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Sample records for black grouper mycteroperca

  1. First record of a spawning aggregation for the tropical eastern Pacific endemic grouper Mycteroperca olfax in the Galapagos Marine Reserve.

    PubMed

    Salinas-de-León, P; Rastoin, E; Acuña-Marrero, D

    2015-07-01

    This study provides direct and indirect evidence of temporally and spatially consistent spawning aggregations for the grouper Mycteroperca olfax. Recently reported declines in population numbers, probably related to the direct targeting of aggregations by artisanal fishermen, highlight the urgent need for species-specific management actions in the Galapagos Marine Reserve, such as minimum and maximum landing sizes, and the importance of protecting key aggregation sites with the declaration of no-take areas and the establishment of total fishing bans during the reproductive season. PMID:25997940

  2. Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26–35 μm), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20–40 μm) with 10–11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. PMID:25674913

  3. Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26-35 μm), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20-40 μm) with 10-11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. PMID:25674913

  4. Age, growth, and natural mortality of yellowfin grouper (Mycteroperca venenosa) from the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Jennifer C.; Carr, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Ages of yellowfin grouper (n = 306) from the southeastern United States coast from 1979–2014 were determined using sectioned sagittal otoliths. Opaque zones were annular, forming January–June (peaking in February–March). Yellowfin grouper ranged in age from 3 to 31 years; the largest fish measured 1,000 mm fork length (FL). Body size relationships for yellowfin grouper were: W = 1.22 × 10−5 FL3.03 (n = 229, r2 = 0.92); TL = 1.06 FL − 14.53 (n = 60, r2 = 0.99); and FL = 0.93 TL + 18.63 (n = 60, r2 = 0.99), where W = whole weight in grams, FL in mm, and TL = total length in mm. The von Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 958 (1 − e−0.11(t+2.94)) (n = 306). The point estimate of natural mortality for yellowfin grouper was M = 0.14, while age-specific estimates of M ranged from 1.59 to 0.17 for ages 1–31. PMID:26244111

  5. Improved estimates of age, growth and reproduction for the regionally endemic Galapagos sailfin grouper Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns, 1840).

    PubMed

    Usseglio, Paolo; Friedlander, Alan M; DeMartini, Edward E; Schuhbauer, Anna; Schemmel, Eva; Salinas de Léon, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    The Galapagos Sailfin grouper, Mycteroperca olfax, locally known as bacalao and listed as vulnerable by the IUCN, is culturally, economically, and ecologically important to the Galapagos archipelago and its people. It is regionally endemic to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and, while an important fishery resource that has shown substantial declines in recent years, to date no effective management regulations are in place to ensure the sustainability of the Galapagos fishery for this species. Previous estimates of longevity and size at maturity for bacalao are inconsistent with estimates for congeners, which brings into question the accuracy of prior estimates. We set out to assess the age, growth, and reproductive biology of bacalao in order to provide more accurate life history information to inform more effective fisheries management for this species. The oldest fish in our sample was 21 years old, which is 2-3 times greater than previously reported estimates of longevity. Parameter estimates for the von Bertalanffy growth function (k = 0.11, L ∞ = 110 cm TL, and to = - 1.7 years) show bacalao to grow much slower and attain substantially larger asymptotic maximum length than previous studies. Mean size at maturity (as female) was estimated at 65.3 cm TL, corresponding to a mean age of 6.5 years. We found that sex ratios were extremely female biased (0.009 M:1F), with a large majority of the individuals in our experimental catch being immature (79%). Our results show that bacalao grow slower, live longer, and mature at a much larger size and greater age than previously thought, with very few mature males in the population. These findings have important implications for the fishery of this valuable species and provide the impetus for a long-overdue species management plan to ensure its long-term sustainability. PMID:26401463

  6. Improved estimates of age, growth and reproduction for the regionally endemic Galapagos sailfin grouper Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns, 1840)

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Alan M.; DeMartini, Edward E.; Schuhbauer, Anna; Schemmel, Eva; Salinas de Léon, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    The Galapagos Sailfin grouper, Mycteroperca olfax, locally known as bacalao and listed as vulnerable by the IUCN, is culturally, economically, and ecologically important to the Galapagos archipelago and its people. It is regionally endemic to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and, while an important fishery resource that has shown substantial declines in recent years, to date no effective management regulations are in place to ensure the sustainability of the Galapagos fishery for this species. Previous estimates of longevity and size at maturity for bacalao are inconsistent with estimates for congeners, which brings into question the accuracy of prior estimates. We set out to assess the age, growth, and reproductive biology of bacalao in order to provide more accurate life history information to inform more effective fisheries management for this species. The oldest fish in our sample was 21 years old, which is 2–3 times greater than previously reported estimates of longevity. Parameter estimates for the von Bertalanffy growth function (k = 0.11, L∞ = 110 cm TL, and to = − 1.7 years) show bacalao to grow much slower and attain substantially larger asymptotic maximum length than previous studies. Mean size at maturity (as female) was estimated at 65.3 cm TL, corresponding to a mean age of 6.5 years. We found that sex ratios were extremely female biased (0.009 M:1F), with a large majority of the individuals in our experimental catch being immature (79%). Our results show that bacalao grow slower, live longer, and mature at a much larger size and greater age than previously thought, with very few mature males in the population. These findings have important implications for the fishery of this valuable species and provide the impetus for a long-overdue species management plan to ensure its long-term sustainability. PMID:26401463

  7. Changes in digestive enzyme activities during larval development of leopard grouper (Mycteroperca rosacea).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lagos, R; Tovar-Ramírez, D; Gracia-López, V; Lazo, J P

    2014-06-01

    The leopard grouper is an endemic species of the Mexican Pacific with an important commercial fishery and good aquaculture potential. In order to assess the digestive capacity of this species during the larval period and aid in the formulation of adequate weaning diets, this study aimed to characterize the ontogeny of digestive enzymes during development of the digestive system. Digestive enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin, acid protease, leucine-alanine peptidase, alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase N, lipase, amylase and maltase were quantified in larvae fed live prey and weaned onto a formulated microdiet at 31 days after hatching (DAH) and compared with fasting larvae. Enzyme activity for trypsin, lipase and amylase were detected before the opening of the mouth and the onset of exogenous feeding, indicating a precocious development of the digestive system that has been described in many fish species. The intracellular enzyme activity of leucine-alanine peptidase was high during the first days of development, with a tendency to decrease as larvae developed, reaching undetectable levels at the end of the experimental period. In contrast, activities of enzymes located in the intestinal brush border (i.e., aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase) were low at the start of exogenous feeding but progressively increased with larval development, indicating the gradual maturation of the digestive system. Based on our results, we conclude that leopard grouper larvae possess a functional digestive system at hatching and before the onset of exogenous feeding. The significant increase in the activity of trypsin, lipase, amylase and acid protease between 30 and 40 DAH suggests that larvae of this species can be successfully weaned onto microdiets during this period. PMID:24189829

  8. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen of twenty-three species of groupers collected from the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters were infected with 19 identified species (13 new) of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 (Dactylogyridea, Diplectanidae); specimens of the Spanish flag Gonioplectrus hispanus, coney Cephalopholis fulva, marbled grouper Dermatolepis inermis, mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, and misty grouper Hyporthodus mystacinus were not infected; the yellowmouth grouper Mycteroperca interstitialis and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were infected with unidentified species of Pseudorhabdosynochus; the Atlantic creolefish Paranthias furcifer was infected with an unidentified species of Diplectanidae that could not be accommodated in Pseudorhabdosynochus. The following species of Pseudorhabdosynochus are described or redescribed based entirely or in part on new collections: Pseudorhabdosynochus americanus (Price, 1937) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara; Pseudorhabdosynochus yucatanensis Vidal-Martínez, Aguirre-Macedo & Mendoza-Franco, 1997 and Pseudorhabdosynochus justinella n. sp. from red grouper Epinephelus morio; Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1995 from gag Mycteroperca microlepis; Pseudorhabdosynochus capurroi Vidal-Martínez & Mendoza-Franco, 1998 from black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci; Pseudorhabdosynochus hyphessometochus n. sp. from Mycteroperca interstitialis; Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000 from snowy grouper Hyporthodus niveatus and Warsaw grouper Hyporthodus nigritus (new host record); Pseudorhabdosynochus firmicoleatus n. sp. from yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus and snowy grouper H. niveatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mcmichaeli n. sp., Pseudorhabdosynochus contubernalis n. sp., and Pseudorhabdosynochus vascellum n. sp. from scamp Mycteroperca phenax; Pseudorhabdosynochus meganmarieae n. sp. from graysby Cephalopholis cruentata

  9. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species

    PubMed Central

    Kritsky, Delane C.; Bakenhaster, Micah D.; Adams, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen of twenty-three species of groupers collected from the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters were infected with 19 identified species (13 new) of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 (Dactylogyridea, Diplectanidae); specimens of the Spanish flag Gonioplectrus hispanus, coney Cephalopholis fulva, marbled grouper Dermatolepis inermis, mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, and misty grouper Hyporthodus mystacinus were not infected; the yellowmouth grouper Mycteroperca interstitialis and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were infected with unidentified species of Pseudorhabdosynochus; the Atlantic creolefish Paranthias furcifer was infected with an unidentified species of Diplectanidae that could not be accommodated in Pseudorhabdosynochus. The following species of Pseudorhabdosynochus are described or redescribed based entirely or in part on new collections: Pseudorhabdosynochus americanus (Price, 1937) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara; Pseudorhabdosynochus yucatanensis Vidal-Martínez, Aguirre-Macedo & Mendoza-Franco, 1997 and Pseudorhabdosynochus justinella n. sp. from red grouper Epinephelus morio; Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1995 from gag Mycteroperca microlepis; Pseudorhabdosynochus capurroi Vidal-Martínez & Mendoza-Franco, 1998 from black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci; Pseudorhabdosynochus hyphessometochus n. sp. from Mycteroperca interstitialis; Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000 from snowy grouper Hyporthodus niveatus and Warsaw grouper Hyporthodus nigritus (new host record); Pseudorhabdosynochus firmicoleatus n. sp. from yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus and snowy grouper H. niveatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mcmichaeli n. sp., Pseudorhabdosynochus contubernalis n. sp., and Pseudorhabdosynochus vascellum n. sp. from scamp Mycteroperca phenax; Pseudorhabdosynochus meganmarieae n. sp. from graysby Cephalopholis cruentata

  10. Species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from Groupers (Mycteroperca spp., Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean, with Special Reference to the ‘Beverleyburtonae Group’ and Description of Two New Species

    PubMed Central

    Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is a species-rich diplectanid genus, mainly restricted to the gills of groupers (Epinephelidae) and especially abundant in warm seas. Species from the Mediterranean are not fully documented. Two new and two previously known species from the gills of Mycteroperca spp. (M. costae, M. rubra, and M. marginata) in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean are described here from new material and slides kept in collections. Identifications of newly collected fish were ascertained by barcoding of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 and P. sosia Neifar & Euzet 2007 are redescribed from type-specimens and new specimens collected off Tunisia and Libya from M. marginata and M. costae, respectively. Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri n. sp., from M. marginata (type-host) off the Mediterranean coast of France (type-locality), is described from specimens found among voucher specimens of P. beverleyburtonae deposited by Guy Oliver in the collection of the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri is distinguished by the shape of its sclerotised vagina; it was not found in the other localities investigated. Pseudorhabdosynochus hayet n. sp. is described from M. rubra (type host) off Senegal (type-locality) and Tunisia. Pseudorhabdosynochus hayet is morphologically similar to P. sosia (type-host: M. costae) but was distinguished by differences in measurements of the vagina and male copulatory organ, different host, and divergent COI sequences. The four species (P. beverleyburtonae, P. sosia, P. oliveri, and P. hayet) share common characteristics such as squamodiscs with 2 innermost circular rows of rodlets and a similar general structure of the sclerotised vagina; we propose to group them into a ‘beverleyburtonae group’ within Pseudorhabdosynochus. PMID:27532108

  11. Species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from Groupers (Mycteroperca spp., Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean, with Special Reference to the 'Beverleyburtonae Group' and Description of Two New Species.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is a species-rich diplectanid genus, mainly restricted to the gills of groupers (Epinephelidae) and especially abundant in warm seas. Species from the Mediterranean are not fully documented. Two new and two previously known species from the gills of Mycteroperca spp. (M. costae, M. rubra, and M. marginata) in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean are described here from new material and slides kept in collections. Identifications of newly collected fish were ascertained by barcoding of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 and P. sosia Neifar & Euzet 2007 are redescribed from type-specimens and new specimens collected off Tunisia and Libya from M. marginata and M. costae, respectively. Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri n. sp., from M. marginata (type-host) off the Mediterranean coast of France (type-locality), is described from specimens found among voucher specimens of P. beverleyburtonae deposited by Guy Oliver in the collection of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri is distinguished by the shape of its sclerotised vagina; it was not found in the other localities investigated. Pseudorhabdosynochus hayet n. sp. is described from M. rubra (type host) off Senegal (type-locality) and Tunisia. Pseudorhabdosynochus hayet is morphologically similar to P. sosia (type-host: M. costae) but was distinguished by differences in measurements of the vagina and male copulatory organ, different host, and divergent COI sequences. The four species (P. beverleyburtonae, P. sosia, P. oliveri, and P. hayet) share common characteristics such as squamodiscs with 2 innermost circular rows of rodlets and a similar general structure of the sclerotised vagina; we propose to group them into a 'beverleyburtonae group' within Pseudorhabdosynochus. PMID:27532108

  12. Single or combined effects of Lactobacillus sakei and inulin on growth, non-specific immunity and IgM expression in leopard grouper (Mycteroperca rosacea).

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Ascencio, Felipe; Gracia-Lopez, Vicente; Macias, Ma Esther; Roa, Marcos Cadena; Esteban, María Ángeles

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the single or combined effects of Lactobacillus sakei with inulin suitable for immunological in vivo studies in farmed fish. By in vitro assays, L. sakei strain 5-4 showed antibacterial activities against all assayed fish pathogens (except the Vibrio harveyi strain CAIM-1793). L. sakei was able to survive at high fish bile concentrations. Fermentation of the agave inulin resulted in a large increase in number of lactobacilli. For the in vivo study, fish were fed for 8 weeks four practical diets: control diet (control), L. sakei 5-4 (10(7) CFU/g), inulin (1% or 10 g/kg) and L. sakei + inulin (10(7) CFU/g + 10 g/kg). The weight gain showed clearly the synergistic effect of L. sakei 5-4 and inulin at 6 and 8 weeks of treatments. Leopard grouper fed with L. sakei alone or combined with inulin have significantly increased the assayed physiological and humoral immune parameters. By real-time PCR assays, the mRNA transcripts of immunoglobulin M (IgM) were found to be higher expressed in intestine, head kidney, mucus, gill, spleen and skin. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of IgM in head kidney and anterior intestine were measured by real-time PCR. L. sakei 5-4 and L. sakei + inulin supplemented diet up-regulated the expression of IgM at week 4 and 8 in intestine and head kidney, respectively. These results support the idea that the L. sakei 5-4 alone or combined with agave inulin improved growth performance and stimulates the immune system of leopard grouper. PMID:24464476

  13. Two new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Mycteroperca spp. (Serranidae) in the North-West Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Adams, Douglas H

    2016-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from two species of Mycteroperca Gill (Serranidae), marine perciform fishes, in coastal waters off Florida, USA: Philometra deburonae n. sp. from the inner side of operculum of the yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa (L.) and P. incognita n. sp. from the ovary of the gag M. microlepis (Goode & Bean). Philometra deburonae n. sp. is mainly characterised by the body length of males (1.90-2.38 mm), the length of the spicules (78-84 µm) and gubernaculum (54 µm) and the presence of small outer cephalic papillae, a pair of fairly large caudal projections and the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly beyond the nerve-ring in subgravid females. Philometra incognita n. sp. is distinguished by the caudal mound consisting of two lateral reniform parts widely separated dorsally from each other, the absence of a pair of large papillae situated posteriorly to the cloaca, the shape and structure of the distal end of the gubernaculum plus the lengths of the spicules (117-141 µm) and gubernaculum (60-81 µm) in the male, the absence of caudal projections and the comparatively large larvae in the uterus (660-675 µm long) of the gravid female, as well as, the body length of both males (2.45-3.11 mm) and gravid females (120-180 mm). The present descriptions of an additional two new philometrids increases the number of recorded nominal species of Philometra parasitising groupers (Serranidae) in the Gulf of Mexico to nine. PMID:27221001

  14. Spawning aggregations of three protogynous groupers in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tuz-Sulub, A; Brulé, T

    2015-01-01

    Spawning aggregations of red hind Epinephelus guttatus, tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were identified at two coral-reef systems: Arrecife Alacranes (emergent bank reef) and Bajos del Norte (submerged bank reef) on the continental shelf of the Yucatan Peninsula (Campeche Bank), Mexico. At both reefs, E. guttatus forms large spawning aggregations between February and March. At Bajos del Norte, M. tigris reproduces in a small, low-density aggregation in May, while M. venenosa aggregates at high densities for spawning between March and May. Multi-species use of an aggregation site by E. guttatus and M. venenosa was observed at Bajos del Norte. The identified spawning aggregations are apparently stable in location over time, and all three species were commonly observed to spawn within 1 week following the full moon. Development and survival of the larvae spawned in these aggregations are probably aided by a seasonal (spring-summer) upwelling in the north-east Campeche Bank. A permanent area closure at Bajos del Norte, currently outside any specific fisheries management area or regulations, would provide protection needed for the spawning aggregations of these three species. PMID:25557429

  15. Groupers on the edge: Shelf edge spawning habitat in and around marine reserves of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, F.C.; Scanlon, K.M.; Koenig, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    The northeastern Gulf of Mexico contains some of the most diverse and productive marine habitat in the United States. Much of this habitat, located on the shelf edge in depths of 50 to 120 m, supports spawning for many economically important species, including groupers. Here, we couple acoustic surveys with georeferenced videography to describe the primary spatial and geologic features of spawning aggregation sites for four economically important species: gag (Mycteroperca microlepis), scamp (M. phenax), red grouper (Epinephelus morio), and red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), with notes on fish distribution and abundance and spawning activities. We provide information on movement patterns of reef fish determined using acoustic telemetry. Finally, we discuss the possible coupling of geomorphology with hydrographic features to influence the overall productivity of the region and the importance of spatial fishery management in sustaining that productivity. ?? 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

  16. 77 FR 34254 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... FMP (74 FR 30964, June 29, 2009). However, SEDAR 19 determined that red grouper was overfished and... black grouper ACLs and AMs were implemented through the Comprehensive ACL Amendment (77 FR 15916, March... Amendment 24 and requested public comment (77 FR 11477). On March 30, 2012, NMFS published a proposed...

  17. 77 FR 11477 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... ACLs were implemented through Amendment 17B to the FMP (75 FR 82280, December 30, 2010), before black..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment... Snapper- Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP) for review, approval, and implementation...

  18. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Justine, Jean-Lou; Neifar, Lassad

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147-165 μm), the gubernaculum (63-93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97-2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided. PMID:26956219

  19. 77 FR 19169 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... and AMs were implemented through Amendment 17B to the FMP (75 FR 82280, December 30, 2010), before... implemented through Amendment 16 to the FMP (June 29, 2009, 74 FR 30964) and black grouper ACLs and AMs will... FR 74757) and will remain in effect. This rule would remove this combined species group from...

  20. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147–165 μm), the gubernaculum (63–93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97–2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided. PMID:26956219

  1. Susceptibility of farmed juvenile giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus to a newly isolated grouper iridovirus (genus Ranavirus).

    PubMed

    Peng, Chao; Ma, Hongling; Su, Youlu; Wen, Weigeng; Feng, Juan; Guo, Zhixun; Qiu, Lihua

    2015-06-12

    A ranavirus was isolated from the diseased farmed groupers (Grouper iridovirus in genus Ranavirus, GIV-R), Epinephelus hybrids (blotchy rock cod, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀×giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂), in Sanya, Hainan, in July 2013. In this study, susceptibility of farmed juvenile giant grouper E. lanceolatus to GIV-R was determined by intraperitoneally injection. The cumulative mortality reached to 81% at 5 day post infection. Histologically, severe degeneration with massive pycnotic nuclei in spleen and kidney tissues was observed, and some small-size inclusion body-bearing cells (IBCs) existed in spleen. Hemorrhage and infiltration of inflammatory cells were presented in gill, liver and heart along with tissue degeneration and necrosis of varying severity. The results of immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the strongest immunolabellings were obtained from the kidney and spleen tissues, while intermediate intensity signals were observed in the heart, stomach, gill and liver tissues, and the weakest signals were obtained from the intestine and brain, but no signal was obtained in eyes. Electron microscopy revealed that spleen of moribund fish contained many viral particles in cytoplasm. Interestingly, in surviving fish, abnormal hypertrophic cells were observed in both splenic corpuscle and renal corpuscle, while no hypertrophic cell was observed in the other parts of spleen and kidney tissues. Moreover, immunolabellings only stained the hypertrophic cells in splenic corpuscle and renal corpuscle. This indicated that splenic corpuscle and renal corpuscle play an important role in GIV-R infection and replication. PMID:25912024

  2. 78 FR 57337 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ..., 2011, NMFS published a notice of agency action (76 FR 78245) designating the South Atlantic Council as..., yellowedge grouper, snowy grouper, misty grouper, vermilion snapper, sand tilefish, blueline tilefish,...

  3. Characterization of alpha-2-macroglobulin from groupers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wen-Hsiao; Lee, Kuo-Kau; Liu, Ping-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M) is a protease inhibitor broadly present in the plasma of vertebrates and invertebrates, and is an important non-specific humoral factor in defence system of the animals. This study conducted the immuno-analysis and mass spectrometric analysis methods to investigate the characteristics of the protease inhibitor, α-2-M, among groupers and related species. Rabbit antiserum to the purified α-2-M of Epinephelus coioides was used in different immunological methods to determine the immune cross-reactions of the α-2-M in samples. Plasma of Epinephelus bruneus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Epinephelus lanceolatus, and Epinephelus quoyanus exhibited high protease inhibitory activities by BAPNA-trypsin assay. To purify the α-2-M protein, plasma protein of grouper E. coioides was first precipitated by using PEG 6000, then Blue Sepharose 6 Fast Flow, DEAE Sephacel, Con A Separose 4B and Phenyl Sepharose High Performance columns were used on FPLC system for purification. The molecular mass of grouper plasma α-2-M was determined as a 180 kDa protein on non-reduced SDS-PAGE. In addition, it was determined as 97 and 80 kDa protein on reduced SDS-PAGE. Enzymatic and chemical deglycosylation of glycogen revealed that the contents of glycogen in 97 and 80 kDa subunits were 12.4% and 15%, respectively, and were all belonging to N-linked type. Only one precipitation arc was visualized in all plasma of Epinephelus spp. using the rabbit antiserum to the purified α-2-M of E. coioides, on crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) gels. The plasma of Epinephelus spp. and seawater fish species showed stronger responses than freshwater fish species while that of other animal species showed no response by dot-blot assay. One single band was detected on Native PAGE-Western blotting assay, one single 180 kDa band was detected on non-reduced SDS-PAGE-Western blotting, and four bands (80, 97, 160, 250 kDa) were detected on reduced SDS-PAGE when various grouper plasma

  4. The historical biogeography of groupers: Clade diversification patterns and processes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ka Yan; Craig, Matthew Thomas; Choat, John Howard; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Groupers (family Epinephelidae) are a clade of species-rich, biologically diverse reef fishes. Given their ecological variability and widespread distribution across ocean basins, it is important to scrutinize their evolutionary history that underlies present day distributions. This study investigated the patterns and processes by which grouper biodiversity has been generated and what factors have influenced their present day distributions. We reconstructed a robust, time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of Epinephelidae with comprehensive (∼87%) species sampling, whereby diversification rates were estimated and ancestral ranges were reconstructed. Our results indicate that groupers originated in what is now the East Atlantic during the mid-Eocene and diverged successively to form six strongly supported main clades. These clades differ in age (late Oligocene to mid-Miocene), geographic origin (West Atlantic to West Indo-Pacific) and temporal-spatial diversification pattern, ranging from constant rates of diversification to episodes of rapid radiation. Overall, divergence within certain biogeographic regions was most prevalent in groupers, while vicariant divergences were more common in Tropical Atlantic and East Pacific groupers. Our findings reveal that both biological and geographical factors have driven grouper diversification. They also underscore the importance of scrutinizing group-specific patterns to better understand reef fish evolution. PMID:26908372

  5. Grouper as a Natural Biocontrol of Invasive Lionfish

    PubMed Central

    Mumby, Peter J.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Brumbaugh, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) have invaded the majority of the Caribbean region within five years. As voracious predators of native fishes with a broad habitat distribution, lionfish are poised to cause an unprecedented disruption to coral reef diversity and function. Controls of lionfish densities within its native range are poorly understood, but they have been recorded in the stomachs of large-bodied Caribbean groupers. Whether grouper predation of lionfish is sufficient to act as a biocontrol of the invasive species is unknown, but pest biocontrol by predatory fishes has been reported in other ecosystems. Groupers were surveyed along a chain of Bahamian reefs, including one of the region's most successful marine reserves which supports the top one percentile of Caribbean grouper biomass. Lionfish biomass exhibited a 7-fold and non-linear reduction in relation to the biomass of grouper. While Caribbean grouper appear to be a biocontrol of invasive lionfish, the overexploitation of their populations by fishers, means that their median biomass on Caribbean reefs is an order of magnitude less than in our study. Thus, chronic overfishing will probably prevent natural biocontrol of lionfishes in the Caribbean. PMID:21731769

  6. Grouper as a natural biocontrol of invasive lionfish.

    PubMed

    Mumby, Peter J; Harborne, Alastair R; Brumbaugh, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) have invaded the majority of the Caribbean region within five years. As voracious predators of native fishes with a broad habitat distribution, lionfish are poised to cause an unprecedented disruption to coral reef diversity and function. Controls of lionfish densities within its native range are poorly understood, but they have been recorded in the stomachs of large-bodied Caribbean groupers. Whether grouper predation of lionfish is sufficient to act as a biocontrol of the invasive species is unknown, but pest biocontrol by predatory fishes has been reported in other ecosystems. Groupers were surveyed along a chain of Bahamian reefs, including one of the region's most successful marine reserves which supports the top one percentile of Caribbean grouper biomass. Lionfish biomass exhibited a 7-fold and non-linear reduction in relation to the biomass of grouper. While Caribbean grouper appear to be a biocontrol of invasive lionfish, the overexploitation of their populations by fishers, means that their median biomass on Caribbean reefs is an order of magnitude less than in our study. Thus, chronic overfishing will probably prevent natural biocontrol of lionfishes in the Caribbean. PMID:21731769

  7. 75 FR 62762 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socio-Economic Assessment of Snapper Grouper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...-Economic Assessment of Snapper Grouper Fisheries in the U.S. Caribbean AGENCY: National Oceanic and... demographic, cultural, economic, and social information about the snapper-grouper fisheries in the...

