of Leishmania tropica major identified by two monoclonal antibodies was shown to be an externally oriented, amphipathic membrane antigen shed into the culture medium in which the parasites grow. This molecule could be labelled metabolically with [3H]glucose, [3H]galactose, [32P]phosphate and [35S]sulphate. It migrated as a polydisperse band upon electrophoresis in SDS-polyacrylamide gels, spanning the region of the gel corresponding to an apparent mol. wt. of 20 000-67 000 daltons. An apparently identical family of molecules could be labelled on the surface of living promastigotes using galactose oxidase and [3H]-sodium borohydride. This molecule was shown to be released into the supernatant over a period of several hours. Detection of the 3H- or 35S-labelled molecule required several days exposure of autoradiographs, but a novel blotting technique using nitrocellulose coated with monoclonal antibody allowed rapid detection of the molecule in charge shift electrophoresis, Western blotting and dot blotting. The electrophoretic mobility of the glycoconjugate in agarose relative to its mobility in Triton X-100 was increased in the presence of deoxycholate, and decreased in the presence of cetyl trimethyl-ammonium bromide, indicating amphipathic properties consistent with insertion into the lipid bilayer of the membrane. Using the dot-blotting technique the glycoconjugate was detected in all virulent and avirulent clones of LRC-L137 and in two additional isolates of L. tropica major (LRC-L287 and LRC-L251), but not in L. donovani or L. mexicana, consistent with the previously described specificity of the antibodies. However, the general approaches used in this paper showed that L. donovani (LRC-L52) and L. mexicana (LRC-L94) synthesize a similar, but antigenically distinct glycoconjugate. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6499830

  13. Immunologic characterization and specificity of three monoclonal antibodies against the 58-kilodalton protein of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, J S; Plikaytis, B B; Aloisio, C H; Carlone, G M; Pau, C P; Stinson, A R

    1991-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies against the Legionella pneumophila 58-kDa protein were produced. By using immunoblot analysis, the percentages of reactivity against 47 serogroups of Legionella representing 29 species were determined to be 80.9, 87.2, and 95.6 for monoclonal antibodies GB5BE8, GB5AF6, and CA4AF5, respectively. Specificities obtained from testing 63 heterologous organisms representing 22 genera and 46 species were 90.7, 92.2, and 95.3% for monoclonal antibodies GB5BE8, GB5AF6, and CA4AF5, respectively. No single heterologous strain was reactive with all three monoclonal antibodies. These monoclonal antibodies successfully identified all 10 clinical isolates of Legionella examined in a dot blot assay and should be excellent reagents for use in genuswide diagnostic immunoassays. Images PMID:1890189

  14. Legionella micdadei and Legionella dumoffii monoclonal antibodies for laboratory diagnosis of Legionella infections.

    PubMed Central

    Cercenado, E; Edelstein, P H; Gosting, L H; Sturge, J C

    1987-01-01

    Two different monoclonal antibodies directed against Legionella micdadei and L. dumoffii (Genetic Systems Corp., Seattle, Wash.) were evaluated for their specificity and ability to detect L. micdadei and L. dumoffii in human and animal clinical samples and bacterial isolates in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. All three frozen sputum samples and all three Formalin-fixed sputum and liver samples from patients with culture-documented L. micdadei pneumonia were positive when tested with the L. micdadei monoclonal antibody. A Formalin-preserved lung sample from a patient with culture-documented L. dumoffii pneumonia was positive with its homologous monoclonal antibody. No cross-staining reactions were found with either monoclonal antibody on any of 25 human sputum samples tested from patients without Legionella infections. A total of 66 Legionella strains and 56 non-Legionella strains including 22 Pseudomonas strains and 34 other bacterial strains were studied. No cross-staining reactions were found except in Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1 ATCC 12598. The lower limit of detection in seeded sputum samples was about 7 X 10(4) cells per ml for both monoclonal antibodies. Lung and tracheal lavage specimens from L. micdadei- or L. dumoffii-infected guinea pigs showed specific staining only with their respective monoclonal antibodies. The monoclonal antibodies stained homologous bacteria slightly less intensely than did the polyclonal antisera, but the signal-to-noise ratio was considerably higher for the monoclonal antibodies. No differences in sensitivity of staining of clinical specimens or bacterial isolates were noted between the monoclonal antibodies and the polyclonal reagents for L. micdadei and L. dumoffii (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga., and BioDx, Denville, N.J. These monoclonal antibodies ae sensitive and specific, making them good candidates for laboratory diagnostic purposes. PMID:3320084

  15. Exceptionally Potent and Broadly Cross-Reactive, Bispecific Multivalent HIV-1 Inhibitors Based on Single Human CD4 and Antibody Domains

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yang; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Ying, Tianlei; Wang, Yanping; Sun, Jianping; Macedo, Camila D. S.; Zhu, Zhongyu; He, Yuxian; Polonis, Victoria R.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble forms of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primary receptor CD4 (soluble CD4 [sCD4]) have been extensively characterized for a quarter of a century as promising HIV-1 inhibitors, but they have not been clinically successful. By combining a protein cavity-filling strategy and the power of library technology, we identified an engineered cavity-altered single-domain sCD4 (mD1.22) with a unique combination of excellent properties, including broad and potent neutralizing activity, high specificity, stability, solubility, and affinity for the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120, and small molecular size. To further improve its neutralizing potency and breadth, we generated bispecific multivalent fusion proteins of mD1.22 with another potent HIV-1 inhibitor, an antibody domain (m36.4) that targets the coreceptor-binding site on gp120. The fusion proteins neutralized all HIV-1 isolates tested, with potencies about 10-, 50-, and 200-fold higher than those of the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01, the U.S. FDA-approved peptide inhibitor T20, and the clinically tested sCD4-Fc fusion protein CD4-Ig, respectively. In addition, they exhibited higher stability and specificity and a lower aggregation propensity than CD4-Ig. Therefore, mD1.22 and related fusion proteins could be useful for HIV-1 prevention and therapy, including eradication of the virus. PMID:24198429

  16. Anti-factor IXa/X bispecific antibody ACE910 prevents joint bleeds in a long-term primate model of acquired hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Muto, Atsushi; Yoshihashi, Kazutaka; Takeda, Minako; Kitazawa, Takehisa; Soeda, Tetsuhiro; Igawa, Tomoyuki; Sampei, Zenjiro; Kuramochi, Taichi; Sakamoto, Akihisa; Haraya, Kenta; Adachi, Kenji; Kawabe, Yoshiki; Nogami, Keiji; Shima, Midori; Hattori, Kunihiro

    2014-11-13

    ACE910 is a humanized anti-factor IXa/X bispecific antibody mimicking the function of factor VIII (FVIII). We previously demonstrated in nonhuman primates that a single IV dose of ACE910 exerted hemostatic activity against hemophilic bleeds artificially induced in muscles and subcutis, and that a subcutaneous (SC) dose of ACE910 showed a 3-week half-life and nearly 100% bioavailability, offering support for effective prophylaxis for hemophilia A by user-friendly SC dosing. However, there was no direct evidence that such SC dosing of ACE910 would prevent spontaneous bleeds occurring in daily life. In this study, we newly established a long-term primate model of acquired hemophilia A by multiple IV injections of an anti-primate FVIII neutralizing antibody engineered in mouse-monkey chimeric form to reduce its antigenicity. The monkeys in the control group exhibited various spontaneous bleeding symptoms as well as continuous prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time; notably, all exhibited joint bleeds, which are a hallmark of hemophilia. Weekly SC doses of ACE910 (initial 3.97 mg/kg followed by 1 mg/kg) significantly prevented these bleeding symptoms; notably, no joint bleeding symptoms were observed. ACE910 is expected to prevent spontaneous bleeds and joint damage in hemophilia A patients even with weekly SC dosing, although appropriate clinical investigation is required. PMID:25274508

  17. Preparation and identification of anti-2, 4-dinitrophenyl monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tangbin; Zhong, Ping; Qu, Lina; Wang, Chunyan; Yuan, Yanhong

    2006-06-30

    2, 4-Dinitrophenyl (DNP) is a widely used hapten in molecular biology and immunoassay fields. Considering that 2, 4-dintrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) could be used as DNA probe and bind with protein carbonyl to form a stable 2 4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) hydrazone product, on which the level of oxidative stress could be validated with a sensitive noncompetitive ELISA, we prepared DNP-aminocaproic acid and NHS-aminocaproic acid-dinitrobenzene and the conjugates between DNP and carrier proteins such as bovine thyroglobulin (BTG) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). High titer antibody producing spleen cells were removed and fused with myeloma cells of SP2/0 origin. Using a conventional immunization protocol, twenty stable murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) producing cell lines to DNP were generated. The donor mouse produced antiserum with a high titer of 1/1,280,000. Five MAbs were selected for further characterization as class and subclass. After four successive limiting dilutions, antibodies were produced by five clones with high affinities ranging from 10(10) to 10(11) M(-1). These clones were found to be of IgG(1) subclass with kappa and lambda light chain. Competitive ELISA and SPR-based sensing system for the detection of DNPH are both used to confirm the specificity of MAb (4D(9)A(9)C(2)C(2)). PMID:16765373

  18. Computational design of a CNT carrier for a high affinity bispecific anti-HER2 antibody based on trastuzumab and pertuzumab Fabs.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Salinas, Karim; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Seminario, Jorge M

    2013-07-01

    This is a preliminary cross multidisciplinary theoretical-computational approach for the design of a drug delivery system based on immunoconjugated carbon nanotube against HER2- overexpressing cancer cells. This drug delivery system allows the release of an encapsulated cytotoxic cocktail in a controlled manner under pulsed radio frequency (RF) irradiation. Our effort is focused on the computational aided design of a high affinity bispecific anti-HER2 antibody and an opening mechanism of the carbon nanotube (CNT) based cytotoxic carrier for controlling multiple drug release. We study the main interactions between the antibody and the antigen by a computational scanning mutagenesis approach of trastuzumab and pertuzumab fragment antigen binding (Fab) structures in order to enhance their binding affinity. Then, each Fab fragments is joined by a polypeptide linker which should be stable enough to avoid the "open form" of antibody. On the other hand, we also conjugate the engineered antibody to functionalized CNTs (f-CNTs), which encapsulate the inhibitors of the HER2/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. We take advantage of the fact that f-CNT converts the RF radiation absorption into heat release. A pulsed laser at 13.45 MHz increments the temperature around 40 °C for triggering the nano-caps destabilization, which allows the switching of the opening mechanism of the drug carrier. Nano-caps will be a dual pH/temperature responsive in order to take advantage of lysosome characteristic (acidic pH) and heat release from the carrier. Nano-caps are functionalized with organic amide moieties, which hydrolyze quickly at an acidic pH into primary amines, and protonated amines generate repulsion interactions with other charged species, which trigger the cytotoxics release. PMID:23143677

  19. Radioimmunoimaging of venous thrombi using iodine-131 monoclonal antibody. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Rosebrough, S.F.; Kudryk, B.; Grossman, Z.D.; McAfee, J.G.; Subramanian, G.; Ritter-Hrncirik, C.A.; Witanowski, L.S.; Tillapaugh-Fay, G.

    1985-08-01

    Murine monoclonal antibody (Mab) specific for the NH/sub 2/-terminal region of human fibrin, but not cross-reactive with fibrinogen, was used in radioimmuno-imaging of fresh, induced venous thrombi in three dogs. Iodine-131-labeled Mab was injected intravenously, with iodine 125-labeled polyclonal murine gamma-G globulin (IgG) simultaneously injected as a control. Images were strongly positive at 24 and 48 hours in all three animals, with thrombus-to-blood and thrombus-to-muscle ratios of 8.4 and 228.0, respectively, for I-131-labeled Mab; these ratios for control IgG were 1.2 and 13.0. Radioimmunodetection of thrombi in vivo is feasible in dogs and may have clinical application since Mab is specific to human fibrin.

  20. Monoclonal antibodies and the transformation of blood typing

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Today, when monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become one of the most important classes of therapeutic drugs, it is easy to forget how much they have transformed our healthcare in other ways. One of the first clinical areas, as this paper shows, where mAbs made their mark was in the field of blood typing. The adoption of mAbs for this purpose was done with little public fanfare or funding. Nonetheless, it radically transformed the accuracy and cost of blood typing and shifted the procedure away from a dependence on reagents made from human blood donated by volunteers. This paper argues that the development of mAbs as reagents for blood typing laid the foundation for the first large-scale production of mAbs thereby paving the way to the advent of mAb diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25484059

  1. Generation of monoclonal antibody targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, Olena; Ovcharenko, Galyna; Klymenko, Tetyana; Zhyvoloup, Olexandr; Gaman, Nadia; Volkova, Darija; Gout, Ivan; Filonenko, Valeriy

    2009-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a member of the FGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases, whose function has been implicated in diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and tumorigenesis. Deregulation of FGFR3 signaling has been implicated with human pathologies, including cancer. Activating mutations in FGFR3 gene are frequently detected in bladder cancer, multiple myeloma, and noninvasive papillary urothelial cell carcinomas, while the overexpression of the receptor is observed in thyroid lymphoma and bladder cancer. The main aim of this study was to generate hybridoma clones producing antibody that could specifically recognize FGFR3/S249C mutant, but not the wild-type FGFR. To achieve this, we used for immunization bacterially expressed fragment of FGFR3 corresponding to loops II-III of the extracellular domain (GST-His/FGFR3/S249C-LII-III), which possesses oncogenic mutation at Ser249 detected in at least 50% of bladder cancers. Primary ELISA screening allowed us to isolate several hybridoma clones that showed specificity towards FGFR3/S249C, but not FGFR3wt protein. Unfortunately, these clones were not stable during single-cell cloning and expansion and lost the ability to recognize specifically FGFR3/S249C. However, this study allowed us to generate several monoclonal antibodies specific towards both FGFR3wt and FGFR3/S249C recombinant proteins. Produced hybridomas secreted MAbs that were specific in Western blotting towards bacterially expressed FGFR3wt and FGFR3/S249C, as well as the full-length receptors ectopically expressed in Sf21 and HEK293 cells. Moreover, transiently expressed wild-type and oncogenic forms of FGFR were efficiently immunoprecipitated with selected antibodies from the lysates of infected Sf21 and transiently transfected HEK293. In summary, generated antibodies should be useful as tools for examining the expression pattern and biological functions of FGFR3 in normal and pathological cells and tissues. PMID:19663703

  2. Monoclonal antibodies specific for human monocytes, granulocytes and endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, N; MacDonald, S; Slusarenko, M; Beverley, P C

    1984-01-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies against antigens of human myeloid cells have been produced and thoroughly characterized in terms of their reactions with peripheral blood cells, cell lines, nine lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues and the polypeptides with which they react. UCHM1 and SmO identify antigens present on the majority of blood monocytes and a variable, but lower, proportion of tissue macrophages. From their morphology and location in tissues, these cells appear to be recirculating monocytes. SMO antigen is also present on platelets. In addition, both antibodies stained endothelial cells, SMO in all tissues examined and UCHM1 variably. Biochemical investigation indicated that the UCHM1 antigen is a protein of 52,000 MW while the SMO antigen could not be indentified. The antibodies TG1 and 28 identify antigens mainly present on granulocytes. While mAb 28 reacted with neutrophils, TG1 also stained eosinophils and stained strongly a proportion of monocytes. TG1 also reacted variably with some non-haemopoietic cell lines. Both antibodies reacted predominantly with granulocytes in tissue sections. MAb TG1 precipitated a single polypeptide of 156,000 MW from monocytes and granulocytes, while mAb 28 precipitated non-convalently associated polypeptides of 83,000 and 155,000 MW from granulocytes but only a single molecule from monocytes, corresponding to the lower MW chain of 83,000. The epitope with which mAb 28 reacts appears not to be exposed on the surface of intact monocytes. This suggests that a similar or identical 83,000 MW molecule is made by both neutrophils and monocytes, but that its expression differs according to cell type. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6389324

  3. Monoclonal antibodies against rabbit mammary prolactin receptors. Specific antibodies to the hormone binding domain

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, M.; Djiane, J.; Kelly, P.A.

    1985-09-25

    Three monoclonal antibodies (M110, A82, and A917) were obtained by fusing myeloma cells and spleen cells from mice immunized with partially purified rabbit mammary gland prolactin (PRL) receptors. All 3 antibodies were capable of complete inhibition of SVI-ovine prolactin (oPRL) binding to rabbit mammary PRL receptors in either particulate or soluble form. M110 showed slightly greater potency than oPRL in competing for SVI-oPRL binding. These antibodies also inhibited PRL binding to microsomal fractions from rabbit liver, kidney, adrenal, ovary, and pig mammary gland, although A82 showed poor inhibition in pig mammary gland. There was no cross-reaction of any of the 3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the other species tested: human (T-47D breast cancer cells) and rat (liver, ovary). In order to confirm that these antibodies are specific to the binding domain, antibodies were purified, iodinated, and binding characteristics were investigated. SVI-M110 and SVI-A82 binding was completely inhibited by lactogenic hormones, whereas nonlactogenic hormones did not cross-react. Competition of 125I-M110 by oPRL was comparable to that of SVI-oPRL by unlabeled oPRL, while SVI-A917 binding was only partially competed (30-60%) by lactogenic hormones. Tissue and species specificity of labeled antibody binding paralleled results of binding inhibition experiments using 125I-oPRL. In addition, A82 and A917 completely inhibited 125I-M110 binding. In contrast, 125I-A82 binding was stimulated by A917 and 125I-A917 binding was stimulated by A82.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies that immunoreact with a cation-stimulated plant membrane ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Chin, J J

    1982-01-01

    Hybridoma technology has been used successfully to generate monoclonal-antibody probes against protoplast membrane antigens. Hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies that either inhibit or stimulate a putative plasma-membrane marker enzyme, (K+ + Mg2+)-stimulated pH 6.5 ATPase, have been identified and cloned. The specificity of monoclonal-antibody probes on the activity of other phosphate-hydrolysing enzymes has also been examined. The production and identification of monospecific antibodies capable of immunoreacting with particular component proteins in a complex plant membrane mixture highlight the usefulness of hybridoma methodology for the enzymologist, especially since such monoclonal antibodies can be used in the purification of proteins by immunoaffinity techniques. PMID:6125145

  5. Monoclonal Antibodies for the Diagnosis of Borrelia crocidurae.

    PubMed

    Fotso Fotso, Aurélien; Mediannikov, Oleg; Nappez, Claude; Azza, Saďd; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Relapsing fever borreliae, produced by ectoparasite-borne Borrelia species, cause mild to deadly bacteremia and miscarriage. In the perspective of developing inexpensive assays for the rapid detection of relapsing fever borreliae, we produced 12 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Borrelia crocidurae and characterized the two exhibiting the highest titers. P3A10 MAb reacts with the 35.6-kDa flagellin B (flaB) of B. crocidurae while P6D9 MAb recognizes a 35.1-kDa variable-like protein (Vlp) in B. crocidurae and a 35.2-kDa Vlp in Borrelia duttonii. Indirect immunofluorescence assay incorporating relapsing fever and Lyme group borreliae and 11 blood-borne organisms responsible for fever in West Africa confirmed the reactivity of these two MAbs. Combining these two MAbs in indirect immunofluorescence assays detected relapsing fever borreliae including B. crocidurae in ticks and the blood of febrile Senegalese patients. Both antibodies could be incorporated into inexpensive and stable formats suited for the rapid point-of-care diagnosis of relapsing fever. These first-ever MAbs directed against African relapsing fever borreliae are available for the scientific community to promote research in this neglected field. PMID:26598566

  6. An antifibrin monoclonal antibody useful in immunoscintigraphic detection of thrombi

    SciTech Connect

    Wasser, M.N.; Koppert, P.W.; Arndt, J.W.; Emeis, J.J.; Feitsma, R.I.; Pauwels, E.K.; Nieuwenhuizen, W. )

    1989-08-01

    Balb/c mice were immunized with human plasmin-generated fibrinogen degradation product Y. Spleen cells were fused with P3X63-Ag8.653 myeloma cells. A clone (Y22) was found that produces monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) with a strong reactivity with human fibrin and only a weak reactivity with fibrinogen in an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Y22 also reacts with fibrin of rabbits, rats, sheep, and dogs. The antibodies are of the IgG1 kappa-type and appear to be directed against a conformation-dependent epitope in the D-domain of fibrin. Experiments with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled Y22 in vitro show that Y22 binds rapidly to forming clots. {sup 99}mTc-Y22 also binds to preformed plasma clots in a plasma milieu, even in the presence of high concentrations of heparin. Clot localization experiments in rabbits and rats confirm the high fibrin specificity and the potential of {sup 99m}Tc-Y22 for thrombus imaging in vivo.

  7. Production of human anti-HLA monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.C.; Mercier, F.; Roger, J.; Varin, M.

    1986-03-01

    Only 40% of the several hundred anti-HLA murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that have been made detect HLA-A,B,C or DR specificities previously defined by human alloantisera, the range of recognized specificities is very narrow, and few of the MAbs have proven useful as tissue typing reagents. In hopes of obtaining HLA typing reagents, the authors are developing a protocol for the production of human anti-HLA MAbs from HLA-antigen (Ag) immunized peripheral blood B cells of volunteering renal patients, immunized to one or more HLA Ags through therapeutic blood transfusions. A simple enrichment of the donor B cells has not been sufficient for anti-HLA MAb production, the authors are currently delineating the conditions necessary for increasing the number of HLA-specific donor B cells by in vitro stimulation with cells expressing the HLA Ag to which the B cell donor is immunized. For the production of MAbs, the stimulated B cells are transformed with Epstein-Barr virus and subsequently fused with KR-4 lymphoblastoid cells. Hybridomas are selected by HAT and Ouabain. Supernatants are screened for anti-HLA activity against lymphocyte targets expressing the original immunizing HLA Ag by complement mediated /sup 51/Cr release assay. Antibody specificity is determined by the complement-dependent microcytotoxicity test used for HLA typing.

  8. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and therapy: Potential, problems, and prospects: Scientific highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Buraggi, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    This meeting focused on areas of research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. Topics covered included the production, purification, and fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies and immunochemistry of hybridomas; the production and the chemistry of radionuclides; the radiohalogenation and radiometal labeling techniques; the in-vivo pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled antibodies; the considerations of immunoreactivity of radiolabeled preparations; the instrumentation and imaging techniques as applied to radioimmunodetection; the radiation dosimetry in diagnostic and therapeutic use of labeled antibodies; the radioimmunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy studies; and perspectives and directions for future research. Tutorial as well as scientific lectures describing the latest research data on the above topics were presented. Three workshop panels were convened on ''Methods for Determining Immunoreactivity of Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibodies - Problems and Pitfalls,'' Radiobiological and Dosimetric Considerations for Immunotherapy with Labeled Antibodies,'' and ''The Human Anti-Mouse Antibody Response in Patients.''

  9. Phase I Study of Anti-CD3 x Anti-Her2 Bispecific Antibody in Metastatic Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Archana; Rathore, Ritesh; Kouttab, Nicola; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. New nontoxic targeted approaches are needed for patients with castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Our preclinical studies show that activated T cells (ATC) armed with anti-CD3 x anti-Her2 bispecific antibody (Her2Bi) kill prostate cancer cells lines, induce a Th1 cytokine pattern upon engagement of tumor cells, prevent the development of prostate tumors, and retard tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. These studies provided strong rationale for our phase I dose-escalation pilot study to test ATC armed with Her2Bi (aATC) for safety in men with CRPC. Methods. Seven of 8 men with CRPC were evaluable after receiving two infusions per week for 4 weeks. The men received 2.5, 5 or 10 × 109 aATC per infusion with low dose interleukin-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Results. There were no dose limiting toxicities, and there was 1 partial responder and 3 of 7 patients had significant decreases in their PSA levels and pain scores. Immune evaluations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 2 patients before and after immunotherapy showed increases in IFN-? EliSpot responses and Th1 serum cytokines. Conclusions. These results provide a strong rationale for developing phase II trials to determine whether aATC are effective for treating CRPC. PMID:25802762

  10. The Use of Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies for the Prevention of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Arcuri, Santo; Galletti, Silvia; Faldella, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are widely used both in infants and in adults for several indications. Humanized monoclonal antibodies (palivizumab) have been used for many years for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in pediatric populations (preterm infants, infants with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease) at high risk of severe and potentially lethal course of the infection. This drug was reported to be safe, well tolerated and effective to decrease the hospitalization rate and mortality in these groups of infants by several clinical trials. In the present paper we report the development and the current use of monoclonal antibodies for prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus. PMID:23840240

  11. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES DIRECTED AGAINST THE AH RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies that are specific for the N-terminal peptide sequence of the murine Ah receptor were isolated. hese antibodies bind with high specificity to the Al receptor on protein blots of Hepa 1c1c7 cytosol. hree IgG1 antibodies (Rpt1, 2, and 3...

  12. Tangible Materials Available for Licensing Monoclonal Antibodies for Non-exclusive Licensing

    E-print Network

    Tangible Materials Available for Licensing Monoclonal Antibodies for Non-exclusive Licensing Hybridoma Clones Inventor Reference 1 Clone 6-11B1, secreting antibodies specific for anti alpha-tubulin Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA (1987) 84, 5720-5724 2 Clone B-5-1-2, secreting antibodies

  13. Phase separation in solutions of monoclonal antibodies and the effect of human serum albumin

    E-print Network

    Benedek, George B.

    Phase separation in solutions of monoclonal antibodies and the effect of human serum albumin Ying antibody, IgG2, and the effects of human serum albumin, a major blood protein, on this phase separation. We, and a preferential parti- tioning of the albumin into the antibody-rich phase. We provide a general thermodynamic

  14. Monoclonal antibodies demonstrate limited structural homology between myosin isozymes from Acanthamoeba

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    We used a library of 31 monoclonal and six polyclonal antibodies to compare the structures of the two classes of cytoplasmic myosin isozymes isolated from Acanthamoeba: myosin-I, a 150,000-mol-wt, globular molecule; and myosin-II, a 400,000-mol-wt molecule with two heads and a 90-nm tail. This analysis confirms that myosin-I and -II are unique gene products and provides the first evidence that these isozymes have at least one structurally homologous region functionally important for myosin's role in contractility. Characterization of the 23 myosin-II monoclonal antibody binding sites by antibody staining of one-dimensional peptide maps and solid phase, competitive binding assays demonstrate that they bind to at least 15 unique sites on the myosin-II heavy chain. The antibodies can be grouped into six families, whose members bind close to one another. None of the monoclonal antibodies bind to myosin-II light chains and polyclonal antibodies against myosin-II light or heavy chain bind only to myosin-II light or heavy chains, respectively: no antibody binds both heavy and light chains. Six of eight monoclonal antibodies and one of two polyclonal sera that react with the myosin-I heavy chain also bind to determinants on the myosin-II heavy chain. The cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies bind to the region of myosin-II recognized by the largest family of myosin-II monoclonal antibodies. In the two papers that immediately follow, we show that this family of monoclonal antibodies to myosin-II binds to the myosin-II tail near the junction with the heads and inhibits both the actin-activated ATPase of myosin-II and contraction of gelled cytoplasmic extracts of Acanthamoeba cytoplasm. Further, this structurally homologous region may play a key role in energy transduction by cytoplasmic myosins. PMID:6206073

  15. A novel monoclonal antibody, H9, directed against the core protein of MUC1 mucin.

    PubMed

    Hamada, H; Kohno, N; Yokoyama, A; Kondo, K; Yang, S Z; Hiwada, K; Watanabe, K; Miyake, M

    2000-01-01

    MUC1 mucin is a target protein for many monoclonal antibodies. Human MUC1 detected by a murine anti-KL-6 monoclonal antibody that recognizes a sialylated carbohydrate chain has been designated KL-6/MUC1. Given the heterogeneous antigenicity of KL-6/MUC1, we established a new murine monoclonal antibody, H9, that reacts with epitope DTRP (Asp-Thr-Arg-Pro) peptides within the immunodominant region of the tandem repeat of MUC1 mucin. The reactivity of the H9 antibody differs from that of other previously reported antibodies that recognize the tandem repeat region of MUC1. Immunohistochemical experiments indicate that the reactivity of the H9 antibody is similar to that of other antibodies directed against MUC1 core proteins. A new cancer-associated protein detected by a sandwich assay using the H9 antibody as a catcher and the KL-6 antibody as a tracer is designated HK9. Serum HK9 levels showed a high expression level in lung cancer: 51% (19/37 cases) for adenocarcinoma, 39% (11/28 cases) for squamous cell carcinoma, and 67% (10/15 cases) for small cell carcinoma. The HK9 expression in lung cancer increased with cancer progression. These findings suggest monoclonal antibody H9 to be a novel antibody that reacts with an epitope within the tandem repeat region of MUC1, and that the cancer-associated antigen HK9 may have useful tumor-associated properties. PMID:10671662

  16. Tactical planning optimization for campaign scheduling of active pharmaceutical ingredient production based on monoclonal antibodies

    E-print Network

    Assia, Shai

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal Antibodies (mAb's) are the fastest growing segment in the biopharmaceutical industry. They are used today as therapeutics and diagnostics for several medical applications, including various types of cancer, ...

  17. Phase separation in solutions of monoclonal antibodies and the effect of human serum albumin

    E-print Network

    Wang, Ying

    We report the observation of liquid-liquid phase separation in a solution of human monoclonal antibody, IgG2, and the effects of human serum albumin, a major blood protein, on this phase separation. We find a significant ...

  18. Specific monoclonal antibodies against embryonic chicken adipose tissue cell membranes and their application against developing adipocytes 

    E-print Network

    Corcoran, Melinda Valdez

    2002-01-01

    Use of anti-adipocyte monoclonal antibodies (MAb) for reduction of fat mass in chickens was investigated in two experiments. Reduction of adipose tissue mass was obtained only in Experiment II. In Experiment I, 132 fertilized broiler chicken eggs...

  19. Comparison of the growth and monoclonal antibody production of suspended mammalian cells in three perfusion systems

    E-print Network

    Hufford, Kathy (Kathy E.)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to provide a broad survey of bioprocess options for typical drug production vehicles in the biotechnology industry. This goal was accomplished by comparing the growth and monoclonal antibody ...

  20. Identification of serotype 9 human rotavirus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Midthun, K; Valdesuso, J; Kapikian, A Z; Hoshino, Y; Green, K Y

    1989-09-01

    Hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies to VP7, a major neutralizing protein of serotype 9 rotavirus (strain W161), were prepared. One monoclonal antibody, W161-6A1, was shown to neutralize only serotype 9 rotavirus strains and reacted specifically with serotype 9 rotaviruses in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The development of an immunoassay for detection of serotype 9 rotaviruses should facilitate epidemiologic studies. PMID:2550520

  1. Identification of serotype 9 human rotavirus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Midthun, K; Valdesuso, J; Kapikian, A Z; Hoshino, Y; Green, K Y

    1989-01-01

    Hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies to VP7, a major neutralizing protein of serotype 9 rotavirus (strain W161), were prepared. One monoclonal antibody, W161-6A1, was shown to neutralize only serotype 9 rotavirus strains and reacted specifically with serotype 9 rotaviruses in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The development of an immunoassay for detection of serotype 9 rotaviruses should facilitate epidemiologic studies. PMID:2550520

  2. Monoclonal antibodies to human butyrylcholinesterase reactive with butyrylcholinesterase in animal plasma.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong; Brimijoin, Stephen; Hrabovska, Anna; Krejci, Eric; Blake, Thomas A; Johnson, Rudolph C; Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2016-01-01

    Five mouse anti-human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) monoclonal antibodies bind tightly to native human BChE with nanomolar dissociation constants. Pairing analysis in the Octet system identified the monoclonal antibodies that bind to overlapping and independent epitopes on human BChE. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 4 monoclonal antibodies are deposited in GenBank. Our goal was to determine which of the 5 monoclonal antibodies recognize BChE in the plasma of animals. Binding of monoclonal antibodies 11D8, B2 18-5, B2 12-1, mAb2 and 3E8 to BChE in animal plasma was measured using antibody immobilized on Pansorbin cells and on Dynabeads Protein G. A third method visualized binding by the shift of BChE activity bands on nondenaturing gels stained for BChE activity. Gels were counterstained for carboxylesterase activity. The three methods agreed that B2 18-5 and mAb2 have broad species specificity, but the other monoclonal antibodies interacted only with human BChE, the exception being 3E8, which also bound chicken BChE. B2 18-5 and mAb2 recognized BChE in human, rhesus monkey, horse, cat, and tiger plasma. A weak response was found with rabbit BChE. Monoclonal mAb2, but not B2 18-5, bound pig and bovine BChE. Gels stained for carboxylesterase activity confirmed that plasma from humans, monkey, pig, chicken, and cow does not contain carboxylesterase, but plasma from horse, cat, tiger, rabbit, guinea pig, mouse, and rat has carboxylesterase. Rabbit plasma carboxylesterase hydrolyzes butyrylthiocholine. In conclusion monoclonal antibodies B2 18-5 and mAb2 can be used to immuno extract BChE from the plasma of humans, monkey and other animals. PMID:26585590

  3. Quantitative assessment of antibody internalization with novel monoclonal antibodies against Alexa fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Liao-Chan, Sindy; Daine-Matsuoka, Barbara; Heald, Nathan; Wong, Tiffany; Lin, Tracey; Cai, Allen G; Lai, Michelle; D'Alessio, Joseph A; Theunissen, Jan-Willem

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies against cell surface antigens may be internalized through their specific interactions with these proteins and in some cases may induce or perturb antigen internalization. The anti-cancer efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates is thought to rely on their uptake by cancer cells expressing the surface antigen. Numerous techniques, including microscopy and flow cytometry, have been used to identify antibodies with desired cellular uptake rates. To enable quantitative measurements of internalization of labeled antibodies, an assay based on internalized and quenched fluorescence was developed. For this approach, we generated novel anti-Alexa Fluor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that effectively and specifically quench cell surface-bound Alexa Fluor 488 or Alexa Fluor 594 fluorescence. Utilizing Alexa Fluor-labeled mAbs against the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase, we showed that the anti-Alexa Fluor reagents could be used to monitor internalization quantitatively over time. The anti-Alexa Fluor mAbs were also validated in a proof of concept dual-label internalization assay with simultaneous exposure of cells to two different mAbs. Importantly, the unique anti-Alexa Fluor mAbs described here may also enable other single- and dual-label experiments, including label detection and signal enhancement in macromolecules, trafficking of proteins and microorganisms, and cell migration and morphology. PMID:25894652

  4. Directed Selection of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins from Phage Display Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Williamson, R. Anthony; de Logu, Alessandro; Bloom, Floyd E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    1995-07-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies have considerable potential in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral disease. However, only a few such antibodies suitable for clinical use have been produced to date. We have previously shown that large panels of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of infectious agents, including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, can be established from phage display libraries. Here we demonstrate that facile cloning of recombinant Fab fragments against specific viral proteins in their native conformation can be accomplished by panning phage display libraries against viral glycoproteins "captured" from infected cell extracts by specific monoclonal antibodies immobilized on ELISA plates. We have tested this strategy by isolating six neutralizing recombinant antibodies specific for herpes simplex glycoprotein gD or gB, some of which are against conformationally sensitive epitopes. By using defined monoclonal antibodies for the antigen-capture step, this method can be used for the isolation of antibodies to specific regions and epitopes within the target viral protein. For instance, monoclonal antibodies to a nonneutralizing epitope can be used in the capture step to clone antibodies to neutralizing epitopes, or antibodies to a neutralizing epitope can be used to clone antibodies to a different neutralizing epitope. Furthermore, by using capturing antibodies to more immunodominant epitopes, one can direct the cloning to less immunogenic ones. This method should be of value in generating antibodies to be used both in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections and in the characterization of the mechanisms of antibody protective actions at the molecular level.

  5. Heterobifunctional reagents: A new approach to radiolabeling of monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.S.T.; Ng, A.K.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Liu, Z.; Alderson, P.O.

    1985-05-01

    The use of bifunctional chelate such as the cyclic anhydride of DTPA for radiolabeling antibodies (Abs) may lead to homopolymerization, and intra- or intermolecular cross-linking, with resulting denaturation and decrease immunoreactivity of Abs. The authors, therefore, investigated the use of heterobifunctional reagents, whereby one group selectively couples to the amino group of the Ab and the other group to the radiometal for Ab labeling. One such reagent, 2,6-Dioxo-N-(carboxymethyl)morphine (DCM) was synthesized by reacting nitrilotriacetic acid with acetic anhydride. The other agent tested was commercially available N-Succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). These agents were evaluated independently for their ability to label a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) to a melanoma associated antigen (Ag). Labeling proceeded at a 2mg/ml concentration of the Ab, at HEPES pH 8.2, and 7.0, respectively, at room temperature for 30 min. The conjugate subsequently was labeled with Tc-99m or In-111. For comparison, the same labeled Abs also were prepared by using the cyclic anhydride of DTPA. Binding of the Ab to melanoma cells and control cells then was assayed. The results of cell binding experiments (N=3 per agent) in the region of Ag excess (X+-SD) were as follows: 62.6 +- 2.83% for Tc-99m-DCM-MoAb and 41.3+-1.84% for Tc-99m-SPDP-MoAb vs. 28.6 +- 1.16% for Tc-99m-DTPA-MoAb (p<0.01); 56.2 +- 2.97% for In-111-DCM-MoAb vs. 28.6 +- 1.16% for In-111-DTPA-M0Ab. Binding of all agents to the control lymphoid cell line was less than 3%. These results suggest that heterobifunctional reagents can reduce the loss of immunoreactivity of labeled MoAbs.

  6. Virus filtration of high-concentration monoclonal antibody solutions.

    PubMed

    Marques, Bruno F; Roush, David J; Göklen, Kent E

    2009-01-01

    The ability to process high-concentration monoclonal antibody solutions (> 10 g/L) through small-pore membranes typically used for virus removal can improve current antibody purification processes by eliminating the need for feed stream dilution, and by reducing filter area, cycle-time, and costs. In this work, we present the screening of virus filters of varying configurations and materials of construction using MAb solutions with a concentration range of 4-20 g/L. For our MAbs of interest-two different humanized IgG1s-flux decay was not observed up to a filter loading of 200 L/m(2) with a regenerated cellulose hollow fiber virus removal filter. In contrast, PVDF and PES flat sheet disc membranes were plugged by solutions of these same MAbs with concentrations >4 g/L well before 50 L/m(2). These results were obtained with purified feed streams containing <2% aggregates, as measured by size exclusion chromatography, where the majority of the aggregate likely was composed of dimers. Differences in filtration flux performance between the two MAbs under similar operating conditions indicate the sensitivity of the system to small differences in protein structure, presumably due to the impact of these differences on nonspecific interactions between the protein and the membrane; these differences cannot be anticipated based on protein pI alone. Virus clearance data with two model viruses (XMuLV and MMV) confirm the ability of hollow fiber membranes with 19 +/- 2 nm pore size to achieve at least 3-4 LRV, independent of MAb concentration, over the range examined. PMID:19353736

  7. Quality control of murine monoclonal antibodies using isoelectric focusing affinity immunoblot analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Robert G.; Rodkey, L. Scott; Reimer, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The quality control of murine hybridoma secretory products has been performed using two approaches for isoelectric focusing affinity immunoblot analysis: (1) a method in which antigen-coated nitrocellulose is placed on top of an acrylamide gel containing isoelectrically focused ascites to bind the antigen specific monoclonal antibody; and (2) a method in which focused ascite proteins were passively blotted onto nitrocellulose and specific monoclonal antibodies were detected with enzyme-conjugated antigen. Analysis by both methods of batches of ascites containing antihuman IgG antibodies that were produced by six hybridomas permitted effective monitoring of immunoreactive antibodies for pI microheterogeneity.

  8. Human monoclonal antibody with dual GM2/GD2 specificity derived from an immunized melanoma patient.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, H; Furukawa, K; Fortunato, S R; Livingston, P O; Lloyd, K O; Oettgen, H F; Old, L J

    1990-01-01

    GM2 ganglioside is a common cell surface constituent of human melanoma and other tumors of neuroectodermal origin, and vaccination with GM2 ganglioside results in high levels of anti-GM2 antibodies in patients with melanoma. Lymphocytes from a GM2-vaccinated patient (VS) were transformed by Epstein-Barr virus and tested for production of antibodies with reactivity for GM2-positive tumor cells. A high percentage of antibody-producing B cells was detected, but antibody reactivity was generally lost during culture expansion. Two cultures, however, remained stable for antibody productivity and one was used to develop a stable hybrid line with mouse myeloma. The monoclonal antibody (designated 3-207) derived from patient VS has dual specificity for GM2 and GD2, despite the fact that only GM2 antibody could be detected in the patient's serum. Monoclonal antibody 3-207 shows high-titered reactivity with a range of melanoma, astrocytoma, neuroblastoma, and leukemia cell lines, cells with prominent cell surface expression of GM2 and GD2. The cell surface reactivity of monoclonal antibody 3-207 was not abolished by treatment of target cells with neuraminidase, as the enzyme converted GD2 to GM2, which was still detected by monoclonal antibody 3-207. Images PMID:2159145

  9. Characterization of a new monoclonal antibody against mercury (II)

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, A.; Hock, B.

    1998-07-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced against mercury (II) and an enzyme immunoassay was developed for the detection of mercury (II) in water. Since mercury (II) ions are too small to elicit an immune response, they were coupled via glutathione (GSH) to the immunogenic carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Several mice were immunized with this KLH-GSH-Hg immunoconjugate. Spleen cells of immunized mice were fused with myeloma cells. The resulting hybridoma cells were screened for the production of specific anti-Hg mabs. Five positive cells were detected. The hybridoma cell line K3C6 was adjusted to protein free medium; it produced mabs with high selectivity and sensitivity. A detection limit of 2.8 {micro}g/L HgCl{sub 2} (= 2.1 {micro}g/L Hg{sup 2+}) was achieved with a non-competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Cross-reactivities with other metals were below 1%. Measurement of spiked water samples with this EIA showed good correlation with results obtained by mass spectrometry with inductive coupled plasma (ICP-MS).

  10. Production of a Chaetomium globosum enolase monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Green, Brett J; Nayak, Ajay P; Lemons, Angela R; Rittenour, William R; Hettick, Justin M; Beezhold, Donald H

    2014-12-01

    Chaetomium globosum is a hydrophilic fungal species and a contaminant of water-damaged building materials in North America. Methods to detect Chaetomium species include subjective identification of ascospores, viable culture, or molecular-based detection methods. In this study, we describe the production and initial characterization of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) for C. globosum enolase. MAb 1C7, a murine IgG1 isotype MAb, was produced and reacted with recombinant C. globosum enolase (rCgEno) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and with a putative C. globosum enolase in a Western blot. Epitope mapping showed MAb 1C7 specific reactivity to an enolase decapeptide, LTYEELANLY, that is highly conserved within the fungal class Sordariomycetes. Cross-reactivity studies showed MAb 1C7 reactivity to C. atrobrunneum but not C. indicum. MAb 1C7 did not react with enolase from Aspergillus fumigatus, which is divergent in only two amino acids within this epitope. The results of this study suggest potential utility of MAb 1C7 in Western blot applications for the detection of Chaetomium and other Sordariomycetes species. PMID:25495488

  11. Development and Evaluation of Monoclonal Antibodies for Paxilline

    PubMed Central

    Maragos, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    Paxilline (PAX) is a tremorgenic mycotoxin that has been found in perennial ryegrass infected with Acremonium lolii. To facilitate screening for this toxin, four murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were developed. In competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (CI-ELISAs) the concentrations of PAX required to inhibit signal development by 50% (IC50s) ranged from 1.2 to 2.5 ng/mL. One mAb (2-9) was applied to the detection of PAX in maize silage. The assay was sensitive to the effects of solvents, with 5% acetonitrile or 20% methanol causing a two-fold or greater increase in IC50. For analysis of silage samples, extracts were cleaned up by adsorbing potential matrix interferences onto a solid phase extraction column. The non-retained extract was then diluted with buffer to reduce solvent content prior to assay. Using this method, the limit of detection for PAX in dried silage was 15 µg/kg and the limit of quantification was 90 µg/kg. Recovery from samples spiked over the range of 100 to 1000 µg/kg averaged 106% ± 18%. The assay was applied to 86 maize silage samples, with many having detectable, but none having quantifiable, levels of PAX. The results suggest the CI-ELISA can be applied as a sensitive technique for the screening of PAX in maize silage. PMID:26426046

  12. Trial Watch: Immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Fernando; Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jerome; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) exert antineoplastic effects by eliciting a novel or reinstating a pre-existing antitumor immune response. Most often, immunostimulatory mAbs activate T lymphocytes or natural killer (NK) cells by inhibiting immunosuppressive receptors, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, best known as PD-1), or by engaging co-stimulatory receptors, like CD40, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 4 (TNFRSF4, best known as OX40) or TNFRSF18 (best known as GITR). The CTLA4-targeting mAb ipilimumab has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma in 2011. The therapeutic profile of ipilimumab other CTLA4-blocking mAbs, such as tremelimumab, is currently being assessed in subjects affected by a large panel of solid neoplasms. In the last few years, promising clinical results have also been obtained with nivolumab, a PD-1-targeting mAb formerly known as BMS-936558. Accordingly, the safety and efficacy of nivolumab and other PD-1-blocking molecules are being actively investigated. Finally, various clinical trials are underway to test the therapeutic potential of OX40- and GITR-activating mAbs. Here, we summarize recent findings on the therapeutic profile of immunostimulatory mAbs and discuss clinical trials that have been launched in the last 14 months to assess the therapeutic profile of these immunotherapeutic agents. PMID:24701370

  13. Trial Watch: Tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Vacchelli, Erika; Aranda, Fernando; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Sautčs-Fridman, Catherine; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, for the first time in history, a monoclonal antibody (mAb), i.e., the chimeric anti-CD20 molecule rituximab, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in cancer patients. Since then, the panel of mAbs that are approved by international regulatory agencies for the treatment of hematopoietic and solid malignancies has not stopped to expand, nowadays encompassing a stunning amount of 15 distinct molecules. This therapeutic armamentarium includes mAbs that target tumor-associated antigens, as well as molecules that interfere with tumor-stroma interactions or exert direct immunostimulatory effects. These three classes of mAbs exert antineoplastic activity via distinct mechanisms, which may or may not involve immune effectors other than the mAbs themselves. In previous issues of OncoImmunology, we provided a brief scientific background to the use of mAbs, all types confounded, in cancer therapy, and discussed the results of recent clinical trials investigating the safety and efficacy of this approach. Here, we focus on mAbs that primarily target malignant cells or their interactions with stromal components, as opposed to mAbs that mediate antineoplastic effects by activating the immune system. In particular, we discuss relevant clinical findings that have been published during the last 13 months as well as clinical trials that have been launched in the same period to investigate the therapeutic profile of hitherto investigational tumor-targeting mAbs. PMID:24605265

  14. Simplification of complex physiologically based pharmacokinetic models of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Elmeliegy, Mohamed; Lowe, Philip; Krzyzanski, Wojciech

    2014-07-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) exhibit biexponential profiles in plasma that are commonly described with a standard two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment. These models adequately describe mAb plasma PK. However, these models ignore elimination from the peripheral compartment. This may lead to underestimation of the volume of distribution of the peripheral compartment and thus over-predicts concentration in the peripheral compartment. We developed a simple and physiologically relevant model that incorporates information on binding and dissociation rates between mAb and FcRn receptor, mAb uptake, reflection, and catabolic degradation. We employed a previously published PBPK model and, with assumptions regarding rates of processes controlling mAb disposition, reduced the complex PBPK model to a simpler circular model with central, peripheral, and lymph compartments specifying elimination from both central and peripheral. We successfully applied the model to describe the PK of an investigational mAb. Our model presents an improvement over standard two-compartmental models in predicting whole-body average tissue concentrations while adequately describing plasma PK with minimal complexity and physiologically more meaningful parameters. PMID:24871341

  15. Production of a Chaetomium globosum Enolase Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajay P.; Lemons, Angela R.; Rittenour, William R.; Hettick, Justin M.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2014-01-01

    Chaetomium globosum is a hydrophilic fungal species and a contaminant of water-damaged building materials in North America. Methods to detect Chaetomium species include subjective identification of ascospores, viable culture, or molecular-based detection methods. In this study, we describe the production and initial characterization of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) for C. globosum enolase. MAb 1C7, a murine IgG1 isotype MAb, was produced and reacted with recombinant C. globosum enolase (rCgEno) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and with a putative C. globosum enolase in a Western blot. Epitope mapping showed MAb 1C7 specific reactivity to an enolase decapeptide, LTYEELANLY, that is highly conserved within the fungal class Sordariomycetes. Cross-reactivity studies showed MAb 1C7 reactivity to C. atrobrunneum but not C. indicum. MAb 1C7 did not react with enolase from Aspergillus fumigatus, which is divergent in only two amino acids within this epitope. The results of this study suggest potential utility of MAb 1C7 in Western blot applications for the detection of Chaetomium and other Sordariomycetes species. PMID:25495488

  16. Development of Sensitive Monoclonal Antibody PMab-2 Against Rat Podoplanin.

    PubMed

    Oki, Hiroharu; Honma, Ryusuke; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Fujii, Yuki; Liu, Xing; Takagi, Michiaki; Kaneko, Mika K; Kato, Yukinari

    2015-12-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN) is a platelet aggregation-inducing factor, which is known as an endogenous ligand of C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2). PDPN is also expressed in several normal tissues, such as lung type I alveolar cells and kidney podocytes. Although many monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against human PDPN (hPDPN) or mouse PDPN (mPDPN) have been established, anti-rat PDPN (rPDPN) MAbs, especially against platelet aggregation-stimulating (PLAG) domain (29-54 amino acids) of rPDPN, have not been developed. Therefore, functional analysis of rPDPN in normal tissues has been limited. Here, we immunized mice with rPDPN peptides (38-51 amino acids) and developed a novel mouse anti-rPDPN MAb, PMab-2 (IgG1, kappa), which possesses high affinity compared with anti-hPDPN or mPDPN MAbs. The KD of PMab-2 was determined to be 5.9?×?10(-10) M. PMab-2 is useful, not only in flow cytometry and Western blot analysis against endogenous rPDPN, which is expressed in rat dermal fibroblast, but also in immunohistochemistry against normal tissues. PMab-2 showed extraordinarily high sensitivity in immunohistochemistry, indicating that PMab-2 is very advantageous for functional analysis of rPDPN. PMID:26683179

  17. Monoclonal antibodies directed against surface molecules of multicell spheroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andrew O.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this project is to generate a library of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against surface molecules of tumor and transformed cells grown as multicell spheroids (MCS). These MCS are highly organized, 3-dimensional multicellular structures which exhibit many characteristics of in vivo organized tissues not found in conventional monolayer or suspension culture. Therefore MCS make better in vitro model systems to study the interactions of mammalian cells, and provide a functional assay for surface adhesion molecules. This project also involves investigations of cell-cell interactions in a gravity-based environment. It will provide a base of scientific information necessary to expand the focus of the project in future years to microgravity and hypergravity-based environments. This project also has the potential to yield important materials (e.g., cellular products) which may prove useful in the diagnosis and/or treatment of certain human diseases. Moreover, this project supports the training of both undergraduate and graduate students; thus, it will assist in developing a pool of future scientists with research experience in an area (gravitational biology) of interest to NASA.

