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Sample records for bivalent hpv vaccine

  1. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Bivalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  2. Cross-protective vaccine efficacy of the bivalent HPV vaccine against HPV31 is associated with humoral immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Kemp, Troy J.; Pan, David Yuanji; Porras, Carolina; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Cortes, Bernal; Katki, Hormuzd; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiller, John T.; Gonzalez, Paula; Penrose, Kerri; Lowy, Douglas R.; Quint, Wim; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: We investigated the role of antibody responses as potential mechanism for the cross-protective vaccine-efficacies (VE) observed from randomized clinical trials of the HPV16/18 bivalent vaccine. Results: HPV31 cases had lower HPV16 antibody levels than controls (OR4th quartile compared with 1st quartile = 0.63; 95%CI: 0.36–1.08; p-trend = 0.03). HPV31 cases were also less likely to have detectable HPV31 neutralization, and HPV16 avidity than controls. No statistically significant differences by HPV18 antibody or HPV45 neutralization were observed among HPV45 cases and controls. Protection against HPV58 was not associated with any of the markers, confirming the specificity of our findings. Methods: Samples are from three-dose HPV vaccine recipients from the Costa Rica HPV16/18 vaccine trial. Women with a new HPV31, HPV45, or HPV58 infections over four years of follow-up were compared with randomly selected control women—with no new infection with HPV31/45/58—with respect to HPV16 and HPV18 antibody, HPV31, HPV45, and HPV58 neutralization, and HPV16 avidity. Conclusions: High HPV16 levels and avidity, and the ability to neutralize HPV31 were associated with protection against newly detected HPV31 infections, suggesting that the partial VE demonstrated for HPV31 is likely to be mediated at least in part through antibodies induced by HPV16/18 vaccination. PMID:23571174

  3. Significantly Reduced Genoprevalence of Vaccine-Type HPV-16/18 Infections among Vaccinated Compared to Non-Vaccinated Young Women 5.5 Years after a Bivalent HPV-16/18 Vaccine (Cervarix®) Pilot Project in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kumakech, Edward; Berggren, Vanja; Wabinga, Henry; Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela; Kaliff, Malin; Karlsson, Mats; Kirimunda, Samuel; Musubika, Caroline; Andersson, Sören

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and some predictors for vaccine and non-vaccine types of HPV infections among bivalent HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated young women in Uganda. This was a comparative cross sectional study 5.5 years after a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccination (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) pilot project in western Uganda. Cervical swabs were collected between July 2014-August 2014 and analyzed with a HPV genotyping test, CLART® HPV2 assay (Genomica, Madrid Spain) which is based on PCR followed by microarray for determination of genotype. Blood samples were also tested for HIV and syphilis infections as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels. The age range of the participants was 15-24 years and mean age was 18.6(SD 1.4). Vaccine-type HPV-16/18 strains were significantly less prevalent among vaccinated women compared to non-vaccinated women (0.5% vs 5.6%, p 0.006, OR 95% CI 0.08(0.01-0.64). At type-specific level, significant difference was observed for HPV16 only. Other STIs (HIV/syphilis) were important risk factors for HPV infections including both vaccine types and non-vaccine types. In addition, for non-vaccine HPV types, living in an urban area, having a low BMI, low CD4 count and having had a high number of life time sexual partners were also significant risk factors. Our data concurs with the existing literature from other parts of the world regarding the effectiveness of bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in reducing the prevalence of HPV infections particularly vaccine HPV- 16/18 strains among vaccinated women. This study reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate young girls before sexual debut and integrate other STI particularly HIV and syphilis interventions into HPV vaccination packages. PMID:27482705

  4. Significantly Reduced Genoprevalence of Vaccine-Type HPV-16/18 Infections among Vaccinated Compared to Non-Vaccinated Young Women 5.5 Years after a Bivalent HPV-16/18 Vaccine (Cervarix®) Pilot Project in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Vanja; Wabinga, Henry; Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela; Kaliff, Malin; Karlsson, Mats; Kirimunda, Samuel; Musubika, Caroline; Andersson, Sören

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and some predictors for vaccine and non-vaccine types of HPV infections among bivalent HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated young women in Uganda. This was a comparative cross sectional study 5.5 years after a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccination (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) pilot project in western Uganda. Cervical swabs were collected between July 2014-August 2014 and analyzed with a HPV genotyping test, CLART® HPV2 assay (Genomica, Madrid Spain) which is based on PCR followed by microarray for determination of genotype. Blood samples were also tested for HIV and syphilis infections as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels. The age range of the participants was 15–24 years and mean age was 18.6(SD 1.4). Vaccine-type HPV-16/18 strains were significantly less prevalent among vaccinated women compared to non-vaccinated women (0.5% vs 5.6%, p 0.006, OR 95% CI 0.08(0.01–0.64). At type-specific level, significant difference was observed for HPV16 only. Other STIs (HIV/syphilis) were important risk factors for HPV infections including both vaccine types and non-vaccine types. In addition, for non-vaccine HPV types, living in an urban area, having a low BMI, low CD4 count and having had a high number of life time sexual partners were also significant risk factors. Our data concurs with the existing literature from other parts of the world regarding the effectiveness of bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in reducing the prevalence of HPV infections particularly vaccine HPV- 16/18 strains among vaccinated women. This study reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate young girls before sexual debut and integrate other STI particularly HIV and syphilis interventions into HPV vaccination packages. PMID:27482705

  5. Human Papillomavirus neutralizing and cross-reactive antibodies induced in HIV-positive subjects after vaccination with quadrivalent and bivalent HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Faust, Helena; Toft, Lars; Sehr, Peter; Müller, Martin; Bonde, Jesper; Forslund, Ola; Østergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Dillner, Joakim

    2016-03-18

    Ninety-one HIV-infected individuals (61 men and 30 women) were randomized to vaccination either with quadrivalent (Gardasil™) or bivalent (Cervarix™) HPV vaccine. Neutralizing and specific HPV-binding serum antibodies were measured at baseline and 12 months after the first vaccine dose. Presence of neutralizing and binding antibodies had good agreement (average Kappa for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 was 0.65). At baseline, 88% of subjects had antibodies against at least one genital HPV. Following vaccination with Cervarix™, all subjects became seropositive for HPV16 and 18. After Gardasil™ vaccination, 96% of subjects seroconverted for HPV16 and 73% for HPV18. Levels of HPV16-specific antibodies were <1 international unit (IU) in 87% of study subjects before vaccination but >10IU in 85% of study subjects after vaccination. Antibodies against non-vaccine HPV types appeared after Gardasil™ vaccination for >50% of vaccinated females for HPV 31, 35 and 73 and for >50% of Cervarix™-vaccinated females for HPV 31, 33, 35, 45, 56 and 58. Cross-reactivity with non-genital HPV types was also detected. In conclusion, HIV-infected subjects responded to HPV vaccination with induction of neutralizing antibodies against both vaccine and non-vaccine types. PMID:26896686

  6. Reduced Prevalence of Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 4 Years after Bivalent HPV Vaccination in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Rolando; Quint, Wim; Hildesheim, Allan; Gonzalez, Paula; Struijk, Linda; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Solomon, Diane; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Wacholder, Sholom; Kreimer, Aimée R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly with type 16, causes a growing fraction of oropharyngeal cancers, whose incidence is increasing, mainly in developed countries. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted to investigate vaccine efficacy (VE) of the bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against cervical infections and lesions, we estimated VE against prevalent oral HPV infections 4 years after vaccination. Methods and Findings A total of 7,466 women 18–25 years old were randomized (1∶1) to receive the HPV16/18 vaccine or hepatitis A vaccine as control. At the final blinded 4-year study visit, 5,840 participants provided oral specimens (91·9% of eligible women) to evaluate VE against oral infections. Our primary analysis evaluated prevalent oral HPV infection among all vaccinated women with oral and cervical HPV results. Corresponding VE against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection was calculated for comparison. Oral prevalence of identifiable mucosal HPV was relatively low (1·7%). Approximately four years after vaccination, there were 15 prevalent HPV16/18 infections in the control group and one in the vaccine group, for an estimated VE of 93·3% (95% CI = 63% to 100%). Corresponding efficacy against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection for the same cohort at the same visit was 72·0% (95% CI = 63% to 79%) (p versus oral VE = 0·04). There was no statistically significant protection against other oral HPV infections, though power was limited for these analyses. Conclusions HPV prevalence four years after vaccination with the ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine was much lower among women in the vaccine arm compared to the control arm, suggesting that the vaccine affords strong protection against oral HPV16/18 infection, with potentially important implications for prevention of increasingly common HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov, Registry number NCT00128661 PMID:23873171

  7. Use of the nonavalent HPV vaccine in individuals previously fully or partially vaccinated with bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Pierre; Bonanni, Paolo; Bosch, F Xavier; Joura, Elmar; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Meijer, Chris J L M; Petry, Karl-Ulrich; Soubeyrand, Benoit; Verstraeten, Thomas; Stanley, Margaret

    2016-02-01

    With the availability of the nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, vaccinees, parents and healthcare providers need guidance on how to complete an immunization course started with the bi- or quadrivalent vaccine and whether to revaccinate individuals who have completed a full immunization course with the bi- or quadrivalent vaccine. To answer these questions three parameters should be considered: age at the start of vaccination (9 to 14 years of age versus 15 years and older, the cut-off for 2 or 3 doses schedule), the number of doses already received and the time interval between doses. Based on a number of scenarios, we propose that the 9-valent vaccine can be used to complete an incomplete vaccination regimen or might be added to a previous completed schedule to extend protection. PMID:26772631

  8. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... HPV is a common virus that is spread through sexual contact. There are several types of HPV. ...

  9. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 588: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Obstet Gynecol . 2014;123(3):712-8. PMID: ...

  10. Effect of bivalent human papillomavirus vaccination on pregnancy outcomes: long term observational follow-up in the Costa Rica HPV Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Befano, Brian L; Gonzalez, Paula; Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia; Herrero, Rolando; Schiller, John T; Kreimer, Aimée R; Schiffman, Mark; Hildesheim, Allan; Wilcox, Allen J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of the bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on miscarriage. Design Observational long term follow-up of a randomized, double blinded trial combined with an independent unvaccinated population based cohort. Setting Single center study in Costa Rica. Participants 7466 women in the trial and 2836 women in the unvaccinated cohort enrolled at the end of the randomized trial and in parallel with the observational trial component. Intervention Women in the trial were assigned to receive three doses of bivalent HPV vaccine (n=3727) or the control hepatitis A vaccine (n=3739). Crossover bivalent HPV vaccination occurred in the hepatitis A vaccine arm at the end of the trial. Women in the unvaccinated cohort received (n=2836) no vaccination. Main outcome measure Risk of miscarriage, defined by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as fetal loss within 20 weeks of gestation, in pregnancies exposed to bivalent HPV vaccination in less than 90 days and any time from vaccination compared with pregnancies exposed to hepatitis A vaccine and pregnancies in the unvaccinated cohort. Results Of 3394 pregnancies conceived at any time since bivalent HPV vaccination, 381 pregnancies were conceived less than 90 days from vaccination. Unexposed pregnancies comprised 2507 pregnancies conceived after hepatitis A vaccination and 720 conceived in the unvaccinated cohort. Miscarriages occurred in 451 (13.3%) of all exposed pregnancies, in 50 (13.1%) of the pregnancies conceived less than 90 days from bivalent HPV vaccination, and in 414 (12.8%) of the unexposed pregnancies, of which 316 (12.6%) were in the hepatitis A vaccine group and 98 (13.6%) in the unvaccinated cohort. The relative risk of miscarriage for pregnancies conceived less than 90 days from vaccination compared with all unexposed pregnancies was 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.34, one sided P=0.436) in unadjusted analyses. Results were similar after adjusting for age at

  11. Reduction of low- and high-grade cervical abnormalities associated with high uptake of the HPV bivalent vaccine in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, K G J; Kavanagh, K; Potts, A; Love, J; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Cruickshank, M; Palmer, T J; Nicoll, S; Donaghy, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Scotland, a national HPV immunisation programme began in 2008 for 12- to 13-year olds, with a catch-up campaign from 2008 to 2011 for those under the age of 18. To monitor the impact of HPV immunisation on cervical disease at the population level, a programme of national surveillance was established. Methods: We analysed colposcopy data from a cohort of women born between 1988 and 1992 who entered the Scottish Cervical Screening Programme (SCSP) and were aged 20–21 in 2008–2012. Results: By linking datasets from the SCSP and colposcopy services, we observed a significant reduction in diagnoses of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1; RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.87; P=0.0008), CIN 2 (RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.63; P<0.0001) and CIN 3 (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.58; P<0.0001) for women who received three doses of vaccine compared with unvaccinated women. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to show a reduction of low- and high-grade CIN associated with high uptake of the HPV bivalent vaccine at the population level. These data are very encouraging for countries that have achieved high HPV vaccine uptake. PMID:25180766

  12. The effect of a booster dose of quadrivalent or bivalent HPV vaccine when administered to girls previously vaccinated with two doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gilca, Vladimir; Sauvageau, Chantal; Boulianne, Nicole; De Serres, Gatson; Crajden, Mel; Ouakki, Manale; Trevisan, Andrea; Dionne, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, blinded study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of Gardasil (qHPV) or Cervarix (bHPV) when administered to 12-13 year-old girls who were vaccinated at the age of 9-10 with 2 doses of qHPV (0-6 months). 366 out of 416 eligible girls participated in this follow-up study. Antibody titers were measured just before and one month post-booster. A Luminex Total IgG assay was used for antibody assessment and results are presented in Liminex Units (LU). Three years post-primary vaccination, 99-100% of subjects had detectable antibodies to 4HPV genotypes included in the qHPV with GMTs varying from 50 to 322 LU depending on genotype. After a booster dose of qHPV, a ≥4 fold increase of antibody titers to genotypes included in the vaccine was observed in 88-98% of subjects. Post-booster GMTs varied from 1666 to 4536 LU depending on genotype. These GMTs were 1.1 to 1.8-fold higher when compared to those observed one month post-second dose. After a booster of bHPV, a ≥4 fold increase of antibody titers to HPV16 and HPV18 was observed in 93-99% of subjects. The anti-HPV16 and HPV18 GMTs were 5458 and 2665 LU, respectively. These GMTs were 1.2 and 1.8 higher than those observed in the qHPV group (both P < 0.01). In bHPV group a 1.4-1.6-fold increase of antibody GMTs to HPV6 and HPV11was also observed (P < 0.001). The safety profile was acceptable for both vaccines. Both qHPV and bHPV increase antibody titers when given as a booster to girls previously vaccinated with 2 doses of qHPV. The magnitude of the immune response after booster is vaccine-dependent and has the same pattern as that reported after primary vaccination with qHPV or bHPV. When given as a booster, both vaccines have an acceptable safety profile. Longer follow-up studies are warranted to assess the need of booster doses. PMID:25714044

  13. The effect of a booster dose of quadrivalent or bivalent HPV vaccine when administered to girls previously vaccinated with two doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Gilca, Vladimir; Sauvageau, Chantal; Boulianne, Nicole; De Serres, Gatson; Crajden, Mel; Ouakki, Manale; Trevisan, Andrea; Dionne, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, blinded study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of Gardasil (qHPV) or Cervarix (bHPV) when administered to 12–13 year-old girls who were vaccinated at the age of 9–10 with 2 doses of qHPV (0–6 months). 366 out of 416 eligible girls participated in this follow-up study. Antibody titers were measured just before and one month post-booster. A Luminex Total IgG assay was used for antibody assessment and results are presented in Liminex Units (LU). Three years post-primary vaccination, 99–100% of subjects had detectable antibodies to 4HPV genotypes included in the qHPV with GMTs varying from 50 to 322 LU depending on genotype. After a booster dose of qHPV, a ≥4 fold increase of antibody titers to genotypes included in the vaccine was observed in 88–98% of subjects. Post-booster GMTs varied from 1666 to 4536 LU depending on genotype. These GMTs were 1.1 to 1.8-fold higher when compared to those observed one month post-second dose. After a booster of bHPV, a ≥4 fold increase of antibody titers to HPV16 and HPV18 was observed in 93–99% of subjects. The anti-HPV16 and HPV18 GMTs were 5458 and 2665 LU, respectively. These GMTs were 1.2 and 1.8 higher than those observed in the qHPV group (both P < 0.01). In bHPV group a 1.4–1.6-fold increase of antibody GMTs to HPV6 and HPV11was also observed (P < 0.001). The safety profile was acceptable for both vaccines. Both qHPV and bHPV increase antibody titers when given as a booster to girls previously vaccinated with 2 doses of qHPV. The magnitude of the immune response after booster is vaccine-dependent and has the same pattern as that reported after primary vaccination with qHPV or bHPV. When given as a booster, both vaccines have an acceptable safety profile. Longer follow-up studies are warranted to assess the need of booster doses. PMID:25714044

  14. Efficacy of a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against anal HPV16/18 infection among young women: a nested analysis within the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kreimer, Aimée R.; Gonzalèz, Paula; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Solomon, Diane; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Struijk, Linda; Quint, Wim; Chen, Sabrina; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando

    2011-01-01

    Background Anal cancer remains rare (incidence of ∼1.5 per 100,000 women annually) but rates are increasing in many countries. Human papillomavirus-16 (HPV16) infection causes most cases. We evaluated vaccine efficacy (VE) of an ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine against anal HPV16/18 infection. Methods In a randomized double-blind controlled trial designed to evaluate VE against persistent cervical HPV16/18 infections and associated precancerous lesions in Costa Rica, 4210 healthy women underwent anal specimen collection (4224 of 5968= 70.8% of eligible women) at the final blinded study visit 4 years after vaccination to evaluate anal HPV16/18 VE. Cervical HPV16/18 VE among the same women at the same visit was calculated as a comparator. For this ancillary work, analyses were conducted in a restricted cohort of women both cervical HPV16/18 DNA negative and HPV 16/18 seronegative prior at enrollment (N=1989), and in the full cohort (all women with an anal specimen). Findings In the restricted cohort, VE against prevalent HPV16/18 anal infection measured one-time, four-years post-vaccination was 83.6% (95%CI 66.7% to 92.8%), which was comparable to cervical HPV16/18 VE (87.9%, 95%CI 77.4% to 94.0%). In the full cohort, HPV16/18 VE was statistically lower at the anus (62.0%, 95%CI 47.1% to 73.1%) compared to the cervix (76.4%, 95%CI 67.0% to 83.5%) (p for anatomic-site interaction =0.03). Significant and comparable VE estimates against a composite endpoint of HPV31/33/45 (i.e.: cross-protection) was observed at the anus and cervix. Interpretation The ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine affords strong protection against anal HPV, particularly among women more likely to be HPV naïve at vaccination. Funding. The Costa Rica HPV Vaccine Trial is sponsored and funded by the NCI (contract N01-CP-11005), with funding support from the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health, and conducted with support from the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica. Vaccine was

  15. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause problems like genital warts and some kinds of cancer, a vaccine is an important step in preventing infection and protecting against the spread of HPV. That's why doctors recommend that all girls and guys get the vaccine at these ages: ...

  16. Proof-of-Principle Evaluation of the Efficacy of Fewer Than Three Doses of a Bivalent HPV16/18 Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; González, Paula; Solomon, Diane; Jiménez, Silvia; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Quint, Wim; Sherman, Mark E.; Schussler, John; Wacholder, Sholom

    2011-01-01

    Background Three-dose regimens for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are expensive and difficult to complete, especially in settings where the need for cervical cancer prevention is greatest. Methods We evaluated the vaccine efficacy of fewer than three doses of the HPV16/18 vaccine Cervarix in our Costa Rica Vaccine Trial. Women were randomly assigned to receive three doses of the HPV16/18 vaccine or to a control vaccine and were followed for incident HPV16 or HPV18 infection that persisted in visits that were 10 or more months apart (median follow-up 4.2 years). After excluding women who had no follow-up or who were HPV16 and HPV18 DNA positive at enrollment, 5967 women received three vaccine doses (2957 HPV vaccine vs 3010 control vaccine), 802 received two doses (422 HPV vs 380 control), and 384 received one dose (196 HPV vs 188 control). Reasons for receiving fewer doses and other pre- and post-randomization characteristics were balanced within each dosage group between women receiving the HPV and control vaccines. Results Incident HPV16 or HPV18 infections that persisted for 1 year were unrelated to dosage of the control vaccine. Vaccine efficacy was 80.9% for three doses of the HPV vaccine (95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.1% to 87.7%; 25 and 133 events in the HPV and control arms, respectively), 84.1% for two doses (95% CI = 50.2% to 96.3%; 3 and 17 events), and 100% for one dose (95% CI = 66.5% to 100%; 0 and 10 events). Conclusion Four years after vaccination of women who appeared to be uninfected, this nonrandomized analysis suggests that two doses of the HPV16/18 vaccine, and maybe even one dose, are as protective as three doses. PMID:21908768

  17. [Developments in HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    de Melker, Hester; Kenter, Gemma; van Rossum, Tekla; Conyn-van Spaendonck, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination against the human papilloma virus (HPV) has been included in the national Vaccination Programme of the Netherlands for 12-year-old girls since 2010. Vaccination coverage for the birth cohort of 1997 was 56.; there is a gradual increase in uptake. Continuous safety monitoring brought no new unknown serious side effects to light; many girls suffered from transient symptoms such as painful arm, fatigue and headache. After the current vaccines that protect against HPV types 2 and 4 types, respectively and induce some cross protection, vaccines are being developed that can induce broader protection. HPV vaccination of 12-year-old girls is cost-effective, even for relatively low vaccination coverage. The potential protection of HPV vaccination extends beyond prevention of cervical cancer by preventing other oncological manifestations of HPV infection in women as well as men and genital warts. The preventive HPV vaccines do not appear to be effective in treating existing abnormalities. PMID:23171565

  18. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Cervarix)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes or ringing in the ears. Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for unusual ... gov/std/hpv and http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines HPV Vaccine (Cervarix) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health ...

  19. [The importance of HPV vaccination in men].

    PubMed

    Sehnal, Borek; Chlíbek, Roman; Sláma, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The important goal of immunization programs in many countries is the reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer using either the quadrivalent (Silgard/Gardasil) or the bivalent (Cervarix) HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccine. Nevertheless, HPV infection is associated with the development of cancers of anus, vagina, vulva and penis, and cancers of the head and neck and genital warts, too. Large trials for both vaccines find efficacy against HPV-related infection and different HPV associated diseases.Infection with HPV and diseases caused by HPV are common in boys and men, too. Approximately 5.2 % of all cancers are HPV associated and the burden of HPV associated disease in men is now comparable to that in women in economically developed countries. Randomized control trials demonstrate robust antibody responses and high efficacy also in men. Several countries recommend gender-neutral vaccination.Detailed cost effective modeling has preceded these decisions showing that when the burden of disease in men is included in the models then, depending upon vaccine price, coverage of a vaccinated population, and other factors male vaccination can become cost effective. Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. However, increasing coverage in girls is substantially more effective and cost-effective than expanding vaccination coverage to boys and should be considered a priority. Since 2012, vaccination of girls at the age of 13-14 years has been covered from the health insurance in the Czech Republic. PMID:27481200

  20. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Cancer.gov

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  1. Use of 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: updated HPV vaccination recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices.

    PubMed

    Petrosky, Emiko; Bocchini, Joseph A; Hariri, Susan; Chesson, Harrell; Curtis, C Robinette; Saraiya, Mona; Unger, Elizabeth R; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-03-27

    During its February 2015 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) (Gardasil 9, Merck and Co., Inc.) as one of three HPV vaccines that can be used for routine vaccination. HPV vaccine is recommended for routine vaccination at age 11 or 12 years. ACIP also recommends vaccination for females aged 13 through 26 years and males aged 13 through 21 years not vaccinated previously. Vaccination is also recommended through age 26 years for men who have sex with men and for immunocompromised persons (including those with HIV infection) if not vaccinated previously. 9vHPV is a noninfectious, virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine. Similar to quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV), 9vHPV contains HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 VLPs. In addition, 9vHPV contains HPV 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 VLPs. 9vHPV was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on December 10, 2014, for use in females aged 9 through 26 years and males aged 9 through 15 years. For these recommendations, ACIP reviewed additional data on 9vHPV in males aged 16 through 26 years. 9vHPV and 4vHPV are licensed for use in females and males. Bivalent HPV vaccine (2vHPV), which contains HPV 16, 18 VLPs, is licensed for use in females. This report summarizes evidence considered by ACIP in recommending 9vHPV as one of three HPV vaccines that can be used for vaccination and provides recommendations for vaccine use. PMID:25811679

  2. Ten years of HPV vaccines: State of art and controversies.

    PubMed

    Angioli, Roberto; Lopez, Salvatore; Aloisi, Alessia; Terranova, Corrado; De Cicco, Carlo; Scaletta, Giuseppe; Capriglione, Stella; Miranda, Andrea; Luvero, Daniela; Ricciardi, Roberto; Montera, Roberto; Plotti, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) represents one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and it has been related to cervical cancer. The HPV vaccines prevent infection with certain species of HPV associated with the development of cervical cancer or genital warts. We carried out a PubMed search up to 2015 evaluating all randomized studies published in literature. This review discusses the current status of HPVs vaccines on the global market, efficacy, safety profiles, controversies and future vaccine developments. Three HPVs vaccines are currently on the global market: bivalent, quadrivalent and ninevalent. Bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines can protect against almost 70% of cervical HPV-related cancerous and precancerous conditions and the ninevalent vaccine, instead, provides a protection against almost 90%. The use of vaccinations raised several controversies in the last years and, currently, is not possible to establish which type of vaccine is most effective, however all of them are safe. PMID:27066937

  3. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes or ringing in the ears.Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for unusual ... visit CDC's website at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines. HPV Vaccine (Gardasil) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health ...

  4. [HPV prophylactic vaccines].

    PubMed

    Konopnicki, D

    2014-09-01

    Since 2007, two prophylactic vaccines against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV. induced lesions (both precancerous dysplasia and cancer) have been registered in Belgium. In multicentre randomized trials including more than 64,000 patients, these vaccines were shown to be highly efficient against the occurrence of condyloma and of dysplastic lesion in the cervix, vagina and vulva in females and in the anus in males. These vaccines display an excellent tolerance and safety profile, the most common adverse event being minor and transient side effects at the injection site. The protection given by these vaccines is more important in subjects that have not been in contact with HPV previously ; moreover the title of neutralizing antibodies against HPV are significantly higher in children vaccinated before 15 years-old age compared to young person vaccinated after this age. For these two reasons, it is recommended to vaccinate before the first sexual relationships. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that vaccination by two doses given at 0 and 6 months in children before 15 years-old was equivalent to the three doses scheme that should be given at 0, 1 or 2 and 6 months in subjects aged 15 years or more. In the countries that have achieved a high vaccine coverage among their young female population, the prevalence of HPV infection and the incidence of high grade cervical dysplasia have significantly decreased while condyloma has almost disappeared four years after the implementation of HPV vaccination. In HIV-positive subjects who are particularly susceptible to infection and lesions induced by HPV, vaccination brings levels of antibody comparable to what is found in the general population with similar safety. PMID:25675641

  5. Comparing bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccines: economic evaluation based on transmission model

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Ruth; Hughes, Owain; Choi, Yoon Hong

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effect and cost effectiveness of bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, taking into account differences in licensure indications, protection against non-vaccine type disease, protection against disease related to HPV types 6 and 11, and reported long term immunogenicity. Design A model of HPV transmission and disease previously used to inform UK vaccination policy, updated with recent evidence and expanded to include scenarios where the two vaccines differ in duration of protection, cross protection, and end points prevented. Setting United Kingdom. Population Males and females aged 12–75 years. Main outcome measure Incremental cost effectiveness ratios for both vaccines and additional cost per dose for the quadrivalent vaccine to be equally cost effective as the bivalent vaccine. Results The bivalent vaccine needs to be cheaper than the quadrivalent vaccine to be equally cost effective, mainly because of its lack of protection against anogenital warts. The price difference per dose ranges from a median of £19 (interquartile range £12–£27) to £35 (£27–£44) across scenarios about vaccine duration, cross protection, and end points prevented (assuming one quality adjusted life year (QALY) is valued at £30 000 and both vaccines can prevent all types of HPV related cancers). Conclusions The quadrivalent vaccine may have an advantage over the bivalent vaccine in reducing healthcare costs and QALYs lost. The bivalent vaccine may have an advantage in preventing death due to cancer. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the differential benefit of the two vaccines. PMID:21951758

  6. 9-Valent HPV vaccine for cancers, pre-cancers and genital warts related to HPV.

    PubMed

    Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Velicer, Christine; Luxembourg, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of nearly all cervical cancer cases as well as a substantial proportion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers, making it responsible for approximately 5% of the global cancer burden. The first-generation HPV vaccines that is, quadrivalent HPV type 6/11/16/18 vaccine and bivalent HPV type 16/18 vaccine were licensed in 2006 and 2007, respectively. A second-generation 9-valent HPV type 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine with broader cancer coverage was initiated even before the first vaccines were approved. By preventing HPV infection and disease due to HPV31/33/45/52/58, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to increase prevention of cervical cancer from 70 to 90%. In addition, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to prevent 85-95% of HPV-related vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers. Overall, the 9vHPV vaccine addresses a significant unmet medical need, although further health economics and implementation research is needed. PMID:26366475

  7. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Cervarix)

    MedlinePlus

    ... std/hpv and http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines HPV Vaccine (Cervarix) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Immunization Program. 5/3/2011.

  8. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil)

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent HPV. It may be given to both males and females.This vaccine can prevent most cases of cervical ... and genital warts and anal cancer in both males and females.Protection from HPV vaccine is expected to be ...