  8. Sperm of the giant grouper: cryopreservation, physiological and morphological analysis and application in hybridizations with red-spotted grouper.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongsheng; Jiang, Jing; Wang, Na; Qi, Wenshan; Zhai, Jieming; Li, Bo; Liang, You; Chen, Youming; Yang, Chuanjun; Chen, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop excellent germplasm resources for giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus), cryopreservation of giant grouper sperm was examined in the present study. Firstly, 13 kinds of sperm dilution (ELS1-3, EM1-2, TS-2, MPRS, ELRS0-6) were prepared with physiological salt, sucrose, glucose and fetal bovine serum. The physiological parameters of ELRS3 (ratio of fast motion, ratio of slow motion, time of fast motion, time of slow motion, lifespan and motility) and ELS3 (sperm ratio of slow motion, time of slow motion and motility) were significantly higher than those of the other dilutions (P < 0.05). Secondly, after adding 15% DMSO and 10% FBS to ELRS3 and ELS3, most physiological parameters of frozen sperm were also significantly higher than the other gradients (P < 0.05), and sperm motility was as high as 63.68 ± 4.16% to74.75 ± 12.71% (fresh sperm motility, 80.70 ± 1.37% to 80.71 ± 1.49%). Mixed with the above dilutions, a final volume of 105 ml semen was cryopreserved. Finally, the sperm of giant grouper cryopreserved with cryoprotectants (ELRS3 + 15% DMSO + 10% FBS) was used for electron-microscopic observation and crossbreeding with red-spotted groupers (Epinephelus akaara). The electron-microscopic observation revealed that part of the frozen-thawed sperm was cryodamaged, e.g., flagellum fracturing and mitochondria falling out, while the ultrastructure of sperm membrane, mitochondria and flagellum remained intact. Also, the fertilization and hatchability rates of giant grouper frozen sperm and red-spotted grouper eggs were as high as 94.56% and 75.56%, respectively. Thus, a technique for cryopreservation of giant grouper sperm was successfully developed and applied to crossbreeding with red-spotted grouper eggs. PMID:25985804

  9. Sperm of the giant grouper: cryopreservation, physiological and morphological analysis and application in hybridizations with red-spotted grouper

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, Yongsheng; JIANG, Jing; WANG, Na; QI, Wenshan; ZHAI, Jieming; LI, Bo; LIANG, You; CHEN, Youming; YANG, Chuanjun; CHEN, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop excellent germplasm resources for giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus), cryopreservation of giant grouper sperm was examined in the present study. Firstly, 13 kinds of sperm dilution (ELS1-3, EM1-2, TS-2, MPRS, ELRS0-6) were prepared with physiological salt, sucrose, glucose and fetal bovine serum. The physiological parameters of ELRS3 (ratio of fast motion, ratio of slow motion, time of fast motion, time of slow motion, lifespan and motility) and ELS3 (sperm ratio of slow motion, time of slow motion and motility) were significantly higher than those of the other dilutions (P < 0.05). Secondly, after adding 15% DMSO and 10% FBS to ELRS3 and ELS3, most physiological parameters of frozen sperm were also significantly higher than the other gradients (P < 0.05), and sperm motility was as high as 63.68 ± 4.16% to74.75 ± 12.71% (fresh sperm motility, 80.70 ± 1.37% to 80.71 ± 1.49%). Mixed with the above dilutions, a final volume of 105 ml semen was cryopreserved. Finally, the sperm of giant grouper cryopreserved with cryoprotectants (ELRS3 + 15% DMSO + 10% FBS) was used for electron-microscopic observation and crossbreeding with red-spotted groupers (Epinephelus akaara). The electron-microscopic observation revealed that part of the frozen-thawed sperm was cryodamaged, e.g., flagellum fracturing and mitochondria falling out, while the ultrastructure of sperm membrane, mitochondria and flagellum remained intact. Also, the fertilization and hatchability rates of giant grouper frozen sperm and red-spotted grouper eggs were as high as 94.56% and 75.56%, respectively. Thus, a technique for cryopreservation of giant grouper sperm was successfully developed and applied to crossbreeding with red-spotted grouper eggs. PMID:25985804

  10. 50 CFR 622.171 - South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.171 South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited access. (a) General. The only valid commercial vessel permits for South...

  11. Grouper: A Compact, Streamable Triangle Mesh Data Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Luffel, Mark; Gurung, Topraj; Lindstrom, Peter; Rossignac, Jarek

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We also present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. In this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle-i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format-Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels.

  12. Grouper: a compact, streamable triangle mesh data structure.

    PubMed

    Luffel, Mark; Gurung, Topraj; Lindstrom, Peter; Rossignac, Jarek

    2014-01-01

    We present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. As a part of this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle--i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format--Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels. PMID:24201328

  13. Visualization of Assembly Intermediates and Budding Vacuoles of Singapore Grouper Iridovirus in Grouper Embryonic Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Tran, Bich Ngoc; Wang, Fan; Ounjai, Puey; Wu, Jinlu; Hew, Choy L

    2016-01-01

    Iridovirid infection is associated with the catastrophic loss in aquaculture industry and the population decline of wild amphibians and reptiles, but none of the iridovirid life cycles have been well explored. Here, we report the detailed visualization of the life cycle of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) in grouper cells by cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) and tomography (ET). EM imaging revealed that SGIV viral particles have an outer capsid layer, and the interaction of this layer with cellular plasma membrane initiates viral entry. Subsequent viral replication leads to formation of a viral assembly site (VAS), where membranous structures emerge as precursors to recruit capsid proteins to form an intermediate, double-shell, crescent-shaped structure, which curves to form icosahedral capsids. Knockdown of the major capsid protein eliminates the formation of viral capsids. As capsid formation progresses, electron-dense materials known to be involved in DNA encapsidation accumulate within the capsid until it is fully occupied. Besides the well-known budding mechanism through the cell periphery, we demonstrate a novel budding process in which viral particles bud into a tubular-like structure within vacuoles. This budding process may denote a new strategy used by SGIV to disseminate viral particles into neighbor cells while evading host immune response. PMID:26727547

  14. Visualization of Assembly Intermediates and Budding Vacuoles of Singapore Grouper Iridovirus in Grouper Embryonic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Tran, Bich Ngoc; Wang, Fan; Ounjai, Puey; Wu, Jinlu; Hew, Choy L.

    2016-01-01

    Iridovirid infection is associated with the catastrophic loss in aquaculture industry and the population decline of wild amphibians and reptiles, but none of the iridovirid life cycles have been well explored. Here, we report the detailed visualization of the life cycle of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) in grouper cells by cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) and tomography (ET). EM imaging revealed that SGIV viral particles have an outer capsid layer, and the interaction of this layer with cellular plasma membrane initiates viral entry. Subsequent viral replication leads to formation of a viral assembly site (VAS), where membranous structures emerge as precursors to recruit capsid proteins to form an intermediate, double-shell, crescent-shaped structure, which curves to form icosahedral capsids. Knockdown of the major capsid protein eliminates the formation of viral capsids. As capsid formation progresses, electron-dense materials known to be involved in DNA encapsidation accumulate within the capsid until it is fully occupied. Besides the well-known budding mechanism through the cell periphery, we demonstrate a novel budding process in which viral particles bud into a tubular-like structure within vacuoles. This budding process may denote a new strategy used by SGIV to disseminate viral particles into neighbor cells while evading host immune response. PMID:26727547

  15. Identification of groupers based on pyloric caeca differentiation.

    PubMed

    Roy, T S C; Gopalakrishnan, A

    2011-11-01

    The examination of nine species of groupers present in south-east Indian waters has indicated that the pyloric caeca number, pattern and colouration are reliable and useful characters for identification. Three distinct morphotypes of pyloric caeca were observed in this study. PMID:22026609

  16. 78 FR 49183 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... 15 and requested public comments (78 FR 31511). The proposed rule and the regulatory amendment... small business size standards for several industries effective July 22, 2013 (78 FR 37398). The rule... Misty grouper, Epinephelus mystacinus Warsaw grouper, Epinephelus nigritus Snowy grouper,...

  17. 75 FR 18427 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY...-5308, e-mail Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper Fishery of...

  18. 75 FR 10693 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic; Trip Limit... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic (FMP). The FMP was prepared by...

  19. 75 FR 11068 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY...-mail Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper Fishery of the...

  20. 77 FR 11775 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY..., email: Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper Fishery of the...

  1. 77 FR 65356 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ..., Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment... Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic (Amendment 18B) for review, approval... endorsement program for the commercial golden tilefish component of the snapper- grouper fishery;...

  2. 78 FR 22846 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ..., and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the South Atlantic States; Regulatory Amendment 14... Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (Regulatory Amendment 14). In Regulatory Amendment 14... fishing season for vermilion snapper; modify the aggregate grouper bag limit; and revise...

  3. 77 FR 8749 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY...-824- 5305, email: Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper...

  4. Immunomagnetic reduction assay for nervous necrosis virus extracted from groupers.

    PubMed

    Lu, M W; Yang, S Y; Horng, H E; Yang, C C; Chieh, J J; Hong, Y W; Hong, C Y; Yang, H C; Wu, J L

    2012-04-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is the cause of viral nervous disease, which is a serious constraint on production for grouper aquaculture. Real-time PCR is commonly used to detect and quantify NNV, has the disadvantages of being expensive and technically demanding. In this study, an immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) assay was developed as a rapid and cost-effective alternative to real-time PCR. This method used magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with antibodies specific for viral surface antigens to detect NNV in grouper tissue samples. The association of NNV with the antibody-conjugated magnetic particles resulted in a reduction in magnetic signal, which was strongly correlated with the concentration of NNV, as determined by real-time PCR. Grouper larvae were prepared for testing using a viral extraction buffer which provided a rapid, 15-min method of extracting viral antigens and had an extraction efficiency of higher than 80%. In addition, this study proposes using magnetic nanoparticles as labeling markers and as an assaying reagent for NNV. The magnetic nanoparticles are functionalized with antibodies against the viral surface of NNV and are able to associate specifically with NNV. The reduction of the magnetic signals comes from the association between magnetic particles and NNV, and relates to the concentration of NNV. The results show that the detected concentrations of NNV are highly correlated to those detected by real-time PCR. PMID:22335935

  5. Advances in the study on nutrient requirements of grouper (Epinephelus sp.): a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhi; Liu, Yongjian; Mai, Kangsen; Tian, Lixia

    2005-04-01

    The paper reviews the recent advances in studying grouper nutrition requirement for the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly artificial diets. It consists of seven parts: protein and amino acid, lipid and essential fatty acid, carbohydrate, vitamin, mineral, alternative protein source, broodstock and larval nutrition. The review provides some basic information for further investigation of nutrient requirements of groupers.

  6. 50 CFR 622.20 - Individual fishing quota (IFQ) program for Gulf groupers and tilefishes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirement for a Gulf IFQ dealer endorsement. Details regarding eligibility, applicable landings history... commercial vessel permittee with grouper and tilefish landings history during the qualifying years... history; (ii) The highest average annual grouper and tilefish landings, in each of the five...

  7. 77 FR 53776 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Accountability Measures and Commercial Closures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Region FMP published March 16, 2010 (77 FR 15916). In part, the final rule for the Comprehensive ACL... the South Atlantic; Accountability Measures and Commercial Closures for Two Snapper-Grouper Species and Two Snapper-Grouper Species Complexes in the South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine...

  8. 77 FR 32914 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2012 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... tilefish, and AMs to be implemented if these ACLs are reached or exceeded (75 FR 82280, December 30, 2010... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XC025 Snapper-Grouper Fishery of... the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP), (Amendment 17B), the...

  9. Antiviral function of grouper MDA5 against iridovirus and nodavirus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Youhua; Yu, Yepin; Yang, Ying; Yang, Min; Zhou, Linli; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-07-01

    Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) is a critical member of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family which can recognize viral RNA and enhances antiviral response in host cells. In this study, a MDA5 homolog from orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (EcMDA5) was cloned, and its roles on grouper virus infection were characterized. The full-length EcMDA5 cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 982 amino acids with 74% identity with MDA5 homolog from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). Amino acid alignment analysis indicated that EcMDA5 contained three functional domains: two caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARDs), a DEAD box helicase-like (DExDc) domain, a helicase superfamily C-terminal domain (HELICc), and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). Upon challenge with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) or polyinosin-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), the transcript of EcMDA5 was significantly up-regulated especially at the early stage post-injection. Under fluorescence microscopy, we observed that EcMDA5 mostly localized in the cytoplasm of grouper spleen (GS) cells. Interestingly, during virus infection, the distribution pattern of EcMDA5 was significantly altered in SGIV infected cells, but not in red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infected cells, suggested that EcMDA5 might interact with viral proteins during SGIV infection. The ectopic expression of EcMDA5 in vitro obviously delayed virus infection induced cytopathic effect (CPE) progression and significantly inhibited viral gene transcription of RGNNV and SGIV. Moreover, overexpression of EcMDA5 not only significantly increased interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activities in a dose dependent manner, but also enhanced the expression of IRF3, IRF7 and TRAF6. In addition, the transcription level of the proinflammatory factors, including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were differently altered by EcMDA5 overexpression during SGIV or

  10. First record of Unicapsula seriolae (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from the muscle of Malabar grouper Epinephelus malabaricus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Abe, Niichiro; Maehara, Tomofumi; Suzuki, Jun

    2014-06-01

    Unicapsula seriolae (Myxozoa; Multivalvulida) was found in the trunk muscle of Malabar grouper Epinephelus malabaricus caught off Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Numerous filamentous or sesamoid brown to black lesions were observed in the skeletal muscle. Histopathological observation indicated that the lesions were myxosporean plasmodia encapsulated by a fibrous layer, accompanied by melanin deposition. Spores having one large and two rudimentary polar capsules were subspherical in shape and 6.6 × 6.9 μm in size. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that spores were composed of three spore valves. Morphological characteristics were consistent with U. seriolae, which is reported to cause myoliquefaction in yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi in Australia. Molecular analysis of the SSU and LSU rDNA supported identification of the species as U. seriolae. This is the first report of Unicapsula in Japan. PMID:24632098

  11. Gag grouper larvae pathways on the West Florida Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, Robert H.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Peebles, Ernst

    2014-10-01

    A numerical circulation model, quantitatively assessed against in situ observations, is used to describe the circulation on the West Florida Continental Shelf during spring 2007 when pre-settlement gag (Mycteroperca microlepis) were present in the surf zone near Tampa Bay, Florida. The pre-settlement fish were found to be isotopically distinct from settled juveniles in the area, which is consistent with recent arrival at near shore nursery habitats from offshore spawning grounds. Simulated particle trajectories are employed to test hypotheses relating to either a surface or a near-bottom route of across-shelf transport. The surface-route hypothesis is rejected, whereas the bottom-route hypothesis is found to be consistent with the location of pre-settlement fish and their co-occurrence with macroalgae of offshore, hard-bottom origin. We conclude that gag larvae are transported to the near shore via the bottom Ekman layer and that such transport is facilitated by remote forcing associated with Gulf of Mexico Loop Current interactions with the shelf slope near the Dry Tortugas. Being that such remote forcing occurs inter-annually and not always in phase with the preferred spawning months (late winter through early spring), gag recruitment success should similarly vary with year and location.

  12. DNA barcoding of commercially important Grouper species (Perciformes, Serranidae) in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Simon G; Yambot, Apolinario V

    2014-09-19

    Abstract Fish identification is generally challenging because of their unpronounced and overlapping morphological characters which is true in grouper species. In the Philippines, an updated, reliable and accurate inventory of this high value commercial groupers has not been carried out previously. Using molecular tools in the identification and inventory of fish species in the country is confined to few laboratories and experts in the country. In this study, 27 species of the Serranidae family were identified from the grouper samples collected from major fish landing sites and markets in the Philippines. The grouper species were molecularly identified using the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences for DNA barcoding. The accuracy of the inferred species-level taxonomy based on COI is supported with high similarity search (98-100%) both in BOLD and BLAST, well-distributed genetic distance values and cohesive clustering in the Neighbor-Joining Tree. Aside from reinforcing the classical methodology of grouper identification in the country, this pioneering study on molecular identification of Philippine groupers constitutes a significant contribution to the DNA barcode library of Philippine marine fishes and to the global barcode entries in general, which can be used when dealing with grouper taxonomy, biodiversity, stock assessment and trade. The results reveal the different localities where the grouper species can be possibly sourced out in the country for trade and aquaculture purposes. Several of the grouper species are included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. As a tool for conservation ecology, this study signals the implementation of sustainable fisheries management regulation to protect in particular those which are listed under the IUCN. PMID:25238110

  13. Restricted grouper reproductive migrations support community-based management.

    PubMed

    Waldie, Peter A; Almany, Glenn R; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane H; Hamilton, Richard J; Potuku, Tapas; Priest, Mark A; Rhodes, Kevin L; Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Conservation commonly requires trade-offs between social and ecological goals. For tropical small-scale fisheries, spatial scales of socially appropriate management are generally small-the median no-take locally managed marine area (LMMA) area throughout the Pacific is less than 1 km(2). This is of particular concern for large coral reef fishes, such as many species of grouper, which migrate to aggregations to spawn. Current data suggest that the catchment areas (i.e. total area from which individuals are drawn) of such aggregations are at spatial scales that preclude effective community-based management with no-take LMMAs. We used acoustic telemetry and tag-returns to examine reproductive migrations and catchment areas of the grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus at a spawning aggregation in Papua New Guinea. Protection of the resultant catchment area of approximately 16 km(2) using a no-take LMMA is socially untenable here and throughout much of the Pacific region. However, we found that spawning migrations were skewed towards shorter distances. Consequently, expanding the current 0.2 km(2) no-take LMMA to 1-2 km(2) would protect approximately 30-50% of the spawning population throughout the non-spawning season. Contrasting with current knowledge, our results demonstrate that species with moderate reproductive migrations can be managed at scales congruous with spatially restricted management tools. PMID:27069662

  14. Large outbreaks of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-01-01

    Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100-200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1-2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs) could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use) and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness. PMID:25019942

  15. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs) could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use) and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness. PMID:25019942

  16. Restricted grouper reproductive migrations support community-based management

    PubMed Central

    Almany, Glenn R.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane H.; Hamilton, Richard J.; Potuku, Tapas; Priest, Mark A.; Rhodes, Kevin L.; Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation commonly requires trade-offs between social and ecological goals. For tropical small-scale fisheries, spatial scales of socially appropriate management are generally small—the median no-take locally managed marine area (LMMA) area throughout the Pacific is less than 1 km2. This is of particular concern for large coral reef fishes, such as many species of grouper, which migrate to aggregations to spawn. Current data suggest that the catchment areas (i.e. total area from which individuals are drawn) of such aggregations are at spatial scales that preclude effective community-based management with no-take LMMAs. We used acoustic telemetry and tag-returns to examine reproductive migrations and catchment areas of the grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus at a spawning aggregation in Papua New Guinea. Protection of the resultant catchment area of approximately 16 km2 using a no-take LMMA is socially untenable here and throughout much of the Pacific region. However, we found that spawning migrations were skewed towards shorter distances. Consequently, expanding the current 0.2 km2 no-take LMMA to 1–2 km2 would protect approximately 30–50% of the spawning population throughout the non-spawning season. Contrasting with current knowledge, our results demonstrate that species with moderate reproductive migrations can be managed at scales congruous with spatially restricted management tools. PMID:27069662

  17. From Shelf to Shelf: Assessing Historical and Contemporary Genetic Differentiation and Connectivity across the Gulf of Mexico in Gag, Mycteroperca microlepis

    PubMed Central

    Jue, Nathaniel K.; Brulé, Thierry; Coleman, Felicia C.; Koenig, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Describing patterns of connectivity among populations of species with widespread distributions is particularly important in understanding the ecology and evolution of marine species. In this study, we examined patterns of population differentiation, migration, and historical population dynamics using microsatellite and mitochondrial loci to test whether populations of the epinephelid fish, Gag, Mycteroperca microlepis, an important fishery species, are genetically connected across the Gulf of Mexico and if so, whether that connectivity is attributable to either contemporary or historical processes. Populations of Gag on the Campeche Bank and the West Florida Shelf show significant, but low magnitude, differentiation. Time since divergence/expansion estimates associated with historical population dynamics indicate that any population or spatial expansions indicated by population genetics would have likely occurred in the late Pleistocene. Using coalescent-based approaches, we find that the best model for explaining observed spatial patterns of contemporary genetic variation is one of asymmetric gene flow, with movement from Campeche Bank to the West Florida Shelf. Both estimated migration rates and ecological data support the hypothesis that Gag populations throughout the Gulf of Mexico are connected via present day larval dispersal. Demonstrating this greatly expanded scale of connectivity for Gag highlights the influence of “ghost” populations (sensu Beerli) on genetic patterns and presents a critical consideration for both fisheries management and conservation of this and other species with similar genetic patterns. PMID:25856095

  18. Long-lived groupers require structurally stable reefs in the face of repeated climate change disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkarey, R.; Kelkar, N.; Lobo, A. Savio; Alcoverro, T.; Arthur, R.

    2014-06-01

    Benthic recovery from climate-related disturbances does not always warrant a commensurate functional recovery for reef-associated fish communities. Here, we examine the distribution of benthic groupers (family Serranidae) in coral reef communities from the Lakshadweep archipelago (Arabian Sea) in response to structural complexity and long-term habitat stability. These coral reefs that have been subject to two major El Niño Southern Oscillation-related coral bleaching events in the last decades (1998 and 2010). First, we employ a long-term (12-yr) benthic-monitoring dataset to track habitat structural stability at twelve reef sites in the archipelago. Structural stability of reefs was strongly driven by exposure to monsoon storms and depth, which made deeper and more sheltered reefs on the eastern aspect more stable than the more exposed (western) and shallower reefs. We surveyed groupers (species richness, abundance, biomass) in 60 sites across the entire archipelago, representing both exposures and depths. Sites were selected along a gradient of structural complexity from very low to high. Grouper biomass appeared to vary with habitat stability with significant differences between depth and exposure; sheltered deep reefs had a higher grouper biomass than either sheltered shallow or exposed (deep and shallow) reefs. Species richness and abundance showed similar (though not significant) trends. More interestingly, average grouper biomass increased exponentially with structural complexity, but only at the sheltered deep (high stability) sites, despite the availability of recovered structure at exposed deep and shallow sites (lower-stability sites). This trend was especially pronounced for long-lived groupers (life span >10 yrs). These results suggest that long-lived groupers may prefer temporally stable reefs, independent of the local availability of habitat structure. In reefs subject to repeated disturbances, the presence of structurally stable reefs may be

  19. Edge detection of red hind grouper vocalizations in the littorals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Cameron A.; Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Littoral regions typically present to passive sensors as a high noise acoustic environment, particularly with respect to port and harbor regions where tidal variation, often characterized as pink, mixes with reverberation from on-shore business and commercial shipping, often characterized as white. Some fish in these regions, in particular epiphenalius Guttatus or more commonly the red hind grouper, emit relatively narrowband tones in low frequencies to communicate with other fish in such regions. The impact of anthropogenic noise sources on the red Hind and other fish is a topical area of interest for wildlife fisheries, private sportsmen and military offices that is not considered here; the fact that fish species continue to populate and communicate in these regions in the presence of high noise content lends some study to the signal content and modeling of a potential biologically inspired receiver structure.

  20. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish.

    PubMed

    Valdivia-López, M A; Tecante, A; Granados-Navarrete, S; Martínez-García, C

    2016-01-01

    A protein concentrate (PC) was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts), and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v) protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v) protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials. PMID:27597950

  1. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    PubMed Central

    Tecante, A.; Granados-Navarrete, S.; Martínez-García, C.

    2016-01-01

    A protein concentrate (PC) was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts), and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v) protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v) protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials. PMID:27597950

  2. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    SciTech Connect

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  3. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  4. 78 FR 78770 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...NMFS issues this final rule to implement Amendment 27 (Amendment 27) to the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP), as prepared and submitted by the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (South Atlantic Council). Amendment 27 and this final rule extend the South Atlantic Council's management responsibility for Nassau grouper into the Gulf......

  5. 76 FR 12883 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY..., fax: 727-824-5308, e-mail: Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-...

  6. 76 FR 12882 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY..., fax: 727-824-5308, e-mail: Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-...

  7. 76 FR 12605 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... On December 30, 2010, a final rule was published to implement Amendment 17B (75 FR 82280). That final..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment...-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (Amendment 17B), which was published in the Federal...

  8. 78 FR 72868 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... bass commercial and recreational ACLs were increased through Regulatory Amendment 19 to the FMP (78 FR..., and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the South Atlantic States; Regulatory Amendment 16... Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (Regulatory Amendment 16). Regulatory Amendment...

  9. 78 FR 46925 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Federal Register (78 FR 22846), to prepare a draft EIS for Regulatory Amendment 14. Regulatory Amendment..., and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the South Atlantic States; Regulatory Amendment 14... Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (Regulatory Amendment 14)....

  10. 76 FR 78879 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ...NMFS publishes this proposed rule to implement a regulatory amendment (Regulatory Amendment 11) to the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP), as prepared by the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council). If implemented, this rule would remove the harvest and possession prohibition of six deep-water snapper-grouper species (snowy......