  18. Her2 Monoclonal Antibodies, Antibody Drug Conjugates, and Site Specific Antibody Conjugate Methods

    Cancer.gov

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADC) can demonstrate high efficacy as cancer therapeutics, however, much more can be done to improve their efficacy and safety profile. Site-specific antibody drug conjugation is a promising way to do this.

  19. Monoclonal Antibodies to the [alpha]- and [beta]-Subunits of the Plant Mitochondrial F1-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Luethy, M. H.; Horak, A.; Elthon, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    We have generated nine monoclonal antibodies against subunits of the maize (Zea mays L.) mitochondrial F1-ATPase. These monoclonal antibodies were generated by immunizing mice against maize mitochondrial fractions and randomly collecting useful hybridomas. To prove that these monoclonal antibodies were directed against ATPase subunits, we tested their cross-reactivity with purified F1-ATPase from pea cotyledon mitochondria. One of the antibodies ([alpha]-ATPaseD) cross-reacted with the pea F1-ATPase [alpha]-subunit and two ([beta]-ATPaseD and [beta]-ATPaseE) cross-reacted with the pea F1-ATPase [beta]-subunit. This established that, of the nine antibodies, four react with the maize [alpha]-ATPase subunit and the other five react with the maize [beta]-ATPase subunit. Most of the monoclonal antibodies cross-react with the F1-ATPase from a wide range of plant species. Each of the four monoclonal antibodies raised against the [alpha]-subunit recognizes a different epitope. Of the five [beta]-subunit antibodies, at least three different epitopes are recognized. Direct incubation of the monoclonal antibodies with the F1-ATPase failed to inhibit the ATPase activity. The monoclonal antibodies [alpha]-ATPaseD and [beta]-ATPaseD were bound to epoxide-glass QuantAffinity beads and incubated with a purified preparation of pea F1-ATPase. The ATPase activity was not inhibited when the antibodies bound the ATPase. The antibodies were used to help map the pea F1-ATPase subunits on a two-dimensional map of whole pea cotyledon mitochondrial protein. In addition, the antibodies have revealed antigenic similarities between various isoforms observed for the [alpha]- and [beta]-subunits of the purified F1-ATPase. The specificity of these monoclonal antibodies, along with their cross-species recognition and their ability to bind the F1-ATPase without inhibiting enzymic function, makes these antibodies useful and invaluable tools for the further purification and characterization of plant mitochondrial F1-ATPases. PMID:12231744

  20. Phage display for the production of human monoclonal antibodies against human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Mancini, N; Carletti, S; Perotti, M; Canducci, F; Mammarella, M; Sampaolo, M; Burioni, R

    2004-10-01

    In the last decade an increasing number of antibodies have made their way from the research benchtops into the clinics and many more are currently under clinical trial. Among monoclonal antibody-producing techniques, phage-display is undoubtedly the most effective and versatile. Cloning of the entire humoral repertoire derived from an infected patients into a phage display vector allows not only the simple generation of monoclonal antibodies of desired specificity, but also the molecular dissection of the antibody response itself. Generation of large panels of human monoclonal antibodies against human pathogens could open new perspectives in understanding the interplay between the infectious agent and the infected host providing tools for the prevention and the therapy of human communicable diseases. In this paper the basic principles of the phage-display approach as well as its most recent applications are reviewed. PMID:15646045

  1. Development of an antigen microarray for high throughput monoclonal antibody selection

    PubMed Central

    Staudt, Nicole; Müller-Sienerth, Nicole; Wright, Gavin J.

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are valuable laboratory reagents and are increasingly being exploited as therapeutics to treat a range of diseases. Selecting new monoclonal antibodies that are validated to work in particular applications, despite the availability of several different techniques, can be resource intensive with uncertain outcomes. To address this, we have developed an approach that enables early screening of hybridoma supernatants generated from an animal immunised with up to five different antigens followed by cloning of the antibody into a single expression plasmid. While this approach relieved the cellular cloning bottleneck and had the desirable ability to screen antibody function prior to cloning, the small volume of hybridoma supernatant available for screening limited the number of antigens for pooled immunisation. Here, we report the development of an antigen microarray that significantly reduces the volume of supernatant required for functional screening. This approach permits a significant increase in the number of antigens for parallel monoclonal antibody selection from a single animal. Finally, we show the successful use of a convenient small-scale transfection method to rapidly identify plasmids that encode functional cloned antibodies, addressing another bottleneck in this approach. In summary, we show that a hybrid approach of combining established hybridoma antibody technology with refined screening and antibody cloning methods can be used to select monoclonal antibodies of desired functional properties against many different antigens from a single immunised host. PMID:24472540

  2. Development of new versions of anti-human CD34 monoclonal antibodies with potentially reduced immunogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Weizhu; Wang Ling; Li Bohua; Wang Hao; Hou Sheng; Hong Xueyu; Zhang Dapeng; Guo Yajun

    2008-03-07

    Despite the widespread clinical use of CD34 antibodies for the purification of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, all the current anti-human CD34 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are murine, which have the potential to elicit human antimouse antibody (HAMA) immune response. In the present study, we developed three new mouse anti-human CD34 mAbs which, respectively, belonged to class I, class II and class III CD34 epitope antibodies. In an attempt to reduce the immunogenicity of these three murine mAbs, their chimeric antibodies, which consisted of mouse antibody variable regions fused genetically to human antibody constant regions, were constructed and characterized. The anti-CD34 chimeric antibodies were shown to possess affinity and specificity similar to that of their respective parental murine antibodies. Due to the potentially better safety profiles, these chimeric antibodies might become alternatives to mouse anti-CD34 antibodies routinely used for clinical application.

  3. Two monoclonal antibodies raised against different epitopes of chloroplast fructose-1. 6-bisphosphatase (FBPase)

    SciTech Connect

    Hermoso, R.; Fonolla, J.; Lopez-Gorge, J. ); Ruiz-Cabello, F.; Garrido, F. )

    1990-05-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (GR-BP5 and GR-BP8) were obtained by fusion of spleen cells of mice immunized against pea photosynthetic FBPase with cells of myeloma NSI. Both mAbs showed by double immunodiffusion a {chi} light chain, and the GR-BP8 secreted an IgM. By Western-blotting and immunoprecipitation of the in vivo labelled pea FBPase, GR-BP5 and GR-BP8 showed specificity for the chloroplast enzyme. Competition binding of the {sup 125}I-labelled mAbs against pea FBPase showed specific binding sites to different epitopes of the enzyme molecule. Cross reaction assays between both monoclonal antibodies and pea and spinach chloroplast FBPases showed a 90-100% homology in the corresponding epitopes of both enzymes. Preliminary assays showed a moderate inhibition of FBPase by GR-BP5 monoclonal antibody, but a weak enhancement by the GR-BP8 monoclonal one.

  4. 77 FR 9678 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of Human Anti-CD22 Monoclonal Antibodies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Anti-CD22 Monoclonal Antibodies for the Treatment of Human Cancers and Autoimmune Disease AGENCY... Antibodies Specific for CD22'' , PCT Application PCT/US2009/124109 entitled ``Human and Improved Murine Monoclonal Antibodies Against CD22'' , U.S. patent application 12/934,214 entitled ``Human...

  5. Characterization of Cross-Reactive Norovirus-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Baijun; Crawford, Sue E.; Ajami, Nadim J.; Czakó, Rita; Neill, Frederick H.; Tanaka, Tomoyuki N.; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Palzkill, Timothy G.; Estes, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) commonly cause acute gastroenteritis outbreaks. Broadly reactive diagnostic assays are essential for rapid detection of NoV infections. We previously generated a panel of broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We characterized MAb reactivities by use of virus-like particles (VLPs) from 16 different NoV genotypes (6 from genogroup I [GI], 9 from GII, and 1 from GIV) coating a microtiter plate (direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and by Western blotting. MAbs were genotype specific or recognized multiple genotypes within a genogroup and between genogroups. We next applied surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis to measure MAb dissociation constants (Kd) as a surrogate for binding affinity; a Kd level of <10 nM was regarded as indicating strong binding. Some MAbs did not interact with the VLPs by SPR analysis. To further assess this lack of MAb-VLP interaction, the MAbs were evaluated for the ability to identify NoV VLPs in a capture ELISA. Those MAbs for which a Kd could not be measured by SPR analysis also failed to capture the NoV VLPs; in contrast, those with a measurable Kd gave a positive signal in the capture ELISA. Thus, some broadly cross-reactive epitopes in the VP1 protruding domain may be partially masked on intact particles. One MAb, NV23, was able to detect genogroup I, II, and IV VLPs from 16 genotypes tested by sandwich ELISA, and it successfully detected NoVs in stool samples positive by real-time reverse transcription-PCR when the threshold cycle (CT) value was <31. Biochemical analyses of MAb reactivity, including SPR analysis, identified NV23 as a broadly reactive ligand for application in norovirus diagnostic assays. PMID:25428247

  6. Advective hydrogel membrane chromatography for monoclonal antibody purification in bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying; Brower, Mark; Pollard, David; Kanani, Dharmesh; Jacquemart, Renaud; Kachuik, Bradley; Stout, James

    2015-01-01

    Protein A chromatography is widely employed for the capture and purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Because of the high cost of protein A resins, there is a significant economic driving force to seek new downstream processing strategies. Membrane chromatography has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional resin based column chromatography. However, to date, the application has been limited to mostly ion exchange flow through (FT) mode. Recently, significant advances in Natrix hydrogel membrane has resulted in increased dynamic binding capacities for proteins, which makes membrane chromatography much more attractive for bind/elute operations. The dominantly advective mass transport property of the hydrogel membrane has also enabled Natrix membrane to be run at faster volumetric flow rates with high dynamic binding capacities. In this work, the potential of using Natrix weak cation exchange membrane as a mAb capture step is assessed. A series of cycle studies was also performed in the pilot scale device (> 30 cycles) with good reproducibility in terms of yield and product purities, suggesting potential for improved manufacturing flexibility and productivity. In addition, anion exchange (AEX) hydrogel membranes were also evaluated with multiple mAb programs in FT mode. Significantly higher binding capacity for impurities (support mAb loads up to 10Kg/L) and 40X faster processing speed were observed compared with traditional AEX column chromatography. A proposed protein A free mAb purification process platform could meet the demand of a downstream purification process with high purity, yield, and throughput. PMID:26018631

  7. Rapid monoclonal antibody generation via dendritic cell targeting in vivo.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jody D; Licea, Alexei; Popkov, Mikhail; Cortez, Xochitl; Fuller, Roberta; Elia, Marikka; Kerwin, Lisa; Kubitz, Diane; Barbas, Carlos F

    2003-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are the professional antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. Previous studies have demonstrated that targeting foreign antigens to DC leads to enhanced antigen (Ag)-specific responses in vivo. However, the utility of this strategy for the generation of MAbs has not been investigated. To address this question we immunized mice with IgG-peptide conjugates prepared with the hamster anti-murine CD11c MAb N418. Synthetic peptides corresponding to two different exposed regions of DC-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), a human C-type lectin, were conjugated to N418 using thiol-based chemistry. The N418 MAb served as the targeting molecule and synthetic peptides as the Ag (MAb-Ag). A rapid and peptide specific serum IgG response was produced by Day 7 when the synthetic peptides were linked to the N418 MAb, compared to peptide co-delivered with the N418 without linkage. Spleen cells from N418-peptide immunized mice were fused on Day 10, and three IgG1/k monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were selected to one of the peptide epitopes (MID-peptide). One of the MAbs, Novik 2, bound to two forms of recombinant DC-SIGN protein in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and was specifically inhibited by the MID-peptide in solution. Two of these MAbs show specific binding to DC-SIGN expressed by cultured human primary DC. We conclude that in vivo DC targeting enhances the immunogenicity of synthetic peptides and is an effective method for the rapid generation of MAbs to predetermined epitopes. PMID:12713687

  8. Biotherapies in inflammatory ocular disorders: Interferons, immunoglobulins, monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Saadoun, D; Bodaghi, B; Bienvenu, B; Wechsler, B; Sene, D; Trad, S; Abad, S; Cacoub, P; Kodjikian, L; Sčve, P

    2013-05-01

    Biotherapies used in clinical practice for the treatment of ophthalmologic manifestations of systemic diseases include interferons (IFN), intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and monoclonal antibodies (anti-TNF, anakinra, tocilizumab and rituximab). Several open prospective studies have shown the effectiveness of IFN-? (78 to 98% complete remission) for the treatment of severe uveitis in Behcet's disease. IFN is capable of inducing prolonged remission and continued after his arrest, in 20-40% of patients. Side effects (flu-like, psychological effects) limit its use in practice. Anti-TNF? (infliximab and adalimumab) represents an attractive alternative therapeutic in severe uveitis refractory to immunosuppressants, especially in Behcet's disease. They are almost always (>90% of cases) and rapidly effective but their action is often suspensive. Anti-TNF? requires an extended prescription or takes over from another immunosuppressant once ocular inflammation has been controlled. IVIG are used for the treatment of Kawasaki disease and Birdshot disease. Several open or retrospective studies showed their effectiveness for the treatment of severe and refractory cicatricial pemphigoid. Tolerance of IVIG is good but their efficacy is transient. Rituximab showed an efficacy in few observations of various inflammatory eye diseases (uveitis, scleritis and idiopathic inflammatory pseudo-tumors or associated with granulomatosis with polyangiitis) and cicatricial pemphigoid. The risk of infection associated with this biotherapy limits its use in refractory diseases to conventional therapy. Anakinra (a soluble antagonist of IL-1R) showed interesting results in terms of efficiency in one small open study in Behcet's disease. Its safety profile is good and with a quick action that could be interesting for the treatment of severe uveitis. PMID:23470459

  9. Prophylaxis and therapy of influenza pneumonia in mice by intratracheal instillation of monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    This study on passive immunity dealt principally with the following topics: pathogenesis of the pneumonia produced by influenza virus (PR8) in CF-1 mice; the distribution and retention of monoclonal antibody instilled intratracheally (IT) into the lung; and prophylaxis and therapy of influenza pneumonia using specific monoclonal antibody (IgG 2a/k anti-HA). The fate of a single 50 ul bolus of antibody instilled IT was determined by monitoring the activity of /sup 125/I-labelled monoclonal IgG in the lungs and by lavage recovery of functional antibody.Antibody was demonstrated in high concentrations for the first 3 days and was present in the lungs for a period of 7 days. For prophylaxis several trials indicated that monoclonal antibody provided significant protection from lethal effects of the virus. Antibody given to clinically ill mice on day 3 produced a highly significant reduction in mortality (P < 0.001) when compared to control mice. The treatment reversed the weight loss and apparently arrested the development of lesions in most of the mice within 2 days following antibody administration.

  10. PRODUCTION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO 'LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA' SEROGROUPS 1 AND 6

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better define the surface antigens of Legionella pneumophila for clinical and experimental purposes, were produced monoclonal antibodies to L. pneumophila serogroups 1 and 6. Two hybridomas were produced in serogroup 1. One antibody, LP-I-17, recognized a serogroup-common anti...

  11. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies and Aptamers Against Major Antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specific antibodies, available in unlimited quantities, have not been produced against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the bacterium that causes Johne’s disease (JD). To fill this gap in JD research, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were produced fr...

  12. New Stx2e monoclonal antibodies for immunological detection and distinction of Stx2 subtypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Stx2e is a primary virulence factor in STEC strains that cause edema disease in neonatal piglets. Though Stx2a and Stx2e are similar, most antibody-based Stx detection kits are designed to detect Stx2a and do not recognize the Stx2e subtype. Methods and Findings Four monoclonal antibodie...

  13. A sensitive monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for chlorpyrifos residue determination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A monoclonal antibody-based competitive antibody-coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and optimized for determining chlorpyrifos residue in agricultural products. The IC50 and IC10 of this ELISA were 3.3 ng/mL and 0.1 ng/mL respectively. The average recoveries recovery rate...

  14. A Spectrum of Monoclonal Antibodies Reactive with Human Mammary Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colcher, D.; Horan Hand, P.; Nuti, M.; Schlom, J.

    1981-05-01

    Splenic lymphocytes of mice, immunized with membrane-enriched fractions of metastatic human mammary carcinoma tissues, were fused with the NS-1 non-immunoglobulin-secreting murine myeloma cell line. This resulted in the generation of hybridoma cultures secreting immunoglobulins reactive in solid-phase radioimmunoassays with extracts of metastatic mammary carcinoma cells from involved livers, but not with extracts of apparently normal human liver. As a result of further screening of immunoglobulin reactivities and double cloning of cultures, 11 monoclonal antibodies were chosen that demonstrated reactivities with human mammary tumor cells and not with apparently normal human tissues. These monoclonal antibodies could be placed into at least five major groups on the basis of their differential binding to the surface of various live human mammary tumor cells in culture, to extracts of mammary tumor tissues, or to tissue sections of mammary tumor cells studied by the immunoperoxidase technique. Whereas a spectrum of reactivities to mammary tumors was observed with the 11 monoclonal antibodies, no reactivity was observed to apparently normal cells of the following human tissues: breast, lymph node, lung, skin, testis, kidney, thymus, bone marrow, spleen, uterus, thyroid, intestine, liver, bladder, tonsils, stomach, prostate, and salivary gland. Several of the antibodies also demonstrated a ``pancarcinoma'' reactivity, showing binding to selected non-breast carcinomas. None of the monoclonal antibodies showed binding to purified ferritin or carcinoembryonic antigen. Monoclonal antibodies of all five major groups, however, demonstrated binding to human metastatic mammary carcinoma cells both in axillary lymph nodes and at distal sites.

  15. Virus mutation frequencies can be greatly underestimated by monoclonal antibody neutralization of virions.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, J J; de la Torre, J C; Steinhauer, D A; Clarke, D; Duarte, E; Domingo, E

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody-resistant mutants have been widely used to estimate virus mutation frequencies. We demonstrate that standard virion neutralization inevitably underestimates monoclonal antibody-resistant mutant genome frequencies of vesicular stomatitis virus, due to phenotypic masking-mixing when wild-type (wt) virions are present in thousandsfold greater numbers. We show that incorporation of antibody into the plaque overlay medium (after virus penetration at 37 degrees C) can provide accurate estimates of genome frequencies of neutral monoclonal antibody-resistant mutant viruses in wt clones. By using this method, we have observed two adjacent G----A base transition frequencies in the I3 epitope to be of the order of 10(-4) in a wt glycine codon. This appears to be slightly lower than the frequencies observed at other sites for total (viable and nonviable) virus genomes when using a direct sequence approach. Images PMID:2479770

  16. Radioimmunoassay for detecting antibodies against murine malarial parasite antigens: monoclonal antibodies recognizing Plasmodium yoelii antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Taylor, D.W.; Evans, C.B.; Asofsky, R.

    1980-12-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) in microtiter wells was established for detecting antibodies against Plasmodium yoelii Ag. The SPRIA was found (1) to require as little as 5 ..mu..g of crude parasite Ag per well, (2) to be able to detect 0.5 ng of monoclonal Ab, and (3) to be 10/sup 4/ times more sensitive than the indirect fluorescent Ab staining technique. In a modification of the above assay using intact RBC as an Ag, hyperimmune serum showed significant binding to the surface of erythrocytes of mice infected with P. yoelii parasites but not to RBC of normal mice. Hybridomas were prepared by fusing infected mouse spleen cells with myeloma cells. Using the SPRIA, hybrids secreting Ab against P. yoelii 17XL Ag were detected.

  17. Human peripheral blood monocytes display surface antigens recognized by monoclonal antinuclear antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Holers, V.M.; Kotzin, B.L.

    1985-09-01

    The authors used monoclonal anti-nuclear autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence to examine normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes for the presence of cell surface nuclear antigens. Only one monoclonal anti-histone antibody (MH-2) was found to bind to freshly isolated PBL, staining approximately 10% of large cells. However, after cells were placed into culture for 16-24 h, a high percentage (up to 60%) of large-sized cells were recognized by an anti-DNA (BWD-1) and several different antihistone monoclonal antibodies (BWH-1, MH-1, and MH-2). These antibodies recognize separate antigenic determinants on chromatin and histones extracted from chromatin. The histone antigen-positive cells were viable, and the monoclonal antibodies could be shown to be binding to the cell surface and not to the nucleus. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for monocytes and T cells, and complement-mediated cytotoxicity, the cells bearing histone antigens were shown to be primarily monocytes. The appearance of histone and DNA antigen-positive cells was nearly completely inhibited by the addition of low concentrations of cycloheximide at initiation of the cultures. In contrast, little effect on the percentage of positive cells was detected if cells were exposed to high doses of gamma irradiation before culture. These data further support the existence of cell surface nuclear antigens on selected cell subsets, which may provide insight into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and related autoimmune diseases.

  18. 8th Annual European Antibody Congress 2012

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Alain; Carter, Paul J.; Gerber, Hans-Peter; Lugovskoy, Alexey A.; Wurch, Thierry; Junutula, Jagath R.; Kontermann, Roland E; Mabry, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The 8th European Antibody Congress (EAC), organized by Terrapin Ltd., was again held in Geneva, Switzerland, following on the tradition established with the 4th EAC. The new agenda format for 2012 included three parallel tracks on: (1) naked antibodies; (2) antibody drug conjugates (ADCs); and (3) bispecific antibodies and alternative scaffolds. The meeting started and closed with three plenary lectures to give common background and to share the final panel discussion and conclusions. The two day event included case studies and networking for nearly 250 delegates who learned of the latest advances and trends in the global development of antibody-based therapeutics. The monoclonal antibody track was focused on understanding the structure-function relationships, optimization of antibody design and developability, and processes that allow better therapeutic candidates to move through the clinic. Discussions on novel target identification and validation were also included. The ADC track was dedicated to evaluation of the ongoing success of the established ADC formats alongside the rise of the next generation drug-conjugates. The bispecific and alternative scaffold track was focused on taking stock of the multitude of bispecific formats being investigated and gaining insight into recent innovations and advancements. Mechanistic understanding, progression into the clinic and the exploration of multispecifics, redirected T cell killing and alternative scaffolds were extensively discussed. In total, nearly 50 speakers provided updates of programs related to antibody research and development on-going in the academic, government and commercial sectors. PMID:23493119

  19. DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS WITH A NEW POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (ROTAZYME 2) AND A COMMERCIAL LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEXT (ROTALEX): COMPARISON WITH A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 176 human fecal specimens were examined for the presence of rotavirus using four different assays: a monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay; the original polyclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay marketed by Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL (Rotazyme I); a modification of...

  20. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1994, 42, 301-309 301 Synthesis of Haptens and Derivation of Monoclonal Antibodies for

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Antibodies for Immunoassay of the Phenylurea Herbicide Diuron? Alexander E. Karu,*J Marvin H. Goodrow). The haptens were used to develop indirect and direct EIAs and to derive a panel of monoclonal antibodies

  1. A method for rapid, ligation-independent reformatting of recombinant monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Martina L; Seldon, Therese; Smede, Matthew; Linville, Ashleigh; Chin, David Y; Barnard, Ross; Mahler, Stephen M; Munster, David; Hart, Derek; Gray, Peter P; Munro, Trent P

    2010-03-31

    Recombinant monoclonal antibodies currently dominate the protein biologics marketplace. The path from target antigen discovery and screening, to a recombinant therapeutic antibody can be time-consuming and laborious. We describe a set of expression vectors, termed mAbXpress, that enable rapid and sequence-independent insertion of antibody variable regions into human constant region backbones. This method takes advantage of the In Fusion cloning system from Clontech, which allows ligation-free, high-efficiency insertion of the variable region cassette without the addition of extraneous amino acids. These modular vectors simplify the antibody reformatting process during the preliminary evaluation of therapeutic or diagnostic candidates. The resulting constructs can be used directly for transient or amplifiable, stable expression in mammalian cells. The effectiveness of this method was demonstrated by the creation of a functional, fully human anti-human CD83 monoclonal antibody. PMID:20153332

  2. Development of monoclonal antibodies against parathyroid hormone: genetic control of the immune response to human PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Nussbaum, S.R.; Lin, C.S.; Potts, J.T. Jr.; Rosenthal, A.S.; Rosenblatt, M.

    1985-01-01

    Seventeen monocloanl antibodies against the aminoterminal portion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) were generated by using BALB/c mouse for immunization fully biologically active synthetic human PTH-(1-34) and bovine PTH-(1-84) as immunogens, monoclonal antibody methods, and a solid-phase screening assay. Isotypic analysis of these monoclonal antibodies was performed using affinity purified goat antimouse immunoglobulins specific for IgG heavy chains and ..mu..(IgM). All antibodies were IgM as evidenced by 40 times greater than background activity when 25,000 cpm of /sup 125/I-labelled goat anti-mouse IgM was used as second antibody in a radioimmunoassay.

  3. Engineered monoclonal antibody with novel antigen-sweeping activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Tomoyuki; Maeda, Atsuhiko; Haraya, Kenta; Tachibana, Tatsuhiko; Iwayanagi, Yuki; Mimoto, Futa; Higuchi, Yoshinobu; Ishii, Shinya; Tamba, Shigero; Hironiwa, Naoka; Nagano, Kozue; Wakabayashi, Tetsuya; Tsunoda, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Kunihiro

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are widely used to target disease-related antigens. However, because conventional antibody binds to the antigen but cannot eliminate the antigen from plasma, and rather increases the plasma antigen concentration by reducing the clearance of the antigen, some clinically important antigens are still difficult to target with monoclonal antibodies because of the huge dosages required. While conventional antibody can only bind to the antigen, some natural endocytic receptors not only bind to the ligands but also continuously eliminate them from plasma by pH-dependent dissociation of the ligands within the acidic endosome and subsequent receptor recycling to the cell surface. Here, we demonstrate that an engineered antibody, named sweeping antibody, having both pH-dependent antigen binding (to mimic the receptor-ligand interaction) and increased binding to cell surface neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) at neutral pH (to mimic the cell-bound form of the receptor), selectively eliminated the antigen from plasma. With this novel antigen-sweeping activity, antibody without in vitro neutralizing activity exerted in vivo efficacy by directly eliminating the antigen from plasma. Moreover, conversion of conventional antibody with in vitro neutralizing activity into sweeping antibody further potentiated the in vivo efficacy. Depending on the binding affinity to FcRn at neutral pH, sweeping antibody reduced antigen concentration 50- to 1000-fold compared to conventional antibody. Thereby, sweeping antibody antagonized excess amounts of antigen in plasma against which conventional antibody was completely ineffective, and could afford marked reduction of dosage to a level that conventional antibody can never achieve. Thus, the novel mode of action of sweeping antibody provides potential advantages over conventional antibody and may allow access to the target antigens which were previously undruggable by conventional antibody. PMID:23667591

  4. A monoclonal antibody for distinction of invasive and noninvasive clinical isolates of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Ruiz, A; Haque, R; Rehman, T; Aguirre, A; Jaramillo, C; Castańon, G; Hall, A; Guhl, F; Ruiz-Palacios, G; Warhurst, D C

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 10% of the world population is infected with Entamoeba histolytica, but only 10% of the carriers develop symptomatic amebiasis. This discrepancy could be explained by the genotypic differences between the morphologically indistinguishable invasive and noninvasive strains of E. histolytica currently identified by zymodeme analysis, a technique that is unsuitable for routine diagnostic laboratories. Here we report the production of a monoclonal antibody against E. histolytica and its use in an immunofluorescence assay to identify invasive isolates cultured from stool samples of infected patients in several regions where amebiasis is endemic: Bangladesh, Colombia, and Mexico. After testing a total of 88 E. histolytica isolates, the correlation between zymodeme characterization and the immunofluorescence assay with the invasive isolate-specific monoclonal antibody was 100%. The epitope detected by the invasive isolate-specific monoclonal antibody resides in a previously undescribed internal protein with molecular masses of 84 and 81 kDa in axenic and polyxenic E. histolytica strains, respectively. Images PMID:1452651

  5. The effect of space flight on monoclonal antibody synthesis in a hybridoma mouse cell line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smiley, S. A.; Gillock, E. T.; Black, M. C.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The hybridoma cell line, 3G10G5, producing a monoclonal antibody to the major capsid protein VP1 from the avian polyomavirus budgerigar fledgling disease virus, was produced from a Balb/C mouse. This cell line was used to test the effects of microgravity on cellular processes, specifically protein synthesis. A time course study utilizing incorporation of [35S]methionine into newly synthesized monoclonal antibody was performed on STS-77. After 5.5 days, it was observed that cell counts for the samples exposed to microgravity were lower than those of ground-based samples. However, radiolabel incorporation of the synthesized monoclonal antibody was similar in both orbiter and ground control samples. Overall, microgravity does not seem to have an effect on this cell line's ability to synthesize IgG protein.

  6. Characterization of rat basophilic leukemia cell surface proteins using monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Buonocore-Buzzelli, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells express both immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) receptors. In this study, mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced against the RBL cell and screened for their ability to precipitate specific bands from {sup 125}I surface labeled cells. Fourteen hybridomas were selected and divided into five groups since many of the hybridomas precipitated bands of identical molecular weight. One or more of the hybridomas from each group, and the cell surface antigens they identified, were further characterized. Binding of all the monoclonal antibodies to the RBL-2H3 cell surface was saturable and of high affinity. In cross inhibition studies, two of the antibodies were found to bind to identical or neighboring epitopes, presumably on the same cell surface molecule. Binding studies using other cell populations demonstrated that the monoclonal antibodies react not only with commonly expressed rat cell surface molecules but also with molecules specifically expressed on rat mast cells and basophils. None of the antibodies were found to induce or inhibit serotonin release from the RBL cells. Western blotting showed most of the antibodies to react with bands whose molecular weights resembled those seen by immuno-precipitation. Antibodies 8 and 12, although from the same group, were found to react with different subunits of the same cell surface protein. Sequential immunoprecipitation and peptide mapping confirmed that the antigens defined by these antibodies were structurally related.

  7. Bispecific Antibody Conjugated Manganese-Based Magnetic Engineered Iron Oxide for Imaging of HER2/neu- and EGFR-Expressing Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shou-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Jen; Wang, Hsiang-Ching; Chou, Min-Yuan; Chang, Teng-Yuan; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hsu, John Tsu-An; Wang, Yun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The overexpression of HER2/neu and EGFR receptors plays important roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Targeting these two receptors simultaneously can have a more widespread application in early diagnosis of cancers. In this study, a new multifunctional nanoparticles (MnMEIO-CyTE777-(Bis)-mPEG NPs) comprising a manganese-doped iron oxide nanoparticle core (MnMEIO), a silane-amino functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer shell, a near infrared fluorescence dye (CyTE777), and a covalently conjugated anti-HER2/neu and anti-EGFR receptors bispecific antibody (Bis) were successfully developed. In vitro T2-weighted MR imaging studies in SKBR-3 and A431 tumor cells incubated with MnMEIO-CyTE777-(Bis)-mPEG NPs showed - 94.8 ± 3.8 and - 84.1 ± 2.8% negative contrast enhancement, respectively. Pharmacokinetics study showed that MnMEIO-CyTE777-(Bis)-mPEG NPs were eliminated from serum with the half-life of 21.3 mins. In vivo MR imaging showed that MnMEIO-CyTE777-(Bis)-mPEG NPs could specifically and effectively target to HER2/neu- and EGFR-expressing tumors in mice; the relative contrast enhancements were 11.8 (at 2 hrs post-injection) and 61.5 (at 24 hrs post-injection) fold higher in SKBR-3 tumors as compared to Colo-205 tumors. T2-weighted MR and optical imaging studies revealed that the new contrast agent (MnMEIO-CyTE777-(Bis)-mPEG NPs) could specifically and effectively target to HER2/neu- and/or EGFR-expressing tumors. Our results demonstrate that MnMEIO-CyTE777-(Bis)-mPEG NPs are able to recognize the tumors expressing both HER2/neu and/or EGFR, and may provide a novel molecular imaging tool for early diagnosis of cancers expressing HER2/neu and/or EGFR. PMID:26722378

  8. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies specific for herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D inhibit virus penetration.

    PubMed Central

    Highlander, S L; Sutherland, S L; Gage, P J; Johnson, D C; Levine, M; Glorioso, J C

    1987-01-01

    Nine monoclonal antibodies specific for glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus type 1 were selected for their ability to neutralize virus in the presence of complement. Four of these antibodies exhibited significant neutralization titers in the absence of complement, suggesting that their epitope specificities are localized to site(s) which contribute to the role of gD in virus infectivity. Each of these antibodies was shown to effectively neutralize virus after virion adsorption to cell surfaces, indicating that neutralization did not involve inhibition of virus attachment. Although some of the monoclonal antibodies partially inhibited adsorption of radiolabeled virions, this effect was only observed at concentrations much higher than that required to neutralize virus and did not correlate with complement-independent virus-neutralizing activity. All of the monoclonal antibodies slowed the rate at which virus entered cells, further suggesting that antibody binding of gD inhibits virus penetration. Experiments were carried out to determine the number of different epitopes recognized by the panel of monoclonal antibodies and to identify epitopes involved in complement-independent virus neutralization. Monoclonal antibody-resistant (mar) mutants were selected by escape from neutralization with individual gD-specific monoclonal antibodies. The reactivity patterns of the mutants and antibodies were then used to construct an operational antigenic map for gD. This analysis identified a minimum of six epitopes on gD that could be grouped into four antigenic sites. Antibodies recognizing four distinct epitopes contained in three antigenic sites were found to neutralize virus in a complement-independent fashion. Moreover, mar mutations in these sites did not affect the processing of gD, rate of virus penetration, or the ability of the virus to replicate at high temperature (39 degrees C). Taken together, these results (i) confirm that gD is a major target antigen for neutralizing antibody, (ii) indicate that the mechanism of neutralization can involve inhibition of virus penetration of the cell surface membrane, and (iii) strongly suggest that gD plays a direct role in the virus entry process. PMID:2444713

  9. Discovery of lung cancer biomarkers by profiling the plasma proteome with monoclonal antibody libraries.

    PubMed

    Guergova-Kuras, Mariana; Kurucz, István; Hempel, William; Tardieu, Nadčge; Kádas, János; Malderez-Bloes, Carole; Jullien, Anne; Kieffer, Yann; Hincapie, Marina; Guttman, András; Csánky, Eszter; Dezso, Balázs; Karger, Barry L; Takács, László

    2011-12-01

    A challenge in the treatment of lung cancer is the lack of early diagnostics. Here, we describe the application of monoclonal antibody proteomics for discovery of a panel of biomarkers for early detection (stage I) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We produced large monoclonal antibody libraries directed against the natural form of protein antigens present in the plasma of NSCLC patients. Plasma biomarkers associated with the presence of lung cancer were detected via high throughput ELISA. Differential profiling of plasma proteomes of four clinical cohorts, totaling 301 patients with lung cancer and 235 healthy controls, identified 13 lung cancer-associated (p < 0.05) monoclonal antibodies. The monoclonal antibodies recognize five different cognate proteins identified using immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry. Four of the five antigens were present in non-small cell lung cancer cells in situ. The approach is capable of generating independent antibodies against different epitopes of the same proteins, allowing fast translation to multiplexed sandwich assays. Based on these results, we have verified in two independent clinical collections a panel of five biomarkers for classifying patient disease status with a diagnostics performance of 77% sensitivity and 87% specificity. Combining CYFRA, an established cancer marker, with the panel resulted in a performance of 83% sensitivity at 95% specificity for stage I NSCLC. PMID:21947365

  10. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fattaey, A.; Lenz, L.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Eleven hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intact budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) virions were produced and characterized. These antibodies were selected for their ability to react with BFD virions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each of these antibodies was reactive in the immunofluorescent detection of BFD virus-infected cells. These antibodies immunoprecipitated intact virions and specifically recognized the major capsid protein, VP1, of the dissociated virion. The MAbs were found to preferentially recognize native BFD virus capsid protein when compared with denatured virus protein. These MAbs were capable of detecting BFD virus protein in chicken embryonated cell-culture lysates by dot-blot analysis.

  11. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies to antigens of specific murine suppressor T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chervonskii, A.V.; Suslov, A.P.; Shitin, A.G.; Abronina, I.F.; Brondz, B.D.

    1986-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to obtain monoclonal antibodies (MCAB) interacting selectively with suppressor T cells. Mice were used in the experiments and antibodies in the culture fluids were determined by radioimmunoassay. Pure rabbit antibodies against rat immunoglobulins (Ig) absorbed with mouse Ig were used as /sup 125/I-labeled antibodies. Activity of specific suppressor T cells was estimated as the index of inhibition of /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation after incubation. The class and type of the MCAB and their concentration were determined by gel filtration and inhibition of radioimmunoadsorption.

  12. Expression of cellular antigens of Listeria monocytogenes that react with monoclonal antibodies C11E9 and EM-7G1 under

    E-print Network

    Bashir, Rashid

    Expression of cellular antigens of Listeria monocytogenes that react with monoclonal antibodies C11: To study the expression of cellular antigens of Listeria monocytogenes that react with monoclonal concern for immunodetections in food products. Keywords: antibody reaction, antigen expression, Listeria

  13. The Use of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Monoclonal Antibodies in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jeffery S.; Colevas, A. Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Targeting of the EGF receptor (EGFR) has become a standard of care in several tumor types. In squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, monoclonal antibodies directed against EGFR have become a regular component of therapy for curative as well as palliative treatment strategies. These agents have anti-tumor efficacy as a single modality and have demonstrated synergistic tumor killing when combined with radiation and/or chemotherapy. While cetuximab has been the primary anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody used in the US, variant anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies have been used in several clinical studies and shown benefit with improved toxicity profiles. Next generation anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies may demonstrate multi-target epitope recognition, enhanced immune cell stimulation, or conjugation with radioisotopes in order to improve clinical outcomes. Identification of the specific patient subset that would optimally benefit from anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies remains an elusive goal. PMID:23150825

  14. Human Monoclonal Antibodies Against a Plethora of Viral Pathogens From Single Combinatorial Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, R. Anthony; Burioni, Roberto; Sanna, Pietro P.; Partridge, Lynda J.; Barbas, Carlos F., III; Burton, Dennis R.

    1993-05-01

    Conventional antibody generation usually requires active immunization with antigen immediately prior to the preparation procedure. Combinatorial antibody library technology offers the possibility of cloning a range of antibody specificities at a single point in time and then accessing these specificities at will. Here we show that human monoclonal antibody Fab fragments against a plethora of infectious agents can be readily derived from a single library. Further examination of a number of libraries shows that whenever antibody against a pathogen can be detected in the serum of the donor, then specific antibodies can be derived from the corresponding library. We describe the generation of human Fab fragments against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, human cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus, rubella, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and respiratory syncytial virus. The antibodies are shown to be highly specific and a number are effective in neutralizing virus in vitro.

  15. Imaging of bone tumors using a monoclonal antibody raised against human osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, N.C.; Perkins, A.C.; Pimm, M.V.; Wastie, M.; Hopkins, J.S.; Dowling, F.; Baldwin, R.W.; Hardcastle, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    The radiolabeled monoclonal antibody 791T/36 raised against a human osteosarcoma was injected into 20 patients with known or suspected bone tumors. Gamma camera images were acquired at 48 or 72 hours after injection, and assessed for antibody localization. Positive images were obtained in all five osteosarcomas and four other primary malignant sarcomas. Two of the four other primary bone tumors gave positive images. Three patients with trauma had negative images as did one patient with Paget's disease. Two patients with suppurative disease gave positive images. The antibody localized in the majority of malignant sarcomas tested. In one tumor where tissue was available, a tumor:non-tumor ratio of 2.8:1 was measured. Repeat imaging was performed in five patients. Immunoscintigraphy using the monoclonal antibody 791T/36 has shown tumor localization in patients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas.

  16. Monoclonal antibodies to human hemoglobin S and cell lines for the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, R.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Bigbee, W.L.; Stanker, L.H.; Branscomb, E.W.; Grabske, R.J.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention provides monoclonal antibodies specific to and distinguishing between hemoglobin S and hemoglobin A and methods for their production and use. These antibodies are capable of distinguishing between two hemoglobin types which differ from each other by only a single amino acid residue. The antibodies produced according to the present method are useful as immunofluorescent markers to enumerate circulating red blood cells which have the property of altered expression of the hemoglobin gene due to somatic mutation in stem cells. Such a measurement is contemplated as an assay for in vivo cellular somatic mutations in humans. Since the monoclonal antibodies produced in accordance with the instant invention exhibit a high degree of specificity to and greater affinity for hemoglobin S, they are suitable for labeling human red blood cells for flow cytometric detection of hemoglobin genotype. 4 figs.

  17. Monoclonal antibodies to human hemoglobin S and cell lines for the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Ronald H. (Livermore, CA); Vanderlaan, Martin (San Ramon, CA); Bigbee, William L. (Livermore, CA); Stanker, Larry H. (Livermore, CA); Branscomb, Elbert W. (Walnut Creek, CA); Grabske, Robert J. (Berkeley, CA)

    1988-01-01

    The present invention provides monoclonal antibodies specific to and distinguish between hemoglobin S and hemoglobin A and methods for their production and use. These antibodies are capable of distinguishing between two hemoglobin types which differ from each other by only a single amino acid residue. The antibodies produced according to the present method are useful as immunofluorescent markers to enumerate circulating red blood cells which have the property of altered expression of the hemoglobin gene due to somatic mutation in stem cells. Such a measurement is contemplated as an assay for in vivo cellular somatic mutations in humans. Since the monoclonal antibodies produced in accordance with the instant invention exhibit a high degree of specificity to and greater affinity for hemoglobin S, they are suitable for labeling human red blood cells for flow cytometric detection of hemoglobin genotype.

  18. Simple and specific enzyme immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies for serotyping human rotaviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, B S; Unicomb, L E; Pitson, G A; Bishop, R F

    1987-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay for serotyping human rotaviruses in stools and in cell culture was developed. Hyperimmune rabbit antisera to rotaviruses were used as capture antibodies, and rotavirus-neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 were used as detection reagents. Partial purification of monoclonal antibodies and inclusion of skim milk powder in antibody diluents contributed to assay specificity. The sensitivity of this assay was greater than that of a direct enzyme immunoassay in which rotaviruses of the appropriate serotype were adsorbed directly to the solid phase. When fecal extracts were concentrated threefold, this serotyping enzyme immunoassay was of equal specificity and approached the sensitivity of electron microscopy for rotavirus detection. This assay is simple and rapid and is suitable for serotyping the large numbers of isolates obtained from epidemiological studies and vaccine trials. PMID:3033013

  19. Chemical engineering of the monoclonal antibody A7 by polyethylene glycol for targeting cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K; Takahashi, T; Yamaguchi, T; Noguchi, A; Noguchi, A; Takashina, K; Tsurumi, H; Inagake, M; Toyokuni, T; Hakomori, S

    1991-08-15

    The murine monoclonal antibody A7 (Mab A7) against human colon cancer was chemically modified with methoxypolyethylene glycol (PEG) (Mr 5000). A high substitution of PEG molecules on Mab A7 produced a progressive reduction in antibody-binding activity. The pharmacokinetic and immunological properties of PEG-modified monoclonal antibody A7 (Mab A7) and the PEG-modified F(ab')2 fragment, which retained their antibody-binding activity, were assessed and compared with the parent Mab A7 and the parent F(ab')2 fragment. Blood clearance of PEG-modified antibodies appeared to be diminished by PEG modification and was fitted by a two-compartment model. Low PEG-substituted Mab A7 showed less organ uptake in the liver and spleen and similar uptake in the lung and kidney, compared with the parent Mab A7. PEG-F(ab')2 showed less uptake in the liver and kidney. Both preparations exhibited less tissue:blood ratios in all resected organs as compared with parent antibodies. Tumor localization was enhanced by PEG modification for the F(ab')2 fragment, but not by PEG modification for the whole Mab A7. Multiple i.v. administration of PEG-modified antibody to rabbit did not appear to elicit a measurable immune response to the antibody portion of the conjugate. In conclusion, PEG-modified antibodies are promising reagents as drug carriers to the target tumor. PMID:1868453

  20. Analysis of reduced monoclonal antibodies using size exclusion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongcheng; Gaza-Bulseco, Georgeen; Chumsae, Chris

    2009-12-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) has been widely used to detect antibody aggregates, monomer, and fragments. SEC coupled to mass spectrometry has been reported to measure the molecular weights of antibody; antibody conjugates, and antibody light chain and heavy chain. In this study, separation of antibody light chain and heavy chain by SEC and direct coupling to a mass spectrometer was further studied. It was determined that employing mobile phases containing acetonitrile, trifluoroacetic acid, and formic acid allowed the separation of antibody light chain and heavy chain after reduction by SEC. In addition, this mobile phase allowed the coupling of SEC to a mass spectrometer to obtain a direct molecular weight measurement. The application of the SEC-MS method was demonstrated by the separation of the light chain and the heavy chain of multiple recombinant monoclonal antibodies. In addition, separation of a thioether linked light chain and heavy chain from the free light chain and the free heavy chain of a recombinant monoclonal antibody after reduction was also achieved. This optimized method provided a separation of antibody light chain and heavy chain based on size and allowed a direct measurement of molecular weights by mass spectrometry. In addition, this method may help to identify peaks eluting from SEC column directly.