  9. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A.F.; Andrade, C.V.; Russomano, F.B.; Rodrigues, L.L.S.; Oliveira, N.S.; Provance, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits. PMID:27074168

  10. HPV vaccination: The most pragmatic cervical cancer primary prevention strategy.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-10-01

    The evidence that high-risk HPV infections cause cervical cancers has led to two new approaches for cervical cancer control: vaccination to prevent HPV infections, and HPV screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. Two vaccines are currently available: quadrivalent vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 6, and 11, and bivalent vaccine targeting HPV 16 and 18. Both vaccines have demonstrated remarkable immunogenicity and substantial protection against persistent infection and high-grade cervical cancer precursors caused by HPV 16 and 18 in HPV-naïve women, and have the potential to prevent 70% of cervical cancers in adequately vaccinated populations. HPV vaccination is now implemented in national programs in 62 countries, including some low- and middle-income countries. The early findings from routine national programs in high-income countries are instructive to encourage low- and middle-income countries with a high risk of cervical cancer to roll out HPV vaccination programs and to introduce resource-appropriate cervical screening programs. PMID:26433502

  11. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  12. Impact of 2-, 4- and 9-valent HPV vaccines on morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Luckett, Rebecca; Feldman, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most cervical cancers are associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), and vaccination with any of 3 available HPV vaccines is anticipated to greatly reduce the burden of cervical cancer. This review provides an overview of the burden of HPV, the efficacy and clinical effectiveness of the bivalent (HPV 16, 18), quadrivalent (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) and 9vHPV (HPV 6, 11, 16, 1831, 33, 45, 52, 58) vaccines in order to assess the anticipated impact on cervical cancer. All three vaccines show high efficacy in prevention of vaccine-specific HPV-type infection and associated high-grade cervical dysplasia in HPV-naïve women. Early clinical effectiveness data for the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccine demonstrate reduced rates of HPV 16 and 18 prevalence in vaccinated cohorts; data evaluating cervical dysplasia and cervical procedures as outcomes will shed further light on the clinical effectiveness of both vaccines. The bivalent vaccine has demonstrated cross-protection to non-vaccine HPV types, including the types in the 9vHPV vaccine. No clinical effectiveness data is yet available for the 9vHPV vaccine.  While HPV vaccination has great promise to reduce cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, estimated benefits are largely theoretical at present. Large population-based clinical effectiveness studies will provide long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness, as well as assessment of cervical cancer as an endpoint, particularly as young vaccinated women enter the appropriate age range to initiate screening for cervical cancer. Strengthening screening and treatment programs will likely have the greatest impact in the short-term on cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. PMID:26588179

  13. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Cancer.gov

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  14. Telogen effluvium following bivalent human papillomavirus vaccine administration: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Tuccori, Marco; Pisani, Chiara; Bachini, Laura; Pardini, Milena; Mantarro, Stefania; Antonioli, Luca; Fornai, Matteo; Rubinelli, Marinella; Cirinei, Carlo; Blandizzi, Corrado

    2012-01-01

    We describe two cases of telogen effluvium occurring in two 11-year-old children following bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine administration. The two children began to lose their hair following the second HPV vaccine dose. Alopecia worsened following the third vaccine dose and then resolved spontaneously within a few months. In both cases, laboratory analysis and psychiatric evaluation excluded causes other than anti-HPV vaccine. Social discomfort and isolation were associated with alopecia in the two children. The clinical presentation was consistent with a pattern of telogen effluvium. The identification of specific vaccine components responsible for triggering the adverse event remains difficult. In similar cases, suspension of immunization is not recommended, as it provides health benefits that overcome the possible adverse effect of transient telogen effluvium. Caregivers should ensure psychiatric support to their patients to manage the social and emotional distress that might be associated with hair loss. PMID:22584489

  15. Does intention to recommend HPV vaccines impact HPV vaccination rates?

    PubMed Central

    Feemster, Kristen A; Middleton, Maria; Fiks, Alexander G; Winters, Sarah; Kinsman, Sara B; Kahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Despite recommendations for routine vaccination, HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females have remained low. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether clinician intention to recommend HPV vaccines predicts HPV vaccine series initiation among previously unvaccinated 11 to 18 year-old girls (N = 18,083) who were seen by a pediatric clinician (N = 105) from a large primary care network within 3 years of vaccine introduction. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, Cox Regression and standardized survival curves to measure the association between clinician intention and time to and rate of first HPV vaccine receipt among eligible females. All models adjusted for patient age, race / ethnicity, payor category, visit type, and practice location. Eighty-5 percent of eligible 11 to 12 year-old and 95% of 13 to 18 year-old girls were seen by a provider reporting high intention to recommend HPV vaccines. However, only 30% of the cohort initiated the HPV vaccine series and the mean number of days from first eligible visit to series initiation was 190 (95% C.I. 184.2, 195.4). After adjusting for covariates, high clinician intention was modestly associated with girls’ likelihood of HPV vaccine series initiation (OR 1.36; 95 % C.I. 1.07, 1.71) and time to first HPV vaccination (HR 1.22; 95% 1.06, 1.40). Despite high intention to vaccinate among this cohort of pediatric clinicians, overall vaccination rates for adolescent girls remained low. These findings support ongoing efforts to develop effective strategies to translate clinician intention into timely HPV vaccine receipt. PMID:25483470

  16. Vietnamese Health Care Providers' Preferences Regarding Recommendation of HPV Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Asiedu, Gladys B; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Kremers, Walter K; Ngo, Quang V; Nguyen, Nguyen V; Barenberg, Benjamin J; Tran, Vinh D; Dinh, Tri A

    2015-01-01

    Physician recommendation is an important predictor of HPV vaccine acceptance; however, physician willingness and preferences regarding HPV vaccination may be influenced by factors including patient age, vaccine type, and cost. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a convenience sample of health care providers in Da Nang, Vietnam, to evaluate awareness, perceptions about HPV and HPV vaccines, and willingness to vaccinate a female patient. Willingness to vaccinate was evaluated using a full-factorial presentation of scenarios featuring the following factors: vaccine cost (free vs 1,000,000 VND), patient age (12, 16, or 22 years), and HPV vaccine type (bivalent vs quadrivalent). Responses from 244 providers were analyzed; providers had a mean age of 34±11.9 years; a majority were female, married, and had children of their own. Thirty-six percent specialized in obstetrics/gynecology and 24% were providers in family medicine. Of the three factors considered in conjoint analysis, vaccine cost was the most important factor in willingness to vaccinate, followed by patient age, and vaccine type. The most favorable scenario for vaccinating a female patient was when the vaccine was free, the patient was 22 years of age, and the HPV4 vaccine was described. In multivariable analysis, older age, being a physician, being married, and having children were all associated with increased willingness to recommend HPV vaccination (p<0.05). Provider willingness is an important aspect of successful HPV vaccination programs; identifying preferences and biases in recommendation patterns will highlight potential areas for education and intervention. PMID:26163611

  17. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Three vaccines are available to prevent the human papillomavirus (HPV) ...

  18. Cancer Experts Endorse CDC's HPV Vaccine Guidelines

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159950.html Cancer Experts Endorse CDC's HPV Vaccine Guidelines Boys and girls should start the ... American Cancer Society has endorsed the U.S. government's HPV vaccination recommendations, which include immunizing all preteens against ...

  19. Second-generation prophylactic HPV vaccines: current options and future strategies for vaccines development.

    PubMed

    Fruscalzo, Arrigo; Londero, Ambrogio P; Bertozzi, Serena; Lellè, Ralf J

    2016-02-01

    Two vaccines focused on the prevention of HPV-related diseases have been introduced in the last decade, the quadrivalent vaccine Gardasil and the bivalent vaccine Cervarix. They are targeted to prevent precancerous and cancerous lesions not only of the cervix, but also of the vulva, vagina, anal and head-neck region. Furthermore, the protection of the quadrivalent vaccine Gardasil includes also genital warts and recurrent respiratory Papillomatosis, two benign conditions with high socio-economic impact. Although their efficacy in reducing the burden of HPV-related pathologies has been already documented, second-generation HPV vaccines are being developed in order to overcome major limitations, above all the cost of production, distribution and acceptance, thus promoting an easier access to vaccination, especially in developing countries. Recently a new multivalent VLP vaccine active against nine HPV subtypes, called Gardasil 9 (Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA), has been approved, showing promising preliminary results. In this article, we outline the strategies adopted for second-generation HPV vaccine engineering, the latest HPV vaccines available at this time, as well as those currently in development. PMID:26473283

  20. Sources of HPV vaccine hesitancy in parents

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pooja R; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-01-01

    Despite strong national recommendations to vaccinate adolescents against the human papillomavirus (HPV), only 14% of teenage girls completed all 3 doses in 2010. Parental hesitancy may be one of the strongest reasons behind this low uptake rate. This review investigates sources of parental hesitancy including parental concerns associated with vaccinations in general, parental knowledge as a basis of HPV vaccine hesitancy, social qualms parents may have with regards to the HPV vaccine, and parental attitudes toward allowing their sons to be vaccinated against HPV. By better understanding these sources of hesitancy, we can focus research efforts towards addressing them in an attempt to improve HPV vaccine uptake. PMID:23982270

  1. Prophylactic HPV vaccination: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Castle, P E; Maza, M

    2016-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer, the fourth most common cancer and cause of cancer-related death in females worldwide. HPV also causes anal, vaginal, vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccines based on recombinantly expressed virus-like particles have been developed. Two first-generation, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved vaccines prevent infections and disease caused by HPV16 and HPV18, the two HPV genotypes that cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer, and one of these vaccines also prevents HPV6 and HPV11, the two HPV genotypes that cause 90% of genital warts. A next-generation vaccine, recently approved by the U.S. FDA, targets HPV16, HPV18, and five additional HPV genotypes that together causes approximately 90% of cervical cancer as well as HPV6 and HPV11. In clinical trials, these vaccines have shown high levels of efficacy against disease and infections caused by the targeted HPV genotypes in adolescent females and males and older females. Data indicate population effectiveness, and therefore cost effectiveness, is highest in HPV-naive young females prior to becoming sexually active. Countries that implemented HPV vaccination before 2010 have already experienced decreases in population prevalence of targeted HPV genotypes and related anogenital diseases in women and via herd protection in heterosexual men. Importantly, after more than 100 million doses given worldwide, HPV vaccination has demonstrated an excellent safety profile. With demonstrated efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and safety, universal HPV vaccination of all young, adolescent women, and with available resources at least high-risk groups of men, should be a global health priority. Failure to do so will result in millions of women dying from avertable cervical cancers, especially in low- and middle-income countries, and many thousands of women and men dying from other HPV-related cancers. PMID:26429676

  2. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of adolescents in the South African private health sector: Lessons from the HPV demonstration project in KwaZulu-Natal.

    PubMed

    Tathiah, N; Naidoo, M; Moodley, I

    2015-11-01

    In South Africa (SA), >4,000 women die annually of cervical cancer, a disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Infections caused by certain genotypes of HPV increase the risk of cervical cancer. HIV-infected women in particular are more likely to have persistent HPV infection, with higher-risk genotypes. In SA, two vaccines (HPV quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine, recombinant (Gardasil) and HPV bivalent (types 16 and 18) vaccine, recombinant (Cervarix)) are currently registered for the prevention of HPV-related disease. In the past, there have been significant challenges to achieving high coverage and uptake of vaccination–contributory factors include cost and lack of awareness. An HPV demonstration project among schoolgirls in rural KwaZulu-Natal showed that high vaccine uptake is achievable. In 2014, the National Department of Health launched the national HPV vaccination programme among female learners attending public schools. Awareness of HPV vaccination among healthcare providers, education of parents, teachers and learners, and avoidance of missed opportunities for vaccination are vital to the success of the programme. Primary healthcare practitioners may play an important role in cervical cancer prevention by identifying and offering vaccination to girls who miss the opportunity to be vaccinated at school. HPV vaccination should be considered as one arm of a comprehensive programme of cervical cancer prevention and control. PMID:26937512

  3. [HPV vaccine for cervical cancer prevention].

    PubMed

    Kawana, Kei

    2010-06-01

    High-risk HPV is the causative virus(requirement) for genital cancers with cervical cancer being most prevalent. Thus, theoretically, if HPV infection could be completely eradicated, most of genital cancers could be prevented. Viewed this way, HPV vaccines began to be studied about 10 years ago. Merck in the U.S. and Glaxo Smith Kline (GSK) in Europe launched full-scale development of prophylactic vaccines against HPV, and their vaccines were approved and commercially available in the worldwide. In this paper, efficacy and issues for the HPV vaccine and cancer screening in Japan are discussed. PMID:20535972

  4. HPV vaccines: Translating immunogenicity into efficacy.

    PubMed

    Turner, Taylor B; Huh, Warner K

    2016-06-01

    Currently available human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are very successful at preventing persistent HPV infection and premalignant cervical lesions. In part due to the unique aspects of HPV immunogenicity and high levels of efficacy no immune correlate has been identified for HPV vaccination. Serum neutralizing antibodies are used to measure vaccine response, but their role as a correlate has not been verified, and this theory fails to explain the prevention of HPV related non-mucosal lesions. Identifying a true correlate would aid in future work in this area but will be difficult in the setting of a highly efficacious vaccine. PMID:26512762

  5. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infections and the Importance of HPV Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chia-ching J.

    2016-01-01

    HPV persistence is necessary for the development of anogenital cancer. Studies show that cervical and anal HPV infections in women and in men who have sex with men are common. Clearance of HPV infection is similarly common; few individuals show persistence unless they are HIV-infected. HIV strongly influences the development of cervical and anal cancer, as well as their pre-malignant counterparts. Women with cervical and vulvar HPV-associated lesions have higher rates of anal cancer than the general population. HPV also plays an important role in pathogenesis of head and neck cancers, particularly oropharyngeal cancer. Two commercially available HPV vaccines have been proven to be safe and efficacious against cervical HPV16/18 infections and associated precancerous lesions; one of these has also been shown to prevent HPV16/18-associated anal lesions. The FDA has also just approved a new nonavalent HPV vaccine. HPV vaccines will play an important role in prevention of HPV-associated cancers.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Bivalent and Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccines from a Societal Perspective in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Aponte-González, Johanna; Fajardo-Bernal, Luisa; Diaz, Jorge; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; Gamboa, Oscar; Hay, Joel W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare costs and effectiveness of three strategies used against cervical cancer (CC) and genital warts: (i) Screening for CC; (ii) Bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 vaccine added to screening; (iii) Quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine added to screening. Methods A Markov model was designed in order to simulate the natural history of the disease from 12 years of age (vaccination) until death. Transition probabilities were selected or adjusted to match the HPV infection profile in Colombia. A systematic review was undertaken in order to derive efficacy values for the two vaccines as well as for the operational characteristics of the cytology test. The societal perspective was used. Effectiveness was measured in number of averted Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS). Results At commercial prices reported for 2010 the two vaccines were shown to be non-cost-effective alternatives when compared with the existing screening strategy. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are affected by the cost of vaccines and their efficacy values, making it difficult to determine with certainty which of the two vaccines has the best cost-effectiveness profile. To be ‘cost-effective’ vaccines should cost between 141 and 147 USD (Unite States Dollars) per vaccinated girl at the most. But at lower prices such as those recommended by WHO or the price of other vaccines in Colombia, HPV vaccination could be considered very cost-effective. Conclusions HPV vaccination could be a convenient alternative for the prevention of CC in Colombia. However, the price of the vaccine should be lower for this vaccination strategy to be cost-effective. It is also important to take into consideration the willingness to pay, budgetary impact, and program implications, in order to determine the relevance of a vaccination program in this country, as well as which vaccine should be selected for use in the program. PMID:24260441

  7. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Gardasil Vaccine - What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine - Gardasil® Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-gardasil.html . CDC review information for HPV Gardasil® ...

  8. HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 16/18 vaccine: a combined analysis of five randomized controlled trials. Obstet Gynecol 114(6):1179-1188. ... types 16 and 18: pooled analysis of two randomized clinical trials. BMJ 340:C712. Winckworth LC and ...

  9. HPV vaccine: Current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sushil; Biswas, Manash; Jose, Tony

    2015-01-01

    HPV Vaccine was introduced to prevent cervical cancer known to be caused by infection with one or more of the high risk subtypes of the Human papilloma virus (HPV). Since introduction, trials have proven its efficacy in preventing Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) beyond doubt and its effectiveness in preventing cervical cancer though presumptive is reasonably certain as per mathematical modelling. It also prevents other HPV related anogenital and oropharyngeal malignancies in both sexes. HPV vaccines have courted many controversies related to its efficacy, safety, ideal age of vaccination, use in HPV infected individuals and use in males. The currently available vaccines are based on L1 Viral like particles (VLP) and hence highly species specific, thermolabile, costly and are purely prophylactic. The quest for a cheaper, thermostable and broad spectrum vaccine has led to many newer prophylactic vaccines. Therapeutic vaccines were born out of the inescapable necessity considering high HPV related morbidity projected in the non HPV naïve population. Therapeutic vaccines would immediately reduce this burden and also help in the management of HPV related cancers alone or as part of combination strategies. Ongoing research is aimed at a total control over HPV related malignancies in the near future. PMID:25859081

  10. Detection of systemic and mucosal HPV-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in adolescent girls one and two years after HPV vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Scherpenisse, Mirte; Mollers, Madelief; Schepp, Rutger M.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; de Melker, Hester E.; Berbers, Guy A.M.; van der Klis, Fiona R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The bivalent HPV16/18 vaccine induces high antibody concentrations in serum while data about antibody responses in the cervix are limited. In this study, we investigated pre- and post-vaccination antibody responses against seven high-risk HPV types by detection of IgG and IgA HPV-specific antibodies in cervical secretion samples (CVS) and serum. From an HPV vaccine monitoring study CVS and serum samples were available (pre-vaccination (n = 297), one year (n = 211) and two years (n = 141) post-dose-one vaccination) from girls aged 14–16 y. The girls were vaccinated with the bivalent HPV vaccine at months 0, 1 and 6. CVS was self-sampled using a tampon. Samples were tested for HPV-specific antibodies (HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58) by a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay. Post-vaccination, IgG and IgA antibody levels for HPV16/18 were detectable in CVS and amounted to 2% and 1% of the IgG and IgA antibody levels observed in serum, respectively. The antibody levels remained constant between one and two years after vaccination. The correlation between CVS and serum was similar for IgG and IgA vaccine-derived antibody levels for HPV16 (rs = 0.58, rs = 0.54) and HPV18 (rs = 0.50, rs = 0.55). Vaccine-derived IgG antibody levels against cross-reactive HPV types in CVS and in serum were highest for HPV45. No IgA cross-reactive antibody responses could be detected in CVS. Post-vaccination, HPV16/18 IgG and IgA antibodies are not only detectable in serum but also in CVS. The correlation of HPV16/18 IgG antibody levels between serum and CVS suggests that vaccine induced HPV antibodies transudate and/or exudate from the systemic circulation to the cervical mucosa to provide protection against HPV infections. PMID:23149693

  11. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Cancer.gov

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  12. A comparative analysis of the epidemiological impact and disease cost-savings of HPV vaccines in France

    PubMed Central

    Bresse, Xavier; Adam, Marjorie; Largeron, Nathalie; Roze, Stephane; Marty, Remi

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to compare the epidemiological and economic impact of 16/18 bivalent and 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent HPV vaccination in France, considering differences in licensed outcomes, protection against non-vaccine HPV types and prevention of HPV-6/11-related diseases. The differential impact of the two vaccines was evaluated using a published model adapted to the French setting. The target population was females aged 14–23 y and the time horizon was 100 y. A total of eight different scenarios compared vaccination impact in terms of reduction in HPV-16/18-associated carcinomas (cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile and head and neck), HPV-6/11-related genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and incremental reduction in cervical cancer due to potential cross-protection. Quadrivalent vaccine was associated with total discounted cost savings ranging from EUR 544–1,020 million vs. EUR 177–538 million with the bivalent vaccination (100-y time horizon). Genital wart prevention thanks to quadrivalent HPV vaccination accounted for EUR 306–380 million savings (37–56% of costs saved). In contrast, the maximal assumed cross-protection against cervical cancer resulted in EUR 13–33 million savings (4%). Prevention of vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers accounted for additional EUR 71–89 million savings (13%). In France, the quadrivalent HPV vaccination would result in significant incremental epidemiological and economic benefits vs. the bivalent vaccination, driven primarily by prevention of genital. The present analysis is the first in the French setting to consider the impact of HPV vaccination on all HPV diseases and non-vaccine types. PMID:23563511

  13. A comparative analysis of the epidemiological impact and disease cost-savings of HPV vaccines in France.

    PubMed

    Bresse, Xavier; Adam, Marjorie; Largeron, Nathalie; Roze, Stephane; Marty, Rémi

    2013-04-01

    The aim was to compare the epidemiological and economic impact of 16/18 bivalent and 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent HPV vaccination in France, considering differences in licensed outcomes, protection against non-vaccine HPV types and prevention of HPV-6/11-related diseases. The differential impact of the two vaccines was evaluated using a published model adapted to the French setting. The target population was females aged 14-23 y and the time horizon was 100 y. A total of eight different scenarios compared vaccination impact in terms of reduction in HPV-16/18-associated carcinomas (cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile and head and neck), HPV-6/11-related genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and incremental reduction in cervical cancer due to potential cross-protection. Quadrivalent vaccine was associated with total discounted cost savings ranging from EUR 544-1,020 million vs. EUR 177-538 million with the bivalent vaccination (100-y time horizon). Genital wart prevention thanks to quadrivalent HPV vaccination accounted for EUR 306-380 million savings (37-56% of costs saved). In contrast, the maximal assumed cross-protection against cervical cancer resulted in EUR 13-33 million savings (4%). Prevention of vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers accounted for additional EUR 71-89 million savings (13%). In France, the quadrivalent HPV vaccination would result in significant incremental epidemiological and economic benefits vs. the bivalent vaccination, driven primarily by prevention of genital. The present analysis is the first in the French setting to consider the impact of HPV vaccination on all HPV diseases and non-vaccine types. PMID:23563511

  14. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  15. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  16. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

    Cancer.gov

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  17. How will HPV vaccines affect cervical cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Roden, Richard; Wu, T.-C.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women, and its toll is greatest in populations that lack screening programmes to detect precursor lesions. Persistent infection with ‘high risk’ genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, although not sufficient, to cause cervical carcinoma. Therefore, HPV vaccination provides an opportunity to profoundly affect cervical cancer incidence worldwide. A recently licensed HPV subunit vaccine protects women from a high proportion of precursor lesions of cervical carcinoma and most genital warts. Here we examine the ramifications and remaining questions that surround preventive HPV vaccines. PMID:16990853

  18. HPV vaccine (human papillomavirus) Cervarix - what you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® Vaccine Information Statement: www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-cervarix.html . CDC review information for HPV Cervarix® ...

  19. No evidence that HPV vaccination leads to sexual risk compensation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bo T

    2016-06-01

    Uptake of the HPV vaccine has been lower than the uptake of most other childhood vaccines offered in public programs. Since the HPV vaccine protects against a sexually transmitted virus, one barrier to uptake specific to the HPV vaccine may be the concern that vaccination may encourage risky sexual behaviour. Unanimous findings from recent studies show that HPV vaccination does not lead to sexual risk compensation, which is an important message to parents, clinicians and other decision-makers regarding HPV vaccination. Some issues remain to be investigated, like HPV vaccination and sexual risk compensation among boys. PMID:27003447

  20. Prophylactic HPV vaccination and anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Stier, Elizabeth A; Chigurupati, Nagasudha L; Fung, Leslie

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing. High risk populations include HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV-negative MSM, HIV-positive women and heterosexual men and women with a history of cervical cancer. HPV has been detected in over 90% of anal cancers. HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in about 70% of anal cancers. The quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine has been demonstrated to prevent vaccine associated persistent anal HPV infections as well as anal intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2-3 (AIN2+) in young MSM not previously infected. A retrospective analysis also suggests that qHPV vaccination of older MSM treated for AIN2+ may significantly decrease the risk of recurrence of the AIN2+. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. Thus, the 9-valent HPV vaccine, when administered to boys and girls prior to the onset of sexual activity, should effectively prevent anal cancer. PMID:26933898

  1. Study Hints At HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159696.html Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise Fewer vaccinated young women ... July 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine appears to prevent abnormalities that can lead ...

  2. Study Hints At HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159696.html Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise Fewer vaccinated young women had ... 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine appears to prevent abnormalities that can lead to ...

  3. Neutralizing antibodies respond to a bivalent dengue DNA vaccine or/and a recombinant bivalent antigen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Weng, Yu-Wei; Huang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Jian-Ming; Yan, Yan-Sheng

    2015-02-01

    There is currently no effective vaccine to prevent dengue infection, despite the existence of multiple studies on potential methods of immunization. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of DNA and/or recombinant protein on levels of neutralizing antibodies. For this purpose, envelope domain IIIs of dengue serotypes 1 and 2 (DEN-1/2)were spliced by a linker (Gly‑Gly‑Ser‑Gly‑Ser)3 and cloned into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pET30a (+) and eukaryotic vector pcDNA3.1 (+). The chimeric bivalent protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and one‑step purification by high‑performance liquid chromatography was conducted. Protein expression levels of the DNA plasmid were tested in BHK‑21 cells by indirect immunofluorescent assay. In order to explore a more effective immunization strategy and to develop neutralizing antibodies against the two serotypes, mice were inoculated with recombinant bivalent protein, the DNA vaccine, or the two given simultaneously. Presence of the specific antibodies was tested by ELISA and the presence of the neutralizing antibodies was determined by plaque reduction neutralization test. Results of the analysis indicated that the use of a combination of DNA and protein induced significantly higher titers of neutralizing antibodies against either DEN‑1 or DEN‑2 (1:64.0 and 1:76.1, respectively) compared with the DNA (1:24.7 and 1:26.9, DEN‑1 and DEN‑2, respectively) or the recombinant protein (1:34.9 and 1:45.3 in DEN‑1 and DEN‑2, respectively). The present study demonstrated that the combination of recombinant protein and DNA as an immunization strategy may be an effective method for the development of a vaccine to prevent dengue virus infection. PMID:25371092

  4. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil-9)

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccinated?Gardasil-9 prevents many cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, including:cervical cancer in females ... 9) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National ...

  5. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B bivalent factor H binding protein vaccine.

    PubMed

    Brendish, Nathan James; Read, Robert Charles

    2015-04-01

    With the successful development of meningococcal vaccines against other serogroups, disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B now accounts for a disproportionate frequency compared with other serogroups, particularly in the US and Europe. Infants and adolescents bear the highest incidence of disease, which typically manifests as meningitis and septicemia. This vaccine profile article examines a bivalent factor H binding protein (fHbp; also known as LP2086) vaccine that has now been approved by the US FDA for use in 10- to 25-year olds. The manufacturer has shelved plans for further investigation of its use in infants because of high rates of fever in Phase I and II trials in that age group. PMID:25703792

  6. Shift in prevalence of HPV types in cervical cytology specimens in the era of HPV vaccination

    PubMed Central

    FISCHER, SONJA; BETTSTETTER, MARCUS; BECHER, ANDREA; LESSEL, MARLENE; BANK, CYRIL; KRAMS, MATTHIAS; BECKER, INGRID; HARTMANN, ARNDT; JAGLA, WOLFGANG; GAUMANN, ANDREAS

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present population-based cohort study was to analyze the association between the prevalence of 32 types of human papilloma virus (HPV) in 615 female patients with abnormal cervical cytopathology findings. In total, 32 HPV types were screened by DNA array technology. HPV infection was detected in 470 women (76.42%), 419 of whom (89.15%) were infected with ≥1 high-risk (HR)-HPV type. HPV16, which is recognized as the main HR-HPV type responsible for the development of cervical cancer, was observed in 32.98% of HPV+ participants, followed by HPV42 (18.09%), HPV31 (17.66%), HPV51 (13.83%), HPV56 (10.00%), HPV53 (8.72%) and HPV66 (8.72%). The prevalence of HR-HPV types, which may be suppressed directly (in the case of HPV16 and 18), or possibly via cross-protection (in the case of HPV31) following vaccination, was considerably lower in participants ≤22 years of age (HPV16, 28.57%; HPV18, 2.04%; HPV31, 6.12%), compared with participants 23–29 years of age (HPV16, 45.71%; HPV18, 7.86%; HPV31, 22.86%), who were less likely to be vaccinated. Consequently, the present study hypothesizes that there may be a continuous shift in the prevalence of HPV types as a result of vaccination. Furthermore, the percentage of non-vaccine HR-HPV types was higher than expected, considering that eight HPV types formerly classified as ‘low-risk’ or ‘probably high-risk’ are in fact HR-HPV types. Therefore, it may be important to monitor non-vaccine HPV types in future studies, and an investigation concerning several HR-HPV types as risk factors for the development of cervical cancer is required. PMID:27347187

  7. Understanding HPV vaccine uptake among Cambodian American girls.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Victoria M; Burke, Nancy J; Ko, Linda K; Sos, Channdara; Liu, Qi; Do, H Hoai; Talbot, Jocelyn; Yasui, Yutaka; Bastani, Roshan

    2014-10-01

    Cervical cancer incidence rates vary substantially among racial/ethnic groups in the United States (US) with women of Southeast Asian descent having the highest rates. Up to 70 % of cervical cancers could be prevented by widespread use of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. However, there is a lack of information about HPV vaccine uptake among Southeast Asian girls in the US. We conducted a telephone survey of Cambodian women with daughters who were age-eligible for HPV vaccination. Survey items addressed HPV vaccination barriers, facilitators and uptake. Our study group included 86 Cambodian mothers who lived in the Seattle metropolitan area. The proportions of survey participants who reported their daughter had initiated and completed the HPV vaccine series were only 29 and 14 %, respectively. Higher levels of vaccine uptake were significantly associated with mothers having heard about the HPV vaccine from a health professional and having received a recent Pap test. Commonly cited barriers to HPV vaccination included lack of knowledge about the HPV vaccine, not having received a physician recommendation for HPV vaccination and thinking the HPV vaccine is unnecessary in the absence of health problems. Linguistically and culturally appropriate HPV educational programs should be developed and implemented in Cambodian American communities. These programs should aim to enhance understanding of disease prevention measures, increase knowledge about the HPV vaccine and empower women to ask their daughter's doctors for HPV vaccination. PMID:24532309

  8. Understanding HPV Vaccine Uptake Among Cambodian American Girls

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Victoria M.; Burke, Nancy J.; Ko, Linda K.; Sos, Channdara; Liu, Qi; Do, H. Hoai; Talbot, Jocelyn; Yasui, Yutaka; Bastani, Roshan

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer incidence rates vary substantially among racial/ethnic groups in the United States (US) with women of Southeast Asian descent having the highest rates. Up to 70% of cervical cancers could be prevented by widespread use of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. However, there is a lack of information about HPV vaccine uptake among Southeast Asian girls in the US. We conducted a telephone survey of Cambodian women with daughters who were age-eligible for HPV vaccination. Survey items addressed HPV vaccination barriers, facilitators, and uptake. Our study group included 86 Cambodian mothers who lived in the Seattle metropolitan area. The proportions of survey participants who reported their daughter had initiated and completed the HPV vaccine series were only 29% and 14%, respectively. Higher levels of vaccine uptake were significantly associated with mothers having heard about the HPV vaccine from a health professional and having received a recent Pap test. Commonly cited barriers to HPV vaccination included lack of knowledge about the HPV vaccine, not having received a physician recommendation for HPV vaccination, and thinking the HPV vaccine is unnecessary in the absence of health problems. Linguistically and culturally appropriate HPV educational programs should be developed and implemented in Cambodian American communities. These programs should aim to enhance understanding of disease prevention measures, increase knowledge about the HPV vaccine, and empower women to ask their daughters’ doctors for HPV vaccination. PMID:24532309

  9. National- and state-level impact and cost-effectiveness of nonavalent HPV vaccination in the United States.

    PubMed

    Durham, David P; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L; Skrip, Laura A; Jones, Forrest K; Bauch, Chris T; Galvani, Alison P