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a galectin-1 homolog in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuli; Wei, Jingguang; Xu, Meng; Yang, Min; Li, Pingfei; Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-07-01

    As a member of animal lectin family, galectin has the functions of pathogen recognition, anti-bacteria and anti-virus. In the present study, a galectin-1 homolog (EcGel-1) from grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was cloned and its possible role in fish immunity was analyzed. The full length cDNA of EcGel-1 is 504 bp, including a 408 bp open reading frame (ORF) which encodes 135 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15.19 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that EcGel-1 was constitutively expressed in all analyzed tissues of healthy grouper. The expression of EcGel-1 in the spleen of grouper was differentially up-regulated challenged with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), poly (I:C), and LPS. EcGel-1 was abundantly distributed in the cytoplasm in GS cells. Recombinant EcGel-1(rEcGel-1) protein can make chicken erythrocyte aggregation, and combine with gram negative bacteria and gram positive bacteria in the presence of 2-Mercaptoethanol (β-ME). Taken together, the results showed that EcGel-1 may be an important molecule involved in pathogen recognition and pathogen elimination in the innate immunity of grouper. PMID:27109200

  12. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of spexin in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Li, Shuisheng; Liu, Qiongyu; Xiao, Ling; Chen, Huapu; Li, Guangli; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-01-01

    Spexin is a newly discovered neuropeptide in vertebrates. Comprehensive comparative studies are required to unveil its biological functions. In order to ascertain the neuroendocrine function of spexin in orange-spotted grouper, its full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences were cloned and analyzed. Sequence analyses showed that the spexin gene structure is composed of six exons and five introns, and the amino acids of mature peptide (spexin-14) in grouper are identical to that of other fish. Tissue expression analysis found that grouper spexin is highly expressed in the brain, liver and ovary. Real time-PCR analysis demonstrated that the hypothalamic expression of spexin declined gradually during the ovarian development, and was up-regulated by food deprivation. Intraperitoneal administration of spexin-14 peptides to grouper significantly elevated the mRNA levels of proopiomelanocortin (pomc) and suppressed the orexin expression in the hypothalamus, but could not change the hypothalamic expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone 1 (gnrh1). Both in vivo and in vitro administration of spexin could not significantly influence the expression of follicle-stimulating hormone β (fshβ) and luteinizing hormone β (lhβ) in the pituitary with the exception of an inhibition of gh expression. Our data suggested that the spexin has a significant role in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake in orange-spotted grouper. PMID:26944307

  13. Identification and characterization of a novel lymphocystis disease virus isolate from cultured grouper in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Huang, Y; Xu, L; Wei, S; Ouyang, Z; Feng, J; Qin, Q

    2015-04-01

    Grouper Epinephelus spp. is one of the most important mariculture fish species in China and South-East Asian countries. The emerging viral diseases, evoked by iridovirus which belongs to genus Megalocytivirus and Ranavirus, have been well characterized in recent years. To date, few data on lymphocystis disease in grouper which caused by lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) were described. Here, a novel LCDV isolate was identified and characterized. Based on the sequence of LCDV major capsid protein (MCP) and DNA polymerase gene, we found that the causative agents from different species of diseased groupers were the same one and herein were uniformly defined as grouper LCDV (GLCDV). Furthermore, H&E staining revealed that the nodules on the skin were composed of giant cells that contained inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm. Numerous virus particles with >210 nm in diameter and with hexagonal profiles were observed in the cytoplasm. In addition, phylogenetic analysis based on four iridovirus core genes, MCP, DNA polymerase, myristoylated membrane protein (MMP) and ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), consistently showed that GLCDV was mostly related to LCDV-C, followed by LCDV-1. Taken together, our data firstly provided the molecular evidence that GLCDV was a novel emerging iridovirus pathogen in grouper culture. PMID:24720572

  14. Isolation and gene expression of yellow grouper ferritin heavy chain subunit after lipopolysaccharide treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Wei, Yong

    2012-06-01

    Ferritin is a ubiquitous and conserved iron storage protein that plays a central role in iron metabolism. The ferritin heavy chain subunit (FerH) homolog was isolated from yellow grouper (Epinephelus awoara) spleen using suppression subtractive hybridization and RACE-PCR. The nucleotide sequence of FerH full-length cDNA was 1173 bp and contained an open reading frame of 534 bp, encoding a putative protein of 177 amino acids. The encoded protein shows 78-94% identity with homologs. Based on phylogenetic analysis, yellow grouper FerH is highly conserved throughout evolution and is closer to European seabass than to other species. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that FerH was widely expressed in various healthy tissues and significantly up-regulated in liver, spleen, and anterior kidney by lipopolysaccharide. The results suggest that yellow grouper FerH may play a role in immune response. PMID:22210544

  15. Re-examining the relationship between invasive lionfish and native grouper in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, John F.; Cox, Courtney E.; Hackerott, Serena; Green, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Biotic resistance is the idea that native species negatively affect the invasion success of introduced species, but whether this can occur at large spatial scales is poorly understood. Here we re-evaluated the hypothesis that native large-bodied grouper and other predators are controlling the abundance of exotic lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) on Caribbean coral reefs. We assessed the relationship between the biomass of lionfish and native predators at 71 reefs in three biogeographic regions while taking into consideration several cofactors that may affect fish abundance, including among others, proxies for fishing pressure and habitat structural complexity. Our results indicate that the abundance of lionfish, large-bodied grouper and other predators were not negatively related. Lionfish abundance was instead controlled by several physical site characteristics, and possibly by culling. Taken together, our results suggest that managers cannot rely on current native grouper populations to control the lionfish invasion. PMID:24765582

  16. Re-examining the relationship between invasive lionfish and native grouper in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, Abel; Bruno, John F; Cox, Courtney E; Hackerott, Serena; Green, Stephanie J

    2014-01-01

    Biotic resistance is the idea that native species negatively affect the invasion success of introduced species, but whether this can occur at large spatial scales is poorly understood. Here we re-evaluated the hypothesis that native large-bodied grouper and other predators are controlling the abundance of exotic lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) on Caribbean coral reefs. We assessed the relationship between the biomass of lionfish and native predators at 71 reefs in three biogeographic regions while taking into consideration several cofactors that may affect fish abundance, including among others, proxies for fishing pressure and habitat structural complexity. Our results indicate that the abundance of lionfish, large-bodied grouper and other predators were not negatively related. Lionfish abundance was instead controlled by several physical site characteristics, and possibly by culling. Taken together, our results suggest that managers cannot rely on current native grouper populations to control the lionfish invasion. PMID:24765582

  17. Construction of a microsatellites-based linkage map for the white grouper (Epinephelus aeneus).

    PubMed

    Dor, Lior; Shirak, Andrey; Gorshkov, Sergei; Band, Mark R; Korol, Abraham; Ronin, Yefim; Curzon, Arie; Hulata, Gideon; Seroussi, Eyal; Ron, Micha

    2014-08-01

    The white grouper (Epinephelus aeneus) is a promising candidate for domestication and aquaculture due to its fast growth, excellent taste, and high market price. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping quantitative trait loci for economic traits and the study of genome evolution. DNA of a single individual was deep-sequenced, and microsatellite markers were identified in 177 of the largest scaffolds of the sequence assembly. The success rate of developing polymorphic homologous markers was 94.9% compared with 63.1% of heterologous markers from other grouper species. Of the 12 adult mature fish present in the broodstock tank, two males and two females were identified as parents of the assigned offspring by parenthood analysis using 34 heterologous markers. A single full-sib family of 48 individuals was established for the construction of first-generation linkage maps based on genotyping data of 222 microsatellites. The markers were assigned to 24 linkage groups in accordance to the 24 chromosomal pairs. The female and male maps consisting of 203 and 202 markers spanned 1053 and 886 cM, with an average intermarker distance of 5.8 and 5.0 cM, respectively. Mapping of markers to linkage groups ends was enriched by using markers originating from scaffolds harboring telomeric repeat-containing RNA. Comparative mapping showed high synteny relationships among the white grouper, kelp grouper (E. bruneus), orange-spotted grouper (E. coioides), and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Thus, it would be useful to integrate the markers that were developed for different groupers, depending on sharing of sequence data, into a comprehensive consensus map. PMID:24902605

  18. Molecular cloning, expression and functional analysis of ISG15 in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Cai, Jia; Wei, Shina; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Qin, Qiwei

    2013-05-01

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is an ubiquitin homolog that is significantly induced by type I interferons or viral infections. Groupers, Epinephelus spp. being maricultured in China and Southeast Asian countries, always suffer from virus infection, including iridovirus and nodavirus. To date, the roles of grouper genes, especially interferon related genes in virus infection remained largely unknown. Here, the ISG15 homolog (EcISG15) was cloned from grouper Epinephelus coioides and its immune response to Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV) was investigated. The full-length EcISG15 cDNA was composed of 948 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 155 amino acids with 37-68% identity with the known ISG15 homologs from other fish species. Amino acid alignment analysis indicated that EcISG15 contained two ubiquitin-like (UBL) domains and an Ub-conjugation domain (LRGG). Expressional analysis showed that EcISG15 was dramatically induced by GNNV infection, poly I:C or poly dA-dT treatment, but no obvious changes were observed during SGIV infection. Immunofluorescence assay showed that EcISG15 localized mainly in the cytoplasm of grouper cells in response to poly I:C stimulation or GNNV infection, but not in mock or SGIV infected cells. Western blot analysis indicated that the ISGylation was absent in SGIV-infected cells, but significantly enhanced in GNNV-infected or poly I:C transfected cells, suggesting that EcISG15 might play different roles in SGIV and GNNV infection. Furthermore, overexpression of EcISG15 in vitro inhibited the transcription of GNNV genes significantly. Taken together, the results indicated that fish ISG15 might exert important roles against RNA virus infection. PMID:23403156

  19. Sperm cryopreservation in different grouper subspecies and application in interspecific hybridization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q H; Xiao, Z Z; Wang, X Y; Xu, S H; Guan, S G; Xu, C A; Zhang, H S; Li, J

    2016-05-01

    The present study established and confirmed an efficient technology for groupers: giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus, orange-spotted grouper E. coioides, seven-band grouper, E. septemfasciatus, and kelp grouper E. moara sperm cryopreservation and successfully applied the cryopreserved E. lanceolatus sperm into interspecific hybridization with E. coioides. For both E. lanceolatus and E. coioides, the best motility of postthaw sperm were achieved using 6% to 10% DMSO, 6% to 16% propylene glycol, and 6% ethylene glycol as cryoprotectants. Furthermore, we have successfully applied this method into the other two species of E. septemfasciatus (74.56 ± 5.45%) and E. moara (71.67 ± 5.10%) sperm cryopreservation and obtained high motility, respectively. Computer-assisted sperm motion analysis showed that the postthaw sperm of the four species of grouper could keep 30 to 35 minutes motile state in nature seawater. And the freezing-thawing process decreased the sperm motility, speed, and longevity but did not significantly change the sperm movement pattern, and the progressive linear motion still was the dominant movement pattern. For the four species of grouper, the ultrastructural analysis showed 70% to 80% of the spermatozoa had intact morphology with a little of swelling; 20% to 30% were damaged, such as swelling or rupture of head, midpiece, and tail region; and 10% to 20% were severely damaged. Whereas, by the microscopic observation, more than 90% of the postthaw sperm presented normal morphology. In the artificial insemination and hybridization experiment, high fertilization rates and hatching rates were achieved when using 10% DMSO (88.7 ± 5.3%, 85.3 ± 7.4%) and 10% propylene glycol (86.8 ± 3.3%, 83.1 ± 6.6%), with no significant difference in comparison with control (92.2 ± 1.4%, 87.9 ± 4.2%). In addition, we found the embryos from postthaw sperm of E. lanceolatus and E. coioides eggs developed and grew normally as reported in previous

  20. Cryopreservation of sperm from seven-band grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ivan Chong Chu; Yokoi, Ken-Ichi; Tsuji, Masaharu; Tsuchihashi, Yasushi; Ohta, Hiromi

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, we examined methods for the cryopreservation of Epinephelus septemfasciatus spermatozoa. The percent motility, average path velocity, and linearity of movement (LIN) of fresh and corresponding post-thaw sperm were evaluated. Sperm motility was investigated using computer-assisted sperm analysis. Five percent dimethyl sulphoxide (Me₂SO) with 95% fetal bovine serum (FBS) was the most successful cryoprotectant diluent with a comparative post-thaw motility of 77.6±8.5%; 5% dimethyl formamide was also effective. Fetal bovine serum was significantly better as an extender when compared with artificial seminal plasma, glucose, and trehalose solution. Sperm tolerated a wide range of cooling rates (from 27.1 to 94.3 °C min⁻¹); however, the post-thaw motility of sperm cooled to -30 °C was significantly lower than that of other cooled temperatures (-40 to -70 °C). The velocity of post-thaw sperm was significantly lower than that of fresh sperm, although LIN remained the same. For effective cryopreservation of seven-band grouper sperm, samples should be diluted in 5% Me₂SO with 95% FBS and cooled to at least -40 °C before immersion in liquid nitrogen. PMID:20869362

  1. Multifractal anisotropic swimming: the optimal foraging behaviour of grouper larvae.

    PubMed

    Mahjoub, M S; Dur, G; Souissi, S; Schmitt, F G; Hwang, J S

    2016-05-01

    It was hypothesized that the Malabar grouper Ephinephelus malabaricus larvae have developed search patterns adapted to the distribution of their prey to maximise their net energy intake per unit time. Analysis of the swimming behaviour of E. malabaricus larvae in both the presence and absence of Artemia sp. nauplii is presented to test this hypothesis. A method derived from turbulence studies (the moment function of the displacements) was used to characterize the behaviour. The results revealed that larval swimming pattern was multifractal (intermittent and long-range-correlated) and isotropic (i.e. uniform in all directions) in the presence of prey, but multifractal and anisotropic (i.e. more frequent long displacement on the vertical axis) in the absence of prey. It is suggested that the search behaviour observed in the absence of prey is an adaptive response to prey distribution pattern, which is often characterised by multifractality and anisotropy (i.e. larger patches on the horizontal axes). In the presence of prey, E. malabaricus shifted to intensive search behaviour. Other possible contributors to the observed patterns are discussed. It is concluded that multifractality and anisotropy of swimming patterns observed in the experiment are mainly explained in an optimal foraging theory framework. PMID:27021375

  2. Growth and reproduction of the highfin grouper Epinephelus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, K L; Taylor, B M; Hernandez-Ortiz, D; Cuetos-Bueno, J

    2016-05-01

    Highfin grouper Epinephelus maculatus sampled in Chuuk, Micronesia, exhibited a moderate growth rate and a relatively short life span compared to other epinephelids of a similar size. Combined gonad and otolith analysis provide preliminary evidence that the species conforms to a protogynous sexual pattern. Mean total length at maturity for females was 308 mm with first age at maturity 2·8 years for females and 4 years for males, which differs from other regional studies. Based on the gonado-somatic index and microscopic analysis of gonads, E. maculatus in Chuuk have a 4 month spawning season (January to April) that corresponds with seasonal lows in sea surface water temperature and overlaps with that of other aggregating epinephelids. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth factor (K) was 0·51 year(-1) , while total mortality was 0·34 year(-1) . Current management for E. maculatus in Chuuk includes a January to May catch, sale and export ban, which overlaps with its reproductive season. The effectiveness of these arrangements will require on-going monitoring to determine whether alternative management strategies are required to ensure population persistence. PMID:27021483

  3. 50 CFR 622.20 - Individual fishing quota (IFQ) program for Gulf groupers and tilefishes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirement for a Gulf IFQ dealer endorsement. Details regarding eligibility, applicable landings history... determining eligibility for the IFQ program for Gulf groupers and tilefishes based on permit history. No more... Gulf reef fish during the applicable landings history. The five share categories are gag, red...

  4. 50 CFR 622.20 - Individual fishing quota (IFQ) program for Gulf groupers and tilefishes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IFQ dealer endorsement. Details regarding eligibility, applicable landings history, account setup and... determining eligibility for the IFQ program for Gulf groupers and tilefishes based on permit history. No more... Gulf reef fish during the applicable landings history. The five share categories are gag, red...

  5. Spatial and temporal characteristics of grouper spawning aggregations in marine protected areas in Palau, western Micronesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golbuu, Yimnang; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2011-04-01

    In Palau, Ngerumekaol and Ebiil Channels are spawning aggregation sites that have been protected from fishing since 1976 and 2000, respectively. Groupers and other targeted fisheries species were monitored monthly over a 1.5 year period at these two spawning aggregations and two nearby exploited reference sites where grouper formerly aggregated to spawn. At the protected aggregation sites, three grouper species ( Plectropomus areolatus, Epinephelus polyphekadion, and Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) accounted for 78% of the abundance and 85% of the biomass of all resource species surveyed but comprised <1% of the total abundance and biomass at reference sites not protected from fishing that formally harbored spawning aggregations. Abundance and biomass of grouper species pooled were 54% and 72% higher, respectively, at Ngerumekaol compared to Ebiil. Comparisons with data from the same locations in 1995-1996 showed order of magnitude declines in abundance of E. polyphekadion at both locations. The lower numbers of E. fuscoguttatus and the near absence of E. polyphekadion at Ebiil may reflect the effects of previous and current overexploitation.

  6. Histological assessments of intestinal immuno-morphology of tiger grouper juvenile, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus.

    PubMed

    Firdaus-Nawi, Mohd; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Nik-Haiha, Nik Yusoff; Zuki, Md Abu Bakar; Effendy, Abd Wahid Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Histological assessments on the intestinal morphology and immunity of tiger grouper juveniles, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus help in determining the earliest age to start an oral vaccination. This study describes the morphological development of the intestinal immunity of tiger grouper of various ages. Clinically healthy tiger groupers were selected and divided into 4 groups of 20 fish per group. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 consisted of juveniles of 30, 60, 90 and 120 days old, respectively. The whole intestine was collected and divided into three regions, the anterior, mid and posterior intestine and fixed in 10% buffered formalin before slides were prepared for microscopic examinations. It was found that the histological structures of the anterior intestine were for absorption of nutrient from digested food particles. The significantly (p < 0.05) higher number and length of the intestinal villi and smaller gap between villi were observed in the anterior intestine, which were structures for absorption. Structures of the posterior intestine were for immunity especially the adaptive immunity with included significantly (p < 0.05) higher numbers of the lymphoid and goblet cells, and significantly (p < 0.05) thicker lamina propria, which were structures for immunity. The mid intestine was the transition structure that involved in both absorption and innate immunity. The results also revealed that leukocytes existed in the lamina propria of 30-days old tiger groupers, an indication that the immune system was present at that particular age. PMID:24340241

  7. Diel and seasonal movement pattern of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus inside a marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Koeck, Barbara; Pastor, Jérémy; Saragoni, Gilles; Dalias, Nicolas; Payrot, Jérôme; Lenfant, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Temporal movement patterns and spawning behaviour of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus were investigated using depth and temperature sensors combined to acoustic telemetry. Results showed that these fish are year-round resident, remaining inside the fully protected area of the marine reserve of Cerbère-Banyuls (65 ha) and display a diurnal activity pattern. Records from depth sensors revealed that groupers range inside small, distinct, and individual territories. Individual variations in habitat depth are only visible on a seasonal scale, i.e., between the spawning season and the rest of the year. In fact, during summer months when the seawater temperature exceeded 20 °C, tagged groupers made vertical spawning migrations of 4-8 m in amplitude. These vertical migrations are characteristic of the reproductive behaviour of dusky groupers, during which they release their gametes. The results are notable for the implementation of management rules in marine protected areas, such as reduced navigation speed, boating or attendance during spawning season. PMID:24361257

  8. Monoclonal antibody against a putative myristoylated membrane protein encoded by grouper iridovirus 59L gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Yu; Chiou, Pinwen Peter; Liou, Chian-Jiun; Lai, Yu-Shen

    2015-04-01

    Groupers (Epinephelus spp.) are economically important fish species worldwide, and ranaviruses are major viral pathogens causing heavy economic losses in grouper aquaculture. In this study, the 59L gene of grouper iridovirus (GIV-59L) was cloned and characterized. This gene is 1521 bp and encodes a protein of 506 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 53.9 kDa. Interestingly, GIV-59L and its homologs are found in all genera of the family Iridoviridae. A mouse monoclonal antibody specific for the C-terminal domain (amino acid positions 254-506) of the GIV-59L protein, GIV-59L(760-1518)-MAb-21, was produced and proved to be well suited for use in a number of GIV immunoassays. RT-PCR, Western blotting, and cycloheximide and cytosine arabinoside drug inhibition analyses indicated that GIV-59L is a viral late gene in GIV-infected grouper kidney cells. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that GIV-59L protein mainly accumulates in the cytoplasm of infected cells and is finally packed into a whole virus particle. The GIV-59L(760-1518)-MAb-21 characterized in this study could have widespread application in GIV immunodiagnostics and other research on GIV. In addition, the results presented here offer important insights into the pathogenesis of GIV. PMID:25850399

  9. Spatial and temporal characteristics of grouper spawning aggregations in marine protected areas in Palau, western Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golbuu, Y.; Friedlander, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    In Palau, Ngerumekaol and Ebiil Channels are spawning aggregation sites that have been protected from fishing since 1976 and 2000, respectively. Groupers and other targeted fisheries species were monitored monthly over a 1.5 year period at these two spawning aggregations and two nearby exploited reference sites where grouper formerly aggregated to spawn. At the protected aggregation sites, three grouper species (Plectropomus areolatus, Epinephelus polyphekadion, and Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) accounted for 78% of the abundance and 85% of the biomass of all resource species surveyed but comprised <1% of the total abundance and biomass at reference sites not protected from fishing that formally harbored spawning aggregations. Abundance and biomass of grouper species pooled were 54% and 72% higher, respectively, at Ngerumekaol compared to Ebiil. Comparisons with data from the same locations in 1995-1996 showed order of magnitude declines in abundance of E. polyphekadion at both locations. The lower numbers of E. fuscoguttatus and the near absence of E. polyphekadion at Ebiil may reflect the effects of previous and current overexploitation. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Ecology and ethnoecology of dusky grouper [garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834)] along the coast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Begossi, Alpina; Silvano, Renato AM

    2008-01-01

    Dusky grouper (garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus) is an important catch for several artisanal small-scale fisheries along the Brazilian coast. It is a sedentary, monandric, and late maturing protogynous species, which makes it vulnerable to overharvesting even though it is mainly caught through hook and line or spear fishing through free diving. Lack of information on the ecology and biology of this species in Brazil is astonishing. Much of the information found in the literature concerns Mediterranean dusky groupers. Studies compiling local knowledge (ethnoecology) about fish species complement biological data, and have been fundamental for effective fisheries management. In this study, our objectives are to obtain data about dusky grouper through fish catches and analysis of stomach contents and gonad maturation (macroscopic analyses), along with interviews from fishermen from six small-scales communities from the southern (Pântano do Sul, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State) to the northern Brazilian coast (Porto Sauípe, Bahia State). We conclude that precautionary approaches and 'data-less' management approaches are needed in the coast of Brazil. Research on this species and on the potential of aquaculture for its cultivation, are urgent, due to the apparent vulnerability and decrease of dusky grouper along the coast of Brazil. PMID:18793394

  11. RING domain is essential for the antiviral activity of TRIM25 from orange spotted grouper.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Huang, Youhua; Yu, Yepin; Yang, Min; Zhou, Sheng; Qin, Qiwei; Huang, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    Tripartite motif-containing 25 (TRIM25) has been demonstrated to exert crucial roles in the regulation of innate immune signaling. However, the roles of fish TRIM25 in antiviral immune response still remained uncertain. Here, a novel fish TRIM25 gene from orange spotted grouper (EcTRIM25) was cloned and its roles in grouper virus infection were elucidated. EcTRIM25 encoded a 734-aa protein which shared 68% identity to large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Amino acid alignment showed that EcTRIM25 contained three conserved domains, including a RING-finger domain, a B box/coiled-coil domain and a SPRY domain. In healthy grouper, the transcript of EcTRIM25 was predominantly detected in skin, spleen and intestine. After stimulation with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) or poly I:C, the relative expression of EcTRIM25 in grouper spleen was significantly increased at the early stage of injection. Subcellular localization analysis showed that EcTRIM25 distributed throughout the cytoplasm in grouper cells. Notably, the deletion RING domain affected its accurate localization and displayed microtubule like structures or bright aggregates in GS cells. After incubation with SGIV or red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), overexpression of full length of EcTRIM25 in vitro significantly decreased the viral gene transcription of SGIV and RGNNV. Consistently, the deletion of RING domain obviously affected the inhibitory effect of EcTRIM25. Furthermore, overexpression of EcTRIM25 significantly increased the expression level of interferon related signaling molecules, including interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3, interferon-induced 35-kDa protein (IFP35), MXI, IRF7 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), suggesting that the positive regulation of interferon immune response by EcTRIM25 might affected RGNNV replication directly. Meanwhile, the expression levels of pro-inflammation cytokines were differently regulated by the ectopic expression of EcTRIM25

  12. Comparison of the responses of different recombinant fish type I interferons against betanodavirus infection in grouper.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiang-Ping; Chung, Chia-Ling; Hung, Yu-Fang; Lai, Yu-Shen; Chiou, Pinwen P; Lu, Ming-Wei; Kong, Zwe-Ling

    2016-02-01

    The nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is an aquatic virus that can infect more than 30 species including the grouper, which is a valuable fish species in Taiwan. NNV causes up to 90-100% mortality in the aquaculture industry. Interferons (IFNs) are a family of cytokines that stimulate the expression of numerous proteins to protect the host against viruses and possess very unique specific characteristics in fish. The cross-reactivity of heterologous IFNs on grouper cells and larvae has not been well-studied to date. To evaluate and compare the anti-NNV effect of different fish IFNs in grouper, we successfully synthesized, subcloned, expressed and purified several fish type I IFNs in the present study: grouper (gIFN), salmon (sIFN), seabass (sbIFN) and tilapia (tpIFN). The gIFN and sIFN proteins up-regulated myxovirus resistance protein (Mx) gene expression in grouper kidney (GK) cells, but similar effects were not observed for sbIFN and tpIFN. Following co- and pre-treatment with the 4 types of IFNs with NNV infection in GK cells, sIFN exhibited the strongest antiviral ability to suppress NNV gene replication (especially at 24 h) and significantly reduced the cytopathic effect (CPE) at 72 h, followed by gIFN. Unsurprisingly, sbIFN and tpIFN had no significant effect on CPE but slightly suppressed NNV gene replication. The cytotoxicity of these four fish IFNs on GK cells was also examined for the first time. In the in vivo test, we confirmed that gIFN and sIFN had a significant protective effect against NNV when administered by intraperitoneal (IP) injection and the oral route in Malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus) larvae. This study compared the protective effects of IFNs from various fish species against NNV and demonstrated crosstalk between sIFN and grouper cells for the first time. These results provide information concerning the efficacy of fish IFNs for possible therapeutic applications. PMID:26691305

  13. 76 FR 5325 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... snapper-grouper fishery of October 14, 2005 (70 FR 60058; October 14, 2005), was almost five years old...Rulemaking Portal http://www.regulations.gov . Fax: Attn: Karla Gore 727-824-5308. Mail: Karla Gore,...