  1. A clone-specific monoclonal antibody that inhibits cytolysis of a cytolytic T cell clone

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody 384.5 specifically inhibited cytolysis of P-815 target cells by cloned L3 cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effector cells. The lytic activity of other cloned CTL that have other distinct specificities was not affected. Antibody 384.5 did not inhibit the cytolytic activity of bulk populations of C57BL/6 mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) cells. Concanavalin A-facilitated cytolysis by T cell clone L3 but not T cell clone B18 was inhibited by antibody 384.5, whereas phytohemagglutinin-facilitated cytolysis by L3 cells was not strongly inhibited. Antibody 384.5 binds specifically to L3 cells but not to several other T lymphocytes clones, or to a detectable portion of populations of primary MLC cells, normal spleen, thymus, lymph node, or bone marrow cells. In contrast, C57BL/6 anti-B10.A(5R) secondary MLC cells (genetically enriched for reactivity against the H-2Dd region gene products) contained a small population which reacted with the antibody 384.5. The determinant detected by antibody 384.5 was susceptible to trypsin treatment, and was reexpressed after overnight incubation. These results suggest that the monoclonal antibody 384.5 detects an endogenously synthesized clone-specific determinant associated with the cytolytic activity of the L3 CTL clone. These properties make antibody 384.5 an attractive candidate for an antibody that reacts with the antigen-recognition site of a cytolytic T cell antigen receptor. PMID:6187881

  2. In vivo Therapy with Monoclonal Anti-I-A Antibody Suppresses Immune Responses to Acetylcholine Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldor, Matthew K.; Sriram, Subramaniam; McDevitt, Hugh O.; Steinman, Lawrence

    1983-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody to I-A gene products of the immune response gene complex attenuates both humoral and cellular responses to acetylcholine receptor and appears to suppress clinical manifestations of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. This demonstrates that use of antibodies against immune response gene products that are associated with susceptibility to disease may be feasible for therapy in autoimmune conditions such as myasthenia gravis.

  3. Cross-reactive and specific monoclonal antibodies against cellobiohydrolases I and II and endoglucanases I and II of trichoderma reesei

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, R.A.; Todd, R.J.; Ellis, R.P. ); Himmel, M.E. )

    1990-04-01

    Splenocytes derived from mice inoculated with a commercial cellulase preparation or purified cellulases were fused with a stable myeloma cell line (SP2/0). Specific monoclonal antibodies to cellobiohydrolases I and II and endoglucanases I and II were established. In addition to specific monoclonal antibodies, we were also able to establish stable hybridoma cell lines which produced monoclonal antibodies that recognized similar epitopes possessed by two or more of the above cellulases. By obtaining monospecific antibodies for all four individual cellulases, the role and function of the individual cellulases can thus be studied in greater detail.

  4. Isolation of Highly Active Monoclonal Antibodies against Multiresistant Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rossmann, Friederike S.; Laverde, Diana; Kropec, Andrea; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Meyer-Buehn, Melanie; Huebner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Multiresistant nosocomial pathogens often cause life-threatening infections that are sometimes untreatable with currently available antibiotics. Staphylococci and enterococci are the predominant Gram-positive species associated with hospital-acquired infections. These infections often lead to extended hospital stay and excess mortality. In this study, a panel of fully human monoclonal antibodies was isolated from a healthy individual by selection of B-cells producing antibodies with high opsonic killing against E. faecalis 12030. Variable domains (VH and VL) of these immunoglobulin genes were amplified by PCR and cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector containing the constant domains of a human IgG1 molecule and the human lambda constant domain. These constructs were transfected into CHO cells and culture supernatants were collected and tested by opsonophagocytic assay against E. faecalis and S. aureus strains (including MRSA). At concentrations of 600 pg/ml, opsonic killing was between 40% and 70% against all strains tested. Monoclonal antibodies were also evaluated in a mouse sepsis model (using S. aureus LAC and E. faecium), a mouse peritonitis model (using S. aureus Newman and LAC) and a rat endocarditis model (using E. faecalis 12030) and were shown to provide protection in all models at a concentration of 4 ?g/kg per animal. Here we present a method to produce fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibodies that are opsonic in vitro and protective in vivo against several multiresistant Gram-positive bacteria. The monoclonal antibodies presented in this study are significantly more effective compared to another monoclonal antibody currently in clinical trials. PMID:25706415

  5. Preparation of monoclonal antibody of anti-feline calicivirus and establishment of double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detecting method.

    PubMed

    Yuan, B; Ai, C-X; Yuan, L; Gao, W; Hu, J-P; Chen, J; Ren, W-Z

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to prepare monoclonal antibody of feline calicivirus (FCV) and identify its basic biological characteristics. Saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, combined differential centrifugation, and cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation were used for the purification of FCV. The purified FCV was used as antigen to immunize BALB/c mice. The hybridoma lines of anti-FCV monoclonal antibodies were established using cell fusion and hybridoma screening techniques. The subtypes of the monoclonal antibody were identified. The results showed that 3 strains of hybridoma cell lines stably secreted anti-FCV monoclonal antibody; they were named as D8, E5, and H4. The D8 and E5 were IgM subtype antibodies, and H4 was IgG2b subtype antibody. The monoclonal antibody obtained shared no cross-reactivity with feline parvovirus, canine parvovirus, and canine distemper virus. According to the different recognition sites of 2 monoclonal antibodies E5 and H4 to the FCV, they were used to coat microtiter plates and prepare 2 enzyme-labeled secondary antibodies to establish double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detecting method. PMID:25222237

  6. Pharmacokinetics of internally labeled monoclonal antibodies as a gold standard: comparison of biodistribution of /sup 75/Se-, /sup 111/In-, and /sup 125/I-labeled monoclonal antibodies in osteogenic sarcoma xenografts in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Saga, T.; Sakahara, H.; Konishi, J.; Yamamuro, T.; Toyama, S.

    1989-04-01

    In order to know the true biodistribution of anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies, three monoclonal antibodies (OST6, OST7, and OST15) against human osteosarcoma and control antibody were internally labeled with 75Se by incubating (75Se)methionine and hybridoma cells. 75Se-labeled monoclonal antibodies were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using the human osteogenic sarcoma cell line KT005, and the results were compared with those of 125I- and 111In-labeled antibodies. 75Se-, 125I- and 111In-labeled monoclonal antibodies had identical binding activities to KT005 cells, and the immunoreactivity was in the decreasing order of OST6, OST7, and OST15. On the contrary, in vivo tumor uptake (% injected dose/g) of 75Se- and 125I-labeled antibodies assessed using nude mice bearing human osteosarcoma KT005 was in the order of OST7, OST6, and OST15. In the case of 111In, the order was OST6, OST7, and OST15. High liver uptake was similarly seen with 75Se- and 111In-labeled antibodies, whereas 125I-labeled antibodies showed the lowest tumor and liver uptake. These data indicate that tumor targeting of antibody conjugates are not always predictable from cell binding studies due to the difference of blood clearance of labeled antibodies. Furthermore, biodistribution of both 111In- and 125I-labeled antibodies are not identical with internally labeled antibody. Admitting that internally labeled antibody is a ''gold standard'' of biodistribution of monoclonal antibody, high liver uptake of 111In-radiolabeled antibodies may be inherent to antibodies. Little, if any, increase in tumor-to-normal tissue ratios of antibody conjugates will be expected compared to those of 111In-labeled antibodies if stably coupled conjugates are administered i.v.

  7. Review of Cisplatin and Oxaliplatin in Current Immunogenic and Monoclonal Antibody Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Mehmood, Rao Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy agents initially transformed cancer treatment. However their effectiveness peaked as combined regimes showed little additional benefit in trials. New research frontiers developed with the discovery that conventional chemotherapy can induce immunological cell death by recruiting high mobility group box 1 protein through T-cell immunity. Simultaneously monoclonal antibody agents (not effective as monotherapies) showed good results in combination with conventional chemotherapy. Some of these combinations are currently in use and researchers hope to develop regimes which can offer substantial benefits. Several resistance mechanisms against platinum compounds are known, but more knowledge is still needed to gain a full understanding. It seems reasonable therefore to revisit the pharmacology of these agents, which may also lead to identify rational combinations with monoclonal agents providing regimes with less toxicity and better efficacy. This article reviews the pharmacology of cisplatin and oxaliplatin and explores their possible association with monoclonal antibody treatments. PMID:25992242

  8. Phytochrome in photosynthetically competent plants characterization by monoclonal antibodies: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, L.H.

    1983-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to oat and to pea phytochrome have been characterized and immunopurified. In addition a fully automated, microcomputer-based, dual wavelength spectrophotometer was designed and constructed. An ELISA that is sensitive to subfemtomol levels of phytochrome has been developed. 1 fig.

  9. Antigenic binding sites of monoclonal antibodies specific for simian virus 40 large T antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, E G; Tamowski, S; Deppert, W

    1986-01-01

    We isolated 16 new monoclonal antibodies that recognize large T antigen of simian virus 40 and mapped the epitopes to three distinct regions of the large T antigen. Also, 3 of the 16 recognized the large T antigen of the human papovavirus BKV. Images PMID:2419584

  10. Production of Specific Monoclonal Antibodies to Aspergillus Species and Their Use in Immunohistochemical Identification of Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Fenelon, L. E.; Hamilton, A. J.; Figueroa, J. I.; Bartholomew, M. A.; Allen, M. H.; McCarthy, P.; Hay, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    Two anti-Aspergillus murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated 164G and 611F, have been produced; both specifically recognize cytoplasmic antigens of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MAbs can identify Aspergillus spp. both in frozen sections by immunofluorescence and in paraffin-embedded clinical specimens by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase staining. PMID:10074559

  11. Production, characterization and application of monoclonal antibody to spherulocytes: A subpopulation of coelomocytes of Apostichopus japonicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One monoclonal antibody (mAb 3F6) against coelomocytes of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was developed by immunization of Balb/C mice. Analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay test (IIFAT), immunocytochemical assay (ICA),Western blotting and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS), mAb 3...

  12. Monoclonal antibody specific for human colon fibroblast-derived T-PA

    SciTech Connect

    Schaumann, J.P.; Olander, J.V.; Harakas, N.K.; Feder, J

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a murine-derived hybridoma cell line capable of producing monoclonal antibody against human colon fibroblast-derived tissue plasminogen activator and the cell line selected from the group consisting of cell lines 63-4 (ATCC HB 9155), 54-2 (ATCC HB 9157) or 79-7 (ATCC HB 9156).

  13. Nonreactivity of American avian group A rotaviruses with subgroup-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Theil, K W; McCloskey, C M

    1989-01-01

    Nine group A rotavirus isolates recovered from commercially reared poultry in the United States did not react with subgroup 1 (255/60) or subgroup 2 (631/9) specific monoclonal antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Images PMID:2480363

  14. Computational Prediction of Neutralization Epitopes Targeted by Human Anti-V3 HIV Monoclonal Antibodies

    E-print Network

    Statnikov, Alexander

    Computational Prediction of Neutralization Epitopes Targeted by Human Anti-V3 HIV Monoclonal States of America Abstract The extreme diversity of HIV-1 strains presents a formidable challenge for HIV-1 vaccine design. Although antibodies (Abs) can neutralize HIV-1 and potentially protect against

  15. Harnessing the immune system's arsenal: producing human monoclonal antibodies for therapeutics and investigating immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Meghan; Kaur, Kaval; Pauli, Noel

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody technology has undergone rapid and innovative reinvention over the last 30 years. Application of these technologies to human samples revealed valuable therapeutic and experimental insights. These technologies, each with their own benefits and flaws, have proven indispensable for immunological research and in our fight to provide new treatments and improved vaccines for infectious disease. PMID:21876728

  16. Safety, Pharmacokinetic, and Functional Effects of the Nogo-A Monoclonal Antibody in Amyotrophic Lateral

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    , United Kingdom, 4 Carolinas Neuromuscular/Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Muscular Dystrophy Association Lateral Sclerosis: A Randomized, First-In-Human Clinical Trial Vincent Meininger1 , PierreSafety, Pharmacokinetic, and Functional Effects of the Nogo-A Monoclonal Antibody in Amyotrophic

  17. Monoclonal antibodies to synthetic pyrethroids and method for detecting the same

    DOEpatents

    Stanker, Larry H. (Livermore, CA); Vanderlaan, Martin (Danville, CA); Watkins, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Van Emon, Jeanette M. (Henderson, NV); Bigbee, Carolyn L. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies which may be used in a sensitive immunoassay for detection of synthetic pyrethroids in foods and environmental samples. Appropriate sample preparation and enzyme amplification of the immunoassay for this widely-used class of pesticides permits detection at low levels in laboratory and field tested samples.

  18. Monoclonal antibodies to synthetic pyrethroids and method for detecting the same

    DOEpatents

    Stanker, L.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.; Van Emon, J.M.; Bigbee, C.L.

    1992-04-28

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies which may be used in a sensitive immunoassay for detection of synthetic pyrethroids in foods and environmental samples. Appropriate sample preparation and enzyme amplification of the immunoassay for this widely-used class of pesticides permits detection at low levels in laboratory and field tested samples. 6 figs.

  19. INITIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST THE FUNGAL HEMOLYSIN STACHYLYSIN FROM STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stachybotrys chartarum is known to produce the hemolysin stachylysin and its detection in human serum has been proposed as a biomarker for exposure to the fungus. In this study we report the initial characterization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against stachylysin and the dev...

  20. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies reactive with chicken IL-1ß

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for chicken interleukin-1ß (chIL-1ß) were produced and characterized. Both mAbs identified a 66.0 kDa recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli by Western blot analysis that corresponded to the expected molecular weight of a recombinant fusion ...

  1. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Detect Klotho

    PubMed Central

    Maltare, Astha; Nietz, Angela K.; Laszczyk, Ann M.; Dunn, Taylor S.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Accavitti-Loper, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Although antibodies are commercially available to allow investigation into the biology of the age-regulating protein Klotho, problems with antibody specificity and application functionality are significant barriers to progress. Chief among these limitations is the inability of current tools to allow in vivo validation of binding partners originally identified through transfection of tagged proteins. To overcome this barrier, we generated a series of hybridoma cell lines by immunizing rats with a GST-KL1 fusion protein. Purified antibodies generated from these cell lines differentially detect human or mouse Klotho protein via Western blot, immunocyto/histochemistry, and immunoprecipitation. Specificity of antibody binding to Klotho was confirmed by mass spectrometry following immunoprecipitation. With this confidence in antibody specificity, co-immunoprecipitation was utilized to validate the interaction of Klotho/FGFR and Klotho/wnt7a in mouse kidney lysates. PMID:25513981

  2. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to detect klotho.

    PubMed

    Maltare, Astha; Nietz, Angela K; Laszczyk, Ann M; Dunn, Taylor S; Ballestas, Mary E; Accavitti-Loper, Mary Ann; King, Gwendalyn D

    2014-12-01

    Although antibodies are commercially available to allow investigation into the biology of the age-regulating protein Klotho, problems with antibody specificity and application functionality are significant barriers to progress. Chief among these limitations is the inability of current tools to allow in vivo validation of binding partners originally identified through transfection of tagged proteins. To overcome this barrier, we generated a series of hybridoma cell lines by immunizing rats with a GST-KL1 fusion protein. Purified antibodies generated from these cell lines differentially detect human or mouse Klotho protein via Western blot, immunocyto/histochemistry, and immunoprecipitation. Specificity of antibody binding to Klotho was confirmed by mass spectrometry following immunoprecipitation. With this confidence in antibody specificity, co-immunoprecipitation was utilized to validate the interaction of Klotho/FGFR and Klotho/wnt7a in mouse kidney lysates. PMID:25513981

  3. Mice are actively immunized after passive monoclonal antibody prophylaxis and ricin toxin challenge. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Lemley, P.V.; Wright, D.C.

    1992-12-31

    Mice passively immunized by a protective, anti-ricin A-chain monoclonal antibody, then challenged intravenously with ricin, were protected from a subsequent ricin challenge, and were actively immunized. Two significant advantages accrued from this experiment: the monoclonal antibody neutralized the toxicity of the ricin immunogen, and active immunization was achieved with very low antigen load (approx. 0.5 micrograms/mouse). We ruled out the possibility that residual monoclonal antibody provided the protection by using three independent criteria. There was significant (four orders of magnitude) enhancement of the immune response in the presence of the monoclonal antibody; control immunizations of mice with ricin A-chain, ricin B-chain or either chain with the monoclonal antibody did not induce active immunity; and the active immunization could not be replicated when protective goat polyclonal antibody was substituted for the monoclonal antibody. Because high titers were achieved rapidly without any adjuvant, we are currently investigating haptenized ricin to determine if anti-hapten monoclonal antibodies can be produced by this refined procedure.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies: Principles and applications of immmunodiagnosis and immunotherapy for hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    Tabll, Ashraf; Abbas, Aymn T; El-Kafrawy, Sherif; Wahid, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem worldwide. Early detection of the infection will help better management of the infected cases. The monoclonal antibodies (mAb) of mice are predominantly used for the immunodiagnosis of several viral, bacterial, and parasitic antigens. Serological detection of HCV antigens and antibodies provide simple and rapid methods of detection but lack sensitivity specially in the window phase between the infection and antibody development. Human mAb are used in the immunotherapy of several blood malignancies, such as lymphoma and leukemia, as well as for autoimmune diseases. In this review article, we will discuss methods of mouse and human monoclonal antibody production. We will demonstrate the role of mouse mAb in the detection of HCV antigens as rapid and sensitive immunodiagnostic assays for the detection of HCV, which is a major health problem throughout the world, particularly in Egypt. We will discuss the value of HCV-neutralizing antibodies and their roles in the immunotherapy of HCV infections and in HCV vaccine development. We will also discuss the different mechanisms by which the virus escape the effect of neutralizing mAb. Finally, we will discuss available and new trends to produce antibodies, such as egg yolk-based antibodies (IgY), production in transgenic plants, and the synthetic antibody mimics approach. PMID:26464752

  5. Cathepsin B-deficient mice as source of monoclonal anti-cathepsin B antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Ekkehard; Barbulescu, Elena; Medek, Rita; Reinheckel, Thomas; Sameni, Mansoureh; Anbalagan, Arulselvi; Moin, Kamiar; Sloane, Bonnie F.

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin B has been demonstrated to be involved in several proteolytic processes that support tumor progression and metastasis and neurodegeneration. To further clarify its role, defined monoclonal antibodies are needed. As the primary structure of human cathepsin B is almost identical to that of the mouse, cathepsin B-deficient mice were used in a novel approach for generating such antibodies, providing the chance of an increased immune response to the antigen, human cathepsin B. Thirty clones were found to produce cathepsin B-specific antibodies. Seven of these antibodies were used to detect cathepsin B in MCF10-DCIS human breast cancer cells by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. Five different binding sites were identified by epitope mapping giving the opportunity to combine these antibodies in oligoclonal antibody mixtures for an improved detection of cathepsin B. PMID:25205719

  6. Understanding the Cellular Function of TRPV2 Channel through Generation of Specific Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Matthew R.; Huynh, Kevin W.; Cawley, Daniel; Moiseenkova-Bell, Vera Y.

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) is a Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channel proposed to play a critical role in a wide array of cellular processes. Although TRPV2 surface expression was originally determined to be sensitive to growth factor signaling, regulated trafficking of TRPV2 has remained controversial. TRPV2 has proven difficult to study due to the lack of specific pharmacological tools to modulate channel activity; therefore, most studies of the cellular function of TRPV2 rely on immuno-detection techniques. Polyclonal antibodies against TRPV2 have not been properly validated and characterized, which may contribute to conflicting results regarding its function in the cell. Here, we developed monoclonal antibodies using full-length TRPV2 as an antigen. Extensive characterization of these antibodies and comparison to commonly used commercially available TRPV2 antibodies revealed that while monoclonal antibodies generated in our laboratory were suitable for detection of endogenous TRPV2 by western blot, immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry, the commercially available polyclonal antibodies we tested were not able to recognize endogenous TRPV2. We used our newly generated and validated TRPV2 antibodies to determine the effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on TRPV2 surface expression in heterologous and endogenous expression systems. We found that IGF-1 had little to no effect on trafficking and plasma membrane expression of TRPV2. Overall, these new TRPV2 monoclonal antibodies served to dispel the controversy of the effects of IGF-1 on TRPV2 plasma membrane expression and will clarify the role TRPV2 plays in cellular function. Furthermore, our strategy of using full-length tetrameric TRP channels may allow for the generation of antibodies against other TRP channels of unclear function. PMID:24392006

  7. Biodistribution and dosimetry of 3F8 neuroblastoma monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A.D.; Miraldi, F.; Cheung, N.K. )

    1989-01-01

    A method has been developed for quantitating radiolabeled antibody concentrations from images obtained with standard gamma cameras. The method is based on orthogonal projections and accounts both for the effective attenuation of gamma rays and the finite depth dependent resolution of a gamma camera. The method was verified in experimental phantoms and subsequently used in patient studies to quantitate radiolabeled antibody concentrations in neuroblastoma tumors. The in vivo measurements of tumor radioactivity levels were confirmed at biopsy in one patient.

  8. Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibodies and Hyperthermia. Final Progress Report for November 1, 1998 - April 30, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    2004-06-23

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the use of local hyperthermia as a means for improving the potential utility of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for tumor therapy. Hyperthermia not only can alter tumor hemodynamics but also can affect antigen expression, catabolism and cytotoxicity. These studies were performed with the human/mouse chimeric anti-tenascin 81C6 antibody in an athymic mouse xenograft model. Variables that were found to be important included the duration and temperature of heating, as well as the timing of the hyperthermia relative to the time of labeled antibody administration.

  9. Monoclonal antibodies for the separate detection of halodeoxyuridines and method for their use

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, Martin (Danville, CA); Watkins, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Stanker, Larry H. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are described which have specific affinities for halogenated nucleoside analogs and are preferentially selective for one particular halogen. Such antibodies, when incorporated into immunochemical reagents, may be used to identify and independently quantify the cell division character of more than one population or subpopulation in flow cytometric measurements. Independent assessment of division activity in cell sub-populations facilitates selection of appropriate time and dose for administration of anti-proliferative agents. The hybridomas which secrete halogen selective antibodies and the method of making them are described.

  10. Monoclonal antibodies for the separate detection of halodeoxyuridines and method for their use

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.; Stanker, L.H.

    1991-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are described which have specific affinities for halogenated nucleoside analogs and are preferentially selective for one particular halogen. Such antibodies, when incorporated into immunochemical reagents, may be used to identify and independently quantify the cell division character of more than one population or subpopulation in flow cytometric measurements. Independent assessment of division activity in cell sub-populations facilitates selection of appropriate time and dose for administration of anti-proliferative agents. The hybridomas which secrete halogen selective antibodies and the method of making them are described. 14 figures.

  11. Epitope mapping of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against duck hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, R C; Robinson, W S; Marion, P L; Greenberg, H B

    1989-01-01

    In this article we report the first topological mapping of neutralizing epitopes of a hepadnavirus. Duck hepatitis B virus is the only hepadnavirus that can replicate and spread from cell to cell in tissue culture. As a result, it is possible to study hepadnaviral neutralization in vitro with this system. To accomplish this goal, we produced a library of monoclonal antibodies against duck hepatitis B virus and identified 12 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies by using an in vitro neutralization assay. The characteristics of six of the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were further studied by epitope mapping. From the results of competitive binding studies, three distinct neutralizing epitopes were identified on the pre-S polypeptides and one was identified on the S polypeptide. Our findings suggest that antibodies to both the pre-S and S gene products of duck hepatitis B virus can neutralize viral infection in vitro. The pre-S gene product is at least as important as the S gene product in eliciting neutralizing antibodies. Images PMID:2470915

  12. Mycobacterium leprae antigens involved in human immune responses. I. Identification of four antigens by monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, W.J.; Hellqvist, L.; Basten, A.; Raison, R.L.

    1985-12-01

    Four distinct antigens were identified in soluble sonicates of Mycobacterium leprae by using a panel of 11 monoclonal antibodies. Cross-reactivity studies with other mycobacterial species were conducted by using ELISA and immunoblot assays, and demonstrated that determinants on two of the antigens were present in many mycobacteria, whereas the other two were limited in distribution. Competitive inhibition experiments with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies showed cross-inhibition between antibodies identifying two of the four antigenicbands. These two bands, of M/sub tau/ 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD, were resistant to protease treatment after immunoblotting. In contrast the two other bands of 16 and 70 KD were protease-sensitive. Although all four bands reacted with some human lepromatous leprosy sera in immunoblots, the 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD bands were most prominent. Lepromatous leprosy sera also inhibited the binding of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies to each of the four antigens, with the mean titer causing 50% inhibition being higher for antibodies reacting with the 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD bands. These findings indicated that all four antigens were involved in the human B cell response to M. leprae.

  13. Activation of mouse macrophages by muramyl dipeptide coupled with an anti-macrophage monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Midoux, P; Martin, A; Collet, B; Monsigny, M; Roche, A C; Toujas, L

    1992-01-01

    A rat IgG2a monoclonal antibody (mAb3A33) directed against the mouse Mac-1 antigen was conjugated with muramyl dipeptide (MDP) by using an intermediate polymer; under such conditions 75 MDP molecules were bound to one antibody molecule. A poly(L-lysine) polymer substituted with muramyl dipeptide and 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionyl residues were prepared, the remaining lysine epsilon-amino groups were acylated with D-gluconolactone, leading to a neutral polymer; then a few polymer conjugates were coupled to mAb3A33 via a disulfide bridge. The binding capacity of the monoclonal antibody was preserved after conjugation with MDP-polymer molecules. Mouse peritoneal macrophages, incubated for 24 h with MDP-mAb3A33 conjugate became cytostatic against P815 mastocytoma cells, whereas unconjugated mAb3A33 and MDP-bound to a nonspecific rat IgG2a were ineffective. An enhancement of the cytostatic activity induced by MDP-mAb3A33 conjugate was obtained in the presence of gamma-IFN. These results show that several tens of MDP molecules can be linked to a macrophage-specific monoclonal antibody by using a neutral intermediate polymer without impairing the binding antibody capacity and that this type of MDP conjugate can efficiently activate macrophages and therefore could be the basis of the development of new antitumor therapy. PMID:1515473

  14. Photoregulation process of sorghum leaf phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: study with monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.; Cretin, C.; Keryer, E.; Vidal, J.; Gadal, P.; Bidart, J.M.; Buhuon, C.

    1987-02-27

    Monoclonal antibodies were produced against the G isozyme subunit of PEP carboxylase (PEPC) from Sorghum leaves by the hybridoma technique. More than 400 antibodies-producing hybridomas to PEPC were produced from the fusion of spleen cells from immunized mice with NS1 myeloma cells. By using an ELISA, three hybridomas (91-G, 83-G, 49-EG) were selected. Monoclonal antibodies were subsequently characterized in a Western experiment; Mabs 83-G and 91-G were found to be highly specific to the G isozyme whereas Mab 49-EG recognized both forms (E and G isozymes) of the enzyme. Addition of Mabs to the enzyme preparation did not modify its catalytic activity nor its activation by glycine. Use of these probes provided direct and definite evidence of the specific enhancing effect of light on the G form and on its corresponding mRNA.

  15. Dashboard systems: Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic mediated dose optimization for monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mould, Diane R; Dubinsky, Marla C

    2015-03-01

    Many marketed drugs exhibit high variability in exposure and response. While these drugs are efficacious in their approved indications, finding appropriate dose regimens for individual patients is not straightforward. Similar dose adjustment problems are also seen with drugs that have a complex relationship between exposure and response and/or a narrow therapeutic window. This is particularly true for monoclonal antibodies, where prolonged dosing at a sub-therapeutic dose can also elicit anti-drug antibodies which will further compromise safety and efficacy. Thus, finding appropriate doses quickly would represent a substantial improvement in healthcare. Dashboard systems, which are decision-support tools, offer an improved, convenient means of tailoring treatment for individual patients. This article reviews the clinical need for this approach, particularly with monoclonal antibodies, the design, development, and testing of such systems, and the likely benefits of dashboard systems in clinical practice. We focus on infliximab for reference. PMID:25707964

  16. Escape From Monoclonal Antibody Neutralization Affects Henipavirus Fitness In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Borisevich, Viktoriya; Lee, Benhur; Hickey, Andrew; DeBuysscher, Blair; Broder, Christopher C; Feldmann, Heinz; Rockx, Barry

    2016-02-01

    Henipaviruses are zoonotic viruses that can cause severe and acute respiratory diseases and encephalitis in humans. To date, no vaccine or treatments are approved for human use. The presence of neutralizing antibodies is a strong correlate of protection against lethal disease in animals. However, since RNA viruses are prone to high mutation rates, the possibility that these viruses will escape neutralization remains a potential concern. In the present study, we generated neutralization-escape mutants, using 6 different monoclonal antibodies, and studied the effect of these neutralization-escape mutations on in vitro and in vivo fitness. These data provide a mechanism for overcoming neutralization escape by use of cocktails of cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that recognize residues within the glycoprotein that are important for virus replication and virulence. PMID:26357909

  17. Generation and characterization of monospecific and bispecific hexavalent trimerbodies

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Toribio, Ana; Sainz-Pastor, Noelia; Álvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Merino, Nekane; Cuesta, Ángel M.; Sánchez-Martín, David; Bonet, Jaume; Santos-Valle, Patricia; Sanz, Laura; Oliva, Baldo; Blanco, Francisco J.; Álvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Here, we describe a new class of multivalent and multispecific antibody-based reagents for therapy. The molecules, termed “trimerbodies,” use a modified version of the N-terminal trimerization region of human collagen XVIII noncollagenous 1 domain flanked by two flexible linkers as trimerizing scaffold. By fusing single-chain variable fragments (scFv) with the same or different specificity to both N- and C-terminus of the trimerizing scaffold domain, we produced monospecific or bispecific hexavalent molecules that were efficiently secreted as soluble proteins by transfected mammalian cells. A bispecific anti-laminin x anti-CD3 N-/C-trimerbody was found to be trimeric in solution, very efficient at recognizing purified plastic-immobilized laminin and CD3 expressed at the surface of T cells, and remarkably stable in human serum. The bispecificity was further demonstrated in T cell activation studies. In the presence of laminin-rich substrate, the bispecific anti-laminin x anti-CD3 N-/C-trimerbody stimulated a high percentage of human T cells to express surface activation markers. These results suggest that the trimerbody platform offers promising opportunities for the development of the next-generation therapeutic antibodies, i.e., multivalent and bispecific molecules with a format optimized for the desired pharmacokinetics and adapted to the pathological context. PMID:23221741

  18. Uukuniemi virus maturation: immunofluorescence microscopy with monoclonal glycoprotein-specific antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Kuismanen, E; Bĺng, B; Hurme, M; Pettersson, R F

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against Uukuniemi virus glycoproteins G1 and G2 in combination with polyclonal antibodies against the nucleoprotein (N) were used to study the maturation of the virus in Golgi complexes of infected chicken embryo fibroblasts and BHK cells. Of 25 monoclonal antibodies obtained, 10 were shown to be G1 specific and 15 were shown to be G2 specific by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. In double-staining experiments, some of the monoclonal antibodies gave similar distributions of fluorescence as compared with the staining obtained from polyclonal rabbit anti-G1-G2 antibodies. Others, however, preferentially stained either the glycoproteins in the Golgi complex or those at the cell surface. This may indicate that the glycoproteins underwent conformational changes during their transport. Uukuniemi virus infection resulted in the vacuolization of the membranes of Golgi complexes where the maturation of the virus was taking place. Double-staining experiments with monoclonal antibodies which preferentially stained the Golgi-associated viral glycoproteins and with anti-N polyclonal rabbit antiserum showed a correlation between the progressive vacuolization of the Golgi complex and the accumulation of viral nucleoprotein in the Golgi region, suggesting that a morphological alteration of the Golgi complex may be a prerequisite for intracellular maturation of the virus. Treatment of Uukuniemi virus-infected cells with tunicamycin, a drug which inhibits N-linked glycosylation, resulted in the accumulation of both glycoproteins at an intracellular location, apparently representing the endoplasmic reticulum. Double-staining experiments showed a parallel accumulation of nucleoprotein at these sites, indicating that local accumulation of glycoproteins is required for nucleoprotein binding to intracellular membranes. Images PMID:6374166

  19. Biokinetics of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in heterotransplanted nude rats: Evaluation of corrected specific tissue uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Ingvar, C.; Norrgren, K.; Strand, S.E.; Brodin, T.; Joensson, P.E.S.; Sjoegren, H.O. )

    1989-07-01

    A tumor model is presented to study the biokinetics and localization of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MAb) in the nude rat (Rowett RNu/RNu) heterotransplanted with human melanoma metastases. The nude rat is larger, less sensitive, and lives longer than the nude mouse. It is, therefore, well suited for in vivo studies of tumor localization with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. The tumor-to-host weight ratio was closer to the human situation for the nude rat than for the mouse, and quantitative imaging could be performed with a parallel hole collimator. We followed the antibody biokinetics for as long as 8 days, with repeated blood sampling and imaging. Specific uptake of MAb was higher in tumor tissue than in all other tissues except blood. Initial high uptake was also recorded in the bone marrow. The lymph glands showed a slow uptake of specific and control antibody. A simple in vitro correction procedure is described to calculate the corrected specific tissue uptake (STUcorr) that takes the blood activity into account. Thus it was shown that 80% of the tissue uptake in the dissected liver at 30 hr was due to labeled antibodies circulating in the blood. The specific tissue uptake ratio of antibodies 96.5 and OKT3 (nonspecific control) was unity for all other organs except for tumor tissue, where the ratio was greater than two and even higher when correction for blood content of labeled antibody was made.

  20. Monoclonal antibodies specific to transforming polyproteins encoded by independent isolates of feline sarcoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    Veronese, F; Kelloff, G J; Reynolds, F H; Hill, R W; Stephenson, J R

    1982-01-01

    Hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies directed against polyprotein gene products of the Gardner, Snyder-Theilen, and McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus have been isolated. Antibody produced by one hybridoma recognizes immunological determinants localized within a feline leukemia virus gag gene structural component (p15) common to polyproteins encoded by each feline sarcoma virus isolate while antibody produced by a second is specific for p30 determinants unique to P170gag-fms. Additional hybridomas secrete antibody directed against v-fes specific determinants common to the Gardner and Snyder-Theilen feline sarcoma virus-encoded polyproteins and to v-fms determinants unique to P170gas-fms polyprotein. GA P110gas-fes and ST P85gas-fes immunoprecipitated by antibody directed against p15 exhibit readily detectable levels of protein kinase activity but lack such activity when precipitated by antibody specific for their acquired sequence (v-fes) components. P170gas-fms immunoprecipitated by monoclonal antibody to either p15 or p30 lacks detectable levels of autophosphorylation but represents a substrate for the GA P110gag-fes and ST P85gag-fes enzymatic activities. These findings argue that the v-fes-associated protein kinase represents an intrinsic property of the v-fes gene product and recognizes tyrosine acceptor sites within polyprotein gene products of all three strains of feline sarcoma virus. Images PMID:6183442

  1. In vitro sensitization for human monoclonal antibody production.

    PubMed

    Niedba?a, W; Kurpisz, M

    1993-02-01

    We have found that cell adhesion prior to in vitro antigenic stimulation enriched the B-cell population and diminished the CD8 lymphocyte subset. These changes in lymphocyte proportions were favourable for increasing the percentage of antibody-producing cells after culturing in vitro followed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The immunodepletion of leukocytes by methyl esters did not yield satisfying results under analogous culture conditions. In vitro primary antigenic stimulations with the addition of IL-2 (25 U/ml medium) and low amounts of interferon-gamma provided better recruitment of antibody-producing cells and higher binding activity of antibodies to sperm than secondary antigenic stimulation. IL-6 did not positively influence the EBV-transformed cell lines. PMID:8389733

  2. Effect of monoclonal antibodies on limited proteolysis of native glycoprotein gD of herpes simplex virus type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, R.J.; Long, D.; Pereira, L.; Hampar, B.; Zweig, M.; Cohen, G.H.

    1982-02-01

    We examined the properties of 17 monoclonal antibodies to glycoprotein gD of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) (gD-1) and HSV-2 (gD-2). The antibodies recognized eight separate determinants of gD, based on differences in radioimmuno-precipitation and neutralization assays. The determinants were distributed as follows: three were gD-1 specific, one was gD-2 specific, and four were type common. Several type-specific and type-common determinants appeared to be involved in neutralization. We developed a procedure for examining the effect that binding of monoclonal antibody has on proteolysis of native gD-1 by Staphylococcus aureus protease V8. We showed that several different patterns of protease V8 cleavage were obtained, depending on the monoclonal antibody used. The proteolysis patterns were generally consistent with the immunological groupings. With four groups of antibodies, we found that fragments of gD-1 remained bound to antibody after V8 treatment. A 38,000-dalton fragment remained bound to antibodies in three different groups of monoclonal antibodies. This fragment appeared to contain one type-common and two type-specific determinants. A 12,000-dalton fragment remained bound to antibodies belonging to one type-common group of monoclonal antibodies. Tryptic peptide analysis revealed that the 12,000-dalton fragment represented a portion of the 38,000-dalton fragment and was enriched in a type-common arginine tryptic peptide.

  3. Monoclonal antibody that inhibits infection of HeLa and rhabdomyosarcoma cells by selected enteroviruses through receptor blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Crowell, R.L.; Field, A.K.; Schleif, W.A.; Long, W.L.; Colonno, R.J.; Mapoles, J.E.; Emini, E. A.

    1986-02-01

    BALB/c mice were immunized with HeLa cells, and their spleen cells were fused with myeloma cells to produce hybridomas. Initial screening of culture fluids from 800 fusion products in a cell protection assay against coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) and the CB3-RD virus variant yielded five presumptive monoclonal antibodies with three specificities: (i) protection against CB3 on HeLa, (ii) protection against CB3-RD on rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells, and (iii) protection against both viruses on the respective cells. Only one of the monoclonal antibodies (with dual specificity) survived two subclonings and was studied in detail. The antibody was determined to have an immunoglobulin G2a isotype and protected cells by blockade of cellular receptors, since attachment of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled CB3 was inhibited by greater than 90%. The monoclonal antibody protected HeLa cells against infection by CB1, CB3, CB5, echovirus 6, and coxsackievirus A21 and RD cells against CB1-RD, CB3-RD, and CB5-Rd virus variants. The monoclonal antibody did not protect either cell type against 16 other immunotypes of picornaviruses. The monoclonal antibody produced only positive fluorescence on those cells which were protected against infection, and /sup 125/I-labeled antibody confirmed the specific binding to HeLa and RD cells. The results suggest that this monoclonal antibody possesses some of the receptor specificity of the group B coxsackieviruses.

  4. Chapter 45: Antibodies and Lectins in Glycan Analysis 1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using monoclonal antibodies versus plant

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Chapter 45: Antibodies and Lectins in Glycan Analysis 1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using monoclonal antibodies versus plant lectins for determining the presence or absence of glycans in a preparation? 2. What are important controls when using lectins or antiglycan antibodies to determine

  5. Developing the next generation of monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jamie; Lowe, David; Sleeman, Matthew A

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the commonest autoimmune diseases affecting 0.8% of the population. Over the last decade the treatment of this chronic disease has been revolutionized by the use of monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins, targeting molecules like tumour necrosis factor alpha. Nevertheless, approximately one-third of subjects fail to respond to these therapies and therefore significant unmet medical need remains. Following a decade of use, clinical, government and regulatory agency expectations have changed for new antibodies therapies entering this highly competitive area. In this review, we discuss the current advances being made in antibody engineering and how they are being considered and used in the development of the next generation of antibodies to meet future expectations of healthcare providers, physicians and patients. Moreover, we discuss how pattern recognition receptors may provide new antibody tractable targets that may break the cycle of autoimmunity in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:21182494

  6. Reagent Target Request for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization

    Cancer.gov

    Requests will be reviewed and considered for merit based on their justification and contribution to existing NCI-funded projects. Priority will be given to projects applying the antibodies to proteomic research. Requests should be submitted electronically by completing the accompanying form.

  7. Discovery of a Chemical Modification by Citric Acid in a Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant therapeutic monoclonal antibodies exhibit a high degree of heterogeneity that can arise from various post-translational modifications. The formulation for a protein product is to maintain a specific pH and to minimize further modifications. Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS), citric acid is commonly used for formulation to maintain a pH at a range between 3 and 6 and is generally considered chemically inert. However, as we reported herein, citric acid covalently modified a recombinant monoclonal antibody (IgG1) in a phosphate/citrate-buffered formulation at pH 5.2 and led to the formation of so-called “acidic species” that showed mass increases of 174 and 156 Da, respectively. Peptide mapping revealed that the modification occurred at the N-terminus of the light chain. Three additional antibodies also showed the same modification but displayed different susceptibilities of the N-termini of the light chain, heavy chain, or both. Thus, ostensibly unreactive excipients under certain conditions may increase heterogeneity and acidic species in formulated recombinant monoclonal antibodies. By analogy, other molecules (e.g., succinic acid) with two or more carboxylic acid groups and capable of forming an anhydride may exhibit similar reactivities. Altogether, our findings again reminded us that it is prudent to consider formulations as a potential source for chemical modifications and product heterogeneity. PMID:25136741

  8. A Novel Monoclonal Antibody to CD40 Prolongs Islet Allograft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, M; Badell, IR; Thompson, P; Martin, B; Leopardi, F; Strobert, E; Price, AA; Abdulkerim, HS; Wang, R; Iwakoshi, NN; Adams, AB; Kirk, AD; Larsen, CP; Reimann, KA

    2012-01-01

    The importance of CD40/CD154 costimulatory pathway blockade in immunosuppression strategies is well documented. Efforts are currently focused on monoclonal antibodies specific for CD40 because of thromboembolic complications associated with monoclonal antibodies directed towards CD154. Here we present the rational development and characterization of a novel antagonistic monoclonal antibody to CD40. Rhesus macaques were treated with the recombinant anti-CD40 mAb, 2C10, or vehicle before immunization with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Treatment with 2C10 successfully inhibited T cell-dependent antibody responses to KLH without significant peripheral B cell depletion. Subsequently, MHC-mismatched macaques underwent intraportal allogeneic islet transplantation and received basiliximab and sirolimus with or without 2C10. Islet graft survival was significantly prolonged in recipients receiving 2C10 (graft survival time 304, 296, 265, 163 days) compared to recipients receiving basiliximab and sirolimus alone (graft survival time 8, 8, 10 days). The survival advantage conferred by treatment with 2C10 provides further evidence for the importance of blockade of the CD40/CD154 pathway in preventing alloimmune responses. 2C10 is a particularly attractive candidate for translation given its favorable clinical profile. PMID:22845909

  9. SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. Third yearly progress report, September 1991--February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Jaszczak, R.J.

    1992-02-01

    The accurate determination of the biodistribution of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) is important for calculation of dosimetry and evaluation of pharmacokinetic variables such as antibody dose and route of administration. The hypothesis of this application is that the biodistribution of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) can be quantitatively determined using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The major thrusts during the third year include the continued development and evaluation of improved 3D SPECT acquisition and reconstruction approaches to improve quantitative imaging of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), and the implementation and evaluation of algorithms to register serial SPECT image data sets, or to register 3D SPECT images with 3D image data sets acquired from positron emission tomography (PEI) and magnetic resonance images (MRI). The research has involved the investigation of statistical models and iterative reconstruction algorithms that accurately account for the physical characteristics of the SPECT acquisition system. It is our belief that SPECT quantification can be improved by accurately modeling the physical processes such as attenuation, scatter, geometric collimator response, and other factors that affect the measured projection data.

  10. Autoimmunity induced by HgCl/sub 2/ in Brown-Norway rats. II. Monoclonal antibodies sharing specificities and idiotypes with mouse natural monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Lymberi, P.; Hirsch, F.; Kuhn, J.; Ternynck, T.; Druet, P.; Avrameas, S.

    1986-05-01

    Spleen cells derived from BN rats receiving HgCl/sub 2/ were fused with the nonsecreting rat myeloma cell line IR983F. Supernatants from immunoglobulin-secreting hybrids for antibody activity against actin, tubulin, autologous and heterologous myosin, myoglobin, dsDNA, peroxidase, and the haptens TNP, NIP, NNP, and NBrP were severed. Six monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were found to react with antigen(s) of the panel. At least three groups of antibody specificities were identified: 1) clones reacting with TNP (1 IgM, 1 Ige); 2) clones reacting with horseradish peroxidase (1 IgM); and 3) clones possessing widespread reactivity for several antigens as found for mouse natural autoantibodies (2 IgM, 1 IgE). The idiotypic (Id) determinants of the 59 mAb were also analyzed. All rat mAb that possessed widespread reactivities bore this Id. Similar studies were performed in sera from normal and mercury-stimulated rats. The results indicate 1) a role for HgCl/sub 2/ in the stimulation of natural antibodies producing cells and 2) the existence of interspecies cross-reactive Id among mouse and rat natural antibodies.

  11. Optimization of monoclonal antibody delivery via the lymphatics: the dose dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Steller, M.A.; Parker, R.J.; Covell, D.G.; Holton, O.D. 3d.; Keenan, A.M.; Sieber, S.M.; Weinstein, J.N.

    1986-04-01

    After interstitial injection in mice, antibody molecules enter local lymphatic vessels, flow with the lymph to regional lymph nodes, and bind to target antigens there. Compared with i.v. administration, delivery via the lymphatics provides a more efficient means for localizing antibody in lymph nodes. An IgG2a (36-7-5) directed against the murine class I major histocompatibility antigen H-2Kk has proved useful for studying the pharmacology of lymphatic delivery. At very low doses, most of the antibody remains at the injection site in Kk-positive animals. As the dose is progressively increased, most effective labeling occurs first in nodes proximal to the injection site and then in the next group of nodes along the lymphatic chain. At higher doses, antibody overflows the lymphatic system and enters the blood-stream via the thoracic duct and other lymphatic-venous connections. Once in the blood, antibody is rapidly cleared, apparently by binding to Kk-bearing cells. These findings indicate that the single-pass distribution of monoclonal antibodies in the lymphatics can be strongly dose dependent, a principle which may be of clinical significance in the improvement of immunolymphoscintigraphic imaging, especially with antibodies directed against normal and malignant lymphoid cells. Monoclonal antibodies directed against normal cell types in the lymph node may be useful for assessing the integrity of lymphatic chains by immunolymphoscintigraphy or, more speculatively, for altering the status of regional immune function. The results presented here indicate that a low or intermediate antibody dose may optimize the signal:noise ratio for imaging. In Kk-negative animals, the percentage of dose taken up in the major organs was essentially independent of the dose administered; there was no evidence for saturable sites of nonspecific binding.