    2016-05-01

    Every year in the United States more than 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer, a disease principally caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines protect against 66% of HPV-associated cervical cancers, and a new nonavalent vaccine protects against an additional 15% of cervical cancers. However, vaccination policy varies across states, and migration between states interdependently dilutes state-specific vaccination policies. To quantify the economic and epidemiological impacts of switching to the nonavalent vaccine both for individual states and for the nation as a whole, we developed a model of HPV transmission and cervical cancer incidence that incorporates state-specific demographic dynamics, sexual behavior, and migratory patterns. At the national level, the nonavalent vaccine was shown to be cost-effective compared with the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines at any coverage despite the greater per-dose cost of the new vaccine. Furthermore, the nonavalent vaccine remains cost-effective with up to an additional 40% coverage of the adolescent population, representing 80% of girls and 62% of boys. We find that expansion of coverage would have the greatest health impact in states with the lowest coverage because of the decreasing marginal returns of herd immunity. Our results show that if policies promoting nonavalent vaccine implementation and expansion of coverage are coordinated across multiple states, all states benefit both in health and in economic terms. PMID:27091978

  10. Acceptability of HPV vaccine implementation among parents in India.

    PubMed

    Paul, Proma; Tanner, Amanda E; Gravitt, Patti E; Vijayaraghavan, K; Shah, Keerti V; Zimet, Gregory D; Study Group, Catch

    2014-01-01

    Due to high cervical cancer rates and limited research on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in India, the research team examined parental attitudes toward HPV vaccines. Thirty-six interviews with parents were conducted to assess sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related knowledge and HPV-specific vaccine awareness and acceptability. Despite limited knowledge, parents had positive views toward HPV vaccines. Common barriers included concerns about side effects, vaccine cost, and missing work to receive the vaccine. Parents were strongly influenced by health care providers' recommendations. Our findings suggest that addressing parental concerns, health worker training and polices, and efforts to minimize cost will be central to successful HPV vaccine implementation. PMID:23611111

  11. Paediatricians’ attitudes and practices towards HPV vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Kimiko L.; Koopmans, Joy; Curlin, Farr A.; Alexander, Kenneth A.; Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2008-01-01

    Aim In June 2006, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, Gardasil, was licensed for use in the United States. We examined whether paediatricians would recommend the vaccine, obstacles they encountered and characteristics associated with not recommending the HPV vaccine to all eligible patients. Methods Four hundred fifty general paediatricians, 200 members of the section of infectious diseases and 200 members of the section of adolescent medicine of the American Academy of Pediatrics web-based directory were surveyed. Results Of 752 eligible paediatricians, 373 (50%) responded. Eighty-eight percent (292 of 332) of respondents stated that they would give the vaccine to all, 36 (11%) would give it to some and 4 (1%) would give it to none of their eligible patients. The main obstacles were cost and safety; a minority expressed concern about the vaccine’s potential impact on adolescent sexual activity. Physicians who would not recommend HPV vaccination to all eligible patients were more likely to be generalists, have higher intrinsic religiosity, self-describe as conservative, report later adoption of new drugs/vaccines, and would not encourage vaccinating their own daughter or the daughter of a close friend. Conclusion Although paediatricians are highly supportive of the HPV vaccine, certain characteristics may predict reluctance to immunize. PMID:18671696

  12. HPV testing and vaccination in Europe.

    PubMed

    Leeson, Simon C; Alibegashvili, Tamar; Arbyn, Marc; Bergeron, Christine; Carriero, Carmine; Mergui, Jean-Luc; Nieminen, Pekka; Prendiville, Walter; Redman, Charles W E; Rieck, Gudrun C; Quaas, Jens; Petry, K Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Current cytology-based screening has a moderate sensitivity to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) and cervical cancer even in those states providing rigorous quality control of their cervical screening programs. The impact of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 as well as the incorporation of HPV testing on the detection of CIN 3 and cancer is discussed. HPV testing used as a triage for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, test of cure after treatment, and HPV-based primary screening may improve current cervical screening programs.HPV testing as a triage test for ASCUS seems to offer an improved sensitivity, with a similar specificity as compared to repeat cytology for diagnosing high-grade CIN and has been recommended throughout most EU states. HPV testing as a triage test for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions has a low specificity and is not recommended in most member states. HPV test of cure offers an improved sensitivity compared to cytology for women with persistent cervical precancer after treatment. HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than screening with cytology. The effects of HPV-based screening depend on the organization of the program and on adherence to algorithms for screening triage. Otherwise, it is likely that HPV-based screening will increase the referral rate to colposcopy including more women with no detectable cervical lesion. HPV vaccination will require many years to evaluate any beneficial effects on cervical cancer incidence and mortality. PMID:23774078

  13. Are the Two Human Papillomavirus Vaccines Really Similar? A Systematic Review of Available Evidence: Efficacy of the Two Vaccines against HPV

    PubMed Central

    Di Mario, Simona; Basevi, Vittorio; Lopalco, Pier Luigi; Balduzzi, Sara; D'Amico, Roberto; Magrini, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background. When the bivalent and the quadrivalent HPV vaccines were marketed they were presented as having comparable efficacy against cervical cancer. Differences between the vaccines are HPV types included and formulation of the adjuvant. Method. A systematic review was conducted to assess the efficacy of the two vaccines against cervical cancer. Outcomes considered were CIN2+, CIN3+, and AIS. Results. Nine reports (38,419 women) were included. At enrolment mean age of women was 20 years, 90% had negative cytology, and 80% were seronegative and/or DNA negative for HPV 16 or 18 (naïve women). In the TVC-naïve, VE against CIN2+ was 58% (95% CI: 35, 72); heterogeneity was detected, VE being 65% (95% CI: 54, 74) for the bivalent and 43% (95% CI: 23, 57) for the quadrivalent. VE against CIN3+ was 78% (95% CI: <0, 97); heterogeneity was substantial, VE being 93% (95% CI: 77, 98) for the bivalent and 43% (95% CI: 12, 63) for the quadrivalent. VE in the TVC was much lower. No sufficient data were available on AIS. Conclusions. In naïve girls bivalent vaccine shows higher efficacy, even if the number of events detected is low. In women already infected the benefit of the vaccination seems negligible. PMID:26380321

  14. HPV Vaccine - Gardasil: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent HPV. It may be given to both males and females. This vaccine can prevent most cases of cervical ... and genital warts and anal cancer in both males and females. Protection from HPV vaccine is expected to be ...

  15. HPV and HPV Vaccine Education Intervention: Effects on Parents, Healthcare Staff, and School Staff

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Paul L.; Stubbs, Brenda; Panozzo, Catherine A.; Whitesell, Dianne; Brewer, Noel T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine is a potentially important way to increase vaccination rates, yet few education interventions have addressed these topics. We report the results of an education intervention targeting three key groups who have contact with adolescent females. Methods We conducted HPV education intervention sessions during 2008 and 2009 in Guilford County, North Carolina. Parents (n=376), healthcare staff (n=118), and school staff (n=456) attended the one-time sessions and completed self-administered surveys. Analyses used mixed regression models to examine the intervention’s effects on participants’ self-rated HPV knowledge, objectively assessed HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge, and beliefs about HPV vaccine. Results Participants had relatively low levels of objectively assessed HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge prior to the intervention. The education intervention increased self-rated HPV knowledge among all three key groups (all p<0.001), as well as objectively assessed knowledge about many aspects of HPV and HPV vaccine among healthcare and school staff members (all p<0.05). Following the intervention, over 90% of school staff members believed HPV and HPV vaccine education is worthwhile for school personnel and that middle schools are an appropriate venue for this education. Most parents (97%) and school staff members (85%) indicated they would be supportive of school-based vaccination clinics. Conclusions Our education intervention greatly increased HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge among groups influential to the HPV vaccination behaviors of adolescent females. Impact Education interventions represent a simple yet potentially effective strategy for increasing HPV vaccination and garnering stronger support for school-based vaccination clinics. PMID:21949110

  16. Current state in the development of candidate therapeutic HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Andrew; Jeang, Jessica; Cheng, Kevin; Cheng, Ting; Yang, Benjamin; Wu, T-C; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2016-08-01

    The identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological factor for HPV-associated malignancies creates the opportunity to control these cancers through vaccination. Currently, available preventive HPV vaccines have not yet demonstrated strong evidences for therapeutic effects against established HPV infections and lesions. Furthermore, HPV infections remain extremely common. Thus, there is urgent need for therapeutic vaccines to treat existing HPV infections and HPV-associated diseases. Therapeutic vaccines differ from preventive vaccines in that they are aimed at generating cell-mediated immunity rather than neutralizing antibodies. The HPV-encoded early proteins, especially oncoproteins E6 and E7, form ideal targets for therapeutic HPV vaccines since they are consistently expressed in HPV-associated malignancies and precancerous lesions, playing crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of HPV-associated disease. Our review will cover various therapeutic vaccines in development for the treatment of HPV-associated lesions and cancers. Furthermore, we review strategies to enhance vaccine efficacy and the latest clinical trials on therapeutic HPV vaccines. PMID:26901118

  17. Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Meric, Dorothée; Dessy, Francis J; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Dubin, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In this observer-blind study (NCT00423046), women (N = 1,106), stratified by age (18–26, 27–35, 36–45 y), were randomized (1:1) to receive the HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Months 0, 1, 6) or the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (Gardasil® Merck and Co., Inc., Months 0, 2, 6). Month 7 results were previously reported; we now report Month 24 results. In the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative at baseline for HPV type analyzed), seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) [pseudovirion-based neutralization assay] were, across all age strata, 100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 97.5–100% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-16, and 99.0–100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 72.3–84.4% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-18. Corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 2.4–5.8-fold higher for HPV-16 and 7.7–9.4-fold higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine vs. the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine; HPV-16 and HPV-18 GMTs were significantly higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (p < 0.0001) in the total vaccinated cohort (received ≥1 vaccine dose, irrespective of baseline sero/DNA-status). Similar results were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ). Positivity rates and GMTs of antigen-specific IgG antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions (ELISA) were not significantly different between vaccines. At Month 24, CD4+ T-cell responses for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine; memory B-cell response was higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine and similar between vaccines for HPV-16. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Although an immunological correlate of protection has not been defined, differences in the magnitude of immune response between vaccines may represent determinants of duration of protection. PMID:22048173

  18. Deconstructing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Knowledge: Objective and Perceived Knowledge in Males' Intentions to Receive the HPV Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…

  19. Increasing HPV vaccination through policy for public health benefit.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Heather M; Pierce, Jennifer Young; Crary, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    Vaccines against specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cancer and other diseases have been met with mixed acceptance globally and in the United States. Policy-level interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing public health benefit. Government policies and mandates may result in improved HPV vaccination coverage and reduced disease burden, and alternative policies that improve unhindered access to HPV vaccination may allow success as well. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize policy efforts to maximize the public health benefit of HPV vaccination. We examine selected examples of HPV vaccination policy in global contexts and in the United States. PMID:26669416

  20. Morbidity and mortality of vulvar and vaginal cancers: Impact of 2-, 4-, and 9-valent HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Tommy R; Graybill, Whitney S; Pierce, Jennifer Young

    2016-06-01

    Vaginal and vulvar cancers do not account for a large proportion of gynecologic malignancies but their impact is significant. Both vaginal and vulvar lesions have precursors and display levels of dysplasia before progression to invasive disease. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a known causative agent of such dysplasia and can be detected now more readily than ever with adequate recognition techniques and provider awareness. Although HPV vaccination is still lagging compared to other recommended childhood vaccinations, the impact on lower genital tract neoplasia is promising. The bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines have been shown to be efficacious and the newest nonavalent vaccine should add even more of impact on coverage of cancer-causing HPV types. Although it is still early to show true clinical and population-based disease reduction due to low disease incidence and relatively short time of vaccine availability, the potential is noteworthy. PMID:26901390

  1. Acceptability of HPV Vaccines and Associations with Perceptions Related to HPV and HPV Vaccines Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Wang, Zixin; Kim, Jean H.; Lau, Mason; Lai, Coco H. Y.; Mo, Phoenix K. H.

    2013-01-01

    HPV vaccines are available to men but there are few studies investigating the acceptability of HPV vaccines among men who have sex with men (MSM), a high risk group. We assessed the intention to take up HPV vaccines among MSM in Hong Kong and the associated factors related to cognitions on HPV and HPV vaccines, basing on the Health Belief Model (n = 542). The acceptability of HPV vaccines was 20% (unconditional on efficacies and price), 29.2% (conditional on efficacies and market price), 51.7% (conditional on efficacies and discounted price) and 79.1% (conditional on efficacies and free price). Adjusting for background variables, composite scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers and cue to actions were significantly associated with acceptability of HPV vaccines conditional on specific efficacies and the market price. Acceptability of HPV vaccines was highly price sensitive. Future studies need to use conditional measures. Implementation and translational researches are warranted. PMID:23451188

  2. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Gardasil Vaccine - What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine - Gardasil® Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www. ... WHAT IS HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common ... in the United States. More than half of sexually active men ...

  3. Parents’ Internet use for information about HPV vaccine

    PubMed Central

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Reiter, Paul L.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The Internet is an increasingly common source of health-related information. We sought to examine associations between parents’ Internet information-seeking and their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Methods We interviewed parents within a year after approval of HPV vaccine for females and males. Participants were North Carolina parents with daughters ages 10–18 surveyed by telephone in Fall 2007 (n=773); and a national sample of parents with sons ages 11–17 surveyed online in Fall 2010 (n=115). We used multivariate regression to examine associations of past and intended Internet seeking for HPV vaccine information with knowledge and health belief model-related constructs. Results Among parents of daughters, having heard of HPV vaccine through the Internet (8%) was associated with higher HPV knowledge, perceived likelihood of HPV, and vaccination willingness, and with receiving a doctor’s recommendation. It was also associated with lower perceived vaccine harms, uncertainty, and anticipated regret. Parents of sons who heard of HPV vaccine through the Internet (10%) perceived greater barriers to vaccination than parents who learned about HPV vaccine for males through other sources. Intended future Internet information-seeking among parents of daughters (69%) was more likely if they perceived a lower likelihood that their daughters would get HPV if they were vaccinated (all p<.05). Conclusions Our findings suggest a positive influence of accessing information on the Internet about HPV vaccine. It was associated with higher knowledge and mostly positive parental attitudes and beliefs. PMID:22172505

  4. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions

    PubMed Central

    TESTI, D.; NARDONE, M.; MELONE, P.; CARDELLI, P.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%–90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before “sexual puberty”. The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:27555904

  5. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions.

    PubMed

    Testi, D; Nardone, M; Melone, P; Cardelli, P; Ottria, L; Arcuri, C

    2015-01-01

    The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%-90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before "sexual puberty". The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:27555904

  6. HPV Vaccination in India: Critical Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Pikee; Acharya, Anita S.; Mishra, Archana; Batra, Swaraj

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. The role of human papilloma virus (HPV) in the genesis of cervical carcinoma is well documented. The HPV 16 and 18 are found to be most commonly associated with invasive cervical carcinoma. The advent of cervical carcinoma vaccine has advanced the hopes that eradication of cervical carcinoma might be possible in future. The scenario of prevention of cervical carcinoma is completely different in developed and developing countries. The implementation of the vaccination as a routine in India is still controversial. Here we have tried to critically analyse these issues in Indian context. However it is clear that cervical cancer vaccine is not an immediate panacea and cannot replace the cervical cancer screening which is mandatory in Indian context. PMID:25006481

  7. HPV Vaccine - Cervarix: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT HPV Vaccine Cervarix ® (Human Papillomavirus) What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information Statements are available in Spanish and other languages. See www. immunize. org/ ...

  8. HPV Vaccination's Second Act: Promotion, Competition, and Compulsion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Developments regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines will transform HPV vaccination in the United States while simultaneously raising several new policy and ethical concerns. Policymakers, vaccine manufacturers, and the public health community must now respond to the presence of competing vaccines that are similar but distinct, particularly with respect to genital wart prevention and the benefits of vaccinating males. This work arises in the shadow of the contentious introduction of the HPV vaccine Gardasil (Merck & Co, Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ) in 2006, particularly the opposition to efforts in many states to require the vaccine for school attendance. I review the current status of HPV vaccine policy in the United States and examine issues of public health ethics and policy central to ongoing and future HPV vaccination programs. PMID:20724671

  9. Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccination: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Laura A V; Zimet, Gregory D; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Ostini, Remo; Waller, Jo

    2013-01-21

    Since vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) became available, awareness of HPV has dramatically increased. Implementation of a vaccine program varies internationally yet no studies have explored the influence this has on the public's knowledge of HPV. The present study aimed to explore differences in awareness of HPV and HPV knowledge across three countries: The US, UK and Australia. Participants (n=2409) completed a validated measure of HPV knowledge as part of an online survey. There were higher levels of HPV awareness among men and women in the US than the UK and Australia. Being male and having a lower educational level was associated with lower HPV awareness in all three countries. Awareness of HPV vaccine was higher in women from the US than the UK and Australia. Women in the US scored significantly higher on general HPV knowledge (on a 15-item scale) than women in the UK and Australia, but there were no between country differences in HPV vaccine knowledge (on a 6-item scale). When asked about country-specific vaccine availability, participants in the US were less able to identify the correct answers than participants in the UK and Australia. More than half of participants did not know: HPV can cause genital warts; most sexually active people will get HPV at some point in their life; or HPV doesn't usually need treatment. Pharmaceutical advertising campaigns could explain why awareness of HPV and HPV vaccine is higher in the US and this has helped to get some important messages across. Significant gaps in HPV knowledge remain across all three countries. PMID:23246310

  10. Mothers' support for voluntary provision of HPV vaccine in schools.

    PubMed

    Kadis, Jessica A; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gottlieb, Sami L; Lee, Morgan R; Reiter, Paul L; Dittus, Patricia J; Brewer, Noel T

    2011-03-21

    HPV vaccination rates among adolescents in the United States lag behind some other developed countries, many of which routinely offer the vaccine in schools. We sought to assess mothers' willingness to have their adolescent daughters receive HPV vaccine at school. A national sample of mothers of adolescent females ages 11-14 completed our internet survey (response rate=66%). The final sample (n=496) excluded mothers who did not intend to have their daughters receive HPV vaccine in the next year. Overall, 67% of mothers who intended to vaccinate their daughters or had vaccinated their daughters reported being willing to have their daughters receive HPV vaccine at school. Mothers were more willing to allow their daughters to receive HPV vaccine in schools if they had not yet initiated the vaccine series for their daughters or resided in the Midwest or West (all p<.05). The two concerns about voluntary school-based provision of HPV vaccine that mothers most frequently cited were that their daughters' doctors should keep track of her shots (64%) and that they wished to be present when their daughters were vaccinated (40%). Our study suggests that most mothers who support adolescent vaccination for HPV find school-based HPV vaccination an acceptable option. Ensuring communication of immunization records with doctors and allowing parents to be present during immunization may increase parental support. PMID:21300097

  11. Alternative dosage schedules with HPV VLP vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Margaret A.; Sudenga, Staci L.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines can prevent multiple cancers in women and men. Difficulties in the cost and completion of the three-dose vaccine series have led to considerations of alternative dose schedules. In clinical trials, three doses given within a 12-month period versus the standard six-month period yielded comparable results, and immunogenicity appears comparable with two doses in adolescent females compared to the three-dose series in adult females. While the data are generally supportive of moving to a two-dose vaccine schedule among young female adolescents, the adoption of a two-dose vaccine schedule still poses a potential risk to the strength and longevity of the immune response. Public health authorities implementing a two-dose vaccine schedule should devise risk management strategies to minimize the potential impact on cancer prevention. PMID:25001893

  12. HPV Vaccine Awareness and Knowledge Among Women Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Wigfall, L T; Bynum, S A; Brandt, H M; Hébert, J R

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer risk is increased among women living with HIV (WLH). Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been shown to be safe and immunogenic among WLH. We examined HPV vaccine awareness and HPV knowledge among WLH. This cross-sectional study collected data from 145 WLH between March 2011 and April 2012. An interviewer-administered survey assessed HPV vaccine awareness and knowledge. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Our sample was 90 % non-Hispanic black and 64 % earned <$10,000/year. Few (38 %) had heard of the HPV vaccine. Half (50 %) knew that HPV caused cervical cancer. HPV vaccine awareness was ten times higher among WLH who knew HPV caused cervical cancer (OR = 10.17; 95 % CI 3.82-27.06). HPV vaccine awareness is low among WLH. Cancer prevention efforts aimed at raising awareness about the HPV vaccine and increasing knowledge about HPV are necessary first steps in reducing cervical cancer disparities among WLH. PMID:26561426

  13. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine safety review and safety monitoring plans for nine-valent HPV vaccine in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gee, Julianne; Weinbaum, Cindy; Sukumaran, Lakshmi; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2016-06-01

    Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccine was licensed for use in the United States in 2006 and through 2015 was the predominate HPV vaccine used. With the exception of syncope, a known preventable adverse event after any injected vaccination, both pre-licensure and post-licensure 4vHPV safety data have been reassuring with no confirmed safety signals identified. Nine-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) was licensed in 2014. This review includes post-licensure 4vHPV safety findings published to date that have informed the US vaccination program; these data will inform US safety monitoring and evaluation for 9vHPV. PMID:27029786

  14. HPV

    MedlinePlus

    ... of HPV. Most are harmless, but about 30 types put you at risk for cancer. These types affect the genitals and you get them through ... to cancer. Both Pap and HPV tests are types of cervical cancer ... not eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. Vaccines can protect ...

  15. Racial Differences in HPV Knowledge, HPV Vaccine Acceptability, and Related Beliefs among Rural, Southern Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Joan R.; Brewer, Noel T.; Fazekas, Karah I.; Mitchell, Cicely E.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. Purpose: To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine…

  16. Evaluation of an Intervention Providing HPV Vaccine in Schools

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Brenda W.; Panozzo, Catherine A.; Moss, Jennifer L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Whitesell, Dianne H.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To conduct outcome and process evaluations of school-located HPV vaccination clinics in partnership with a local health department. Methods Temporary clinics provided the HPV vaccine to middle school girls in Guilford County, North Carolina, in 2009–2010. Results HPV vaccine initiation was higher among girls attending host schools than satellite schools (6% vs. 1%, OR = 6.56, CI = 3.99–10.78). Of the girls who initiated HPV vaccine, 80% received all 3 doses. Private insurance or federal programs paid for most vaccine doses. Conclusions Lessons learned for creating more effective school-health department partnerships include focusing on host schools and delivering several vaccines to adolescents, not just HPV vaccine alone. PMID:24034684

  17. HPV vaccination for prevention of skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vinzón, Sabrina E; Rösl, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous papillomaviruses are associated with specific skin diseases, such as extensive wart formation and the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), especially in immunosuppressed patients. Hence, clinical approaches are required that prevent such lesions. Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines confer type-restricted protection against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, responsible of 90% of genital warts and 70% of cervical cancers, respectively. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk types or cutaneous HPVs. Over the past few years, several studies explored the potential of developing vaccines targeting cutaneous papillomaviruses. These vaccines showed to be immunogenic and prevent skin tumor formation in certain animal models. Furthermore, under conditions mimicking the ones found in the intended target population (i.e., immunosuppression and in the presence of an already established infection before vaccination), recent preclinical data shows that immunization can still be effective. Strategies are currently focused on finding vaccine formulations that can confer protection against a broad range of papillomavirus-associated diseases. The state-of-the-art of these approaches and the future directions in the field will be presented. PMID:25692212

  18. Formative Research on HPV Vaccine Acceptability Among Latina Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Luque, John S.; Castañeda, Heide; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Vargas, Natalia; Meade, Cathy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers and benefits to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in a low-income, Latina farmworker population in central Florida. This study reports on formative qualitative research conducted on perceptions of benefits, barriers, costs, place, and promotion related to the HPV vaccine from surveys and interviews with a sample of 46 low-income, Latina farm workers and 19 health care workers serving this population. It was found that Latina farmworkers hold many misperceptions about the HPV vaccine and the potential links between HPV infection and cervical cancer. In addition, it was observed that HPV vaccination intention was inversely related to concerns about adolescent sexual behavior and low perceived risk of infection but might be positively influenced by belief in illness prevention and physician recommendation. These findings add to the growing research on HPV vaccine acceptability among Latina subgroups to inform intervention development, marketing materials, education, and policy. PMID:21881079

  19. HPV vaccine (human papillomavirus) Cervarix - what you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® Vaccine Information Statement: www.cdc.gov/ ... What is HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common ... in the United States. More than half of sexually active men ...

  20. Targeting the Two Oncogenic Functional Sites of the HPV E6 Oncoprotein with a High-Affinity Bivalent Ligand**

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Juan; Poirson, Juline; Foltz, Clémence; Chebaro, Yassmine; Schrapp, Maxime; Meyer, Amandine; Bonetta, Anaëlle; Forster, Anne; Jacob, Yves; Masson, Murielle; Deryckère, François; Travé, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The E6 oncoproteins of high-risk mucosal (hrm) human papillomaviruses (HPVs) contain a pocket that captures LxxLL motifs and a C-terminal motif that recruits PDZ domains, with both functions being crucial for HPV-induced oncogenesis. A chimeric protein was built by fusing a PDZ domain and an LxxLL motif, both known to bind E6. NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry and a mammalian protein complementation assay converged to show that the resulting PDZ-LxxLL chimera is a bivalent nanomolar ligand of E6, while its separated PDZ and LxxLL components are only micromolar binders. The chimera binds to all of the hrm-HPV E6 proteins tested but not to low-risk mucosal or cutaneous HPV E6. Adenovirus-mediated expression of the chimera specifically induces the death of HPV-positive cells, concomitant with increased levels of the tumour suppressor P53, its transcriptional target p21, and the apoptosis marker cleaved caspase 3. The bifunctional PDZ-LxxLL chimera opens new perspectives for the diagnosis and treatment of HPV-induced cancers. PMID:26014966

  1. Physician support of HPV vaccination school-entry requirements.

    PubMed

    Califano, Sophia; Calo, William A; Weinberger, Morris; Gilkey, Melissa B; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-06-01

    School-entry requirements in the US have led to high coverage for several vaccines, but few states and jurisdictions have adopted these policies for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Because physicians play a key role in advocating for vaccination policies, we assessed physician support of requiring HPV vaccine for school entry and correlates of this support. Participants were a national sample of 775 physicians who provide primary care, including vaccines, to adolescents. Physicians completed an online survey in 2014 that assessed their support for school-entry requirements for HPV vaccination of 11 and 12 y olds. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess correlates of support for these requirements. The majority of physicians (74%) supported some form of school-entry requirements, with or without opt-out provisions. When opt-out provisions were not specified, 47% agreed that laws requiring HPV vaccination for school attendance were a "good idea." Physicians more often agreed with requirements, without opt-out provisions, if they: had more years in practice (OR=1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.04), gave higher quality HPV vaccine recommendations (OR=2.06; 95% CI: 1.45-2.93), believed that having requirements for Tdap, but not HPV, vaccination undermined its importance (OR=3.33; 95% CI: 2.26-4.9), and believed HPV vaccination was as or more important than other adolescent vaccinations (OR=2.30; 95% CI: 1.65-3.18). In conclusion, we found that many physicians supported school-entry requirements for HPV vaccination. More research is needed to investigate the extent to which opt-out provisions might weaken or strengthen physician support of HPV vaccination school-entry requirements. PMID:26900726

  2. Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination in childhood: challenges and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mammas, I; Maher, F; Theodoridou, M; Spandidos, D

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) in childhood is a significant step forward in the reduction of HPV associated morbidity and mortality and a considerable scientific achievement. However, many challenges remain to be overcome if an effective HPV vaccine programme is to be successfully introduced worldwide. The aim of this review is to identify and summarize the new issues concerning HPV vaccination that have emerged since its introduction into clinical practice in school-aged girls. According to the literature, the overall impact of HPV vaccination on cervical cancer is unlikely to be apparent for the next decade. Cost-effectiveness is of particular importance, particularly in developing countries. Determining the age at which the vaccine should be administered, whether to include boys in addition to girls, the costs and the implications for cervical screening are issues that need to be addressed by conducting further research. PMID:24391408

  3. Increasing HPV vaccination series completion rates via text message reminders.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Elaine C; Derouin, Anne; Gagliano, Martha; Thompson, Julie A; Blood-Siegfried, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most frequently diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. It is associated with the development of cervical, anal-genital, and oral-pharyngeal cancers. The rate of HPV infection among adolescents and young adults in the United States remains high, and completion rates of an HPV vaccine series remain low. At an urban pediatric clinic, adolescent and young adult participants aged 11 to 22 years (n = 37) received text message reminders for their second and third dose of HPV vaccine over an 8-month study period. Of the participants receiving text message reminders, 14% completed the vaccine series at the optimal time, whereas 0% of an interested group (n = 43) and only 3% of a standard care group (n = 232) completed the vaccine series at the optimal time. Findings support the use of text message reminders to improve HPV vaccine series completion rates in a pediatric practice. PMID:24200295

  4. HPV Vaccine Awareness, Barriers, Intentions, and Uptake in Latina Women.

    PubMed

    Lechuga, Julia; Vera-Cala, Lina; Martinez-Donate, Ana

    2016-02-01

    Latina women are at heightened risk of cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the principal cause of the majority of cervical cancer cases. A vaccine that protects against HPV was licensed in 2006. Eight years post-licensure, mixed research findings exist regarding the factors that predict vaccine uptake in Latinas. We conducted a population-based phone survey with a random sample of 296 Latinas living in a Midwestern U.S. City. Intention to vaccinate was significantly associated with health care provider recommendations, worry about side effects, knowing other parents have vaccinated, perceived severity of HPV, and worry that daughter may become sexually active following vaccination. Worry that daughter may become sexually active was the only factor related to vaccine uptake. Findings suggest that training providers to discuss the low risk of severe side effects, consequences of persistent HPV, and sexuality related concerns with Latino women may encourage vaccination. PMID:25432149

  5. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine - what you need to know [Gardasil®-9

    MedlinePlus

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Gardasil-9 Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-gardasil-9.html . CDC review information for HPV ...

  6. Mothers' acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for daughters in a country with a high prevalence of HPV.