  14. 76 FR 59063 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 34892). This trip limit, specified in 50 CFR 622.44(c)(6), remains in effect until the... a valid commercial vessel permit for South Atlantic snapper-grouper having vermilion snapper...

  15. 76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY... Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral,...

  16. Differential expression analysis of nuclear oligomerization domain proteins NOD1 and NOD2 in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Hou, Qing-Hua; Yi, Shi-Bai; Ding, Xu; Zhang, Hui-Xian; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiao-Chun; Lu, Dan-Qi; Lin, Hao-Ran

    2012-11-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins-1 and -2 (NOD1 and NOD2) are members of the NOD-like receptors (NLRs) family. They are both cytoplasmic receptors, and sense microbial infections/danger molecules to induce host innate immune response. In this study, the full-length ORF sequences of NOD1 and NOD2 were cloned, and the putative amino acid sequences were identified in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The complete open reading frame (ORF) of grouper NOD1 contained 2823 bp encoding a 940 amino acid protein. Grouper NOD2 cDNA contained a 2967 bp ORF, encoding a protein of 988 amino acid residues. Both grouper NOD1 and NOD2 had similar domains to human and fish counterparts. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that grouper NOD1 clustered with grass carp, zebrafish and channel catfish, while NOD2 was most closely related to fugu. Expression patterns of grouper NOD1 and NOD2 were next studied. NOD1 had the highest level of expression in skin while NOD2 in trunk kidney. Post Vibrio alginolyticus (strain EcGS020401), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PolyI:C challenges, gene expression of grouper NOD1 and NOD2 was stimulated to different extents. NOD1 showed a significant enhancement after LPS stimulation, but NOD2 increased more significantly after PolyI:C invasion, indicating that NOD1 and NOD2 may exert different effects on the eradication of bacteria and virus. The adaptor protein RIP-like-interacting CLARP kinase (RICK) and downstream molecule interleukin-8 (IL-8) were also induced at different levels after stimulation, which indicated that NOD1 and NOD2 signal transduction was involved in grouper innate immune protection against bacterial and viral infections. PMID:22982325

  17. Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay for Monitoring of Nervous Necrosis Virus Infection in Grouper Aquaculture▿†

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Wang, Ting-Yu; Chen, Peng-Peng; Chen, Young-Mao; Chuang, Hui-Ching; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2011-01-01

    Viral nervous necrosis caused by nervous necrosis virus (NNV) exacts a high mortality and results in huge economic losses in grouper aquaculture in Taiwan. The present study developed a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for NNV monitoring. The assay showed a strong linear correlation (r2 = 0.99) between threshold cycle (CT) and RNA quantities, which allowed identification of infected groupers by the CT value and could be exploited to warn of NNV infection prior to an outbreak in grouper fish farms. Real-time qPCR also confirmed the copious content of NNV in grouper fin, similar to that in primary tissues; the result was verified by using in situ reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). This indicated that grouper fin was a suitable sample for NNV detection, in a manner that could be relatively benign to the fish. The rapid spread of NNV infection to the entire population of affected farms was evident. The developed real-time qPCR method is rapid, highly sensitive, and applicable to routine high-throughput detection of large numbers of samples and has potential as a suitable tool for diagnostic, epidemiological, and genetic studies of grouper aquaculture. PMID:21233077

  18. Stimulatory effects of chitinase on growth and immune defense of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhong; Feng, Shaozhen; Chen, Jun; Qin, Chaobin; Lin, Haoran; Li, Wensheng

    2012-05-01

    Chitinase, belonging to either family 18 or family 19 of the glycosylhydrolases, hydrolyze chitin into oligosaccharides. In the present study, the cDNA fragment encoding orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) chitinase1 was subcloned into pPIC3.5K vector and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The results showed that a band with the size of about 53 kDa could be detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The recombinant protein of grouper chitinase1 (rgChi1) was added into the fish diet containing shrimp shell chitin for feeding experiment lasting 8 weeks. The weight of orange-spotted grouper, fed with diets containing rgChi1 at 0, 5, 10 and 20 μg/g was calculated on the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks, and difference in growth rates was first observed in the 6th week of the feeding period and it kept until the end of the feeding experiment. At the end of 8 weeks feeding trial, the percent weight gain (PWG), growth rate (GR) and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish fed with 10 and 20 μg rgChi1/g feed were significantly higher compared to the control group. The neuropeptide Y (NPY), growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), growth-hormone (GH), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (Cu/Zn) and SOD (Mn) mRNA expression of fish fed with diet containing 10 μg/g or/and 20 μg/g rgChi1 were obviously higher than the control group. The lysozyme (LZM) and total SOD activity of fish fed with diet containing rgChi1 at 10 and 20 μg/g were significantly higher than that of the control. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT) activity in 20 μg/g group decreased compared to the control group. These results indicated that the grouper chitinase1 was successfully produced using the P. pastoris expression system and the recombinant protein had obvious effects on growth and immune defense. The mRNA expression and protein secretion of grouper chitinase1 and chitinase2 were significantly stimulated in

  19. Negative regulation of the antiviral response by grouper LGP2 against fish viruses.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yepin; Huang, Youhua; Yang, Ying; Wang, Shaowen; Yang, Min; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-09-01

    Laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2), a member of RIG-I like receptor (RLR) family, plays crucial roles in modulating cellular antiviral response during viral infection. However, the detailed roles of LGP2 in different virus infection were controversial up to now. Here, we cloned a LGP2 gene from orange-spotted grouper (EcLGP2) and investigated its roles in response to grouper virus infection. EcLGP2 encoded a 678-aa protein which shared 83% identity to sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicas). Amino acid alignment showed that EcLGP2 contained three conserved domains, including a DEAD/DEAH box helicase domain, a helicase superfamily C-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain of RIG-I. In healthy grouper, the transcript of EcLGP2 could be predominantly detected in kidney, gill, fin, spleen and skin. Subcellular localization analysis showed that EcLGP2 distributed throughout the cytoplasm in grouper cells. Notably, the intracellular distribution of EcLGP2 was altered at the late stage of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) infection, but remained unchanged during red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection. Moreover, overexpression of EcLGP2 in vitro significantly enhanced the viral replication of SGIV and RGNNV, evidenced by the acceleration of CPE occurrence and the up-regulation of the viral gene transcription or protein synthesis. Further studies indicated that overexpression of EcLGP2 decreased the expression level of interferon related molecules or effectors, including IRF3, IRF7, ISG15, IFP35, MXI, MXII, and MDA5, suggesting that the negative feedback of interferon immune response by EcLGP2 might contribute to the enhancement of RGNNV infection. Moreover, the expression levels of pro-inflammation cytokines, including IL-8 and TNFα were significantly decreased, but that of IL-6 was increased by the ectopic expression of EcLGP2. Thus, our results will contribute greatly to understanding the roles of fish LGP2 in innate immune response during

  20. Estimating natural mortality rates and simulating fishing scenarios for Gulf of Mexico red grouper (Epinephelus morio) using the ecosystem model OSMOSE-WFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüss, Arnaud; Schirripa, Michael J.; Chagaris, David; Velez, Laure; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Verley, Philippe; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Ainsworth, Cameron H.

    2016-02-01

    The ecosystem model OSMOSE-WFS was employed to evaluate natural mortality rates and fishing scenarios for Gulf of Mexico (GOM) red grouper (Epinephelus morio). OSMOSE-WFS represents major high trophic level (HTL) groups of species of the West Florida Shelf, is forced by the biomass of plankton and benthos groups, and has a monthly time step. The present application of the model uses a recently developed 'stochastic mortality algorithm' to resolve the mortality processes of HTL groups. OSMOSE-WFS predictions suggest that the natural mortality rate of juveniles of GOM red grouper is high and essentially due to predation, while the bulk of the natural mortality of adult red grouper results from causes not represented in OSMOSE-WFS such as, presumably, red tides. These results were communicated to GOM red grouper stock assessments. Moreover, OSMOSE-WFS indicate that altering the fishing mortality of GOM red grouper may have no global impact on the biomass of the major prey of red grouper, due to the high complexity and high redundancy of the modeled system. By contrast, altering the fishing mortality of GOM red grouper may have a large impact on the biomass of its major competitors. Increasing the fishing mortality of red grouper would increase the biomass of major competitors, due to reduced competition for food. Conversely, decreasing the fishing mortality of red grouper would diminish the biomass of major competitors, due to increased predation pressure on the juveniles of the major competitors by red grouper. The fishing scenarios that we evaluated may have slightly different impacts in the real world, due to some discrepancies between the diets of red grouper and its major competitors predicted by OSMOSE-WFS and the observed ones. Modifications in OSMOSE-WFS are suggested to reduce these discrepancies.

  1. Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-11-01

    To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures restricting fish trade and fish size preference of the consumers. P-CTX levels in flesh and size dependency of toxicity indicate that the risk of ciguatera after eating E. fuscoguttatus varies with its geographical origin. For a large-sized grouper, it is necessary to establish legal size limits and control measures to protect public health and prevent overfishing. More risk assessment studies are required for E. fuscoguttatus to determine the size threshold above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26324735

  2. Distinct functions of neuromedin u and neuromedin s in orange-spotted grouper.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuisheng; Xiao, Ling; Liu, Qiongyu; Zheng, Binbin; Chen, Huapu; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2015-10-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) and neuromedin S (NMS) play inhibitory roles in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals. However, their functions are not clearly established in teleost fish. In the present study, nmu and nms homologs were identified in several fish species. Subsequently, their cDNA sequences were cloned from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Sequence analysis showed that the orange-spotted grouper Nmu proprotein contains a 21-amino acid mature Nmu peptide (Nmu-21). The Nms proprotein lost the typical mature Nms peptide, but it retains a putative 34-amino acid peptide (Nmsrp). In situ hybridization revealed that nmu- and nms-expressing cells are mainly localized in the hypothalamic regions associated with appetite regulation. Food deprivation decreased the hypothalamic nmu mRNA levels but induced an increase of nms mRNA levels. Periprandial expression analysis showed that hypothalamic expression of nmu increased significantly at 3 h post-feeding, while nms expression was elevated at the normal feeding time. I.p. injection of synthetic Nmu-21 peptide suppressed the hypothalamic neuropeptide y (npy) expression, while Nmsrp administration significantly increased the expression of npy and orexin in orange-spotted grouper. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of LH beta subunit (lhβ) and gh in the pituitary were significantly down-regulated after Nmu-21 peptide administration, while Nmsrp was able to significantly stimulate the expression of FSH beta subunit (fshβ), prolactin (prl), and somatolaction (sl). Our results indicate that nmu and nms possess distinct neuroendocrine functions and pituitary functions in the orange spotted grouper. PMID:26162607

  3. Endogenous grouper and barramundi Mx proteins facilitated the clearance of betanodavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y-C; Tsai, P-Y; Chan, J-C; Chi, S-C

    2016-06-01

    This study confirmed that the infection of nervous necrosis virus (NNV), belonging to the betanodavirus, can induce the expression of endogenous Mx in grouper fin-3 (GF-3), grouper brain (cGB), and barramundi brain (cBB) cells, but not in grouper fin-1 (GF-1) cells. In a co-sedimentation assay, RdRp appeared in the mitochondrial pellet of GF-1 cells without endogenous Mx expression. However, in GF-3, cGB, and cBB cells, RdRp was detected in the nuclear pellet accompanied by endogenous Mx. By immunostaining, RdRp was found to colocalize with not only endogenous Mx but also lysosomes and monodansylcadaverine (MDC)-labeled autophagic vacuoles. In GF-1 cells, the RdRp level continuously increased during 24-72 h post infection (hpi). When endogenous Mx expressed during 24-72 hpi in virus-infected GF-3, cGB, and cBB cells, the RdRp level peaked at 24 hpi but decreased at 48-72 hpi. The degradation of RdRp could be suppressed by treatment with 3-methyladenine (3MA), NH4Cl, and Mx-specific siRNA respectively. After poly I:C transfection, the endogenous Mx level peaked at 3 days post transfection (dpt) and then spontaneously decreased at 5-7 dpt. The poly I:C-indued Mx also colocalized with MDC-labeled autophagic vacuoles at 3 dpt, and its degradation could be inhibited by 3MA or NH4Cl treatments. Therefore, the anti-NNV mechanism of endogenous grouper and barramundi Mx is suggested to sequester RdRp for degradation through autophagy and lysosomes. PMID:26820443

  4. Population Structure and Phylogeography in Nassau Grouper (Epinephelus striatus), a Mass-Aggregating Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Alexis M.; Semmens, Brice X.; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Nemeth, Richard S.; Heppell, Scott A.; Bush, Phillippe G.; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Claydon, John A. B.; Calosso, Marta C.; Sealey, Kathleen S.; Schärer, Michelle T.; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    To address patterns of genetic connectivity in a mass-aggregating marine fish, we analyzed genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). We expected Nassau grouper to exhibit genetic differentiation among its subpopulations due to its reproductive behavior and retentive oceanographic conditions experienced across the Caribbean basin. All samples were genotyped for two mitochondrial markers and 9 microsatellite loci, and a subset of samples were genotyped for 4,234 SNPs. We found evidence of genetic differentiation in a Caribbean-wide study of this mass-aggregating marine fish using mtDNA (FST = 0.206, p<0.001), microsatellites (FST = 0.002, p = 0.004) and SNPs (FST = 0.002, p = 0.014), and identified three potential barriers to larval dispersal. Genetically isolated regions identified in our work mirror those seen for other invertebrate and fish species in the Caribbean basin. Oceanographic regimes in the Caribbean may largely explain patterns of genetic differentiation among Nassau grouper subpopulations. Regional patterns observed warrant standardization of fisheries management and conservation initiatives among countries within genetically isolated regions. PMID:24830641

  5. Artificial Spawning Behavior and Development of Eggs, Larvae and Juveniles of the Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Youn; Cho, Jae Kwon; Son, Maeng Hyun; Kim, Kyong Min; Han, Kyeong Ho; Park, Jae Min

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine the egg development in red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaaraand the morphological development of its larvae and juveniles, and to obtain data for taxonomic research. This study was conducted in June 2013, and 50 male and female fish were used for the study. One hundred μg/kg of LHRHa was injected into the body of the fish for inducing spawning, and the fish were kept in a small-sized fish holder (2×2×2 m). Eggs were colorless transparent free pelagic eggs, 0.71–0.77 mm large (mean 0.74±0.02 mm, n=30), and had an oil globule. Hatching started within 27 h after fertilization. Pre-larvae that emerged just after hatching were 2.02–2.17 mm in total length (mean 2.10±0.11 mm), their mouth and anus were not opened yet, and the whole body was covered with a membrane fin. Post-larvae that emerged 15 days post hatching were 3.88–4.07 mm in total length (mean 3.98±0.13 mm), and had a ventral fin with two rays and a caudal fin with eight rays. Juveniles that were formed at 55 d post hatching, were 31.9–35.2 mm in total length (mean 33.6±2.33 mm), with red color deposited over the entire body, and black chromophores deposited in a spotted pattern. The number of fin rays, body color, and shape were the same as that in the adult fish. PMID:27294209

  6. Artificial Spawning Behavior and Development of Eggs, Larvae and Juveniles of the Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Youn; Cho, Jae Kwon; Son, Maeng Hyun; Kim, Kyong Min; Han, Kyeong Ho; Park, Jae Min

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine the egg development in red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaaraand the morphological development of its larvae and juveniles, and to obtain data for taxonomic research. This study was conducted in June 2013, and 50 male and female fish were used for the study. One hundred μg/kg of LHRHa was injected into the body of the fish for inducing spawning, and the fish were kept in a small-sized fish holder (2×2×2 m). Eggs were colorless transparent free pelagic eggs, 0.71-0.77 mm large (mean 0.74±0.02 mm, n=30), and had an oil globule. Hatching started within 27 h after fertilization. Pre-larvae that emerged just after hatching were 2.02-2.17 mm in total length (mean 2.10±0.11 mm), their mouth and anus were not opened yet, and the whole body was covered with a membrane fin. Post-larvae that emerged 15 days post hatching were 3.88-4.07 mm in total length (mean 3.98±0.13 mm), and had a ventral fin with two rays and a caudal fin with eight rays. Juveniles that were formed at 55 d post hatching, were 31.9-35.2 mm in total length (mean 33.6±2.33 mm), with red color deposited over the entire body, and black chromophores deposited in a spotted pattern. The number of fin rays, body color, and shape were the same as that in the adult fish. PMID:27294209

  7. Spatial distribution and conservation of speckled hind and warsaw grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Nicholas A; Karnauskas, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs) to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi) and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus) in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28-33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25-27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3-8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional 14-29% of speckled

  8. Spatial Distribution and Conservation of Speckled Hind and Warsaw Grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the Southeastern U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Nicholas A.; Karnauskas, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs) to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi) and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus) in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28–33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25–27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3–8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional 14–29% of

  9. Development of pedigree classification using microsatellite and mitochondrial markers for Giant grouper broodstock (Epinephelus lanceolatus) management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hsu, Hao-Hsuan; Chua, Chee Shin; Wang, Ting-Yu; Chen, Young-Mao; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2014-05-01

    Most giant groupers in the market are derived from inbred stock. Inbreeding can cause trait depression, compromising the animals' fitness and disease resistance, obligating farmers to apply increased amounts of drugs. In order to solve this problem, a pedigree classification method is needed. Here, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA were used as genetic markers to analyze the genetic relationships among giant grouper broodstocks. The 776-bp fragment of high polymorphic mitochondrial D-loop sequence was selected for measuring sibling relatedness. In a sample of 118 giant groupers, 42 haplotypes were categorized, with nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.00773 and haplotype diversity (HD) of 0.983. Furthermore, microsatellites were used for investigation of parentage. Six out of 33 microsatellite loci were selected as markers based on having a high number of alleles and compliance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Microsatellite profiles based on these loci provide high variability with low combined non-exclusion probability, permitting practical use in aquaculture. The method described here could be used to improve grouper broodstock management and lower the chances of inbreeding. This approach is expected to lead to production of higher quality groupers with higher disease resistance, thereby reducing the need for drug application. PMID:24796300

  10. Infection and pathology in Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), caused by exposure to Streptococcus agalactiae via different routes.

    PubMed

    Delamare-Deboutteville, J; Bowater, R; Condon, K; Reynolds, A; Fisk, A; Aviles, F; Barnes, A C

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, 96 wild Queensland groupers, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), have been found dead in NE Australia. In some cases, Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) was isolated. At present, a GBS isolate from a wild grouper case was employed in experimental challenge trials in hatchery-reared Queensland grouper by different routes of exposure. Injection resulted in rapid development of clinical signs including bilateral exophthalmia, hyperaemic skin or fins and abnormal swimming. Death occurred in, and GBS was re-isolated from, 98% fish injected and was detected by PCR in brain, head kidney and spleen from all fish, regardless of challenge dose. Challenge by immersion resulted in lower morbidity with a clear dose response. Whilst infection was established via oral challenge by admixture with feed, no mortality occurred. Histology showed pathology consistent with GBS infection in organs examined from all injected fish, from fish challenged with medium and high doses by immersion, and from high-dose oral challenge. These experimental challenges demonstrated that GBS isolated from wild Queensland grouper reproduced disease in experimentally challenged fish and resulted in pathology that was consistent with that seen in wild Queensland grouper infected with S. agalactiae. PMID:25117665

  11. Characterization, expression, and functional study of IRAK-1 from grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Wei; Zhao, Fei; Mo, Ze-Quan; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Li, An-Xing; Dan, Xue-Ming

    2016-09-01

    As crucial components of the toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor (IL-1R) signaling pathways, interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase (IRAK) family members play essential roles in an animal's immune response. In this study, an IRAK family member, designated EcIRAK-1, was identified in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides, and its role in signal transduction investigated. The full-length EcIRAK-1 gene is 2822 bp, encoding a 760-amino-acid protein that has the typical characteristics of mammalian IRAK-1, including an N-terminal death domain, a ProST domain, a central kinase domain, and C-terminal C1 and C2 domains. EcIRAK-1 shares 42%-79% sequence identity with other fish IRAK-1 proteins, and the death and kinase domains are more conserved than the other domains. Several important amino acids and motifs of mammalian IRAK-1 are also conserved in the grouper and other piscine IRAK-1s. In healthy grouper, EcIRAK-1 was broadly expressed in all the tissues tested, with the highest expression in the gill and skin. After infection with Cryptocaryon irritans, EcIRAK-1 expression increased in the gill and spleen. After its exogenous expression in HEK293T cells, EcIRAK-1 significantly activated nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB). The death domain, ProST domain, and some conserved amino acids, such as T58, T207, K237, and T387, in EcIRAK-1 are required for its signaling function. These data demonstrate that piscine IRAK-1 has the same structural characteristics as its mammalian counterpart and that its function is conserved among vertebrates. PMID:27346155

  12. [Aromatase inhibitor letrozole induces sex inversion in the protogynous red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara).].

    PubMed

    Li, Guang-Li; Liu, Xiao-Chun; Lin, Hao-Ran

    2005-08-25

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole on gonadal development, serum steroids and aromatase activities in 2-year-old female red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) during reproductive season. Groupers were divided into two groups, one implanted with aromatase inhibitor (AI, 5 mg/kg body weight) and the other elastomer without AI into peritoneal cavity once every four weeks for 8 weeks. Spermiation was checked through gentle abdominal pressure every 2 weeks. Blood samples were obtained from 6 fish of each group every 4 weeks for later analysis of sex steroids. After blood samples were collected, forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, and gonads were collected and stored at -70 degrees C for later aromatase activity measurement and gonadal histological study. Significantly lower gondadosomatic index (GSI) was observed in AI-implanted group. Fish implanted with AI once showed complete degradation of oocytes and sex inversion with developing testicular tissues in the 4th week. AI induced females to develop into functional males with authentic males testes similar in structure to those in normal males. Spermiating rate of AI-treated males were 14.3%, 35.3%, and 48.4%in the 4th, 6th, and 8th week, respectively, while all fish in the control group were still female with developing ovaries. Aromatase activities in gonads decreased significantly after implantation with aromatase inhibitor, but showed no significant difference between control and AI-implanted group. No difference in serum testosterone (T) levels was observed in control and AI-treated group, while serum levels of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) decreased but 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) concentration increased significantly. The present results suggest that the decrease in serum 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) and increase in 11-KT levels may be important for sex inversion induced by aromatase inhibitor in red spotted grouper. PMID:16094495

  13. Development of novel tetra- and trinucleotide microsatellite markers for giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus using 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keun-Sik; Noh, Choong Hwan; Moon, Shin-Joo; Han, Seung-Hee; Bang, In-Chul

    2016-06-01

    Giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is a commercially important species, but its wild population has recently been classified as vulnerable. This species has significant potential for use in aquaculture, though a greater understanding of population genetics is necessary for selective breeding programs to minimize kinship for genetically healthy individuals. High-throughput pyrosequencing of genomic DNA was used to identify and characterize novel tetra- and trinucleotide microsatellite markers in giant grouper from Sabah, Malaysia. In total, of 62,763 sequences containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were obtained, and 78 SSR loci were selected to possibly contain tetra- and trinucleotide repeats. Of these loci, 16 had tetra- and 8 had trinucleotide repeats, all of which exhibited polymorphisms within easily genotyped regions. A total of 143 alleles were identified with an average of 5.94 alleles per locus, with mean observed and expected heterozygosities of 0.648 and 0.620, respectively. Among of them, 15 microsatellite markers were identified without null alleles and with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These alleles showed a combined non-exclusion probability of 0.01138. The probability of individual identification (PID) value combined with in descending order 12 microsatellite markers was 0.00008, which strongly suggests that the use of the microsatellite markers developed in this study in various combinations would result in a high resolution method for parentage analysis and individual identification. These markers could be used to establish a broodstock management program for giant grouper and to provide a foundation for genetic studies such as population structure, parentage analysis, and kinship selection. PMID:27059503

  14. JNK1 Derived from Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides, Involving in the Evasion and Infection of Singapore Grouper Iridovirus (SGIV)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Huang, Xiaohong; Zhou, Yongcan; Yan, Yang; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-01-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) regulates cellular responses to various extracellular stimuli, environmental stresses, pathogen infections, and apoptotic agents. Here, a JNK1, Ec-JNK1, was identified from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Ec-JNK1 has been found involving in the immune response to pathogen challenges in vivo, and the infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and SGIV-induced apoptosis in vitro. SGIV infection activated Ec-JNK1, of which phosphorylation of motif TPY is crucial for its activity. Over-expressing Ec-JNK1 phosphorylated transcription factors c-Jun and promoted the infection and replication of SGIV, while partial inhibition of the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 showed the opposite effects by over-expressing the dominant-negative EcJNK1-Δ183-185 mutant. Interestingly, SGIV enhanced the viral infectivity by activating Ec-JNK1 which in turn drastically inhibited the antiviral responses of type 1 IFN, indicating that Ec-JNK1 could be involved in blocking IFN signaling during SGIV infection. In addition, Ec-JNK1 enhanced the activation of AP-1, p53, and NF-κB, and resulted in increasing the levels of SGIV-induced cell death. The caspase 3-dependent activation correlated with the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 and contributed to SGIV-induced apoptosis. Taken together, SGIV modulated the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 to inactivate the antiviral signaling, enhance the SGIV-induced apoptosis and activate transcription factors for efficient infection and replication. The “positive cooperativity” molecular mechanism mediated by Ec-JNK1 contributes to the successful evasion and infection of iridovirus pathogenesis. PMID:26903999

  15. Grouper TRIM13 exerts negative regulation of antiviral immune response against nodavirus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Youhua; Yang, Min; Yu, Yepin; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Linli; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-08-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM)-containing proteins have attracted particular attention to their multiple functions in different biological processes. TRIM13, a member of the TRIM family, is a RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase which plays critical roles in diverse cellular processes including cell death, cancer and antiviral immunity. In this study, a TRIM13 homolog from orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides (EcTRIM13) was cloned and characterized. The full-length of EcTRIM13 cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 399 amino acids which shared 81% identity with TRIM13 homolog from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Amino acid alignment analysis showed that EcTRIM13 contained conserved RING finger and B-box domain. Expression patterns analysis indicated that EcTRIM13 was abundant in liver, spleen, kidney, intestine and gill. Moreover, the transcript of EcTRIM13 in grouper spleen was differently regulated after injection with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) or polyinosin-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Under fluorescence microscopy, we observed the tubular structure in wild type EcTRIM13 transfected cells, but the RING domain mutant resulted in the fluorescence distribution was changed and the bright punctate fluorescence was evenly situated throughout the cytoplasm, suggesting that the RING domain was essential for its accurate localization. Overexpression of EcTRIM13 in vitro obviously increased the replication of red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), and the enhancing effect of EcTRIM13 on virus replication was affected by the RING domain. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of EcTRIM13 not only negatively regulated the interferon promoter activity induced by interferon regulator factor (IRF) 3, IRF7, and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), but also decreased the expression of several interferon related factors. In addition, the overexpression of EcTRIM13 also differently regulated the transcription of pro

  16. 75 FR 82280 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... of Amendment 17B and requested public comment (75 FR 57734). On October 10, 2010, NMFS published a proposed rule for Amendment 17B and requested public comment (75 FR 62488). NMFS approved Amendment 17B on... may be warranted'' (75 FR 59690, September 28, 2010). This means that warsaw grouper was...