  12. Evaluating delivery of a monoclonal antibody using a linear Lorentz-force actuated needle-free injector

    E-print Network

    Jin, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    The medical application of injection of monoclonal antibodies using a controllable auto-loading needle-free jet injector has been evaluated for two potentially limiting factors: viscosity of the formulation and shearing ...

  13. Monoclonal antibodies as probes for the changes in antigenicity of bovine and porcine aspartyl proteases with pH.

    PubMed

    Boudjellab, N; Grosclaude, J; Zhao, X; Collin, J C

    1999-10-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies, 918(4) and 139(7), directed against either bovine or porcine pepsin, respectively, were retained among 365 positive hybridoma clones. These monoclonal antibodies were characterized by using both indirect and sandwich ELISA. Characterization of these monoclonal antibodies was further performed by the biospecific interaction analysis (BIA-core analysis). Then, they were used as antigenic probes to study the changes in antigenicity of both bovine and porcine pepsins induced by pH. The results demonstrated the importance of the conformational change in both catalytic activities and antigenic determinant accessibility of bovine and porcine pepsins. Furthermore, our results suggest that changes in the conformation due to pH can be detected by specific monoclonal antibodies. PMID:10552755

  14. Taenia saginata: production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Taenia saginata metacestode antigens.

    PubMed

    Vicentini-Oliveira, Josy Campanhă; Golim, Marjorie A; de Cássia Paulan, Silvana; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Rossi-Ferreira, Rosana; Deffune, Elenice; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2010-12-01

    Cysticercosis is a major cause of economic loss in bovine production due to meat condemnation. Chemotherapy is being used in Brazilian cattle and a diagnostic test to improve the treatment program is desired. We produced monoclonal antibodies against crude (TAEB) and cyst fluid (TAEF) Taenia saginata metacestode antigens using immunized BALB/c mice. After cell fusion, 10 TAEB and nine TAEF hybrids were selected and cloned resulting in 18 IgG(1) and 32 IgM TAEB clones, and 9 IgG(1) and 9 IgM TAEF clones. Ascites was produced and Western blot testing was performed resulting in reactivity to protein fractions of low molecular weight (<18kDa), 43, 55, 66 and 100kDa. The indirect immunofluorescence test, with one monoclonal antibody against crude and one against cyst fluid antigens, recognized antigenic fractions of both the scolex and the bladder wall of metacestodes from naturally infected bovine. PMID:20542032

  15. Application of a monoclonal antibody to a comparative study of alpha-lactalbumins from various species

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminogawa, S.; Shimoda, M.; Kurisaki, J.; Yamauchi, K.

    1989-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody to bovine alpha-lactalbumin was prepared and purified. The binding ability of alpha-lactalbumin from different species (cow, goat, giraffe, horse, pig, human, monkey, and guinea pig) was examined by a competitive radioimmunoassay. The order in strength of the binding affinity was cow goat, giraffe, horse, cynomolgus monkey and human, pig, and guinea pig. The order of evolutional divergence calculated from the amino acid composition was cow, goat, giraffe, horse, pig, guinea pig and human, and monkey. The orders in both cases were similar. Hence, it is suggested that immunological divergence as deduced by a monoclonal antibody is likely to be close to the evolutional divergence of alpha-lactalbumin.

  16. The use of monoclonal antibody for the immunodiagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Fagbemi, B O; Aderibigbe, O A; Guobadia, E E

    1997-05-01

    Antigens that were specific to Fasciola gigantica were obtained from the whole worm homogenate of the parasite by immunoaffinity chromatography in cyanogen bromide-activated sepharose 4B columns and used for the production of monoclonal antibodies. The F. gigantica-specific monoclonal antibody was labelled with horseradish peroxidase and used for the detection of circulating antigen by the direct ELISA method in the sera of cattle experimentally infected with the parasite. Circulating antigens were detectable in the sera of the animals as from the third week after infection while negative absorbance values were obtained 2 weeks after the termination of the infection by chemotherapy with oxyclozanide. This immunodiagnostic method offers an attractive alternative as a supplement to the conventional coprological diagnosis of fasciolosis. PMID:9195733

  17. Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with monoclonal antibodies, where are we heading?

    PubMed

    Doubek, Michael; Šmída, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the western world and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are important part of CLL treatment. The goal of this article was to summarize current literature on the position of mAbs in CLL treatment and to mention factors influencing effectiveness of mAbs in CLL. Several new mAbs have been developed and investigated in CLL over the past few years. Mainly anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies are still used routinely in CLL therapy. Unfortunately, the clinical application of mAbs needs to be further improved. Novel combinations and sequences of mAbs with other compounds need to be studied in clinical trials in order to increase overall response rate and prolong remission duration. Mechanisms of action of mAbs or mechanisms of resistance to mAbs have to be also investigated to predict effectiveness of mAb in particular patient. PMID:26306923

  18. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for Shewanella colwelliana exopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Sledjeski, D D; Weiner, R M

    1993-01-01

    Six monoclonal antibodies were produced to whole cells of Shewanella colwelliana (Aco1 to Aco6) and two (Aco22 to Aco23) to purified exopolysaccharide (EPS). Aco1, -4 to -6, -22, and -23 bound to both the cell surface and the purified EPS, while Aco2 and -3 bound to cells only. The EPS of S. colwelliana was antigenically unique from those of nine other species of marine bacteria that were tested. Mapping studies revealed that all of the EPS-specific monoclonal antibodies bound to the same epitope. This EPS epitope was sensitive to cleavage of ester bonds, but neither pyruvate, acetate, nor terminal nonreducing sugars were required for antigenicity. When S. colwelliana was grown on rich media, most of its EPS was loosely associated with the cell surface. Images PMID:7686001

  19. Adsorption and recovery issues of recombinant monoclonal antibodies in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Beck, Alain; Wagner, Elsa; Vuignier, Karine; Guillarme, Davy

    2015-01-01

    The poor recovery of large biomolecules is a well-known issue in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Several papers have reported this problem, but the reasons behind this behavior are not yet fully understood. In the present study, state-of-the-art reversed-phase wide-pore stationary phases were used to evaluate the adsorption of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. These biomolecules possess molar mass of approximately 150,000 g/mol and isoelectric points between 6.6 and 9.3. Two types of stationary phases were tested, the Phenomenex Aeris Widepore (silica based), with 3.6 ?m superficially porous particles, and the Waters Acquity BEH300 (ethylene-bridged hybrid), with 1.7 ?m fully porous particles. A systematic investigation was carried out using 11 immunoglobulin G1, G2, and G4 antibodies, namely, panitumumab, natalizumab, cetuximab, bevacizumab, trastuzumab, rituximab, palivizumab, belimumab, adalimumab, denosumab, and ofatumumab. All are approved by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency in various therapeutic indications and are considered as reference antibodies. Several test proteins, such as human serum albumin, transferrin, apoferritin, ovalbumin, and others, possessing a molar mass between 42,000 and 443,000 g/mol were also evaluated to draw reliable conclusions. The purpose of this study was to find a correlation between the adsorption of monoclonal antibodies and their physicochemical properties. Therefore, the impact of isoelectric point, molar mass, protein glycosylation, and hydrophobicity was investigated. The adsorption of intact antibodies on the stationary phase was significantly higher than that of proteins of similar size, isoelectric point, or hydrophobicity. The present study also demonstrates the unique behavior of monoclonal antibodies, contributing some unwanted and unpredictable strong secondary interactions. PMID:25359277

  20. Monoclonal Antibodies Detect a Spectrin-Like Protein in Normal and Dystrophic Human Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, S. T.; Dunn, M. J.; Dubowitz, V.; Scott, M. L.; Pittman, S. J.; Shotton, D. M.

    1984-02-01

    Spectrin is the major protein of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton, which is bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane's lipid bilayer and is responsible for cell shape and membrane elasticity. Inability to identify spectrin in other cell types led to the assumption that this protein was unique to erythrocytes. However, spectrin-like proteins have been demonstrated recently in a variety of cell types, including skeletal and cardiac muscle, in several species. We used monoclonal antibodies against human erythrocyte spectrin subunits in an immunocytochemical study to detect related proteins in normal and diseased human skeletal muscle. Six of seven monoclonal antibodies against ? -spectrin determinants were bound at the cytoplasmic surface of muscle fiber plasma membranes, whereas none of six monoclonal antibodies against ? -spectrin determinants was bound. Muscle fibers of patients with neuromuscular diseases showed similar distribution and specificity of antibody binding to those of normal subjects, but the intensity of binding was increased. In contrast, probable regenerating fibers in muscle of patients with muscular dystrophies showed reduced binding of antibodies, but reduced binding was not seen in fetal muscle fibers nor in those of a patient with a myotubular myopathy. We conclude that human skeletal muscle fibers possess a spectrin-related protein associated with their plasma membrane that shows extensive ? -chain similarities to erythrocyte spectrin but differs significantly with respect to the ? -subunit. Its function may be associated with the maintenance of membrane and myofibril integrity during contraction, and the increased antibody binding in diseased muscle may reflect a structural rearrangement of spectrin or a compensatory increase in spectrin abundance in response to increased stress on these systems.

  1. Phytochrome in photosynthetically competent plants characterization by monoclonal antibodies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed information concerning the physicochemical properties of phytochrome is sought, but since only trace quantities are present in plant tissues, it is extremely labile to modification in crude plant extracts, efficient and sensitive methods for its purification and characterization will be required. Towards this end immune serums directed towards oat phytochrome have been prepared. Unfortunately the phytochrome in green oats is immunochemically distinct from phytochrome in etiolated oats. Consequently, effort has been directed at preparation of monoclonal antibodies for green-oat phytochrome.

  2. Vasculogenesis in the early quail blastodisc as studied with monoclonal-antibody recognizing endothelial-cells

    E-print Network

    Pardanaud, L.; Altmann, C.; Kitos, Paul A.; Dieterlenlievre, F.; Buck, C. A.

    1987-06-01

    acquisition. A nonvascularized area persists until later (at least the 14-somite stage) in the region of the regressing primi- tive streak. Key words: vasculogenesis, quail, blastodisc, monoclonal antibody, endothelial cell, QH1. Introduction The formation...) and Hirakow & Hiruma (1981, 1983) investigations into earlier events in the establishment of the embryonic vascula- ture require methods that allow the identification of presumptive endothelial cells prior to their incorpor- ation into microvessels...

  3. Clearance of persistent hepatitis C virus infection using a claudin-1-targeting monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Mailly, Laurent; Wilson, Garrick K.; Aubert, Philippe; Duong, François H. T.; Calabrese, Diego; Leboeuf, Céline; Fofana, Isabel; Thumann, Christine; Bandiera, Simonetta; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Volz, Tassilo; Davis, Christopher; Harris, Helen J.; Mee, Christopher J.; Girardi, Erika; Chane-Woon-Ming, Béatrice; Ericsson, Maria; Fletcher, Nicola; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Pessaux, Patrick; Vercauteren, Koen; Meuleman, Philip; Villa, Pascal; Kaderali, Lars; Pfeffer, Sébastien; Heim, Markus H.; Neunlist, Michel; Zeisel, Mirjam B.; Dandri, Maura; McKeating, Jane A.; Robinet, Eric; Baumert, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer1. Cell entry of HCV2 and other pathogens3-5 is mediated by tight junction (TJ) proteins, but successful therapeutic targeting of TJ proteins has not been reported yet. Using a human liver-chimeric mouse model6 we show that a monoclonal antibody specific for TJ protein claudin-17 eliminates chronic HCV infection without detectable toxicity. This antibody inhibits HCV entry, cell-cell transmission and virus-induced signaling events. Antibody treatment reduces the number of HCV-infected hepatocytes in vivo, highlighting the need for de novo infection via host entry factors to maintain chronic infection. In summary, we demonstrate that an antibody targeting a virus receptor can cure chronic viral infection and uncover TJ proteins as targets for antiviral therapy. PMID:25798937

  4. A murine monoclonal antibody based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for almond (Prunus dulcis L.) detection.

    PubMed

    Su, Mengna; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Liu, Changqi; Zhang, Ying; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2013-11-13

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-almond soluble protein rabbit polyclonal antibodies as capture antibodies and murine monoclonal antibody 4C10 as the detection antibodies was developed. The assay is specific and sensitive (3-200 ng almond protein/mL) for almond detection. The standardized assay is accurate (<15% CV) and reproducible (intra- and inter assay variability <15% CV). The assay did not register any cross-reactivity with the tested food matrices, suggesting the assay to be almond amandin specific. The assay could detect the presence of declared almond in the tested matched commercial samples. Further, the assay reliably detected the presence of almonds in the laboratory prepared food samples spiked with almond flour. PMID:24099349

  5. Inhibition of expression of delayed hypersensitivity by neutralizing monoclonal anti-T-cell fibronectin antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Mandy, S; Feng, Z; Canfield, L S; Mandy, K; Quan, X; Rowehl, R A; Khan, M Y; Akiyama, S K; Godfrey, H P

    1994-01-01

    T-cell fibronectin (FN) is a unique cellular FN that is rapidly synthesized by memory T cells in response to antigen. Monoclonal anti-T-cell FN antibodies have been used to clarify the role of T-cell FN in the in vivo expression of delayed hypersensitivity. IgGl(kappa) mouse anti-human T-cell FN monoclonal antibodies 231 and 248 recognized epitopes on the FN cell-binding domain, were cross-reactive with plasma FN, and neutralized human and guinea-pig T-cell FN monocyte agglutinating activity. When injected intradermally together with tuberculin or 30 min before topical application of reactive sensitizer, antibody 231 significantly decreased macroscopic expression of guinea-pig delayed hypersensitivity at 24 hr in a dose-dependent manner. Similar doses of antibody 248 caused a slight statistically non-significant enhancement of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) expression. Inhibition of visible skin responses was not associated with qualitative or quantitative changes in cellular infiltrates at the reaction site. Antibody 231 modulated expression of delayed hypersensitivity in a qualitatively and quantitatively similar manner to the FN-binding mycobacterial antigen 85 proteins. This is consistent with anti-T-cell FN and antigen 85 acting on the same molecule in vivo. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7875739

  6. Rapid identification of dengue virus isolates by using monoclonal antibodies in an indirect immunofluorescence assay.

    PubMed

    Henchal, E A; McCown, J M; Seguin, M C; Gentry, M K; Brandt, W E

    1983-01-01

    Type-specific monoclonal antibodies prepared against the four dengue (DEN) virus serotypes were evaluated for their ability to identify low-passage human and mosquito isolates from Jamaica and West Africa by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Serotyped human isolates from Jamaican dengue fever patients included 12 DEN-1, two DEN-2, and five DEN-4 viruses. Viruses from West Africa included 84 DEN-2 mosquito strains as well as two DEN-1 and one DEN-2 from humans. Results obtained using the immunofluorescence assay were consistent with virus identifications obtained using the more classical but costly and time-consuming plaque-reduction neutralization test. More viral isolates and higher virus yields were obtained using the C6/36 clone of Aedes albopictus cells rather than LLC-MK2 (monkey kidney) cells. Dengue type-specific monoclonal antibodies detected prototype viral antigens 24-48 hours postinfection in C6/36 cells. This is the first time that monoclonal antibodies have been used to serotype low-passage flavivirus isolates. PMID:6401944

  7. Magnetic nanoparticle based purification and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibody against enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Gun; Kim, Myeong-Ae; Park, Young-Il; Jung, Tae-Sung; Son, Seong-Wan; So, ByungJae; Kang, Hwan-Goo

    2015-12-30

    Monoclonal anti-enrofloxacin antibody was prepared for a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and purification system using monoclonal antibody (mAb) coupled magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The IC50 values of the developed mAb for enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, sarafloxacin, pefloxacin, and norfloxacin were 5.0, 8.3, 9.7, 21.7, 36.0, and 63.7 ng/mL, respectively. The lowest detectable level of ENR was 0.7 ng/mL in the prepared ELISA system. To validate the developed ELISA in the food matrix, known amounts of ENR were spiked in meat and egg samples at 10, 20 and 30 ng/mL. Recoveries for ENR ranged from 72.9 to 113.16% with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.42 to 10.11%. The applicability of the mAb-MNP system was verified by testing the recoveries for ENR residue in three different matrices. Recoveries for ENR ranged from 75.16 to 86.36%, while the CV ranged from 5.08 to 11.53%. Overall, ENR-specific monoclonal antibody was prepared and developed for use in competitive to ELISAs for the detection of ENR in animal meat samples. Furthermore, we suggest that a purification system for ENR using mAb-coupled MNPs could be useful for determination of ENR residue in food. PMID:26040610

  8. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against excretory-secretory products of Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Solano, M; Ridley, R K; Minocha, H C

    1991-11-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (9.49, 24.27, 46.71 and 179.57) were produced against Fasciola hepatica excretory-secretory products. Isotype analysis revealed the antibodies to be IgM, IgG3, IgG1, and IgM. In immunoblot assays, the mAbs recognized different antigenic polypeptides migrating between 29 and 180 kDa. Specificity of the mAbs was evaluated by ELISA against antigens of Fascioloides magna, Anoplocephala magna, Stichorchis subtriquetrus, Haemonchus contortus, sheep liver extract (SLE), bovine liver extract (BLE), bovine serum albumin (BSA), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Monoclonals 9.49 and 24.27 were specific, and reacted only with Fasciola hepatica antigens. However, mAb 46.71 cross-reacted with antigens of Fascioloides magna, A. magna, Stichorchis subtriquetrus, and H. contortus but not with SLE, BLE, BSA, BVDV or MDBK cells. Monoclonal antibody 179.57 cross-reacted with Fascioloides magna, A. magna, S. subtriquetrus, H. contortus, SLE, and BLE, but not with BSA, BVDV, or MDBK cells. PMID:1788930

  9. Myosin at the apical pole of ciliated epithelial cells as revealed by a monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (CC-212), obtained in a fusion experiment in which basal bodies from quail oviduct were used as immunogen, has been shown to label the apical pole of ciliated cells and to react with a 200-kD protein. This monoclonal antibody was demonstrated to be an anti- myosin from smooth muscle or from nonmuscular cells using the following criteria: On Western blots it reacted with the myosin heavy chains from gizzard and platelet extracts and from cultured cell line extracts, but did not react with striated muscle myosin heavy chains. By immunofluorescence it decorated the stress fibers of well-spread cells with a characteristic striated pattern, while it did not react with myotubes containing organized myofibrils. On native ciliated cells as well as on Triton-extracted ciliated cortices from quail oviduct, this monoclonal antibody decorated the apical pole with a stronger labeling of the periphery of the apical area. Ultrastructural localization was attempted using the immunogold technique on the same preparation. Myosin was associated with a filamentous material present between striated rootlets and the proximal extremities of the basal bodies. No labeling of the basal body itself or of axoneme was observed. PMID:3525577

  10. Beyond monoclonal antibodies: new therapeutic agents in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, Angelo; Ghielmini, Michele; Sessa, Cristiana

    2009-05-01

    The availability of active monoclonal antibodies, either as single agents or in combination with cytotoxic agents, has improved treatment results in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Despite this and the increasing number of available active monoclonal antibodies, alone or conjugated with radioisotopes, not all types of lymphoma are sensitive to these biological agents and often they become resistant because of different molecular mechanisms. New molecular targets in neoplastic cells are emerging and provide the rationale for novel discovery initiatives. In fact, a greater knowledge of the biology of lymphoma and the identification of compounds selectively active against a potential therapeutic pathway have already improved the time to progression and survival time of patients with some subtypes of NHL. The growing list of new drugs provides the exciting prospect of developing disease-specific and even patient-specific therapies. The aim of this review is to identify and discuss non-monoclonal antibody new therapeutic agents in terms of mechanism of action and clinical results. The preclinical and clinical features of proteasome inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, thalidomide and lenalidomide, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides, heat shock protein inhibitors, protein kinase C inhibitors, antiangiogenic agents, and new cytotoxics are reviewed. PMID:19411316

  11. Novel lymphocyte screening tube using dried monoclonal antibody reagents.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Benjamin D; Keeney, Michael; Popma, Janice; Chin-Yee, Ian

    2015-11-01

    We previously developed a 10-color 11-antibody combination including a viability dye, to screen T-, B-, and natural killer (NK)-cell populations in blood, bone marrow, tissue, and body fluids. Recently, Beckman Coulter has introduced a line of dried reagents that, unlike liquid reagents and cocktails, require no refrigeration, titration, or manipulation before using. We evaluated custom tubes based on our standard lymphocyte screening panel, focusing on comparative analysis, ease of use, and advantages compared with our liquid reagent set. We tested 42 samples from blood (n?=?15), bone marrow (n?=?17), and tissue (n?=?10) with the combination CD4/CD8/KAPPA/LAMBDA/CD19/CD56/CD5/CD20/CD10/CD3/CD45 and a vital dye by both methods and compared positivity and staining intensity for each antigen. Of the 42 samples, 5 were normal samples, 3 were red cell disorders, 20 were B-cell malignancies, 5 T-cell malignancies, 4 myeloid malignancies, and the remaining 5 were other diagnoses. Dried reagents gave equivalent staining intensity results to our standard panel in a variety of sample types, with diagnoses including reactive lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and various lymphomas. Our standard panel for evaluation of mature lymphoid malignancies allows rapid assessment of any sample type while providing direct assessment of viability. The dried reagent tube reduces preanalytical work, with simple addition of sample and the viability dye to the tube, saving time, reducing potential errors, and obviating need to titrate and monitor individual antibodies. With a shelf life of at least 12 months, the reagents also offer potential savings in reagent costs by reducing wastage due to expiration or tandem breakdown in standard liquid formulation. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society. PMID:25944189

  12. PL2-49, a monoclonal antibody against glycoprotein IIb which is a platelet activator.

    PubMed

    Morel, M C; Lecompte, T; Champeix, P; Favier, R; Potevin, F; Samama, M; Salmon, C; Kaplan, C

    1989-01-01

    PL2-49 is a murine monoclonal IgG1 antibody obtained after immunization of Balb/c mice with EDTA washed platelets. Binding could be detected on Zwa(+) as well as Zwa(-) platelets, but not on type I Glanzmann's thrombasthenia platelets using an ELISA screening test. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that PL2-49 bound to glycoprotein IIb when the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex dissociation was performed after the monoclonal antibody binding. Experiments with a human alloantibody against Zwa antigen were run in parallel to control the complex dissociation. Ascitic fluid, as well as the purified antibody, induced activation and aggregation of washed platelets and ATP release. PL2-49-induced aggregation did not require exogenous fibrinogen and was inhibited, partially, in the presence of aspirin, apyrase, isosorbide dinitrate. Raising intra-platelet cyclic AMP with a stable PGI2 analogue, iloprost, and/or a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, RA 233, suppressed the responses to PL2-49. F(ab')2 fragments did not induce aggregation of normal platelets but inhibited the response to the whole immunoglobulin. Finally PL2-49 was shown to induce aequorin-detected elevations in intraplatelet Ca++ levels. Thus PL2-49 seems to differ from monoclonal antibodies so far described, since it binds to glycoprotein IIb in a complex-dependent manner at least under our experimental conditions for immunoprecipitation studies, and it induces platelet Ca++ mobilization and platelet aggregation after a lag-time. These reactions depend both on Fab and Fc domains of the antibody and require neither complement nor exogenous fibrinogen. PMID:2917129

  13. Development and characterization of a TAPIR-like mouse monoclonal antibody to amyloid-beta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Hara, Hideo; Makifuchi, Takao; Tabira, Takeshi

    2008-06-01

    Tissue amyloid plaque immuno-reactive (TAPIR) antibody was better related to the effect of immunotherapy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) than ELISA antibody. Here we used a hybridoma technique to develop a TAPIR-like anti-human amyloid-beta (Abeta) mouse monoclonal antibody. The obtained monoclonal antibody, 3.4A10, was an IgG2b isotype and recognized N-terminal portion of Abeta1-42 without binding denatured or native amyloid-beta protein precursor. It had higher affinity to Abeta1-42 than to Abeta1-40 by Biacore affinity analysis and stained preferably the peripheral part of senile plaques and recognized the plaque core less than 4G8. It inhibited the Abeta1-42 fibril formation as well as degraded pre-aggregated Abeta1-42 peptide in a thioflavin T fluorescence spectrophotometry assay. The in vivo studies showed that 3.4A10 treatment decreased amyloid burden compared to the control group and significantly reduced Abeta42 levels rather than Abeta40 levels in brain lysates as well as the Abeta*56 oligomer (12mer) in TBS fraction of the brain lysates. 3.4A10 entered brain and decorated some plaques, which is surrounded by more Iba1-positive microglia. 3.4A10 therapy did not induce lymphocytic infiltration and obvious increase in microhemorrhage. We conclude that 3.4A10 is a TAPIR-like anti-human amyloid monoclonal antibody, and has a potential of therapeutic application for AD. PMID:18560128

  14. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus nucleocapsid protein generated by DNA immunization

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Folgar, Raquel; Lorenzo, Gema; Boshra, Hani; Iglesias, Javier; Mateos, Francisco; Borrego, Belén

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the generation of monoclonal antibodies directed to immunogenic nucleoprotein N epitopes of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), and their application in diagnostics, both for antibody detection in competitive eLISA and for antigen capture in a sandwich eLISA. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated after DNA immunization of Balb/c mice and characterized by western blot, ELISA and cell immunostaining assays. At least three different immunorelevant epitopes were defined by mAb competition assays. Interestingly, two of the mAbs generated were able to distinguish between RVFV strains from egyptian or South African lineages. these monoclonal antibodies constitute useful tools for diagnosis, especially for the detection of serum anti-RVFV antibodies from a broad range of species by means of competitive ELISA. PMID:20400862

  15. Monoclonal antibodies with group specificity toward sulfonamides: Selection of hapten and antibody selectivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although many antibodies to sulfonamides have been generated, immunoassays based on the current available antibodies for large multi-sulfonamide screening programs have properties dependent on the immunizing hapten structure and have always suffered from high selectivity for individual sulfonamides....

  16. Study of rat kidney transamidinase structure and regulation with monoclonal antibodies and the purification and characterization of human kidney transamidinase

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The isolation of monoclonal antibodies to transamidinase made possible the development of an immunosorbent inhibition assay for transamidinase protein using a /sup 125/I-labeled monoclonal antibody. This assay is a more direct measurement of transamidinase protein than the determination of the amount of polyclonal antibody required to precipitate the transamidinase activities. Rats were fed diets supplemented with creatine and/or glycine, and the amounts of transamidinase protein were determined with the assay using the monoclonal antibody. The transamidinase activities of kidneys from the rats fed the various supplemented diets ranged from 10 to 40% of the control values, whereas, the amounts of transamidinase protein were, in all instances no lower than 66% of the control values. Purified homogeneous rat kidney transamidinase and rat kidney supernatants were subjected to isoelectric focussing and four to five fractions of the enzyme were obtained. Polyclonal antibodies, but not the monoclonal antibodies were found by Western blotting experiments to recognize all the forms of the enzyme obtained by the isoelectric focussing. The author concluded that the monoclonal antibodies recognized forms of the enzyme that changed very little in amount, relative to the alterations in enzyme activities, when rats were fed a diet containing creatine.

  17. Development and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to human embryonal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Khazaeli, M.B.; Beierwaltes, W.H.; Pitt, G.S.; Kabza, G.A.; Rogers, K.J.; LoBuglio, A.F.

    1987-06-01

    A monoclonal anti-testicular carcinoma antibody was obtained via the somatic cell fusion technique by immunization of BALB/c mice with freshly prepared single cell suspension from a patient with testicular embryonal carcinoma with choriocarcinoma components. The hybridoma supernates were screened against the testicular carcinoma cells used in the immunization as well as normal mononuclear white blood cells isolated from the same patient. An antibody (5F9) was selected which bound to fresh tumor cells from two patients with embryonal testicular carcinoma and failed to bind to fresh tumor cells from 24 patients (2 seminoma, 2 melanoma, 3 neck, 2 esophageal, 1 ovarian, 3 colon, 1 prostate, 2 breast, 1 liposarcoma, 3 endometrial, 1 kidney, 1 adrenal, 1 larynx and 1 bladder tumors) or cell suspensions prepared from normal liver, lung, spleen, ovary, testes, kidney, red blood cells or white blood cells. The antibody was tested for its binding to several well established cancer cell lines, and was found to bind to the BeWo human choriocarcinoma and two human embryonal carcinoma cell lines. The antibody did not react with 22 other cell lines or with hCG. The antibody was labeled with /sup 131/I and injected into nude mice bearing BeWo tumors and evaluated for tumor localization by performing whole body scans with a gamma camera 5 days later. Six mice injected with the antibody showed positive tumor localization without the need for background subtraction while six mice injected with MOPC-21, a murine myeloma immunoglobulin, demonstrated much less tumor localization. Tissue distribution studies performed after scanning showed specific tumor localization (8:1 tumor: muscle) for the monoclonal antibody and no specific localization for MOPC-21.

  18. Monoclonal antibodies directed against surface molecules of multicell spheroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andrew O.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this project is to generate a library of monoclonial antibodies (MAbs) directed against surface molecules of tumor and transformed cells grown as multicell spheroids (MCS). These MCS are highly organized, 3-dimensional multicellular structures which exhibit many characteristics of in vivo organized tissues which are not found in conventional monolayer or suspension culture. In brief, MCS combine the relevance or organized tissues with in vitro methodology making the MCS a good model system to study the interactions of mammalian cells, and thereby provide a functional assay for surface adhesion molecules. This project also involves investigations of cell-cell interactions in a gravity-based environment. It will provide an important base of scientific information for future comparative studies on the effects of hypergravity and simulated microgravity environments on cell-cell interactions. This project also has the potential to yield important materials (e.g. cellular products) which may be useful for the diagnosis and/or treatment of certain human diseases. Moreover, this project supports the training of one undergraduate and one graduate student; thus, it will also assist in developing a pool of future scientists with research experience in gravitational biology research.

  19. Patterns of Reactivity between a Panel of Monoclonal Antibodies and Forage Rhizobium Strains

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Perry; Wright, Sara; Collins, Mandy; Rice, Wendell

    1994-01-01

    A panel of 11 monoclonal antibodies raised against vegetative cells of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii or Rhizobium meliloti was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for reactivity with 47 strains of R. leguminosarum biovar trifolii and 60 strains of R. meliloti. The goal of the study was to define the degree of specificity associated with each antibody and to gain an understanding of the amount of antigenic diversity found among the strains and between the species. Each antibody was tested against each Rhizobium strain in four forms: washed steamed cells, washed unsteamed cells, cell-free culture broth, and nodule squash material. Each antibody showed a different pattern of reactivity among the 107 strains. One of each of the antibodies developed against R. meliloti and R. leguminosarum biovar trifolii reacted in a highly specific manner with cells or antigen from the immunogenic strain only. Nine of the antibodies recognized secreted as well as cellular antigen from many of the strains. Analysis of patterns of reactivity between the 107 strains and the 11 antibodies separated the strains into 28 groups of which 12 were represented by one strain only. PMID:16349192

  20. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to mTOR kinase.

    PubMed

    Nemazanyy, Ivan; Breus, Oksana; Gout, Ivan; Filonenko, Valeriy; Panasyuk, Ganna

    2008-10-01

    Abstract Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a critical role in the regulation of basic cellular functions, including cellular growth and proliferation. In this study we describe the generation and characterization of novel monoclonal antibodies directed against mTOR protein kinase. A GST-tagged fragment of mTOR expressed in bacteria was used as an antigen. Antibody-producing hybridoma cells were obtained by fusing SP2/0 myeloma cells with splenocytes from immunized mice. Anti-mTOR antibody-producing hybridoma cell lines were first identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and then subcloned by limiting dilution. Antibodies produced by selected clones were further tested for their reactivity towards the GST/mTOR 1334-1504 recombinant protein. Furthermore, antibody produced by F11 clone was shown to recognize specifically mTOR in different tissues and cell lines in Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, mTOR F11 antibody was suitable for immunoprecipitating and testing mTOR activity in in vitro kinase assay. In summary, generated antibodies will be useful for investigating mTOR signaling complexes in normal and pathological states. PMID:18803507

  1. Anti-ADAMTS5 monoclonal antibodies: implications for aggrecanase inhibition in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Apte, Suneel S

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix of articular cartilage is structurally specialized for efficient absorption of mechanical impact. In particular, giant aggregates of the large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, aggrecan, with the glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan, allow cartilage to resist compressive load. Proteolysis of aggrecan by members of the proteinase family ADAMTS (A disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin type 1 motif), was identified as an early step in the inexorable destruction of cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). Of the investigated proteinases, ADAMTS5 has emerged as a principal mediator of aggrecan loss in OA, convincingly so in mouse models, and with high probability in humans. ADAMTS5 has a bipartite organization, comprising a proteinase domain and an ancillary domain containing exosites for interaction with aggrecan and other substrates. In a recent issue of this journal, Santamaria et al. characterized anti-ADAMTS5 monoclonal antibodies isolated from a phage display library. By blocking the catalytic site of the ADAMTS5 immunogen with a synthetic inhibitor, the authors of the paper biased selection of antibodies to the ancillary domain. This work, together with other antibodies targeting ADAMTS5, offers diverse, high-affinity and, as far as can be determined, selective aggrecanase inhibitors. Mapping of their epitopes provided novel insights into ADAMTS5 interactions with aggrecan. These monoclonal antibodies deserve continued investigation for potential arthritis therapy, although their successful use will require a comprehensive understanding of the physiological roles of ADAMTS5, and its regulation, intrinsic properties and intermolecular interactions. PMID:26657033

  2. Exposure of platelet fibrinogen receptors by a monoclonal antibody to CD9 antigen.

    PubMed

    Hato, T; Ikeda, K; Yasukawa, M; Watanabe, A; Kobayashi, Y

    1988-07-01

    We found that a monoclonal antibody to CD9 antigen, PMA2, induces fibrinogen binding to platelets and examined the mechanism for this. That PMA2 recognized the CD9 antigen was confirmed by its immunoblot-reactivity with a 24,000-dalton protein, reactivity with platelets and common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells, and competitive binding with the ALB6 antibody known as the CD9 antibody. At saturation, PMA2 bound to approximately 46,000 sites per platelet. The binding of 125I-fibrinogen to platelets occurred in a PMA2 concentration-dependent manner and was blocked by EDTA or an anti-glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa monoclonal antibody. PMA2-stimulated platelets caused ATP secretion and thromboxane B2 synthesis under non-stirred conditions. The role of secreted ADP and thromboxane in fibrinogen-binding and subsequent platelet aggregation was studied using creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase (CP/CPK) and aspirin. CP/CPK or aspirin alone reduced fibrinogen binding to 20% to 30%; however, this binding was sufficient to support full platelet aggregation. Combined treatment with CP/CPK and aspirin abolished fibrinogen binding and aggregation. These results demonstrate that the binding of IgG molecules to the CD9 antigen exposes fibrinogen receptors through both secreted ADP and thromboxane and that either one of both can expose the receptors to an extent sufficient to aggregate platelets. PMID:2455569

  3. Human Monoclonal Antibody-Based Therapy in the Treatment of Invasive Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Bugli, Francesca; Cacaci, Margherita; Martini, Cecilia; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Paroni Sterbini, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) represents the leading fungal infection of humans causing life-threatening disease in immunosuppressed and neutropenic individuals including also the intensive care unit patients. Despite progress in recent years in drugs development for the treatment of IC, morbidity and mortality rates still remain very high. Historically, cell-mediated immunity and innate immunity are considered to be the most important lines of defense against candidiasis. Nevertheless recent evidence demonstrates that antibodies with defined specificities could act with different degrees showing protection against systemic and mucosal candidiasis. Mycograb is a human recombinant monoclonal antibody against heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) that was revealed to have synergy when combined with fluconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B against a broad spectrum of Candida species. Furthermore, recent studies have established an important role for Hsp90 in mediating Candida resistance to echinocandins, giving to this antibody molecule even more attractive biological properties. In response to the failure of marketing authorization by the CHMP (Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use) a new formulation of Mycograb, named Mycograb C28Y variant, with an amino acid substitution was developed in recent years. First data on Mycograb C28Y variant indicate that this monoclonal antibody lacked efficacy in a murine candidiasis model. PMID:23878583

  4. SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Jaszczak, R.J.

    1990-04-01

    The accurate determination of the biodistribution of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) is important for calculation of dosimetry and evaluation of pharmacokinetic variables such as antibody dose and route of administration. A major long-term objective of this proposal is to determine the utility of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for quantifying the biodistribution of monoclonal antibodies labeled with the clinically relevant radionuclides iodine-123 (I-123) and indium-111 (In-111). The specific aims of this project include the comparison of the effects of three methods of radiolabeling anticarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA-110) --- iodination by Iodogen, the tin-containing ester methods and an indium chelate method --- on the immunoreactivity and affinity of the antibody. The biodistribution of anti-CEA labeled by the three methods will be compared in tumor bearing and normal mice. Subsequent studies of the pharmacokinetics of I-123 and In-111 labeled anti-CEA will be determined by SPECT in non-human primates. The errors associated with the SPECT measurements will be assessed with Monte Carlo simulations and by scanning phantoms containing I-123 or In-111 activity in regions of uniform and nonuniform attenuation. The ability of SPECT to quantify I-123 and In-111 distributions will be assessed, and new acquisition geometries and reconstruction algorithms for improved quantification will be evaluated. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Development and Characterization of Broadly Cross-reactive Monoclonal Antibodies Against All Known Ebolavirus Species.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Humberto; Marceau, Caleb; Halliday, Hailey; Callison, Julie; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Escaffre, Olivier; Creech, Jeffrey; Feldmann, Heinz; Rockx, Barry

    2015-10-01

    As of 25 March 2015, the largest recorded outbreak of Ebola virus infection is ongoing, with almost 25 000 cases and >10 000 deaths. There are 5 genetically and antigenically distinct species within the genus Ebolavirus. Limited cross-reactivity and protection is observed between these 5 Ebolavirus species, which complicates vaccine development. However, on the basis of sequence homology between the 5 Ebolavirus species, we hypothesize that conserved epitopes are present on the viral glycoprotein (GP), which can be targeted by antibodies. In the current study, a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies was isolated and characterized using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine cross-reactivity, avidity, and competition for epitope binding; Western blot analysis was also performed. Four monoclonal antibodies were identified by ELISA as cross-reacting with the GPs of all 5 Ebolavirus species. The identification of cross-reactive antibodies that bind the GPs of all known Ebolavirus species will give us important insight into the presence of conserved epitopes on the viral GP. These data will be crucial for the development of novel therapeutics and diagnostic assays. PMID:25999057

  6. Blot-sequencing of antibodies: application to analysis of V gene usage among anti-steroid monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Taussig, M J; Symington, P R; Woods, M; Sims, M J; Beale, D; Humphreys, A S; Northrop, A J; Barker, P J; Huskisson, N S; Coley, J

    1991-04-01

    Automated gas-phase protein sequencing has been used to characterize variable regions of antibody heavy and light chains separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and electroblotted onto Immobilon polyvinylidene difluoride membranes ('blot-sequencing'). Starting from 100 micrograms of antibody, 20 or more residues of N-terminal VH and VL sequences can regularly be obtained, which is often sufficient to assign the V region to a known family or subgroup. We have applied the blot-sequencing method to analysis of VH and VL usage among a panel of monoclonal anti-steroid antibodies, namely anti-progesterone, anti-pregnanediol, anti-estrone and anti-testosterone. The results demonstrate restricted, repetitive usage of VL subgroups and VH families related to anti-steroid specificities. VL regions of the VK1 group were particularly associated with anti-progesterone, VK21 with anti-estrone, and VK8 and VK9 with anti-pregnanediol. VH regions of anti-progesterone antibodies were all derived from the VHVGAM3.8 family; anti-estrone and anti-pregnanediol antibodies were derived from the VH7183 and VH36-60 families. The latter two families appear to characterize antibodies raised against steroids conjugated to proteins via a sugar bridge. Differences in VH/VL combination were associated with diversity of antibody specificity. In order to extend the sequence data obtained by this technique and confirm family assignments, we have shown that internal V-region sequences can be obtained by limited chemical cleavage of whole antibody with cyanogen bromide, followed by separation of individual fragments by SDS-PAGE and blot-sequencing. PMID:1903763

  7. Drug delivery systems--2. Site-specific drug delivery utilizing monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ranade, V V

    1989-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are purified antibodies produced by a single clone of cells. They are engineered to recognize and bind to a single specific antigen. Accordingly, when administered, MAbs home in on a particular circulating protein or on cells that bear the correct antigenic signature on their surfaces. It is the specificity of MAbs that has made them valuable tools for health professions. Following the discovery of Kohler and Milstein regarding the method of somatic cell hybridization, a number of investigators have successfully adopted this technique to obtain T-lymphocyte hybrid cell lines by fusion of activated T (thymus derived) lymphocytes with a T lymphoma cell line leading to an immortalization of a specific differentiated function. The hybrids thus obtained were subsequently shown to produce homogeneous effector molecules with a wide variety of immune functions such as enhancement or suppression of antibody responses, generation of helper T cells, suppressor T cells and cytotoxic T cells. Study of these regulatory molecules has been further shown to provide a greater insight into the genetic, biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for cellular development, and the interaction and triggering of various cell types. The successful application of hybridoma technology has now resulted into several advances in the understanding the mechanism and treatment of diseases, especially cancer and development of vaccines, promotion of organ transplantation and therapy against parasites as well. Since monoclonal antibodies could be made in unlimited supply, they have been used in genetic studies such as mRNA and gene isolation, chromosomal isolation of specific genes, immunoglobulin structure, detection of new or rare immunoglobulin gene products, structural studies of enzymes and other proteins and structural and population studies of protein polymorphisms. In some instances, the monoclonal antibodies have been found to replace conventional antisera for studies of chromosome structure and function, gene mapping, embryogenesis, characterization and biosynthesis of developmental and differentiation antigens. These antigens are those that are specific for various cell types and tissues, species specific antigen, antigens involved in chemotaxis, immunogenetics and clinical genetics including genetically inherited disorders, chromosome aberrations and transplantation antigens. Besides these monoclonal antibodies, their complexes have recently been investigated as exquisitely sensitive probes to be guided to target cells or organs. They have been used to deliver cytotoxic drugs to malignant cells or enzymes to specific cell types.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2687335

  8. Quantifying anti-vascular effects of monoclonal antibodies to VEGF

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, James P B; Carano, Richard A D; Clamp, Andrew R; Ross, Jed; Ho, Calvin C K; Jackson, Alan; Parker, Geoff J M; Rose, Chris J; Peale, Franklin V; Friesenhahn, Michel; Mitchell, Claire L; Watson, Yvonne; Roberts, Caleb; Hope, Lynn; Cheung, Sue; Reslan, Hani Bou; Go, Mary Ann T; Pacheco, Glenn J; Wu, Xiumin; Cao, Tim C; Ross, Sarajane; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A; Davies, Karen; Hasan, Jurjees; Thornton, Paula; del Puerto, Olivia; Ferrara, Napoleone; van Bruggen, Nicholas; Jayson, Gordon C

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Little is known concerning the onset, duration and magnitude of direct therapeutic effects of anti-VEGF therapies. Such knowledge would help guide the rational development of targeted therapeutics from bench to bedside and optimize use of imaging technologies that quantify tumor function in early phase clinical trials. Experimental design Pre-clinical studies were performed using ex vivo micro-CT and in-vivo ultrasound imaging to characterize tumor vasculature in a human HM-7 colorectal xenograft model treated with the anti-VEGF antibody G6-31. Clinical evaluation was by quantitative MRI in ten patients with metastatic CRC treated with bevacizumab. Results Micro-CT experiments demonstrated reduction in perfused vessels within 24-48 hours of G6-31 drug administration (p ? 0.005). Ultrasound imaging confirmed reduced tumor blood volume within the same time frame (p = 0.048). Consistent with the pre-clinical results, reductions in enhancing fraction and fractional plasma volume were detected in patient CRC metastases within 48 hours after a single dose of bevacizumab that persisted throughout one cycle of therapy. These effects were followed by resolution of edema (p = 0.0023) and tumor shrinkage in 9/26 tumors at day 12. Conclusion These data suggest that VEGF-specific inhibition induces rapid structural and functional effects with downstream significant anti-tumor activity within one cycle of therapy. This finding has important implications for the design of early phase clinical trials that incorporate physiological imaging. The study demonstrates how animal data help interpret clinical imaging data, an important step towards the validation of image biomarkers of tumor structure and function. PMID:19861458

  9. Investigation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera against anthrax toxins resulted in identification of an anti-lethal factor antibody with disease-enhancing characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Parul; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Priyanka; Joon, Shikha; Sinha, Subrata; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2015-12-01

    Hybridomas were created using spleen of mice that were actively immunized with rLFn (recombinant N-terminal domain of lethal factor). Later on, separate group of mice were immunized with rLFn to obtain a polyclonal control for passive immunization studies of monoclonal antibodies. This led to the identification of one cohort of rLFn-immnized mice that harboured disease-enhancing polyclonal antibodies. At the same time, the monoclonal antibodies secreted by all the hybridomas were being tested. Two hybridomas secreted monoclonal antibodies (H10 and H8) that were cross-reactive with EF (edema factor) and LF (lethal factor), while the other two hybridomas secreted LF-specific antibodies (H7 and H11). Single chain variable fragment (LETscFv) was derived from H10 hybridoma. H11 was found to have disease-enhancing property. Combination of H11 with protective monoclonal antibodies (H8 and H10) reduced its disease enhancing nature. This in vitro abrogation of disease-enhancement provides the proof of concept that in polyclonal sera the disease enhancing character of a fraction of antibodies is overshadowed by the protective nature of the rest of the antibodies generated on active immunization. PMID:26364143

  10. Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Pf 155, a Major Antigen of Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Lundgren, Katarina; Berzins, Klavs; Wahlin, Birgitta; Perlmann, Hedvig; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Carlsson, Jan; Wahlgren, Mats; Perlmann, Peter; Bjorkman, Anders

    1986-01-01

    Pf 155, a protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is strongly immunogenic in humans and is believed to be a prime candidate for the preparation of a vaccine. Human monoclonal antibodies to Pf 155 were obtained by cloning B cells that had been prepared from an immune donor and transformed with Epstein-Barr virus. When examined by indirect immunofluorescence, these antibodies stained the surface of infected erythrocytes, free merozoites, segmented schizonts, and gametocytes. They bound to a major polypeptide with a relative molecular weight of 155K and to two minor ones (135K and 120K), all having high affinity for human glycophorin. The antibodies strongly inhibited merozoite reinvasion in vitro, suggesting that they might be appropriate reagents for therapeutic administration in vivo.