    PubMed

    Alder, Susanna; Gustafsson, Sofia; Perinetti, Claudia; Mints, Miriam; Sundström, Karin; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Argentina and the mortality rate is not declining despite opportunistic screening. Free-of-charge human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of 11-year-old girls was introduced in 2011. Parental acceptance of HPV vaccination is considered to be of great importance for HPV vaccine uptake. However, little is known regarding this factor in Argentina. The aim of the present study was to explore maternal HPV vaccination acceptance, willingness to pay for HPV vaccination and correlates of this willingness, awareness of HPV and HPV-associated disease and behaviors and attitudes associated with HPV vaccination acceptance. A total of 180 mothers of girls aged 9-15 years comprised this quantitative, cross-sectional, survey-based study, conducted at two hospitals in the Mendoza Province. Correlates of willingness to pay for HPV vaccination were obtained using multivariable logistic regression models. Maternal HPV vaccination acceptance was 90%, and 60% of mothers were willing to pay for HPV vaccination. Mothers who were gainfully employed and had a higher disposable household income were significantly more willing to pay for HPV vaccination [odds ratio (OR)=2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-6.38; OR=3.28, 95% CI 1.36-7.94, respectively], as were mothers who were aware of cervical cancer prior to the study (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.02-10.14). Only one in 10 mothers were informed that HPV vaccination does not offer complete protection against cervical cancer. In conclusion, the present study showed high maternal HPV vaccination acceptance, although acceptance decreased when vaccination was not free-of-charge. Continuous public education campaigns are needed to improve knowledge of HPV, HPV vaccines and HPV-associated disease. PMID:25738832

  7. HPV vaccines and cancer prevention, science versus activism.

    PubMed

    Tomljenovic, Lucija; Wilyman, Judy; Vanamee, Eva; Bark, Toni; Shaw, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    The rationale behind current worldwide human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination programs starts from two basic premises, 1) that HPV vaccines will prevent cervical cancers and save lives and, 2) have no risk of serious side effects. Therefore, efforts should be made to get as many pre-adolescent girls vaccinated in order to decrease the burden of cervical cancer. Careful analysis of HPV vaccine pre- and post-licensure data shows however that both of these premises are at odds with factual evidence and are largely derived from significant misinterpretation of available data. PMID:23369430

  8. Intent to Receive an HPV Vaccine among University Men and Women and Implications for Vaccine Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Melissa; Cook, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: In 2006, the authors examined intention to receive an HPV vaccine among 340 college students. Methods: A total of 138 men and 202 women completed questionnaires. The authors measured intention by asking participants how likely they would be to accept an HPV vaccine that prevented against (1) all HPV, (2) cervical cancer…

  9. Development of Recombinant Newcastle Disease Viruses Expressing the Glycoprotein (G) of Avian Metapneumovirus as Bivalent Vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using reverse genetics technology, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant viruses were engineered to express the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), subtype A, B or C, as bivalent vaccines. These recombinant viruses were slightly attenuated in vivo, yet maintaine...

  10. Effective Strategies for HPV Vaccine Delivery: The Views of Pediatricians

    PubMed Central

    Tissot, Abbigail M.; Zimet, Gregory D.; Rosenthal, Susan L.; Bernstein, David I.; Wetzel, Caitlin; Kahn, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Pediatricians will play a critical role in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine delivery. The objectives of this research were to examine pediatricians' views about key issues related to HPV vaccine delivery and identify their strategies for effective vaccine delivery. Methods A diverse sample of practicing pediatricians was recruited from a three-state region using a purposeful sampling strategy. Participants completed in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Qualitative data were analyzed using framework analysis. Results The mean age of the 31 participants was 47 (range 30-78) years, 17 (55%) were female, 9 (29%) black, and 4 (13%) Latino. Participants noted that cultural issues, including a family's religious and ethnic background, were important considerations when recommending an HPV vaccine. Almost all participants believed that vaccination should be universal rather than targeted, but opinions regarding legislative mandates for vaccination varied. Those in favor of mandates cited their potential to maximize the public health impact of immunization, while those opposed noted that HPV is not transmitted casually and were concerned about limited data on the long-term safety and efficacy of HPV vaccines. Pediatricians noted that specific strategies for effective vaccine delivery would be needed for an STI vaccine targeted toward adolescents, especially considering the poor public understanding of HPV. These included provision of HPV vaccines in alternative settings, guidance for pediatricians as to how to address parental concerns, and specific educational initiatives. Conclusions The views of pediatricians, who have extensive experience administering vaccines to children and adolescents, will be valuable as HPV vaccine delivery strategies are designed. PMID:17659214

  11. [Development and evaluation of an inactivated bivalent vaccine against duck viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Yin, Fenggui; Jing, Li; Zhang, Shuang; Yu, Meng; Zhang, Wanlin; Fan, Guobing; Dong, Xiukai; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-11-01

    The rapid mutation and widely spread of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) lead to the vast economic loss of the duck industry. To prepare and evaluate bivalent inactivated vaccine laboratory products of DHAV, 6 strains were screened from 201 DHAV-1 strains and 38 DHAV-3 strains by using serotype epidemiological analysis in most of the duck factory. Vaccine candidate strains were selected by ELD50 and LD50 tests in the 6 strains. Continuously passaged, the 5th passaged duck embryos bodies grinding fluid was selected as vaccine virus seeds. The virus seeds were treated with formaldehyde and water in oil in water (W/O/W) emulsions, making into three batches of two bivalent inactivated vaccine laboratory products. The safety test, antibody neutralization test, challenged protection and cross immune protection experiment suggested that the vaccines possessed good safety, and neutralizing antibodies were detected at 7th day and the challenged protection rate reached 90% to 100% at the 14th and 21st day. Moreover, immune duration of ducklings lasted more than five weeks. However, cross-immunity protection experiments with DHAV-SH and DHAV-FS only had 20%-30%. The two bivalent inactivated vaccine laboratory products of duck viral hepatitis were effective and reliable, providing a new method as well as a new product for DHAV prevention and control. PMID:26939441

  12. Parent Perception of Provider Interactions Influences HPV Vaccination Status of Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage among adolescent females is well below national public health goals. Many known barriers to HPV vaccine receipt can be addressed in parent-physician conversations. This study sought to explore parent experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination of adolescent girls, focused on interactions with providers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of parents using a nationally representative online panel. Among parents with ≥1 daughter aged 11 to 17 years, provider recommendations for HPV vaccine and specified age to begin the HPV vaccine series were associated with HPV vaccine status. Parents who reported their daughters were unlikely to complete the HPV series were more likely to have had no discussion of HPV vaccine with the provider. Efforts to increase HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females should continue to focus on improving provider discussion of HPV vaccine. PMID:26450982

  13. Antibody Secreting Cell Responses following Vaccination with Bivalent Oral Cholera Vaccine among Haitian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Richelle C.; Mayo-Smith, Leslie M.; Teng, Jessica E.; Xu, Peng; Kováč, Pavol; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi; Franke, Molly F.; Ivers, Louise C.; Harris, Jason B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The bivalent whole-cell (BivWC) oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) is effective in preventing cholera. However, evaluations of immune responses following vaccination with BivWC have been limited. To determine whether BivWC induces significant mucosal immune responses, we measured V. cholerae O1 antigen-specific antibody secreting cell (ASC) responses following vaccination. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled 24 Haitian adults in this study, and administered doses of oral BivWC vaccine 14 days apart (day 0 and day 14). We drew blood at baseline, and 7 days following each vaccine dose (day 7 and 21). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated, and ASCs were enumerated using an ELISPOT assay. Significant increases in Ogawa (6.9 cells per million PBMCs) and Inaba (9.5 cells per million PBMCs) OSP-specific IgA ASCs were detected 7 days following the first dose (P < 0.001), but not the second dose. The magnitude of V. cholerae-specific ASC responses did not appear to be associated with recent exposure to cholera. ASC responses measured against the whole lipolysaccharide (LPS) antigen and the OSP moiety of LPS were equivalent, suggesting that all or nearly all of the LPS response targets the OSP moiety. Conclusions/Significance Immunization with the BivWC oral cholera vaccine induced ASC responses among a cohort of healthy adults in Haiti after a single dose. The second dose of vaccine resulted in minimal ASC responses over baseline, suggesting that the current dosing schedule may not be optimal for boosting mucosal immune responses to V. cholerae antigens for adults in a cholera-endemic area. PMID:27308825

  14. Knowledge of HPV, Perception of Risk, and Intent to Obtain HPV Vaccination among Male University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted virus in the world, is associated with almost all cases of cervical cancer. It is also related to vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancer. HPV vaccination is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for both boys and girls. Unfortunately,…

  15. Tumor prevention in HPV8 transgenic mice by HPV8-E6 DNA vaccination.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, Gian Paolo; Awerkiew, Sabine; Hufbauer, Martin; Schädlich, Lysann; Gissmann, Lutz; Eming, Sabine; Pfister, Herbert

    2014-06-01

    The genus beta human papillomavirus 8 (HPV8) is involved in the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in individuals with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Immunosuppressed transplant recipients are prone to harbor particularly high betapapillomavirus DNA loads, which may contribute to their highly increased risk of SCC. Tumor induction in HPV8 transgenic mice correlates with increased expression of viral oncogenes E6 and E2. In an attempt to prevent skin tumor development, we evaluated an HPV8-E6-DNA vaccine, which was able to stimulate a detectable HPV8-E6-specific cell-mediated immune response in 8/15 immunized mice. When skin of HPV8 transgenic mice was grafted onto non-transgenic littermates, the grafted HPV8 transgenic tissue was not rejected and papillomas started to grow within 14 days all over the transplant of 9/9 non-vaccinated and 7/15 not successfully vaccinated mice. In contrast, no papillomas developed in 6/8 successfully vaccinated mice. In the other two of these eight mice, a large ulcerative lesion developed within the initial papilloma growth or papilloma development was highly delayed. As the vaccine completely or partially prevented papilloma development without rejecting the transplanted HPV8 positive skin, the immune system appears to attack only keratinocytes with increased levels of E6 protein, which would give rise to papillomas. PMID:24446083

  16. Perceptions of HPV Vaccine amongst UK University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ellen; Senior, Naomi; Abdullah, Ammar; Brown, Janine; Collings, Suzanne; Racktoo, Sophie; Walpole, Sarah; Zeiton, Moez; Heffernan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this small-scale focus group study is to explore the impact the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has on attitudes towards HPV, cervical cancer and sexual risk taking amongst university students in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on notice boards throughout the…

  17. Interventions to increase HPV vaccination coverage: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Smulian, Elizabeth A.; Mitchell, Krista R.; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We reviewed intervention studies designed to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage to further understand the impact interventions can have on HPV vaccination coverage. We searched 5 databases for intervention studies published from June 2006 to May 2015. Studies were included if they quantitatively measured HPV vaccination coverage as an outcome and were conducted in the United States. We abstracted outcomes, methods, and results from each study and classified by type of intervention conducted. Findings from 34 studies suggest many types of intervention strategies can increase HPV vaccination coverage in different settings, and with modest cost. Interventions were effective especially when implemented in combination at both provider and community levels. However, not all interventions showed significant effects on coverage. More research is needed to identify the best methods for widespread implementation of effective strategies. PMID:26838959

  18. Interventions to increase HPV vaccination coverage: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smulian, Elizabeth A; Mitchell, Krista R; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-06-01

    We reviewed intervention studies designed to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage to further understand the impact interventions can have on HPV vaccination coverage. We searched 5 databases for intervention studies published from June 2006 to May 2015. Studies were included if they quantitatively measured HPV vaccination coverage as an outcome and were conducted in the United States. We abstracted outcomes, methods, and results from each study and classified by type of intervention conducted. Findings from 34 studies suggest many types of intervention strategies can increase HPV vaccination coverage in different settings, and with modest cost. Interventions were effective especially when implemented in combination at both provider and community levels. However, not all interventions showed significant effects on coverage. More research is needed to identify the best methods for widespread implementation of effective strategies. PMID:26838959

  19. The internet’s role in HPV vaccine education

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pooja R; Berenson, Abbey B

    2014-01-01

    The internet is the second most popular source, after healthcare providers, of information regarding human papillomavirus (HPV). These online searches usually begin with the user entering generic terms in the search engine, and then reading the first few results that the engine returns. Unfortunately, research shows that much of this information obtained about the HPV vaccine is inaccurate and incomplete. In this review, we summarize the literature pertaining to online information concerning the HPV vaccine and review concerns related to obtaining online medical information. Finally, we propose possible solutions medical providers can employ in their everyday practice to help their patients obtain accurate information through their online searches. PMID:24553151

  20. Simulating Immune Interference on the Effect of a Bivalent Glycoconjugate Vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae Serotypes "a" and "b".

    PubMed

    Konini, Angjelina; Kang, Mingsong; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We sought to evaluate the immune responses to a bivalent Haemophilus influenzae glycoconjugate vaccine against serotypes "a" (Hia) and "b" (Hib) in the presence of the preexisting immunity to Hib. Methods. We developed a stochastic simulation model of humoral immune response to investigate the antigenic challenge of a bivalent combined glycoconjugate vaccine and a bivalent unimolecular glycoconjugate vaccine. We compared simulation outcomes in the absence of any preexisting immunity with an already primed immune response having specific memory B cells and/or anti-Hib antibodies. Results. The simulation results show that the preexisting immune responses to Hib or carrier protein (CP) may significantly impede the production of anti-Hia antibodies by a unimolecular vaccine. In contrast, the production of anti-Hia antibodies using a combined vaccine is inhibited only in the presence of CP immune responses. Conclusions. Preexisting immunity to Hib and CP may play a critical role in the development of immune responses against Hia or Hib using bivalent combined and unimolecular vaccine formulations. Our results suggest that a bivalent combined glycoconjugate vaccine with a carrier protein not previously used in Hib conjugate vaccines may be an effective formulation for generating immune responses to protect against both Hib and Hia infections. PMID:27366171

  1. Towards a HPV Vaccine Knowledgebase for Patient Education Content.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dennis; Cunningham, Rachel; Boom, Julie; Amith, Muhammad; Tao, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is a widespread sexually transmitted infection that can be prevented with vaccination. However, HPV vaccination rates in the United States are disappointingly low. This paper will introduce a patient oriented web ontology intended to provide an interactive way to educate patients about HPV and the HPV vaccine that will to empower patients to make the right vaccination decision. The information gathered for this initial draft of the ontology was primarily taken from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vaccine Information Statements. The ontology currently consists of 160 triples, 141 classes, 52 properties and 55 individuals. For future iterations, we aim to incorporate more information as well as obtain subject matter expert feedback to improve the overall quality of the ontology. PMID:27332237

  2. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil-9)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 9 prevents many cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, including:cervical cancer in females vaginal and ... Gardasil-9 can prevent most of these cancers. HPV infection usually comes from sexual contact, and most ...

  3. Immunogenicity of next-generation HPV vaccines in non-human primates: Measles-vectored HPV vaccine versus Pichia pastoris recombinant protein vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gaurav; Giannino, Viviana; Rishi, Narayan; Glueck, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. HPVs are oncogenic small double-stranded DNA viruses that are the primary causal agent of cervical cancer and other types of cancers, including in the anus, oropharynx, vagina, vulva, and penis. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV is an attractive strategy for preventing cervical cancer and some other types of cancers. However, there are few safe and effective vaccines against HPV infections. Current first-generation commercial HPV vaccines are expensive to produce and deliver. The goal of this study was to develop an alternate potent HPV recombinant L1-based vaccines by producing HPV virus-like particles into a vaccine that is currently used worldwide. Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have a well-established safety and efficacy record, and recombinant MV (rMV) produced by reverse genetics may be useful for generating candidate HPV vaccines to meet the needs of the developing world. We studied in non-human primate rMV-vectored HPV vaccine in parallel with a classical alum adjuvant recombinant HPV16L1 and 18L1 protein vaccine produced in Pichia pastoris. A combined prime-boost approach using both vaccines was evaluated, as well as immune interference due to pre-existing immunity against the MV. The humoral immune response induced by the MV, Pichia-expressed vaccine, and their combination as priming and boosting approaches was found to elicit HPV16L1 and 18L1 specific total IgG and neutralizing antibody titres. Pre-existing antibodies against measles did not prevent the immune response against HPV16L1 and 18L1. PMID:27523740

  4. IMMUNIZATION OF EYED CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS, EGGS WITH MONOVALENT FLAVOBACTERIUM COLUMNARE VACCINE AND BIVALENT F. COLUMNARE AND EDWARDSIELLA ICTALURI VACCINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of a modified live monovalent Flavobacterium columnare vaccine and bivalent F. columnare and Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccines were evaluated following immersion vaccination of eyed channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) eggs. The modified live F. columnare vaccine was grown in modified Sh...

  5. HPV Knowledge and Vaccine Acceptability Among Hispanic Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Margaret M.; Vanderpool, Robin; Shin, Sarah; Kobetz, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge and vaccine acceptability in a convenience sample of immigrant Hispanic men, many of whom are parents of adolescents. Data on 189 male callers were collected from the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Information Service Spanish-language call center. Most participants were willing to vaccinate their adolescent son (87.5 %) or daughter (78.8 %) against HPV. However, among this sample, awareness of HPV was low and knowledge of key risk factors varied. These findings can help guide the development of culturally informed educational efforts aimed at increasing informed decision-making about HPV vaccination among Hispanic fathers. PMID:23377881

  6. Controlled viral glycoprotein expression as a safety feature in a bivalent rabies-ebola vaccine.

    PubMed

    Papaneri, Amy B; Bernbaum, John G; Blaney, Joseph E; Jahrling, Peter B; Schnell, Matthias J; Johnson, Reed F

    2015-02-01

    Using a recombinant rabies (RABV) vaccine platform, we have developed several safe and effective vaccines. Most recently, we have developed a RABV-based ebolavirus (EBOV) vaccine that is efficacious in nonhuman primates. One safety feature of this vaccine is the utilization of a live but replication-deficient RABV construct. In this construct, the RABV glycoprotein (G) has been deleted from the genome, requiring G trans complementation in order for new infectious viruses to be released from the initial infected cell. Here we analyze this safety feature of the bivalent RABV-based EBOV vaccine comprised of the G-deleted RABV backbone expressing EBOV glycoprotein (GP). We found that, while the level of RABV genome in infected cells is equivalent regardless of G supplementation, the production of infectious virus is indeed restricted by the lack of G, and most importantly, that the presence of EBOV GP does not substitute for G. These findings further support the safety profile of this replication-deficient RABV-EBOV bivalent vaccine. PMID:25481284

  7. [Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Matejić, Bojana; Kesić, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the

  8. HPV and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of HPV HPV and Cancer HPV Cancer Screening HPV Vaccines HPV Vaccine Safety For Clinicians Know the Facts Continuing Education Provider Fact Sheets Schedules & Recommendations HPV Vaccine Coverage Data Commit to the Cause Tools for ...

  9. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types 6, 11, 16, 18 Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    The quadrivalent HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18 vaccine (Gardasil®) is a recombinant vaccine comprising purified virus-like particles derived from the L1 capsid proteins of HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. The vaccine was highly immunogenic. Geometric mean titres (GMTs) and seroconversion rates for all four HPV types at month 7 in males aged 10–15 years were noninferior to those in females aged 16–23 years, and those in males aged 9–15 years were noninferior to those in females aged 9–15 years. In addition, GMTs and seroconversion rates in males aged 16–26 years receiving the vaccine were higher than those receiving amorphous aluminium hydroxyphosphate sulfate adjuvant (AAHS) control. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine was significantly more effective than AAHS control at decreasing the incidence of HPV 6-, 11-, 16- or 18-related external genital lesions (primary endpoint) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study in males aged 16–26 years. The most common clinical endpoint was HPV 6- and 11-related condyloma; efficacy was robust against these lesions. The vaccine is also expected to be protective against genital warts in males aged 9–15 years, as the immune response in males of this age group was noninferior to that in males aged 16–26 years. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine was generally well tolerated in males aged 9–26 years. The most common adverse events reported were injection-site related, and most of these were of mild to moderate severity. PMID:21443282

  10. Ethics and the HPV Vaccine: Considerations for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Mary P.

    2008-01-01

    School nurses are at the forefront of health care providers for many families of junior high and high school students and are used as primary sources of information and guidance about recommended student vaccinations. In the case of the relatively new vaccine for human papillomavirus (HPV), school nurses must be both knowledgeable about the…

  11. Fewer Doses of HPV Vaccine Result in Immune Response Similar to Three-Dose Regimen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Releases NCI News Note Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose ... that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody ...

  12. Vaccine Has Cut HPV Infection Rate in Teen Girls by Two-Thirds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157399.html Vaccine Has Cut HPV Infection Rate in Teen Girls by Two-Thirds: ... News) -- Ten years of vaccinating against human papillomavirus (HPV) has cut infections from this cancer-causing virus ...

  13. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine - what you need to know [Gardasil®-9

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Gardasil-9 Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www. ... WHY GET VACCINATED? Gardasil-9 prevents human papillomavirus (HPV) ... Vaginal and vulvar cancers in females, and Anal cancer in ...

  14. A Review of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and HPV Vaccine-Related Attitudes and Sexual Behaviors among College-Aged Women in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV vaccine-related attitudes among college-aged women and the relationship between HPV vaccine uptake and subsequent sexual behaviors. Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar searches were performed from 2006, the date after the first HPV vaccine became available, to…

  15. Inactivated or Live-Attenuated Bivalent Vaccines That Confer Protection against Rabies and Ebola Viruses ▿

    PubMed Central

    Blaney, Joseph E.; Wirblich, Christoph; Papaneri, Amy B.; Johnson, Reed F.; Myers, Carey J.; Juelich, Terry L.; Holbrook, Michael R.; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Bernbaum, John G.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Paragas, Jason; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2011-01-01

    The search for a safe and efficacious vaccine for Ebola virus continues, as no current vaccine candidate is nearing licensure. We have developed (i) replication-competent, (ii) replication-deficient, and (iii) chemically inactivated rabies virus (RABV) vaccines expressing Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) glycoprotein (GP) by a reverse genetics system based on the SAD B19 RABV wildlife vaccine. ZEBOV GP is efficiently expressed by these vaccine candidates and is incorporated into virions. The vaccine candidates were avirulent after inoculation of adult mice, and viruses with a deletion in the RABV glycoprotein had greatly reduced neurovirulence after intracerebral inoculation in suckling mice. Immunization with live or inactivated RABV vaccines expressing ZEBOV GP induced humoral immunity against each virus and conferred protection from both lethal RABV and EBOV challenge in mice. The bivalent RABV/ZEBOV vaccines described here have several distinct advantages that may speed the development of inactivated vaccines for use in humans and potentially live or inactivated vaccines for use in nonhuman primates at risk of EBOV infection in endemic areas. PMID:21849459

  16. Inactivated or live-attenuated bivalent vaccines that confer protection against rabies and Ebola viruses.

    PubMed

    Blaney, Joseph E; Wirblich, Christoph; Papaneri, Amy B; Johnson, Reed F; Myers, Carey J; Juelich, Terry L; Holbrook, Michael R; Freiberg, Alexander N; Bernbaum, John G; Jahrling, Peter B; Paragas, Jason; Schnell, Matthias J

    2011-10-01

    The search for a safe and efficacious vaccine for Ebola virus continues, as no current vaccine candidate is nearing licensure. We have developed (i) replication-competent, (ii) replication-deficient, and (iii) chemically inactivated rabies virus (RABV) vaccines expressing Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) glycoprotein (GP) by a reverse genetics system based on the SAD B19 RABV wildlife vaccine. ZEBOV GP is efficiently expressed by these vaccine candidates and is incorporated into virions. The vaccine candidates were avirulent after inoculation of adult mice, and viruses with a deletion in the RABV glycoprotein had greatly reduced neurovirulence after intracerebral inoculation in suckling mice. Immunization with live or inactivated RABV vaccines expressing ZEBOV GP induced humoral immunity against each virus and conferred protection from both lethal RABV and EBOV challenge in mice. The bivalent RABV/ZEBOV vaccines described here have several distinct advantages that may speed the development of inactivated vaccines for use in humans and potentially live or inactivated vaccines for use in nonhuman primates at risk of EBOV infection in endemic areas. PMID:21849459

  17. Parental Acceptance of HPV Vaccine in Peru: A Decision Framework

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, Rosario M.; Winkler, Jennifer L.; Penny, Mary E.; LaMontagne, D. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Objective and Method Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer affecting women worldwide and it is an important cause of death, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) and can be prevented by HPV vaccine. The challenge is to expand vaccine availability to countries where it is most needed. In 2008 Peru’s Ministry of Health implemented a demonstration project involving 5th grade girls in primary schools in the Piura region. We designed and conducted a qualitative study of the decision-making process among parents of girls, and developed a conceptual model describing the process of HPV vaccine acceptance. Results We found a nonlinear HPV decision-making process that evolved over time. Initially, the vaccine’s newness, the requirement of written consent, and provision of information were important. If information was sufficient and provided by credible sources, many parents accepted the vaccine. Later, after obtaining additional information from teachers, health personnel, and other trusted sources, more parents accepted vaccination. An understanding of the issues surrounding the vaccine developed, parents overcome fears and rumors, and engaged in family negotiations–including hearing the girl’s voice in the decision-making process. The concept of prevention (cancer as danger, future health, and trust in vaccines) combined with pragmatic factors (no cost, available at school) and the credibility of the offer (information in the media, recommendation of respected authority figure) were central to motivations that led parents to decide to vaccinate their daughters. A lack of confidence in the health system was the primary inhibitor of vaccine acceptance. Conclusions Health personnel and teachers are credible sources of information and can provide important support to HPV vaccination campaigns. PMID:23144719

  18. Recombinant bivalent vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis and Newcastle disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The current commercial ILT vaccines are either not safe or less effective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more...

  19. Comparison of the immunogenicity of Cervarix® and Gardasil® human papillomavirus vaccines for oncogenic non-vaccine serotypes HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 in HIV-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Müller, Martin; Sehr, Peter; Bonde, Jesper; Storgaard, Merete; Østergaard, Lars; Søgaard, Ole S

    2014-01-01

    Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have excess risk of developing human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease. A substantial fraction of HPV-associated cancers is caused by HPV serotypes not included in the currently available vaccines. Among healthy women, both Cervarix® (HPV-16/18, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, GSK) and Gardasil® (HPV-6/11/16/18, Merck) have demonstrated partial cross-protection against certain oncogenic non-vaccine HPV-types. Currently, there are no available data on vaccine-induced cross-protection in men and little is known about cross-reactive immunity after HPV-vaccination of HIV-infected individuals. In an investigator-initiated trial, we randomized 91 HIV-positive men and women to receive vaccination with Cervarix® or Gardasil®. The HPV-DNA status of the participants was determined with pcr before and after immunization. Cross-reactive antibody responses against HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 were evaluated for up to 12 months using a pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA). Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) were compared among vaccine groups and genders at 7 and 12 months. Both vaccines induced anti-HPV-31, -33, and -45 neutralizing antibodies in participants who were seronegative and HPV-DNA negative for those types at study entry. Geometric mean antibody titers were comparable between vaccine groups. Interestingly, anti-HPV-31 and -33 antibody titers were higher among women compared with men at 7 and 12 months. In conclusion, both licensed HPV-vaccines induced cross-neutralizing antibodies against frequent oncogenic non-vaccine serotypes HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 in HIV-infected adults, and women had greater serological responses against HPV-31 and -33 compared with men. PMID:24553190

  20. Safety of an Escherichia coli-expressed bivalent human papillomavirus (types 16 and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine: an open-label phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-Mei; Huang, Shou-Jie; Chu, Kai; Wu, Ting; Wang, Zhong-Ze; Yang, Chang-Lin; Cai, Jia-Ping; Jiang, Han-Min; Wang, Yi-Jun; Guo, Meng; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Huang, Hong-Jiang; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2014-01-01

    An Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant bivalent human papillomavirus (types 16 and 18) vaccine candidate has been shown to be safe and immunogenic in preclinical trials. The safety of this vaccine was analyzed in an open-label phase I clinical trial in Jiangsu province, China. Thirty-eight healthy women from 18 to 55 y of age were enrolled and vaccinated at 0, 1, and 6 mo. Adverse events that occurred within 30 d after each injection and serious adverse events that occurred throughout the study were recorded. In addition, blood parameters were tested before and after each injection. All but one woman received all 3 doses. Thirty-two (84.2%) of the participants reported adverse events, all adverse events of which were mild, of short duration and resolved spontaneously. No serious adverse events occurred during the study. Changes in blood parameters after each injection were random, mild, and not clinically significant. These preliminary results show that a new Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant HPV 16/18 bivalent vaccine is well tolerated in healthy women and support further immunogenicity and efficacy studies for this HPV vaccine candidate. PMID:24161937

  1. School Nurses' Professional Practice in the HPV Vaccine Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; Ashwood, Daniel; Richardson, George B.