  17. 78 FR 72867 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ..., queen snapper, and silk snapper) beyond a depth of 240 ft (73 m) (75 FR 82280, December 30, 2010...) harvest prohibition on six deep-water snapper-grouper species (77 FR 27374, May 10, 2012) and concluded... prohibited (74 FR 1621, January 13, 2009). The intent of the eight MPAs is to protect long-lived, deep-...

  18. 78 FR 31511 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... unnecessary adverse socioeconomic impacts on snapper-grouper fishermen (77 FR 66744). The temporary rule was effective through May 6, 2013, and was extended through November 28, 2013 (78 FR 25213, April 30, 2013... overfishing of gag (74 FR 30964, June 29, 2009). These measures included reducing the aggregate bag limit...

  19. 75 FR 59690 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Notice of 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Warsaw Grouper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ...' extinction risk. For example, our 2007 status review for the Atlantic white marlin (73 FR 843, January 4... list on April 15, 2004 (69 FR 19975). Warsaw grouper had previously been included on our ESA candidate species list since 1999 (64 FR 33466, June 23, 1999). A species of concern is one about which we have...

  20. 78 FR 76285 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Regulatory Amendment 17 was published in the Federal Register on December 4, 2013 (78 FR 72867) and requested... Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery in the South Atlantic Region (74 FR 1621, January 13, 2009) and... Panel to consider additional scientific information, such as the predicted effectiveness of the...

  1. 77 FR 56563 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Reopening of the 2012 Commercial Sector for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... (77 FR 15916). In part, the final rule for the Comprehensive ACL Amendment specified ACLs and AMs for..., 2012, and closed the commercial sector for yellowtail snapper on that date (77 FR 53776, September 4... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XC229 Snapper-Grouper Fishery...

  2. 78 FR 50394 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... supplemental NOI to Amendment 22, published at 78 FR 46923, August 2, 2013, should be submitted on or before...Marie.Eich@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2013-18676, appearing on page 46924, in the..., and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the South Atlantic States; Amendment 22;...

  3. 76 FR 12883 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-AY10 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States;...

  4. 77 FR 1908 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... Amendment (Comprehensive ACL Amendment) published on December 1, 2011 (76 FR 74757), and would implement an... Comprehensive ACL Amendment on December 30, 2011 (76 FR 82264) to implement the revised wreckfish ABC and ACL of..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States;...

  5. 76 FR 9530 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... final rule to implement ] Amendment 17A was published in the Federal Register on December 9, 2010 (75 FR... delay the effective date of the snapper-grouper area closure was published on December 9, 2010 (75 FR... correction to the emergency rule was published on December 20, 2010, to correct a previous error (75 FR...

  6. 76 FR 23728 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... (76 FR 9530). The proposed rule and Regulatory Amendment 10 explained the rationale for the action..., 2010 (75 FR 76874). The final rule to implement Amendment 17A included an area closure for South... snapper-grouper area closure was published on December 9, 2010 (75 FR 76890). The emergency rule...

  7. 77 FR 74119 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... implemented if these ACLs are projected to be reached, reached, or exceeded (75 FR 82280, December 30, 2010... necessary to prevent overfishing of the South Atlantic snowy grouper resource. DATES: This rule is effective... implemented new requirements that ACLs and AMs be established to end overfishing and prevent overfishing...

  8. 75 FR 57734 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Standard 1 Guidelines, published on January 16, 2009 (74 FR 3178), provide guidance for establishing ACLs...-grouper species, eight of which are undergoing overfishing; specify recreational and commercial... procedure. The actions contained in Amendment 17B are intended to address overfishing of eight...

  9. 75 FR 44753 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ...The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) has submitted Amendment 17A to the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP) for review, approval, and implementation by NMFS. The amendment proposes to establish a rebuilding plan for red snapper, specify a proxy for the fishing mortality rate that will produce the maximum sustainable......

  10. 75 FR 5950 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper and Grouper Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT84 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico... authorization. Additionally, NMFS will prohibit the possession of Nassau or goliath grouper, and require any sea... sea turtle handling training through NMFS, and are considered NMFS-designated agents while...

  11. 78 FR 59635 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... FMP). The final rule for the Generic ACL Amendment became effective on January 30, 2012 (76 FR 82044... Secretary did in a Notice of Agency Action published on December 16, 2011 (76 FR 78245). Therefore, in the... for Snapper-Grouper Species The final rule to implement Amendment 16 to the FMP (Amendment 16)(74...

  12. Sound production by dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus at spawning aggregation sites.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, F; Lejeune, P; Payrot, J; Parmentier, E

    2015-08-01

    Sound production by the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus was monitored both in captivity and at two Mediterranean spawning sites during the summers of 2012 and 2013. The results of long-term passive acoustic recordings provide for the first time a description of the sounds produced by E. marginatus. Two types of sounds were mainly recorded and consisted of low-frequency booms that can be produced singly or in series with dominant frequencies below 100 Hz. Recordings in captivity validated these sounds as belonging to E. marginatus and suggested that they may be associated with reproductive displays usually performed during early stages of courtship behaviour. This study also allowed the identification of a third, low-frequency growl-like type of sound typically found in other grouper species. These growls were, however, not recorded in tanks and it is cautiously proposed that they are produced by E. marginatus. Acoustic signals attributed to E. marginatus were produced throughout the spawning season, with a diel pattern showing an increase before dusk, i.e., from 1900 to 2200 hours, before decreasing until the morning. The occurrence of sounds during the spawning season of this species suggests that they are probably involved in social activity occurring close to aggregation sites. Passive acoustics offer a helpful tool to monitor aggregation sites of this emblematic species in order to improve conservation efforts. PMID:26177857

  13. Grouper tshβ Promoter-Driven Transgenic Zebrafish Marks Proximal Kidney Tubule Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Sun, Zhi-Hui; Zhou, Li; Li, Zhi; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Kidney tubule plays a critical role in recovering or secreting solutes, but the detailed morphogenesis remains unclear. Our previous studies have found that grouper tshβ (gtshβ) is also expressed in kidney, however, the distribution significance is still unknown. To understand the gtshβ role and kidney tubule morphogenesis, here, we have generated a transgenic zebrafish line Tg(gtshβ:GFP) with green fluorescent protein driven by the gtshβ promoter. Similar to the endogenous tshβ in zebrafish or in grouper, the gtshβ promoter-driven GFP is expressed in pituitary and kidney, and the developing details of proximal kidney tubule are marked in the transgenic zebrafish line. The gfp initially transcribes at 16 hours post fertilization (hpf) above the dorsal mesentery, and partially co-localizes with pronephric tubular markers slc20a1a and cdh17. Significantly, the GFP specifically localizes in proximal pronephric segments during embryogenesis and resides at kidney duct epithelium in adult fish. To test whether the gtshβ promoter-driven GFP may serve as a readout signal of the tubular development, we have treated the embryos with retinoic acid signaing (RA) reagents, in which exogenous RA addition results in a distal extension of the proximal segments, while RA inhibition induces a weakness and shortness of the proximal segments. Therefore, this transgenic line provides a useful tool for genetic or chemical analysis of kidney tubule. PMID:24905828

  14. Characterization of the VP39 envelope protein from Singapore grouper iridovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honglian; Zhou, Sheng; Xia, Liqun; Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Cao, Jianhao; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-12-01

    Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is a major pathogen that causes heavy economic losses to the grouper aquaculture industry in China and Southeast Asian countries. In the present study, a viral envelope protein, VP39, encoded by SGIV ORF39L, was identified and characterized. SGIV ORF39L was found in all sequenced iridoviruses and is now considered to be a core gene of the family Iridoviridae. ORF39L was classified as a late gene during in vitro infection using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and a drug inhibition analysis. An indirect immunofluorescence assay revealed that the VP39 protein was confined to the cytoplasm, especially at viral assembly sites. Western blot and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry analyses suggested that VP39 is an envelope protein. Immunogold electron microscopy further confirmed that VP39 is a viral envelope protein. Furthermore, a mouse anti-VP39 polyclonal antibody exhibited SGIV-neutralizing activity in vitro, suggesting that VP39 is involved in SGIV infection. Taken together, the current data suggest that VP39 represents a conserved envelope protein of iridoviruses that contributes to viral infection. PMID:26524136

  15. Binding kinetics of grouper nervous necrosis viruses with functionalized antimicrobial peptides by nanomechanical detection.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Shu; Chi, Shau-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Jen; Chia, Ta-Jui; Huang, Long-Sun

    2012-01-15

    We report the binding kinetics of fish-infected grouper nervous necrosis viruses (NNV) and selected antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) by nanomechanical detection. AMPs, the vital member in an innate immunity, are promising candidates in the fight against pathogens due to their broad range of antimicrobial activity and low toxicity. Grouper NNV primarily cause mass mortality of many marine cultured fish species, and two selected AMPs in this study were found to inhibit viruses by agglutinating its virions to form aggregates. The binding activity of NNVs with functionalized AMPs onto a sensing microcantilever yielded induced surface stresses, indicating high binding strength of molecular interaction. The binding affinity and kinetic rate constants of molecular recognition events calculated for NNV-AMP(TH1-5) compared to NNV-AMP(cSALF) were found to be 2.1-fold and 4.43-fold, respectively, indicating TH1-5 effectively bind with NNV more than cSALF. Moreover, a microscopic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique was employed for further validation of pre- and post-NNV binding onto peptides-functionalized sensing surface. An increase in the spectrum and intensity of the P 2p and N 1s elements for the post-NNV binding was clearly shown to ensure the existence of phosphate groups and nitrogen-containing ring structures of specific NNV-TH1-5 interaction. Therefore, the microcantilever biosensing technique provides a potential and useful screening of AMPs for affinity to NNVs. PMID:22035974

  16. Early Gonadal Differentiation of the Protogynous Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Woo Sik; Baek, Hea Ja; Kwon, Joon Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara is a popular aquaculture species in many Asian countries. This species is a protogynous hermaphrodite that first differentiates into female and changes to male later. Due to this reproductive characteristic, stable supply of male and female gametes is a key to the success of seed production in this species. Thus, understanding early gonadal differentiation is required to develop effective sex control techniques. Red spotted grouper were reared in indoor tanks and sampled every 5 days from 40 days post-hatch (DPH) to 130 DPH. Changes of gonadal tissues were examined and analyzed by means of histology. A pair of gonadal primordium has already existed underneath the kidney in the posterior part of the body cavity at 38 DPH when this study began. Gonadal primordia of 38, 40 DPH consisted of germ cells surrounded by a few somatic cells. The blood vessel was observed in the gonadal primordium at 45 DPH. The number of somatic cells and size of gonadal primordium increased age-dependently up to 60 DPH. Formation of ovarian cavity was obvious by two protuberant aggregations of somatic cells at 65 DPH. Completed ovarian cavity and oogonia were first observed in the gonad of one fish sample at 105 DPH. Based on these histological observations, it can be suggested that induction of primary male differentiation could be more successfully applied at around 60 DPH in this species. PMID:26973972

  17. Mercury and histopathology of the vulnerable goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, in U.S. waters: a multi-tissue approach.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas H; Sonne, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Goliath grouper have undergone significant global population declines with potential biological extinction for some subpopulations. Although overfishing and habitat loss are important drivers of these declines, the negative effects of contaminants may also play a role. The life history patterns of goliath grouper may make this species especially prone to exposure to contaminants and may exacerbate bioaccumulation of toxic substances, including mercury, which has documented detrimental health effects. Therefore, we analyzed mercury (in muscle, liver, kidney, gonad, and brain tissue) and the histology of key organs (liver, kidney and gill tissue) in 56 goliath groupers from U.S. waters. Total mercury concentration was greatest in liver tissue, followed by kidney, muscle, gonad, and brain. Maximum mercury concentration ranged from 22.68 μg/g in liver tissue to 0.89 μg/g in brain tissue. Mean mercury concentration ranged from 2.87 μg/g in liver tissue to 0.37 μg/g in brain tissue with a mean of 0.63 μg/g in muscle. Mean mercury concentrations observed in goliath grouper from U.S. waters were within the range known to cause direct health effects in fish after long-term exposure. The lesions and histological changes observed in the liver, kidney, and gills of goliath groupers were similar to those found in other fish following laboratory mercury-exposure trials and to those found in mercury-contaminated fish in wild populations carrying similar or even lower concentrations. We suggest that exposure to mercury and other environmental influences such as pathogens and reduced temperatures could be co-factors in the histological effects or anomalies observed in the present study, and resulting stresses may be involved in the observed population declines in the species. PMID:23830062

  18. Host introduction and parasites: a case study on the parasite community of the peacock grouper Cephalopholis argus (Serranidae) in the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Vignon, Matthias; Sasal, Pierre; Galzin, René

    2009-03-01

    The peacock grouper (Cephalopholis argus) was intentionally introduced to the Hawaiian coastal waters 50 years ago to enhance the local fisheries. Following introduction, this species spread rapidly and became extremely abundant. A comparison of the metazoan parasite community of C. argus was performed between its native range (Moorea Island, French Polynesia) and its introduced range (Oahu and Big Island, Hawaii). Polynesian groupers were infected with a highly diversified parasite community whereas Hawaiian groupers exhibited a depauperate ensemble of parasite species, C. argus having lost most of the parasites common in their native range. Interestingly, the grouper has not acquired new parasites present in Hawaiian waters. This study provides the first field evidence of significant parasite release in a wild but previously introduced fish in coral reefs and is discussed in relation to the Enemy-Release Hypothesis which has never been assessed in those ecosystems. PMID:19002714

  19. Dietary supplementation of Pediococcus pentosaceus enhances innate immunity, physiological health and resistance to Vibrio anguillarum in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2014-08-01

    Groupers (Epinephelus spp.) are economically important fish species in Southeast Asian aquaculture. Vibriosis caused by Vibro spp. is one of the severe bacterial diseases that devastate the grouper aquaculture industry. Probiotics have been reported to show the potential to enhance fish immunity and to antagonize pathogens. In our previous study, a lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus pentosaceus strain 4012 (LAB4012), isolated from cobia intestine, protects cobia from photobacteriosis after a 2-week feeding. In this study, we examined the potential of LAB4012 to be a probiotic for the orange-spotted grouper through feeding, thus to guard against vibriosis. In vitro, LAB4012 culture supernatant with low pH suppressed the growth of Vibrio anguillarum, and lactic acid in the metabolite of LAB4012 appeared to be the major factor to the growth inhibition of V. anguillarum. In vivo, the challenge test showed that the cumulative mortality of the LAB4012-fed groupers was significantly lower than that of the control fish after V. anguillarum infection. Supplementation of LAB4012 in commercial diet not only enhanced the growth rate and erythrocyte numbers of the groupers, but also regulated the gene expression of the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines. One day post-infection of V. anguillarum, the leukocyte numbers in the peripheral blood and the phagocytic activity of the head-kidney phagocytes in the LAB4012-fed groupers were found significantly increased, when compared with those without LAB4012-feeding. These results suggested that LAB4012 can be a dietary probiotic for groupers in modulating the immunity and protecting the groupers from V. anguillarum infection. PMID:24845519

  20. Evidence for spawning aggregations of the endangered Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bueno, L S; Bertoncini, A A; Koenig, C C; Coleman, F C; Freitas, M O; Leite, J R; De Souza, T F; Hostim-Silva, M

    2016-07-01

    In this study, seasonal numerical abundance of the critically endangered Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara was estimated by conducting scuba dive surveys and calculating sightings-per-unit-effort (SPUE) at three sites in southern Brazil. Seasonal differences in size and reproductive condition of captured or confiscated specimens were compared. The SPUE differed significantly with season, increasing in late spring and peaking during the austral summer months. A significant effect was observed in the number of fish relative to the lunar cycle. All females sampled during the summer were spawning capable, while all those sampled during other seasons were either regressing or regenerating. What these data strongly infer is that the E. itajara spawning aggregation sites have been located in the southern state of Paraná and the northern state of Santa Catarina and summer is the most likely spawning season. Size frequency distributions, abundance and reproductive state were estimated and correlated with environmental variables. PMID:27264779

  1. Disease resistance and humoral immunomodulatory effects of vitamin C on grouper, Epinephelus awoara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qi-Wei; Wu, Zao-He; Pan, Jin-Pei

    2000-09-01

    The disease resistance and humoral immunomodulatory effects of vitamin C administered orally to grouper, Epinephelus awoara maintained on a frozen fish diet supplemented with vitamin C at 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg were investigated. After 20 weeks, the growth rates of the groups with high level of vitamin C apparently increased. The untreated fish had symptoms of vitamin C deficiency. The endogenous liver tissue vitamin C levels were found to reflect well the dietary treatments. After intraperitoneal injection or bath challenge with a virulent strain of Vibrio vulnificus, fish fed with high level vitamin C showed significantly higher survival rate compared with the normal control group. Vaccination with formalin inactivated V. vulnificus significantly enhanced the specific antibody production in fish treated with vitamin C, and completely protected from strong bacterial challenge the groups fed on fish with vitamin C 1500 and 2000 mg/kg diet.

  2. Korean mistletoe enriched diet enhances innate immune response in kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against Philasterides dicentrarchi.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-12-29

    The present study investigated the immunostimulatory effect of Korean mistletoe Viscum album extract (KM-E) on innate immune response in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus against Philasterides dicentrarchi. Kelp grouper were divided into four groups of 25 each and fed with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% enriched diets with Korean mistletoe extract (KM-E). After feeding for 30 days, the fish were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 100 μl of P. dicentrarchi (4.2 × 10(7)ciliates/ml) to study the immune responses at weeks 1, 2, and 4. The respiratory burst activity did not significantly enhance when fed with 0.5% and 1.0% supplementation diets on week 1 when compared to control diet. On weeks 2 and 4, the respiratory burst activity significantly increased with 1.0% and 2.0% diets. The phagocytic activity significantly enhanced with 1.0% and 2.0% diets, but not with 0.5% diet at any time. When fed with 1.0% KM-E-diet the lysozyme activity did not significantly vary at any week whereas with 1.0% and 2.0% diets it was significantly enhanced. The total protein level significantly increased with 1.0% and 2.0% KM-E-diets from weeks 1 to 4 as compared to control. The present study suggests that 1.0% or 2.0% KM-E-supplementation diet positively enhances the innate immune response in E. bruneus against P. dicentrarchi infection. PMID:21807463

  3. A Phylogenetic Re-Analysis of Groupers with Applications for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Schoelinck, Charlotte; Hinsinger, Damien D.; Dettaï, Agnès; Cruaud, Corinne; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2014-01-01

    Background Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a significant public health problem due to dinoflagellates. It is responsible for one of the highest reported incidence of seafood-borne illness and Groupers are commonly reported as a source of CFP due to their position in the food chain. With the role of recent climate change on harmful algal blooms, CFP cases might become more frequent and more geographically widespread. Since there is no appropriate treatment for CFP, the most efficient solution is to regulate fish consumption. Such a strategy can only work if the fish sold are correctly identified, and it has been repeatedly shown that misidentifications and species substitutions occur in fish markets. Methods We provide here both a DNA-barcoding reference for groupers, and a new phylogenetic reconstruction based on five genes and a comprehensive taxonomical sampling. We analyse the correlation between geographic range of species and their susceptibility to ciguatera accumulation, and the co-occurrence of ciguatoxins in closely related species, using both character mapping and statistical methods. Results Misidentifications were encountered in public databases, precluding accurate species identifications. Epinephelinae now includes only twelve genera (vs. 15 previously). Comparisons with the ciguatera incidences show that in some genera most species are ciguateric, but statistical tests display only a moderate correlation with the phylogeny. Atlantic species were rarely contaminated, with ciguatera occurrences being restricted to the South Pacific. Conclusions The recent changes in classification based on the reanalyses of the relationships within Epinephelidae have an impact on the interpretation of the ciguatera distribution in the genera. In this context and to improve the monitoring of fish trade and safety, we need to obtain extensive data on contamination at the species level. Accurate species identifications through DNA barcoding are thus an essential tool in

  4. Behavior, Color Change and Time for Sexual Inversion in the Protogynous Grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis)

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Richard J.; Khan, Izhar A.; Holt, G. Joan

    2011-01-01

    Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis) in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific “tuxedo” pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process. PMID:21647429

  5. Behavior, color change and time for sexual inversion in the protogynous grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis).

    PubMed

    Kline, Richard J; Khan, Izhar A; Holt, G Joan

    2011-01-01

    Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis) in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific "tuxedo" pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process. PMID:21647429

  6. Immunity to nervous necrosis virus infections of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) by vaccination with virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kebing; Zhu, Zhihuang; Ge, Hui; Zheng, Leyun; Huang, Zhongchi; Wu, Shuiqing

    2016-09-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is a kind of the betanodaviruses, which can cause viral nervous necrosis (VNN) and massive mortality in larval and juvenile stages of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Due to the lack of viral genomes, virus-like particles (VLPs) are considered as one of the most promising candidates in vaccine study to control this disease. In this study, a type of VLPs, which was engineered on the basis of orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV), was produced from prokaryotes. They possessed the similar structure and size to the native NNV. In addition, synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing CpG motif was added in vaccines, and the expression patterns of several genes were analyzed after injecting with VLP and VLP with adjuvant (VA) to assess the regulation effect of vaccine for inducing immune responses. RT-PCR assays showed that six related genes in healthy tissues were ubiquitously expressed in all nine tested tissues. The vaccine alone was able to enhance the expression of genes, including MHCIa, MyD88, TLR3, TLR9 and TLR22 after vaccination, indicating that the vaccine was able to induce immune response in grouper. In liver, spleen and kidney, the gene expressions of VA group were all significantly higher than that of VLP group at 72 h post-stimulation, showing that the fish of VA challenge group obtained the longer-lasting protective immunity and resistance to pathogen challenge than that of VLP group. The data indicated that the efficacy of vaccine could be further enhanced by CpG ODN after vaccination and provided the reference for the development of future viral vaccine in grouper. PMID:27394969

  7. Efficacy of a formalin-inactivated vaccine against Streptococcus iniae infection in the farmed grouper Epinephelus coioides by intraperitoneal immunization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsing-Yen; Chen, Yan-Chun; Wang, Pei-Chi; Tsai, Ming-An; Yeh, Shih-Chun; Liang, Hong-Jen; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2014-12-01

    Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing infectious diseases; however, few vaccines are effective against Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae) in grouper. This work presents an efficacious and safe vaccine against S. iniae infections in the grouper Epinephelus coioides. The vaccine candidate was the S. iniae GSI-310 strain. The vaccination was administered by intraperitoneal injection, and consisted of formalin-inactivated antigens combined with an AS-F or ISA763A adjuvant. Peripheral blood samples were collected for RT-qPCR and phagocytosis and agglutination assays. Our results indicated that immunoglobulin M (igm) was maximally expressed in the two vaccinated groups at 3 months post-secondary vaccination (PSV). A significant upregulation of mRNA expression for interleukin-1β (il-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (tnf-α) was also observed in fish treated with antigens combined with ISA763A, which peaked at 3 months PSV. In fish treated with antigens combined with AS-F, il-1β and tnf-α expression peaked at 14 days post-primary vaccination (PPV). Phagocytic activity and index increased significantly in the two vaccinated groups. Furthermore, fish in the two vaccinated groups exhibited significantly elevated agglutination titers compared to fish in the control group, in which almost no agglutination reaction was detected. In the efficacy test, the vaccinated and control groupers were treated with S. iniae at 1, 3, and 6 months PSV. The relative percentage survival (RPS) values of antigens with AS-F and antigens with ISA763A were both 100% at 1 and 3 months PSV; at 6 months PSV, the RPS values for these groups were 100% and 97.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the level of protection observed in the field trial closely resembled that achieved on a laboratory scale. Therefore, the proposed vaccine mixed with AS-F or ISA763A improved immune responses and provided safe and long-lasting protection in farmed groupers. PMID:25192808

  8. 77 FR 68071 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Reopening of the 2012 Commercial Sector for South...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ...NMFS reopens the 2012 commercial sector for red snapper, gag, and all other South Atlantic Shallow-Water Grouper (SASWG) in the South Atlantic exclusive economic zone (EEZ). NMFS previously determined the commercial annual catch limit (ACL) for red snapper would be reached by September 24, 2012, and closed the commercial sector for red snapper in the South Atlantic at 12:01 a.m., local time,......