  11. Characterization of alpha-conotoxin interactions with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Ashcom, J D; Stiles, B G

    1997-01-01

    The venoms of predatory marine cone snails, Conus species, contain numerous peptides and proteins with remarkably diverse pharmacological properties. One group of peptides are the alpha-conotoxins, which consist of 13-19 amino acids constrained by two disulphide bonds. A biologically active fluorescein derivative of Conus geographus alpha-conotoxin GI (FGI) was used in novel solution-phase-binding assays with purified Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) and monoclonal antibodies developed against the toxin. The binding of FGI to nAchR or antibody had apparent dissociation constants of 10-100 nM. Structure-function studies with alpha-conotoxin GI analogues composed of a single disulphide loop revealed that different conformational restraints are necessary for effective toxin interactions with nAchR or antibodies. PMID:9359860

  12. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to wall-localized peroxidases from corn seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. H.; Terry, M. E.; Hoops, P.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    A library of 22 hybridomas, which make antibodies to soluble wall antigens from the coleoptiles and primary leaves of etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings, was raised and cloned three times by limit dilution to assure monoclonal growth and stability. Two of these hybridomas made immunoglobulin G antibodies, designated mWP3 and mWP19, which both effectively immunoprecipitated peroxidase activity from crude and partially purified preparations of wall peroxidases. Direct peroxidase-binding assays revealed that both antibodies bound enzymes with peroxidase activity. As judged by immunoblot analyses, mWP3 recognized a Mr 98,000 wall peroxidase with an isoelectric point near 4.2, and mWP19 recognized a Mr 58,000 wall peroxidase. Immunogold localization studies showed both peroxidases are predominately in cell walls.

  13. Potent monoclonal antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxin A elicited by DNA immunization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhua; Jin, Ke; Xiao, Yanling; Cheng, Ying; Huang, Zuhu; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that DNA immunization is effective in eliciting antigen-specific antibody responses against a wide range of infectious disease targets. The polyclonal antibodies elicited by DNA vaccination exhibit high sensitivity to conformational epitopes and high avidity. However, there have been limited reports in literature on the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) by DNA immunization. Here, by using Clostridium difficile (C. diff) toxin A as a model antigen, we demonstrated that DNA immunization was effective in producing a panel of mAb that are protective against toxin A challenge and can also be used as sensitive reagents to detect toxin A from various testing samples. The immunoglobulin (Ig) gene usage for such mAb was also investigated. Further studies should be conducted to fully establish DNA immunization as a unique platform to produce mAb in various hosts. PMID:23851482

  14. Effects of a novel anti-exospore monoclonal antibody on microsporidial development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sak, B; Saková, K; Ditrich, O

    2004-01-01

    The possible role of humoral antibodies in the immune response to microsporidiosis was studied using a novel anti-exospore monoclonal antibody (MAb) P5/H1 which recognised Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The effect of the P5/H1 MAb on microsporidial growth in vitro resulted in a reduction of the numbers of E. cuniculi spores in a Vero E6 cell-line culture. This reduction in the number of infected cells and the decrease of intracellular spores in infected cells was found when MAb P5/H1 was present in cultures, compared to cultures with an irrelevant isotype control MAb. Moreover, the presence of P5/H1 MAb increased the number of phagocytosed spores in macrophage cultures, and increased the activation of macrophages measured by nitrite oxide production. These results suggest a possible partial role of specific humoral antibodies in the protection against E. cuniculi infection. PMID:14610668

  15. Monoclonal-antibody-mediated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of reticuloendotheliosis viruses.

    PubMed

    Cui, Z Z; Lee, L F; Smith, E J; Witter, R L; Chang, T S

    1988-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described for the detection of reticuloendotheliosis viruses (REVs). The assay uses a mixture of monoclonal antibodies (MCAs) prepared against a 62-kilodalton REV envelope glycoprotein (gp62) to capture antigen, rabbit anti-REV serum as detection antibody, and peroxidase-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG as indicator antibody. The MCAs were reactive with REV strain T, chick syncytial virus, and duck infectious anemia virus but unreactive against Marek's disease and avian leukosis viruses. The ELISA was compared with complement fixation test and REV immunofluorescent assay of infected fibroblasts, plasmas, and egg albumen from infected chickens. The lower limit of gp62 detection was about 120 ng of REV protein. Limit dilution of infectious REV was detected after 7-8 days of cultivation of infected fibroblasts. PMID:2838016

  16. Epitope Switching as a Novel Escape Mechanism of HIV to CCR5 Monoclonal Antibodies?

    PubMed Central

    Jekle, Andreas; Chhabra, Milloni; Lochner, Adriane; Meier, Sonja; Chow, Eugene; Brandt, Michael; Sankuratri, Surya; Cammack, Nick; Heilek, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    In passaging experiments, we isolated HIV strains resistant to MAb3952, a chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) monoclonal antibody (MAb) that binds to the second extracellular domain (extracellular loop 2 [ECL-2]) of CCR5. MAb3952-resistant viruses remain CCR5-tropic and are cross-resistant to a second ECL-2-specific antibody. Surprisingly, MAb3952-resistant viruses were more susceptible to RoAb13, a CCR5 antibody binding to the N terminus of CCR5. Using CCR5 receptor mutants, we show that MAb3952-resistant virus strains preferentially use the N terminus of CCR5, while the wild-type viruses preferentially use ECL-2. We propose this switch in the CCR5 binding site as a novel mechanism of HIV resistance. PMID:19995923

  17. Immunodiagnostic Capabilities of Anti-Free Immunoglobulin Light Chain Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Davern, Sandra; Tang, Lian X.; Williams, Teresa K.; Macy, Sallie D.; Wall, Jonathan S.; Weiss, Deborah T.; Solomon, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Overproduction of plasma cell-derived monoclonal free ? or ? immunoglobulin light chains (FLCs) is a characteristic hallmark of multiple myeloma, AL amyloidosis, and light chain deposition disease. Since these components serve as unique cellular and serologic biomarkers, their detection and quantitation has diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic import. In this regard, we have developed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically recognize the ? or ? FLC products of all known human variable and constant region light-chain genes. We now report the results of our studies that have demonstrated the capability of these reagents to measure, in a modified fluid-phase capture ELISA, serum ? and ? FLCs at concentrations as low as 5 and 15 ng/mL, respectively. The mAb–based ELISA has greater sensitivity and reproducibility then does the commercially available immunoturbidimetric assay which utilizes polyclonal anti-FLC antibodies. Additionally, the mAbs can immunostain monoclonal FLC-producing plasma cells, as well as pathologic light chain-related amyloid and non-fibrillar tissue deposits. Our anti-FLC mAbs, with their high degree of reactivity and versatility, may provide an invaluable tool in the diagnosis and management of patients with light chain-associated disease. PMID:18854262

  18. Plasmodium vivax: a monoclonal antibody recognizes a circumsporozoite protein precursor on the sporozoite surface.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Ceron, L; Rodriguez, M H; Wirtz, R A; Sina, B J; Palomeque, O L; Nettel, J A; Tsutsumi, V

    1998-11-01

    The major surface circumsporozoite (CS) proteins are known to play a role in malaria sporozoite development and invasion of invertebrate and vertebrate host cells. Plasmodium vivax CS protein processing during mosquito midgut oocyst and salivary gland sporozoite development was studied using monoclonal antibodies which recognize different CS protein epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies which react with the CS amino acid repeat sequences by ELISA recognized a 50-kDa precursor protein in immature oocyst and additional 47- and 42-kDa proteins in older oocysts. A 42-kDa CS protein was detected after initial sporozoite invasion of mosquito salivary glands and an additional 50-kDa precursor CS protein observed later in infected salivary glands. These data confirm previous results with other Plasmodium species, in which more CS protein precursors were detected in oocysts than in salivary gland sporozoites. A monoclonal antibody (PvPCS) was characterized which reacts with an epitope found only in the 50-kDa precursor CS protein. PvPCS reacted with all P. vivax sporozoite strains tested by indirect immunofluorescent assay, homogeneously staining the sporozoite periphery with much lower intensity than that produced by anti-CS repeat antibodies. Immunoelectron microscopy using PvPCS showed that the CS protein precursor was associated with peripheral cytoplasmic vacuoles and membranes of sporoblast and budding sporozoites in development oocysts. In salivary gland sporozoites, the CS protein precursor was primarily associated with micronemes and sporozoite membranes. Our results suggest that the 50-kDa CS protein precursor is synthesized intracellularly and secreted on the membrane surface, where it is proteolytically processed to form the 42-kDa mature CS protein. These data indicate that differences in CS protein processing in oocyst and salivary gland sporozoites development may occur. PMID:9806864

  19. Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against plant plasma membrane and cell wall epitopes: identification of a monoclonal antibody that recognizes extensin and analysis of the process of epitope biosynthesis in plant tissues and cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Membranes from tobacco cell suspension cultures were used as antigens for the preparation of monoclonal antibodies. Use of solid phase and indirect immunofluorescence assays led to the identification of hybridomas producing antibodies directed against cell surface epitopes. One of these monoclonal antibodies (11.D2) was found to recognize a molecular species which on two-dimensional analysis (using nonequilibrium pH-gradient electrophoresis and SDS-PAGE) was found to have a high and polydisperse molecular mass and a very basic isoelectric point. This component was conspicuously labeled by [3H]proline in vivo. The monoclonal antibody cross-reacted with authentic tomato extensin, but not with potato lectin nor larch arabinogalactan. Use of the monoclonal antibody as an immunoaffinity reagent allowed the purification of a tobacco glycoprotein which was identical in amino acid composition to extensin. Finally, immunocytological analyses revealed tissue-specific patterns of labeling by the monoclonal antibody that were identical to those observed with a polyclonal antibody raised against purified extensin. We have concluded that monoclonal antibody 11.D2 recognizes an epitope that is carried exclusively by extensin. Analysis of cellular homogenates through differential and isopycnic gradient centrifugation revealed that biosynthesis of the extensin epitope was found on or within the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi region and plasma membrane. This result is consistent with the progressive glycosylation of the newly-synthesized extensin polypeptide during its passage through a typical eukaryotic endomembrane pathway of secretion. The 11.D2 epitope was not found in protoplasts freshly isolated from leaf tissues. However, on incubation of these protoplasts in appropriate culture media, biosynthesis of the epitope was initiated. This process was not impeded by the presence of chemicals that are reported to be inhibitors of cell wall production or of proline hydroxylation. PMID:2455722

  20. Glycan modulation and sulfoengineering of anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibody PG9 in plants.

    PubMed

    Loos, Andreas; Gach, Johannes S; Hackl, Thomas; Maresch, Daniel; Henkel, Theresa; Porodko, Andreas; Bui-Minh, Duc; Sommeregger, Wolfgang; Wozniak-Knopp, Gordana; Forthal, Donald N; Altmann, Friedrich; Steinkellner, Herta; Mach, Lukas

    2015-10-13

    Broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies, such as PG9, and its derivative RSH hold great promise in AIDS therapy and prevention. An important feature related to the exceptional efficacy of PG9 and RSH is the presence of sulfated tyrosine residues in their antigen-binding regions. To maximize antibody functionalities, we have now produced glycan-optimized, fucose-free versions of PG9 and RSH in Nicotiana benthamiana. Both antibodies were efficiently sulfated in planta on coexpression of an engineered human tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase, resulting in antigen-binding and virus neutralization activities equivalent to PG9 synthesized by mammalian cells ((CHO)PG9). Based on the controlled production of both sulfated and nonsulfated variants in plants, we could unequivocally prove that tyrosine sulfation is critical for the potency of PG9 and RSH. Moreover, the fucose-free antibodies generated in N. benthamiana are capable of inducing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, an activity not observed for (CHO)PG9. Thus, tailoring of the antigen-binding site combined with glycan modulation and sulfoengineering yielded plant-produced anti-HIV-1 antibodies with effector functions superior to PG9 made in CHO cells. PMID:26417081

  1. Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody (TB72) based serological test for tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ivanyi, J; Krambovitis, E; Keen, M

    1983-01-01

    A serological test for tuberculosis (TB), based on competitive inhibition by human sera of antigen binding by a murine monoclonal antibody (TB72) has been performed using solid phase radioimmunoassay. The test was evaluated on sera from patients with pulmonary or extra-pulmonary active TB as well as from control hospitalized patients--half of whom had various chest complaints. Positive values were found in 74% of all or 55% of untreated active pulmonary TB. Patients with extrapulmonary TB segregated, whereby antibody titres were increased in cases of pleural, peritoneal, pericardial or bone infection but only marginal or negative values were found in the majority of patients with lymphatic and genitourinary infection. None of the subjects with suspected but excluded tuberculosis or sarcoidosis had demonstrable TB72 antibodies. Generally there was a positive correlation between the levels of TB72 like and 'total' Mycobacterium tuberculosis sonicate binding antibodies. In particular, the titre of sonicate binding antibodies did not exceed background levels in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis who were negative in the TB72 competition test. None of these false negative patients received drug therapy whereas most patients with the highest antibody levels were under chemotherapy for 1-8 months prior to serum testing. The serodiagnostic value of the TB72 based competition test has been discussed. PMID:6197217

  2. A blocking ELISA using a monoclonal antibody for the serological detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Le Potier, M F; Abiven, P; Kobisch, M; Crevat, D; Desmettre, P

    1994-05-01

    A blocking ELISA was developed by using a monoclonal antibody (4082-05-344-18) which specifically detected an epitope on the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 40 kDa membrane protein without cross-reacting with M flocculare or M hyorhinis. The results obtained with sera from specific pathogen-free pigs inoculated with M flocculare or M hyorhinis confirmed the specificity of the assay. An immunoblotting procedure was used to characterise the antibody response of pigs experimentally infected with M hyopneumoniae. Antibodies to the 40 kDa antigen were detected two weeks after infection and remained as major markers for at least 20 weeks. Cross-reacting antibodies to this antigen were not detected in convalescent sera from piglets infected with M flocculare or M hyorhinis. Sera from experimentally infected pigs were compared by means of the blocking ELISA and an indirect ELISA. The kinetics of ELISA antibodies after experimental inoculation were also studied. The detection of antibody was rather more stable for a longer time with the blocking ELISA than with the indirect ELISA. In an evaluation of more than 1000 sera from the field there was excellent agreement between the two methods. PMID:8073186

  3. Characterization by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of monoclonal antibodies to Pisum and Avena phytochrome

    SciTech Connect

    Cordonnier, M.M.; Greppin, H.; Pratt, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Nine monoclonal antibodies to pea (Pisum sativum L.) and 16 to oat (Avena sativa L.) phytochrome are characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against phytochrome from six different sources: pea, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), oat, rye (Secale cereale L.), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). All antibodies were raised against phytochrome with a monomer size near 120,000 daltons. Nevertheless, none of them discriminated qualitatively between 118/114-kilodalton oat phytochrome and a photoreversible, 60-kilodalton proteolytic degradation product derived from it. In addition, none of the 23 antibodies tested discriminated substantially between phytochrome - red-absorbing form and phytochrome - far red-absorbing form. Two antibodies to pea and six to oat phytochrome also bound strongly to phytochrome from the other species, even though these two plants are evolutionarily widely divergent. Of these eight antibodies, two bound significantly to all of the six phytochrome preparations tested, indicating that these two may recognize highly conserved regions of the chromoprotein. Since the molecular function of phytochrome is unknown, these two antibodies may serve as unique probes for regions of this pigment that are important to its mode of action. 27 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  4. Glycan modulation and sulfoengineering of anti–HIV-1 monoclonal antibody PG9 in plants

    PubMed Central

    Loos, Andreas; Gach, Johannes S.; Hackl, Thomas; Maresch, Daniel; Henkel, Theresa; Porodko, Andreas; Bui-Minh, Duc; Sommeregger, Wolfgang; Wozniak-Knopp, Gordana; Forthal, Donald N.; Altmann, Friedrich; Steinkellner, Herta; Mach, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing anti–HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies, such as PG9, and its derivative RSH hold great promise in AIDS therapy and prevention. An important feature related to the exceptional efficacy of PG9 and RSH is the presence of sulfated tyrosine residues in their antigen-binding regions. To maximize antibody functionalities, we have now produced glycan-optimized, fucose-free versions of PG9 and RSH in Nicotiana benthamiana. Both antibodies were efficiently sulfated in planta on coexpression of an engineered human tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase, resulting in antigen-binding and virus neutralization activities equivalent to PG9 synthesized by mammalian cells (CHOPG9). Based on the controlled production of both sulfated and nonsulfated variants in plants, we could unequivocally prove that tyrosine sulfation is critical for the potency of PG9 and RSH. Moreover, the fucose-free antibodies generated in N. benthamiana are capable of inducing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, an activity not observed for CHOPG9. Thus, tailoring of the antigen-binding site combined with glycan modulation and sulfoengineering yielded plant-produced anti–HIV-1 antibodies with effector functions superior to PG9 made in CHO cells. PMID:26417081

  5. Imaging of human melanoma xenografts in nude mice with a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Ghose, T.; Ferrone, S.; Imai, K.; Norvell, S.T. Jr.; Luner, S.J.; Martin, R.H.; Blair, A.H.

    1982-10-01

    External photoscanning with display of radioactivity data as a color-scaled image detected xenografts of human melanoma in male nude inbred mice of BALB/c background 48 hours after injection of /sup 131/I-labeled monoclonal IgG 225.28S that is specific for human melanoma. A /sup 131/I-labeled polyclonal goat IgG against human melanoma-associated antigens could also image the tumor, but with this preparation there was considerable localization of radioactivity in normal tissues, resulting in less satisfactory tumor definition. Labeled normal mouse IgG did not image the melanoma grafts. Assay of radioactivity in tissues of melanoma-grafted mice confirmed tumor-specific localization of the antimelanoma antibodies. The tumor:blood ratio of radioactivity was 6.55 with the monoclonal antimelanoma IgG and 0.45 with the polyclonal IgG.

  6. Defining Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Antigenic Drift by Sequential Monoclonal Antibody Selection

    PubMed Central

    Das, Suman R.; Hensley, Scott E.; Ince, William L.; Brooke, Christopher B.; Subba, Anju; Delboy, Mark G.; Russ, Gustav; Gibbs, James S.; Bennink, Jack R.; Yewdell, Jonathan W.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Human influenza A virus (IAV) vaccination is limited by “antigenic drift,” rapid antibody-driven escape reflecting amino acid substitutions in the globular domain of hemagglutinin (HA), the viral attachment protein. To better understand drift, we used anti-hemagglutinin monoclonal Abs (mAbs) to sequentially select IAV escape mutants. Twelve selection steps, each resulting in a single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin globular domain, were required to eliminate antigenicity defined by monoclonal or polyclonal Abs. Sequential mutants grow robustly, showing the structural plasticity of HA, although several hemagglutinin substitutions required an epistatic substitution in the neuraminidase glycoprotein to maximize growth. Selecting escape mutants from parental versus sequential variants with the same mAb revealed distinct escape repertoires, attributed to contextual changes in antigenicity and the mutation landscape. Since each hemagglutinin mutation potentially sculpts future mutation space, drift can follow many stochastic paths, undermining its unpredictability and underscoring the need for drift-insensitive vaccines. PMID:23498956

  7. Monoclonal Antibodies to the Human Insulin Receptor that Activate Glucose Transport but not Insulin Receptor Kinase Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsayeth, John R.; Caro, Jose F.; Sinha, Madhur K.; Maddux, Betty A.; Goldfine, Ira D.

    1987-05-01

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced that reacted with the ? subunit of the human insulin receptor. All three both immunoprecipitated 125I-labeled insulin receptors from IM-9 lymphocytes and competitively inhibited 125I-labeled insulin binding to its receptor. Unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor autophosphorylation in both intact IM-9 lymphocytes and purified human placental insulin receptors. Moreover, unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor-mediated phosphorylation of exogenous substrates. However, like insulin, two of the three antibodies stimulated glucose transport in isolated human adipocytes. One antibody, on a molar basis, was as potent as insulin. These studies indicate, therefore, that monoclonal antibodies to the insulin receptor can mimic a major function of insulin without activating receptor kinase activity. They also raise the possibility that certain actions of insulin such as stimulation of glucose transport may not require the activation of receptor kinase activity.

  8. Anti-(human LFA-1) monoclonal antibodies bind P815 murine tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Palisson, M J; Altemeyer, A; Moosbrugger, I; Warter, S; Hauptmann, G; Bischoff, P

    1992-01-01

    Using anti-CD11a and anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed respectively against the alpha and the beta chains of LFA-1, we obtained an important and specific staining of P815 murine tumour cells. Both ascitic and cultured cells displayed a positive staining. Other murine tumours of haematopoietic origin, as well as lymphocytes or lymphoblasts from DBA/2 mice, were not labelled by the same monoclonal antibodies. These results were surprising since, to our knowledge, no case of cross-reaction between species has been reported with LFA-1. Moreover, competition assays showed that epitopes recognized by the two anti-CD11a antibodies were different from those identified by H35.89.9, a mAb raised against the murine LFA-1 alpha chain. Using allogeneic cytotoxic T lymphocytes, we also showed that anti-(human LFA-1) mAbs were unable to block the lysis of P815 by these effector cells. Thus, the putative functional properties of these structures, as well as their importance from an antigeneic point of view, remain to be assessed. PMID:1373342

  9. Use of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Sensitive Detection and Neutralization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype B.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Luisa W; Henderson, Thomas D; Lam, Tina I; Stanker, Larry H

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are some of nature's most potent toxins. Due to potential food contamination, and bioterrorism concerns, the development of detection reagents, therapeutics and countermeasures are of urgent interest. Recently, we have developed a sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunoassay for BoNT/B, using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) MCS6-27 and anti-BoNT/B rabbit polyclonal antibodies as the capture and detector. The ECL assay detected as little as 1 pg/mL BoNT/B in the buffer matrix, surpassing the detection sensitivities of the gold standard mouse bioassays. The ECL assay also allowed detection of BoNT/B in sera matrices of up to 100% sera with negligible matrix effects. This highly-sensitive assay allowed the determination of the biological half-lives of BoNT/B holotoxin in vivo. We further tested the toxin neutralization potential of our monoclonal antibodies using the mouse systemic and oral intoxication models. A combination of mAbs protected mice in both pre- and post-exposure models to lethal doses of BoNT/B. MAbs were capable of increasing survival of animals when administered even 10 h post-intoxication in an oral model, suggesting a likely time for BoNT/B complexes to reach the blood stream. More sensitive detection assays and treatments against BoNT intoxication will greatly enhance efforts to combat botulism. PMID:26633496

  10. Monoclonal antibodies to individual tyrosine-phosphorylated protein substrates of oncogene-encoded tyrosine kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Kanner, S.B.; Reynolds, A.B.; Vines, R.R.; Parsons, J.T. )

    1990-05-01

    Cellular transformation by oncogenic retroviruses encoding protein tyrosine kinases coincides with the tyrosine-specific phosphorylation of multiple protein substrates. Previous studies have shown that tyrosine phosphorylation of a protein of 120 kDa, p120, correlated with src transformation in chicken embryo fibroblasts. Additionally, the authors previously identified two phosphotyrosine-containing cellular proteins, p130 and p110, that formed stable complexes with activated variants of pp60{sup src}, the src-encoded tyrosine kinase. To study transformation-relevant tyrosine kinase substrates, they have generated monoclonal antibodies to individual tyrosine phosphoproteins, including p130, p120, p110, and five additional phosphoproteins (p210, p125, p118, p85, and p185/p64). These antibodies detected several of the same tyrosine phosphoproteins in chicken embryo fibroblasts transformed by avian retroviruses Y73 and CT10, encoding the yes and crk oncogenes, respectively. Protein substrates in mouse, rat, hamster, and human cells overexpressing activated variants of chicken pp60{sup src} were also detected by several of the monoclonal antibodies.

  11. Preparation of anti-ciguatoxin monoclonal antibodies using synthetic haptens: sandwich ELISA detection of ciguatoxins.

    PubMed

    Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Fujii, Ikuo; Hirama, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a form of food poisoning caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated a type of sodium channel activator toxin called ciguatoxins (CTXs), which are produced by dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus through the food chain. CFP affects more than 50000 people each year. The extremely low level of CTXs in tainted fish has hampered the development of antibodies for the detection of these toxins. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific against major congeners of CTX3C, 51-hydroxyCTX3C, CTX1B, and 54-deoxyCTX1B were prepared by immunization of mice with protein conjugates of rationally designed synthetic haptens in place of the natural toxins. We found that haptenic groups possessing a surface area larger than 400 angstroms2 were required to produce mAbs that can bind strongly to CTXs. Direct sandwich ELISA utilizing two different monoclonal antibodies that bind specifically to one of the two wings of a CTX were established to detect CTXs. No cross-reactivity was observed against the other marine toxins tested, including brevetoxin A, brevetoxin B, okadaic acid, and maitotoxin. PMID:24830148

  12. A fully human inhibitory monoclonal antibody to the Wnt receptor RYK.

    PubMed

    Halford, Michael M; Macheda, Maria L; Parish, Clare L; Takano, Elena A; Fox, Stephen; Layton, Daniel; Nice, Edouard; Stacker, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    RYK is an unusual member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family that is classified as a putative pseudokinase. RYK regulates fundamental biological processes including cell differentiation, migration and target selection, axon outgrowth and pathfinding by transducing signals across the plasma membrane in response to the high affinity binding of Wnt family ligands to its extracellular Wnt inhibitory factor (WIF) domain. Here we report the generation and initial characterization of a fully human inhibitory monoclonal antibody to the human RYK WIF domain. From a naďve human single chain fragment variable (scFv) phage display library, we identified anti-RYK WIF domain-specific scFvs then screened for those that could compete with Wnt3a for binding. Production of a fully human IgG1? from an inhibitory scFv yielded a monoclonal antibody that inhibits Wnt5a-responsive RYK function in a neurite outgrowth assay. This antibody will have immediate applications for modulating RYK function in a range of settings including development and adult homeostasis, with significant potential for therapeutic use in human pathologies. PMID:24058687

  13. Radioimmunodetection of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with 111In-labeled T101 monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasquillo, J.A.; Bunn, P.A. Jr.; Keenan, A.M.; Reynolds, J.C.; Schroff, R.W.; Foon, K.A.; Su, M.H.; Gazdar, A.F.; Mulshine, J.L.; Oldham, R.K.

    1986-09-11

    T101 monoclonal antibody recognizes a pan-T-cell antigen present on normal T cells and also found in high concentrations in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. We used this antibody, radiolabeled with 111In, in gamma-camera imaging to detect sites of metastatic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in 11 patients with advanced disease. In all patients, (/sup 111/In)T101 concentrated in pathologically or clinically detected nodes, including those in several previously unsuspected nodal regions. Concentrations (per gram of tissue) ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 percent of the injected dose and were consistently 10 to 100 times higher than previously reported on radioimmunodetection. Focal uptake was seen in skin tumors and heavily infiltrated erythroderma but not in skin plaques. The specificity of tumor targeting was documented by control studies with (/sup 111/In)chloride or (/sup 111/In)9.2.27 (anti-melanoma) monoclonal antibody. Increasing the T101 dose (1 to 50 mg) altered distribution in nontumor tissues. These studies suggest that imaging with (/sup 111/In)T101 may be of value in identifying sites of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. In contrast to the targeting of solid tumors, the mechanism of localization appears to be related to binding to T cells, which can then carry the radioactivity to involved sites.

  14. Immunoassay of red dyes based on the monoclonal antibody of ?-naphthol.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yong H; Zhang, Hui C; Xu, Rui T; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jian P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a multi-analyte immunoassay for the determination of eight red dyes in food samples. Two dye intermediates (2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid and 1-amino-2-naphthol) were used as the haptens to produce the monoclonal antibodies. The obtained monoclonal antibodies recognized Sudan 1-4, Para red, Sudan red G, Sudan red B and Acid orange II simultaneously. After evaluation of different antibody/coating antigen combinations, a heterologous indirect competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was developed to determine the eight red dyes in food samples (chili oil, chili powder, tomato sauce, hotpot seasoning). The crossreactivities to the eight analytes were in the range of 61%-79% (with ?-naphthol as 100%), and the limits of detection were in the range of 1.3-1.9 ng/mL. The recoveries of the eight analytes from the fortified blank samples were in the range of 84.2%-115% with coefficients of variation lower than 18.3%. Therefore, this method could be used as a rapid and simple tool to detect the residues of the eight red dyes in foods. PMID:26079338

  15. A Fully Human Inhibitory Monoclonal Antibody to the Wnt Receptor RYK

    PubMed Central

    Parish, Clare L.; Takano, Elena A.; Fox, Stephen; Layton, Daniel; Nice, Edouard; Stacker, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    RYK is an unusual member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family that is classified as a putative pseudokinase. RYK regulates fundamental biological processes including cell differentiation, migration and target selection, axon outgrowth and pathfinding by transducing signals across the plasma membrane in response to the high affinity binding of Wnt family ligands to its extracellular Wnt inhibitory factor (WIF) domain. Here we report the generation and initial characterization of a fully human inhibitory monoclonal antibody to the human RYK WIF domain. From a naďve human single chain fragment variable (scFv) phage display library, we identified anti-RYK WIF domain–specific scFvs then screened for those that could compete with Wnt3a for binding. Production of a fully human IgG1? from an inhibitory scFv yielded a monoclonal antibody that inhibits Wnt5a-responsive RYK function in a neurite outgrowth assay. This antibody will have immediate applications for modulating RYK function in a range of settings including development and adult homeostasis, with significant potential for therapeutic use in human pathologies. PMID:24058687

  16. Use of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Sensitive Detection and Neutralization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype B

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Luisa W.; Henderson, Thomas D.; Lam, Tina I.; Stanker, Larry H.

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are some of nature’s most potent toxins. Due to potential food contamination, and bioterrorism concerns, the development of detection reagents, therapeutics and countermeasures are of urgent interest. Recently, we have developed a sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunoassay for BoNT/B, using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) MCS6-27 and anti-BoNT/B rabbit polyclonal antibodies as the capture and detector. The ECL assay detected as little as 1 pg/mL BoNT/B in the buffer matrix, surpassing the detection sensitivities of the gold standard mouse bioassays. The ECL assay also allowed detection of BoNT/B in sera matrices of up to 100% sera with negligible matrix effects. This highly-sensitive assay allowed the determination of the biological half-lives of BoNT/B holotoxin in vivo. We further tested the toxin neutralization potential of our monoclonal antibodies using the mouse systemic and oral intoxication models. A combination of mAbs protected mice in both pre- and post-exposure models to lethal doses of BoNT/B. MAbs were capable of increasing survival of animals when administered even 10 h post-intoxication in an oral model, suggesting a likely time for BoNT/B complexes to reach the blood stream. More sensitive detection assays and treatments against BoNT intoxication will greatly enhance efforts to combat botulism. PMID:26633496

  17. Effect of cell culture medium components on color of formulated monoclonal antibody drug substance.

    PubMed

    Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Varma, Sharat; Yang, Yi; Mun, Melissa; Arevalo, Silvana; Gawlitzek, Martin; Swartz, Trevor; Lim, Amy; Li, Feng; Zhang, Boyan; Meier, Steve; Kiss, Robert

    2013-01-01

    As the industry moves toward subcutaneous delivery as a preferred route of drug administration, high drug substance concentrations are becoming the norm for monoclonal antibodies. At such high concentrations, the drug substance may display a more intense color than at the historically lower concentrations. The effect of process conditions and/or changes on color is more readily observed in the higher color, high concentration formulations. Since color is a product quality attribute that needs to be controlled, it is useful to study the impact of process conditions and/or modifications on color. This manuscript summarizes cell culture experiments and reports on findings regarding the effect of various media components that contribute to drug substance color for a specific monoclonal antibody. In this work, lower drug substance color was achieved via optimization of the cell culture medium. Specifically, lowering the concentrations of B-vitamins in the cell culture medium has the effect of reducing color intensity by as much as 25%. In addition, decreasing concentration of iron was also directly correlated color intensity decrease of as much as 37%. It was also shown that the color of the drug substance directly correlates with increased acidic variants, especially when increased iron levels cause increased color. Potential mechanisms that could lead to antibody coloration are briefly discussed. PMID:23804462

  18. Development of Immunoassay Based on Monoclonal Antibody Reacted with the Neonicotinoid Insecticides Clothianidin and Dinotefuran

    PubMed Central

    Uchigashima, Mikiko; Watanabe, Eiki; Ito, Shigekazu; Iwasa, Seiji; Miyake, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) was developed for the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin. A new clothianidin hapten (3-[5-(3-methyl-2-nitroguanidinomethyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-ylthio] propionic acid) was synthesized and conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and was used for monoclonal antibody preparation. The resulting MoAb CTN-16A3-13 was characterized by a direct competitive ELISA (dc-ELISA). The 50% of inhibition concentration value with clothianidin was 4.4 ng/mL, and the working range was 1.5–15 ng/mL. The antibody showed high cross-reactivity (64%) to dinotefuran among the structurally related neonicotinoid insecticides. The recovery examinations of clothianidin for cucumber, tomato and apple showed highly agreement with the spiked concentrations; the recovery rate was between 104% and 124% and the coefficient of variation value was between 1.8% and 15%. Although the recovery rate of the dc-ELISA was slightly higher than that of HPLC analysis, the difference was small enough to accept the dc-ELISA as a useful method for residue analysis of clothianidin in garden crops. PMID:23202236

  19. Production of stable bispecific IgG1 by controlled Fab-arm exchange

    PubMed Central

    Gramer, Michael J; van den Bremer, Ewald TJ; van Kampen, Muriel D; Kundu, Amitava; Kopfmann, Peter; Etter, Eric; Stinehelfer, David; Long, Justin; Lannom, Tom; Noordergraaf, Esther H; Gerritsen, Jolanda; Labrijn, Aran F; Schuurman, Janine; van Berkel, Patrick HC; Parren, Paul WHI

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of bispecific antibodies can be challenging for a variety of reasons. For example, protein expression problems, stability issues, or the use of non-standard approaches for manufacturing can result in poor yield or poor facility fit. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of standard antibody platforms for large-scale manufacturing of bispecific IgG1 by controlled Fab-arm exchange. Two parental antibodies that each contain a single matched point mutation in the CH3 region were separately expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and manufactured at 1000 L scale using a platform fed-batch and purification process that was designed for standard antibody production. The bispecific antibody was generated by mixing the two parental molecules under controlled reducing conditions, resulting in efficient Fab-arm exchange of >95% at kg scale. The reductant was removed via diafiltration, resulting in spontaneous reoxidation of interchain disulfide bonds. Aside from the bispecific nature of the molecule, extensive characterization demonstrated that the IgG1 structural integrity was maintained, including function and stability. These results demonstrate the suitability of this bispecific IgG1 format for commercial-scale manufacturing using standard antibody manufacturing techniques. PMID:23995617

  20. Characterization of a recombinant humanized anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody and its Fab fragment.

    PubMed

    Kirley, Terence L; Norman, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    Variations of post-translational modifications are important for stability and in vivo behavior of therapeutic antibodies. A recombinant humanized anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody (h2E2) was characterized for heterogeneity of N-linked glycosylation and disulfide bonds. In addition, charge heterogeneity, which is partially due to the presence or absence of C-terminal lysine on the heavy chains, was examined. For cocaine overdose therapy, Fab fragments may be therapeutic, and thus, a simplified method of generation, purification, and characterization of the Fab fragment generated by Endoproteinase Lys-C digestion was devised. Both the intact h2E2 antibody and purified Fab fragments were analyzed for their affinities for cocaine and 2 of its metabolites, benzoylecgonine and cocaethylene, by fluorescence quenching of intrinsic antibody tyrosine and tryptophan fluorescence resulting from binding of these drugs. Binding constants obtained from fluorescence quenching measurements are in agreement with recently published radioligand and ELISA binding assays. The dissociation constants determined for the h2E2 monoclonal and its Fab fragment are approximately 1, 5, and 20 nM for cocaethylene, cocaine, and benzoylecgonine, respectively. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching (emission at 330 nm) was measured after either excitation of tyrosine and tryptophan (280 nm) or selective excitation of tryptophan alone (295 nm). More accurate binding constants are obtained using tryptophan selective excitation at 295 nm, likely due to interfering absorption of cocaine and metabolites at 280 nm. These quenching results are consistent with multiple tryptophan and tyrosine residues in or near the predicted binding location of cocaine in a previously published 3-D model of this antibody's variable region. PMID:25692880

  1. Monoclonal antibodies with selective specificity towards different glycosylation isoforms of FGFR1.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, Olena; Ovcharenko, Galina; Volkova, Darija; Mayilo, Dmytro; Gaman, Nadia; Khozhayenko, Yulia; Usenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan; Filonenko, Valeriy

    2009-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is a member of the FGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases, whose function has been implicated in diverse biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and tumorigenesis. This diversity is possibly mediated by the existence of multiple FGFR1 isoforms, generated by alternative splicing and post-translational modifications, mainly through glycosylation. In this study we report the generation and characterization of a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed towards FGFR1. To achieve this, we used as an antigen a fragment of FGFR1, corresponding to loop II-III of the extracellular domain, which shares low homology to other members of the FGFR family and possesses numerous antigentic determinants. Two rounds of ELISA screening and Western blot analysis allowed us to isolate a panel of monoclonal antibodies, which recognize specifically recombinant FGFR1 loop II-III. The ability of generated antibodies to recognize endogenous FGFR1 was examined in 3T3 L1 cells, which are known to express FGFR1, but not other members of FGFR family. Immunoblot analysis of 3T3 L1 cell lysates with hybridoma media of selected clones revealed a different, but overlapping pattern of immunoreactive bands, which might represent splicing and post-translationally modified forms of FGFR1. Furthermore, we also tested the cross-reactivity of generated antibodies towards recombinant full-length FGFR3 and their ability to recognize FGFR1 in 3T3 L1 cells by cyto- and immunocytochemistry. In summary, generated antibodies should be useful as tools for examining the expression pattern and biological functions of FGFR1 in normal and pathological tissues. PMID:19663702

  2. An analysis of monoclonal antibody distribution in microscopic tumor nodules: consequences of a "binding site barrier".

    PubMed

    van Osdol, W; Fujimori, K; Weinstein, J N

    1991-09-15

    Rational in vivo application of monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and therapy of cancer requires an understanding of both the global and microscopic pharmacology of macromolecular ligands. Here, we introduce a new mathematical model for antibody distribution into small, prevascular, densely packed nodules (representing either primary or metastatic tumor). For the analysis, we link together several aspects of antibody pharmacology: the global (whole body) pharmacokinetics; transcapillary transport into normal tissue interstitium surrounding the nodule; diffusion into the nodule; nonspecific binding and/or partitioning; specific binding to tumor antigen; metabolism; and lymphatic outflow from the tissue space. Input parameter values are estimated from experimental studies in vitro, in animals, and in clinical trials. Our aim is to explore the sensitivity of antibody localization to variation in three of the important parameters of this model: the rate of transcapillary transport; the rate of lymphatic outflow; and the antigen density. Predictions based on this analysis include the following: (a) High rates of transcapillary transport influx or low rates of lymphatic efflux will enhance antibody percolation into the tumor nodule at early times after injection and increase the average antibody concentration in the tumor at all times; (b) Changes in antibody influx rate will affect the antibody distribution in the tumor at earlier times than do changes in the efflux rate; (c) Reducing the antigen concentration will increase the uniformity of antibody penetration but lower the average concentration in the tumor at all times after injection; and (d) Counter to intuition, lowering the antigen concentration can increase the peak concentrations achieved toward the center of the nodule. If, in addition, there is any metabolism of bound antibody, the concentration-time integral (i.e., the "area under the curve") for the center of the nodule will also be increased by decreasing the antigen concentration. These predictions directly reflect the "binding site barrier" hypothesis of Weinstein et al. (Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 507: 199-210, 1987) and Fujimori et al. (Cancer Res., 49:5656-5663, 1989; J. Nucl. Med., 31:1191-1198, 1990). In general, and perhaps surprisingly until one considers the problem carefully, the parameters governing antibody percolation can have opposite effects on the uniformity of antibody distribution at early and late times. These calculations, using the PERC program set, were done for antibodies, but we believe that the "binding site barrier" will also prove important for other injected macromolecules, for at least some highly bindable injected small molecules, for lymphokines and cytokines released from transfected cells injected in vivo, and, indeed, for endogenous species such as the autocrine-paracrine factors. PMID:1893370

  3. Measuring affinity constants of 1450 monoclonal antibodies to peptide targets with a microarray-based label-free assay platform.

    PubMed

    Landry, J P; Ke, Yaohuang; Yu, Guo-Liang; Zhu, X D

    2015-02-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are major reagents for research and clinical diagnosis. For their inherently high specificities to intended antigen targets and thus low toxicity in general, they are pursued as one of the major classes of new drugs. Yet binding properties of most monoclonal antibodies are not well characterized in terms of affinity constants and how they vary with presentations and/or conformational isomers of antigens, buffer compositions, and temperature. We here report a microarray-based label-free assay platform for high-throughput measurements of monoclonal antibody affinity constants to antigens immobilized on solid surfaces. Using this platform we measured affinity constants of over 1410 rabbit monoclonal antibodies and 46 mouse monoclonal antibodies to peptide targets that are immobilized through a terminal cysteine residue to a glass surface. The experimentally measured affinity constants vary from 10 pM to 200 pM with the median value at 66 pM. We compare the results obtained from the microarray-based platform with those from a benchmarking surface-plasmon-resonance-based (SPR) sensor (Biacore 3000). PMID:25536073

  4. Generation and characterization of peptide mimotopes specific for anti ErbB-2 monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Witsch, Esther J.; Mahlknecht, Georg; Wakim, Jean; Sertchook, Rotem; Bublil, Erez; Yarden, Yosef

    2011-01-01

    The erbb-2 gene receptor is often over-expressed in human cancer and its overexpression is accompanied by worse prognosis. Targeting erbb-2 gene with antibodies is an effective approach to curtail the progression of erbb-2 gene-expressing cancer types. Two monoclonal antibodies, L-26 and N-12, previously generated in our laboratory, have shown effective tumor inhibition in mice, especially when used in combination. Here, we describe novel peptide mimics of erbb-2 gene protein epitopes, also called mimotopes, that were selected from a constraint random 12-mer peptide phage library, specific for the antibodies L-26 and N-12. Initial sequencing analyses revealed little sequence conservation among the peptide mimotopes, and no sequence homology with the erbb-2 gene protein. However, computational analyses of the two groups of peptides, specific for L-26 and N-12, suggested different epitopes on the erbb-2 gene extracellular domain. In vitro assays showed that the phage displayed peptide mimotopes were specific to their respective antibodies. Selected cyclic peptide mimotopes, but not their corresponding linear equivalents, were able to inhibit binding of the antibodies L-26 and N-12 to the surface of erbb-2 gene-expressing cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In line with this observation, phage-displayed cyclic peptides successfully competed in vitro with recombinant erbb-2 gene protein for binding to their respective antibodies L-26 or N-12. Consistent with the antibody inhibition experiments, we detected specific anti-erbb-2 gene antibodies following vaccination with KLH-coupled cyclic peptides but not with multiple antigenic linear peptides. Potentially, the selected peptides could serve as a starting point for the development of a vaccine against erbb-2 gene over-expressing cancer. PMID:21602175

  5. Molecular deconvolution of the monoclonal antibodies that comprise the polyclonal serum response

    PubMed Central

    Wine, Yariv; Boutz, Daniel R.; Lavinder, Jason J.; Miklos, Aleksandr E.; Hughes, Randall A.; Hoi, Kam Hon; Jung, Sang Taek; Horton, Andrew P.; Murrin, Ellen M.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Marcotte, Edward M.; Georgiou, George

    2013-01-01

    We have developed and validated a methodology for determining the antibody composition of the polyclonal serum response after immunization. Pepsin-digested serum IgGs were subjected to standard antigen-affinity chromatography, and resulting elution, wash, and flow-through fractions were analyzed by bottom-up, liquid chromatography–high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Identification of individual monoclonal antibodies required the generation of a database of IgG variable gene (V-gene) sequences constructed by NextGen sequencing of mature B cells. Antibody V-gene sequences are characterized by short complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of high diversity adjacent to framework regions shared across thousands of IgGs, greatly complicating the identification of antigen-specific IgGs from proteomically observed peptides. By mapping peptides marking unique VH CDRH3 sequences, we identified a set of V-genes heavily enriched in the affinity chromatography elution, constituting the serum polyclonal response. After booster immunization in a rabbit, we find that the antigen-specific serum immune response is oligoclonal, comprising antibodies encoding 34 different CDRH3s that group into 30 distinct antibody VH clonotypes. Of these 34 CDRH3s, 12 account for ?60% of the antigen-specific CDRH3 peptide mass spectral counts. For comparison, antibodies with 18 different CDRH3s (12 clonotypes) were represented in the antigen-specific IgG fraction from an unimmunized rabbit that fortuitously displayed a moderate titer for BSA. Proteomically identified antibodies were synthesized and shown to display subnanomolar affinities. The ability to deconvolute the polyclonal serum response is likely to be of key importance for analyzing antibody responses after vaccination and for more completely understanding adaptive immune responses in health and disease. PMID:23382245

  6. Increase of PD-L1 expressing B-precursor ALL cells in a patient resistant to the CD19/CD3-bispecific T cell engager antibody blinatumomab.

    PubMed

    Köhnke, Thomas; Krupka, Christina; Tischer, Johanna; Knösel, Thomas; Subklewe, Marion

    2015-01-01

    The bispecific T cell engager blinatumomab has shown encouraging clinical activity in B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, about half of relapsed/refractory patients do not respond to therapy. Here, we present the case of a 32-year-old male patient with refractory B-precursor ALL who was resistant to treatment with blinatumomab. Bone marrow immunohistochemistry revealed T cell infiltrates and an increase in programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive ALL cells as a potential immune escape mechanism. We were able to recapitulate the clinical observation in vitro by showing that blinatumomab was not able to mediate cytotoxicity of CD19-positive ALL cells using autologous T cells. In contrast, the addition of healthy donor T cells led to lysis of ALL cells.These results strongly encourage further systematic evaluation of checkpoint molecules in cases of blinatumomab treatment failure and might highlight a possible mechanism to overcome resistance to this otherwise highly effective treatment. PMID:26449653

  7. Feasibility studies of using the Catfish Immune System to produce monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of these studies was to determine the feasibility of using a teleost cell line to produce monoclonal antibodies. Studies were undertaken to demonstrate the production of a polyclonal response of channel catfish (Icatalurus punctatus) challenged with mycotoxins coupled to a protein carrier. Companion studies were also performed to induce a permanent cell line with catfish lymphocytes. Attempts to demonstrate a polyclonal response to haptenized mycotoxins were inconclusive. Tests to induce an immortal, permanent cell line with benzene and x-ray irradiated cells were also inconclusive. 3 refs., 13 tabs.

  8. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the ribosome inactivating proteins dianthin32 and momochin.