    2016-01-01

    Because U.S. human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates remain low, we evaluated school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, self-efficacy, intention, and professional practice regarding the HPV vaccine and determined if these variables influenced their professional practice concerning the HPV vaccine. We…

  2. HPV Vaccine and Latino Immigrant Parents: If They Offer It, We Will Get It.

    PubMed

    Aragones, Abraham; Genoff, Margaux; Gonzalez, Cynthia; Shuk, Elyse; Gany, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    HPV vaccination rates remain low in the fast growing Latino children population while we continue to observe large HPV-associated cancer disparities in the Latino population. In this study, we sought to elucidate Latino immigrant parents' barriers to obtaining the HPV vaccine for their children. Five focus groups were conducted with Latino immigrant parents of minors (i.e., 9-17 year old) who had not yet initiated the HPV vaccine series. Three major findings were identified from the focus groups: (1) low levels of awareness and knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine, (2) high confidence that parent can get the vaccine for their eligible child and (3) lack of provider recommendation as the main barrier to vaccination. Children of Latino immigrant parents could benefit from increased provider recommendation for the HPV vaccine while providing tailored HPV information to parents. PMID:26001843

  3. Social media microblogs as an HPV vaccination forum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chupei; Gotsis, Marientina; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice

    2013-01-01

    The 2006 US FDA approval of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine brought new hope for cancer prevention. Gardasil and Cervarix are widely available vaccines that can deter HPV infection, which causes 70% of cervical cancer. Acceptance of vaccination varies due to a lack of HPV awareness and HPV vaccine knowledge. Recent observations of the Chinese microblog “SinaWeibo” suggest a new approach to engage health professionals and consumer website bloggers. Websites that present the latest fashion, fitness or beauty news and ways to obtain “deals” have created informative blogs or online communities that appeal to female users. Some users raise health questions of their peers. Health professionals, as website bloggers, can introduce vaccine news or respond to conversations between bloggers and their followers. By transforming medical vocabulary into ordinary chat, microblogs may promote efficiency in vaccine education and communication. A web-based, interactive social media-microblog could offer an ideal platform to speed up information dissemination and increase targeted communication. PMID:23842072

  4. Social media microblogs as an HPV vaccination forum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chupei; Gotsis, Marientina; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice

    2013-11-01

    The 2006 US FDA approval of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine brought new hope for cancer prevention. Gardasil and Cervarix are widely available vaccines that can deter HPV infection, which causes 70% of cervical cancer. Acceptance of vaccination varies due to a lack of HPV awareness and HPV vaccine knowledge. Recent observations of the Chinese microblog "SinaWeibo" suggest a new approach to engage health professionals and consumer website bloggers. Websites that present the latest fashion, fitness or beauty news and ways to obtain "deals" have created informative blogs or online communities that appeal to female users. Some users raise health questions of their peers. Health professionals, as website bloggers, can introduce vaccine news or respond to conversations between bloggers and their followers. By transforming medical vocabulary into ordinary chat, microblogs may promote efficiency in vaccine education and communication. A web-based, interactive social media-microblog could offer an ideal platform to speed up information dissemination and increase targeted communication. PMID:23842072

  5. Identification of promiscuous HPV16-derived T helper cell epitopes for therapeutic HPV vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Agnieszka K; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Riemer, Angelika B

    2015-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma and several other human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced malignancies are a global public health problem, thus novel treatment modalities are urgently needed. Immunotherapy is an attractive option for treatment of HPV infection and HPV-mediated premalignant and malignant lesions. However, previous approaches--focusing on the induction of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs)--have as yet not yielded clinical successes. Since CD4+ T cells have been shown to be crucial for the induction and maintenance of CTL responses, and more recently to be also important for direct anti-tumor immunity, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-restricted epitopes are intensively investigated to improve the efficacy of peptide-based HPV immunotherapy. We here present an approach to identify promiscuous HPV16-derived CD4+ T helper epitopes, which are capable of inducing T cell immunity in a large proportion of the population. To this end, we combined HLA class II epitope prediction servers with in vitro immunological evaluation to identify HPV16 E2-, E5-, E6-, and E7-derived CD4+ T cell epitopes. Candidate selected HPV16-derived epitopes were found to be restricted by up to nine HLA-DR molecules. Furthermore, they were found to induce frequent and robust HPV16 peptide-specific Th1 responses in healthy donors, as monitored by interferon (IFN)-γ ELISPOT and cytokine secretion assays. Moreover, these selected peptides also induced specific IFN-γ T cell responses in blood from HPV16+ CIN2/3 and cervical carcinoma patients. We thus conclude that the identified T helper epitopes are valuable candidates for the development of a comprehensive therapeutic HPV vaccine. PMID:24824905

  6. Use of HPV testing for cervical screening in vaccinated women--Insights from the SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated Women) study.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Ramya; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Cubie, Heather Ann; Serrano, Itziar; Wennington, Holli; Hopkins, Mark; Pan, Jiafeng; Pollock, Kevin G; Palmer, Tim J; Cuschieri, Kate

    2016-06-15

    The management of cervical disease is changing worldwide as a result of HPV vaccination and the increasing use of HPV testing for cervical screening. However, the impact of vaccination on the performance of HPV based screening strategies is unknown. The SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated women) projects are designed to gain insight into the impact of vaccination on the performance of clinically validated HPV assays. Samples collated from women attending for first cervical smear who had been vaccinated as part of a national "catch-up" programme were tested with three clinically validated HPV assays (2 DNA and 1 RNA). Overall HR-HPV and type specific positivity was assessed in total population and according to underlying cytology and compared to a demographically equivalent group of unvaccinated women. HPV prevalence was significantly lower in vaccinated women and was influenced by assay-type, reducing by 23-25% for the DNA based assays and 32% for the RNA assay (p = 0.0008). All assays showed over 75% reduction of HPV16 and/or 18 (p < 0.0001) whereas the prevalence of non 16/18 HR-HPV was not significantly different in vaccinated vs unvaccinated women. In women with low grade abnormalities, the proportion associated with non 16/18 HR-HPV was significantly higher in vaccinated women (p < 0.0001). Clinically validated HPV assays are affected differentially when applied to vaccinated women, dependent on assay chemistry. The increased proportion of non HPV16/18 infections may have implications for clinical performance, consequently, longitudinal studies linking HPV status to disease outcomes in vaccinated women are warranted. PMID:26845632

  7. Chapter 14: HPV vaccine introduction in industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Wright, Thomas C; Van Damme, Pierre; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef; Meheus, André

    2006-08-31

    Introduction of a vaccine requires the achievement of three initial milestones. These are licensure by a national control authority that determines the vaccine is safe and effective, development of recommendations for use by expert advisory bodies on immunization, and obtaining funding for vaccination. Once these milestones have been achieved, a successful vaccination program requires that a number of interlinked programmatic components be brought together in a coordinated fashion. These include vaccine purchase and supply, vaccination service delivery, high coverage rates, surveillance of the vaccination program, immunization finance policies and practices, and political will. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination provides unique challenges in all of these areas because of the many gaps in our knowledge. PMID:16949999

  8. HPV Vaccination of College Males: Strategizing against HPV Infection in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham-Erves, Jennifer; Talbott, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    The disease burden of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among females and its associated sequelae have been widely studied by social and behavioral science researchers and medical professionals. Approved for administration to males as young as nine years old, the vaccination of males continues to spark much debate when older age groups are brought…

  9. Provider recommendation mediates the relationship between parental human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine awareness and HPV vaccine initiation and completion among 13–17 year old US adolescent children

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Laz, Tabassum H.; McGrath, Christine J.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between parental human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness and HPV vaccine initiation/completion based on 13–17 year old US adolescent children and to explore whether these associations were mediated by provider recommendation. Methods We used publicly available National Immunization Survey-Teen 2011 data (11,236 adolescent girls and 12,328 boys). Results Weighted logistic regression analysis showed that parental HPV awareness and provider recommendation predicted HPV vaccine initiation and completion separately among both girls and boys, after adjusting for demographic and healthcare utilization variables. When provider recommendation and parental HPV awareness were entered in the model simultaneously, only provider recommendation independently associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion, demonstrating a mediation effect of provider recommendation. Conclusions Future studies are needed to better understand why physicians may not provide a recommendation for the HPV vaccine as well as to identify strategies to improve the provider’s ability to effectively communicate their recommendation. PMID:25238779

  10. Acceptability of HPV vaccine for males and preferences for future education programs among Appalachian residents.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Paul L; Oldach, Benjamin R; Randle, Katherine E; Katz, Mira L

    2014-03-01

    Appalachia is a geographic region with several disparities related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, yet little is known about acceptability of HPV vaccine for males among Appalachian residents. HPV vaccine acceptability and preferences for future HPV vaccine education programs were examined among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with Appalachian Ohio residents between July and October 2011. Participants (n = 102 from 24 focus groups and 5 in-depth interviews) included four key stakeholder groups: health care providers, community leaders, parents with adolescent sons, and young adult men ages 18 to 26 years. Support for vaccinating males against HPV was high among participants, despite low awareness and knowledge about HPV vaccine for males. Participants reported three categories of potential barriers to vaccinating males against HPV: concerns about vaccine safety and side effects, access to care and vaccination logistics, and gender and cultural issues. Participants reported that HPV vaccine was viewed as being only for females in their communities and that receiving the vaccine may be emasculating or embarrassing to males. Participants suggested that future HPV vaccine education programs mainly target parents, include basic information about HPV-related diseases and HPV vaccine (e.g., number of doses, cost), and present the vaccine as having the potential to prevent cancer (as opposed to preventing genital warts). Acceptability of HPV vaccine for males was high among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Future HPV vaccine education programs in Appalachia should address common potential barriers to vaccination and help destigmatize vaccination among males. PMID:24085197

  11. The HPV Vaccine: Framing the Arguments "for" and "against" Mandatory Vaccination of All Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vamos, Cheryl A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Daley, Ellen M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus responsible for cervical cancer, is the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the United States. A vaccine was approved in 2006 that is effective in preventing the types of HPV responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. Proposals for routine and mandatory HPV…

  12. Discussions of adolescent sexuality in news media coverage of the HPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Casciotti, Dana M; Smith, Katherine C; Tsui, Amy; Klassen, Ann C

    2014-02-01

    Given the sexually transmitted nature of human papillomavirus (HPV), some worry the HPV vaccine will create a false sense of security and promote adolescent sexual activity. Media coverage of vaccines can influence social norms, parental attitudes, and vaccine acceptance; in this paper we examine U.S. news media messages related to sexuality and HPV vaccination. Drawing on a structured analysis of 447 articles published during 2005-2009, we qualitatively analyzed a purposive sample of 49 articles discussing adolescent health behaviors related to HPV vaccination. Commonly, articles discussed vaccination in the context of abstinence-only versus comprehensive sexual health education; cited research findings to support vaccination or sex education; argued against connecting vaccination to promiscuous behavior; but included fear-inducing messages. Media messages concerning health behaviors related to HPV vaccination tended to support government and parental involvement in sex education, and dismiss concerns linking vaccination to sexual activity, while also presenting the vaccine as lifesaving. PMID:24439619

  13. Vaccine-related internet search activity predicts H1N1 and HPV vaccine coverage: implications for vaccine acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Kegler, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The Internet is a primary source for health-related information, and Internet search activity is associated with infectious disease outbreaks. The authors hypothesized that Internet search activity for vaccine-related information would predict vaccination coverage. They examined Internet search activity for H1N1 and human papilloma virus (HPV) disease and vaccine information in relation to H1N1 and HPV vaccine uptake. Google Insight for Search was used to assess the volume of Internet search queries for H1N1- and vaccine-related terms in the United States in 2009, the year of the H1N1 pandemic. Vaccine coverage data were also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at the state level for H1N1 vaccinations in 2009. These same measures were collected at the state level for HPV- and vaccine-related search terms in 2010 as well as HPV vaccine uptake in that year. Analyses showed that the search terms H1N1 and vaccine were correlated with H1N1 vaccine uptake; ordinal regression found the H1N1 search term was independently associated with H1N1 vaccine coverage. Similarly, the correlation between vaccine search volume and HPV coverage was significant; ordinal regression showed the search term vaccine independently predicted HPV vaccination coverage. This is among the first studies to show that Internet search activity is associated with vaccination coverage. The Internet should be exploited as an opportunity to dispel vaccine misinformation by providing accurate information to support vaccine decision making. PMID:25222149

  14. HPV Knowledge and Vaccine Acceptability among Hispanic Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornfeld, Julie; Byrne, Margaret M.; Vanderpool, Robin; Shin, Sarah; Kobetz, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge and vaccine acceptability in a convenience sample of immigrant Hispanic men, many of whom are parents of adolescents. Data on 189 male callers were collected from the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service Spanish-language call center. Most participants…

  15. Human Papillomavirus Infection and Vaccination: Awareness and Knowledge of HPV and Acceptability of HPV Vaccine among Mothers of Teenage Daughters in Weihai, Shandong, China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiandong; Li, Ruiying; Li, Meilan; Wang, Jianguang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Xu, Aiqiang

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, we investigated awareness and knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccine and potential acceptability to HPV vaccine among mothers with a teenage daughter in Weihai, Shandong, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 with a sample of 1850 mothers who had a daughter (aged 9–17 years) attending primary, junior and senior high schools. In the final sample (N = 1578, response rate 85.30%), awareness of HPV was reported by 305 (19.32%) mothers. Awareness varied significantly by daughter’s age (P<0.01), mother’s education level (P<0.01), mother’s occupation (P<0.01), household income (P<0.01) and residence type (P<0.01). Knowledge about HPV/HPV vaccine was poor with a mean total score of 3.56 (SD = 2.40) out of a possible score of 13. Mothers with a higher education level reported higher levels of knowledge (P = 0.02). Slightly more than one-fourth (26.49%) of mothers expressed their potential acceptability of HPV vaccine for their daughters. Acceptability increased along with increased daughters’ age (P<0.01), household income (P<0.01) and knowledge level (P<0.01). House wives and unemployed mothers had the highest acceptability (P<0.01). The most common reasons for not accepting HPV vaccination were “My daughter is too young to have risk of cervical cancer (30.95%)”, “The vaccine has not been widely used, and the decision will be made after it is widely used (24.91%)”, “Worry about the safety of the vaccine (22.85%)”. Awareness and knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines are poor and HPV vaccine acceptability is low among these Chinese mothers. These results may help inform appropriate health education programs in this population. PMID:26766565

  16. Human Papillomavirus Infection and Vaccination: Awareness and Knowledge of HPV and Acceptability of HPV Vaccine among Mothers of Teenage Daughters in Weihai, Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Xu, Minglei; Sun, Jiandong; Li, Ruiying; Li, Meilan; Wang, Jianguang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Xu, Aiqiang

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, we investigated awareness and knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccine and potential acceptability to HPV vaccine among mothers with a teenage daughter in Weihai, Shandong, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 with a sample of 1850 mothers who had a daughter (aged 9-17 years) attending primary, junior and senior high schools. In the final sample (N = 1578, response rate 85.30%), awareness of HPV was reported by 305 (19.32%) mothers. Awareness varied significantly by daughter's age (P<0.01), mother's education level (P<0.01), mother's occupation (P<0.01), household income (P<0.01) and residence type (P<0.01). Knowledge about HPV/HPV vaccine was poor with a mean total score of 3.56 (SD = 2.40) out of a possible score of 13. Mothers with a higher education level reported higher levels of knowledge (P = 0.02). Slightly more than one-fourth (26.49%) of mothers expressed their potential acceptability of HPV vaccine for their daughters. Acceptability increased along with increased daughters' age (P<0.01), household income (P<0.01) and knowledge level (P<0.01). House wives and unemployed mothers had the highest acceptability (P<0.01). The most common reasons for not accepting HPV vaccination were "My daughter is too young to have risk of cervical cancer (30.95%)", "The vaccine has not been widely used, and the decision will be made after it is widely used (24.91%)", "Worry about the safety of the vaccine (22.85%)". Awareness and knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines are poor and HPV vaccine acceptability is low among these Chinese mothers. These results may help inform appropriate health education programs in this population. PMID:26766565

  17. Biopower, Normalization, and HPV: A Foucauldian Analysis of the HPV Vaccine Controversy.

    PubMed

    Engels, Kimberly S

    2016-09-01

    This article utilizes the Foucauldian concepts of biopower and normalization to give an analysis of the debate surrounding the controversial administration of the HPV vaccine to adolescents. My intention is not to solve the problem, rather to utilize a Foucauldian framework to bring various facets of the issue to light, specifically the way the vaccine contributes to strategies of power in reference to how young adults develop within relationships of power. To begin, the article provides an overview of the Foucauldian concepts of biopower and normalization, including how these two strategies of power were present in the administration of the smallpox vaccine in the 19th century. Next, information about HPV and the history of the current controversy in the United States is presented. Lastly, the article presents an analysis of the strategies of biopower and normalization present in the debate on HPV, including an emphasis on how the vaccination is similar to, and different from, 19th century smallpox vaccination. It also explores the way that mechanisms of disease control affect and are affected by individual subjects, in this case, adolescents. PMID:26438668

  18. HPV Vaccine Acceptance in a Clinic-Based Sample of Women in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Heather M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; McCree, Donna H.; Wright, Marcie S.; Davis, Jennifer; Hutto, Brent E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common sexually transmitted infection linked to cervical disease. Vaccines for some types of HPV were in development at the time of the study. Purpose: The study examined HPV vaccine acceptability among underserved women in a rural region of the southeastern U.S. with high rates of cervical cancer…

  19. HPV vaccination syndrome. A questionnaire-based study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lavín, Manuel; Martínez-Martínez, Laura-Aline; Reyes-Loyola, Paola

    2015-11-01

    Isolated cases and small series have described the development of complex regional pain syndrome, postural orthostatic tachycardia, and fibromyalgia after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. These illnesses are difficult to diagnose and have overlapping clinical features. Small fiber neuropathy and dysautonomia may play a major role in the pathogenesis of these entities. We used the following validated questionnaires to appraise the chronic illness that might appear after HPV vaccination: The 2010 American College of Rheumatology Fibromyalgia Diagnostic Criteria, COMPASS 31 dysautonomia questionnaire, and S-LANSS neuropathic pain form. These questionnaires and a "present illness" survey were e-mailed to persons who had the onset of a chronic ailment soon after HPV vaccination. Forty-five filled questionnaires from individuals living in 13 different countries were collected in a month's period. Mean (±SD) age at vaccination time was 14 ± 5 years. Twenty-nine percent of the cases had immediate (within 24 h) post-vaccination illness onset. The most common presenting complaints were musculoskeletal pain (66%), fatigue (57%), headache (57%), dizziness/vertigo (43%), and paresthesias/allodynia (36%). Fifty-three percent of affected individuals fulfill the fibromyalgia criteria. COMPASS-31 score was 43 ± 21, implying advanced autonomic dysfunction. Eighty-three percent of the patients who had ongoing pain displayed S-LANSS values >12, suggesting a neuropathic component in their pain experience. After a mean period of 4.2 ± 2.5 years post-vaccination, 93% of patients continue to have incapacitating symptoms and remain unable to attend school or work. In conclusion, a disabling syndrome of chronic neuropathic pain, fatigue, and autonomic dysfunction may appear after HPV vaccination. PMID:26354426

  20. Adolescents' intention and self-efficacy to follow Pap testing recommendations after receiving the HPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Lisa M; Dirksing, Kelsie N; Ding, Lili; Morrow, Charlene D; Widdice, Lea A; Kahn, Jessica A

    2016-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are recommended in the US for girls and women 11-26 y of age. Because these vaccines do not prevent all cervical cancers, Papanicolaou (Pap) screening is still recommended after vaccination. Young women who have been vaccinated may perceive themselves at lower risk for HPV infection and cervical cancer, which could lead to lower intention and self-efficacy to follow cervical cancer screening guidelines, and subsequent nonadherence to Pap testing. The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) after vaccination and other factors are associated with adolescents' intention and self-efficacy to get Pap testing after HPV vaccination. Women 13-21 y of age (N = 339) receiving their first HPV vaccine dose completed a survey. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations between perceived risk of HPV and intention/self-efficacy to get a Pap test while adjusting for other factors. Approximately half of participants reported high intention and half reported high self-efficacy to get a Pap test. Factors significantly associated with high intention were Pap testing history and knowledge about HPV/HPV vaccines; factors significantly associated with high self-efficacy included insurance plan, Pap testing history, communication with clinician about needing a Pap test after vaccination, lifetime number of male sexual partners, and recent smoking. In conclusion, educating adolescents about HPV/HPV vaccines and the need for Pap testing may increase self-efficacy/intention to get a Pap test after vaccination. PMID:26934107

  1. Genotype Considerations for Virus-Like Particle-Based Bivalent Norovirus Vaccine Composition

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Maria; Tamminen, Kirsi; Lappalainen, Suvi; Uusi-Kerttula, Hanni; Vesikari, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) genogroup I (GI) and GII are responsible for most human infections with NoV. Because of the high genetic variability of NoV, natural infection does not induce sufficient protective immunity to different genotypes or to variants of the same genotype and there is little or no cross-protection against different genogroups. NoV-derived virus-like particles (VLPs) are promising vaccine candidates that induce high levels of NoV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. It is believed that a bivalent NoV vaccine consisting of a representative VLP from GI and GII is a minimum requirement for an effective vaccine. Here, we compared the abilities of monovalent immunizations with NoV GI.1-2001, GI.3-2002, GII.4-1999, and GII.4-2010 New Orleans VLPs to induce NoV type-specific and cross-reactive immune responses and protective blocking antibody responses in BALB/c mice. All of the VLPs induced comparable levels of type-specific serum IgG antibodies, as well as blocking antibodies to the VLPs used for immunization. However, the abilities of different VLP genotypes to induce cross-reactive IgG and cross-blocking antibodies varied remarkably. Our results confirm previous findings of a lack of cross-protective immune responses between GI and GII NoVs. These data support the rationale for including NoV GI.3 and GII.4-1999 VLPs in the bivalent vaccine formulation, which could be sufficient to induce protective immune responses across NoV genotypes in the two common genogroups in humans. PMID:25903355

  2. Giving Boys a Shot: The HPV Vaccine's Portrayal in Canadian Newspapers.

    PubMed

    Perez, Samara; Fedoruk, Claire; Shapiro, Gilla K; Rosberger, Zeev

    2016-12-01

    In January 2012, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) of Canada recommended that males aged 9-26 years receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to protect against genital warts and HPV-associated cancers. Estimated HPV vaccine uptake rates for Canadian males are extremely low. Using a content analysis of Canadian newspaper articles, this study investigated what information about the HPV vaccine was relayed to the public, and how this content was portrayed following the 2012 male HPV vaccine recommendation. A search was conducted using Proquest Canadian Newsstand Complete for newspaper articles published between January 1, 2012, and September 1, 2014. Researchers coded 232 articles on several relevant dimensions: article information; epidemiological information; public policy information; article topic; article and title tone; and informant testimony. The majority of articles (93%) mentioned that girls are eligible for the HPV vaccine, whereas only half (49%) mentioned male eligibility. While most articles associated HPV with cervical cancer (85%), fewer indicated its relation to other HPV-associated cancers (59%) or genital warts (52%). Most articles (60%) were positive or neutral (22%) in tone toward the HPV vaccine, while few had mixed messages (11%) or were negative (6%). Less than 5% of articles reported on issues of morality, suggesting that fears that the HPV vaccine causes promiscuity have largely subsided. Notably, article tone toward male vaccination became progressively more positive over time. However, half of the articles did not mention the vaccine's approval for males, and articles tended to report HPV's relation to cervical cancer over other HPV-associated cancers. The Canadian public may thus be unaware of male eligibility and the importance of HPV vaccine for males. The collaboration of researchers, health care providers, and policymakers with journalists is critical in order to disseminate complete and accurate HPV and HPV

  3. Comparison of the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for oncogenic non-vaccine types HPV-31 and HPV-45 in healthy women aged 18–45 years

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Lebacq, Marie; van der Most, Robbert; Moris, Philippe; Giannini, Sandra L; Schuind, Anne; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Protection against oncogenic non-vaccine types (cross-protection) offered by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may provide a significant medical benefit. Available clinical efficacy data suggest the two licensed vaccines [HPV-16/18 vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine, Merck and Co., Inc.,] differ in terms of protection against oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45. The immune responses induced by the two vaccines against these two non-vaccine HPV types (cross-reactivity) was compared in an observer-blind study up to Month 24 (18 mo postvaccination), in women HPV DNA-negative and seronegative prior to vaccination for the HPV type analyzed [HPV-010 (NCT00423046)]. Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ) were similar between vaccines for HPV-31/45. Seropositivity rates for HPV-31 were also similar between vaccines; however, there was a trend for higher seropositivity with the HPV-16/18 vaccine (13.0–16.7%) vs. the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (0.0–5.0%) for HPV-45 with PBNA, but not ELISA . HPV-31/45 cross-reactive memory B-cell responses were comparable between vaccines. Circulating antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell frequencies were higher for the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine {HPV-31 [geometric mean ratio (GMR) = 2.0; p = 0.0002] and HPV-45 [GMR = 2.6; p = 0.0092]}, as were the proportion of T-cell responders (HPV-31, p = 0.0009; HPV-45, p = 0.0793). In conclusion, immune response to oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45 was generally similar for both vaccines with the exception of T-cell response which was higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine. Considering the differences in cross-protective efficacy between the two vaccines, the results might provide insights into the underlying mechanism(s) of protection. PMID:22048172

  4. The school nurse, the school and HPV vaccination: a qualitative study of factors affecting HPV vaccine uptake.

    PubMed

    Brabin, Loretta; Stretch, Rebecca; Roberts, Stephen A; Elton, Peter; Baxter, David; McCann, Rosemary

    2011-04-12

    School nurses in the United Kingdom are largely responsible for delivering the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to 12-13 year old girls. In order to assess the impact of HPV vaccination on school nurses' roles, we gave a questionnaire to all 33 school nurses who offered Cervarix ™ in two Primary Care Trusts one year ahead of the national vaccine programme. Key organisational issues raised by the school nurses were the size of the team and its skill mix. A few found their schools uncooperative and were dissatisfied with mechanisms for problem resolution. On average, nurses spent an additional 69 h (0.80 h per child) on vaccine-related activities. In semi-qualitative interviews (n=17), school nurses complained of work overload and described the difficulties of establishing good relationships with some of their schools. Nurses expected schools to take some responsibility for ensuring good uptake and were frustrated when help was not forthcoming. We conclude that variation in uptake between schools in part reflects a difficult relationship with the school nurse which may be attributed to characteristics of the school, schools' attitudes towards health interventions, organisational problems, multiple school nurse roles and/or personal ability. Some of these issues will need to be addressed to ensure continued high vaccine coverage as HPV vaccination becomes a less prioritised, routine activity. PMID:21354481

  5. Recombinant canine distemper virus serves as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijun; Feng, Na; Ge, Jinying; Shuai, Lei; Peng, Liyan; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Bu, Zhigao

    2012-07-20

    Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Attenuated live vaccine has been widely used to protect carnivores from canine distemper. In this study, we generated a recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine strain, rCDV-RVG, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) by using reverse genetics. The recombinant virus rCDV-RVG retained growth properties similar to those of vector CDV in Vero cell culture. Animal studies demonstrated that rCDV-RVG was safe in mice and dogs. Mice inoculated intracerebrally or intramuscularly with rCDV-RVG showed no apparent signs of disease and developed a strong rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody response, which completely protected mice from challenge with a lethal dose of street virus. Canine studies showed that vaccination with rCDV-RVG induced strong and long-lasting virus neutralizing antibody responses to RABV and CDV. This is the first study demonstrating that recombinant CDV has the potential to serve as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper in animals. PMID:22698451

  6. Attitude, Acceptability and Knowledge of HPV Vaccination among Local University Students in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Wong, Ho Ting; Yeung, Pui Chun Au; Choi, Yuk Ki; Fok, Michelle Sum Yue; Mak, Oi In; Wong, Hing Yu; Wong, Kim Ho; Wong, Shui Yan; Wong, Yee Shan; Wong, Eugene Ying Yeung

    2016-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has the great potential to prevent HPV-related infections for millions of women and men worldwide. However, the success of the vaccine is highly dependent on the vaccination rate. Factors influencing the attitudes of undergraduate students towards HPV vaccination should be studied. This is a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to estimate the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong, and to identify the predictors of their attitude towards HPV vaccination. The results showed that the HPV vaccination rate was 13.3%. Factors related to knowledge of vaccination were the main predictors of the students’ attitude towards vaccination (there were seven predictors, with B = 1.36 to 2.30; p < 0.05), followed by gender (B = −1.40; p < 0.05), acceptable maximum price (B = 0.35; p < 0.05), and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine if it can protect against cervical/anal cancer and genital warts (B = −1.90; p < 0.001). The regression model that was developed based on the predictors had a moderate effect size (adj-R2 = 0.33). To conclude, the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong was low. They should be provided with more active education and activities to promote HPV vaccination to improve their knowledge on the subject. PMID:27187424

  7. Attitude, Acceptability and Knowledge of HPV Vaccination among Local University Students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Wong, Ho Ting; Yeung, Pui Chun Au; Choi, Yuk Ki; Fok, Michelle Sum Yue; Mak, Oi In; Wong, Hing Yu; Wong, Kim Ho; Wong, Shui Yan; Wong, Yee Shan; Wong, Eugene Ying Yeung

    2016-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has the great potential to prevent HPV-related infections for millions of women and men worldwide. However, the success of the vaccine is highly dependent on the vaccination rate. Factors influencing the attitudes of undergraduate students towards HPV vaccination should be studied. This is a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to estimate the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong, and to identify the predictors of their attitude towards HPV vaccination. The results showed that the HPV vaccination rate was 13.3%. Factors related to knowledge of vaccination were the main predictors of the students' attitude towards vaccination (there were seven predictors, with B = 1.36 to 2.30; p < 0.05), followed by gender (B = -1.40; p < 0.05), acceptable maximum price (B = 0.35; p < 0.05), and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine if it can protect against cervical/anal cancer and genital warts (B = -1.90; p < 0.001). The regression model that was developed based on the predictors had a moderate effect size (adj-R² = 0.33). To conclude, the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong was low. They should be provided with more active education and activities to promote HPV vaccination to improve their knowledge on the subject. PMID:27187424

  8. Preventing cervical cancer and genital warts - How much protection is enough for HPV vaccines?

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    HPV associated disease is a global health problem: 5.2% of all cancers are HPV associated with HPV 16 and 18 accounting for 70% of cases of cervical cancer. Genital warts caused by HPV 6 and 11 have a lifetime risk of acquisition of 10%. HPV vaccines are subunit vaccines consisting of virus like particles comprised of the L1 major capsid protein. Two vaccines have been licenced since 2006/2007 and are in the National Immunisation programmes in 62 countries. Both vaccines include HPV 16 and 18 VLPs and one also includes HPV 6 and 11. The vaccines are highly immunogenic and well tolerated. Genital HPV is a sexually transmitted infection with peak incidence occurring just after the onset of sexual activity and the routine cohort for immunisation in almost all countries are adolescent girls 9-15 years of age with or without catch up for older adolescents and young women. Population effectiveness is now being demonstrated for these vaccines in countries with high vaccine coverage. HPV vaccines are highly immunogenic and effective and the original 3 dose schedules have already been reduced, for those 14 years and under, to 2 for both licenced vaccines. There is preliminary evidence that 1 dose of vaccine is as effective as 2 or 3 in preventing persistent HPV infection in the cervix in young women and further reductions in dosage may be possible if supported by appropriate virological, immunological and modelling studies. PMID:27211079

  9. Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose regimen

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody levels against two of the most carcinogenic types of HPV (16 and 18), compared to a standard three dose regimen.