  9. Microsatellite analysis of the genetic relationships between wild and cultivated giant grouper in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Xiang; Xie, ZhenZhen; Li, Yiqi; Xiao, Ling; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Haifa; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-06-01

    The giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is a coral fish with high commercial value in Southeast Asia. In the present study, we isolated 11 microsatellite DNA markers, and analysed the genetic diversity and differentiation between cultured stocks and wild populations of the giant grouper originating from the South China Sea. A total of 390 alleles at 11 microsatellite loci were detected in 130 individuals from five different populations. The expected heterozygosity varied from 0.131 to 0.855 with a mean value of 0.623 and the observed heterozygosity varied from 0.145 to 0.869 with a mean value of 0.379. The allelic richness and heterozygosity studies revealed that the genetic diversity of the cultured population was significantly reduced when compared with that of the wild population. The Fis, pairwise Fst values, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), threedimensional factorial correspondence analysis and structure analysis revealed significant population differentiation between the cultured stocks and the wild populations, among the three cultured populations and between the two wild populations. These differences may be caused by random genetic drift, the effects of artificial selection and founder effects. Our results will be useful in the management of cultured stocks and conservation of wild populations of the giant grouper. PMID:27350681

  10. The biofunction of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) CC chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4) in innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Jiou; Hou, Chia-Yi; Lin, Shih-Jie; Kuo, Wan-Ching; Lin, Han-Tso; Lin, John Han-You

    2013-12-01

    CC chemokine (motif) ligand 4 (CCL4) is indispensable to the chemoattraction of macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes in mammals; however, it has only been cloned in a limited number of fish species and information related to its biofunction remains ambiguous with regard to teleosts. To explore the role of teleost CCL4, we first evaluated the mRNA expression of the Epinephelus coioides CCL4 (gCCL4) gene in various organs under LPS and poly (I:C) stimulated; secondary, we evaluated the immune-related genes expression of fish under the recombinant gCCL4 protein stimulated. Our results revealed an increase in the mRNA of gCCL4 in immune organs immediately following stimulation by poly (I:C); however, in LPS stimulated fish, the expression did not increase until nearly 24 h after induction. In biofunction assays, recombinant gCCL4 was found to induce chemotactic activity in the peripheral blood leukocytes of groupers and up-regulate the gene expressions of grouper TNFA1 (TNF-α1), TNFA2 (TNF-α2), IFNG (IFN-γ), MX, TBX21 (T-bet), CD8 (α and β chain). These findings indicate that grouper CCL4 attracts leukocytes, induces an inflammatory response, and drives lymphocyte differentiation into the Th1 pathway. PMID:24120504

  11. Gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers Epinephelus spp. (Osteichthyes: Serranidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new and one specifically not identified gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine fishes of the genus Epinephelus Bloch (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: P. indica sp. nov. (male and females) from the honeycomb grouper E. merra Bloch, P. tropica sp. nov. (males and females) from the duskytail grouper E. bleekeri (Vaillant) and Philometra sp. (only females) from the cloudy grouper E. erythrurus (Valenciennes). Philometra indica is mainly characterized by the length of spicules 192-195 μm and the gubernaculum 84 μm, the distal tip of the gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance, and by the presence of five pairs of caudal papillae. Philometra tropica is mainly characterized by the spicules conspicuously ventrally distended at their posterior halves, the distal tip of the gubernaculum with a dorsal protuberance, and the presence of three pairs of caudal papillae. PMID:25236267

  12. Parasite fauna of wild and cultured dusky-grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Roumbedakis, K; Marchiori, N C; Paseto, Á; Gonçalves, E L T; Luque, J L; Cepeda, P B; Sanches, E G; Martins, M L

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed at identifying and quantifying the parasites of wild and cultured dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. During a year and thereby all four seasons, 20 wild and 20 cultured groupers were examined for the presence of parasites, except in the last season, in which 19 wild and 20 cultured fish were examined, totalling 159 groupers analysed from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance and mean relative dominance were calculated. Five species of parasites were identified in fish from both origins: Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Monogenea), Neobenedenia melleni (Monogenea), Pseudempleurosoma sp. (Monogenea), Helicometrina nimia (Digenea) and larvae of Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda). The prevalence of ectoparasites, in most cases, was higher than endoparasites. The most abundant parasite was the monogenea Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae in both wild and cultured fish, along all seasons. Neobenedenia melleni was observed in wild and cultured fish in all seasons, with a gradual increase in the number of parasites from the coldest to the hottest seasons, with the highest prevalence and mean intensity in the summer. Helicometrina nimia was found in all seasons in both wild and cultured fish, except for summer, where its presence was detected only in wild fish. Pseudempleurosoma sp. and larvae of Contracaecum sp. showed low prevalence occurring in wild and cultured fish in the autumn and spring, respectively. This study revealed high intensities of potentially pathogenic parasites that could favour disease outbreaks in culture conditions. PMID:24789405

  13. cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of a FTZ-F1 homologue from the pituitary of the orange-spotted grouper, epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weimin; Li, Xin; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Lihong; Tian, Jing; Ma, Guangzhi

    2004-08-01

    A FTZ-F1 homologue was cloned from the pituitary cDNA library of the orange-spotted grouper. The full-length cDNA of the orange-spotted grouper FTZ-F1 spanned 1735 bp including a poly (A) tail. The open reading frame encodes a protein of 468 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that it had a structure typical of the orphan nuclear receptor superfamily, and the FTZ-F1 box, a characteristic of the FTZ-F1 family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the orange-spotted grouper FTZ-F1 was closely related to medaka FTZ-F1 and did not belong to either the SF-1/Ad4BP group or the LRH-1/FTF group. Virtual Northern Blot detected a major transcript of about 1.7 kb and a minor transcript of 2.2 kb of FTZ-F1 in the orange-spotted grouper pituitary gland. The expression of FTZ-F1 homologue gene in different tissues and during embryonic development of the orange-spotted grouper was determined using one-step RT-PCR coupled with Southern blot analysis. In addition to the pituitary gland, the orange-spotted grouper FTZ-F1 was also expressed in the hypothalamus, forebrain, heart, liver, kidney, and ovary. The stronger signal from the gel image indicated that the expression level of FTZ-F1 homologue gene was higher in the ovary of stage 3 than stage 2. During embryonic development, mRNA for the orange-spotted grouper FTZ-F1 homologue was present in newly fertilized eggs, but disappeared in embryos at 50 min post fertilization. The orange-spotted grouper FTZ-F1 homologue mRNA reappeared in embryos at 1.5 hr post fertilization. Its expression level was increased from late blastula to neurula stages. Taken together, results of the current study suggest that the orange-spotted grouper FTZ-F1 homologue exhibits characteristics indicative of both the LRH-1/FTF- and the SF-1/Ad4BP-like genes, and may also play important roles in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, cholesterol metabolism, and embryogenesis. PMID:15286949

  14. Natural outbreak of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) infection in wild giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), and other wild fish in northern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowater, R O; Forbes-Faulkner, J; Anderson, I G; Condon, K; Robinson, B; Kong, F; Gilbert, G L; Reynolds, A; Hyland, S; McPherson, G; Brien, J O'; Blyde, D

    2012-03-01

    Ninety-three giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), were found dead in Queensland, Australia, from 2007 to 2011. Most dead fish occurred in northern Queensland, with a peak of mortalities in Cairns in June 2008. In 2009, sick wild fish including giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell), and javelin grunter, Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier), also occurred in Cairns. In 2009 and 2010, two disease epizootics involving wild stingrays occurred at Sea World marine aquarium. Necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology and PCR determined that the cause of deaths of 12 giant Queensland grouper, three wild fish, six estuary rays, Dasyatis fluviorum (Ogilby), one mangrove whipray, Himantura granulata (Macleay), and one eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw), was Streptococcus agalactiae septicaemia. Biochemical testing of 34 S. agalactiae isolates from giant Queensland grouper, wild fish and stingrays showed all had identical biochemical profiles. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of isolates confirmed all isolates were S. agalactiae; genotyping of selected S. agalactiae isolates showed the isolates from giant Queensland grouper were serotype Ib, whereas isolates from wild fish and stingrays closely resembled serotype II. This is the first report of S. agalactiae from wild giant Queensland grouper and other wild tropical fish and stingray species in Queensland, Australia. PMID:22324342

  15. Effects of a Dissostichus mawsoni-CaM recombinant proteins feed additive on the juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) under the acute low temperature challenge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Na; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Chang-Lian; Chen, Liang-Biao

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Dissostichus mawsoni-Calmodulin (Dm-CaM) on growth performance, enzyme activities, respiratory burst, MDA level and immune-related gene expressions of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to the acute low temperature stress were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with Dm-CaM protein was fed to the groupers for 6 weeks. No significant difference was observed in the specific growth rates, weight gains and survivals. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to acute low temperature challenge. The groupers fed with Dm-CaM additive diet showed a significant decrease in the respiratory burst activity, while the blood cell number increased significantly at 25 °C by comparing with the control and additive control group. The enzymatic activity of SOD, ACP and ALP increased significantly in Dm-CaM additive group, while MDA level maintained stable with the lowest value. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the up-regulated transcript expressions of CaM, C3, SOD2, LysC and HSPA4 were observed in Dm-CaM additive group. These results indicated that Dm-CaM additive diet may regulate the grouper immune response to the acute low temperature challenge. PMID:26122279

  16. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) genes from grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Wei, Jingguang; Chen, Xiuli; Gao, Pin; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a group of proteins binding to lysine residues of target proteins and thereby modifying their stability, activity and subcellular localization. In the present study, two SUMO homolog genes (EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2) from grouper (Epinephelus coioides) were cloned and characterized. The full-length sequence of EcSUMO1 was 749 bp in length and contained a predicted open reading frame of 306 bp encoding 101 amino acids with a molecular mass of 11.34 kDa. The full-length sequence of EcSUMO2 was 822 bp in length and contained a predicted open reading frame of 291 bp encoding 96 amino acids with a molecular mass of 10.88 kDa EcSUMO1 shares 44.55% identity with EcSUMO2. EcSUMO1 shares 99%, 90%, and 88% identity with those from Oreochromis niloticus, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens, respectively. EcSUMO2 shares 98%, 93%, and 96% identity with those from Anoplopoma fimbria, D.rerio, and H. sapiens, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 were constitutively expressed in all of the analyzed tissues in healthy grouper, but the expression of EcSUMO2 was higher than that of EcSUMO1. EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 were identified as a remarkably (P < 0.01) up-regulated responding to poly(I:C) and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) stimulation in head kidney of groupers. EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 were distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus in GS cells. Over-expressed EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 enhanced SGIV and Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) replication during viral infection in vitro. Our study was an important attempt to understand the SUMO pathway in fish, which may provide insights into the regulatory mechanism of viral infection in E.coioides under farmed conditions. PMID:26616235

  17. Primary male development of two sequentially hermaphroditic groupers, Epinephelus akaara and Epinephelus awoara (Perciformes: Epinephelidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Wang, Y-Y; Shan, X-J; Kang, B; Ding, S-X

    2016-04-01

    Gonad ontogeny of the Hong Kong grouper Epinephelus akaara (a bi-directional sex changer) and the yellow grouper Epinephelus awoara (a protogynous hermaphrodite) was examined for the first time from post-larval phase until first sexual maturation, by histology. Approximately 20 specimens of each species were collected randomly every 2-7 weeks from rearing tanks with natural sea water and temperature between June 2013 and June 2014. The paired gonadal primordia (GP) were observed at 6 weeks after hatching (wah) for both species; however, gonia were first observed in GP at 16 wah for E. akaara and at 8 wah for E. awoara. The timings for the appearance of primary-growth stage oocytes (O1) and the completion of ovarian lumen (OL) varied; both at 27 wah for E. akaara, and at 18 and 23 wah for E. awoara respectively. A bisexual-phase gonad with an OL, O1 and scattered spermatogenic cysts (SC) was observed at 27-29 wah for both E. akaara and E. awoara. Sexual differentiation was subsequently observed from the bisexual-phase gonad at 34 wah for E. akaara, and 41 wah for E. awoara, with the appearance of cortical-alveolus stage oocytes (O2) for developing female and the proliferation of SC for developing primary male (i.e. from juvenile directly). Ovaries of mature females contained the vitellogenic stage oocytes (O3) and scattered SC; testes of mature primary males had sperm in sperm sinuses within the gonadal wall and remained O1. Minimum age of first sexual maturation for both female and primary male of E. akaara was at 41 wah; minimum total length (LT ) of female (143 mm) was larger than that of primary male (137 mm LT ). Minimum age and size of first sexual maturation for female of E. awoara (47 wah and 149 mm LT , respectively) were larger than those of E. akaara. Developing primary males of E. awoara were found at 41-58 wah, however, mature males were not observed, indicating inconsistency in first sexual maturation for E. awoara. This

  18. Cloning of the Major Capsid Protein (MCP) of Grouper Iridovirus of Taiwan (TGIV) and Preliminary Evaluation of a Recombinant MCP Vaccine against TGIV.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsin-I; Chiou, Pinwen Peter; Gong, Hong-Yi; Chou, Hsin-Yiu

    2015-01-01

    Fish iridoviruses cause systemic diseases with high mortality in various species of wild and farm-raised fish, resulting in severe economic losses. In 1998, we isolated a new epizootic iridovirus in cultured grouper (Epinephelus sp.) in Taiwan, thus named as grouper iridovirus of Taiwan (TGIV). We report here the cloning of TGIV major capsid protein (MCP). Phylogenetic analysis of the iridoviral MCPs confirmed the classification of TGIV into the Megalocytivirus genus. Recombinant TGIV MCP and GIV MCP were then generated to produce polyclonal antibodies. Western blot analysis revealed that the two antisera were species-specific, indicating no common epitope shared by the MCPs of the two viruses. We further assayed the potency of a subunit vaccine containing recombinant TGIV MCP. The vaccine effectively protected grouper from TGIV infection. The result demonstrated that MCP is a suitable antigen for anti-TGIV vaccines. PMID:26633384

  19. Cloning of the Major Capsid Protein (MCP) of Grouper Iridovirus of Taiwan (TGIV) and Preliminary Evaluation of a Recombinant MCP Vaccine against TGIV

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hsin-I; Chiou, Pinwen Peter; Gong, Hong-Yi; Chou, Hsin-Yiu

    2015-01-01

    Fish iridoviruses cause systemic diseases with high mortality in various species of wild and farm-raised fish, resulting in severe economic losses. In 1998, we isolated a new epizootic iridovirus in cultured grouper (Epinephelus sp.) in Taiwan, thus named as grouper iridovirus of Taiwan (TGIV). We report here the cloning of TGIV major capsid protein (MCP). Phylogenetic analysis of the iridoviral MCPs confirmed the classification of TGIV into the Megalocytivirus genus. Recombinant TGIV MCP and GIV MCP were then generated to produce polyclonal antibodies. Western blot analysis revealed that the two antisera were species-specific, indicating no common epitope shared by the MCPs of the two viruses. We further assayed the potency of a subunit vaccine containing recombinant TGIV MCP. The vaccine effectively protected grouper from TGIV infection. The result demonstrated that MCP is a suitable antigen for anti-TGIV vaccines. PMID:26633384

  20. 50 CFR 622.41 - Annual catch limits (ACLs), annual catch targets (ACTs), and accountability measures (AMs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... grouper (Other SWG) combined (including black grouper, scamp, yellowfin grouper, and yellowmouth grouper)—(1) Commercial sector. The IFQ program for groupers and tilefishes in the Gulf of Mexico serves as... program for groupers and tilefishes in the Gulf of Mexico serves as the accountability measure...

  1. Modeling the potential spread of the recently identified non-native panther grouper (Chromileptes altivelis) in the Atlantic using a cellular automaton approach.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew W; Purkis, Sam J

    2013-01-01

    The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli) is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles), which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species. PMID:24009726

  2. Modeling the Potential Spread of the Recently Identified Non-Native Panther Grouper (Chromileptes altivelis) in the Atlantic Using a Cellular Automaton Approach

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Matthew W.; Purkis, Sam J.

    2013-01-01

    The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli) is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles), which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species. PMID:24009726

  3. Black Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  4. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  5. Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) MyD88 and Tollip: intracellular localization and signal transduction function.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Wei; Wang, Zheng; Mo, Ze-Quan; Li, Xia; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Dan, Xue-Ming; Li, An-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) are two important regulatory proteins of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. In this paper, a Tollip sequence of grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was identified and the signal transduction functions of Tollip and MyD88 were studied. The full length of E. coioides Tollip (EcTollip) cDNA with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1734 nucleotides encoded a putative protein of 274 amino acid residues. The EcTollip protein had conservative domains with mammalian homologous proteins, and high identity (78%-95%) with other vertebrates. MyD88 and Tollip were distributed in the HeLa cytoplasm in a highly condensed form. Over-expression of MyD88 could activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its function was dependent on the death domain and ID domain on the N-terminal. Some important functional sites of mammalian MyD88 also affected fish MyD88 signal transduction. Tollip impaired NF-κB signals activated by MyD88, and its activity was dependent on the coupling of ubiquitin to the endoplasmic reticulum degradation (CUE) domain on the C-terminal. These results suggest that MyD88 and Tollip of fish and mammals are conservative on function during evolution. PMID:25449381

  6. Temporal and spatial mapping of red grouper Epinephelus morio sound production.

    PubMed

    Wall, C C; Simard, P; Lindemuth, M; Lembke, C; Naar, D F; Hu, C; Barnes, B B; Muller-Karger, F E; Mann, D A

    2014-11-01

    The goals of this project were to determine the daily, seasonal and spatial patterns of red grouper Epinephelus morio sound production on the West Florida Shelf (WFS) using passive acoustics. An 11 month time series of acoustic data from fixed recorders deployed at a known E. morio aggregation site showed that E. morio produce sounds throughout the day and during all months of the year. Increased calling (number of files containing E. morio sound) was correlated to sunrise and sunset, and peaked in late summer (July and August) and early winter (November and December). Due to the ubiquitous production of sound, large-scale spatial mapping across the WFS of E. morio sound production was feasible using recordings from shorter duration-fixed location recorders and autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Epinephelus morio were primarily recorded in waters 15-93 m deep, with increased sound production detected in hard bottom areas and within the Steamboat Lumps Marine Protected Area (Steamboat Lumps). AUV tracks through Steamboat Lumps, an offshore marine reserve where E. morio hole excavations have been previously mapped, showed that hydrophone-integrated AUVs could accurately map the location of soniferous fish over spatial scales of <1 km. The results show that passive acoustics is an effective, non-invasive tool to map the distribution of this species over large spatial scales. PMID:25141790

  7. Taxonomic relationship among seven species of groupers (genus Epinephelus; family Serranidae) as revealed by RAPD fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, G S; Jayasankar, P

    2004-01-01

    Phenotypic identification of groupers of the genus Epinephelus is based on color patterns and a suite of morphologic characters. However, these characters often show intraspecific variations and differences between juveniles and adults of the same species. The present work is an attempt to study and ratify the status of Epinephelus spp. using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis based on samples drawn from southeast and southwest coasts of India. The RAPD fingerprints generated in Epinephelus diacanthus, E. areolatus, E. chlorostigma, E. bleekeri, E. coioides, E. tauvina, and E. malabaricus with 4 primers (OPA 01, OPA 07, OPF 08, and OPF 10) were consistent, reproducible, and yielded species-specific diagnostic markers in all the species. A total of 59 RAPD loci in the size range of 70 to 4500 bp were produced from all 4 arbitrary primers. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendogram was constructed based on genetic distance values to show the genetic relationships among the 7 species. All the individuals of each species formed monophyletic species clusters. The mean intraspecies genetic distance value (0.305) was significantly lower than the interspecies value (0.365). Epinephelus malabaricus was most distantly related to E. diacanthus and E. bleekeri. The genetic relationship was very close among E. coioides, E. tauvina, and E. malabaricus and also between E. chlorostigma and E. bleekeri. Within-species genetic polymorphism was highest in E. chlorostigma (49.15%) and lowest in E. tauvina (25.42%). PMID:15136913

  8. Singapore grouper iridovirus protein VP088 is essential for viral infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yongming; Wang, Yunzhi; Liu, Qizhi; Zhu, Feng; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Viral infection is a great challenge in healthcare and agriculture. The Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is highly infectious to numerous marine fishes and increasingly threatens mariculture and wildlife conservation. SGIV intervention is not available because little is known about key players and their precise roles in SGVI infection. Here we report the precise role of VP088 as a key player in SGIV infection. VP088 was verified as an envelope protein encoded by late gene orf088. We show that SGIV could be neutralized with an antibody against VP088. Depletion or deletion of VP088 significantly suppresses SGIV infection without altering viral gene expression and host responses. By precisely quantifying the genome copy numbers of host cells and virions, we reveal that VP088 deletion dramatically reduces SGIV infectivity through inhibiting virus entry without altering viral pathogenicity, genome stability and replication and progeny virus release. These results pinpoint that VP088 is a key player in SGIV entry and represents an ideal target for SGIV intervention. PMID:27498856

  9. Dynamic camouflage by Nassau groupers Epinephelus striatus on a Caribbean coral reef.

    PubMed

    Watson, A C; Siemann, L A; Hanlon, R T

    2014-11-01

    This field study describes the camouflage pattern repertoire, associated behaviours and speed of pattern change of Nassau groupers Epinephelus striatus at Little Cayman Island, British West Indies. Three basic camouflaged body patterns were observed under natural conditions and characterized quantitatively. The mean speed of pattern change across the entire body was 4.44 s (range = 0.97-9.87 s); the fastest pattern change as well as contrast change within a fixed pattern occurred within 1 s. Aside from apparent defensive camouflage, E. striatus used camouflage offensively to approach crustacean or fish prey, and three successful predation events were recorded. Although animal camouflage is a widespread tactic, dynamic camouflage is relatively uncommon and has been studied rarely in marine teleosts under natural conditions. The rapid changes observed in E. striatus suggest direct neural control of some skin colouration elements, and comparative studies of functional morphology and behaviour of colour change in other coral-reef teleosts are likely to reveal new mechanisms and adaptations of dynamic colouration. PMID:25263436

  10. Singapore Grouper Iridovirus ORF75R is a Scaffold Protein Essential for Viral Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fan; Liu, Yang; Zhu, Yi; Ngoc Tran, Bich; Wu, Jinlu; Leong Hew, Choy

    2015-01-01

    Singapore Grouper Iridovirus (SGIV) is a member of nucleo cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV). This paper reports the functional analysis of ORF75R, a major structural protein of SGIV. Immuno fluorescence studies showed that the protein was accumulated in the viral assembly site. Immunogold-labelling indicated that it was localized between the viral capsid shell and DNA core. Knockdown of ORF75R by morpholinos resulted in the reduction of coreshell thickness, the failure of DNA encapsidation, and the low yield of infectious particles. Comparative proteomics further identified the structural proteins affected by ORF75R knockdown. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with proteomics demonstrated that ORF75R was phosphorylated at multiple sites in SGIV-infected cell lysate and virions, but the vast majority of ORF75R in virions was the dephosphorylated isoform. A kinase assay showed that ORF75R could be phosphorylated in vitro by the SGIV structural protein ORF39L. Addition of ATP and Mg2+ into purified virions prompted extensive phosphorylation of structural proteins and release of ORF75R from virions. These data suggest that ORF75R is a novel scaffold protein important for viral assembly and DNA encapsidation, but its phosphorylation facilitates virion disassembly. Compared to proteins from other viruses, we found that ORF75R shares common features with herpes simplex virus VP22. PMID:26286371

  11. Singapore grouper iridovirus protein VP088 is essential for viral infectivity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongming; Wang, Yunzhi; Liu, Qizhi; Zhu, Feng; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Viral infection is a great challenge in healthcare and agriculture. The Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is highly infectious to numerous marine fishes and increasingly threatens mariculture and wildlife conservation. SGIV intervention is not available because little is known about key players and their precise roles in SGVI infection. Here we report the precise role of VP088 as a key player in SGIV infection. VP088 was verified as an envelope protein encoded by late gene orf088. We show that SGIV could be neutralized with an antibody against VP088. Depletion or deletion of VP088 significantly suppresses SGIV infection without altering viral gene expression and host responses. By precisely quantifying the genome copy numbers of host cells and virions, we reveal that VP088 deletion dramatically reduces SGIV infectivity through inhibiting virus entry without altering viral pathogenicity, genome stability and replication and progeny virus release. These results pinpoint that VP088 is a key player in SGIV entry and represents an ideal target for SGIV intervention. PMID:27498856

  12. Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2011-02-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Anton Koekemoer; 1. Black holes, entropy, and information G. T. Horowitz; 2. Gravitational waves from black-hole mergers J. G. Baker, W. D. Boggs, J. M. Centrella, B. J. Kelley, S. T. McWilliams and J. R. van Meter; 3. Out-of-this-world physics: black holes at future colliders G. Landsberg; 4. Black holes in globular clusters S. L. W. McMillan; 5. Evolution of massive black holes M. Volonteri; 6. Supermassive black holes in deep multiwavelength surveys C. M. Urry and E. Treister; 7. Black-hole masses from reverberation mapping B. M. Peterson and M. C. Bentz; 8. Black-hole masses from gas dynamics F. D. Macchetto; 9. Evolution of supermassive black holes A. Müller and G. Hasinger; 10. Black-hole masses of distant quasars M. Vestergaard; 11. The accretion history of supermassive black holes K. Brand and the NDWFS Boötes Survey Teams; 12. Strong field gravity and spin of black holes from broad iron lines A. C. Fabian; 13. Birth of massive black-hole binaries M. Colpi, M. Dotti, L. Mayer and S. Kazantzidis; 14. Dynamics around supermassive black holes A. Gualandris and D. Merritt; 15. Black-hole formation and growth: simulations in general relativity S. L. Shapiro; 16. Estimating the spins of stellar-mass black holes J. E. McClintock, R. Narayan and R. Shafee; 17. Stellar relaxation processes near the Galactic massive black hole T. Alexander; 18. Tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes S. Gezari; 19. Where to look for radiatively inefficient accretion flows in low-luminosity AGN M. Chiaberge; 20. Making black holes visible: accretion, radiation, and jets J. H. Krolik.