    PubMed

    Porro, G; Bonardi, M A; Giovanetti, E; Lento, P; Modena, D

    1994-04-01

    Female BALB/c mice were immunized with either dianthin32 or momochin, type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) derived from Dianthus charyophyllus and Momordica cochinchinensis, respectively. Five anti-dianthin32 and 6 anti-momochin secreting hybridomas were obtained by somatic fusion of lymphocytes with myeloma cell line NS0. The monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) produced were highly specific, as demonstrated by cross-reactivity assays performed with taxonomically related and unrelated type 1 RIPs, and recognized different epitopes of the antigen. The affinity constant of anti-RIPs MAbs ranged between 10(8) M-1 and 10(10) M-1. PMID:7519581

  9. CMER RESEARCH TOPICS -2005 #3: PREPARATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES FOR CYTOCHROME P450 1A (CYP1A) AND VITELLOGENIN (Vtg) PROTEINS THAT ARE

    E-print Network

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    1 of 12 CMER RESEARCH TOPICS - 2005 #3: PREPARATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES FOR CYTOCHROME P450 1A announcement states that there are no suitable antibodies currently available for these two critical biomarker

  10. Ber-EP4: new monoclonal antibody which distinguishes epithelia from mesothelial.

    PubMed Central

    Latza, U; Niedobitek, G; Schwarting, R; Nekarda, H; Stein, H

    1990-01-01

    A new monoclonal antibody, Ber-EP4, directed against a partially formol resistant epitope on the protein moiety of two 34 kilodalton and 39 kilodalton glycopolypeptides on human epithelial cells is described. Immunostaining of a wide range of normal and neoplastic human tissues and cell lines showed that all carcinomas and all non-neoplastic epithelial cells, except hepatocytes, parietal cells, and apical cell layers in squamous epithelia, homogeneously expressed Ber-EP4 antigen. As Ber-EP4 does not detect any normal or neoplastic non-epithelial cells, this antibody might prove valuable for the differentiation of the following (i) non-epithelial tumours from undifferentiated carcinomas; (ii) hepatocytes from bile duct cells in certain liver diseases; (iii) mesothelial cells from carcinoma cells in lung biopsy specimens; and (iv) reactive mesothelial cells from carcinoma cells in smears of serous effusions. Images PMID:1692040

  11. In vitro inhibition of multiplication of Babesia bigemina by using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, J V; Buening, G M

    1991-01-01

    A panel of 21 monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against the erythrocytic stages of Babesia bigemina was produced. The 21 MAb could be divided into four distinct immunofluorescence groups on the basis of their patterns of binding to B. bigemina-infected erythrocytes. Nine MAb positive in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test with acetone-fixed B. bigemina-infected erythrocytes were selected for purification and further characterization. The MAb were species specific, since they did not cross-react with B. bovis, but they were not stage specific. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological activity of B. bigemina-specific MAb in vitro. Three MAb inhibited the multiplication of B. bigemina in vitro as assessed by a lowered percentage of parasitized erythrocytes and by a decreased incorporation of [3H]hypoxanthine. These MAb are now being utilized to purify the correspondent parasite polypeptides, either native or recombinant, in order to test them as subunit immunogens. Images PMID:2056067

  12. Efficacy of astatine-211-labeled monoclonal antibody in treatment of murine T-cell lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, A.; Royle, L.

    1987-01-01

    The short-lived isotope /sup 211/At (half-life, 7.2 hr), an alpha particle-emitting halogen, has been attached to a monoclonal antibody (anti-thy 1.1, IgG1, OX7) and used in mice in the treatment of a thy 1.1 T-cell lymphoma (A120). Forty-eight hours after receiving an iv injection of 10(3) or 10(5) A120 cells, mice were treated with phosphate-buffered saline, /sup 211/At-, antibody alone, or /sup 211/At conjugated to OX7. Treatment with the /sup 211/At-labeled OX7 conjugate increased the median survival time of mice and probably cured (survival at 200 days) 6 of the 15 mice given 10(5) cells and 21 of the 27 mice given 10(3) cells.

  13. Development of Novel Mouse Hybridomas Producing Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Human and Mouse Nucleolar Protein SURF-6

    PubMed Central

    Polzikov, Mikhail A.; Kordyukova, Maria Yu.; Zavalishina, Larisa E.; Magoulas, Charalambos

    2012-01-01

    SURF-6 is an evolutionarily conserved nucleolar protein that is important for cell viability; however, its function in mammals still remains uncertain. The aim of this study is to generate monoclonal antibodies to human SURF-6 protein suitable for fundamental and biomedical research. The full-size human SURF-6 was expressed as a recombinant GST-fusion protein and used as an antigen to generate monoclonal antibodies, S79 and S148, specific for SURF-6. The monoclonal antibody produced by hybridoma clone S79 specifically recognizes endogenous SURF-6 by Western and immunofluorescence analyses in various cultured human cells, and by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded sections of human breast cancer samples. Moreover, S79 immunoprecipitates protein complexes containing SURF-6 from HeLa cells extracts. The antibody S79 recognizes SURF-6 only in human cells; however, the antibody produced by hybridoma clone S148 can detect SURF-6 of human and mouse origin. Monoclonal antibodies to the nucleolar protein SURF-6 described in this work can be a useful tool for studies of ribosome biogenesis in normal and cancer cells. PMID:22316485

  14. Biopharmaceuticals and monoclonal antibodies in oncology trials—a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Janowitz, T.

    2011-01-01

    Protein engineering has led to a significantly improved understanding of the biophysical properties of proteins and, importantly, of the molecular mechanisms of disease. Moreover, it has enabled scientists to modify the molecular characteristics of peptides and proteins, leading to improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of protein therapeutics. Consequently, biopharmaceuticals, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), interferons/cytokines or vaccines, contribute increasingly to clinical practice. Some of these new treatments have dramatically changed the outcome of specific diseases. However, treatment options remain limited in many conditions, particularly in malignant disease, despite a much-improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer. With the successful pre-clinical development of therapeutic biomolecules, the most significant barrier prior to implementation into clinical practice is proof of concept in humans. This is in part addressed by clinical trials that evaluate the toxicology, dose response and efficacy of the molecules. This observational study summarises the current state of biopharmaceuticals in clinical trials and provides a particular focus on oncology trials. It identifies those cancer types that are most likely to benefit from the efforts made in pre-clinical protein science and establishes evidence that engineered proteins and peptides are set to play a growing role in clinical practice. This study was based on the 95 254 trials registered on the National Institute of Health Clinical Trials Database by 31 August 2010. Of these, 25 525 trials assigned to cancer conditions, including leukaemia and lymphoma, were further analysed, with a particular focus on the 3653 interventional trials that were based on biological interventions. The inclusion criterion for the analysis was registration on the Clinical Trials Database by the above date. No other trials were included. Biopharmaceuticals were the more prevalent intervention in cancer trials (14%) compared with trials in non-cancer conditions (6%). Further subgroup analysis based on the 20 cancer subtypes with the highest mortality revealed that biological therapeutics comprise 43% in malignant melanoma trials and more than 20% in five other cancer types. Two-thirds of all monoclonal antibody are registered in cancer trials (1033, 4.6% of all cancer trials). The subgroup analysis demonstrated a predominance of lymphoma and leukaemia trials for antibody interventions, with 204 and 163 trials registered, respectively. In non-cancer conditions only 503 (0.9%) trials investigate monoclonal antibody interventions. A retrospective longitudinal analysis of the trials demonstrated that monoclonal antibody trials are increasingly frequently registered in non-cancer as well as cancer conditions. However, biopharmaceutical trials continue to be registered more frequently only in non-cancer conditions, but have come to a plateau in cancers. This study is limited by analysis of data from one database only. While the NIH Clinical Trials Database used is the most comprehensive and internationally recognised of its kind, it is possible that the results may have been modified if other databases were also included. Protein engineering has paved the way for biopharmaceutical clinical interventions. A cross-sectional analysis of trials registered on the NIH Clinical Trial Database shows that biological interventions are increasingly entered into clinical trials. While oncological diseases used to lead this effort, biotherapeutic trials in non-cancer conditions have now become more frequent in comparison. Monoclonal antibodies, however, are still mainly investigated in oncological conditions. Haemato-oncological diseases are most frequently investigated for mAb interventions, although they are not among the eight most common causes of cancer mortality. This may reflect the fact that pre-clinical research, understanding of molecular mechanisms and target identification in other malignancies and diseases is less developed. PMID:21037277

  15. Clearance of murine leukaemia virus from monoclonal antibody solution by a hydrophilic PVDF microporous membrane filter.

    PubMed

    Aranha-Creado, H; Peterson, J; Huang, P Y

    1998-06-01

    Continuous cell lines (used in the manufacture of monoclonal antibodies and other therapeutic proteins) may harbour retroviral particles; nevertheless, they are deemed acceptable if the production system is validated for clearance of these contaminants. As part of a campaign to evaluate and validate appropriate virus removal methodologies for monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) products, studies were undertaken with a hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microporous membrane-the Ultipor(R) VF grade DV50 virus removal membrane. Testing conducted with murine leukaemia virus, a specific model virus used in viral validation studies to document removal of retroviruses, demonstrated a greater that 7 log clearance by the Ultipor(R) VR grade DV50 membrane. Filterability testing established the feasibility of positioning the filter at either of two different stages during manufacture. The results presented in this study demonstrate that membrane filtration through the Ultipor VF grade DV50 virus removal filter can constitute part of the purification regimen to effect removal of endogenous retrovirus-like contaminants from monoclonal IgG products. PMID:9811524

  16. Large Scale Generation and Characterization of Anti-Human IgA Monoclonal Antibody in Ascitic Fluid of Balb/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ezzatifar, Fatemeh; Majidi, Jafar; Baradaran, Behzad; Aghebati Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Monoclonal antibodies are potentially powerful tools used in biomedical research, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases and cancers. The monoclonal antibody against Human IgA can be used as a diagnostic application to detect infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to improve an appropriate protocol for large-scale production of mAbs against IgA. Methods: For large-scale production of the monoclonal antibody, hybridoma cells that produce monoclonal antibodies against Human IgA were injected intraperitoneally into Balb/c mice that were previously primed with 0.5 ml Pristane. After ten days, ascitic fluid was harvested from the peritoneum of each mouse. The ELISA method was carried out for evaluation of the titration of produced mAbs. The ascitic fluid was investigated in terms of class and subclass by a mouse mAb isotyping kit. MAb was purified from the ascitic fluid by ion exchange chromatography. The purity of the monoclonal antibody was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, and the purified monoclonal antibody was conjugated with HRP. Results: Monoclonal antibodies with high specificity and sensitivity against Human IgA were prepared by hybridoma technology. The subclass of antibody was IgG1 and its light chain was the kappa type. Conclusion: This conjugated monoclonal antibody could have applications in designing ELISA kits in order to diagnose different infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis and H. Pylori. PMID:25789225

  17. Pepsin-Containing Membranes for Controlled Monoclonal Antibody Digestion Prior to Mass Spectrometry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yongle; Wang, Wei-Han; Reid, Gavin E; Hunt, Donald F; Bruening, Merlin L

    2015-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are the fastest growing class of therapeutic drugs, because of their high specificities to target cells. Facile analysis of therapeutic mAbs and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) is essential for quality control, and mass spectrometry (MS) is the most powerful tool for antibody characterization. This study uses pepsin-containing nylon membranes as controlled proteolysis reactors for mAb digestion prior to ultrahigh-resolution Orbitrap MS analysis. Variation of the residence times (from 3 ms to 3 s) of antibody solutions in the membranes yields "bottom-up" (1-2 kDa) to "middle-down" (5-15 kDa) peptide sizes within less than 10 min. These peptides cover the entire sequences of Trastuzumab and a Waters antibody, and a proteolytic peptide comprised of 140 amino acids from the Waters antibody contains all three complementarity determining regions on the light chain. This work compares the performance of "bottom-up" (in-solution tryptic digestion), "top-down" (intact protein fragmentation), and "middle-down" (in-membrane digestion) analysis of an antibody light chain. Data from tandem MS show 99%, 55%, and 99% bond cleavage for "bottom-up", "top-down", and "middle-down" analyses, respectively. In-membrane digestion also facilitates detection of PTMs such as oxidation, deamidation, N-terminal pyroglutamic acid formation, and glycosylation. Compared to "bottom-up" and "top-down" approaches for antibody characterization, in-membrane digestion uses minimal sample preparation time, and this technique also yields high peptide and sequence coverage for the identification of PTMs. PMID:26455365

  18. Mechanism of quinine-dependent monoclonal antibody binding to platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa.

    PubMed

    Bougie, Daniel W; Peterson, Julie; Rasmussen, Mark; Aster, Richard H

    2015-10-29

    Drug-dependent antibodies (DDAbs) that cause acute thrombocytopenia upon drug exposure are nonreactive in the absence of the drug but bind tightly to a platelet membrane glycoprotein, usually ?IIb/?3 integrin (GPIIb/IIIa) when the drug is present. How a drug promotes binding of antibody to its target is unknown and is difficult to study with human DDAbs, which are poly-specific and in limited supply. We addressed this question using quinine-dependent murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which, in vitro and in vivo, closely mimic antibodies that cause thrombocytopenia in patients sensitive to quinine. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis, we found that quinine binds with very high affinity (KD ?10(-9) mol/L) to these mAbs at a molar ratio of ?2:1 but does not bind detectably to an irrelevant mAb. Also using SPR analysis, GPIIb/IIIa was found to bind monovalently to immobilized mAb with low affinity in the absence of quinine and with fivefold greater affinity (KD ?2.2 × 10(-6)) when quinine was present. Measurements of quinine-dependent binding of intact mAb and fragment antigen-binding (Fab) fragments to platelets showed that affinity is increased 10?000- to 100?000-fold by bivalent interaction between antibody and its target. Together, the findings indicate that the first step in drug-dependent binding of a DDAb is the interaction of the drug with antibody, rather than with antigen, as has been widely thought, where it induces structural changes that enhance the affinity/specificity of antibody for its target epitope. Bivalent binding may be essential for a DDAb to cause thrombocytopenia. PMID:26353910

  19. TARGETING THE AUTOLYSIS LOOP OF UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR WITH CONFORMATION-SPECIFIC MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES

    PubMed Central

    Botkjaer, Kenneth A.; Fogh, Sarah; Bekes, Erin C.; Chen, Zhuo; Blouse, Grant E.; Jensen, Janni M.; Mortensen, Kim K.; Huang, Mingdong; Deryugina, Elena; Quigley, James P.; Declerck, Paul J.; Andreasen, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Tight regulation of serine proteases is essential for their physiological functions and unbalanced states of protease activity have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. One key example is the presence of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in different human cancer types, with high levels correlating with a poor prognosis. This observation has stimulated efforts into finding new principles for intervening with uPA’s activity. We have now characterised the so-called autolysis loop in the catalytic domain of uPA as a potential inhibitory target. This loop was found to harbour the epitopes for three conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies, two with a preference for the zymogen form pro-uPA, and one with a preference for active uPA. All three antibodies were shown to have overlapping epitopes, with three common residues being crucial for all three antibodies, demonstrating a direct link between conformational changes of the autolysis loop and the creation of a catalytically mature active site. All three antibodies are potent inhibitors of uPA activity, the two pro-uPA-specific ones by inhibiting conversion of pro-uPA to active uPA and the active uPA-specific antibody by shielding the access of plasminogen to the active site. Furthermore, by immunofluorescence, the conformation-specific antibodies, mAb-112 and mAb-12E6B10, enabled us to selectively stain pro-uPA or active uPA on the surface of cultured cells. Moreover, in various independent model systems, the antibodies inhibited tumour cell invasion and dissemination, providing evidence for the feasibility of pharmaceutical intervention with serine protease activity by targeting surface-loops that undergo conformational changes during zymogen activation. PMID:21635223

  20. Phytochrome in photosynthetically competent plants: characterization by monoclonal antibodies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    New monoclonal antibodies have been prepared to 124-kdalton phytochrome from etiolated oats, to phytochrome from etiolated peas, and to alkaline phosphatase. Simultaneously, progress has been made in improving methodologies for purification of phytochrome from green oats. Mice have been immunized with phytochrome electrophoretically purified from green oats. Methodologies needed to perform immunizations in vitro have been adapted to our purposes and screening protocols needed to identify antibodies to phytochrome from green oats are being refined. Forty-two rabbit antisera to phytochrome have been screened for their ability to immunoprecipitate phytochrome from green oats. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that green-oat phytochrome may be a minor component of the phytochrome isolated from etiolated oats. In addition, our panel of monoclonal antibodies has been screened for their ability to bind to phytochrome from green oats. Two that do so (oat-9 and oat-16) have been identified and characterized. A third (pea-25) has only recently been identified and is presently under intense investigation. Oat-9 and oat-16 apparently bind to the same domain on phytochrome, which is located near the site of chromophore attachment. They bind by ELISA to Pfr with greater affinity than to Pr. Pea-25 binds to phytochrome on immunoblots of sodium dodecyl sulfate, polyacrylamide gels. With this antibody it has been possible to determine that phytochrome from green oats appears to be identical in size to that obtained from etiolated oats. Data have also been obtained to indicate that a relatively small, but highly significant, proportion of the phytochrome obtained from green peas is immunochemically distinct from that obtained from etiolated peas. It thus appears that the observations made with green versus etiolated oats might represent a general phenomenon.

  1. HLA-E monoclonal antibodies recognize shared peptide sequences on classical HLA class Ia: relevance to human natural HLA antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Mepur H; Taniguchi, Michiko; Chen, Chien-wei; Ozawa, Miyuki; Kaneku, Hugo; El-Awar, Nadim; Cai, Junchao; Terasaki, Paul I

    2010-02-01

    The non-classical HLA-Ib molecule, HLA-E share several peptide sequence similarities with the heavy chains of classical HLA class Ia (-B and -C) molecules. Therefore, the antibodies to HLA-E, that recognize shared sequences, may bind to HLA-Ia alleles. This hypothesis is tested by examining the affinity of HLA-E monoclonal antibodies (HLA-E-MAbs) to HLA-Ia molecules and by inhibiting the antibody binding to both HLA-E and HLA-Ia with the shared peptide sequence(s). Single recombinant HLA molecule-coated beads are used for antibody binding. The antibody binding is evaluated by measuring mean fluorescence index [MFI] with Luminex multiplex flow-cytometric technology. The peptide-inhibition experiments are carried out with synthetic shared peptides, most prevalent to HLA-E and HLA-Ia alleles. The number of HLA-Ia alleles recognized by the HLA-E-MAbs varies with the density of the antigen (quantity of antigen-coated beads) and dilution of MAb. Binding of HLA-E-MAbs to beta2 microglobulin (beta(2)m)-free HLA-Ia antigens confirms the location of the epitopes on the heavy chain (HC) of the antigens. Strikingly, the nature of alleles of HLA-Ia recognized by different HLA-E-MAbs is identical. The binding of HLA-E-MAbs to the HLA-Ia is inhibited dosimetrically by the adjacent peptides, (115)QFAYDGKDY(123) and (137)DTAAQI(142), but not by (126)LNEDLRSWTA(135), another closer shared peptide sequence. The inhibitory peptide sequences in HLA-E are at the alpha2-helix terminal facing beta(2)m. The HLA-Ia alleles recognized by HLA-E-MAb (e.g., MEM-E/02) are similar to those recognized by the natural anti-HLA antibodies found in the sera of healthy non-alloimmunized males. This study postulates that some, if not all, of the natural HLA-Ia antibodies seen in healthy males could be anti-HLA-E antibodies cross-reacting with HLA-Ia alleles. PMID:19944464

  2. Monoclonal Antibody-Based Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Morbillivirus Antibody in Marine Mammal Sera

    PubMed Central

    Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Lehenbauer, Terry W.

    2001-01-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), using two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), was developed and compared with the standard virus neutralization test (VNT) for detecting antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) and phocine distemper virus (PDV) in sera from dogs and various species of marine mammals. The test depends on the blocking of MAb binding to solid-phase antigen in the presence of positive serum. Test conditions were optimized by using control VNT-negative and -positive sera specific for CDV and PDV. A positive cutoff value of 30% inhibition, which represents the mean cutoff of a VNT-negative population (n = 623) plus 2 standard deviations, was adopted for the test. A total of 736 serum samples were tested by the new cELISA and by the VNT as the “gold standard.” An unexpected but useful finding was the ability of this CDV- and PDV-specific cELISA to also detect antibodies against the related pair dolphin morbillivirus and porpoise morbillivirus. Based on a subpopulation of 625 sera used in statistical analyses, the overall sensitivity and specificity of cELISA relative to those of the VNT were 94.9 and 97.7%, respectively. Because the cELISA proved to be nearly as sensitive and specific as the VNT while being simpler and more rapid, it would be an adequate screening test for suspect CDV or PDV cases and would also be useful for epidemiological surveillance of morbilliviral infections in marine mammal populations. PMID:11326007

  3. Localization and visualization of pulmonary emboli with radiolabeled fibrin-specific monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Kanke, M.; Matsueda, G.R.; Strauss, H.W.; Yasuda, T.; Liau, C.S.; Khaw, B.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Indium-111-labeled monoclonal antibody 64C5 specific for the beta-chain of fibrin monomer was used to image canine (n = 6) experimental pulmonary emboli (at least one barium-thrombin and one copper-coil induced clot per dog). Uptake of {sup 111}In-64C5 and 125I-control-DIG26-11 were compared in 10 clots (7 barium-thrombin and 3 copper-coil) identified in the lungs. There was no difference in the blood clearance of {sup 111}In-64C5 and 125I-DIG26-11. Uptake of {sup 111}In-64C5 (0.183 {plus minus} 0.105, mean %ID/g) was greater than 125I-DIG26-11 (0.024 {plus minus} 0.025) in pulmonary clots (p less than 0.001). Mean thrombus to blood ratios at 24 hr were 6.78:1 for 64C5 and 0.57:1 for DIG26-11. The clots visualized in vivo were larger (0.315 {plus minus} 0.381 g) than clots not visualized (0.089 {plus minus} 0.098). Negative images were recorded in three dogs with pulmonary emboli, injected with {sup 111}In-labeled control monoclonal antibody 3H3. These data suggest that {sup 111}In-labeled antifibrin can detect large pulmonary emboli in vivo.

  4. Monoclonal Antibodies Against Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetase and Its Isolated Cytokine-Like Domain

    PubMed Central

    Khoruzenko, Antonina; Cherednyk, Olga; Filonenko, Valeriy; Kornelyuk, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) is one of the key enzymes of protein biosynthesis. In addition to its basic role, this enzyme reveals some important non-canonical functions. Under apoptotic conditions, the full-length enzyme splits into two fragments having distinct cytokine activities, thereby linking protein synthesis to cytokine signaling pathways. The NH2-terminal catalytic fragment, known as miniTyrRS, binds strongly to the CXC-chemokine receptor CXCR1 and, like interleukin 8, functions as a chemoattractant for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. On the other hand, an extra COOH-terminal domain of human TyrRS has cytokine activities like those of a mature human endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP II). Moreover, the etiology of specific diseases (cancer, neuronal pathologies, autoimmune disorders, and disrupted metabolic conditions) is connected to specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Here we report the generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to N- and C-terminal domains of TyrRS. Recombinant TyrRS and its N- and C-terminal domains were expressed as His-tag fusion proteins in bacteria. Affinity purified proteins have been used as antigens for immunization and hybridoma cell screening. Monoclonal antibodies specific to catalytic N-terminal module and C-terminal EMAP II-like domain of TyrRS may be useful as tools in various aspects of TyrRS function and cellular localization. PMID:23750478

  5. Monoclonal antibodies against tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase and its isolated cytokine-like domain.

    PubMed

    Kondratiuk, Iuliia; Khoruzenko, Antonina; Cherednyk, Olga; Filonenko, Valeriy; Kornelyuk, Aleksander

    2013-06-01

    Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) is one of the key enzymes of protein biosynthesis. In addition to its basic role, this enzyme reveals some important non-canonical functions. Under apoptotic conditions, the full-length enzyme splits into two fragments having distinct cytokine activities, thereby linking protein synthesis to cytokine signaling pathways. The NH2-terminal catalytic fragment, known as miniTyrRS, binds strongly to the CXC-chemokine receptor CXCR1 and, like interleukin 8, functions as a chemoattractant for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. On the other hand, an extra COOH-terminal domain of human TyrRS has cytokine activities like those of a mature human endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP II). Moreover, the etiology of specific diseases (cancer, neuronal pathologies, autoimmune disorders, and disrupted metabolic conditions) is connected to specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Here we report the generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to N- and C-terminal domains of TyrRS. Recombinant TyrRS and its N- and C-terminal domains were expressed as His-tag fusion proteins in bacteria. Affinity purified proteins have been used as antigens for immunization and hybridoma cell screening. Monoclonal antibodies specific to catalytic N-terminal module and C-terminal EMAP II-like domain of TyrRS may be useful as tools in various aspects of TyrRS function and cellular localization. PMID:23750478

  6. Therapeutic effect of a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody on human ovarian cancer xenograft in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Manetta, A.; Satyaswaroop, P.G.; Hamilton, T.; Ozols, R.; Mortel, R.

    1989-03-01

    The therapeutic value of 131I-OC125, a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody directed against a human ovarian tumor associated antigen CA125, was examined in an ascites forming intraperitoneal human ovarian carcinoma nude mouse model. Nude mice were injected intraperitoneally with NIH:OVCAR3 cells. Twenty-one days after tumor transplantation, groups of animals were injected intraperitoneally as follows: Group 1 with 200 microCi of 131I-OC125 (n = 20), Group 2 with 200 microCi of 131I (n = 17), Group 3 with 200 microCi of 131I-IgG (n = 21), Group 4 with 60 micrograms of OC125 (n = 18), and Group 5 was left untreated (n = 21). Survival of the tumor-bearing animals was used as the endpoint of the experiment. Mean survivals were found to be 52 +/- 18 days for the 131I-OC125 group, 53 +/- 16 days for the 131I-IgG group, 49 +/- 13 days for the 131I group, 47 +/- 24 days for the OC125 group, and 47 +/- 15 days for the untreated control. These results would indicate no therapeutic advantage of 131I-OC125 over controls in this animal model. However, other approaches using single as well as multiple radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies need to be tested in this model in order to definitely establish the efficacy of this treatment modality.

  7. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: an unexpected complication of modern therapeutic monoclonal antibody therapies

    PubMed Central

    Tavazzi, E.; Ferrante, P.; Khalili, K.

    2015-01-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, caused by the reactivation of the ubiquitous JC virus. PML usually occurs during severe immunosuppression, and the most common causes are represented by human immunodeficiency virus infection, lymphoproliferative disorders and other forms of cancer. Recently, the introduction of monoclonal antibodies (e.g. natalizumab, rituximab, efalizumab) in the treatment of several dysimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus, has led to an increased incidence of PML. This phenomenon has had severe consequences, leading, for example, to the withdrawal from the market of Efalizumab, and important restrictions in the use of the other compounds, all of which are characterized by high efficacy in improving prognosis and quality of life. In this review we will discuss clinical, laboratory and imaging findings of PML. In addition, proposed pathogenetic mechanisms promoting the reactivation of JC virus in the context of treatment with monoclonal antibodies will be described. PMID:22082208

  8. Therapeutic antibodies against cancer

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Mark J.; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2012-01-01

    Antibody-based therapeutics against cancer are highly successful in clinic and currently enjoy unprecedented recognition of their potential; 13 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been approved for clinical use in the European Union and in the United States (one, mylotarg, was withdrawn from market in 2010). Three of the mAbs (bevacizumab, rituximab, trastuzumab) are in the top six selling protein therapeutics with sales in 2010 of more than $5 bln each. Hundreds of mAbs including bispecific mAbs and multispecific fusion proteins, mAbs conjugated with small molecule drugs and mAbs with optimized pharmacokinetics are in clinical trials. However, challenges remain and it appears that deeper understanding of mechanisms is needed to overcome major problems including resistance to therapy, access to targets, complexity of biological systems and individual variations. PMID:22520975

  9. In-111 labeled monoclonal anti-(fibrin-specific) antibody: Detection of pulmonary emboli

    SciTech Connect

    Khaw, B.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Yasuda, T.; Hui, K.; Fallon, J.T.; Haber, E.; Matsueda, G.

    1985-05-01

    The monoclonal antifibrin-64C5, radiolabeled with In-111 via diethylene triamine pentaacetyl-residues, may be used for in vivo detection of experimental pulmonary emboli. Although this antifibrin binds specifically to human fibrin even in the presence of fibrinogen, it crossreacted effectively with canine fibrin thus permitting the use of a canine model. Experimental thrombi were formed in an isolated segment of the jugular vein by mixing thrombin, canine blood and I-125 Fibrinogen. After 1 hr, the restraining ligatures wee removed to release the I-125 -thrombi which could be found in the lungs by imaging for I-125 activity. About 1 hr later, 1.5-2 mCi In-111 bound to 4-10 mg of 64C5 were injected intravenously and imaged for the next 24 hr. At the end of 24 hr, the animals were killed and the lungs imaged ex vivo for I-125 and In-111 activities. The excised lungs were examined by gross inspection, then sliced to ascertain the location of the emboli in the lungs. Tissue samples were obtained for scintillation counting. Control animals (n=3) were treated identically except they were injected with 4 mg In-111 labeled non-fibrin specific IgGl monoclonal antibody. Discrete in vivo localization was found in 4 of 6 animals injected with In-111 64C5 in areas of emboli. This was confirmed by gross visual inspection of the excised lungs. Control animals did not show localization in the areas of pulmonary emboli, even in the images of the excised lungs. Thus, these studies demonstrate the potential of monoclonal antibody-64C5 for the non-invasive localization and visualization of pulmonary emboli.

  10. Monoclonal antibodies raised to purified woodchuck hepatitis virus core antigen particles demonstrate X antigen reactivity.

    PubMed

    Feitelson, M A; Clayton, M M; Phimister, B

    1990-07-01

    Woodchuck hepatitis core antigen (WHcAg) particles purified from the liver of chronically infected animals were used for monoclonal antibody production. Most of the putative clones demonstrated anti-WHc specificity. However, the supernatants from several putative clones bound X antigen sequences from woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). One monoclonal antibody, designated WC9-85 (an IgM), specifically bound hepatitis B X antigen (HBxAg) residues spanning positions 115-131 (peptide 100). WC9-85 also specifically detected liver-derived WHcAg and duck hepatitis B core antigen (DHBcAg) particles in the same CsCl density gradient fractions as did specific anticore and cross-reactive polyclonal anti-x. WC9-85 did not bind to HBcAg particles made by recombinant DNA techniques, in which only the C-gene sequences are expressed, but did bind to liver-derived HBcAg in identical assays. A second monoclonal anti-x, WC8-62, had similar characteristics. Identification of the immunoreactive species in liver-derived core particles by Western blotting showed that WC9-85 bound the major DHBcAg polypeptide having an apparent molecular weight of 35,000 Da. WC9-85 also bound WHcAg-associated bands at approximately 37,000 and 27,000 Da, but little or no binding at the apparent molecular weight of the major WHcAg polypeptide (about 21,000 Da) was observed. These results are consistent with the conclusions that X determinants are associated with core particles purified from naturally infected livers, that such determinants are associated with the major DHBcAg polypeptide and at least two minor WHcAg-associated polypeptides, and that X reactivity is distinct from core and/or e reactivity in hepadnavirus core particles. PMID:2353460

  11. Tumor localization by combinations of monoclonal antibodies in a new human colon carcinoma cell line (LIM1899)

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, S.M.; Teh, J.G.; Johnstone, R.W.; Russell, S.M.; Whitehead, R.H.; McKenzie, I.F.; Pietersz, G.A. )

    1990-09-01

    One of the problems of in vivo diagnosis and therapy of tumors with monoclonal antibodies is their heterogeneity with respect to antigen expression, with some cells expressing no antigen and others being weakly or strongly positive. Selected mixtures of antibodies to different antigens are therefore likely to react with more cells than single antibodies and be more effective for imaging and therapy. With this in mind, we have examined a new human colon cancer cell line (LIM1899) which has a heterogeneous expression of several cell surface molecules: by flow cytometry 38% were carcinoembryonic antigen positive; 64%, human milk fat globule positive, and 73%, CD46 positive; 87% of tumor cells bound a mixture of all three antibodies in vitro. Some blocking of the binding of anti-human milk fat globule antibody by the anti-CD46 antibody was noted. LIM1899 was established as a xenograft in nude mice and in vivo biodistribution studies performed using antibodies alone or in combination. Mixtures of antibodies clearly showed a higher percentage of injected dose of antibody in the tumor than did single antibodies: one antibody gave 10%; two together, 17 to 21%; and all three together gave 29% of the injected dose in the tumor. Tumor:blood ratios were also superior for combinations of antibodies, provided that low doses of the antibodies were used; at higher doses the effect was lost. The study demonstrates that combinations of antibodies are better than single antibodies for localization, provided that the dose used is carefully selected.

  12. Automated pipeline for rapid production and screening of HIV-specific monoclonal antibodies using pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kartik A; Clark, John J; Goods, Brittany A; Politano, Timothy J; Mozdzierz, Nicholas J; Zimnisky, Ross M; Leeson, Rachel L; Love, J Christopher; Love, Kerry R

    2015-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind and neutralize human pathogens have great therapeutic potential. Advances in automated screening and liquid handling have resulted in the ability to discover antigen-specific antibodies either directly from human blood or from various combinatorial libraries (phage, bacteria, or yeast). There remain, however, bottlenecks in the cloning, expression and evaluation of such lead antibodies identified in primary screens that hinder high-throughput screening. As such, "hit-to-lead identification" remains both expensive and time-consuming. By combining the advantages of overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR) and a genetically stable yet easily manipulatable microbial expression host Pichia pastoris, we have developed an automated pipeline for the rapid production and screening of full-length antigen-specific mAbs. Here, we demonstrate the speed, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of our approach by generating several broadly neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 2624-2629. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26032261

  13. Human lymphocyte antigens: production of a monoclonal antibody that defines functional thymus-derived lymphocyte subsets.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, B F; Eisenbarth, G S; Fauci, A S

    1979-01-01

    A monoclonal mouse antibody (3A1) that specifically bound to 65% of human peripheral blood (PB) thymus-derived (T) cells but did not bind to complement receptor-positive PB bone marrow-derived (B) cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or human erythrocytes has been produced. The 3AI antibody was synthesized by a stable cloned lymphocyte hybrid cell line. This lymphocyte hybrid line (3AI) was derived from fusion of P3 X 63/Ag8 myeloma cells and spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with HSB-2 cells, a human T cell line. The 3A1 lymphocyte hybrid line produced mouse ascites fluid containing 3A1 antibody in saturating titers of up to 1:25,600. Purified PB T cells that carried the 3A1 antigen incorporated tritiated thymidine maximally in response to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A stimulation, whereas purified PB T cells that lacked the 3A1 antigen responded suboptimally to phytohemagglutinin and minimally to concanavalin A. Thus, the 3A1 antibody can be easily used to study the role of 3A1-positive and negative T cell subsets in the regulation of normal and abnormal human immune responses. Images PMID:316538

  14. Cell-surface antigens of melanoma recognized by human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, H; Furukawa, K; Fortunato, S R; Livingston, P O; Lloyd, K O; Oettgen, H F; Old, L J

    1987-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were derived from lymph node lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients with melanoma. Four methods for generating human mAbs were compared: fusion with human [LICR-LON-HMy-2 (LICR-2)] or mouse (NS-1) cells; transformation by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); and EBV transformation followed by NS-1 fusion. NS-1 fusion with lymph node lymphocytes resulted in a higher number of growing hybrids than LICR-2 fusion. Virtually no hybrids were obtained from NS-1 or LICR-2 fusions with PBL. EBV transformed lymphocytes from lymph node and peripheral blood with equal efficiency, and the yield of proliferating cultures for antibody screening was more than 10- to 30-fold greater than that obtained by fusion techniques. However, once antibody-producing cultures had been identified, stability and clonability of EBV-transformed cells were poorer than that of NS-1 hybrid cells. To combine the strengths of both methods, cultures of EBV-transformed cells were fused with NS-1; and hybrid clones were isolated that showed vigorous growth, clonability, and stable antibody secretion. Detailed specificity analysis of the mAbs produced by six of these clones indicated detection of a class 1 (unique) melanoma antigen, a class 3 melanoma antigen, and four ganglioside antigens (GD3, GM3, and two other, as yet uncharacterized, heterophile antigens). Images PMID:3031684

  15. A monoclonal antibody to inclusion body disease of cranes virus enabling specific immunohistochemistry and competitive ELISA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Letchworth, G.J.; Fishel, J.R.; Hansen, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of cranes (IBDC) herpesvirus kills some infected cranes and persists in convalescent animals. To enable further study and rapid identification of carrier animals, we developed a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to IBDC virus and used it in immunohistochemistry and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We used conventional techniques to make murine MAbs directed against IBDC virus purified from infected duck embryo cells. Hybridomas reacting in an ELISA with IBDC virus but not uninfected duck embryo cells were characterized by radioimmunoprecipitation, in situ immunohistochemistry, and competitive ELISA with neutralizing and nonneutralizing crane sera. MAb 2C11 immunoprecipitated 59-, 61-, and 110-kD proteins from IBDC virus-infected but not uninfected cells and stained glutaraldehyde-fixed IBDC virus plaques but not surrounding uninfected duck embryo cells in vitro. Antibody 2C11 did not react with duck embryo cells infected with falcon herpesvirus, psittacine herpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis, pigeon herpesvirus, or duck plague virus. A competitive ELISA using antibody 2C11 identified most sera that were positive in the neutralization test. This antibody will be useful in further characterizing IBDC virus, its pathogenesis, and its natural history.

  16. Production of monoclonal antibody and development of a new immunoassay for apramycin in food.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Jiang, Wenxiao; Zhou, Jie; Wen, Kai; Wang, Zhanhui; Jiang, Haiyang; Ding, Shuangyang

    2014-03-24

    Apramycin (APR) residue in food of animal origin can cause harmful effects on human health. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) was successfully produced using APR-BSA as immunogen, which was prepared by glutaraldehyde method. The mAb 2A2 showed low cross reactivity (<0.1%) with other aminoglycoside antibiotics, and its IC50 value was 0.35 ng/mL. Based on this mAb, a novel immunoassay in the format of immuno-affinity test column (IATC) was developed. The immune-affinity column filled with anti-APR antibody-Sepharose 4B gel was used as solid phase. APR in sample and HRP-APR conjugate compete with each other for the limited antibody on the column. The approach was able to give a naked-eye color signal from the detection of analyte. A blue color appears for negative results and no color for positive. The method was then successfully applied onto the detection of APR in animal-origin food. To further evaluate the assay, direct competitive ELISA (dcELISA) based on the same antibody was developed for comparison in different aspects. Compared to the dcELISA, the detection time of IATC is shorten to 20 min while the similar sensitivity for various samples was observed. The limit of detections (LOD) for raw milk, muscles and livers is 3 ng/mL, 3 µg/kg, and 10 µg/kg, respectively. PMID:24661253

  17. Radiosensitisation of U87MG brain tumours by anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Diaz Miqueli, A; Rolff, J; Lemm, M; Fichtner, I; Perez, R; Montero, E

    2009-01-01

    As epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported to be a radiation response modulator, HER inhibitors are regarded to act as potential radiosensitisers. Our study examined the role of nimotuzumab and cetuximab both, the two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to EGFR, as radiosensitisers in a murine glioma model in vivo. Co-administration of both the antibodies with radiation increased the radiosensitivity of U87MG, resulting in a significant delay of subcutaneous (s.c.) tumour growth. Furthermore, the addition of antibodies to the radiation decreased brain tumour sizes and is inhibited by 40–80% the increased tumour cell invasion provoked by radiotherapy, although promoted tumour cell apoptosis. Whereas nimotuzumab led to a reduction in the size of tumour blood vessels and proliferating cells in s.c. tumours, cetuximab had no significant antiangiogenic nor antiproliferative activity. In contrast, cetuximab induced a more marked inhibition of EGFR downstream signalling compared with nimotuzumab. Moreover, both antibodies reduced the total number of radioresistant CD133+ cancer stem cells (CSCs). These results were encouraging, and showed the superiority of combined treatment of mAbs to EGFR and radiation over each single therapy against glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), confirming the role of these drugs as radiosensitisers in human GBM. In addition, we first showed the ability of mAb specifics against EGFR to target radioresistant glioma CSC, supporting the potential use in patients. PMID:19293809

  18. Site-specific proteolytic degradation of IgG monoclonal antibodies expressed in tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Hehle, Verena K; Lombardi, Raffaele; van Dolleweerd, Craig J; Paul, Mathew J; Di Micco, Patrizio; Morea, Veronica; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Donini, Marcello; Ma, Julian K-C

    2015-02-01

    Plants are promising hosts for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, proteolytic degradation of antibodies produced both in stable transgenic plants and using transient expression systems is still a major issue for efficient high-yield recombinant protein accumulation. In this work, we have performed a detailed study of the degradation profiles of two human IgG1 mAbs produced in plants: an anti-HIV mAb 2G12 and a tumour-targeting mAb H10. Even though they use different light chains (? and ?, respectively), the fragmentation pattern of both antibodies was similar. The majority of Ig fragments result from proteolytic degradation, but there are only a limited number of plant proteolytic cleavage events in the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains. All of the cleavage sites identified were in the proximity of interdomain regions and occurred at each interdomain site, with the exception of the VL /CL interface in mAb H10 ? light chain. Cleavage site sequences were analysed, and residue patterns characteristic of proteolytic enzymes substrates were identified. The results of this work help to define common degradation events in plant-produced mAbs and raise the possibility of predicting antibody degradation patterns 'a priori' and designing novel stabilization strategies by site-specific mutagenesis. PMID:25283551

  19. Tumor imaging by antineuroblastoma monoclonal antibody and its application to treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Etoh, T.; Takahashi, H.; Maie, M.; Ohnuma, N.; Tanabe, M.

    1988-10-01

    Antineuroblastoma monoclonal antibody (MoAb) was labeled with iodine-131 (/sup 131/I) and injected into transplantable human neuroblastoma-bearing nude mice in vivo. Imaging of the tumor by gamma camera was then attempted. At the fourth day after injection of the antibody, relatively heavy labeling was observed in the tumor. Principal organs were removed and their /sup 131/I uptake was determined. A high radioactivity count was detected in the tumor, indicating efficacy of this antibody in tumor imaging of neuroblastoma. This antibody was labeled with /sup 131/I and injected into transplantable human neuroblastoma-bearing mice. Apparent inhibition of tumor growth was observed in animals treated as such compared with animals of the control group, MoAb alone group, and /sup 131/I alone group (P less than 0.05). In addition, pathohistologic study showed binding of /sup 131/I to tumor cells and necrotic changes, suggesting the possibility of application of this MoAb to the treatment of neuroblastoma.

  20. A High Throughput Protein Microarray Approach to Classify HIV Monoclonal Antibodies and Variant Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Dotsey, Emmanuel Y.; Gorlani, Andrea; Ingale, Sampat; Achenbach, Chad J.; Forthal, Donald N.; Felgner, Philip L.; Gach, Johannes S.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, high throughput discovery of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been applied to greatly advance our understanding of the specificity, and functional activity of antibodies against HIV. Thousands of antibodies have been generated and screened in functional neutralization assays, and antibodies associated with cross-strain neutralization and passive protection in primates, have been identified. To facilitate this type of discovery, a high throughput-screening tool is needed to accurately classify mAbs, and their antigen targets. In this study, we analyzed and evaluated a prototype microarray chip comprised of the HIV-1 recombinant proteins gp140, gp120, gp41, and several membrane proximal external region peptides. The protein microarray analysis of 11 HIV-1 envelope-specific mAbs revealed diverse binding affinities and specificities across clades. Half maximal effective concentrations, generated by our chip analysis, correlated significantly (P<0.0001) with concentrations from ELISA binding measurements. Polyclonal immune responses in plasma samples from HIV-1 infected subjects exhibited different binding patterns, and reactivity against printed proteins. Examining the totality of the specificity of the humoral response in this way reveals the exquisite diversity, and specificity of the humoral response to HIV. PMID:25938510

  1. Investigating monoclonal antibody aggregation using a combination of H/DX-MS and other biophysical measurements

    PubMed Central

    Iacob, Roxana E.; Bou-Assaf, George M.; Makowski, Lee; Engen, John R.; Berkowitz, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine how structural changes in antibodies are connected with aggregation, the structural areas of an antibody prone to and/or impacted by aggregation must be identified. In this work the higher-order structure and biophysical properties of two different monoclonal antibody (mAb) monomers was compared to their simplest aggregated form, i.e., dimers that naturally occurred during normal production and storage conditions. A combination of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS) and other biophysical measurements was used to make the comparison. The results show that the dimerization process for one of the mAb monomers (mAb1) displayed no differences in its deuterium uptake between monomer and dimer forms. However, the other mAb monomer (mAb2) showed subtle changes in hydrogen deuterium exchange compared to its dimer form. In this case, differences observed were located in specific functional regions of the CH2 domain and the hinge region between CH1 and CH2 domains. The importance and the implications of these changes on the antibody structure and mechanism of aggregation are discussed. PMID:24136070

  2. How is the Monoclonal Antibodies Kinetic Affected by Changes of Their Physical Parameters?

    E-print Network

    Delgado-Correal, Camilo; Lizarazo-Pérez, Heidy Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The study of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) is a field of great interest to science medicine, for example, anti-TNF agents (infliximab and adalimumab) represent an important tool for the management of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. In this work we focus on the physical description of the transport kinetics of MAb in a fluid with laminar flow and parabolic profile. To simulate the kinetics of the MAb, standard equations were solved numerically (using The Verlet algorithm) to calculate the motion of a particle with a spherically symmetric inside of parabolic laminar flow, in order to find the time evolution of the antibody velocity in blood plasma in function of the increase of the radius, mass and density of the MAb, and the fluid pressure in blood vessels. In the case of we fixed the value of the antibody density, their kinetics increased when the pressure in the vessels increased. When we fixed the pressure in the vessels we found: if we reduce the antibody radius their kinetics increased, and when we i...