  10. Relationship between Humoral Immune Responses against HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV45 in 12-15 Year Old Girls Receiving Cervarix® or Gardasil® Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Godi, Anna; Bissett, Sara L.; Miller, Elizabeth; Beddows, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines confer protection against the oncogenic genotypes HPV16 and HPV18 through the generation of type-specific neutralizing antibodies raised against virus-like particles (VLP) representing these genotypes. The vaccines also confer a degree of cross-protection against HPV31 and HPV45, which are genetically-related to the vaccine types HPV16 and HPV18, respectively, although the mechanism is less certain. There are a number of humoral immune measures that have been examined in relation to the HPV vaccines, including VLP binding, pseudovirus neutralization and the enumeration of memory B cells. While the specificity of responses generated against the vaccine genotypes are fairly well studied, the relationship between these measures in relation to non-vaccine genotypes is less certain. Methods We carried out a comparative study of these immune measures against vaccine and non-vaccine genotypes using samples collected from 12–15 year old girls following immunization with three doses of either Cervarix® or Gardasil® HPV vaccine. Results The relationship between neutralizing and binding antibody titers and HPV-specific memory B cell levels for the vaccine genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18, were very good. The proportion of responders approached 100% for both vaccines while the magnitude of these responses induced by Cervarix® were generally higher than those following Gardasil® immunization. A similar pattern was found for the non-vaccine genotype HPV31, albeit at a lower magnitude compared to its genetically-related vaccine genotype, HPV16. However, both the enumeration of memory B cells and VLP binding responses against HPV45 were poorly related to its neutralizing antibody responses. Purified IgG derived from memory B cells demonstrated specificities similar to those found in the serum, including the capacity to neutralize HPV pseudoviruses. Conclusions These data suggest that pseudovirus neutralization should be used as the

  11. Intervention effects from a social marketing campaign to promote HPV vaccination in preteen boys

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Joan R.; Diehl, Sandra J.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Adoption of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the US has been slow. In 2011, HPV vaccination of boys was recommended by CDC for routine use at ages 11–12. We conducted and evaluated a social marketing intervention with parents and providers to stimulate HPV vaccination among preteen boys. Methods We targeted parents and providers of 9–13 year old boys in a 13 county NC region. The 3-month intervention included distribution of HPV vaccination posters and brochures to all county health departments plus 194 enrolled providers; two radio PSAs; and an online CME training. A Cox proportional hazards model was fit using NC immunization registry data to examine whether vaccination rates in 9–13 year old boys increased during the intervention period in targeted counties compared to control counties (n=15) with similar demographics. To compare with other adolescent vaccines, similar models were fit for HPV vaccination in girls and meningococcal and Tdap vaccination of boys in the same age range. Moderating effects of age, race, and Vaccines for Children (VFC) eligibility on the intervention were considered. Results The Cox model showed an intervention effect (β=0.29, HR=1.34, p=.0024), indicating that during the intervention the probability of vaccination increased by 34% in the intervention counties relative to the control counties. Comparisons with HPV vaccination in girls and Tdap and meningococcal vaccination in boys suggest a unique boost for HPV vaccination in boys during the intervention. Model covariates of age, race and VFC eligibility were all significantly associated with vaccination rates (p<.0001 for all). HPV vaccination rates were highest in the 11–12 year old boys. Overall, three of every four clinic visits for Tdap and meningococcal vaccines for preteen boys were missed opportunities to administer HPV vaccination simultaneously. Conclusions Social marketing techniques can encourage parents and health care providers to vaccinate

  12. Parent Perceptions Important for HPV Vaccine Initiation among Low Income Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Staras, Stephanie A.S.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Patel, Roshni P.; Shenkman, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study aims were to assess the influence of provider recommendations on parental vaccine perceptions and identify the most potent parent vaccine perceptions for HPV vaccine series initiation considering provider recommendation strength. Methods We administered a questionnaire and assessed HPV vaccine claims among a stratified-random sample of parents of 9-17 year old girls enrolled in Florida's Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program. Using multivariate analyses, we evaluated the associations between: (1) parent vaccine perceptions and provider recommendation strength, and (2) parent vaccine perceptions and HPV vaccine series initiation (≥ 1 vaccine claim or positive parental report) controlling for provider recommendation strength. Results The majority of the 2,422 participating parents agreed that the HPV vaccine was safe (61%), would not make girls more likely to have sex (69%), and prevented cervical cancer (71%). About half (44%) reported receiving a strong provider recommendation. Compared to parents without recommendations, parents with strong recommendations had 2 to 7 times higher odds of agreeing that: vaccines are safe, the HPV vaccine is safe, not concerned about side effects, and the vaccine prevents cervical cancer. Even when considering provider recommendation strength, HPV vaccine series initiation was more likely among girls of parents who agreed rather than disagreed that the HPV vaccine was safe [Odds Ratio (OR) =5.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 3.1, 11.1), does not cause sex (OR=2.0, 95% CI = 1.2, 3.4), prevents cervical cancer (OR=2.0, 95% CI = 1.0, 3.4), and prevents HPV infections (OR=1.8, 95% CI = 1.0, 3.0). Conclusions Parent concerns about HPV vaccine are similar to their concerns about other vaccines. Providers should focus HPV vaccine discussions with parents on vaccine safety and illness prevention. PMID:25180815

  13. Human papillomavirus vaccine trials and tribulations: Vaccine efficacy.

    PubMed

    Handler, Nancy S; Handler, Marc Z; Majewski, Slawomir; Schwartz, Robert A

    2015-11-01

    As of December 2014, there were 3 approved vaccines for human papillomavirus (HPV): bivalent Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline, New York, NY), quadrivalent Gardasil (Merck and Co, Kenilworth, NJ), and 9-valent Gardasil-9 (Merck and Co). The average cost per dose is $120, with a recommended 3-dose course. The quadrivalent vaccine is the most widely administered worldwide. As with the bivalent and 9-valent vaccines, the vaccine is considered safe, although concerns have been raised. In addition to immunization against the targeted HPV types, there is evidence that there is cross protection against other types of HPV. This continuing medical education review evaluates the differences in vaccines that are currently on the market; part II focuses on the cost-effectiveness of vaccination, the HPV vaccination programs currently instituted around the globe, efficacy, and safety. PMID:26475535

  14. HPV vaccine stimulates cytotoxic activity of killer dendritic cells and natural killer cells against HPV-positive tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bergh, Johan M J; Guerti, Khadija; Willemen, Yannick; Lion, Eva; Cools, Nathalie; Goossens, Herman; Vorsters, Alex; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F I; Anguille, Sébastien; Van Damme, Pierre; Smits, Evelien L J M

    2014-01-01

    Cervarix™ is approved as a preventive vaccine against infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) strains 16 and 18, which are causally related to the development of cervical cancer. We are the first to investigate in vitro the effects of this HPV vaccine on interleukin (IL)-15 dendritic cells (DC) as proxy of a naturally occurring subset of blood DC, and natural killer (NK) cells, two innate immune cell types that play an important role in antitumour immunity. Our results show that exposure of IL-15 DC to the HPV vaccine results in increased expression of phenotypic maturation markers, pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cytotoxic activity against HPV-positive tumour cells. These effects are mediated by the vaccine adjuvant, partly through Toll-like receptor 4 activation. Next, we demonstrate that vaccine-exposed IL-15 DC in turn induce phenotypic activation of NK cells, resulting in a synergistic cytotoxic action against HPV-infected tumour cells. Our study thus identifies a novel mode of action of the HPV vaccine in boosting innate immunity, including killing of HPV-infected cells by DC and NK cells. PMID:24979331

  15. Efficacy of a new bivalent vaccine of porcine circovirus type 2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Fostera™ PCV MH) under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Park, Changhoon; Jeong, Jiwoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new bivalent vaccine (Fostera™ PCV MH, Zoetis) of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in growing pigs under experimental conditions. A total of 80 pigs were randomly divided into 8 groups (10 pigs per group). The pigs were administered the bivalent vaccine intramuscularly as a 2.0 mL dose at 21 days of age based on the manufacturer's instructions. Three weeks after vaccination, the pigs were inoculated with either PCV2 (intranasal route) or M. hyopneumoniae (intratracheal route) or both. Regardless of the type of inoculation, vaccinated pigs after challenge exhibited effective reduction of clinical signs, PCV2 viremia levels and mycoplasma nasal shedding, and lung and lymphoid lesion when compared to unvaccinated challenged pigs. Vaccinated challenged pigs had significantly higher (P<0.05) levels of PCV2-specific neutralizing antibodies, and numbers of PCV2-and M. hyopneumoniae-specific interferon-γ secreting cells compared to unvaccinated challenged pigs. This study demonstrates that the bivalent vaccine is able to protect pigs against either PCV2 or M. hyopneumoniae infection or both based on clinical, microbiological, immunological, and pathological evaluation. PMID:26626212

  16. Cervical cancer in India and HPV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kaarthigeyan, K

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer, mainly caused by Human Papillomavirus infection, is the leading cancer in Indian women and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Though there are several methods of prevention of cervical cancer, prevention by vaccination is emerging as the most effective option, with the availability of two vaccines. Several studies have been published examining the vaccine's efficacy, immunogenicity and safety. Questions and controversy remain regarding mandatory vaccination, need for booster doses and cost-effectiveness, particularly in the Indian context. PMID:22754202

  17. Knowledge and acceptability of the HPV vaccine among ethnically diverse black women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rula; Brown, Diane R; Boothe, Makini A S; Harris, Caroline E S

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine HPV vaccine knowledge and acceptability among ethnically diverse Black women. Forty-four women were interviewed in 6 focus groups (2 African American, 2 English-speaking Caribbean, 1 Haitian, and 1 African). Thematic content analysis was used to generate common concepts and themes and to compare findings across groups. There was varied but limited knowledge and confusion across ethnic groups about the HPV infection and vaccine. African and Haitian women had the least knowledge. Overall, women were generally receptive toward the HPV vaccine for girls but unclear about the need to vaccinate boys. Concerns about the HPV vaccine were mainly related to side effects/safety and vaccinating children at a young age. Healthcare provider's recommendation of the vaccination was important for decision making. Educational interventions with Black women about HPV vaccination should recognize cultural beliefs that vary by ethnic group. PMID:23197180

  18. Issues surrounding HPV vaccine delivery in a multi-ethnic country in Asia: the physician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-02-01

    The study was conducted to investigate issues surrounding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine delivery in a multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multi-cultural society. A qualitative in-depth interview study was conducted with a sample of 20 physicians. Physicians described the success of HPV vaccines recommendation as very poor. Many expressed reluctance to offer the vaccine to preadolescents. The most notable barrier to vaccination was the vaccine's high cost. Parents of eligible vaccinees were concerned about the efficacy and side effects of the new vaccine, while adult women have low risk perception for HPV infection. Promoters and inhibitors of HPV vaccination in our multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multi-cultural community were identified. This study suggests the need to strengthen the infrastructure necessary for HPV vaccine delivery and to specifically target poor underserved women. PMID:20431926

  19. Knowledge on HPV Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Facilitates Vaccine Acceptability among School Teachers in Kitui County, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Masika, Moses Muia; Ogembo, Javier Gordon; Chabeda, Sophie Vusha; Wamai, Richard G.; Mugo, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    Background Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have the potential to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. School-based delivery of HPV vaccines is cost-effective and successful uptake depends on school teachers’ knowledge and acceptability of the vaccine. The aim of this study is to assess primary school teachers’ knowledge and acceptability of HPV vaccine and to explore facilitators and barriers of an ongoing Gavi Alliance-supported vaccination program in Kitui County, Kenya. Methods This was a cross-sectional, mixed methods study in Central Division of Kitui County where the Ministry of Health is offering the quadrivalent HPV vaccine to grade four girls. Data on primary school teachers’ awareness, knowledge and acceptability of HPV vaccine as well as facilitators and barriers to the project was collected through self-administered questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Results 339 teachers (60% female) completed the survey (62% response rate) and 13 participated in 2 focus group discussions. Vaccine awareness among teachers was high (90%), the level of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer among teachers was moderate (48%, SD = 10.9) and females scored higher than males (50% vs. 46%, p = 0.002). Most teachers (89%) would recommend the vaccine to their daughter or close relatives. Those who would recommend the vaccine had more knowledge than those who would not (p = <0.001). The main barriers were insufficient information about the vaccine, poor accessibility of schools, absenteeism of girls on vaccine days, and fear of side effects. Conclusions Despite low to moderate levels of knowledge about HPV vaccine among school teachers, vaccine acceptability is high. Teachers with little knowledge on HPV vaccine are less likely to accept the vaccine than those who know more; this may affect uptake if not addressed. Empowering teachers to be vaccine champions in their community may be a feasible way of disseminating information about HPV

  20. Promoting Uptake of the HPV Vaccine: The Knowledge and Views of School Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Sally B.; Lanumata, Tolotea; Lawton, Beverley A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based human papillomavirus (HPV)/cervical cancer vaccination programs have been implemented widely, but few studies have investigated the knowledge and views of school staff about this new vaccine. Methods: Prior to the introduction of the HPV vaccine in 2009, we surveyed staff at 14 socioeconomically diverse schools to assess…

  1. Partnering with middle school students to design text messages about HPV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Cates, Joan R; Ortiz, Rebecca R; North, Steve; Martin, Amanda; Smith, Richalle; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is routinely recommended for U.S. adolescents ages 11 to 12 years, yet vaccine coverage remains low. Text message HPV immunization reminders to parents have been effective with increasing uptake, but text messages directly to adolescents in order to increase HPV vaccination uptake are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the acceptability of text messages about HPV vaccination and message preferences among adolescents. Middle school students (n = 43) assisted in designing text messages to promote HPV vaccine among their peers. Through seven focus groups and two in-class surveys, we assessed students' knowledge of HPV vaccine, use of texting, and preferences for text messages and sources. The average age of participants was 13 years, and all were White (17 males, 26 females) in this rural setting. More than 70% used text messaging with a cell phone. The text message with the best composite score (M = 2.33, SD = 0.72) for likeability, trustworthiness, and motivation to seek more information was a gain frame emphasizing reduction in HPV infection if vaccinated against HPV. Text messages with lower scores emphasized threats of disease if not vaccinated. Participants (68%) preferred doctors as their information source. Text messaging to adolescents may be a strategy to improve HPV knowledge and vaccination. PMID:25258431

  2. Access and Attitudes to HPV Vaccination amongst Hard-To-Reach Populations in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Watson-Jones, Deborah; Mugo, Nelly; Lees, Shelley; Mathai, Muthoni; Vusha, Sophie; Ndirangu, Gathari; Ross, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan Africa bears the greatest burden of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes to prevent the disease will need to reach vulnerable girls who may not be able access health and screening services in the future. We conducted formative research on facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccination and potential acceptability of a future HPV vaccination programme amongst girls living in hard-to-reach populations in Kenya. Methods Stakeholder interviews with Ministry of Health staff explored barriers to and support for the uptake of HPV vaccination. A situation assessment was conducted to assess community services in Maasai nomadic pastoralist communities in Kajiado County and in Korogocho informal settlement in Nairobi city, followed by focus group discussions (n=14) and semi-structured interviews (n=28) with health workers, parents, youth, and community and religious leaders. These covered marriage, knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV, factors that might inhibit or support HPV vaccine uptake and intention to accept HPV vaccine if a programme was in place. Results Reported challenges to an HPV vaccination programme included school absenteeism and drop-out, early age of sex and marriage, lack of parental support, population mobility and distance from services. Despite little prior knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV, communities were interested in receiving HPV vaccination. Adequate social mobilisation and school-based vaccination, supplemented by out-reach activities, were considered important facilitating factors to achieve high coverage. There was some support for a campaign approach to vaccine delivery. Conclusions Given the high level of support for a vaccine against cervical cancer and the experience of reaching pastoralist and slum-dwellers for other immunizations, implementing an HPV vaccine programme should be feasible in such hard-to-reach communities. This may require additional delivery strategies in addition to the

  3. Efficacy of the HPV-16/18 Vaccine: Final according to protocol results from the blinded phase of the randomized Costa Rica HPV-16/18 Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hildesheim, Allan; Wacholder, Sholom; Catteau, Gregory; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Herrero, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    Background A community-based randomized trial was conducted in Costa Rica to evaluate the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (NCT00128661). The primary objective was to evaluate efficacy of the vaccine to prevent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or more severe disease (CIN2+) associated with incident HPV-16/18 cervical infections. Secondary objectives were to evaluate efficacy against CIN2+ associated with incident cervical infection by any oncogenic HPVs and to evaluate duration of protection against incident cervical infection with HPV-16/18. Vaccine safety and immunogenicity over the 4-year follow-up were also evaluated. Methods We randomized (3,727 HPV arm; 3,739 Control arm), vaccinated (HPV-16/18 or Hepatitis A) and followed (median 53.8 months) 7,466 healthy women aged 18-25 years. 5,312 women (2,635 HPV arm; 2,677 Control arm) were included in the according to protocol analysis for efficacy. The full cohort was evaluated for safety. Immunogenicity was considered on a subset of 354 (HPV-16) and 379 (HPV-18) women. HPV type was assessed by PCR on cytology specimens. Immunogenicity was assessed using ELISA and inhibition enzyme immunoassays. Disease outcomes were histologically confirmed. Vaccine efficacy and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were computed. Results Vaccine efficacy was 89.8% (95% CI: 39.5 - 99.5; N=11 events total) against HPV-16/18 associated CIN2+, 59.9% (95% CI: 20.7 - 80.8; N=39 events total) against CIN2+ associated with non-HPV-16/18 oncogenic HPVs and 61.4% (95% CI: 29.5-79.8; N=51 events total) against CIN2+ irrespective of HPV type. The vaccine had an acceptable safety profile and induced robust and long-lasting antibody responses. Conclusions Our findings confirm the high efficacy and immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against incident HPV infections and cervical disease associated with HPV-16/18 and other oncogenic HPV types. These results will serve as a benchmark to which we can compare future findings from ongoing extended

  4. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of L1-VLP-Based Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Efficacy against Anogenital Pre-Cancer in Women with Evidence of Prior HPV Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Miltz, Ada; Price, Huw; Shahmanesh, Maryam; Copas, Andrew; Gilson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether L1-VLP-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are efficacious in reducing the likelihood of anogenital pre-cancer in women with evidence of prior vaccine-type HPV exposure. This study aims to determine whether the combined results of the vaccine trials published to date provide evidence of efficacy compared with control (hepatitis A vaccine/placebo). Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and references of identified studies. The bivalent vaccine containing HPV-16 and 18 VLPs from GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (Rixenstart, Belgium), the quadrivalent vaccine containing HPV-6, 11, 16, and 18 VLPs from Merck & Co., Inc., (Whitehouse Station, NJ USA), and the HPV-16 monovalent vaccine from Merck Research Laboratories (West Point, PA USA) were evaluated. Findings Three RCT reports and two post-trial cohort studies were eligible, comprising data from 13,482 women who were included in the vaccine studies but had evidence of HPV infection at study entry. Data on efficacy was synthesized using the Mantel-Haenszel weighted fixed-effect approach, or where there was heterogeneity between studies, the DerSimonian and Laird weighted random-effect approach. The mean odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between Cervarix, Gardasil and HPV-16 monovalent vaccine and HPV-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse was 0·90 (95% CI: 0·56, 1·44). For the association between Gardasil and HPV-associated vulval/vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2–3, the overall OR and 95% CI was 2.25 (95% CI: 0·78, 6.50). Sample size and follow-up were limited. Conclusions There was no evidence that HPV vaccines are effective in preventing vaccine-type HPV associated pre-cancer in women with evidence of prior HPV exposure. Small effects of

  5. The cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in addition to screening: a Dutch perspective.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Westra, Tjalke Arend; Wilschut, Jan C; Suwantika, Auliya A; Daemen, Toos; Atthobari, Jarir; Wilffert, Bob; Postma, Maarten J

    2015-04-01

    Addition of the HPV vaccine to available cytological screening has been proposed to increase HPV-related cancer prevention. A comprehensive review on this combined strategy implemented in the Netherlands is lacking. For this review, we therefore analyzed all relevant studies on cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccines in combination with cervical screening in the Netherlands. Most of the studies agree that vaccination in pre-sexual-activity periods of life is cost-effective. Based on published sensitivity analyses, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was found to be mainly driven by vaccine cost and discount rates. Fewer vaccine doses, inclusion of additional benefits of these vaccines to prevent HPV-related non-cervical cancers and vaccination of males to further reduce the burden of HPV-induced cancers are three relevant options suggested to be investigated in upcoming economic evaluations. PMID:25482311

  6. Factors Associated with College Students' Intentions to Vaccinate Their Daughters Against HPV: Protecting the Next Generation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kelly L; White, Alice; Rosen, Brittany L; Chiappone, Alethea; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2016-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a contemporary public health concern because of its association with cervical cancer. Despite evidence about HPV vaccination benefits, debate surrounds whether or not to vaccinate American youth. While no nationwide mandate exists, understanding the behaviors and intentions of future parents may provide insight about our ability to protect the next generation of school-aged youth. The purposes of this study were to examine factors associated with unmarried college students' intentions to: (1) vaccinate their daughters against HPV and (2) give their daughters the choice about whether or not to be vaccinated. Data were analyzed from 1606 college students aged 18-26 using an internet-delivered questionnaire. Two binary logistic regression analyses were performed identifying predictor variables associated with participants' intentions when having daughters in the future to vaccinate them against HPV and whether or not they would let their daughters decide to get the vaccination. Relative to those who did not intend to vaccinate their daughters against HPV, participants who were female (OR 1.55, P = 0.018), sexually active (OR 1.62, P = 0.001), diagnosed with HPV (OR 2.64, P < 0.001), received a flu shot in the past 12 months (OR 1.63, P = 0.002), perceived the HPV vaccine to be safe (OR 1.19, P < 0.001), and supported HPV vaccination mandates for school-aged youth (OR 2.58, P < 0.001) were more likely to report intentions of vaccinating their daughters against HPV. Participants who were sexually active (OR 1.45, P = 0.002) and perceived the HPV vaccine to be safe (OR 1.05, P = 0.012) were more likely to report they would allow their daughters to choose whether to be vaccinated against HPV. Until HPV vaccination mandates are enacted, parental support of vaccines are among the most effective way of increasing vaccine uptake. Identifying HPV vaccination support among future parents has potential to inform parent vaccination

  7. College Women's Attitudes, Behaviors, and Beliefs Regarding the HPV Vaccine: Translation to Health Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Rosemary M.; Kispert, Elisabeth; McGrath, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is primarily caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and is the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality among women. Purpose: College women may be at risk for contracting HPV based on their sexual behavior. An exploratory analysis was conducted, following the release of the HPV vaccine, Gardasil[R], to (1)…

  8. Cervical, Anal and Oral HPV in an Adolescent Inner-City Health Clinic Providing Free Vaccinations

    PubMed Central

    Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Burk, Robert D.; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Shankar, Viswanathan; Peake, Ken; Lorde-Rollins, Elizabeth; Porter, Richard; Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Rojas, Mary; Strickler, Howard D.; Diaz, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Published human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine trials indicate efficacy is strongest for those naive to the vaccine-types. However, few high-risk young women have been followed and cervical HPV has been the predominant outcome measure. Methods We collected cervical and anal swabs, as well as oral rinse specimens from 645 sexually active inner-city young females attending a large adolescent health-clinic in New York City that offers free care and HPV vaccination. Specimens were tested for HPV-DNA using a MY09/MY11-PCR system. Type-specific prevalence of HPV at each anatomic site was compared for individuals by vaccination dose using generalized estimating equation logistic regression models. Results The majority of subjects reported being of non-Caucasian (92%) and/or Hispanic ethnicity (61%). Median age was 18 years (range:14–20). All had practiced vaginal sex, a third (33%) practiced anal sex, and most (77%) had also engaged in oral sex. At enrollment, 21% had not received the vaccine and 51% had received three doses. Prevalent HPV infection at enrollment was detected in 54% of cervical, 42% of anal and 20% of oral specimens, with vaccine types present in 7%, 6% and 1% of specimens, respectively. Comparing prevalence for vaccine types, the detection of HPV in the cervix of vaccinated compared to unvaccinated adolescents was significantly reduced: HPV6/11 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.19, 95%CI:0.06–0.75), HPV16 (OR = 0.31, 95%CI:0.11–0.88) and HPV18 (OR = 0.14, 95%CI:0.03–0.75). For anal HPV, the risk of detecting vaccine types HPV6/11 (OR = 0.27, 95%CI:0.10–0.72) and HPV18(OR = 0.12, 95%CI:0.01–1.16) were significantly reduced for vaccinated adolescents however, the risk for HPV16 was not significantly decreased (OR = 0.63, 95%CI:0.18–2.20). Conclusion HPV Prevalence is extremely high in inner-city female adolescents. Administration of the HPV vaccine reduced the risk for cervical HPV; however continued follow-up is required

  9. Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 gene DNA possibly bound to particulate aluminum adjuvant in the HPV vaccine Gardasil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sin Hang

    2012-12-01

    Medical practitioners in nine countries submitted samples of Gardasil (Merck & Co.) to be tested for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA because they suspected that residual recombinant HPV DNA left in the vaccine might have been a contributing factor leading to some of the unexplained post-vaccination side effects. A total of 16 packages of Gardasil were received from Australia, Bulgaria, France, India, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, Spain and the United States. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using the MY09/MY11 degenerate primers for initial amplification and the GP5/GP6-based nested PCR primers for the second amplification were used to prepare the template for direct automated cycle DNA sequencing of a hypervariable segment of the HPV L1 gene which is used for manufacturing of the HPV L1 capsid protein by a DNA recombinant technology in vaccine production. Detection of HPV DNA and HPV genotyping of all positive samples were finally validated by BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) analysis of a 45-60 bases sequence of the computer-generated electropherogram. The results showed that all 16 Gardasil samples, each with a different lot number, contained fragments of HPV-11 DNA, or HPV-18 DNA, or a DNA fragment mixture from both genotypes. The detected HPV DNA was found to be firmly bound to the insoluble, proteinase-resistant fraction, presumably of amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate (AAHS) nanoparticles used as adjuvant. The clinical significance of these residual HPV DNA fragments bound to a particulate mineral-based adjuvant is uncertain after intramuscular injection, and requires further investigation for vaccination safety. PMID:23078778

  10. Exploring the role of ethnic identity on the attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among Puerto Ricans: A qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Calo, William A.; Fernández, Maria E.; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Colón-López, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of guidelines recommending vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) and widespread availability of the vaccine through the Vaccines for Children program, HPV vaccination rates among island Puerto Ricans are suboptimal. Advertising plays a central role in promoting HPV vaccination by increasing awareness of and knowledge about the vaccine; however, little is known about the influence of cultural factors on the impact of HPV messages delivered through the media. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the role of ethnic identity on the attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among island Puerto Ricans. Five focus groups (n=23) were conducted with parents and non-vaccinated females. Our analysis found several themes that may influence attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among this population: physical ethnic similarity, relevance of information, and sociocultural congruence. Findings may assist in developing culturally appropriate health promotion programs and media to promote HPV vaccination among Puerto Ricans. PMID:24052477

  11. Correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage: A state-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jennifer L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2014-01-01

    Background We tested the hypothesis that states with higher rates of cancers associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) would have lower HPV vaccine coverage. Methods We gathered state-level data on HPV-related cancer rates and HPV vaccine initiation coverage for girls and boys, separately, and HPV vaccine follow-through (i.e., receipt of 3 doses among those initiating the series) for girls only. In addition, we gathered state-level data on demographic composition and contact with the healthcare system. We calculated Pearson correlations for these ecological relationships. Results HPV vaccine initiation among girls was lower in states with higher levels of cervical cancer incidence and mortality (r=−.29 and −.46, respectively). In addition, vaccine follow-through among girls was lower in states with higher levels of cervical cancer mortality (r=−.30). Other cancer rates were associated with HPV vaccine initiation and follow-through among girls, but not among boys. HPV vaccine initiation among girls was lower in states with higher proportions of non-Hispanic black residents and lower proportions of higher income residents. HPV vaccine follow-through was higher in states with greater levels of adolescents' contact with the healthcare system. Conclusions HPV vaccine coverage for girls was lower in states with higher HPV-related cancer rates. Public health efforts should concentrate on geographic areas with higher cancer rates. Strengthening adolescent preventive healthcare use may be particularly important to increase vaccine follow-through. Cost-effectiveness analyses may overestimate the benefits of current vaccination coverage and underestimate the benefits of increasing coverage. PMID:25585064

  12. Understanding Public Perceptions of the HPV Vaccination Based on Online Comments to Canadian News Articles

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Yael; Pereira, Jennifer A.; Quach, Susan; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Wilson, Sarah E.; Guay, Maryse; Lei, Yang; Deeks, Shelley L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the variation in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage across Canada, and debate regarding delivery of HPV vaccines in Catholic schools, we studied online comments on Canadian news websites to understand public perceptions of HPV and HPV vaccine. Methods We searched English- and French-language Canadian news websites for 2012 articles that contained the terms “HPV” or “human papillomavirus.” Articles about HPV vaccinations that contained at least one comment were included. Two researchers independently coded comments, analyzing them for emerging themes. Results We identified 3073 comments from 1198 individuals in response to 71 news articles; 630 (52.6%) individuals expressed positive sentiments about HPV vaccination (2.5 comments/individual), 404 (33.7%) were negative (3.0 comments/individual), 34 (2.8%) were mixed (1.5 comments/individual) and 130 (10.8%) were neutral (1.6 comments/individual). Vaccine-supportive commenters believed the vaccine is safe and effective. Common themes in negative comments included concerns regarding HPV vaccine safety and efficacy, distrust of pharmaceutical companies and government, and belief that school-age children are too young for HPV vaccine. Many comments focused on whether the Catholic Church has the right to inform health policy for students, and discussion often evolved into debates regarding HPV and sexual behaviour. We noted that many individuals doubted the credibility of vaccine safety information. Conclusion The majority of commenters do not appear to be against HPV vaccination, but public health messaging that focuses on both the vaccine’s safety profile, and its use as a means to prevent cancer rather than sexually transmitted HPV infection may facilitate its acceptance. PMID:26053866

  13. HPV16/18 L1 VLP Vaccine Induces Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies that May Mediate Cross-Protection

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Troy J.; Hildesheim, Allan; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Dauner, Joseph G.; Pan, Yuanji; Porras, Carolina; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 VLP-based vaccines are protective against HPV vaccine-related types; however, the correlates of protection have not been defined. We observed that vaccination with Cervarix™ induced cross-neutralizing antibodies for HPV types for which evidence of vaccine efficacy has been demonstrated (HPV31/45) but not for other types (HPV52/58). In addition, HPV31/45 cross-neutralizing titers showed a significant increase with number of doses (HPV31, p<0.001; HPV45, p<0.001) and correlated with HPV16/18 neutralizing titers, respectively. These findings raise the possibility that cross-neutralizing antibodies are effectors of cross-protection observed for the HPV16/18 vaccine. PMID:21241731

  14. Debate Revives Old Arguments on HPV Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on a Republican presidential debate which revives the contention over requiring middle school girls to be vaccinated against the virus that causes cervical cancer. At the September 12 debate, U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann, of Minnesota, and Rick Santorum, a former U.S. senator from Pennsylvania, attacked Texas Governor…

  15. Attitudes, Knowledge and Factors Associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Uptake in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Iris L. Y.; Machalek, Dorothy A.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination targets high-risk HPV16/18 that cause 70% of all cancers of the cervix. In Australia there is a fully-funded, school-based National HPV Vaccination Program which has achieved vaccine initiation rate of 82% among age-eligible females. Improving HPV vaccination rates is important in the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with HPV-related disease. This study aimed to identify factors and barriers associated with uptake of the HPV vaccine in the Australian Program. Methods Between 2011 and 2014, females aged 18–25 years, living in Victoria, Australia who were offered HPV vaccination between 2007 and 2009 as part of the National HPV Vaccination Program, living in Victoria, Australia were recruited into a a young women’s study examining effectiveness of the Australian National HPV Vaccination Program. Overall, 668 participants completed the recruitment survey, which collected data of participants’ demographics and HPV knowledge. In 2015 these participants were invited to complete an additional supplementary survey on parental demographics and attitudes towards vaccinations. Results In 2015, 417 participants completed the supplementary survey (62% response rate). Overall, 19% of participants were unvaccinated. In multivariate analyses, HPV vaccination was significantly associated with their being born in Australia (p<0.001), having completed childhood vaccinations (p<0.001) and their parents being main decision-makers for participants’ HPV vaccination (p<0.001). The main reason reported for HPV non-vaccination was parental concern about vaccine safety (43%). Compared with HPV-vaccinated participants, those unvaccinated were significantly more likely to be opposed to all vaccines, including HPV vaccines (p<0.001) and were less likely to consider vaccinating their own children with all vaccines (p = 0.033), including HPV vaccines (p<0.001). Overall, 61% of unvaccinated participants reported that a