  13. Parasite diversity as an indicator of environmental change? An example from tropical grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) mariculture in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Palm, H W; Kleinertz, S; Rückert, S

    2011-11-01

    Fish parasites are used to monitor long-term change in finfish grouper mariculture in Indonesia. A total of 210 Epinephelus fuscoguttatus were sampled in six consecutive years between 2003/04 and 2008/09 and examined for parasites. The fish were obtained from floating net cages of a commercially run mariculture facility that opened in 2001. The fauna was species rich, consisting of ten ecto- and 18 endoparasite species. The ectoparasite diversity and composition was relatively stable, with the monogeneans Pseudorhabdosynochus spp. (83-100% prevalence, Berger-Parker Index of 0·82-0·97) being the predominant taxon. Tetraphyllidean larvae Scolex pleuronectis and the nematodes Terranova sp. and Raphidascaris sp. 1 were highly abundant in 2003/04-2005/06 (max. prevalence S. pleuronectis 40%, Terranova sp. 57%, Raphidascaris sp. 1 100%), and drastically reduced until 2008/09. These parasites together with the prevalence of Trichodina spp., ecto-/endoparasite ratio and endoparasite diversity illustrate a significant change in holding conditions over the years. This can be either referred to a definite change in management methods such as feed use and fish treatment, or a possible transition of a relatively undisturbed marine environment into a more affected habitat. By visualizing all parameters within a single diagram, we demonstrate that fish parasites are useful bioindicators to monitor long-term change in Indonesian grouper mariculture. This also indicates that groupers can be used to monitor environmental change in the wild. Further taxonomic and systematic efforts in less sampled regions significantly contributes to this new application, supporting fish culture and environmental impact monitoring also in other tropical marine habitats. PMID:21320385

  14. Identification and characterization of three TLR1 subfamily members from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Wei; Xu, Dong-Dong; Li, Xia; Mo, Ze-Quan; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Li, An-Xing; Dan, Xue-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play important roles in host defense against pathogen infection, are the most intensively studied pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, we identified three novel TLR1 subfamily members, including TLR1 (EcTLR1b), TLR2 (EcTLR2b) and TLR14 (EcTLR14), from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). EcTLR1b and EcTLR2b displayed low sequence identity with the previously reported grouper TLR1 (EcTLR1a) and TLR2 (EcTLR2a), respectively. The open reading frames (ORFs) of EcTLR1b, EcTLR2b and EcTLR14 contain 2484 bp, 2394 bp and 2640 bp, which encode the corresponding 827 amino acids (aa), 797 aa and 879 aa, respectively. All three TLRs have leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains (including an LRR-NT (except for EcTLR1b), several LRR motifs and an LRR-CT), a trans-membrane region and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The TIR domains of the three TLRs exhibited conserved boxes, namely box1, box2 and box3, and their 3D models were similar to those of human TLR1 or TLR2. Sequence alignment demonstrated that the TIR domains of the three TLRs shared higher sequence identity with those of other species than the full-length receptors. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that EcTLR1s and EcTLR2s are characterized by their differing evolutionary status, whereas EcTLR14 was found to be in the same group as other piscine TLR14/18s. The three TLRs were ubiquitously expressed in seven tested tissues of healthy groupers, although their expression profiles were different. Post Cryptocaryon irritans infection, TLR1s expression was up-regulated in the gills. The expression of TLR2b was mainly increased in the spleen, but decreased in the gills, which was similar to the expression pattern of TLR2a post C. irritans infection. Unlike EcTLR1b and EcTLR2b, however, the grouper TLR14 transcript was substantially induced in both tissues post challenge. These findings may be helpful in understanding the innate immune mechanism of host

  15. Innate immune responses and efficacy of using mushroom beta-glucan mixture (MBG) on orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Huang, Shih-Ling; Chen, Sherwin; Chen, Shiu-Nan

    2013-07-01

    This study attempts to describe the effects of innate immunity responses and field application of mushroom beta-glucan mixture (MBG) in cultured orange-sported grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Chemical analysis for MBG showed that the mixture contains 34.06% of macro-molecular polymers with bio-active linkage such as 3-; 3,4- and 4,6-glucopyranosyl and 6-linked galactopyranosyl residues. Study performed on the innate immunity showed that oral ingestion of MBG at 1.0 g and 2.0 g per kilogram of feed levels may significantly enhance the lysozyme activity, alternative complement activity, phagocytic activity and respiration burst of the experimental groupers. Observation on the experimental challenge of pathogen showed that uses of MBG at 0.1% and 0.2% levels in feed might significantly enhance the protection of grouper against Vibrio alginolyticus. Field trials performed on short and long-term culture showed that feeding of diet containing 0.1% or 0.2% of MBG may significantly enhance the survival of cultured groupers up to 16% when compared with those obtained from controls. PMID:23603237

  16. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... that the caffeine in black tea might slow blood clotting, though this hasn’t been shown in people. ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. Caffeine ...

  17. Black Ageism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Herbert M.

    1976-01-01

    Notes that attempts to apply research findings based on undifferentiated comparisons between black and white elderly toward the solution of problems faced by black elderly are doomed to ineffectiveness. (Author/AM)

  18. Black psyllium

    MedlinePlus

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the ... to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond ...

  19. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    Black tea is a product made from the Camellia sinesis plant. The aged leaves and stems are ... of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness as ...

  20. Black Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraka, Amiri

    1987-01-01

    Discusses black art as not only an expression of black life but as revolutionary art. It must be collective, functional, and committing. It must also be anti-racist, anti-capitalist, and anti-imperialist. (LHW)

  1. Black Cohosh

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References Black cohosh. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on April ... Black cohosh ( Cimicifuga racemosa [L.] Nutt. ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on April ...

  2. Molecular cloning and expression characterization of ApoC-I in the orange-spotted grouper.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Zhou, L; Li, Z; Gui, J F

    2008-12-01

    Endogenous yolk nutrients are crucial for embryo and larval development in fish, but developmental behavior of the genes that control yolk utilization remains unknown. Apolipoproteins have been shown to play important roles in lipid transport and uptake through the circulation system. In this study, EcApoC-I, the first cloned ApoC-I in teleosts, has been screened from pituitary cDNA library of female orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), and the deduced amino acid sequence shows 43.5% identity to one zebrafish (Danio rerio) hypothetical protein similar to ApoC-I, and 21.2%, 21.7%, 22.5%, 20%, and 22.5% identities to Apo C-I of human (Homo sapiens), house mouse (Mus musculus), common tree shrew (Tupaia glis), dog (Canis lupus familiaris) and hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas), respectively. Although the sequence identity is low, amphipathic alpha-helices with the potential to bind to lipid were predicted to exist in the EcApoC-I. RT-PCR analysis revealed that it was first transcribed in gastrula embryos and maintained a relatively stable expression level during the following embryogenesis. During embryonic and early larval development, a very high level of EcApoC-I expression was in the yolk syncytial layer, indicating that it plays a significant role in yolk degradation and transfers nutrition to the embryo and early larva. By the day 7 after hatching, EcApoC-I transcripts were observed in brain. In adult, EcApoC-I mRNA was detected abundantly in brain and gonad. In transitional gonads, the EcApoC-I expression is restricted to the germ cells. The data suggested that EcApoC-I might play an important role in brain and gonad morphogenesis and growth. PMID:18958591

  3. Parasites of the grouper fish Epinephelus coioides (Serranidae) as potential environmental indicators in Indonesian coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kleinertz, S; Palm, H W

    2015-01-01

    A total of 195 Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) were studied for fish parasites from Javanese (Segara Anakan lagoon) and Balinese waters. Up to 25 different parasite species belonging to the following taxa: one Ciliata, one Microsporea, five Digenea, one Monogenea, four Cestoda, four Nematoda, one Acanthocephala, one Hirudinea and seven Crustacea were identified with four new host and locality records. The dominant parasites included the monogenean Pseudorhabdosynochus lantauensis (53.3-97.1%), the nematode Spirophilometra endangae (23.3-42.9%), the digenean Didymodiclinus sp. (2.9-40.0%), the nematodes Philometra sp. (22.6-34.3%) and Raphidascaris sp. (2.9-28.6%), and the isopod Alcirona sp. (6.7-31.4%). Regional differences for E. coioides were found in terms of endoparasite diversity, total diversity according to Shannon-Wiener, Simpson index and Evenness. A comparison with published data from Sumatera revealed highest endoparasite diversity (Shannon-Wiener: 1.86/1.67-2.04) and lowest ectoparasite/endoparasite ratio (0.73/0.57-0.88) off the Balinese coast, followed by Lampung Bay, Sumatera (1.84; 0.67), off the coast of Segara Anakan lagoon (1.71; 0.71), and in the lagoon (0.30/0.19-0.66; 0.85/0.67-1.00). The presented data demonstrate the natural range of these parameters and parasite prevalences according to habitat and region, allowing adjustment of the scale that has been used in the visual integration of the parasite parameters into a star graph. The parasite fauna of E. coioides in Segara Anakan lagoon 'improved' from 2004 until 2008/09, possibly related to earlier oil spill events in 2002 and 2004. The use of grouper fish parasites as an early warning system for environmental change in Indonesian coastal ecosystems is discussed. PMID:24018181

  4. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of black historian Ed Cabbell by Pat…

  5. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  6. Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    The black student revolt did not start with the highly publicized activities of the black students at San Francisco State College. The roots of the revolt lie deeply imbedded within the history and structure of the overall black liberation struggle in America. The beginnings of this revolt can be found in the students of Southern Negro colleges in…

  7. Talking Black.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Roger D.

    This book contains essays which focus on the systems of communication that operate within and between various social segments of Afro-American communities in the United States. The essays are presented under the following headings: (1) "Getting Into It: Black Talk, Black Life and the Academic," (2) "'Talking My Talk': Black Talk Varieties and…

  8. Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger, 1870) (Pisces: Serranidae), a valid species of grouper endemic to the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

    PubMed

    Randall, John E; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Krupp, Friedhelm; Rose, Jean Michel; Fricke, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The grouper Epinephelus geoffioyi (Klunzinger), type locality Red Sea, previously regarded as a synonym of E. chlorostigma (Valenciennes) is recognized as a valid species. It is differentiated from E. chlorostigma by having 25-29 (modally 27) gill rakers vs. 23-26 (modally 24), a more angular anal fin, the dark spots on the abdomen more widely separated, and lacking a clear white margin posteriorly on the caudal fin. The missing holotype of E. geoffroyi was found at the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart (SMNS 233, 191 mm). Epinephelits chlorostigma is wide-ranging from the Gulf of Aden and east coast of Africa to Samoa; it is reported from the depth range of 32-280 m. Epinephelus geoffroyi is presently known only from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden at depths of 3-32 m. Illustrations are provided for three other species of groupers with numerous small dark spots, E. areolatus (Forsskål), E. gabriellae Randall & Heemstra, and E. polylepis Randall & Heemstra, that are, or might be, sympatric with E. geoffroyi. PMID:26287104

  9. Reproductive movement, residency and fisheries vulnerability of brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål, 1775)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, K. L.; McIlwain, J.; Joseph, E.; Nemeth, R. S.

    2012-06-01

    The brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, is a long-lived, late-maturing protogynous species listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN. In Pohnpei, Micronesia, reproductively active brown-marbled grouper were tagged with acoustic and spaghetti-type tags at a multi-species fish spawning aggregation (FSA) site to establish patterns of movement, residency and seasonality. Telemetry confirmed the use of common reproductive migratory corridors and significant sex-specific variations in residency at the FSA. Combined underwater visual census and telemetry data verified a 3-month peak aggregation period, with aggregations forming and persisting over ca . 12 days prior to full moon between January and May. FSA formation coincided with seasonally low and relatively stable seawater temperatures. Some males frequented the FSA site during each aggregation month over two consecutive years. Conversely, most females were present at the FSA during only a single aggregation period, with the month of visitation consistent among years. Nearly two-thirds of tagged fish were relocated or recaptured within 11 km of the aggregation site, with a maximum detected distance of 26 km and a minimum estimated catchment area of 100-175 km2. Findings highlight the need for a combined approach to management that prohibits the capture and sale of reproductive adults and protects both spawning sites and common reproductive migratory corridors during aggregation periods.

  10. Investigating the origin of vagrant dusky groupers, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834), in coastal waters of Réunion Island.

    PubMed

    Reid, Kerry; Crochelet, Estelle; Bloomer, Paulette; Hoareau, Thierry B

    2016-10-01

    Due to their geographic isolation, biotas of oceanic islands are likely influenced by episodic long distance dispersal events, but such observations are scarce. In June 2012, fishermen from Réunion Island caught an unknown specimen of grouper, identified as dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834). This was highly unexpected considering the large distance of its closest verified occurrence (South Africa, ∼2500km). To identify the origin of this specimen and the mechanisms driving this potential long distance colonization, we combined genetic analyses and hydrodynamic connectivity modeling approaches. Molecular markers and samples from various locations across the distribution range resulted in the identification of three putative source populations. The Réunion specimen clustered genetically with South Africa. The estimated spawning period in relation to the connectivity modeling of larvae showed no possible direct connection between South Africa and Réunion. However, connectivity was predicted through intermediate stepping stone populations likely located around the southern tip of Madagascar, where the occurrence of the species has yet to be verified. The results further highlight the potential role of the cyclone Bingiza (February 2011) in the connection between Madagascar and Réunion. This shows that cyclones may be an important driver in long distance colonization of oceanic islands. PMID:27421568

  11. An automated microfluidic chip system for detection of piscine nodavirus and characterization of its potential carrier in grouper farms.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Wang, Ting-Yu; Hsu, Hao-Hsuan; Lee, Szu-Hsien; Chen, Young-Mao; Tsai, Tieh-Jung; Ou, Ming-Chang; Ku, Hsiao-Tung; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2012-01-01

    Groupers of the Epinephelus spp. are an important aquaculture species of high economic value in the Asia Pacific region. They are susceptible to piscine nodavirus infection, which results in viral nervous necrosis disease. In this study, a rapid and sensitive automated microfluidic chip system was implemented for the detection of piscine nodavirus; this technology has the advantage of requiring small amounts of sample and has been developed and applied for managing grouper fish farms. Epidemiological investigations revealed an extremely high detection rate of piscine nodavirus (89% of fish samples) from 5 different locations in southern Taiwan. In addition, positive samples from the feces of fish-feeding birds indicated that the birds could be carrying the virus between fish farms. In the present study, we successfully introduced this advanced technology that combines engineering and biological approaches to aquaculture. In the future, we believe that this approach will improve fish farm management and aid in reducing the economic loss experienced by fish farmers due to widespread disease outbreaks. PMID:22912690

  12. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of Toll-like receptor 3 gene in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Lin, Kebing; Ge, Hui; Lin, Qi; Wu, Jianshao; He, Libin; Fang, Qiongshan; Zhou, Chen; Sun, Minqiu; Huang, Zhongchi

    2013-09-15

    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) plays an important role in activating innate immune responses during viral infection. In this report, TLR3 (EcTLR3) was characterized and analyzed for the first time in Epinephelus coioides. The full-length EcTLR3 cDNA is predicted to encode a 909 amino acid polypeptide that contains a signal peptide sequence, 18 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motifs, a transmembrane region and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the EcTLR3 mRNA was much more abundant in the liver than in other immune organs, and that the expression levels were very low in hemocyte and muscle. During development of the grouper, the levels of EcTLR3 transcripts increased with age, with very low expression levels at the early stages of development. EcTLR3 mRNA levels were examined in the liver at different times after treatment with polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (Poly I:C), and in nervous necrosis virus (NNV)-infected larval groupers. The results suggested that EcTLR3 plays an important role in a fish's defense against viral infection. PMID:23792060

  13. Cytoplasmic localization of Lrh-1 down-regulates ovarian follicular cyp19a1a expression in a teleost, the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huijie; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Qiongyou; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2014-08-01

    Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) is a conserved member of the NR5A subfamily in vertebrates and a potential regulator of estrogen synthesis in the ovarian granulosa cells. An Lrh-1 homologue was obtained from the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides that contains the conserved structural features of NR5A and is phylogenetically closely related to NR5A2. The expression of the orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 is tissue-specific with relatively higher levels in the liver and ovary. The immunoreactive signals for Lrh-1 and Cyp19a1a were present in the ovarian follicular cells and germ cells. In the ovarian follicular cells, Lrh-1 was present both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and colocalized with Cyp19a1a. The expression levels of both increased during vitellogenesis whereas only Cyp19a1a dramatically decreased toward maturation when Lrh-1 was localized almost exclusively to the cytoplasm of the follicular cells. The orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 could up-regulate cyp19a1a transcription in vitro via the two conserved Ftz-f1 sites in cyp19a1a promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 could bind cyp19a1a promoter in vivo with a higher abundance in the vitellogenic ovary, whereas the binding was dramatically decreased in the mature ovary. Taken together, the results of present study demonstrate that Lrh-1 plays an important role in up-regulating cyp19a1a gene in the ovarian follicular cells during vitellogenesis, and the sequestration of Lrh-1 to the cytoplasm may down-regulate cyp19a1a expression in the mature ovary. This mechanism for modifying transcriptional roles of the orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 may shed new light on the regulation of Cyp19a1 expression in other vertebrates as well. PMID:24943038

  14. The ups and downs of coral reef fishes: the genetic characteristics of a formerly severely overfished but currently recovering Nassau grouper fish spawning aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, A. M.; Feldheim, K. A.; Nemeth, R.; Kadison, E.; Blondeau, J.; Semmens, B. X.; Shivji, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    The Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus) has sustained large declines across its distribution, including extirpation of many of its fish spawning aggregations (FSAs). Within US Virgin Islands (USVI) waters, Nassau grouper FSAs were overfished until their disappearance in the 1970s and 1980s. In the early 2000s, however, Nassau grouper were found gathering at Grammanik Bank, USVI, a mesophotic coral reef adjacent to one of the extinct aggregation sites, and regulatory protective measures were implemented to protect this fledgling FSA. The population genetic dynamics of this rapid FSA deterioration followed by protection-facilitated, incipient recovery are unknown. We addressed two objectives: (1) we explored which factors (i.e., local vs. external recruitment) might be key in shaping the USVI FSA recovery; and (2) we examined the consequences of severe past overfishing on this FSA's current genetic status. We genotyped individuals (15 microsatellites) from the USVI FSA comprising three successive spawning years (2008-2010), as well as individuals from a much larger, presumably less impacted, Nassau grouper FSA in the Cayman Islands, to assess their comparative population dynamics. No population structure was detected between the USVI and Cayman FSAs ( F ST = -0.0004); however, a temporally waning, genetic bottleneck signal was detected in the USVI FSA. Parentage analysis failed to identify any parent-offspring matches between USVI FSA adults and nearby juveniles, and relatedness analysis showed low levels of genetic relatedness among USVI FSA individuals. Genetic diversity across USVI FSA temporal collections was relatively high, and no marked differences were found between the USVI and Cayman FSAs. These collective results suggest that external recruitment is an important driver of the USVI FSA recovery. Furthermore, despite an apparent genetic bottleneck, the genetic diversity of USVI Nassau grouper has not been severely compromised. Our findings also provide a

  15. Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  16. Modeling coral reef fish home range movements in Dry Tortugas, Florida.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Nicholas A; Ault, Jerald S

    2014-01-01

    Underestimation of reef fish space use may result in marine reserves that are too small to effectively buffer a portion of the stock from fishing mortality. Commonly used statistical home range models, such as minimum convex polygon (MCP) or 95% kernel density (95% KD) methods, require the exclusion of individuals who move beyond the bounds of the tracking study. Spatially explicit individual-based models of fish home range movements parameterized from multiple years of acoustic tracking data were developed for three exploited coral reef fishes (red grouper Epinephelus morio, black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci, and mutton snapper Lutjanus analis) in Dry Tortugas, Florida. Movements were characterized as a combination of probability of movement, distance moved, and turning angle. Simulations suggested that the limited temporal and geographic scope of most movement studies may underestimate home range size, especially for fish with home range centers near the edges of the array. Simulations provided useful upper bounds for home range size (red grouper: 2.28±0.81 km2 MCP, 3.60±0.89 km2 KD; black grouper: 2.06±0.84 km2 MCP, 3.93±1.22 km2 KD; mutton snapper: 7.72±2.23 km2 MCP, 6.16±1.11 km2 KD). Simulations also suggested that MCP home ranges are more robust to artifacts of passive array acoustic detection patterns than 95% KD methods. PMID:24558320

  17. Modeling Coral Reef Fish Home Range Movements in Dry Tortugas, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Nicholas A.; Ault, Jerald S.

    2014-01-01

    Underestimation of reef fish space use may result in marine reserves that are too small to effectively buffer a portion of the stock from fishing mortality. Commonly used statistical home range models, such as minimum convex polygon (MCP) or 95% kernel density (95% KD) methods, require the exclusion of individuals who move beyond the bounds of the tracking study. Spatially explicit individual-based models of fish home range movements parameterized from multiple years of acoustic tracking data were developed for three exploited coral reef fishes (red grouper Epinephelus morio, black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci, and mutton snapper Lutjanus analis) in Dry Tortugas, Florida. Movements were characterized as a combination of probability of movement, distance moved, and turning angle. Simulations suggested that the limited temporal and geographic scope of most movement studies may underestimate home range size, especially for fish with home range centers near the edges of the array. Simulations provided useful upper bounds for home range size (red grouper: 2.28 ± 0.81 km2 MCP, 3.60 ± 0.89 km2 KD; black grouper: 2.06 ± 0.84 km2 MCP, 3.93 ± 1.22 km2 KD; mutton snapper: 7.72 ± 2.23 km2 MCP, 6.16 ± 1.11 km2 KD). Simulations also suggested that MCP home ranges are more robust to artifacts of passive array acoustic detection patterns than 95% KD methods. PMID:24558320

  18. Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) IL-34/MCSF2 and MCSFR1/MCSFR2 were involved in mononuclear phagocytes activation against Cryptocaryon irritans infection.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ze-Quan; Li, Yan-Wei; Zhou, Ling; Li, An-Xing; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Dan, Xue-Ming

    2015-03-01

    MCSF and its well-known receptor MCSFR had been well studied in humans, regulating the differentiation, proliferation, and survival of the mononuclear phagocyte system. IL-34, which is an alternative ligand of MCSF receptor, was recently identified as a novel cytokine and functionally overlaps with MCSF. However, the functional study of these receptors and their ligands in fish are largely unknown. In the present study, the cDNA of two potential grouper MCSFR ligands have been cloned, EcIL-34 (657 bp) and EcMCSF2 (804 bp), as well as an additional copy of grouper MCSFR, EcMCSFR2 (3141 bp). Sequence analysis showed that these three molecules had higher identities with other fish counterparts compared to mammals and their conserved structures and important functional residues were also analyzed. Tissue distribution analysis showed that EcIL-34 is dominant in brain, gill and spleen compared to EcMCSF2, which is dominant in head kidney, trunk kidney, skin, heart and muscle. EcMCSFR1 was dominant in the most tissues except head kidney and liver compared to EcMCSFR2. The different tissue distribution patterns of these two grouper MCSF receptors and their two ligands indicate the different mononuclear phagocyte differentiation and activation modes in different tissues. In Cryptocaryon irritans infected grouper, EcIL-34 and EcMCSFR2 were the most strongly up-regulated ligand and receptor in the infected sites, gill and skin. Their up-regulation confirmed the proliferation and activation of phagocytes in C. irritans infected sites, which would improve the antigen presentation and elicit the host local specific immune response. In C. irritans infected grouper head kidney, both ligands EcIL-34 and EcMCSF2 (especially EcMCSF2) were up-regulated, but both receptors EcMCSFR1 and EcMCSFR2 were down-regulated, which indicated that the phagocytes differentiation and proliferation may have occurred in this hemopoietic organ, and after that they migrated to the infected cites. The

  19. Roe Protein Hydrolysates of Giant Grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) Inhibit Cell Proliferation of Oral Cancer Cells Involving Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing-Iong; Tang, Jen-Yang; Liu, Ya-Sin; Wang, Hui-Ru; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Roe protein hydrolysates were reported to have antioxidant property but the anticancer effects were less addressed, especially for oral cancer. In this study, we firstly used the ultrafiltrated roe hydrolysates (URH) derived from giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) to evaluate the impact of URH on proliferation against oral cancer cells. We found that URH dose-responsively reduced cell viability of two oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) in terms of ATP assay. Using flow cytometry, URH-induced apoptosis of Ca9-22 cells was validated by morphological features of apoptosis, sub-G1 accumulation, and annexin V staining in dose-responsive manners. URH also induced oxidative stress in Ca9-22 cells in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/superoxide generations and mitochondrial depolarization. Taken together, these data suggest that URH is a potential natural product for antioral cancer therapy. PMID:27195297

  20. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB) Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Infection.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jiagang; Chen, Wenjie; Fu, Xiaozhe; Lin, Qiang; Chang, Ouqin; Zhao, Lijuan; Lan, Jiangfeng; Li, Ningqiu; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB) cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future. PMID:27213348

  1. Nervous Necrosis Virus Replicates Following the Embryo Development and Dual Infection with Iridovirus at Juvenile Stage in Grouper

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hao-Hsuan; Chen, Peng-Peng; Lee, Szu-Hsien; Chen, Young-Mao; Tsai, Tieh-Jung; Wang, Chien-Kai; Ku, Hsiao-Tung; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2012-01-01

    Infection of virus (such as nodavirus and iridovirus) and bacteria (such as Vibrio anguillarum) in farmed grouper has been widely reported and caused large economic losses to Taiwanese fish aquaculture industry since 1979. The multiplex assay was used to detect dual viral infection and showed that only nervous necrosis virus (NNV) can be detected till the end of experiments (100% mortality) once it appeared. In addition, iridovirus can be detected in a certain period of rearing. The results of real-time PCR and in situ PCR indicated that NNV, in fact, was not on the surface of the eggs but present in the embryo, which can continue to replicate during the embryo development. The virus may be vertically transmitted by packing into eggs during egg development (formation) or delivering into eggs by sperm during fertilization. The ozone treatment of eggs may fail to remove the virus, so a new strategy to prevent NNV is needed. PMID:22563447

  2. A new genus and species of hatschekiid copepod (Siphonostomatoida) from groupers (Actinopterygii: Serranidae) collected off the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of copepod, Mihbaicola sakamakii n. g., n. sp., belonging to the siphonostomatoid family Hatschekiidae, is described based on the females collected from inside the tissue of the branchiostegal membrane in three species of the groupers, Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål) (type-host), E. merra Bloch and Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacépède), collected off Okinawa-jima Island and Iriomote-jima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, North Pacific Ocean. The new genus can be distinguished from other hatschekiid genera by a combination of the following characters in the female: the head is composed of the cephalosome and the pedigerous somite; the cephalothorax is expanded into a pair of posteroventral lobes carrying leg 1; legs 1 and 2 are biramous and composed of the protopod and both rami are 2-segmented; leg 3 is absent; and leg 4 is represented by a rounded lobe with a chitinous pointed apical process. PMID:23263944

  3. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB) Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jiagang; Chen, Wenjie; Fu, Xiaozhe; Lin, Qiang; Chang, Ouqin; Zhao, Lijuan; Lan, Jiangfeng; Li, Ningqiu; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB) cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future. PMID:27213348

  4. Predation on Pseudodiaptomus annandalei (Copepoda: Calanoida) by the grouper fish larvae Epinephelus coioides under different hydrodynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. H.; Dahms, H. U.; Cheng, S. H.; Souissi, S.; Schmitt, F. G.; Kumar, R.; Hwang, J. S.