  3. High Throughput Identification of Monoclonal Antibodies to Membrane Bound and Secreted Proteins Using Yeast and Phage Display

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lequn; Qu, Liang; Zhou, Jing; Sun, Zhengda; Zou, Hao; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Marks, James D.; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies are ubiquitous and essential reagents for biomedical research. Uses of antibodies include quantifying proteins, identifying the temporal and spatial pattern of expression in cells and tissue, and determining how proteins function under normal or pathological conditions. Specific antibodies are only available for a small portion of the proteome, limiting study of those proteins for which antibodies do not exist. The technologies to generate target-specific antibodies need to be improved to obtain high quality antibodies to the proteome at reasonable cost. Here we show that renewable, validated, and standardized monoclonal antibodies can be generated at high throughput, without the need for antigen production or animal immunizations. In this study, 60 protein domains from 24 selected secreted proteins were expressed on the surface of yeast and used for selection of phage antibodies, over 400 monoclonal antibodies were identified within 3 weeks. A subset of these antibodies was validated for binding to cancer cells that overexpress the target protein by flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry. This approach will be applicable to many of the membrane-bound and the secreted proteins, 20–40% of the proteome, accelerating the timeline for Ab generation while reducing the cost. PMID:25353955

  4. Prevention of Herpes Simplex Virus Induced Stromal Keratitis by a Glycoprotein B-Specific Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Adalbert; Dirks, Miriam; Kasper, Maren; Buch, Anna; Dittmer, Ulf; Giebel, Bernd; Wildschütz, Lena; Busch, Martin; Goergens, Andre; Schneweis, Karl E.; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M.; Sodeik, Beate; Heiligenhaus, Arnd; Roggendorf, Michael; Bauer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The increasing incidence of acyclovir (ACV) and multidrug-resistant strains in patients with corneal HSV-1 infections leading to Herpetic Stromal Keratitis (HSK) is a major health problem in industrialized countries and often results in blindness. To overcome this obstacle, we have previously developed an HSV-gB-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb 2c) that proved to be highly protective in immunodeficient NOD/SCID-mice towards genital infections. In the present study, we examined the effectivity of mAb 2c in preventing the immunopathological disease HSK in the HSK BALB/c mouse model. Therefore, mice were inoculated with HSV-1 strain KOS on the scarified cornea to induce HSK and subsequently either systemically or topically treated with mAb 2c. Systemic treatment was performed by intravenous administration of mAb 2c 24 h prior to infection (pre-exposure prophylaxis) or 24, 40, and 56 hours after infection (post-exposure immunotherapy). Topical treatment was performed by periodical inoculations (5 times per day) of antibody-containing eye drops as control, starting at 24 h post infection. Systemic antibody treatment markedly reduced viral loads at the site of infection and completely protected mice from developing HSK. The administration of the antiviral antibody prior or post infection was equally effective. Topical treatment had no improving effect on the severity of HSK. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that mAb 2c proved to be an excellent drug for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections and for prevention of HSK and blindness. Moreover, the humanized counterpart (mAb hu2c) was equally effective in protecting mice from HSV-induced HSK when compared to the parental mouse antibody. These results warrant the future development of this antibody as a novel approach for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections in humans. PMID:25587898

  5. An alternative assay to hydrophobic interaction chromatography for high-throughput characterization of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Estep, Patricia; Caffry, Isabelle; Yu, Yao; Sun, Tingwan; Cao, Yuan; Lynaugh, Heather; Jain, Tushar; Vásquez, Maximiliano; Tessier, Peter M; Xu, Yingda

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is governed not only by their bioactivity, but also by their biophysical properties. Assays for rapidly evaluating the biophysical properties of mAbs are valuable for identifying those most likely to exhibit superior properties such as high solubility, low viscosity and slow serum clearance. Analytical hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), which is performed at high salt concentrations to enhance hydrophobic interactions, is an attractive assay for identifying mAbs with low hydrophobicity. However, this assay is low throughput and thus not amenable to processing the large numbers of mAbs that are commonly generated during antibody discovery. Therefore, we investigated whether an alternative, higher throughput, assay could be developed that is based on evaluating antibody self-association at high salt concentrations using affinity-capture self-interaction nanoparticle spectroscopy (AC-SINS). Our approach is to coat gold nanoparticles with polyclonal anti-human antibodies, use these conjugates to immobilize human mAbs, and evaluate mAb self-interactions by measuring the plasmon wavelengths of the antibody conjugates as a function of ammonium sulfate concentration. We find that hydrophobic mAbs, as identified by HIC, generally show significant self-association at low to moderate ammonium sulfate concentrations, while hydrophilic mAbs typically show self-association only at high ammonium sulfate concentrations. The correlation between AC-SINS and HIC measurements suggests that our assay, which can evaluate tens to hundreds of mAbs in a parallel manner and requires only small (microgram) amounts of antibody, will enable early identification of mAb candidates with low hydrophobicity and improved biophysical properties. PMID:25790175

  6. Epitopes of Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin: identification of monoclonal antibodies that prevent hemolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Ji, G E; O'Hanley, P

    1990-01-01

    The antigenic regions of Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin were determined by antibody binding to cyanogen bromide (CnBr) fragments of this protein under denatured conditions. Alpha-hemolysin was isolated from filtered culture supernatants of a recombinant strain by a combination of trichloroacetic acid precipitation and preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Alpha-hemolysin was used to (i) produce polyclonal rabbit antisera and murine monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and (ii) generate CnBr fragments. Rabbit IgG and 13 murine IgG monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were elicited to alpha-hemolysin as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and immunoprecipitation assays. Antibodies bound to three specific CnBr fragments of alpha-hemolysin in Western blots (immuno-blots) from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels: CnBrII (encompassing residues [R] 2 to 160), CnBrV (R 425 to 892), and CnBrVI (R 893 to 1023). Five MAbs bound to CnBrII, seven MAbs bound to CnBrV, and one MAb bound to CnBrVI. These specific CnBr fragments are predicted to be hydrophilic and charged. There was no antibody binding to the highly hydrophobic CnBrIII (R 161 to 416). Similar binding patterns were observed when rabbit polyclonal anti-alpha-hemolysin IgG was used. Polyclonal antibodies to alpha-hemolysin readily inhibited hemolysis and its neutralization capacity was 4- to 64-fold more potent than neutralizing MAbs. The five MAbs that bind to CnBrII possessed hemolytic neutralizing activity to various degrees. In contrast, only three of seven MAbs that bind to CnBrV fragment exhibited neutralization capacity to various degrees; the MAb to CnBrVI did not exhibit this capacity. Based on these data, we predict that denatured alpha-hemolysin and its CnBrII and CnBrV fragments might be worthwhile immunoprophylactic candidates for the prevention of hemolysin-mediated E. coli tissue injury. Images PMID:1696938

  7. Characterising the association of latency with ?1-antitrypsin polymerisation using a novel monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lu; Perez, Juan; Mela, Marianna; Miranda, Elena; Burling, Keith A; Rouhani, Farshid N; DeMeo, Dawn L; Haq, Imran; Irving, James A; Ordóńez, Adriana; Dickens, Jennifer A; Brantly, Mark; Marciniak, Stefan J; Alexander, Graeme J M; Gooptu, Bibek; Lomas, David A

    2015-01-01

    ?1-Antitrypsin is primarily synthesised in the liver, circulates to the lung and protects pulmonary tissues from proteolytic damage. The Z mutant (Glu342Lys) undergoes inactivating conformational change and polymerises. Polymers are retained within the hepatocyte endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in homozygous (PiZZ) individuals, predisposing the individuals to hepatic cirrhosis and emphysema. Latency is an analogous process of inactivating, intra-molecular conformational change and may co-occur with polymerisation. However, the relationship between latency and polymerisation remained unexplored in the absence of a suitable probe. We have developed a novel monoclonal antibody specific for latent ?1-antitrypsin and used it in combination with a polymer-specific antibody, to assess the association of both conformers in vitro, in disease and during augmentation therapy. In vitro kinetics analysis showed polymerisation dominated the pathway but latency could be promoted by stabilising monomeric ?1-antitrypsin. Polymers were extensively produced in hepatocytes and a cell line expressing Z ?1-antitrypsin but the latent protein was not detected despite manipulation of the secretory pathway. However, ?1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy contains latent ?1-antitrypsin, as did the plasma of 63/274 PiZZ individuals treated with augmentation therapy but 0/264 who were not receiving this medication (p < 10?14). We conclude that latent ?1-antitrypsin is a by-product of the polymerisation pathway, that the intracellular folding environment is resistant to formation of the latent conformer but that augmentation therapy introduces latent ?1-antitrypsin into the circulation. A suite of monoclonal antibodies and methodologies developed in this study can characterise ?1-antitrypsin folding and conformational transitions, and screen methods to improve augmentation therapy. PMID:25462157

  8. Characterising the association of latency with ?(1)-antitrypsin polymerisation using a novel monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lu; Perez, Juan; Mela, Marianna; Miranda, Elena; Burling, Keith A; Rouhani, Farshid N; DeMeo, Dawn L; Haq, Imran; Irving, James A; Ordóńez, Adriana; Dickens, Jennifer A; Brantly, Mark; Marciniak, Stefan J; Alexander, Graeme J M; Gooptu, Bibek; Lomas, David A

    2015-01-01

    ?1-Antitrypsin is primarily synthesised in the liver, circulates to the lung and protects pulmonary tissues from proteolytic damage. The Z mutant (Glu342Lys) undergoes inactivating conformational change and polymerises. Polymers are retained within the hepatocyte endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in homozygous (PiZZ) individuals, predisposing the individuals to hepatic cirrhosis and emphysema. Latency is an analogous process of inactivating, intra-molecular conformational change and may co-occur with polymerisation. However, the relationship between latency and polymerisation remained unexplored in the absence of a suitable probe. We have developed a novel monoclonal antibody specific for latent ?1-antitrypsin and used it in combination with a polymer-specific antibody, to assess the association of both conformers in vitro, in disease and during augmentation therapy. In vitro kinetics analysis showed polymerisation dominated the pathway but latency could be promoted by stabilising monomeric ?1-antitrypsin. Polymers were extensively produced in hepatocytes and a cell line expressing Z ?1-antitrypsin but the latent protein was not detected despite manipulation of the secretory pathway. However, ?1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy contains latent ?1-antitrypsin, as did the plasma of 63/274 PiZZ individuals treated with augmentation therapy but 0/264 who were not receiving this medication (p<10(-14)). We conclude that latent ?1-antitrypsin is a by-product of the polymerisation pathway, that the intracellular folding environment is resistant to formation of the latent conformer but that augmentation therapy introduces latent ?1-antitrypsin into the circulation. A suite of monoclonal antibodies and methodologies developed in this study can characterise ?1-antitrypsin folding and conformational transitions, and screen methods to improve augmentation therapy. PMID:25462157

  9. Potential cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies against clinically relevant mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Moreno, K; Celis-Meneses, J S; Meneses-Ruiz, D M; Castillo-Rodal, A I; Orduńa, P; Montiel, B A; López-Vidal, Y

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTb). In 2011, global mortality due to tuberculosis was 1·4 million individuals. The only available vaccine is the attenuated M. bovis [bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG)] strain, which confers variable protection against pulmonary tuberculosis. Some widely distributed non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), such as M. avium and M. arupense, are also potential pathogens for humans. This work aimed to produce and characterize monoclonal antibodies against the M. bovis BCG Mexico strain of the MTb, M. avium subs. hominissuis and the M. arupense strain from NTM. Hybridomas were produced from splenocytes of BALB/c female mice immunized with radiation-inactivated mycobacteria, and the immunoglobulin (Ig)G2a antibody-producing clones with the highest antigenic recognition were selected. The selected clones, Mbv 2A10 for M. bovis BCG Mexico, Mav 3H1 for M. avium and Mar 2D10 for M. arupense, were used in further studies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immune proteomics analyses characterized the clones as having the highest cross-reactivity with mycobacteria. Using mass spectrometry, a number of proteins recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) clones were identified. These proteins had roles in metabolic processes, hypoxia, cell cycle and dormancy. In addition, a Clustal W and Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) in-silico analysis was performed in protein sequences that result in the conserved regions within probability epitopes that could be recognized for Mbv2A10 and Mav3H1 clones. PMID:24580144

  10. Potential cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies against clinically relevant mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Flores-Moreno, K; Celis-Meneses, J S; Meneses-Ruiz, D M; Castillo-Rodal, A I; Orduńa, P; Montiel, B A; López-Vidal, Y

    2014-08-01

    Tuberculosis is a disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTb). In 2011, global mortality due to tuberculosis was 1·4 million individuals. The only available vaccine is the attenuated M. bovis [bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)] strain, which confers variable protection against pulmonary tuberculosis. Some widely distributed non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), such as M.?avium and M.?arupense, are also potential pathogens for humans. This work aimed to produce and characterize monoclonal antibodies against the M.?bovis?BCG Mexico strain of the MTb, M.?avium subs. hominissuis and the M.?arupense strain from NTM. Hybridomas were produced from splenocytes of BALB/c female mice immunized with radiation-inactivated mycobacteria, and the immunoglobulin (Ig)G2a antibody-producing clones with the highest antigenic recognition were selected. The selected clones, Mbv 2A10 for M.?bovis?BCG Mexico, Mav 3H1 for M.?avium and Mar 2D10 for M.?arupense, were used in further studies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immune proteomics analyses characterized the clones as having the highest cross-reactivity with mycobacteria. Using mass spectrometry, a number of proteins recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) clones were identified. These proteins had roles in metabolic processes, hypoxia, cell cycle and dormancy. In addition, a Clustal W and Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) in-silico analysis was performed in protein sequences that result in the conserved regions within probability epitopes that could be recognized for Mbv2A10 and Mav3H1 clones. PMID:24580144

  11. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to IgM of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Bromage, Erin S.; Silva, Jessica; Hansen, John D.; Badil, Samantha M.; Woodson, James C.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) have a central role in the North Pacific ecosystem as a forage fish species and are natural reservoirs of several important finfish pathogens, including Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Here, we report the identification of the gene encoding the immunoglobulin mu (IgM) heavy chain, as well as the development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that specifically react with Pacific herring IgM. Pacific herring immunoglobulin was purified and consisted of heavy and light chains of approximately 80 and 25 kDa. Three hybridoma clones were initially identified by ELISA as reactive with purified immunoglobulin but only one clone was able to detect an 80 kDa protein in Pacific and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) whole plasma by denaturing western blot. However, all three MAbs were able to precipitate an 80 kDa protein from Pacific herring and LCMS sequencing of peptide fragments derived from this protein matched the predicted amino acid sequence of the cloned, heavy chain gene. In addition, two of the MAbs stained cells within the putative lymphocyte gates for the spleen, anterior kidney and posterior kidney but were not reactive for myeloid/granulocyte gates, which is consistent with these MAbs reacting with surface IgM+ B-cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IgM-related gene sequences and anti-IgM monoclonal antibodies from any member of the family Clupeidae. The antibodies produced in this study are critical for achieving our long-term goal of conducting serological surveillance to assess pathogen exposure in natural populations of Pacific herring.

  12. New Insights into the Functional Behavior of Antibodies as Revealed by Binding Studies on an Anti-Uranium Monoclonal Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Diane A.; Xia Li; Haini Yu; Blake, Robert C.

    2004-03-17

    As part of an ongoing effort to develop immunoassays for chelated uranium(VI) on a hand-held flow fluorimeter, an anti-uranium monoclonal antibody designated as 8A11 was fluorescently labeled using two different strategies. When 8A11 was coupled via reactive lysines to either ALEXATM 488 or Cy5TM, the resulting fluorescent antibody conjugate exhibited positive cooperativity in the presence of its antigen, U(VI) chelated with 2,9-dicarboxy-1,10-phenanthroline (U(VI)-DCP). That is, when one of the two binding sites on the covalently modified 8A11 was occupied with bound antigen, the affinity of the remaining site on the antibody for U(VI)-DCP appeared to increase. Unmodified 8A11 bound U(VI)-DCP with the expected hyperbolic dependence on the concentration of antigen, consistent with independent and equal binding of ligand at both sites. Proteolytic cleavage of the fluorescently conjugated 8A11 to produce the fluorescent monovalent Fab fragment yielded an active preparation that now bound U(VI)-DCP with no evidence of positive cooperativity. Although, in principle, any divalent antibody has the potential to exhibit positive cooperativity in its binding interactions with its antigen, very little literature precedent for this type of behavior exists. Native 8A11 was also noncovalently labeled with highly fluorescent ZENONTM reagents. These reagents are fluorescently-labeled Fab fragments of goat anti-mouse antibodies that bind to the Fc portion of 8A11. These high-affinity, monovalent fluorescent reagents permitted the intact 8A11 mouse antibody to be labeled in situ with no covalent modifications. Incubation of the 8A11 with ZENON 647 produced a fluorescent protein complex that showed an 8-fold higher affinity for U(VI)-DCP than did the free 8A11 alone. Again, very few literature precedents exist for this phenomenon, where agents that bind to the Fc portion of an intact antibody change the affinity of the antibody for the antigen at the structurally distant Fab portion of the molecule. The addition of protein G, a bacterial protein that also binds to the Fc portion of mouse IgG, to the covalently modified 8A11 produced an antibody preparation that showed a lower affinity for U(VI)-DCP than that observed in the absence of protein G. This protein G-dependent decrease in the affinity of 8A11for U(VI)-DCP was dose-dependent. Similarly, U(VI)-DCP was observed to decrease the affinity between 8A11 and protein G, also in a dose-dependent manner. These reciprocal binding effects between protein G and U(VI)-DCP were taken as further evidence that binding to the Fc portion on the intact 8A11 antibody could influence the strength of the interaction at the antigen binding sites on the Fab portions of the protein, and vice versa. These practical, development-driven binding experiments have revealed a fundamental facet of antibody functional behavior that appears to have been largely unnoticed. The binding phenomena described for the first time in this report may have physiological relevance and can be purposefully exploited to improve the sensitivity and utility of selected immunoassays.

  13. Engineering, Expression in Transgenic Plants and Characterisation of E559, a Rabies Virus-Neutralising Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    van Dolleweerd, Craig J.; Teh, Audrey Y-H.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Both, Leonard; Lotter-Stark, Hester C. T.; Tsekoa, Tsepo; Phahladira, Baby; Shumba, Wonderful; Chakauya, Ereck; Sabeta, Claude T.; Gruber, Clemens; Fooks, Anthony R.; Chikwamba, Rachel K.; Ma, Julian K-C.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) currently comprises administration of rabies vaccine together with rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) of either equine or human origin. In the developing world, RIG preparations are expensive, often in short supply, and of variable efficacy. Therefore, we are seeking to develop a monoclonal antibody cocktail to replace RIG. Here, we describe the cloning, engineering and production in plants of a candidate monoclonal antibody (E559) for inclusion in such a cocktail. The murine constant domains of E559 were replaced with human IgG1? constant domains and the resulting chimeric mouse-human genes were cloned into plant expression vectors for stable nuclear transformation of Nicotiana tabacum. The plant-expressed, chimeric antibody was purified and biochemically characterized, was demonstrated to neutralize rabies virus in a fluorescent antibody virus neutralization assay, and conferred protection in a hamster challenge model. PMID:24511101

  14. Expanding the use of monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer by using ionising radiation to upregulate antibody targets

    PubMed Central

    Wattenberg, M M; Kwilas, A R; Gameiro, S R; Dicker, A P; Hodge, J W

    2014-01-01

    Background: Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy for the treatment of solid and haematologic malignancies has shown poor response rates as a monotherapy. Furthermore, its use is limited to tumours expressing certain molecular targets. It has been shown that single-dose radiation can induce immunogenic modulation that is characterised by cell-surface phenotypic changes leading to augmented tumour cell/cytotoxic T-cell interaction. Methods: We examined radiation's ability to upregulate mAb therapy targets. We also used radiation to sensitise tumour cells to antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Results: Radiation significantly increased cell-surface and total protein expression of mAb targets HER2, EGFR, and CD20. Focusing on HER2, targeted by trastuzumab, we observed significant upregulation of HER2 following radiation of 3 out of 3 breast cancer cell lines, one of which was triple negative, as well as in residential stem-cell populations. HER2 upregulation was sustained up to 96?h following radiation exposure and was largely dependent on intracellular reactive oxygen species. Improved ADCC and sensitisation to the antiproliferative effects of trastuzumab demonstrated the functional significance of radiation-induced HER2 upregulation. Conclusions: We show that single-dose radiation enhances mAb therapy. These findings highlight a mechanism for combining radiation with immunotherapy and expand the patient population that can be treated with targeted therapy. PMID:24556625

  15. Monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies to O:4 Salmonella in the sera of livestock and poultry.

    PubMed

    Aribam, Swarmistha Devi; Ogawa, Yohsuke; Matsui, Hidenori; Hirota, Jiro; Okamura, Masashi; Akiba, Masato; Shimoji, Yoshihiro; Eguchi, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Serotyping is an important element for surveillance of Salmonella. In this study, an anti-O:4 Salmonella monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that could identify Salmonella infection in cow, pig, horse, and chicken was developed. This detection system can therefore be useful for a wide range of animals and for humans. PMID:25447889

  16. Detection and Quantitation of Afucosylated N-Linked Oligosaccharides in Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies Using Enzymatic Digestion and LC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi; May, Kimberly; Xu, Wei; Liu, Hongcheng

    2012-07-01

    The presence of N-linked oligosaccharides in the CH2 domain has a significant impact on the structure, stability, and biological functions of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. The impact is also highly dependent on the specific oligosaccharide structures. The absence of core-fucose has been demonstrated to result in increased binding affinity to Fc? receptors and, thus, enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Therefore, a method that can specifically determine the level of oligosaccharides without the core-fucose (afucosylation) is highly desired. In the current study, recombinant monoclonal antibodies and tryptic peptides from the antibodies were digested using endoglycosidases F2 and H, which cleaves the glycosidic bond between the two primary GlcNAc residues. As a result, various oligosaccharides of either complex type or high mannose type that are commonly observed for recombinant monoclonal antibodies are converted to either GlcNAc residue only or GlcNAc with the core-fucose. The level of GlcNAc represents the sum of all afucosylated oligosaccharides, whereas the level of GlcNAc with the core-fucose represents the sum of all fucosylated oligosaccharides. LC-MS analysis of the enzymatically digested antibodies after reduction provided a quick estimate of the levels of afucosylation. An accurate determination of the level of afucosylation was obtained by LC-MS analysis of glycopeptides after trypsin digestion.

  17. Deep vein thrombosis: scintigraphic diagnosis with In-111-labeled monoclonal antifibrin antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, M.; Kletter, K.; Dudczak, R.; Koppensteiner, R.; Minar, E.; Kahls, P.; Stuempflen, A.P.; Pokieser, P.; Ehringer, H. )

    1989-11-01

    Fifty-two patients suspected of having deep vein thrombosis under-went scintigraphy with an indium-111-labeled monoclonal antifibrin antibody. Venography disclosed deep vein thrombosis in 31 patients. With the whole limb considered an anatomic entity, antifibrin antibody scintigrams obtained 2 hours after injection had a specificity and sensitivity of 81% and 84%, respectively. A higher sensitivity (92%) was found for a subgroup of patients (n = 44) with symptoms for less than 10 days. Regional sensitivities for all patients and for the subgroup, respectively, were 92% and 100% in the calf, 82% and 94% in the popliteal region, 63% and 71% in the thigh, and only 18% and 13% in the pelvis. Additional imaging performed 6 hours and 21 hours after injection in 12 patients and quantitative analysis done from scintigrams with and without blood-pool (technetium-99m human serum albumin) correction did not improve sensitivity. In-111-antifibrin antibody scintigraphy is an accurate method for diagnosis of acute established deep vein thrombosis of the calf and popliteal region; its sensitivity in the thigh is lower, and it is not feasible for diagnosis in the pelvic area.

  18. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies B1 and B3 that react with mucinous adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Pastan, I; Lovelace, E T; Gallo, M G; Rutherford, A V; Magnani, J L; Willingham, M C

    1991-07-15

    B1 and B3 are two newly isolated monoclonal antibodies that react uniformly with the surface of many mucinous carcinomas of the colon, stomach, and ovary but with a limited number of normal tissues, among which are glands of the stomach, epithelia of the trachea and bladder, differentiated epithelium of the esophagus, and small bowel mucin. They also react uniformly with many human tumor cell lines, including MCF7, MDA-MB-468, and HTB20 (breast), A431 (epidermoid), HT29 (colon), HTB33 (cervical), and DU145 (prostate). Immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that B1 and B3 react with epitopes present on a large number of glycoproteins, ranging in molecular weight from greater than 200,000 to less than 40,000. Using a panel of 37 different carbohydrate residues attached to albumin to form neoglycoproteins, it was found that B1 reacts with Ley and H-type 2 and B3 reacts with Ley, di-Lex, and tri-Lex antigens. Thus, each antibody reacts with a distinct portion of a carbohydrate residue. Because of the limited reactivity of these antibodies with normal tissues, they merit evaluation in the treatment of cancer. PMID:1648444

  19. Studies of a Murine Monoclonal Antibody Directed against DARC: Reappraisal of Its Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Smolarek, Dorota; Hattab, Claude; Buczkowska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Radoslaw; Jarz?b, Anna; Cochet, Sylvie; de Brevern, Alexandre G.; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta; Jachymek, Wojciech; Niedziela, Tomasz; Grodecka, Magdalena; Wasniowska, Kazimiera; Colin Aronovicz, Yves; Bertrand, Olivier; Czerwinski, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) plays multiple roles in human health as a blood group antigen, a receptor for chemokines and the only known receptor for Plasmodium vivax merozoites. It is the target of the murine anti-Fy6 monoclonal antibody 2C3 which binds to the first extracellular domain (ECD1), but exact nature of the recognized epitope was a subject of contradictory reports. Here, using a set of complex experiments which include expression of DARC with amino acid substitutions within the Fy6 epitope in E. coli and K562 cells, ELISA, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and flow cytometry, we have resolved discrepancies between previously published reports and show that the basic epitope recognized by 2C3 antibody is 22FEDVW26, with 22F and 26W being the most important residues. In addition, we demonstrated that 30Y plays an auxiliary role in binding, particularly when the residue is sulfated. The STD-NMR studies performed using 2C3-derived Fab and synthetic peptide corroborated most of these results, and together with the molecular modelling suggested that 25V is not involved in direct interactions with the antibody, but determines folding of the epitope backbone. PMID:25706384

  20. Development of a novel anti ESAT-6 monoclonal antibody for screening of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Jianhang; Ding, Yu; Shou, Chengmin; Wu, Zhigang; Zhuo, Guangchao; Wang, Keyi; Shen, Junya; Huang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem with an estimated one-third of the world’s population infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, thus necessitating fast and accurate diagnosis of TB. However, the diagnosis of latent infection remains difficult due to the lack of a simple, reliable test for M. tuberculosis infection. The objective of the current study was to generate and characterize a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) that specifically target the early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6) protein for tuberculosis (TB) immunological diagnosis. The BALB/c mice were immunized by a peptide with 13 amino acids (amino acid residues 24 to 36) of ESAT-6 protein. Stable hybridomas cell lines were established and mAb was identified by Western Blot, immunoprecipitation (IP) and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, this mouse mAb was used to coat plates, and biotin-labelled polyclonal antibodies were used to detect the antigens. Finally, the antibody was verified in 280 patient sputum culture supernatants and pleural effusion aspirates. The positive detection rate of the generated ESAT-6 mAb was 91% in the clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis pleural effusion, and this mAb had a sensitivity of 92.4% and a specificity of 100% in all M. tuberculosis cases. Our data indicated that the mAb generated in this study can potentially serve as a tool in the laboratory diagnosis of TB. PMID:25550937

  1. Purification procedure and monoclonal antibodies: two instruments for research on vertebrate porins.

    PubMed

    Reymann, S; Kiafard, Z; Rohm, B; Strutz, N; Hesse, D; Kratzin, H D; Zimmermann, B; Thinnes, F P; Hilschmann, N

    1999-10-15

    On Western blots of skeletal muscle preparations of different vertebrate classes, four monoclonal anti-human type 1 porin antibodies recognize one single band of either 30.5 or 31 kDa, respectively. To confirm that it is eukaryotic porin which is labeled by the antibodies, we used a purification procedure developed for human type 1 porin for porins from skeletal muscle of shark, frog, and turkey. Applied to different mammalian species and tissues, this procedure exclusively provides type 1 porin. However, applied to shark skeletal muscle, it provides two porin isotypes in nearly equal amounts. In the case of frog skeletal muscle, the procedure provides mainly type 2 porin and a lower amount of type 1 porin. Applied to turkey skeletal muscle, the method provides exclusively type 2 porin. As demonstrated by two-dimensional Western blots, both shark and frog porin isotypes and the turkey type 2 porin are recognized by our antibodies. Furthermore, we elucidated the entire amino acid sequence of frog type 2 porin. PMID:10527528

  2. PET imaging of osteosarcoma in dogs using a fluorine-18-labeled monoclonal antibody fab fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Page, R.L.; Garg, P.K.; Gard, S. ||

    1994-09-01

    Four dogs with histologically confirmed osteogenic sarcoma were studied with PET following intravenous injection of the {sup 18}F-labeled Fab fragment of TP-3, a monoclonal antibody specific for human and canine osteosarcomas. The antibody fragment was labeled using the N-succinimidyl (8-(4{prime}-({sup 18}F)fluorobenzyl)amino)suberate acylation agent. Blood clearance of activity was biphasic in all dogs but half-times were variable (T{sub 1/2{beta}} = 2-13 hr). Catabolism of labeled Fab was reflected by the decrease in protein-associated activity in serum from more than 90% at 1 min to 60%-80% at 4 hr. PET images demonstrated increased accumulation of {sup 18}F at the primary tumor site relative to normal contralateral bone in one dog as early as 15 min after injection. Biopsies obtained after euthanasia indicated higher uptake at the edges of the tumor as observed on the PET scans. Tumor uptake was 1-3 x 10{sup -3}% injected dose/g, a level similar to that reported for other Fab fragments in human tumors. In the three dogs with metastatic disease, early PET images reflected activity in the blood pool but later uptake was observed in suspected metastatic sites. These results, although preliminary, suggest that PET imaging of {sup 18}F-labeled antibody fragments is feasible and that dogs with spontaneous tumors could be a valuable model for preclinical research with radioimmunoconjugates. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus from vaccinated healthy donors

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Oshita, Masatoshi; Ideno, Shoji; Yunoki, Mikihiro; Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 ; Kuhara, Motoki; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2009-09-11

    Human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) prepared from patients with viral infections could provide information on human epitopes important for the development of vaccines as well as potential therapeutic applications. Through the fusion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of five influenza-vaccinated volunteers, with newly developed murine-human chimera fusion partner cells, named SPYMEG, we obtained 10 hybridoma clones stably producing anti-influenza virus antibodies: one for influenza A H1N1, four for influenza A H3N2 and five for influenza B. Surprisingly, most of the HuMAbs showed broad reactivity within subtype and four (two for H3N2 and two for B) showed broad neutralizing ability. Importantly, epitope mapping revealed that the two broad neutralizing antibodies to H3N2 derived from different donors recognized the same epitope located underneath the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin globular region that is highly conserved among H3N2 strains.

  4. Structure of a human monoclonal antibody Fab fragment against gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, X. M.; Ruker, F.; Casale, E.; Carter, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of a human monoclonal antibody (Fab), which binds specifically to a major epitope of the transmembrane protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1, has been determined by crystallographic methods to a resolution of 2.7 A. It has been previously determined that this antibody recognizes the epitope SGKLICTTAVPWNAS, belongs to the subclass IgG1 (kappa), and exhibits antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The quaternary structure of the Fab is in an extended conformation with an elbow bend angle between the constant and variable domains of 175 degrees. Structurally, four of the hypervariable loops can be classified according to previously recognized canonical structures. The third hypervariable loops of the heavy (H3) and light chain (L3) are structurally distinct. Hypervariable loop H3, residues 102H-109H, is unusually extended from the surface. The complementarity-determining region forms a hydrophobic binding pocket that is created primarily from hypervariable loops L3, H3, and H2.

  5. Distribution of histone H4 modifications as revealed by a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Harada, Akihito; Umehara, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Obuse, Chikashi; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Nozaki, Naohito; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Post-translational histone modifications play a critical role in genome functions such as epigenetic gene regulation and genome maintenance. The tail of the histone H4 N-terminus contains several amino acids that can be acetylated and methylated. Some of these modifications are known to undergo drastic changes during the cell cycle. In this study, we generated a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies against histone H4 modifications, including acetylation at K5, K8, K12, and K16, and different levels of methylation at K20. Their specificity was evaluated by ELISA and immunoblotting using synthetic peptide and recombinant proteins that harbor specific modifications or amino acid substitutions. Immunofluorescence confirmed the characteristic distributions of target modifications. An H4K5 acetylation (H4K5ac)-specific antibody CMA405 reacted with K5ac only when the neighboring K8 was unacetylated. This unique feature allowed us to detect newly assembled H4, which is diacetylated at K5 and K12, and distinguish it from hyperacetylated H4, where K5 and K8 are both acetylated. Chromatin immunoprecipiation combined with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that acetylation of both H4K8 and H4K16 were enriched around transcription start sites. These extensively characterized and highly specific antibodies will be useful for future epigenetics and epigenome studies. PMID:26343042

  6. Production and application of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against Spiroplasma eriocheiris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Bao, Haixun; Miao, Fengqin; Peng, Yaqin; Shen, Yuqing; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2015-01-01

    A new species of spiroplasma, Spiroplasma eriocheiris (S. eriocheiris), was identified as a lethal pathogen of tremor disease (TD) in Chinese mitten crab recently. In order to acquire appropriate biological and diagnostic tools for characterizing this newly discovered pathogen, 5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a polyclonal antibody (pAb) against S. eriocheiris were produced. Among the mAbs, 6F5, 7C8 and 12H5 lead to the deformation of S. eriocheiris. A peptide sequence, YMRDMQSGLPRY was identified as a mimic motif of MreB that is the cell shape determining protein of S. eriocheiris interacting with 3 mAbs. Furthermore, a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) for detection of S. eriocheiris was established using the mAb and pAb we prepared. It detected as low as 0.1??g/mL of S. eriocheiris. No cross-reaction was observed with three other common bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis) and the hemolymph samples of healthy Eriocheir sinensis. Collectively, our results indicated that the mAbs and pAb we prepared could be used in the analysis of S. eriocheiris membrane proteins mimotope and development of a diagnostic kit for S. eriocheiris infections. PMID:26639364

  7. Production and application of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against Spiroplasma eriocheiris

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Bao, Haixun; Miao, Fengqin; Peng, Yaqin; Shen, Yuqing; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2015-01-01

    A new species of spiroplasma, Spiroplasma eriocheiris (S. eriocheiris), was identified as a lethal pathogen of tremor disease (TD) in Chinese mitten crab recently. In order to acquire appropriate biological and diagnostic tools for characterizing this newly discovered pathogen, 5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a polyclonal antibody (pAb) against S. eriocheiris were produced. Among the mAbs, 6F5, 7C8 and 12H5 lead to the deformation of S. eriocheiris. A peptide sequence, YMRDMQSGLPRY was identified as a mimic motif of MreB that is the cell shape determining protein of S. eriocheiris interacting with 3 mAbs. Furthermore, a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) for detection of S. eriocheiris was established using the mAb and pAb we prepared. It detected as low as 0.1??g/mL of S. eriocheiris. No cross-reaction was observed with three other common bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis) and the hemolymph samples of healthy Eriocheir sinensis. Collectively, our results indicated that the mAbs and pAb we prepared could be used in the analysis of S. eriocheiris membrane proteins mimotope and development of a diagnostic kit for S. eriocheiris infections. PMID:26639364

  8. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES PRODUCED AGAINST AVIAN METAPNEUMOVIRUS SUBTYPE C WHICH REACT AGAINST THE NUCLEOCAPSID PROTEIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared against avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C virus (aMPV/Minnesota/turkey/1a/97). Six MAbs were selected based on ELISA activities and characterized by isotyping, neutralization test, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry assay. The results show...

  9. Three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships of sulfonamides binding monoclonal antibody by comparative molecular field analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model of sulfonamide analogs, binding a monoclonal antibody (MabSMR) produced against sulfamerazine was carried out by comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA). The affinities of MabSMR, expressed as Log10IC50, for 17 ...

  10. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies that react to the nucleocapsid protein of avian metapneumovirus subtype C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared against avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C (aMPV/Minnesota/turkey/1a/97). Six MAbs were selected based on ELISA activities and characterized by isotyping, neutralization test, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. The results show...

  11. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by dot-blotting using monoclonal antibodies to CPV40 capsid protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were prepared against the 40 kDa capsid protein of Cryptosporidium parvum virus (CPV) by immunizing mice with purified recombinant CPV40 protein. By immunoblotting analysis, one MAb, designated MAbCPV40-1, bound to a 40 kDa protein in extracts of C. parvum oocysts, which...

  12. Exceptionally Potent Neutralization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus by Human Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lanying; Ju, Tina W.; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Lau, Candy C. Y.; Lu, Lu; Liu, Qi; Wang, Lili; Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Jiang, Shibo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The recently discovered Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to infect humans, with high mortality. Specific, highly effective therapeutics and vaccines against the MERS-CoV are urgently needed to save human lives and address the pandemic concerns. We identified three human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), m336, m337, and m338, targeting the receptor (CD26/DPP4) binding domain (RBD) of the MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein from a very large naďve-antibody library (containing ?1011 antibodies). They bound with high affinity: equilibrium dissociation constants for the three MAbs were equal to 4.2, 9.3, and 15 nM, respectively, as measured by Biacore for Fabs binding to RBD. The avidity for IgG1 m336, m337, and m338 was even higher: 99, 820, and 560 pM, respectively. The antibodies bound to overlapping epitopes that overlap the receptor binding site on the RBD as suggested by competition experiments and further supported by site-directed mutagenesis of the RBD and a docking model of the m336-RBD complex. The highest-affinity MAb, m336, neutralized both pseudotyped and live MERS-CoV with exceptional potency, 50% neutralization at 0.005 and 0.07 ?g/ml, respectively, likely by competing with DPP4 for binding to the S glycoprotein. The exceptionally high neutralization activity of these antibodies and especially m336 suggests that they have great potential for prophylaxis and therapy of MERS-CoV infection in humans and as a tool for development of vaccine immunogens. The rapid identification (within several weeks) of potent MAbs suggests a possibility to use the new large antibody library and related methodology for a quick response to the public threat resulting from emerging coronaviruses. IMPORTANCE A novel human coronavirus, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was found to infect humans with a high mortality rate in 2012, just 1 decade after the appearance of the first highly pathogenic coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). There are no effective therapeutics available. It is highly desirable to find an approach for rapidly developing potent therapeutics against MERS-CoV, which not only can be implemented for MERS treatment but also can help to develop a platform strategy to combat future emerging coronaviruses. We report here the identification of human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from a large nonimmune antibody library that target MERS-CoV. One of the antibodies, m336, neutralized the virus with exceptional potency. It therefore may have great potential as a candidate therapeutic and as a reagent to facilitate the development of vaccines against MERS-CoV. PMID:24789777

  13. Antibody guided diagnosis and therapy of brain gliomas using radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor and placental alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Kalofonos, H.P.; Pawlikowska, T.R.; Hemingway, A.; Courtenay-Luck, N.; Dhokia, B.; Snook, D.; Sivolapenko, G.B.; Hooker, G.R.; McKenzie, C.G.; Lavender, P.J. )

    1989-10-01

    Twenty-seven patients with brain glioma were scanned using {sup 123}I-labeled monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR1) or placental alkaline phosphatase (H17E2). Successful localization was achieved in 18 out of 27 patients. Eleven out of 27 patients were also studied using a nonspecific control antibody (11.4.1) of the same immunoglobulin subclass and observable tumor localization was also achieved in five patients. The specificity of targeting was assessed by comparing images obtained with specific and nonspecific antibodies and by examining tumor and normal tissue biopsies after dual antibody administration. Ten patients with recurrent grade III or IV glioma who showed good localization of radiolabeled antibody were treated with 40-140 mCi of {sup 131}I-labeled antibody delivered to the tumor area intravenously (n = 5) or by infusion into the internal carotid artery (n = 5). Six patients showed clinical improvement lasting from 6 mo to 3 yr. One patient continues in remission (3 yr after therapy), but the other five who responded initially relapsed 6-9 mo after therapy and died. No major toxicity was attributable to antibody-guided irradiation. Targeted irradiation by monoclonal antibody may be clinically useful and should be explored further in the treatment of brain gliomas resistant to conventional forms of treatment.

  14. Antilymphocytic antibodies and marrow transplantation. VIII. Recipient conditioning with Clq-affine monoclonal anti-pan T antibodies prevents GVHD in homozygous fully mismatched mice

    SciTech Connect

    Thierfelder, S.; Kummer, U.; Schuh, R.; Mysliwietz, J.

    1986-10-01

    An approach to suppressing secondary disease with antibodies was studied that differed from conventional antibody treatment of donor marrow in vitro. It consisted of the selection of anti-Thy-1 antibodies with high affinity for Clq, the first subunit of the complement cascade, and a single injection of such antibodies into prospective irradiated marrow recipients. Monoclonal mouse IgM and rat IgG 2c antibodies of high titers in complement-dependent test systems but with low affinity for Clq caused little immunosuppression. Monoclonal rat IgG2b or mouse IgG2a anti-Thy-1 antibodies with high affinity for Clq prevented acute and chronic mortality of graft-v-host disease (GVHD), however, when injected in irradiated CBA or AKR mice prior to C57BL/6 spleen and/or bone marrow cell transfusion. This treatment simultaneously suppressed residual host-v-graft reactivity of the irradiated mice, so that permanent hematopoietic engraftment ensued even at 5 or 6 Gy. Full chimerism and specific tolerance were obtained. Primary immune response to SRBC was clearly depressed in the chimeras; secondary immune response was not. Clearance of T cell antibody activity (greater than 6 days), timing, and dose of injected antibody, as well as other modalities of the conditioning treatment that may have contributed to the remarkable immunosuppression, are discussed.

  15. Development of ELISA and colloidal gold immunoassay for tetrodotoxin detetcion based on monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Ling, Sumei; Chen, Qing-Ai; Zhang, Yuming; Wang, Rongzhi; Jin, Ni; Pang, Jie; Wang, Shihua

    2015-09-15

    A monoclonal hybridoma cell named 5B9 against tetrodotoxin (TTX) was obtained after fusion of myeloma SP2/0 cells with spleen cells isolated from the immunized Balb/c mice. The 5B9 monoclonal antibody (McAb) with high affinity (about 2.55 × 10(9)) is specific to TTX, and this McAb belongs to the immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotype. Finally, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and colloidal gold immunoassay were established based on this McAb. The linear range of ELISA to detect TTX was 5-500 ng/mL, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 4.44 ng/mL. The average CV of intra- and inter-assay was less than 8%, with the samples recovery range of 70.93-99.99%. A competitive format colloidal gold strip was developed for detection of TTX in real samples, and the LOD for TTX is 20 ng/mL, and the assay time of the qualitative test can be finished in less than 10 min without any equipment. The result from test strip revealed that the test strip has a good agreement with those obtained from ELISA. PMID:25913446

  16. Converting monoclonal antibodies into Fab fragments for transient expression in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Nettleship, Joanne E; Flanagan, Aleksandra; Rahman-Huq, Nahid; Hamer, Rebecca; Owens, Raymond J

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, protocols are described for converting mouse monoclonal antibodies into recombinant Fabs for transient expression in mammalian cells. Variable region genes are cloned by reverse transcription: PCR using either sequence specific or mixed 5' primers that hybridise to the first framework sequence of the mouse light and heavy chains and 3' primers that bind to the heavy- and light-chain constant regions. The amplified sequences are inserted into mammalian cell expression vectors by In-Fusion™ cloning. This method allows vector and amplified DNA sequences to be seamlessly joined in a ligation-independent reaction. Transient co-expression of light-chain and heavy-chain genes in HEK 293T cells enables production of recombinant Fabs for functional and structural studies. PMID:21987252

  17. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Directed Against the Nucleoprotein of Heartland Virus.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Amanda E; Brault, Aaron C

    2015-12-01

    Heartland virus (HRTV), a phlebovirus first isolated from two Missouri farmers in 2009, has been proposed to be transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Amblyomma americanum ticks. It is closely related to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) from China, another previously unrecognized phlebovirus that has subsequently been associated with hundreds of cases of severe disease in humans. To expand diagnostic capacity to detect HRTV infections, 20 hybridoma clones secreting anti-HRTV murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were developed using splenocytes from HRTV-inoculated AG129 alpha/beta and gamma interferon receptor-deficient mice. Nine of these MAbs were characterized herein for inclusion in future HRTV diagnostic assay development. All of the MAbs developed were found to be non-neutralizing and reactive to linear epitopes on HRTV nucleocapsid protein. MAb 2AF11 was found to be cross-reactive with SFTSV. PMID:26503274

  18. A monoclonal antibody to a cell wall component of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, V; Poulain, D; Fortier, B; Evans, G; Vernes, A

    1986-01-01

    A heterologous fusion between mouse myeloma cells and rat lymphocytes resulted in the isolation of a rat immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody with both agglutinating and precipitating activity. Indirect immunofluorescence and direct agglutination tests showed that the corresponding antigen was present in the cell wall of the three Candida species considered to be the most pathogenic, C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata, and also in the cell wall of C. guilliermondii. The antigen appeared to be predominantly polysaccharide in nature. Precipitation by counterimmunoelectrophoresis suggested that the epitope is shared by at least two separate molecules with different electrophoretic mobilities. Presence of this epitope varied from strain to strain within a given species and may be related to the morphological stage in the cell cycle. Antigen was shown to be present in the cytoplasm, in the periplasmic space, and at the cell surface of C. albicans. Indirect immunofluorescence also suggested that antigen is excreted from the cell. Images PMID:3531015

  19. Large-scale monoclonal antibody purification by continuous chromatography, from process design to scale-up.

    PubMed

    Girard, Valérie; Hilbold, Nicolas-Julian; Ng, Candy K S; Pegon, Laurence; Chahim, Wael; Rousset, Fabien; Monchois, Vincent

    2015-11-10

    The development and optimization of a purification process of monoclonal antibodies based on two continuous chromatography steps for capture and intermediate purification are presented. The two chromatography steps were individually optimized using either batch chromatography or sequential multicolumn chromatography (SMCC). Proprietary simulation software was used to optimize SMCC and to evaluate the potential gains compared with batch chromatography. The SMCC recipes provided by the simulation software were evaluated experimentally. A good correlation was found between the simulated results and experimental observations. Significant gains were observed on the productivity, buffer consumption and the volume of resin required for SMCC over batch chromatography. Based on these results, a chained process from the capture to polishing steps was implemented. This chained process demonstrated significantly better performance compared with the batch equivalent while satisfying the specifications. The expected positive impact provided by implementing continuous chromatography is also discussed. PMID:25962790

  20. Anti-CD19 Monoclonal Antibodies: a New Approach to Lymphoma Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Naddafi, Fatemeh; Davami, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    CD19 is expressed on B- lineage cells and follicular dendritic cells and plays a key role in B cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. Thus, it has been considered as potential target for several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). For decades, chemotherapy has been known as one of the major antitumor therapies eradicating high proliferative tumor cells. But, anti- CD19 mAbs developed for treating CD19- positive lymphomas and autoimmune diseases would rank among the most novel area of research and development in the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, several anti- CD19 mAbs are currently being tested in various clinical trials and this review provides an overview of the research accomplished so far. PMID:26629482

  1. Monoclonal antibody therapy in multiple sclerosis: critical appraisal and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Emanuele; Caserta, Cinzia; Patti, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been used as experimental treatments of multiple sclerosis (MS) since the 1980s, with the advantage of a high specificity for their target but disadvantages due to their immunogenicity. A literature review of experimental and disposable mAbs in the treatment of MS was performed, putting into perspective the clinical impact that these novel therapies can have and the main challenges facing their use in the daily practice. mAbs therapy resulted in a clear paradigm shift in MS therapeutics. Their use in early, inflammatory phases could have the potential to prevent or delay disability. However, it is still unclear how and when these powerful biological weapons can be used safely in the management of MS. The challenge then is how to obtain the best benefit-risk ratio and how to monitor and prevent emergent safety concerns. PMID:25708308

  2. Characterization of nerve growth factor receptor in neural crest tumors using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, A H; Grob, P; Bothwell, M; Elder, D E; Ernst, C S; Marano, N; Ghrist, B F; Slemp, C C; Herlyn, M; Atkinson, B

    1984-01-01

    The nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor was characterized by using a new series of anti-receptor monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). These MAbs (i) showed significantly greater reactivity with a melanoma cell line expressing higher levels of NGF receptor, (ii) inhibited the binding of 125I-labeled NGF to its receptor, and (iii) immunoprecipitated both metabolically labeled and 125I-labeled NGF affinity-labeled receptor. These experiments defined the receptor as a 75-kDa cell-surface protein. The NGF receptor was visualized by immunoperoxidase staining in tissue sections of human nevi, melanomas, neurofibromas, a pheochromocytoma, and peripheral nerves. Uniform staining of the cytoplasm suggests that, in addition to cell-surface NGF receptors, there is a population of intracellular receptors. Images PMID:6093111

  3. Immunotherapy for Multiple Myeloma, Past, Present, and Future: Monoclonal Antibodies, Vaccines, and Cellular Therapies.

    PubMed

    Karp Leaf, Rebecca; Cho, Hearn Jay; Avigan, David

    2015-12-01

    Multiple myeloma is a disorder of terminally differentiated plasma cells, characterized by immune dysfunction, deregulated signaling within the bone marrow stromal compartment, and a microenvironment that fosters immunosuppression. Immunomodulatory techniques, such as allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HCT) and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), demonstrate long-term disease control via manipulation of the immunologic milieu. However, allo-HCT is associated with numerous toxicities including infectious complications and graft versus host effect and is not suitable for many patients. Novel agents and cellular-based therapies aim to restore the balance of humoral and adaptive immunity without the morbidity of allo-HCT and DLI. In the following review, we will summarize the use of immunomodulatory techniques in multiple myeloma, including monoclonal antibodies, vaccine therapy, checkpoint inhibitors, autologous T cells, and engineered T cells. PMID:26338470

  4. SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. Comprehensive progress report, September 1989--February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Jaszczak, R.J.