  16. Community Awareness of HPV Screening and Vaccination in Odisha

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Niharika; Ramaseshan, Aparna; Arnold, Stephanie; Panigrahi, Kalpana; Macek, Mark D.; Padhi, Bijaya K.; Samanta, Diptirani; Senapati, Surendra N.; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. A number of new technologies including cervical cancer screening and vaccination have introduced new tools in the fight against cervical cancer. Methods. This study was set in Odisha, India, at the Acharya Harihar Regional Cancer Center and study research infrastructure at the Asian Institute of Public Health. IRB approvals were obtained and a research assistant recruited 286 women aged 18–49 years, who provided informed consent and completed a survey tool. Data were entered into EpiData software and statistical analysis was conducted. Results. 76.3% women participants were married, 45.5% had sexual debut at age 21 or greater, 60.5% used contraception, 12.2% reported having a Pap smear in the past, and 4.9% reported having prior genital warts. Most, 68.8% had never heard of HPV and 11.9% were aware that HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer. 82.9% women thought that vaccinations prevent disease, and 74.8% said they make the decision to vaccinate their children. Conclusion. The Odisha community demonstrated a low level of knowledge about cervical cancer prevention, accepted vaccinations in the prevention of disease and screening, and identified mothers/guardians as the key family contacts. PMID:26783394

  17. HPV vaccines: their pathology-based discovery, benefits, and adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Alcina F; de Andrade, Cecilia V; Russomano, Fabio B; Rodrigues, Luana S L; Oliveira, Nathalia S; Provance, David William; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine illustrates the power of in situ-based pathologic analysis in better understanding and curing diseases. The 2 available HPV vaccines have markedly reduced the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, genital warts, and cervical cancer throughout the world. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, health care officials, and parents to refuse providing the recommended vaccination to the target population. The aims of the study were to discuss the discovery of HPV vaccine and review scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines. The strong type-specific immunity against HPV in humans has been known for more than 25 years. Multiple studies confirm the positive risk benefit of HPV vaccination with minimal documented adverse effects. The most common adverse effect, injection site pain, occurred in about 10% of girls and was less than the rate reported for other vaccines. Use of HPV vaccine should be expanded into more diverse populations, mainly in low-resource settings. PMID:26321154

  18. How university students view human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination: A cross-sectional study in Jinan, China.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huachun; Wang, Wei; Ma, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yongjie; Zhao, Fanghui; Wang, Shaoming; Zhang, Shaokai; Ma, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The acceptability of HPV vaccination among university students in China is not well understood. Our study was of cross-sectional study design. We collected a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of, attitude toward and acceptability of HPV vaccination. A total of 351 students were included in data analyses, among whom 47.6% were males and 70.0% aged 19-21. Only 10.3% had previously heard of HPV and 5.4% HPV vaccine. Male and female students were equally likely to accept HPV vaccine (71.8 vs 69.4%, p = 0.634) and recommend it to sexual partners (73.1 vs 76.7%, p = 0.441). The great majority of students could only afford RMB 300 (USD 50) or less for HPV vaccination. HPV vaccination acceptance was associated with being in year-one (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR)  = 3.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.12-6.75), being from a key university (AOR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.07-3.31), having heard of HPV-related morbidities (AOR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.05-3.35), being concerned about HPV-related morbidities (AOR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.16-4.27) and believing the vaccine should be given before first sexual contact (AOR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.38-4.29). Female students were more likely to anticipate a late uptake of HPV vaccination (p = 0.002). The relatively lower levels of HPV knowledge but higher levels of vaccine acceptance among undergraduates highlighted the need for education on the roles of sexual behaviors in HPV transmission. PMID:26308701

  19. Impact of HPV vaccination on anogenital warts and respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Wangu, Zoon; Hsu, Katherine K

    2016-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infection in the US and worldwide, can cause cancers, anogenital warts (AGW), and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in men, women, and children. Global incidence of AGW ranges from 160-289 cases per 100,000 person-years and peaks in young men and women in the third decade of life. RRP has an estimated incidence of 3 per 1 million person-years in children. Pre-licensure trial efficacy, modeling and time-trend ecological studies have shown a significant short-term impact of 4vHPV vaccine. In girls aged 15-19 years, a previously published meta-analysis indicated that genital warts decreased significantly by 31%; stratified analysis revealed more substantial reductions in populations with high (≥50 %) vs. low (<50 % ) vaccination coverage (61% vs. 14%). Longer-term monitoring will reveal whether this impact continues under 9vHPV programs, and whether current declines in AGW are mirrored by declines in RRP. PMID:27217191

  20. Knowledge and Perceptions of HPV and the HPV Vaccine among Pre-adolescent Girls and Their Guardians in Georgetown, Guyana

    PubMed Central

    Tyrell, E; Ramsammy-Boyce, K

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To examine the knowledge and perceptions of 11-year old girls and their guardians toward the human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV (mandatory) vaccination and cervical cancer and to determine their main sources of health information. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done by interviewing two separate study populations ie 11-year old girls from five primary schools in Georgetown and their guardians. Questions were designed to assess level of knowledge as well as perceptions about mandatory vaccination and sources of health information. Results: A total of 87 girls participated, of whom 10 (11%) had already received the HPV vaccine. Overall, when asked whether they knew of HPV, the HPV vaccine, cervical cancer or the Pap smear, more than half of the girls, in every instance, did not know. Seventy-four guardians took part and most (> 80%) of them claimed that they knew about these parameters except for HPV transmission (40%) and the cause of cervical cancer (30%). Both girls and guardians responded poorly to questions about the detection of cervical cancer. Furthermore, only two of the 14 girls who stated that they knew how HPV was transmitted, actually answered correctly that it was sexual transmission. Girls were almost twice as likely to be in favour of mandatory vaccination as guardians (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 0.9, 3.6) but the difference was not significant (p > 0.05). The girls indicated health centres/clinics (58%), whilst TV/radio (66%) was the preference for the guardians as their most popular health information sources. Conclusions: These findings point to a necessity for educational programmes and activities in which children and their guardians can meaningfully participate and be informed about the different aspects of HPV vaccination. PMID:26035815

  1. HPV Vaccine Gardasil®-9: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicine, including vaccines, there is a chance of side effects. These are usually mild and go away on their own, but serious reactions are also possible. Most people who get HPV vaccine do not have any serious problems with ...

  2. HPV vaccine acceptability in HIV-infected and HIV negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sadlier, C; Lynam, A; O'Dea, S; Delamere, S; Quinlan, M; Clarke, S; Sheils, O; Bergin, C

    2016-06-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly HIV-infected MSM are disproportionately affected by HPV infection and associated disease. The HPV vaccine has potential to greatly reduce the burden of HPV-associated disease including anal cancer in MSM. The efficacy of the HPV vaccine is dependent on high levels of vaccine uptake. The aim of this study was to examine HPV vaccine acceptability and factors influencing vaccine acceptability in MSM in Ireland. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to HIV-infected and HIV negative MSM examining HPV vaccine acceptability and factors associated with vaccine acceptability. Logistic regression was used to identify key variables and predictors of HPV vaccine acceptability. Results 302 MSM participated in the study. Acceptability of HPV vaccine was 31% (unconditional), 51% (conditional on stated efficacy and a cost of €300), 65% (conditional on stated efficacy and a cost of €100) and 78% (conditional on stated efficacy and no cost). Cost was negatively associated with HPV vaccine acceptability (p<0.01) while knowledge of HPV vaccine efficacy was significantly associated with vaccine acceptability, even in the context of associated cost (p<0.01). Conclusions Acceptability of HPV vaccine in MSM in Ireland is high based on no cost vaccine and on stated vaccine efficacy (78%). Cost is negatively associated with vaccine acceptability. Understanding levels of knowledge of HPV infection, HPV associated disease and attitudes toward HPV vaccination are important as they will contribute to HPV vaccine acceptability among MSM and will help guide effective preventive programs. PMID:27153289

  3. “Saving lives”: Adapting and adopting Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Katharina T.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination against the sexually transmitted Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a necessary agent for the development of cervical cancer, has triggered much debate. In Austria, HPV policy turned from “lagging behind” in 2008 into “Europe's frontrunner” by 2013. Drawing on qualitative research, the article shows how the vaccine was transformed and made “good enough” over the course of five years. By means of tinkering and shifting storylines, policy officials and experts disassociated the vaccine from gender, vaccine manufacturers, and youth sexuality. Ultimately, the HPV vaccine functioned to strengthen the national immunization program. To this end, preventing an effective problematization of the extant screening program was essential. PMID:26921834

  4. Factors Influencing Mexican Women's Decisions to Vaccinate Daughters Against HPV in the United States and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Wentzell, Emily; Flores, Yvonne N; Salmerón, Jorge; Bastani, Roshan

    2016-01-01

    Mexican and Mexican-American women bear high cervical cancer burdens, yet relationships between mothers' experiences of vaccinating daughters against cervical cancer-causing human papillomavirus (HPV) on both sides of the border are unknown. We surveyed 400 Mexican-born women in Oxnard, California, United States and Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, about their beliefs and practices regarding daughters' HPV vaccination, conducting in-depth interviews with 35 participants. Contextualizing interview findings in survey data, we identify key factors influencing mothers' experiences regarding daughters' HPV vaccination in both countries. Although US acculturation influenced some participants' concerns, US and Mexico participants overwhelmingly desired eventual vaccination; structural rather than cultural barriers limited vaccine uptake. PMID:27536936

  5. Physicians' experiences with HPV vaccine delivery: evidence from developing country with multiethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Wong, Li Ping

    2009-03-01

    Physicians' experiences in providing human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization were assessed by mailed questionnaire. Response rate of 41.4% was achieved. Malay Muslim physicians were more likely to agree that cultural sensitivity is an issue when recommending HPV vaccines. Pediatricians and family physicians were more likely to agree that acceptance is better if vaccines were recommended to prevent cervical cancer than to prevent a sexually transmitted disease. Near 70% rated success of HPV vaccines recommendation in their practice as very poor with the majority patients preferred to postpone immunization. Physicians reported cultural disparities in vaccine uptake and perceived high vaccination cost limits its use. PMID:19100803

  6. HPV vaccine for teen boys: Dyadic analysis of parents' and sons' beliefs and willingness

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jennifer L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Parents and adolescents often decide together whether the child should receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. However, few studies have investigated the dyadic nature of beliefs that affect this process. Method Data came from the 2010 HPV Immunization in Sons (HIS) Study, a national sample of 412 parents and their adolescent sons. We conducted dyadic multivariate logistic regression to test the relationships between parents' and sons' HPV vaccine beliefs and their willingness to have the son receive the vaccine. Results Fewer than half of parents and sons were willing to have the sons receive HPV vaccine (43% and 29%, respectively). Willing parents and sons anticipated greater regret if the son did not receive HPV vaccine but later contracted an HPV infection (parent odds ratio [OR]=1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.24-2.40; son OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.04-2.19) (both p<.05). Lower concerns about side effects, such as pain and fainting, were also associated with willingness. Conclusion Parents and sons were more willing to have the son receive HPV vaccine if they had higher anticipated regret about potential HPV infection and lower concerns about side effects. Communication campaigns should target these beliefs to increase parents' and sons' willingness to seek HPV vaccination. PMID:26190364

  7. The role of anticipated regret and health beliefs in HPV vaccination intentions among young adults.

    PubMed

    Christy, Shannon M; Winger, Joseph G; Raffanello, Elizabeth W; Halpern, Leslie F; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Mosher, Catherine E

    2016-06-01

    Although cognitions have predicted young adults' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine decision-making, emotion-based theories of healthcare decision-making suggest that anticipatory emotions may be more predictive. This study examined whether anticipated regret was associated with young adults' intentions to receive the HPV vaccine above and beyond the effects of commonly studied cognitions. Unvaccinated undergraduates (N = 233) completed a survey assessing Health Belief Model (HBM) variables (i.e., perceived severity of HPV-related diseases, perceived risk of developing these diseases, and perceived benefits of HPV vaccination), anticipatory emotions (i.e., anticipated regret if one were unvaccinated and later developed genital warts or HPV-related cancer), and HPV vaccine intentions. Anticipated regret was associated with HPV vaccine intentions above and beyond the effects of HBM variables among men. Among women, neither anticipated regret nor HBM variables showed consistent associations with HPV vaccine intentions. Findings suggest that anticipatory emotions should be considered when designing interventions to increase HPV vaccination among college men. PMID:26782668

  8. Examining Future Adolescent HPV Vaccine Uptake With and Without a School Mandate

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Amanda F.; Mendez, David

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To develop a model of adolescent HPV vaccine utilization that explored future HPV vaccination rates with and without a school mandate for the vaccine at middle school entry. Methods A dynamic, population-based, compartmental model was developed that estimated over a 50 year time horizon HPV vaccine uptake among female adolescents living in the U.S. The model incorporated data on parental attitudes about this vaccine and adolescent health care utilization levels. Results Without a mandate, our model predicted that 70% coverage, a lower threshold value used in many previous modeling studies of HPV vaccination, would not be achieved until a mean of 23 years after vaccine availability. Maximal coverage of 79% was achieved after 50 years. With a school mandate in place, utilization increased substantially, with 70% vaccination coverage achieved by year 8 and maximal vaccination coverage, 90%, achieved by year 43. Conclusions Our results suggest that vaccine utilization is likely to be low for several years, though strong school mandates might improve HPV vaccine uptake. These results impact the interpretation of previous modeling studies that estimated the potential clinical impacts of HPV vaccination under assumptions of very high vaccine utilization rates. PMID:20708562

  9. Human papillomavirus (HPV): college male’s knowledge, perceived risk, sources of information, vaccine barriers and communication

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mira L.; Krieger, Janice L.; Roberto, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection. With the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of an indication for the HPV vaccine for males, it is important to assess male college student’s HPV knowledge, perceived risk, and sources of information, as well as HPV vaccine barriers and communication. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey study of 165 male college students. The participants completed a survey about HPV and the HPV vaccine. Results Among the 165 participants, most males had poor HPV knowledge, in that 132 (80.0%) reported having had sexual intercourse, but only 20 (12.1%) perceived being at risk for acquiring HPV. Information sources about HPV were commercials/advertisements, friends, news and health education programs. Concern about the HPV vaccine’s long-term effects and cost were the most frequently reported barriers. Most students reported having a regular healthcare provider, but had difficulty getting to their provider, and finding time to discuss the HPV vaccine with their provider. Additionally, most students reported relying on their parents when making medical decisions and being willing to discuss the HPV vaccine with their healthcare provider to make an informed decision about the vaccine. Conclusions Educational programs providing information about HPV, the HPV vaccine, and communication skills training are needed for male college students, parents, and healthcare providers. Findings from this study will guide the development of HPV vaccine messages and educational programs that should be tested in future research. PMID:21966351

  10. Message Framing, Perceived Susceptibility, and Intentions to Vaccinate Children Against HPV Among African American Parents.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoli; Madden, Kelly; Richards, Adam; Holt, Cheryl; Wang, Min Qi; Tracy, Kate

    2016-07-01

    This research examines the interaction effect of message framing (gain vs. loss) and perceived susceptibility (i.e., perceived likelihood that one's child is at risk of contracting HPV) on African American parents' intentions to vaccinate their children against HPV. Results of an experiment (N = 193) in which parents were exposed to either a gain-framed or loss-framed message about HPV vaccination revealed a significant interaction between message framing and perceived susceptibility when parents were required to pay for the vaccine. The specific pattern of interaction suggested that parents who perceived their children to be at high risk of contracting HPV were more persuaded by the gain-framed message, whereas those who believed their children to be at low risk of contracting HPV were more persuaded by the loss-framed message. Implications of the findings for HPV vaccination messaging are discussed. PMID:26646190

  11. Eurogin Roadmap 2015: How has HPV knowledge changed our practice: Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Julia M L; Jit, Mark; Gravitt, Patti E; Brisson, Marc; Kreimer, Aimée R; Pai, Sara I; Fakhry, Carole; Monsonego, Joseph; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    This review is one of two complementary reviews that have been prepared in the framework of the Eurogin Roadmap 2015 to evaluate how knowledge about HPV is changing practices in HPV infection and disease control through vaccination and screening. In this review of HPV vaccine knowledge, we present the most significant findings of the past year which have contributed to our knowledge of the two HPV prophylactic vaccines currently in widespread use and about the recently licensed nonavalent HPV vaccine. Whereas anal cancer is dealt with in the companion mini-review on screening, we also review here the rapidly evolving evidence regarding HPV-associated head and neck cancer and priority research areas. PMID:26916230

  12. HPV vaccines for circumpolar health: summary of plenary session, “Opportunities for Prevention: Global HPV Vaccine” and “Human Papillomavirus Prevention: The Nordic Experience”

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Eileen F.; Koch, Anders

    2013-01-01

    In this publication, we provide an overview of the presentations, “Opportunities for Prevention: Global HPV Vaccine” and “Human Papillomavirus Prevention: The Nordic Experience” as a part of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, held at Anchorage, Alaska, on August 8, 2012. We provide an overview of HPV, HPV vaccines and policy as well as the Nordic experience with HPV vaccine introduction.

  13. Simulating Immune Interference on the Effect of a Bivalent Glycoconjugate Vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae Serotypes “a” and “b”

    PubMed Central

    Konini, Angjelina; Kang, Mingsong; Moghadas, Seyed M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We sought to evaluate the immune responses to a bivalent Haemophilus influenzae glycoconjugate vaccine against serotypes “a” (Hia) and “b” (Hib) in the presence of the preexisting immunity to Hib. Methods. We developed a stochastic simulation model of humoral immune response to investigate the antigenic challenge of a bivalent combined glycoconjugate vaccine and a bivalent unimolecular glycoconjugate vaccine. We compared simulation outcomes in the absence of any preexisting immunity with an already primed immune response having specific memory B cells and/or anti-Hib antibodies. Results. The simulation results show that the preexisting immune responses to Hib or carrier protein (CP) may significantly impede the production of anti-Hia antibodies by a unimolecular vaccine. In contrast, the production of anti-Hia antibodies using a combined vaccine is inhibited only in the presence of CP immune responses. Conclusions. Preexisting immunity to Hib and CP may play a critical role in the development of immune responses against Hia or Hib using bivalent combined and unimolecular vaccine formulations. Our results suggest that a bivalent combined glycoconjugate vaccine with a carrier protein not previously used in Hib conjugate vaccines may be an effective formulation for generating immune responses to protect against both Hib and Hia infections. PMID:27366171

  14. Fusion of CTLA-4 with HPV16 E7 and E6 Enhanced the Potency of Therapeutic HPV DNA Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lili; Jia, Rong; Zhou, Lili; Guo, Jihua; Fan, Mingwen

    2014-01-01

    Preventive anti-HPV vaccines are effective against HPV infection but not against existing HPV-associated diseases, including cervical cancer and other malignant diseases. Therefore, the development of therapeutic vaccines is urgently needed. To improve anti-tumor effects of therapeutic vaccine, we fused cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) with HPV16 E7 and E6 as a fusion therapeutic DNA vaccine (pCTLA4-E7E6). pCTLA4-E7E6 induced significantly higher anti-E7E6 specific antibodies and relatively stronger specific CTL responses than the nonfusion DNA vaccine pE7E6 in C57BL/6 mice bearing with TC-1 tumors. pCTLA4-E7E6 showed relatively stronger anti-tumor effects than pE7E6 in therapeutic immunization. These results suggest that fusing CTLA-4 with E7E6 is a useful strategy to develop therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines. In addition, fusing the C-terminal of E7 with the N-terminal of E6 impaired the functions of both E7 and E6. PMID:25265018

  15. Therapeutic potential of an AcHERV-HPV L1 DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Jung; Yoon, Jong Kwang; Heo, Yoonki; Cho, Hansam; Cho, Yeondong; Gwon, Yongdae; Kim, Kang Chang; Choi, Jiwon; Lee, Jae Sung; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2015-06-01

    Cervical cancer is strongly associated with chronic human papillomavirus infections, among which HPV16 is the most common. Two commercial HPV vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix are effective for preventing HPV infection, but cannot be used to treat existing HPV infections. Previously, we developed a human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-enveloped recombinant baculovirus capable of delivering the L1 genes of HPV types 16, 18, and 58 (AcHERV-HP16/18/58L1, AcHERV-HPV). Intramuscular administration of AcHERVHPV vaccines induced a strong cellular immune response as well as a humoral immune response. In this study, to examine the therapeutic effect of AcHERV-HPV in a mouse model, we established an HPV16 L1 expressing tumor cell line. Compared to Cervarix, immunization with AcHERVHPV greatly enhanced HPV16 L1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in C57BL/6 mice. Although vaccination could not remove preexisting tumors, strong CTL activity retarded the growth of inoculated tumor cells. These results indicate that AcHERV-HPV could serve as a potential therapeutic DNA vaccine against concurrent infection with HPV 16, 18, and 58. PMID:26025174

  16. Using a Reasoned Action Approach to Examine US College Women's Intention to Get the HPV Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although at high risk of contracting the human papillomavirus (HPV), less than one-half of US college women have been vaccinated. The purpose of this study was to identify underlying factors influencing college women's intention to get the HPV vaccine via developing an instrument using the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA). Setting: Data…

  17. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Mothers' Intentions to Vaccinate Their Daughters against HPV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Lowe, John B.; Smith, Sandi; Dennis, Leslie K.; Andsager, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed mothers' intentions to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV) using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Experience with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), beliefs about the vaccine encouraging sexual activity, and perception of daughters' risk for HPV were also examined for a relationship with…

  18. The Evidence for Efficacy of HPV Vaccines: Investigations in Categorical Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Alison L.; Goossens, Emery T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent approval of HPV vaccines and their widespread provision to young women provide an interesting context to gain experience with the application of statistical methods in current research. We demonstrate how we have used data extracted from a meta-analysis examining the efficacy of HPV vaccines in clinical trials with students in applied…

  19. Effects of a Presidential Candidate’s Comments on HPV Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Rachel A.; Reiter, Paul L.; Mayer, Melissa K.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    Background During and after the 2011 Republican presidential debate, a candidate questioned the safety of HPV vaccine. We sought to determine what effect these comments had on parents. Methods A national sample of 327 parents with adolescent sons ages 11–17 completed online surveys in fall 2010 (baseline, about a year before the debate) and 2011 (follow-up, about a month after the debate). We used regression models to examine the association of parents’ awareness of the candidate’s comments with HPV vaccine initiation among their sons, their willingness to get sons free HPV vaccine, and their beliefs about potential harms of HPV vaccine. Results Overall, 17% of parents reported hearing about the Republican presidential candidate’s comments about HPV vaccine. Parents who were aware of the comments had a larger increase between baseline and follow-up in the belief that HPV vaccine might cause short-term health problems (mean change=0.47) compared to parents who were not aware (mean change=0.07, p<0.001). Awareness was not associated with HPV vaccine initiation among parents’ adolescent sons, changes in parents’ willingness to get their sons free HPV vaccine, or other outcomes (all p>0.05). Conclusions Although the candidate’s comments may have increased some parents’ beliefs about the short-term harms of HPV vaccine, the comments had no impact on other beliefs, willingness to vaccinate, or behavior. Having accurate information about HPV vaccine that is readily available to the public during such controversies may diminish their impact. PMID:25950109

  20. Women Have a Preference for Their Male Partner to Be HPV Vaccinated

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Diane Medved; Alexander, Natalie Marya; Ahern, Debra Ann; Comes, Johanna Claire; Smith, Melissa Smith; Heutinck, Melinda Ann; Handley, Sandra Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Peer influence and social networking can change female adolescent and young adult behavior. Peer influence on preferences for male human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has not been documented. The primary aim of this study was to determine if women had preferences about male sexual partner HPV vaccination receipt. Methods and Findings A prospective survey of women 18–26 years of age was conducted at an urban university student health clinic. Education about the two HPV vaccines, cervical cancer and genital warts was provided. Women self-reported their demographic and medical history data, as well as their own preferences for HPV vaccine and their preferences for their male partner HPV vaccine using a 5 point Likert scale. 601 women, mean age of 21.5 years (SD 2.4), participated between 2011 and 2012. Nearly 95% of respondents were heterosexual; condoms and contraceptives were used in over half of the population. Regardless of the woman's vaccination status, women had significantly higher (strongly agree/agree) preferences for the male partner being vaccinated with HPV4 than not caring if he was vaccinated (63.6% vs. 13.1%, p<0.001). This preference was repeated for sexual risk factors and past reproductive medical history. Women who received HPV4 compared to those choosing HPV2 had a significantly lower proportion of preferences for not caring if the male partner was vaccinated (13% vs. 22%, p = 0.015). Conclusions Women preferred a HPV vaccinated male partner. Peer messaging might change the male HPV vaccination uptake. PMID:24828237

  1. Pros, cons, and ethics of HPV vaccine in teens—Why such controversy?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remains one of the most commonly sexually transmitted infections in both females and males. HPV viruses are associated with several manifestations including genital warts, but more importantly for urology practitioners, cervical and penile carcinomas and recurrent genital condylomata in both sexes. The incidence of HPV-related carcinomas has increased in cervical, oropharyngeal, vulvar, penile, and anal cancers. Effective vaccines have been available for almost a decade, but widespread adoption of vaccine administration has been problematic for multiple reasons. Many countries (over 100) have adopted vaccine programs for females and an increasing number of countries are extending the indications to include males between the ages of 9-26. There still seems to be controversy surrounding these universal vaccination programs as well as some ethical and practical concerns regarding the administration of a vaccine for diseases that are associated with sexual contact in both sexes, especially during the early adolescent years. Objective The objective was to provide a review of the available literature so pediatric and adult urologists may be more aware of the issues related to HPV vaccination in order to more effectively counsel patients and parents regarding the risks, benefits, and public health issues regarding HPV vaccination. This topic is especially relevant to pediatric urologists who see patients in the target age group for the HPV vaccine. There has been an explosion of literature regarding HPV vaccination programs and the relative difficulty in adopting the vaccine series with a completion rate of under 50% of patients in the recommended age ranges for vaccination. Methods Articles were obtained from an extensive Medline literature search (1998-present) to evaluate the current HPV vaccination regimens for teenagers with special emphasis on the urologically focused disease burden. Results The adoption of universal

  2. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... of HPV HPV and Cancer HPV Cancer Screening HPV Vaccines HPV Vaccine Safety For Clinicians Know the Facts Continuing Education Provider Fact Sheets Schedules & Recommendations HPV Vaccine Coverage Data Commit to the Cause Tools for ...

  3. Acceptance Of The HPV Vaccine Among Women, Parents, Community Leaders, and Healthcare Providers In Ohio Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mira L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Heaner, Sarah; Ruffin, Mack T.; Post, Douglas M.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2009-01-01

    To assess HPV vaccine acceptability, focus groups of women (18–26 years), parents, community leaders, and healthcare providers were conducted throughout Ohio Appalachia. Themes that emerged among the 23 focus groups (n=114) about the HPV vaccine were: barriers (general health and vaccine specific), lack of knowledge (cervical cancer and HPV), cultural attitudes, and suggestions for educational materials and programs. Important Appalachian attitudes included strong family ties, privacy, conservative views, and lack of trust of outsiders to the region. There are differences in HPV vaccine acceptability among different types of community members highlighting the need for a range of HPV vaccine educational materials/programs to be developed that are inclusive of the Appalachian culture. PMID:19389447

  4. Social Networks Influence Hispanic College Women’s HPV Vaccine Uptake Decision-making Processes

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Dionne P.; Thomas, Tami L.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to assess current and preferred social networks that influence human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine decision making in a sample of Hispanic college women. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 41 Hispanic college women attending a large southeastern Hispanic-serving institution. Television commercials and discussions with mothers were found to be the most influential social networks for current HPV vaccination beliefs. Internet sites, close family members, and healthcare providers’ communications were preferred social networks for HPV vaccine information. Perceived accessibility and sense of comfort influenced the order in which these social networks’ communications would be accepted. Findings suggest that Hispanic college women utilize specific social networks to gather information and make decisions about HPV vaccination. Continued efforts are needed to promote further understanding of the purpose of the HPV vaccine via these preferred sources of information. PMID:25599082

  5. School Nurses' Professional Practice in the HPV Vaccine Decision-Making Process.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Brittany L; Ashwood, Daniel; Richardson, George B

    2016-04-01

    Because U.S. human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates remain low, we evaluated school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, self-efficacy, intention, and professional practice regarding the HPV vaccine and determined if these variables influenced their professional practice concerning the HPV vaccine. We utilized a cross-sectional design by recruiting Ohio Association of School Nurses (OASN) members. Participants (n = 145) completed a paper survey during the OASN annual conference. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the proposed model. Our model yielded a well-fitting solution, χ2 = 1.118 (degrees of freedom = 2, p = .57). Knowledge had positive effects on intention and self-efficacy. Attitude had a positive effect on perception of role as opinion leaders. Intention to provide HPV vaccine education had a positive effect on professional practice. To develop school nurses' practice, interventions should center on increasing knowledge, attitudes, and intention toward providing HPV vaccine education. PMID:25962388

  6. Evaluating the Early Benefit of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine on Genital Warts in Belgium: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dominiak-Felden, Geraldine; Gobbo, Corrado; Simondon, François

    2015-01-01

    Genital warts (GWs) are common, with about 5% to 10% of people having at least one episode in their lifetime. They develop about 2–3 months after infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 6 and 11. The prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV), protects against HPV6/11 infections and diseases. In Belgium, HPV vaccines started to be reimbursed in 2007 and have been fully reimbursed since December 2008 for women 12 to 18 years old. This study aimed at evaluating the real-life benefit of qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium on GWs by measuring both vaccine impact (VI) at a population level and the direct effect of the qHPV vaccine at an individual level (vaccine effectiveness (VE)), using data from a large sick-fund (MLOZ) reimbursement database. A first reimbursement for imiquimod (most common first-line GWs treatment in Belgium) was used as a surrogate for a first GWs episode; reimbursement of qHPV vaccine was used as surrogate for vaccination. VI was estimated by comparing the incidence of GWs before and after qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium (ecologic evaluation). VE was assessed by comparing GWs incidences in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women, among women eligible for HPV vaccination. VI was evaluated in 9,223,384 person-years. Overall, GWs incidence rates decreased significantly between the pre- and post-vaccination periods (-8.1% (95% CI: -15.3; -0.3) for men and women aged 18–59 years. This decrease was highest in women targeted by the HPV vaccination programme (-72.1% (95% CI: -77.9; -64.7) in women aged 16–22 years, with a 43% vaccine uptake in 2013). A significant decrease was also observed in men aged 16-22 years (-51.1%, 95%CI: -67.6; -26.2), suggesting herd-protection. VE was evaluated in 369,881 person-years. Age-adjusted VE for fully vaccinated women was 88.0% (95% CI: 79.4; 93.0). VE was higher when the first dose was given younger and remained high for over 4 years post-vaccination in all ages. High VI and VE of the qHPV