    1992-02-01

    The long-term goal of this research project is to develop methods to improve the utility of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECI) to quantify the biodistribution of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) labeled with clinically relevant radionuclides ({sup 123}I, {sup 131}I, and {sup 111}In) and with another radionuclide,{sup 211}At, recently used in therapy. We describe here our progress in developing quantitative SPECT methodology for {sup 111}In and {sup 123}I. We have focused our recent research thrusts on the following aspects of SPECT: (1) The development of improved SPECT hardware, such as improved acquisition geometries. (2) The development of better reconstruction methods that provide accurate compensation for the physical factors that affect SPECT quantification. (3) The application of carefully designed simulations and experiments to validate our hardware and software approaches.

  5. Expression of POTE protein in human testis detected by novel monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Ise, Tomoko; Das, Sudipto; Nagata, Satoshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Lee, Yoomi; Onda, Masanori; Anver, Miriam R.; Pastan, Ira

    2008-01-25

    The POTE gene family is composed of 13 highly homologous paralogs preferentially expressed in prostate, ovary, testis, and placenta. We produced 10 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against three representative POTE paralogs: POTE-21, POTE-2{gamma}C, and POTE-22. One reacted with all three paralogs, six MAbs reacted with POTE-2{gamma}C and POTE-22, and three MAbs were specific to POTE-21. Epitopes of all 10 MAbs were located in the cysteine-rich repeats (CRRs) motifs located at the N-terminus of each POTE paralog. Testing the reactivity of each MAb with 12 different CRRs revealed slight differences among the antigenic determinants, which accounts for differences in cross-reactivity. Using MAbs HP8 and PG5 we were able to detect a POTE-actin fusion protein in human testis by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that the POTE protein is expressed in primary spermatocytes, implying a role in spermatogenesis.

  6. Production and characterization of highly specific monoclonal antibodies to D-glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Matsuura, Yurino; Yonenaga, Yayoi; Tsuneura, Yumi; Aso, Mariko; Kurose, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2014-12-01

    Most of the functions of D-amino acids (D-AA) remain unclear because of little analytic methods for specific detection/determination. In this study, a highly specific monoclonal antibody to D-glutamic acid (D-Glu-MAb) was produced using a hybridoma method. Characterization of D-Glu-MAb by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that it has high selectivity against D-Glu-glutaraldehyde (GA) conjugates, while no cross-reaction was observed when 38 other kinds of AA-GA conjugates were used. Moreover, subsequent indirect competitive ELISA disclosed that an epitope of D-Glu-MAb is a D-Glu-GA molecule in the conjugates, suggesting that D-Glu-MAb could be a useful tool to investigate the functional analysis of D-Glu in immunostaining. PMID:25545211

  7. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against horse immunoglobulins useful for the diagnosis of equine diseases.

    PubMed

    Di Febo, Tiziana; Luciani, Mirella; Ciarelli, Antonella; Bortone, Grazia; Di Pancrazio, Chiara; Rodomonti, Diamante; Teodori, Liana; Tittarelli, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against horse IgG were produced by immunizing Balb/c mice with purified horse IgG and were characterized in indirect ELISA versus purified immunoglobulins from donkey, cow, buffalo, sheep, pig, and chicken. Three MAbs (1B10B6C9, 1B10B6C10, 1B10B6E9) reacted only with horse and donkey IgG and IgM and, in western blotting, were specific for the Fc fragment of equine IgG. MAb 1B10B6E9 was used in chemiluminescent immunoblotting assay for the diagnosis of dourine and in indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the diagnosis of African horse sickness and dourine. PMID:24905982

  8. Monoclonal antibodies to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 6: evidence of antigenic diversity.

    PubMed

    Lück, P C; Helbig, J H; Pilz, C; Witzleb, W

    1991-01-01

    Reactivity of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) prepared against the type strain of Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila serogroup 6 (Lp sg 6) was tested in the indirect immunofluorescence test using 16 environmental isolates of this sg and 58 strains of sg 1 to 5 and 7 to 14. Five out of 11 Mabs 5 were serogroup-specific, i.e. there was a reaction with all sg 6 strains tested, but not with strains from other sg. Further 4 Mabs reacted with all sg 6 strains and a few strains of other sg. Two Mabs were only reactive with the type strain of Lp sg 6 and one sg 6 strain isolated in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. This report shows further evidence that Lp sg 6 can be divided into antigenically distinct subtypes. PMID:1713768

  9. In vivo radiolocalization of antiosteogenic sarcoma monoclonal antibodies in osteogenic sarcoma xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, T.; Sakahara, H.; Hosoi, S.; Yamamuro, T.; Higashi, S.; Mikawa, H.; Endo, K.; Toyama, S.

    1984-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies Ost6 and Ost7 (mouse Immunoglobulin G1) to human osteogenic sarcoma were isolated from ascitic fluid and labeled with radioiodine. After injection into athymic nu/nu mice with s.c. xenografts of human osteogenic sarcoma, the uptake of radioactivity in tumors, visceral organs, and blood was determined. Five days after injection, Ost6 and Ost7 showed preferential accumulation in tumors (tumor:blood ratio, 4.3). Furthermore, with testicular and bladder tumors, both unreactive with Ost7, there was no localization of radiolabeled Ost7 in xenograft growths. When Ost7 was labeled with /sup 131/I, its accumulation into human osteogenic sarcoma could be clearly visualized by whole-body gamma-scintigraphy without computer-assisted data processing.

  10. Lymphocyte subsets at different stages of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a study with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Marrosu, M G; Cianchetti, C; Ennas, M G

    1986-01-01

    Lymphocyte subsets in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood were studied using monoclonal antibodies, in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, eight of whom were at stage 2 and seven at stage 4. Eighteen subjects affected with non immunological diseases constituted the controls. Regardless of the stage, patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis had lower percentages of OKT3+ (pan-T) cells in both CSF and peripheral blood, with an increase of OKIa+ cells (B cells, macrophages and active T cells) in peripheral blood. A difference was found in the proportion of OKT4+ (helper-inducer) and OKT8+ (suppressor/cytotoxic) cells in relation to the stage, the most striking finding being a significant decrease of OKT8+ with an increase of T4/T8 ratio in peripheral blood at an early stage. PMID:2942644

  11. Developing a Noninvasive Procedure Using Labeled Monoclonal Antibody Anti-VEGF (Bevacizumab) for Detection of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Daniel Escorsim; Perini, Jamila Alessandra; Orlando, Margarida Maria Camoes; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The off-label use of bevacizumab labeled with 99mTc as a new radiopharmaceutical for imaging of endometriosis is a promising noninvasive, new clinical procedure. The bevacizumab in monoclonal antibodies targeted at vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is superexpressed in cases of endometriosis. In this study we evaluate the imaging of endometriosis lesion in rats (induced to endometriosis) using bevacizumab-99mTc. The results showed that bevacizumab-99mTc imaged the lesion and support his use for Nuclear Medicine applied to gynecology. Also the results appointed that this radiopharmaceutical has a hepatobiliary excretion. It is important to notice that the dose used was almost 0,01% of the usual dose for the bevacizumab. PMID:26240826

  12. Model-based monitoring and control of a monoclonal antibody production process.

    PubMed

    Biener, R K; Waldraff, W; Noé, W; Haas, J; Howaldt, M; Gilles, E D

    1996-05-15

    A structured mathematical model describing the dynamics of hybridoma growth and monoclonal antibody (mAb) production in suspension cultures is presented. The model fits well to experimental data obtained from batch, fed-batch, and continuous cultures with hybridoma cells. Applications of the model for process control are demonstrated. 1. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) was designed to estimate the state of the process. The oxygen consumption rate of the cell culture is monitored on-line and is used as the only measurement information for the EKF. This EKF is able to provide good estimates for living and dead cell densities and the medium composition. 2. The mathematical model can be applied for the optimization of fed-batch cultures. PMID:8659904

  13. In situ dsDNA-bevacizumab anticancer monoclonal antibody interaction electrochemical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Luciana I N; Marques, Nuno V; Diculescu, Victor C; Oliveira-Brett, Ana Maria

    2015-10-22

    The interaction of the anticancer monoclonal antibody bevacizumab (BEVA) with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was studied by voltammetry and gel-electrophoresis in incubated samples and using the dsDNA-electrochemical biosensor. The voltammetric results revealed a decrease and disappearance of the dsDNA oxidation peaks with increasing incubation time, showing that BEVA binds to the dsDNA but no DNA oxidative damage was detected electrochemically. Non denaturing agarose gel-electrophoresis experiments were in agreement with the voltammetric results showing the formation of compact BEVA-dsDNA adduct. The dsDNA-electrochemical biosensor in incubated solutions showed that BEVA also undergoes structural modification upon binding dsDNA, and BEVA electroactive amino acid residues oxidation peaks were detected. PMID:26526907

  14. A broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody against gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Purtscher, M; Trkola, A; Gruber, G; Buchacher, A; Predl, R; Steindl, F; Tauer, C; Berger, R; Barrett, N; Jungbauer, A

    1994-12-01

    We have established a hybridoma clone, designated 2F5, secreting a neutralizing human monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The epitope of MAb 2F5 was mapped to amino acid sequence Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala on the ectodomain of gp41. In this study different in vitro test systems were used to characterize the neutralizing properties of MAb 2F5. In syncytium inhibition assays, fusion inhibition experiments, and neutralization assays on different HIV-susceptible cells (H9, U937, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells) MAb 2F5 showed broad-spectrum neutralizing capacity against HIV-1 laboratory isolates IIIB, MN, RF, and SF2. In addition, primary isolates from AIDS patients were also neutralized. PMID:7888224

  15. Immunoactive two-dimensional self-assembly of monoclonal antibodies in aqueous solution revealed by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ido, Shinichiro; Kimiya, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Kei; Kominami, Hiroaki; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2014-03-01

    The conformational flexibility of antibodies in solution directly affects their immune function. Namely, the flexible hinge regions of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are essential in epitope-specific antigen recognition and biological effector function. The antibody structure, which is strongly related to its functions, has been partially revealed by electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, but only under non-physiological conditions. Here we observed monoclonal IgG antibodies in aqueous solution by high-resolution frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM). We found that monoclonal antibodies self-assemble into hexamers, which form two-dimensional crystals in aqueous solution. Furthermore, by directly observing antibody-antigen interactions using FM-AFM, we revealed that IgG molecules in the crystal retain immunoactivity. As the self-assembled monolayer crystal of antibodies retains immunoactivity at a neutral pH and is functionally stable at a wide range of pH and temperature, the antibody crystal is applicable to new biotechnological platforms for biosensors or bioassays.

  16. A novel monoclonal antibody to fibroblast growth factor 2 effectively inhibits growth of hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Park, Hangil; Chhim, Sophea; Ding, Yi; Jiang, Wei; Queen, Cary; Kim, K Jin

    2012-04-01

    Expression of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is believed to be a contributing factor to the growth of a number of tumor types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the potential of monoclonal antibodies that neutralize FGF2 for treatment of patients with cancer has not yet been explored in clinical trials. We therefore generated a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb), GAL-F2, specific for FGF2 and characterized its properties in vitro and in vivo. GAL-F2 binds to a different epitope than several previous anti-FGF2 mAbs tested. This novel epitope was defined using chimeric FGF1/FGF2 proteins and alanine scanning mutagenesis and was shown to comprise amino acids in both the amino and carboxy regions of FGF2. GAL-F2 blocked binding of FGF2 to each of its four cellular receptors, strongly inhibited FGF2-induced proliferation and downstream signaling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and inhibited proliferation and downstream signaling in two HCC cell lines. Moreover, GAL-F2, administered at 5 mg/kg i.p. twice weekly, potently inhibited growth of xenografts of the SMMC-7721, HEP-G2, and SK-HEP-1 human HCC cell lines in nude mice, and in some models, had a strong additive effect with an anti-VEGF mAb or sorafenib. Treatment with GAL-F2 also blocked angiogenesis and inhibited downstream cellular signaling in xenografts, indicating its antitumor mechanism of action. Our report supports clinical testing of a humanized form of the GAL-F2 mAb for treatment of HCC and potentially other cancers. PMID:22351746

  17. A Novel Monoclonal Antibody to Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Effectively Inhibits Growth of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong; Park, Hangil; Chhim, Sophea; Ding, Yi; Jiang, Wei; Queen, Cary; Kim, K. Jin

    2012-01-01

    Expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) is believed to be a contributing factor to the growth of a number of tumor types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the potential of monoclonal antibodies that neutralize FGF2 for treatment of cancer patients has not yet been explored in clinical trials. We therefore generated a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb), GAL-F2, specific for FGF2 and characterized its properties in vitro and in vivo. GAL-F2 binds to a different epitope than several previous anti-FGF2 mAbs tested: this novel epitope was defined using chimeric FGF1/FGF2 proteins and alanine scanning mutagenesis and shown to comprise amino acids in both the amino and carboxy regions of FGF2. GAL-F2 blocked binding of FGF2 to each of its four cellular receptors, strongly inhibited FGF2-induced proliferation and downstream signaling in HUVEC, and inhibited proliferation and downstream signaling in two HCC cell lines. Moreover, GAL-F2, administered at 5 mg/kg i.p. twice weekly, potently inhibited growth of xenografts of the SMMC-7721, HEP-G2 and SK-HEP-1 human HCC cell lines in nude mice, and in some models had a strong additive effect with an anti-VEGF mAb or sorafenib. Treatment with GAL-F2 also blocked angiogenesis and inhibited downstream cellular signaling in xenografts, indicating its anti-tumor mechanism of action. Our report supports clinical testing of a humanized form of the GAL-F2 mAb for treatment of HCC and potentially other cancers. PMID:22351746

  18. Anti-peptide monoclonal antibody imaging of a common binding domain involved in muscle regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Van Eyk, J. E.; Caday-Malcolm, R. A.; Yu, L.; Irvin, R. T.; Hodges, R. S.

    1995-01-01

    Multiple-component regulatory protein systems function through a generalized mechanism where a single regulatory protein or ligand binds to a variety of receptors to modulate specific functions in a physiologically sensitive context. Muscle contraction is regulated by the interaction of actin with troponin I (TnI) or myosin in a Ca(2+)-sensitive manner. Actin utilizes a single binding domain (residues 1-28) to bind to residues 104-115 of TnI (Van Eyk JE, Sönnichsen FD, Sykes BD, Hodges RS, 1991, In: Rüegg JC, ed, Peptides as probes in muscle research, Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag, pp 15-31) and to myosin subfragment 1 (S1, an enzymatic fragment of myosin containing both the actin and ATP binding sites) (Van Eyk JE, Hodges RS, 1991, Biochemistry 30:11676-11682) in a Ca(2+)-sensitive manner. We have utilized an anti-TnI peptide (104-115) monoclonal antibody, Mab B4, that binds specifically to TnI, to image the common binding domain of actin and thus mimic the activity of actin including activation of the S1 ATPase activity and TnI-mediated regulation of the S1 ATPase. Mab B4 has also been utilized to identify a receptor binding domain on myosin (residues 633-644) that is recognized by actin. Interestingly, Mab B4 binds to the native protein receptors TnI and S1 with relative affinities of 100- and 25,000-fold higher than the binding affinity to the 12-residue peptide immunogen. Thus, anti-peptide monoclonal antibodies prepared against a receptor binding domain can mimic the ligand binding domain and be utilized as a powerful tool for the detailed analysis of complex multiple-component regulatory systems. PMID:7613476

  19. Capillary isoelectric focusing method development and validation for investigation of recombinant therapeutic monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Suba, Dávid; Urbányi, Zoltán; Salgó, András

    2015-10-10

    Capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) is a basic and highly accurate routine analytical tool to prove identity of protein drugs in quality control (QC) and release tests in biopharmaceutical industries. However there are some "out-of-the-box" applications commercially available which provide easy and rapid isoelectric focusing solutions for investigating monoclonal antibody drug proteins. However use of these kits in routine testings requires high costs. A capillary isoelectric focusing method was developed and validated for identification testing of monoclonal antibody drug products with isoelectric point between 7.0 and 9.0. A method was developed providing good pH gradient for internal calibration (R(2)>0.99) and good resolution between all of the isoform peaks (R=2), minimizing the time and complexity of sample preparation (no urea or salt used). The method is highly reproducible and it is suitable for validation and method transfer to any QC laboratories. Another advantage of the method is that it operates with commercially available chemicals which can be purchased from any suppliers. The interaction with capillary walls (avoid precipitation and adsorption as far as possible) was minimized and synthetic isoelectric small molecular markers were used instead of peptide or protein based markers. The developed method was validated according to the recent ICH guideline (Q2(R1)). Relative standard deviation results were below 0.2% for isoelectric points and below 4% according to the normalized migration times. The method is robust to buffer components with different lot numbers and neutral capillaries with different type of inner coatings. The fluoro-carbon coated column was chosen because of costs-effectivity aspects. PMID:26025812

  20. Two-monoclonal-antibody sandwich-type assay for thyrotropin, with use of an avidin-biotin separation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, W.D.; Griffin, J.; Zahradnik, R.

    1986-10-01

    We have developed a sensitive, specific, noncompetitive, sandwich-type radioimmunoassay for human thyrotropin (hTSH), which can be performed in 30 min. The assay involves two monoclonal antibodies, selected for high affinity and specificity and also for reaction against antigenic sites on hTSH that are distal from each other. One of these antibodies is labeled with /sup 125/I; the other is conjugated covalently to biotin. Polystyrene beads were also conjugated covalently to biotin. After conjugation, the beads were incubated with avidin. These beads represent a rapid, simple method for separating hTSH-bound antibody from free antibody. The biotin-antibody-hTSH-/sup 125/I-labeled antibody complexes bind to the beads and hTSH concentration is directly related to counts per minute. This assay can detect hTSH at a concentration of 0.06 milli-unit/L in serum.

  1. Human Monoclonal Antibody HCV1 Effectively Prevents and Treats HCV Infection in Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Leav, Brett A.; Blair, Barbra M.; Rowley, Kirk J.; Boucher, Elisabeth N.; Wang, Yang; Cheslock, Peter S.; Knauber, Michael; Olsen, David B.; Ludmerer, Steve W.; Szabo, Gyongyi; Finberg, Robert W.; Purcell, Robert H.; Lanford, Robert E.; Ambrosino, Donna M.; Molrine, Deborah C.; Babcock, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver transplantation and there is an urgent need to develop therapies to reduce rates of HCV infection of transplanted livers. Approved therapeutics for HCV are poorly tolerated and are of limited efficacy in this patient population. Human monoclonal antibody HCV1 recognizes a highly-conserved linear epitope of the HCV E2 envelope glycoprotein (amino acids 412–423) and neutralizes a broad range of HCV genotypes. In a chimpanzee model, a single dose of 250 mg/kg HCV1 delivered 30 minutes prior to infusion with genotype 1a H77 HCV provided complete protection from HCV infection, whereas a dose of 50 mg/kg HCV1 did not protect. In addition, an acutely-infected chimpanzee given 250 mg/kg HCV1 42 days following exposure to virus had a rapid reduction in viral load to below the limit of detection before rebounding 14 days later. The emergent virus displayed an E2 mutation (N415K/D) conferring resistance to HCV1 neutralization. Finally, three chronically HCV-infected chimpanzees were treated with a single dose of 40 mg/kg HCV1 and viral load was reduced to below the limit of detection for 21 days in one chimpanzee with rebounding virus displaying a resistance mutation (N417S). The other two chimpanzees had 0.5–1.0 log10 reductions in viral load without evidence of viral resistance to HCV1. In vitro testing using HCV pseudovirus (HCVpp) demonstrated that the sera from the poorly-responding chimpanzees inhibited the ability of HCV1 to neutralize HCVpp. Measurement of antibody responses in the chronically-infected chimpanzees implicated endogenous antibody to E2 and interference with HCV1 neutralization although other factors may also be responsible. These data suggest that human monoclonal antibody HCV1 may be an effective therapeutic for the prevention of graft infection in HCV-infected patients undergoing liver transplantation. PMID:22952447

  2. Preparation of monoclonal antibody against apoptosis-associated antigens of hepatoma cells by subtractive immunization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lian-Jun; Wang, Wen-Liang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the expression of the apoptosis-associated molecules in human primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and prepare the monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against the apoptosis-associated antigens of HCC cells. METHODS: Human HCC cell line HCC-9204 cells were induced apoptosis with 60 mL•L-1 ethanol for 6 h and their morphological changes were observed by transmission electron microscope. The cell DNA fragmentations were detected by Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and the cell DNA contents by flow cytometry. Ten mice were immunized with ethanol-induced apoptotic HCC-9204 cells with the method of subtractive immunization, while the other 10 mice used as the control were immunized by the routine procedures. The tail blood of all the mice were prepared after the last immunization, and the produced antibodies were determined by the immunocytochemical ABC staining. The splenic cells of the mice whose tail blood sera-HCC-9204 cells serum reactions were most different between the apoptotic and the non-apoptotic were prepared and fused with the mouse myeloma cell line SP2/0 cells. The positive antibodies were selected by ELISA assay. The fusion rates of hybridoma cells and the producing rates of antibodies were calculated. The fused cells that secreted candidate objective antibody were cloned continually with the of limited dilution method, and then selected and analyzed further by the immunocytochemical ABC staining. The chromosomes of the cloned hybridoma cells that secreted objective mAb and the mAb immunoglobulin (Ig) subtype of the prepared mAb were also determined. The molecular mass of the mAb associated antigen was analyzed by Western blot assay. RESULTS: HCC-9204 cells treated with 60 mL•L-1 ethanol for 6 h, manifested obvious apoptotic morphological changes, the majority of the cells were TUNEL-positive, and the sub-G1 apoptotic peak was evident. There were 2 mice in the experimental group whose tail blood serum reacted strongly with the apoptotic HCC-9204 cells, but weakly with their non-apoptotic counterparts. In the fusion rates of hybridoma cells as well as the producing rates of the antibody deseribed above, there did not show significant difference between the experimental and the control group, but weakly with non-apoptotic HCC-9204. However, the total producing rate of antibodies in the experimental group was significantly lower compared with the control (P < 0.01), and so was the producing rate of the antibodies which reacted strongly with both apoptotic and non-apoptotic HCC-9204 cells (P < 0.01). After cloned continually for several times the cell that produce mAb which reacted strongly with the nuclei of ethanol-induced apoptotic HCC-9204 cells, but very weakly with that of non-apoptotic cells was selected out. Chromosome analysis revealed that the selected cell was with the universal characteristics of the monoclonal hybridoma cells which secreted mAb, and the Ig subtype of the prepared mAb was IgG1. The molecular mass of this mAb associated antigen of was about 75 ku. CONCLUSION: Subtractive immunization is a useful method to prepare the mAb against the apoptosis-associated antigens of cells. The expression of some molecules increases to some extent in HCC-9204 cells in the process of apoptosis induced by low-concentration ethanol. The mAb that may be against ethanol-induced apoptosis-associated antigens of HCC cells was successfully prepared and primarily identified. PMID:12378620

  3. Innovations that influence the pharmacology of monoclonal antibody guided tumor targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Schlom, J.; Hand, P.H.; Greiner, J.W.; Colcher, D.; Shrivastav, S.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Reynolds, J.C.; Larson, S.M.; Raubitschek, A. )

    1990-02-01

    Tumor targeting by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can be enhanced by (a) increasing the percentage of injected dose taken up by the tumor and/or (b) increasing the tumor:nontumor ratios. Several groups have demonstrated that one can increase tumor to nontumor ratios by the use of antibody fragments or the administration of second antibodies. Several other modalities are also possible: (a) the use of recombinant interferons to up-regulate the expression of specific tumor associated antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen or TAG-72 on the surface of carcinoma cells and thus increase MAb tumor binding has proved successful in both in vitro and in vivo studies; (b) the intracavitary administration of MAbs. Recent studies have demonstrated that when radiolabeled B72.3 is administered i.p. to patients with carcinoma of the peritoneal cavity, it localizes tumor masses with greater efficiency than does concurrent i.v. administered antibody. Studies involving the comparative pharmacology of intracavitary administration of radiolabeled MAb in patients and several animal models will be discussed; (c) it has been reported that prior exposure of hepatoma to external beam radiation will increase radiolabeled MAb tumor targeting. We and others have not been able to duplicate this phenomenon with a human colon cancer xenograft model and radiolabeled MAbs to two different colon carcinoma associated antigens. The possible reasons for these differences will be discussed; (d) the cloning and expression of recombinant MAbs with human constant regions and subsequent size modification constructs will also undoubtedly alter the pharmacology of MAb tumor binding in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. 66 references.

  4. Selective blockade of human natural killer cells by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, W

    1982-01-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody, 13.1, which blocks human natural killer (NK) cell-mediated lysis, has been developed. Hybridoma 13.1 was derived by fusion of NS-1 cells with spleen cells from mice immunized with an enriched population of NK cells. Supernatants of growing hybridomas were screened for their ability to block NK cell-mediated lysis of K562 targets. Antibody 13.1 is an IgG1 with a single light chain type and it does not fix complement. The 13.1 antigen is expressed on all peripheral blood mononuclear cells, with an antigen density approximately 1/30th that of HLA antigen heavy chain. Pretreatment and washing experiments revealed that inhibition of cytotoxicity occurred at the effector cell level only. Significant blocking was achieved with nanogram quantities of antibody and was not due to toxic effects on NK cells. Likewise, controls with other antibodies of the same subclass demonstrated that blocking was not a consequence of mere binding to NK cells. When a panel of 17 NK cell-susceptible targets was tested, the lysis of only 5 of these was blocked, namely K562, HL-60, KG-1, Daudi, and HEL, a human erythroleukemic cell line. The lysis of 12 human B cell and T cell line targets was not inhibited. In addition to the demonstration that the 13.1 antigen is a crucial cell surface structure involved in NK lysis, a heterogeneity of target cell recognition has been revealed that argues for the proposition that individual NK cells have multiple recognitive capabilities. Images PMID:6179089

  5. A Highly Specific Monoclonal Antibody for Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A-Cleaved SNAP25

    PubMed Central

    Rhéaume, Catherine; Cai, Brian B.; Wang, Joanne; Fernández-Salas, Ester; Aoki, K. Roger; Francis, Joseph; Broide, Ron S.

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT/A), as onabotulinumtoxinA, is approved globally for 11 major therapeutic and cosmetic indications. While the mechanism of action for BoNT/A at the presynaptic nerve terminal has been established, questions remain regarding intracellular trafficking patterns and overall fate of the toxin. Resolving these questions partly depends on the ability to detect BoNT/A’s location, distribution, and movement within a cell. Due to BoNT/A’s high potency and extremely low concentrations within neurons, an alternative approach has been employed. This involves utilizing specific antibodies against the BoNT/A-cleaved SNAP25 substrate (SNAP25197) to track the enzymatic activity of toxin within cells. Using our highly specific mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) against SNAP25197, we generated human and murine recombinant versions (rMAb) using specific backbone immunoglobulins. In this study, we validated the specificity of our anti-SNAP25197 rMAbs in several different assays and performed side-by-side comparisons to commercially-available and in-house antibodies against SNAP25. Our rMAbs were highly specific for SNAP25197 in all assays and on several different BoNT/A-treated tissues, showing no cross-reactivity with full-length SNAP25. This was not the case with other reportedly SNAP25197-selective antibodies, which were selective in some, but not all assays. The rMAbs described herein represent effective new tools for detecting BoNT/A activity within cells. PMID:26114335

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to molluskan hemocyanin from Concholepas concholepas demonstrate common and specific epitopes among subunits.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Harold; Moltedo, Bruno; De Ioannes, Pablo; Faunes, Fernando; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; Becker, María Inés

    2002-10-01

    We studied the reactivity of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the hemocyanin from the Chilean marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas (CCH). This protein has been successfully used as a carrier to produce antibodies to haptens and peptides. All MAbs (13) belonging to IgG subclass exhibit dissociation constants (K(d)) from 1 x 10(-7) M to 1 x 10(-9) M. MAbs were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) using CCH treated with different procedures, including dissociation into CCH-A and CCH-B subunits, Western blot, enzymatic digestion, chemical deglycosylation, and thermal denaturation. MAbs were classified into three categories, according to subunit specificity by ELISA. The epitope distribution shows that CCH subunits display common epitopes (group I, 5 MAbs, 1H5, 2A8, 3A5, 3B3, and 3E3), as well as specific epitopes for CCH-A subunits (group II, 3 MAbs, 1B8, 4D8, and 8E5) and for CCH-B subunits (group III, 5 MAbs, 1A4, 1E4, 2H10, 3B7, and 7B4). The results can be summarized as follows: (1). six antibodies react with thermal denatured CCH, suggesting that they recognize linear epitopes, whereas seven recognize conformational epitopes; (2). oxidation of carbohydrate moieties does not affect the binding of the MAbs; (3). enzymatic digestion of CCH decreases the reactivity of all antibodies irrespective of the protease used (elastase or trypsin); (4). bringing together the above data, in addition to epitopic complementarity analysis, we identified 12 different epitopes on the CCH molecule recognized by these MAbs. The anti-CCH MAbs presented here can be useful tools to understand the subunit organization of the CCH and its complex structure, which can explain its immunogenic and immunostimulating properties in mammals. PMID:12470479

  7. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to protein kinase 2 (CK2) beta subunit.

    PubMed

    Panasyuk, Ganna; Nemazanyy, Ivan; Ovcharenko, Galyna; Lyzogubov, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan; Filonenko, Valeriy

    2005-08-01

    Protein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitous and constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase with various cell functions. It typically forms tetrameric complexes consisting of two catalytic (alpha and/or (alpha') and two regulatory (beta) subunits. The aim of this study was to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the CK2beta subunit and to characterize their suitability for Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemical applications. Bacterially expressed CK2beta-6His-GST recombinant protein has been used as an antigen. Balb/c mice were immunized and given a final boost, and their spleen cells were collected and fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells using PEG 2000. The fused cells were then selected in the HAT-RPMI medium. Anti- CK2beta high-titer antibody-producing hybridoma cell lines were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then subcloned by limiting dilution in HT-RPMI medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). A total of 10 IgG-producing cell lines were selected and further tested for their reactivity with the CK2beta subunit using ELISA, Western blots, immunoprecipitation, and immunostaining of formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections. The results obtained clearly indicate that several clones produce antibodies that recognize specifically recombinant and endogenous CK2beta subunit in Western blotting and immunoprecipitation, and are suitable for immunohistochemical analysis. In summary, the produced antibodies will be useful for researchers investigating signaling pathways involving CK2 kinase and their deregulation in human pathologies. PMID:16120027

  8. A monoclonal antibody identifies a 215 000-dalton nuclear envelope protein restricted to certain cell types.

    PubMed

    Brown, G; Turner, B M; Morris, C J; Bahman, A M; Fisher, A G; Whitfield, W G; Davies, S; Barthakur, R; Johnson, G D

    1985-11-01

    The monoclonal antibody, AGF2.3, was isolated from mice immunised with the human promyeloid cell line HL60. By immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy the antibody was shown to bind to the nuclear envelope in uninduced HL60 cells. Immunofluorescent staining was reduced to very low levels in HL60 cells induced to mature to monocytes or neutrophils by addition of 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or dimethyl sulfoxide respectively. Blood neutrophils did not express the antigen. Weak immunofluorescent staining of cell nuclei was observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes and in sections of normal human kidney, tonsil and skin epithelium. The AGF2.3 antigen was strongly expressed on the nuclei of 21/21 haemopoietic cell lines and 21/25 permanent non-haemopoietic cell lines representing various cell types. In contrast, the antigen was not expressed by any of six primary (untransformed) cell cultures. These included fibroblasts, endothelial cells and keratinocytes. The antigen was expressed in the Q10 SV-40 transformed cell line derived from a non-expressing primary fibroblast culture. AGF2.3 antibody precipitated a protein with an apparent subunit molecular weight of approximately 215 kDa from Triton X-100 extracts of HL60 and HeLa cells labelled with 35S-methionine. This protein was not detectable in extracts of primary skin fibroblasts prepared in parallel. We conclude that AGF2.3 antibody recognises a previously undescribed protein associated with the nuclear envelope which is expressed at high levels in most transformed cell lines but which is weakly expressed or absent in normal tissues and primary cell cultures. PMID:2417847

  9. Generation and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Avian Influenza H5N1 Hemagglutinin Protein.

    PubMed

    Malik, Ankita; Mallajosyula, V Vamsee Aditya; Mishra, Nripendra Nath; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has in the past breached the species barrier from infected domestic poultry to humans in close contact. Although human-to-human transmission has previously not been reported, HPAI H5N1 virus has pandemic potential owing to gain of function mutation(s) and/or genetic reassortment with human influenza A viruses. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been used for diagnosis as well as specific therapeutic candidates in several disease conditions including viral infections in humans. In this study, we describe the preliminary characterization of four murine MAbs developed against recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) protein of avian H5N1 A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 virus that are either highly specific or broadly reactive against HA from other H5N1 subtype viruses, such as A/Hong Kong/213/03, A/Common magpie/Hong Kong/2256/2006, and A/Barheaded goose/Quinghai/14/2008. The antibody binding is specific to H5N1 HAs, as none of the antibodies bound H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, or B/Brisbane/60/2008 HAs. Out of the four MAbs, one of them (MA-7) also reacted weakly with the rHA protein of H7N9 A/Anhui/1/2013. All four MAbs bound H5 HA (A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005) with high affinity with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) ranging between 0.05 and 10.30?nM. One of the MAbs (MA-1) also showed hemagglutination inhibition activity (HI titer; 31.25??g/mL) against the homologous A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 H5N1 virus. These antibodies may be useful in developing diagnostic tools for detection of influenza H5N1 virus infection. PMID:26683184

  10. Plant-based production of two chimeric monoclonal IgG antibodies directed against immunodominant epitopes of Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Kara J; Giffen, Samantha R; Pauly, Michael H; Kim, Do H; Bohorov, Ognian; Bohorova, Natasha; Whaley, Kevin J; Zeitlin, Larry; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2015-07-01

    We have produced and characterized two chimeric human IgG1 monoclonal antibodies that bind different immunodominant epitopes on Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MAb 2D6 IgG1 recognizes Ogawa O-polysaccharide antigen, while mAb ZAC-3 IgG1 recognizes core/lipid A moiety of Ogawa and Inaba LPS. Both antibodies were expressed using a Nicotiana benthamiana-based rapid antibody-manufacturing platform (RAMP) and evaluated in vitro for activities associated with immunity to V. cholerae, including vibriocidal activity, bacterial agglutination and motility arrest. PMID:25865265

  11. Immunoscintigraphy of human tumors transplanted in nude mice with radiolabeled anti-ras p21 monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Y.; Nakata, K.; Kohno, K.; Shima, M.; Satoh, A.; Kusumoto, Y.; Ishii, N.; Kohji, T.; Shiku, H.; Nagataki, S. )

    1990-09-01

    Anti-ras p21 monoclonal antibody (RASK-3) was used for immunoscintigraphy of human cancer cell lines in nude mice. Iodine-125-labeled RASK-3 was injected into nude mice with either human colon cancers (FCC-1 or BM-314) or lung cancer (KNS-62). Clear images were obtained in all three cancers 7 days after the injection of antibody. No localization of {sup 125}I-labeled control monoclonal antibody was observed. The ratio of tissue/blood radioactivity and % ID/g in the tumor were significantly higher than other organs by Day 8. The specific localization index examined by {sup 131}I-RASK-3 and {sup 125}I-control monoclonal antibody was also higher in the tumor than in other tissues. In the in vitro study, binding of RASK-3 to tumor cells increased significantly by treatment of cells with either lysolecithin or periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde, which confirmed the intracellular localization of ras p21. The mechanism by which anti-ras p21 antibodies accumulate in tumor sites could be the necrotic changes in tumor cells or changes in membrane permeability of non-necrotic cells. These results provide a strong rationale for the utilization of ras p21 as a target antigen in the imaging of a variety of human cancers.

  12. A molecular perspective on rituximab: A monoclonal antibody for B cell non Hodgkin lymphoma and other affections.

    PubMed

    Seyfizadeh, Narges; Seyfizadeh, Nayer; Hasenkamp, Justin; Huerta-Yepez, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Rituximab (a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) is the first Food and Drug Administration approved anti-tumor antibody. Immunotherapy by rituximab, especially in combination-therapy, is a mainstay for a vast variety of B-cell malignancies therapy. Its therapeutic value is unquestionable, yet the mechanisms of action responsible for anti-tumor activity of rituximab and rituximab resistance mechanisms are not completely understood. Investigation of the mechanisms of action that contribute to the rituximab activity have eventually directed to a suite of novel combinations and novel treatment schedules, and also have resulted new generations of antibodies with more desired effects. Although, further investigations are needed to define the mechanisms of rituximab resistance and prominent effector activity of the altered next generation anti-CD20 to improve their efficacies and develop new anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies in NHL treatment. This article focuses on the properties of CD20 which led scientists to select it as an effective therapeutic target and the molecular details of mechanisms of rituximab action and resistance. We also discuss about the impact of rituximab in monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapy regimens. Finally, we comparatively summarize the next generations of anti CD20 monoclonal antibodies to highlight their advantages relative to their ancestor: Rituximab. PMID:26443686

  13. Label-free detection and characterization of the binding of hemagglutinin protein and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiwen; Zhong, Junlan; Zhang, Cunlin; Zuo, Jian; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2015-03-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) is the main surface glycoprotein of the influenza A virus. The H9N2 subtype influenza A virus is recognized as the most possible pandemic strain as it has crossed the species barrier, infecting swine and humans. We use terahertz spectroscopy to study the hydration shell formation around H9 subtype influenza A virus's HA protein (H9 HA) as well as the detection of antigen binding of H9 HA with the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody. We observe a remarkable concentration dependent nonlinear response of the H9 HA, which reveals the formation process of the hydration shell around H9 HA molecules. Furthermore, we show that terahertz dielectric properties of the H9 HA are strongly affected by the presence of the monoclonal antibody F10 and that the terahertz dielectric loss tangent can be used to detect the antibody binding at lower concentrations than the standard ELISA test.

  14. Brain tumor tandem targeting using a combination of monoclonal antibodies attached to biopoly(?-L-malic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Manabu; Lee, Bong-Seop; Khazenzon, Natalya M.; Penichet, Manuel L.; Wawrowsky, Kolja A.; Patil, Rameshwar; Ding, Hui; Holler, Eggehard; Black, Keith L.; Ljubimova, Julia Y.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor-specific targeting using achievements of nanotechnology is a mainstay of increasing efficacy of anti-tumor drugs. To improve drug targeting we covalently conjugated for the first time two different monoclonal antibodies, an anti-mouse transferrin receptor antibody and a mouse autoimmune anti-nucleosome antibody 2C5, onto the drug delivery nanoplatform, poly(?-L-malic acid). The active anti-tumor drug components attached to the same carrier molecule were antisense oligonucleotides to vascular protein laminin-8. The resulting drug, a new Polycefin variant, was administered intravenously into glioma-bearing xenogeneic animals. The drug delivery system was targeted across mouse endothelial system by the anti-mouse transferring receptor antibody and to the tumor cell surface by the anti-nucleosome antibody 2C5. The targeting efficacies of the Polycefin variants bearing either two antibodies or each single antibody were compared in vitro and in vivo. ELISA confirmed the co-existence of two antibodies on the same nanoplatform molecule and their functional activities. Fluorescence imaging analysis after 24 h of intravenous injection demonstrated significantly higher tumor accumulation of Polycefin variants with the tandem configuration of antibodies than with single antibodies. The results suggest improved efficacy for tandem configuration of antibodies than for single configurations carried by a drug delivery vehicle. PMID:17630012

  15. Immunological evaluation of a component isolated from Mycobacterium bovis BCG with a monoclonal antibody to M. bovis BCG.

    PubMed Central

    Minden, P; Kelleher, P J; Freed, J H; Nielsen, L D; Brennan, P J; McPheron, L; McClatchy, J K

    1984-01-01

    A component of Mycobacterium bovis BCG referred to as BCG-a was isolated through the combined use of monoclonal antibody directed to BCG and affinity chromatography. Analysis of BCG-a by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a single prominent band with a molecular weight of ca. 10,000. Structural characterization of BCG-a consisting of amino acid composition and amino-terminal sequence determination was carried out. The intact BCG-a antigen was bound by neither the lectin from common lentils nor concanavalin A, implying that BCG-a does not carry any asparagine-linked oligosaccharides. Immunoprecipitation of 125I-labeled BCG-a with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies directed against BCG resulted in bands having the same mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as did free 125I-BCG-a. In radioimmunoassays 125I-BCG-a was bound by the monoclonal antibody and by polyclonal antibodies from rabbits that had been immunized to BCG and to Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Antibodies to nontuberculous and to nonacid-fast bacteria bound BCG-a poorly or not at all. The binding of 125I-BCG-a by the monoclonal antibody was readily inhibited by extracts of BCG and H37Rv, but it was not as readily inhibited by extracts of nontuberculous mycobacteria and was not at all inhibited by extracts of nonacid-fast bacteria. Considerable inhibition was similarly observed by surface antigens of nonviable, intact BCG organisms. Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to small concentrations of BCG-a were elicited in guinea pigs that had been immunized with BCG or H37Rv antigens, but such reactions were not elicited in unimmunized animals. Images PMID:6389346

  16. Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for protein conformational epitopes present in prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA).

    PubMed

    Tino, W T; Huber, M J; Lake, T P; Greene, T G; Murphy, G P; Holmes, E H

    2000-06-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a 750-amino acid glycoprotein highly expressed in malignant prostate tissues. PSMA reacts with the murine monoclonal antibody 7E11.C5, whose binding epitope has been mapped to the N-terminal of the protein distributed on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. We have developed murine monoclonal antibodies specific for extracellular epitopes of PSMA. Three of these antibodies--1G9, 3C6, and 4D4--display distinct binding properties consistent with their recognition of conformational epitopes within native PSMA. Results indicate this panel of antibodies binds to native full-length PSMA, but not to fusion proteins containing portions of the linear sequence of the protein. Antibody binding is greatly reduced upon heat denaturation of native PSMA, and these antibodies do not detect PSMA by Western blot. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate the ability of each to bind to full-length PSMA as well as PSM', a form of the protein missing the first 57 amino acids. These results indicate each antibody is specific for an epitope within the extracellular domain, a region spanning residues 44-750. Flow cytometric experiments indicate strong specific binding to live LNCaP cells. Antibody inhibition studies demonstrate that these antibodies recognize at least two distinct epitopes. Taken together, the results demonstrate that these antibodies are specific for native protein conformational epitopes within the extracellular domain. Their properties, in particular strong binding to live cancer cells, make them ideal candidates that are clearly superior to linear sequence epitope specific antibodies for in vivo applications. PMID:10952413

  17. Neutralization of respiratory syncytial virus by individual and mixtures of F and G protein monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L J; Bingham, P; Hierholzer, J C

    1988-11-01

    We identified several types of neutralization effected by F and G protein monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reacted individually or as mixtures against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Neutralizing activity was identified by a microneutralization test in which virus replication was determined by enzyme immunoassay. Complete neutralization was seen only with MAbs against the F protein. Strain-specific neutralization, complete neutralization against some strains of RSV, and no neutralization against other strains were seen with an additional MAb against the F protein. Partial neutralization, virus replication significantly reduced but still present, and no neutralization were seen with MAbs against both the F and G proteins. Enhanced neutralization, enhanced efficacy of neutralization, or increased neutralizing titer with a mixture of two MAbs over that for the individual MAbs was seen with all MAbs against the F protein and all but three MAbs against the G protein. Most (10 of 13) of the MAbs that exhibited neutralizing activity reacted with some but not all strains of RSV in an enzyme immunoassay. The epitopes corresponding to these 10 MAbs probably contribute to the strain-specific component of the neutralizing antibody response to RSV. Our results suggest that interpretation of RSV neutralization with MAbs is complex and that studies of such neutralization should include mixtures of MAbs and multiple RSV strains. PMID:2459412

  18. A canine lymphocyte surface antigen detectable by a monoclonal antibody (DT200).

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento, U M; Valli, V E

    1987-01-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody (DT200) was raised against a 210,000-dalton (210 K) lymphocyte surface protein (a member of the lymphocyte antigen known as T200) which was purified from a canine lymphoid tumor by preparative slab gel electrophoresis. In immunoblotting studies of electrophoretically separated plasma membranes from five cases of canine lymphoma, the antibody detected two antigenically intact peptides at 95 and 110 K which, based on previous polyclonal anti-210 K antiserum immunoblotting and peptide mapping studies, may represent the protease-resistant fragment of the canine T200 molecule. Since DT200 retains its reactivity in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, 13 dogs with malignant lymphoma and a panel of normal lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues were studied using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. The antigen was localized predominantly to the surface membrane of lymphoid cells. DT200 reacted strongly with all five histological subtypes of lymphoma tested while moderate reactivity was detected in normal B and T cell areas of lymph node, spleen and tonsil. Thymocytes and selected hemopoietic precursors were weakly reactive with DT200 while plasma cells, mature granulocytes, red cells and megakaryocytes were unstained. It was concluded that DT200 is a useful reagent for the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma particularly in extranodal sites and may prove valuable in the investigation of the structure and function of T200 in the dog. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2952236

  19. Monoclonal antibodies prepared against Dictyostelium actin: characterization and interactions with actin

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies, Act I, Act II, and Act IV, against actin from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, have been made and characterized. All three antibodies are IgG1 and share the following properties: They form stable complexes with monomeric Dictyostelium actin, which prevents polymerization of the actin into filaments. On addition to preformed actin filaments, they cause a reduction in filament size and in the viscosity of the actin solution. They cross-react strongly with actins from the lower eucaryotes Physarum and Acanthamoeba, but not with alpha-actins from rabbit and human muscle or beta- and gamma-actins from human erythrocytes and a human B lymphoid cell line. Act II and Act IV recognize a similar antigenic determinant that is topographically distinct from that identified by Act I. In protein immunoblotting, only Act I bound strongly to Dictyostelium actin. Analysis of actin fragments with this technique showed that amino acids 13 to about 50 are required for Act I binding to actin. A comparison of the amino acid sequences of actins from lower eucaryotes and higher vertebrates implicates threonine 41 as a critical residue in the Act I antigenic site. The properties of Act II and Act IV suggest that they recognize antigenic sites involving the NH2-terminal six residues. PMID:6203918

  20. Fragmentation, labeling and biodistribution studies of KS1/4, a monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, an IgG2a (KS1/4), a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) specific against a human lung adenocarcinoma (UCLA P-3) was successfully fragmented enzymatically to yield F(ab')/sub 2/ and Fab by using pepsin and papain, respectively. The kinetic of fragmentation of the MoAb was compared to that of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). A similar pattern of fragmentation was observed with both antibodies with a higher percentage yield of the F(ab')/sub 2/ and Fab obtained upon the fragmentation of the IgG by the enzymes. The KS1/4 and the two fragments were labeled with three different radionuclides, namely iodine-131, indium-111 and selenium-75. The radioiodination of the MoAb and the fragments was carried out by using a modified chloramine-T method. Radiometal labeling of the MoAb and the fragments with indium-111 was performed by using DTPA as a bifunctional chelating agent, while intrinsic labeling of the MoAb was done by culturing the hybridoma in the presence of /sup 75/Se-methionine. The biodistribution of the radiolabeled MoAb, F(ab')/sub 2/ and Fab fragments were performed by injecting the preparations intravenously into nude mice bearing human lung adenocarcinoma.