  7. Estimating the clinical benefits of vaccinating boys and girls against HPV-related diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HPV is related to a number of cancer types, causing a considerable burden in both genders in Europe. Female vaccination programs can substantially reduce the incidence of HPV-related diseases in women and, to some extent, men through herd immunity. The objective was to estimate the incremental benefit of vaccinating boys and girls using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Europe versus girls-only vaccination. Incremental benefits in terms of reduction in the incidence of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18-related diseases (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and head and neck carcinomas and genital warts) were assessed. Methods The analysis was performed using a model constructed in Microsoft®Excel, based on a previously-published dynamic transmission model of HPV vaccination and published European epidemiological data on incidence of HPV-related diseases. The incremental benefits of vaccinating 12-year old girls and boys versus girls-only vaccination was assessed (70% vaccine coverage were assumed for both). Sensitivity analyses around vaccine coverage and duration of protection were performed. Results Compared with screening alone, girls-only vaccination led to 84% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and a 61% reduction in males. Vaccination of girls and boys led to a 90% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and 86% reduction in males versus screening alone. Relative to a girls-only program, vaccination of girls and boys led to a reduction in female and male HPV-related carcinomas of 40% and 65%, respectively and a reduction in the incidence of HPV 6/11-related genital warts of 58% for females and 71% for males versus girls-only vaccination. Conclusions In Europe, the vaccination of 12-year old boys and girls against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 would be associated with substantial additional clinical benefits in terms of reduced incidence of HPV-related genital warts and carcinomas versus girls-only vaccination. The incremental

  8. Characteristics of a new meningococcal serogroup B vaccine, bivalent rLP2086 (MenB-FHbp; Trumenba®).

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Ashesh; Balmer, Paul; York, Laura J

    2016-08-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a common cause of bacterial meningitis, often leading to permanent sequelae or death. N. meningitidis is classified into serogroups based on the composition of the bacterial capsular polysaccharide; the 6 major disease-causing serogroups are designated A, B, C, W, X, and Y. Four of the 6 disease-causing serogroups (A, C, Y, and W) can be effectively prevented with available quadrivalent capsular polysaccharide protein conjugate vaccines; however, capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are not effective against meningococcal serogroup B (MnB). There is no vaccine available for serogroup X. The public health need for an effective serogroup B vaccine is evident, as MnB is the most common cause of meningococcal disease in the United States and is responsible for almost half of all cases in persons aged 17 to 22 years. In fact, serogroup B meningococci were responsible for the recent meningococcal disease outbreaks on college campuses. However, development of a suitable serogroup B vaccine has been challenging, as serogroup B polysaccharide-based vaccines were found to be poorly immunogenic. Vaccine development for MnB focused on identifying potential outer membrane protein targets that elicit broadly protective immune responses across strains from the vast number of proteins that exist on the bacterial surface. Human factor H binding protein (fHBP; also known as LP2086), a conserved surface-exposed bacterial lipoprotein, was identified as a promising vaccine candidate. Two recombinant protein-based serogroup B vaccines that contain fHBP have been successfully developed and licensed in the United States under an accelerated approval process: bivalent rLP2086 (MenB-FHbp; Trumenba®) and 4CMenB (MenB-4 C; Bexsero®). This review will focus on bivalent rLP2086 only, including vaccine components, mechanism of action, and potential coverage across serogroup B strains in the United States. PMID:27467048

  9. Facebook for Health Promotion: Female College Students' Perspectives on Sharing HPV Vaccine Information Through Facebook

    PubMed Central

    Tsark, JoAnn; Campo, Shelly; Teti, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Facebook, a social network site, has been widely used among young adults. However, its potential to be used as a health promotion medium has not been fully examined. This study explored Facebook's potential for sharing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine information among female college students in Hawai‘i. Culturally tailored flyers and handouts were developed and distributed at one large university in Hawai‘i to recruit female college students between the age of 18 and 26 having an active Facebook account. Three focus group meetings were conducted to gather student perspectives about how information about HPV vaccine may be best shared via Facebook. We found that students believed Facebook is a good awareness tool but they needed more knowledge about the HPV vaccine to feel comfortable sharing the information. Participants preferred forwarding information to chatting about HPV. Some participants expressed concern that their Facebook friends would think the HPV vaccine information they forwarded on Facebook is spam. Participants suggested prefacing the posted HPV vaccine information with a personal note in their own words to make the message more interesting and relevant to their Facebook friends. Future interventions using Facebook to promote HPV vaccine could provide students with HPV vaccine information from credible sources and ask students to attach personal testimonials or endorsements while forwarding the information on Facebook. PMID:25954600

  10. Facebook for Health Promotion: Female College Students' Perspectives on Sharing HPV Vaccine Information Through Facebook.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ni; Tsark, JoAnn; Campo, Shelly; Teti, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Facebook, a social network site, has been widely used among young adults. However, its potential to be used as a health promotion medium has not been fully examined. This study explored Facebook's potential for sharing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine information among female college students in Hawai'i. Culturally tailored flyers and handouts were developed and distributed at one large university in Hawai'i to recruit female college students between the age of 18 and 26 having an active Facebook account. Three focus group meetings were conducted to gather student perspectives about how information about HPV vaccine may be best shared via Facebook. We found that students believed Facebook is a good awareness tool but they needed more knowledge about the HPV vaccine to feel comfortable sharing the information. Participants preferred forwarding information to chatting about HPV. Some participants expressed concern that their Facebook friends would think the HPV vaccine information they forwarded on Facebook is spam. Participants suggested prefacing the posted HPV vaccine information with a personal note in their own words to make the message more interesting and relevant to their Facebook friends. Future interventions using Facebook to promote HPV vaccine could provide students with HPV vaccine information from credible sources and ask students to attach personal testimonials or endorsements while forwarding the information on Facebook. PMID:25954600

  11. Emergency medicine physician attitudes toward HPV vaccine uptake in an emergency department setting

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Mandy; Okugo, Glory

    2014-01-01

    A physician's recommendation is the most effective published method of motivating HPV vaccination initiation. The emergency department (ED) is the 'public health safety net', and often the only access to care for underserved populations. Recommendation of the HPV vaccine in the ED is a potential avenue to improve vaccination rates among sub-populations who do not have access to routine medical care. We assessed willingness of EM physicians to recommend the vaccine, target high-risk women, and disclose perceived barriers to vaccination in the ED. A cross sectional study using an 11-item survey, was used to assess physician attitudes toward recommending the HPV vaccine in an ED setting to age eligible patients. 67.4% stated they would recommend the vaccine, 23.9% were neutral, and 8.7% would not recommend the vaccine to age eligible patients in the ED. 41% noted lack of adequate reimbursement for vaccination as a barrier to vaccination in the ED (P < 0.05). Physicians were comfortable targeting women at high risk for cervical cancer for vaccination (P < 0.05). EM physicians are comfortable targeting high-risk women for HPV vaccination in an ED setting. Support of EM physicians in the national effort to improve HPV vaccine uptake is an important step in eradicating a largely preventable yet lethal cancer. PMID:25483493

  12. Parents' opinions of mandatory Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination: does ethnicity matter?

    PubMed Central

    Pierre-Joseph, Natalie; Marquez, Cecilia; Iloka, Sandra; Clark, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore parents' opinions of school-entry requirements for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods We interviewed parents of vaccine-eligible girls attending medical appointments in an urban academic medical center and an affiliated community health center. We used qualitative methods to explore parents' opinions about mandating routine childhood vaccines and HPV vaccine, as well as their feelings about vaccinating their own daughters against HPV. Results 19 Caucasian, 18 African-American, 12 Afro-Caribbean, 3 African, and 21 Latino parents participated. Nearly all parents had allowed their children to receive routine vaccinations and expressed support for mandating these vaccines. Most parents also vaccinated their daughters against HPV: 100% of Caucasian parents, 90% of African-American parents, 73% of Afro-Caribbean/African parents, and 90% of Latino parents. Only 11% of Caucasian parents supported HPV vaccine mandates, however, compared with 78% of African-American, 60% of Afro-Caribbean/African and 90% of Latino parents. Immigrants supported mandates more frequently than U.S.-born parents. Most Caucasian parents opposed mandatory HPV vaccination because they believed the HPV vaccine should be an individual decision as the virus could only be spread by sexual contact. African-American, Afro-Caribbean, African and Latino parents generally viewed mandates as the most effective way to protect their daughters from cervical cancer. Latino parents gave special importance to protecting their daughters from sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions Parents from different racial and ethnic backgrounds expressed unique perspectives about mandatory HPV vaccination, and Caucasians were less likely than parents of other races/ethnicities to support vaccine mandates. PMID:21051001

  13. Determinants of Acceptance and Subsequent Uptake of the HPV Vaccine in a Cohort in Eldoret, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Vermandere, Heleen; Naanyu, Violet; Mabeya, Hillary; Vanden Broeck, Davy; Michielsen, Kristien; Degomme, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The development of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provides new opportunities in the fight against cervical cancer. Many acceptability studies have revealed high interest in these vaccines, but acceptance is only a precursor of behavior, and many factors, at personal, community and provider level, may inhibit the translation of willingness to vaccinate into actual uptake. Through a longitudinal study in Eldoret, Kenya, HPV vaccine acceptability was measured before a vaccination program (n = 287) and vaccine uptake, as reported by mothers, once the program was finished (n = 256). In between baseline and follow-up, a pilot HPV vaccination program was implemented via the GARDASIL Access Program, in which parents could have their daughter vaccinated for free at the referral hospital. The program was promoted at schools: Health staff informed teachers who were then asked to inform students and parents. Even though baseline acceptance was very high (88.1%), only 31.1% of the women reported at follow-up that their daughter had been vaccinated. The vaccine was declined by 17.7%, while another 51.2% had wanted the vaccination but were obstructed by practical barriers. Being well-informed about the program and baseline awareness of cervical cancer were independently associated with vaccine uptake, while baseline acceptance was correlated in bivariate analysis. Side effects were of great concern, even among those whose daughter was vaccinated. Possible partner disapproval lowered acceptance at baseline, and women indeed reported at follow-up that they had encountered his opposition. In Kenya, women prove to be very willing to have their daughter vaccinated against cervical cancer. However, in this study, uptake was more determined by program awareness than by HPV vaccine acceptance. School-based vaccination might improve coverage since it reduces operational problems for parents. In addition, future HPV vaccination campaigns should address concerns about side

  14. Determinants of acceptance and subsequent uptake of the HPV vaccine in a cohort in Eldoret, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Vermandere, Heleen; Naanyu, Violet; Mabeya, Hillary; Vanden Broeck, Davy; Michielsen, Kristien; Degomme, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The development of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provides new opportunities in the fight against cervical cancer. Many acceptability studies have revealed high interest in these vaccines, but acceptance is only a precursor of behavior, and many factors, at personal, community and provider level, may inhibit the translation of willingness to vaccinate into actual uptake. Through a longitudinal study in Eldoret, Kenya, HPV vaccine acceptability was measured before a vaccination program (n = 287) and vaccine uptake, as reported by mothers, once the program was finished (n = 256). In between baseline and follow-up, a pilot HPV vaccination program was implemented via the GARDASIL Access Program, in which parents could have their daughter vaccinated for free at the referral hospital. The program was promoted at schools: Health staff informed teachers who were then asked to inform students and parents. Even though baseline acceptance was very high (88.1%), only 31.1% of the women reported at follow-up that their daughter had been vaccinated. The vaccine was declined by 17.7%, while another 51.2% had wanted the vaccination but were obstructed by practical barriers. Being well-informed about the program and baseline awareness of cervical cancer were independently associated with vaccine uptake, while baseline acceptance was correlated in bivariate analysis. Side effects were of great concern, even among those whose daughter was vaccinated. Possible partner disapproval lowered acceptance at baseline, and women indeed reported at follow-up that they had encountered his opposition. In Kenya, women prove to be very willing to have their daughter vaccinated against cervical cancer. However, in this study, uptake was more determined by program awareness than by HPV vaccine acceptance. School-based vaccination might improve coverage since it reduces operational problems for parents. In addition, future HPV vaccination campaigns should address concerns about side

  15. Informed consent for HPV vaccination: a relational approach.

    PubMed

    Gottvall, Maria; Tydén, Tanja; Larsson, Margareta; Stenhammar, Christina; Höglund, Anna T

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relational aspects of the consent process for HPV vaccination as experienced by school nurses, based on the assumption that individuals have interests related to persons close to them, which is not necessarily to be apprehended as a restriction of autonomy; rather as a voluntary and emotionally preferred involvement of their close ones. Thirty Swedish school nurses were interviewed in five focus groups, before the school based vaccination program had started in Sweden. The empirical results were discussed in light of theories on relational autonomy. The school nurses were convinced that parental consent was needed for HPV vaccination of 11-year-old girls, but problems identified were the difficulty to judge when a young person is to be regarded as autonomous and what to do when children and parents do not agree on the decision. A solution suggested was that obtaining informed consent in school nursing is to be seen as a deliberative process, including the child, the parents and the nurse. The nurses described how they were willing strive for a dialogue with the parents and negotiate with them in the consent process. Seeing autonomy as relational might allow for a more dialogical approach towards how consent is obtained in school based vaccination programs. Through such an approach, conflicts of interests can be made visible and become possible to deal with in a negotiating dialogue. If the school nurses do not focus exclusively on accepting the individual parent's choice, but strive to engage in a process of communication and deliberation, the autonomy of the child might increase and power inequalities might be reduced. PMID:23275146

  16. Understanding differences in predictions of HPV vaccine effectiveness: A comparative model-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, Nicolas; Brisson, Marc; Boily, Marie-Claude

    2010-07-26

    Mathematical models of HPV vaccine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness have produced conflicting results. The aim of this study was to use mathematical models to compare and isolate the impact of the assumptions most commonly made when modeling the effectiveness of HPV vaccines. Our results clearly show that differences in how we model natural immunity, herd immunity, partnership duration, HPV types, and waning of vaccine protection lead to important differences in the predicted effectiveness of HPV vaccines. These results are important and useful to assist modelers/health economists in choosing the appropriate level of complexity to include in their models, provide epidemiologists with insight on key data necessary to increase the robustness of model predictions, and help decision makers better understand the reasons underlying conflicting results from HPV models. PMID:20573580

  17. Control of HPV-associated tumors by innovative therapeutic HPV DNA vaccine in the absence of CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are particularly problematic for HIV + and solid organ transplant patients with compromised CD4+ T cell-dependent immunity as they produce more severe and progressive disease compared to healthy individuals. There are no specific treatments for chronic HPV infection, resulting in an urgent unmet need for a modality that is safe and effective for both immunocompromised and otherwise normal patients with recalcitrant disease. DNA vaccination is attractive because it avoids the risks of administration of live vectors to immunocompromised patients, and can induce potent HPV-specific cytotoxic T cell responses. We have developed a DNA vaccine (pNGVL4a-hCRTE6E7L2) encoding calreticulin (CRT) fused to E6, E7 and L2 proteins of HPV-16, the genotype associated with approximately 90% vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile and oropharyngeal HPV-associated cancers and the majority of cervical cancers. Administration of the DNA vaccine by intramuscular (IM) injection followed by electroporation induced significantly greater HPV-specific immune responses compared to IM injection alone or mixed with alum. Furthermore, pNGVL4a-hCRTE6E7L2 DNA vaccination via electroporation of mice carrying an intravaginal HPV-16 E6/E7-expressing syngeneic tumor demonstrated more potent therapeutic effects than IM vaccination alone. Of note, administration of the DNA vaccine by IM injection followed by electroporation elicited potent E6 and E7-specific CD8+ T cell responses and antitumor effects despite CD4+ T cell-depletion, although no antibody response was detected. While CD4+ T cell-depletion did reduce the E6 and E7-specific CD8+ T cell response, it remained sufficient to prevent subcutaneous tumor growth and to eliminate circulating tumor cells in a model of metastatic HPV-16+ cancer. Thus, the antibody response was CD4-dependent, whereas CD4+ T cell help enhanced the E6/E7-specific CD8+ T cell immunity, but was not required. Taken together, our data suggest that

  18. Social work student attitudes toward contraception and the HPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Chris; Ely, Gretchen E; Akers, L Shevawn; Dignan, Mark; Bonistall Noland, Tara

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine social work student attitudes toward the social work profession's perspective on certain aspects of reproductive health in the United States: contraception, emergency contraception, and the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Students at a large, public, land grant university were surveyed to determine whether their personal attitudes were in line with the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) stance on reproductive health outlined in the NASW policy statement on family planning and reproductive health. The relationship between levels of religious activity and attitudes toward these aspects of reproductive health was also examined. Results suggest that almost all of the respondents support public funding for family planning. Furthermore, almost all students indicate willingness to refer clients for general contraception. However, results related to emergency contraception indicate that 72% of students disagree that it should be available for adolescents over the counter, even with parental consent, which is inconsistent with the NASW perspective. Sixty-four percent of students report believing that the HPV vaccine is unsafe. Further, as levels of religious activity increased, acceptance of some of these aspects of reproductive health decreased. Implications for social work practice, education, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22489559

  19. Potential cost-effectiveness of the nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Mélanie; Laprise, Jean-François; Boily, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Brisson, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Randomized clinical trials are currently examining the efficacy of a nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, including HPV-types 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58. Evidence on the cost-effectiveness of the nonavalent is required for timely policy-decisions. We compared the potential cost-effectiveness of the nonavalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines. We used a multi-type individual-based transmission-dynamic model of HPV infection and diseases, 70-year time-horizon, 3% discount rate and healthcare payer perspective. We calibrated the model to Canadian sexual behavior and epidemiologic data, and estimated Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) lost and costs ($CAN 2010) from the literature. Under base-case assumptions (vaccinating 10-year-old girls, 80% coverage, 95$/dose, vaccine-type efficacy = 95%, cross-protection for the quadrivalent vaccine, duration of vaccine-type protection (cross-protection) = 20 (10) years), using the quadrivalent and nonavalent vaccines is estimated to cost $15,528 [12,056; 19,140] and $12,203 [9,331; 17,292] per QALY-gained, respectively. At equal price, the nonavalent vaccine is more cost-effective than the quadrivalent vaccine, even when assuming both shorter duration of protection (nonavalent = 20 years vs. quadrivalent = lifelong) and lower vaccine-type efficacy (nonavalent = 85% vs. quadrivalent = 95%). However, the additional cost per dose of the nonavalent vaccine should not exceed $11 to remain more cost-effective than the quadrivalent vaccine, and $24 to represent a cost-effective alternative to the quadrivalent vaccine (using a $40,000/QALY-gained threshold). The nonavalent vaccine can be a cost-effective alternative to the quadrivalent vaccine, even in scenarios where nonavalent vaccine efficacy is 85%. However, because most cervical cancers are caused by HPV-16/18, it is unlikely that the nonavalent would be used if its efficacy against these types is lower than current HPV vaccines. PMID:24174175

  20. HPV vaccination to prevent cervical cancer and other HPV-associated disease: from basic science to effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Lowy, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    Identification of HPV infection as the etiologic agent of virtually all cases of cervical cancer, as well as a proportion of other epithelial cancers, has led to development of three FDA-approved multivalent prophylactic HPV vaccines composed of virus-like particles (VLPs). This essay describes the research and development that led to the VLP vaccines; discusses their safety, efficacy, and short-term effect on HPV-associated disease; and speculates that even a single dose of these vaccines, when given to adolescents, might be able to confer long-term protection. The HPV field exemplifies how long-term funding for basic research has lead to clinical interventions with the long-term potential to eradicate most cancers attributable to HPV infection. Although this essay is the result of my receiving the 2015 Harrington Prize for Innovation in Medicine from the Harrington Discovery Institute and the American Society for Clinical Investigation, this clinical advance has depended on the research of many investigators, development of commercial vaccines by the pharmaceutical companies, and participation of many patient volunteers in the clinical trials. PMID:26727228

  1. Effect of School-based Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination on Adolescent Girls’ Knowledge and Acceptability of the HPV Vaccine in Ibanda District in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Okello, Elialilia S.; Muhwezi, Wilson W.; Harvey, Steve; Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Meya, David; Katahoire, Anne R.

    2015-01-01

    From 2008 to 2011, schoolgirls were vaccinated against HPV in two districts in Uganda following sensitization. This study assessed girls’ knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine, and their acceptance of future vaccination of friends and hypothetical daughters. The cross-sectional, mixed methods comparative study was conducted in two districts. Univariate, bivariate, logistic regression and thematic analyses were done. HPV vaccination was positively associated with knowledge (Crude OR: 5.31, CI: 3.19–8.86; p = 0.000); but knowledge (Adjusted OR: 1.13, CI: 0.56–2.28; p = 0.73) and HPV vaccination (Adjusted OR: 0.92, CI: 0.16–5.36; p = 0.93) did not predict vaccine acceptability. Seemingly important motivations for vaccine acceptance were: its role in cancer prevention and advancement of reproductive health, minimal side effects, and positive peer role models. Major deterrents to vaccine acceptance were: rumours and misconceptions about possible side effects, perceived inadequate information about vaccine, and fear of side effects. PMID:25854092

  2. Effect of school-based human papillomavirus (hpv) vaccination on adolescent girls' knowledge and acceptability of the HPV vaccine in Ibanda District in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Okello, Elialilia S; Muhwezi, Wilson W; Harvey, Steve; Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Meya, David; Katahoire, Anne R

    2014-12-01

    From 2008 to 2011, schoolgirls were vaccinated against HPV in two districts in Uganda following sensitization. This study assessed girls' knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine, and their acceptance of future vaccination of friends and hypothetical daughters. The cross-sectional, mixed methods comparative study was conducted in two districts. Univariate, bivariate, logistic regression and thematic analyses were done. HPV vaccination was positively associated with knowledge (Crude OR: 5.31, CI: 3.19-8.86; p = 0.000); but knowledge (Adjusted OR: 1.13, CI: 0.56-2.28; p = 0.73) and HPV vaccination (Adjusted OR: 0.92, CI: 0.16-5.36; p = 0.93) did not predict vaccine acceptability. Seemingly important motivations for vaccine acceptance were: its role in cancer prevention and advancement of reproductive health, minimal side effects, and positive peer role models. Major deterrents to vaccine acceptance were: rumours and misconceptions about possible side effects, perceived inadequate information about vaccine, and fear of side effects. PMID:25854092

  3. Attitudes and perceptions towards HPV vaccination among young women in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Aneela N.; Alkhenizan, Abdullah; McWalter, Patricia; Qazi, Nusrat; Alshmassi, Amal; Farooqi, Samina; Abdulkarim, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rising incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer can be reduced by effective vaccination. Saudi Food and Drug Administration approved prophylactic HPV vaccine in 2010 for females of 11–26 years. Objectives: To determine the awareness of HPV infection, its health sequel and the attitude and barriers to the acceptance of HPV vaccine by young women in Saudi Arabia. Dynamics influencing the decision of patients and parents regarding vaccination were assessed to foster effective and strategically focused interventions. Materials and Methods: All patients of Family Medicine department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh were invited to participate in this study from January 2012 to June 2014. A culturally sensitive and specially designed questionnaire was administered using an interview-based model to assess the knowledge, perception, and associated sociodemographic factors of HPV. Results: A total of 325 patients participated as per the inclusion criteria: 87.4% were Saudis, 53.5% had university or higher education and 65.2% were adolescents (age 11-19 years). The questionnaire was answered by participants (50.8%) or guardians (49.2%). About 34.5% of the population was aware of HPV infection, and 27.4% were aware of its relation with cervical cancer. However, awareness of the HPV vaccine, perception of its prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related disease was relatively low (32.3%), Saudis (29.9%) versus non-Saudis (48.8%) (P = 0.016). More guardians (41.2%) were aware of the HPV vaccine and its impact than participants (27.9%) (P = 0.01). Higher educational background (43.1%) increased the knowledge of HPV compared to less than high school education (24.5%) (odds ratio: 2.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.44–3.76). Nearly 64.3% of participants agreed, and 35.7% refused to receive the HPV vaccine. Conclusion: Knowledge and perception of HPV infection as an sexually transmitted infections and its

  4. Tracking the global spread of vaccine sentiments: The global response to Japan's suspension of its HPV vaccine recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Heidi J; Wilson, Rose; Hanley, Sharon; Parys, Astrid; Paterson, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    In June 2013 the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare (MHLW) suspended its HPV vaccination recommendation after a series of highly publicized alleged adverse events following immunization stoked public doubts about the vaccine's safety. This paper examines the global spread of the news of Japan's HPV vaccine suspension through online media, and takes a retrospective look at non-Japanese media sources that were used to support those claiming HPV vaccine injury in Japan. Methods: Two searches were conducted. One searched relevant content in an archive of Google Alerts on vaccines and vaccine preventable diseases. The second search was conducted using Google Search on January 6th 2014 and on July 18th 2014, using the keywords, “HPV vaccine Japan” and “cervical cancer vaccine Japan.” Both searches were used as Google Searches render more (and some different) results than Google Alerts. Results: Online media collected and analyzed totalled 57. Sixty 3 percent were published in the USA, 23% in Japan, 5% in the UK, 2% in France, 2% in Switzerland, 2% in the Philippines, 2% in Kenya and 2% in Denmark. The majority took a negative view of the HPV vaccine, the primary concern being vaccine safety. Discussion: The news of Japan's suspension of the HPV vaccine recommendation has traveled globally through online media and social media networks, being applauded by anti-vaccination groups but not by the global scientific community. The longer the uncertainty around the Japanese HPV vaccine recommendation persists, the further the public concerns are likely to travel. PMID:25483472

  5. Development and initial feedback about a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine comic book for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mira L; Oldach, Benjamin R; Goodwin, Jennifer; Reiter, Paul L; Ruffin, Mack T; Paskett, Electra D

    2014-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates do not meet the Healthy People 2020 objective of 80% coverage among adolescent females. We describe the development and initial feedback about an HPV vaccine comic book for young adolescents. The comic book is one component of a multilevel intervention to improve HPV vaccination rates among adolescents. Parents suggested and provided input into the development of a HPV vaccine comic book. Following the development of the comic book, we conducted a pilot study to obtain initial feedback about the comic book among parents (n = 20) and their adolescents ages 9 to 14 (n = 17) recruited from a community-based organization. Parents completed a pre-post test including items addressing HPV knowledge, HPV vaccine attitudes, and about the content of the comic book. Adolescents completed a brief interview after reading the comic book. After reading the comic book, HPV knowledge improved (2.7 to 4.6 correct answers on a 0-5 scale; p < 0.01) and more positive attitudes toward HPV vaccination (p < 0.05) were reported among parents. Parents confirmed that the comic book's content was acceptable and adolescents liked the story, found it easy to read, and thought the comic book was a good way to learn about being healthy. Parents provided valuable information in the development of a theoretically-based comic book and the comic book appears to be an acceptable format for providing HPV vaccine information to adolescents. Future research will include the comic book in an intervention study to improve HPV vaccination rates. PMID:24420004

  6. Development and initial feedback about a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine comic book for adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mira L.; Oldach, Benjamin R.; Goodwin, Jennifer; Reiter, Paul L.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates do not meet the Healthy People 2020 objective of 80% coverage among adolescent females. We describe the development and initial feedback about an HPV vaccine comic book for young adolescents. The comic book is one component of a multi-level intervention to improve HPV vaccination rates among adolescents. Parents suggested and provided input into the development of a HPV vaccine comic book. Following the development of the comic book, we conducted a pilot study to obtain initial feedback about the comic book among parents (n=20) and their adolescents ages 9 to 14 (n=17) recruited from a community-based organization. Parents completed a pre-post test including items addressing HPV knowledge, HPV vaccine attitudes, and about the content of the comic book. Adolescents completed a brief interview after reading the comic book. After reading the comic book, HPV knowledge improved (2.7 to 4.6 correct answers on a 0–5 scale; p<0.01) and more positive attitudes toward HPV vaccination (p<0.05) were reported among parents. Parents confirmed that the comic book’s content was acceptable and adolescents liked the story, found it easy to read, and thought the comic book was a good way to learn about being healthy. Parents provided valuable information in the development of a theoretically-based comic book and the comic book appears to be an acceptable format for providing HPV vaccine information to adolescents. Future research will include the comic book in an intervention study to improve HPV vaccination rates. PMID:24420004

  7. Hexon-modified recombinant E1-deleted adenoviral vectors as bivalent vaccine carriers for Coxsackievirus A16 and Enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Yang, Yong; Chi, Yudan; Yin, Jieyun; Yan, Lijun; Ku, Zhiqiang; Liu, Qingwei; Huang, Zhong; Zhou, Dongming

    2015-09-22

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major public health concern in Asia; more efficient vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Adenoviral (Ad) capsids have been used widely for the presentation of foreign antigens to induce specific immune responses in the host. Here, we describe a novel bivalent vaccine for HFMD based on the hexon-modified, E1-deleted chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 68 (AdC68). The novel vaccine candidate was generated by incorporating the neutralising epitope of Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), PEP71, into hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), and a shortened neutralising epitope of Enterovirus 71 (EV71), sSP70, into HVR2 of the AdC68 hexon. In order to enhance the immunogenicity of EV71, VP1 of EV71 was cloned into the E1-region of the AdC68 vectors. The results demonstrated that these two epitopes were well presented on the virion surface and had high affinity towards specific antibodies, and VP1 of EV71 was also significantly expressed. In pre-clinical mouse models, the hexon-modified AdC68 elicited neutralising antibodies against both CA16 and EV71, which conferred protection to suckling mice against a lethal challenge of CA16 and EV71. In summary, this study demonstrates that the hexon-modified AdC68 may represent a promising bivalent vaccine carrier against EV71 and CA16 and an epitope-display platform for other pathogens. PMID:26296491

  8. HPV Infection in Cervical and Other Cancers in Saudi Arabia: Implication for Prevention and Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Alsbeih, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes' distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap smear) and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and -18). Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and -18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women), a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers, and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program. PMID:24744990

  9. HPV Infection in Cervical and Other Cancers in Saudi Arabia: Implication for Prevention and Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Alsbeih, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap smear) and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and -18). Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and -18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women), a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers, and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program. PMID:24744990

  10. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine effectiveness against high-grade cervical lesions by age at vaccination: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Herweijer, Eva; Sundström, Karin; Ploner, Alexander; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Sparén, Pär; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen

    2016-06-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16/18, included in HPV vaccines, contribute to the majority of cervical cancer, and a substantial proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2/3 or worse (CIN2+/CIN3+) including adenocarcinoma in situ or worse. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination on incidence of CIN2+ and CIN3+. A nationwide cohort of girls and young women resident in Sweden 2006-2013 and aged 13-29 (n = 1,333,691) was followed for vaccination and histologically confirmed high-grade cervical lesions. Data were collected using the Swedish nationwide healthcare registers. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and vaccine effectiveness [(1-IRR)x100%] comparing fully vaccinated with unvaccinated individuals. IRRs were adjusted for attained age and parental education, and stratified on vaccination initiation age. Effectiveness against CIN2+ was 75% (IRR = 0.25, 95%CI = 0.18-0.35) for those initiating vaccination before age 17, and 46% (IRR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.46-0.64) and 22% (IRR = 0.78, 95%CI = 0.65-0.93) for those initiating vaccination at ages 17-19, and at ages 20-29, respectively. Vaccine effectiveness against CIN3+ was similar to vaccine effectiveness against CIN2+. Results were robust for both women participating to the organized screening program and for women at prescreening ages. We show high effectiveness of qHPV vaccination on CIN2+ and CIN3+ lesions, with greater effectiveness observed in girls younger at vaccination initiation. Continued monitoring of impact of HPV vaccination in the population is needed in order to evaluate both long-term vaccine effectiveness and to evaluate whether the vaccination program achieves anticipated effects in prevention of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:26856527