    2009-04-01

    The copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei perceived larval grouper Epinephelus coioides predators and exhibited escape reactions mediated by physical and/or chemical signals but not by visual perception. Under illumination, prey capture rates were significantly higher under moderate turbulence (747 ±104, n=3) than in the controls (calm water) (597±76, n=3) (p<0.01 Mann Whitney U test). The maximum darting speed of copepod in response to fish larvae under calm water was significantly higher (one way ANOVA P<0.05, Fig. 5) than that under either turbulent or enhanced flow condition, indicating that copepopd's ability to escape from predators was higher under calm water than either under turbulent water conditions or enhanced flow. The maximum number of copepods eaten by the fish larvae increased more under slow and medium hydrodynamic conditions than that under either calm or under high speed hydrodynamic conditions. Key words: Predator-prey relation; Behavior; Hydrodynamic disturbance; Diurnal changes; Predator avoidance; Predation efficiency

  5. Molecular cloning and gene expression of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S L; Chuang, H C; Nan, F H; Ruan, Y H; Kuo, C M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) involved in the endocrine regulation of reproduction in the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length cDNA encoding GnRH-R type I was successfully cloned from the pituitary by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) methods in the grouper. The complete GnRH-R type I cDNA is 1607 bp, which includes an open reading frame of 1092 bp encoding a protein of 364 amino acids, a seven-alpha helix transmembrane domain, a N-terminal extracellular domain, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. The expression of GnRH-R type I was found to be highest in the pituitary. An intramuscular injection of various GnRH types in vivo was attempted. The expression of GnRH-R type I was stimulated by a single injection of salmon GnRH, while in the case of chicken GnRH II treatment, the expression of GnRH-R type I was inhibited. This suggests that the action of chick GnRH II is probably enhanced through the GnRH receptor of different forms. Furthermore, none of them were expressed by an injection of seabream GnRH, and this is likely attributed to the injection dose being below the threshold level, and this remains to be further examined. In conclusion, GnRHs of various types are effective in stimulating the expression of gonadotropins through various forms of the GnRH-R, and multiple forms of the receptor gene likely exist in teleosts. PMID:17329139

  6. Fish and fisher behaviour influence the vulnerability of groupers (Epinephelidae) to fishing at a multispecies spawning aggregation site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J.; Graham, N. A. J.; Cinner, J. E.; Almany, G. R.; Waldie, P.

    2015-06-01

    Targeted fishing of spawning aggregations is a major contributor to extinction risk in numerous species of grouper (Epinephelidae). Marine reserves are often used to protect spawning aggregation sites, including multispecies sites shared by several species of grouper. However, marine reserves may be biologically, socioeconomically or culturally unviable in some fisheries, and alternative management actions must be explored. Implementing effective management actions that control rather than prohibit fishing requires an improved understanding of how species vary in their vulnerability to fishing gears and respond to changes in fishing effort. To estimate sources of variability in vulnerability to fishing (i.e. catchability), catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and other fisheries data were collected in parallel with underwater visual census-derived estimates of aggregation size at a multispecies spawning site of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and E. polyphekadion. Despite having similar abundances, E. polyphekadion was eightfold more vulnerable to capture by hook-and-line gear, clearly outcompeting its congener for bait. Contrasting with the common assumption of a proportional relationship, the CPUE of both species was unrelated to the size of their respective aggregations. Moreover, the CPUE of each species was unrelated to hook size and depth fished. However, E. polyphekadion CPUE declined as the density of fishing effort increased at the site, with gear saturation identified as the likely mechanism for this effect. E. fuscoguttatus CPUE was negatively related to the size of aggregations formed by its congener, stemming from the superior competitiveness and therefore higher selectivity of the gear for E. polyphekadion. Our findings demonstrate that CPUE is an unreliable indicator of spawning aggregation status. The other sources of variation in CPUE that we identify have implications for gear-based management, which must be based on understanding of gear selectivity for

  7. Black Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E., Ed.

    The essays in this book examine some of the major issues affecting the behavior and status of black men in the United States. The volume is divided into four sections. Part one compares black and white men on such indicators as sex ratio, age distribution, marital and family status, educational attainment, employment, income, social and political…

  8. Application of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for identification of grouper (Epinephelus guaza), wreck fish (Polyprion americanus), and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fillets.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Luis; González, Isabel; Fernández, Alicia; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Lobo, Esther; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2002-02-01

    A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for the specific identification of grouper (Epinephelus guaza), wreck fish (Polyprion americanus), and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fillets. Using two different reaction primers (S1 and L1), RAPD analysis produced clear fingerprints from which the three fish species could be easily identified. This approach is rapid and reliable and offers the potential to detect fraudulent or unintentional mislabeling of these species in routine seafood authentication analysis. PMID:11848581

  9. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (south Florida)

    SciTech Connect

    Jory, D.E.; Iversen, E.S. . Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1989-08-01

    Black, red, and Nassau groupers (Mycteroperca bonaci, Epinephelus morio, and E. striatus, respectively) are widely distributed on rocky bottoms and reefs along the south Florida coast. They are the most valuable marine finfish group in Florida, comprising about 25% of the total value of landings in 1984. The three species can be distinguished by morphometric, meristic, and body color characteristics. Younger fish are typically found in shallow, inshore grass beds, and larger, older fish are generally restricted to deep waters. The three species are protogynous hermaphrodites. Sexual transition can occur at any length over about 300 mm SL. An offshore movement apparently coincides with the onset of sexual maturity. Spawning aggregations have been observed throughout the year, but occur mostly between late spring and early summer. Fecundity estimates range from about 800,000 to 5,000,000 eggs per female. Both the eggs and the larvae are planktonic. Their early life history is poorly known. Larvae probably leave the plankton and become benthic at around 20--30 mm SL. Growth rates range from about 2 to 10 mm/month. The three species are unspecialized carnivores, feeding on a variety of fishes, crustaceans, and mollusks. Interspecific competition for food and shelter may be common because of the overlap in distribution, habitat, size, and food habitats. For the three species, a number of predators and parasites have been reported. Both the black and red groupers have been implicated in ciguatera poisonings in south Florida. 70 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Non-lethal approach identifies variability of δ (15)N values in the fin rays of Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara.

    PubMed

    Tzadik, Orian E; Goddard, Ethan A; Hollander, David J; Koenig, Christopher C; Stallings, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara, is critically endangered throughout its range but has begun to show initial signs of recovery in Florida state waters. As the population continues to rebound, researchers face a pressing need to fill the knowledge gaps about this iconic species. Here, we examined the δ (15)N isotopic records in fin rays collected from Atlantic Goliath Grouper, and related changes of isotopic ratios over time to life history characteristics. Fin-ray analysis was used as a non-lethal technique to sample individuals from two locations at similar latitudes from the west and east coasts of Florida, USA. δ (15)N data were acquired by mechanically separating the annuli of each fin ray and then analyzing the material in an Irradiance Elemental Analyzer Mass Spectrometer. The δ (15)N values were consistent among individuals within populations from each coast of Florida, and mirrored the expected changes over the lives of the fish. Overall, differences were found between δ (15)N values at juvenile life history phases versus adult phases, but the patterns associated with these differences were unique to each coastal group. We demonstrated, for the first time, that δ (15)N values from fin rays can be used to assess the life histories of Atlantic Goliath Grouper. The non-lethal strategies outlined here can be used to acquire information essential to the management of species of concern, such as those that are threatened or endangered. PMID:26082864

  11. Effects of Water Temperature Change on the Hematological Responses and Plasma Cortisol Levels in Growing of Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Chul; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Hyung Bae; Baek, Hea Ja

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the stress response [ethological (operculum movement number (OMN)), hematological (hematocrit and hemoglobin), biochemical (glucose, cortisol and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT))] in red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara during exposure of different water temperature in winter season. This species (Total length, 18.56±0.34 cm) previously maintained in water temperature of 15°C were transferred to 15, 20 and 25°C. During experimental period (7 days), OMN, hematocrit (Ht), glucose and GOT values were significantly high in 15°C when compared to 20 and 25°C. Hemoglobin value was also increased at 15°C, but no significant differences. There was no differences in cortisol levels among the temperature groups. No fish mortality was observed during the experimental period. From these results, 15°C is likely more stressful to red spotted grouper than 20°C and 25°C. These observations confirm that red spotted grouper adapts better to temperatures between 20 and 25°C during the winter season. PMID:25949206

  12. [Control of Neobenedenia melleni (MacCallum, 1927) (Monogenea: Capsalidae) in dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834), reared in floating net cages].

    PubMed

    Sanches, Eduardo Gomes

    2008-01-01

    The precocious diagnosis of pathologies in the aquatic way is constituted in a vital need for the success of the cultivations. Considered as parasites opportunists, infestations of monogeneans capsalides can cause missal mortalities resulting in enormous damages in the cultivations. Juveniles of dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834), with medium weight of 142.74 +/- 38.65 g, presented refusal of the feeding and symptoms as the darkening of the body, erratic swimming, opacity of the eyes and hemorrhages in several areas of the body. Some fishes presented lesions in the eyeball and blindness. After analyses of the fish the occurrence of the parasite Neobenedenia melleni was identified. This work objective was to test therapeutic treatments seeking the monogenean capsalid eradication in juveniles of dusky grouper. Three treatments were tested in form of baths: T1 (fresh water for 10 minutes); T2 (formalin: 1:2,000 for 10 minutes) and T3: (formalin: 1:4,000 for 10 minutes). The treatments were evalueted by scraping epithelium tissue, mounted in slide glass and cover slip and observed by light microscope. It was observed that in the tested conditions T1 and T2 were efficient in the elimination of the monogeneans capsalids without presenting lethality in the dusky grouper. PMID:19245760

  13. Non-lethal approach identifies variability of δ15N values in the fin rays of Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Ethan A.; Hollander, David J.; Koenig, Christopher C.; Stallings, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara, is critically endangered throughout its range but has begun to show initial signs of recovery in Florida state waters. As the population continues to rebound, researchers face a pressing need to fill the knowledge gaps about this iconic species. Here, we examined the δ15N isotopic records in fin rays collected from Atlantic Goliath Grouper, and related changes of isotopic ratios over time to life history characteristics. Fin-ray analysis was used as a non-lethal technique to sample individuals from two locations at similar latitudes from the west and east coasts of Florida, USA. δ15N data were acquired by mechanically separating the annuli of each fin ray and then analyzing the material in an Irradiance Elemental Analyzer Mass Spectrometer. The δ15N values were consistent among individuals within populations from each coast of Florida, and mirrored the expected changes over the lives of the fish. Overall, differences were found between δ15N values at juvenile life history phases versus adult phases, but the patterns associated with these differences were unique to each coastal group. We demonstrated, for the first time, that δ15N values from fin rays can be used to assess the life histories of Atlantic Goliath Grouper. The non-lethal strategies outlined here can be used to acquire information essential to the management of species of concern, such as those that are threatened or endangered. PMID:26082864

  14. Black Hills

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... surfaces with lower absorption appear as green, yellow, orange or red. Black pixels indicate areas where albedo could not be derived, ... notably reduced in extent, and higher albedo areas (yellow, orange and red pixels) have increased. Because incoming sunlight is ...

  15. Single-beam acoustic seabed classification in coral reef environments with application to the assessment of grouper and snapper habitat in the upper Florida Keys, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, Arthur C. R.

    A single-beam acoustic seabed classification system was used to map coral reef environments in the upper Florida Keys, USA, and the Bahamas. The system consisted of two components, both produced by the Quester Tangent Corporation. A QTCView Series V, operating with a 50 kHz sounder, was used for data acquisition, and IMPACT software was used for data processing and classification. First, methodological aspects of system performance were evaluated. Second, the system was applied to the assessment of grouper and snapper habitat. Two methodological properties were explored: transferability (i.e. mapping the same classes at multiple sites) and reproducibility (i.e. surveying one site multiple times). The transferability results showed that a two-class scheme of hard bottom and sediment could be mapped at four sites with overall accuracy ranging from 73% to 86%. The locations of most misclassified echoes had one of two characteristics: a thin sediment veneer overlying hard bottom or within-footprint relief on the order of 0.5 m or greater. Reproducibility experiments showed that consistency of acoustic classes between repeat transects over the same area on different days varied, for the most part, between 50% and 65%. Consistency increased to between 78% and 92% when clustering was limited to two acoustic classes, to between approximately 70% and 100% when only echoes acquired within two degrees of nadir in the pitch direction were used, and to between 81% and 87% when a limited set of features was used for classification. The assessment of grouper and snapper habitat addressed the question whether areas of high fish abundance were associated with characteristic acoustic or geomorphological signatures. The results showed, first, that the hard bottom/sediment classification scheme was a useful first step for stratifying survey areas to increase efficiency of grouper census efforts. Second, an index of acoustic variability complemented the hard bottom

  16. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  17. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol and behaviour of its metabolite florfenicol amine in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Feng, J-B; Huang, D-R; Zhong, M; Liu, P; Dong, J-D

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacokinetics and elimination of florfenicol and florfenicol amine in grouper held in sea water at 23.3 ± 0.8 °C were studied using HPLC method after they were given a single peroral dose of florfenicol at 24 mg kg(-1) body weight. Florfenicol was rapidly absorbed from intestine and distributed extensively to all the tissues examined. The maximum concentrations (Cmax , μg g(-1) or μg mL(-1) ) in plasma and tissues were observed at 2-6 h (the time to reach maximum concentration, Tmax ) except for bile (Tmax  = 24 h) and were in the order of intestine (52.02 ± 25.07) > bile (49.41 ± 28.16) > gill (45.12 ± 11.10) > plasma (28.28 ± 5.43) > liver (21.97 ± 12.08) > muscle (21.63 ± 6.12) > kidney (20.88 ± 11.28) > skin (19.10 ± 5.88). The drug distribution level was higher in plasma than in extravascular tissues except for bile, based on the ratios of the area under concentration-time curve between tissue and plasma (AUCtissue/plasma ). The elimination of florfenicol was rapid in fish, and the corresponding half-lives (T1/2β ) in the order of magnitude were bile (13.92 h) > muscle or liver (12.31 h) > skin (11.77 h) > plasma (11.57) > gill (11.04 h) > intestine (10.55 h) > kidney (10.05 h). The delayed Tmax , lower Cmax and longer T1/2β for florfenicol amine compared with florfenicol were measured in grouper. PMID:26525310

  18. 75 FR 60008 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...NMFS closes the commercial sector for black sea bass in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the South Atlantic. NMFS has determined that the quota for the commercial sector for black sea bass will have been reached by October 7, 2010. This closure is necessary to protect the black sea bass...

  19. A novel heart-cell line from brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and its susceptibility to iridovirus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y-B; Fan, T-J; Jiang, G-J; Xu, X-H; Sun, A

    2010-04-01

    A novel cell line (bmGH) was established from the heart of brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and its viral susceptibility was evaluated. The bmGH cells have been subcultured to passage 65 in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium:Ham's nutrient mixture F-12 (1:1) medium (DMEM/F12) which was further supplemented with foetal bovine serum (FBS), carboxymethyl-chitosan, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) at 24 degrees C. The heart cells have a fibroblastic morphology and proliferated to confluence 14 days later. The cells grew at a steady rate during subsequent subculture and had a population doubling time of 40.3 h at passage 60. Karyotype analysis showed that these cells exhibited chromosomal aneuploidy with a modal chromosome number of 48. The results of viral susceptibility characterization revealed that cytopathic effects (CPE) of bmGH cells appeared after infection by two iridoviruses, turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV) and lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV). A large number of TRBIV and LCDV particles were also observed in the infected bmGH cells by electron microscope examination. All of these facts indicate that the bmGH cell line established here may serve as a valuable tool for studies of cell-virus interactions and has potential applications in fish virus isolation, propagation and vaccine development. PMID:20409167

  20. Fishery of the Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) based on local ecological knowledge and fishery records in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; González-Salas, Carlos; Tuz-Sulub, Armin; Villegas-Hernández, Harold

    2009-09-01

    The Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, a large-bodied (approximately 2.5 m TL, > 400 kg) and critically endangered fish (Epinephelidae), is highly vulnerable to overfishing. Although protected from fishing in many countries, its exploitation in Mexico is unregulated; a situation that puts its populations at risk. Fishery records of E. itajara are scarce, which prevents determination of its fishery status. This work aimed to elucidate the E. itajara fishery in the northern Yucatan Peninsula by 1) analyzing available catch records and 2) interviewing veteran fishermen (local ecological knowledge) from two traditional landing sites: Dzilam de Bravo and Puerto Progreso. Historic fishery records from two fishing cooperatives were analyzed in order to elucidate the current situation and offer viable alternatives for conservation and management. Catches have decreased severely. Local knowledge obtained from fishermen represented a very important source of information for reconstructing the fisheries history of this species. Conservation measures that incorporate regional and international regulations on critically endangered fish species are suggested. PMID:19928454

  1. Characterization of apoptosis induced by grouper iridovirus in two newly established cell lines from barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Lai, Y S; Chiou, P P; Chen, W J; Chen, Y C; Chen, C W; Chiu, I S; Chen, S D; Cheng, Y H; Chang, C Y

    2008-11-01

    Two new cell lines have been established from the muscle and swim bladder tissues of barramundi, Lates calcarifer, and designated as BM (barramundi muscle) and BSB (barramundi swimbladder), respectively. The cells multiplied well at 28 degrees C in Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum, and have been continuously subcultured more than 100 times to date. Morphologically, BM cells were mostly fibroblastic, whereas BSB were mostly epithelial. Both cell lines were susceptible to grouper iridovirus (GIV) and displayed characteristics of apoptosis after viral infection. The induction of apoptosis was further assayed in GIV-infected BM and BSB cells by various methods. The inhibition of cell growth by GIV was demonstrated by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Morphological observations revealed typical apoptotic features in the infected cells, including cell shrinkage and rounding, chromosome condensation and formation of apoptotic body-like vesicles. Chromosome fragmentation was detected by DNA laddering and TUNEL assays. Finally, the appearance of phosphotidylserine on the outer leaflet of apoptotic cell membranes was confirmed by annexin V staining. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by GIV in fish cells. PMID:19238757

  2. Grouper spawning aggregations: Be careful what you measure and how you measure it: A rebuttal of Golbuu and Friedlander (2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Patrick L.; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Donaldson, Terry J.

    2013-05-01

    Golbuu and Friedlander (2011, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 92:223) used faulty methods, improper interpretation of historical data, and assumptions of little or no validity to conclude that despite protected status spawning aggregations of three groupers in Palau, western Caroline Islands declined between 1995-96 and 2005-06. Alternate survey methods indicated no drastic declines in these aggregations over the same period. Golbuu and Friedlander (2011) failed to document the overall distribution of fishes in their aggregations, used poorly-located inadequate transects to sample the overall aggregation area, and did not identify and sample peak aggregations days. The use of visual length estimates as the basis for biomass values may introduce errors. Comparison of aggregation persistence between reference ("fished out") and protected sites is not possible because equivalent protected and exploited sites are not available. Different species at multi-species spawning aggregation sites commonly occupy somewhat discrete locations, with the densest concentrations (core areas) of one often being separated from those for another. There is usually a single peak day each month of a lunar-based aggregation, but it requires multiple days data collection to determine that peak. The shortcomings identified provide important lessons for the study of fish spawning aggregations and signal caution about the incomplete documentation of sampling methodology. Overly simplistic aggregation sampling methodologies may be superficially credible, but are not reflective of a complicated reality. Monitoring needs to produce a definitive repeatable baseline against which data can be gathered authoritatively in the future.

  3. Involvement of pituitary gonadotropins, gonadal steroids and breeding season in sex change of protogynous dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), induced by a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carlos Eduardo de O; Araújo, Bruno C; Mello, Paulo H; Narcizo, Amanda de M; Rodrigues-Filho, Jandyr A; Medrado, Andreone T; Zampieri, Ricardo A; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2013-10-01

    Two experiments were performed using the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (100mg/kg) to promote sex change, from female-to-male, in protogynous dusky grouper. One experiment was performed during the breeding season (spring) and the other at the end of the breeding season (summer). During the spring, AI promoted sex change after 9 weeks and the sperm produced was able to fertilize grouper oocytes. During the summer, the sex change was incomplete; intersex individuals were present and sperm was not released by any of the animals. Sex changed gonads had a lamellar architecture; cysts of spermatocytes and spermatozoa in the lumen of the germinal compartment. In the spring, after 4 weeks, 11ketotestosterone (11KT) levels were higher in the AI than in control fish, and after 9 weeks, coincident with semen release, testosterone levels increased in the AI group, while 11KT returned to the initial levels. Estradiol (E2) levels remained unchanged during the experimental period. Instead of decreasing throughout the period, as in control group, 17 α-OH progesterone levels did not change in the AI-treated fish, resulting in higher values after 9 weeks when compared with control fish. fshβ and lhβ gene expression in the AI animals were lower compared with control fish after 9 weeks. The use of AI was effective to obtain functional males during the breeding season. The increase in androgens, modulated by gonadotropins, triggered the sex change, enabling the development of male germ cells, whereas a decrease in E2 levels was not required to change sex in dusky grouper. PMID:23792264

  4. The bioactivity of teleost IL-6: IL-6 protein in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) induces Th2 cell differentiation pathway and antibody production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Han-Tso; Foung, Yi-Fan; Han-You Lin, John

    2012-10-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a protein secreted by T cells and macrophages and plays an important role in immune response. IL-6 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of T cells, and elicits immunoglobulin production in B cells. In this study, the cDNA il-6 (gil-6) sequence of the orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was obtained. The deduced IL-6 (gIL-6) protein comprised 223 amino acids, the sequence shared approximately 30% similarity with mammalian IL-6, and between 47% and 69% similarity with other available teleost IL-6. The protein comprises the signal peptide, the IL-6 family signature, and conserved amino acid residues found in IL-6 sequences of other teleost. In order to understand the bioactivity and influence of gIL-6 on humoral immune response, recombinant gIL-6 (rgIL-6) synthesized by prokaryotes was injected into orange spotted groupers, and the immune-related gene expression at various times in various organs was observed. Our results revealed that the Th1 specific transcription factor t-bet was down-regulated and Th2 specific transcription factors gata3, and c-maf were up-regulated in immune organs, following IL-6 stimulation. Additionally, higher levels of igm mRNA and translated protein were detected in rgIL-6 stimulated fish. These results indicate that IL-6 in groupers regulates the differentiation of naїve T helper cells into Th2 cells and elicits the production of antibodies. PMID:22858412

  5. Fatty acid binding protein 10 in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides): characterization and regulation under pH and temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zeng-hua; Liu, Yu-feng; Wang, Wei-Na; Xin, Yu; Xie, Fu-xing; Wang, An-Li

    2012-04-01

    We have isolated and characterized a fatty acid binding protein from the liver of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Amino acid sequence similarity of the Ec-FABP (E. coioides-FABP) was highest to FABP10s isolated from the livers of catfish, chicken, salamander and iguana. The open-reading frame of the Ec-FABP codes for a protein of 14.0 kDa with a calculated isoelectric point of 8.5. We first expressed a FABP10 protein from orange-spotted grouper (E. coioides) in Pichia pastoris, and then characterized the antioxidative potential of our recombinant Ec-FABP by DCF fluorescence assay. RT-PCR assays showed that endogenous Ec-FABP mRNA is most strongly expressed in liver with the most abundance and intestine. Change in the groupers' blood cells respiratory burst activity was examined during and after exposure to the pH and temperature stress using flow cytometry. Further analysis of Ec-FABP gene expression in liver tissue by quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that Ec-FABP transcript levels increased when the fish were exposed to both pH and temperature stress, but the time when its mRNA expression level peaked differed under these stresses. Western blot analyses confirmed that the Ec-FABP protein was strongly expressed in the liver after exposure to the pH and temperature stress. These results suggest that Ec-FABP expression is stimulated by pH and temperature stress and that it may play important roles in general adaptive and antioxidant responses. PMID:22182678

  6. Entry of a Novel Marine DNA Virus, Singapore Grouper Iridovirus, into Host Cells Occurs via Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Macropinocytosis in a pH-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaowen; Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Hao, Xian; Xu, Haijiao; Cai, Mingjun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Iridoviruses are nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses which cause great economic losses in the aquaculture industry but also show significant threat to global biodiversity. However, a lack of host cells has resulted in poor progress in clarifying iridovirus behavior. We investigated the crucial events during virus entry using a combination of single-virus tracking and biochemical assays, based on the established virus-cell infection model for Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). SGIV infection in host cells was strongly inhibited when cells were pretreated with drugs blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis, including sucrose and chlorpromazine. Inhibition of key regulators of macropinocytosis, including Na+/H+ exchanger, Rac1 GTPase, p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), protein kinase C (PKC), and myosin II, significantly reduced SGIV uptake. Cy5-labeled SGIV particles were observed to colocalize with clathrin and macropinosomes. In contrast, disruption of cellular cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin and nystatin had no effect on virus infection, suggesting that SGIV entered grouper cells via the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway and macropinocytosis but not via caveola-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, inhibitors of endosome acidification such as chloroquine and bafilomycin A1 blocked virus infection, indicating that SGIV entered cells in a pH-dependent manner. In addition, SGIV particles were observed to be transported along both microtubules and actin filaments, and intracellular SGIV motility was remarkably impaired by depolymerization of microtubules or actin filaments. The results of this study for the first time demonstrate that not only the clathrin-dependent pathway but also macropinocytosis are involved in fish DNA enveloped virus entry, thus providing a convenient tactic for exploring the life cycle of DNA viruses. IMPORTANCE Virus entry into host cells is critically important for initiating infections and is usually recognized as an ideal target for

  7. Effects of a recombinant complement component C3b functional fragment α2MR (α2-macroglobulin receptor) additive on the immune response of juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after the exposure to cold shock challenge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-08-01

    The effects of Ec-α2MR (Epinephelus coiodes-α2-macroglobulin receptor) on growth performance, enzymatic activity, respiratory burst, MDA level, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging percentage and immune-related gene expressions of the juvenile orange-spotted grouper were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with α2MR additive was used to feed the orange-spotted grouper for six weeks. Although a slight increase was observed in the specific growth rate, survival rate and weight gain, no significance was observed among different group. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to cold stress. Respiratory burst activity and MDA level decreased significantly in α2MR additive group by comparing with the control and additive control group, while a sharp increase of ACP activity, ALP activity, total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radial scavenging percentage was observed in α2MR additive group. qRT-PCR analyses confirmed that the up-regulated mRNA expressions of C3, TNF1, TNF2, IL-6, CTL, LysC, SOD1 and SOD2 were observed in α2MR additive group at 20 °C. These results showed that α2MR additive may moderate the immune response in grouper following cold shock challenge. PMID:25917969

  8. Low connectivity between Mediterranean marine protected areas: a biophysical modeling approach for the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus.

    PubMed

    Andrello, Marco; Mouillot, David; Beuvier, Jonathan; Albouy, Camille; Thuiller, Wilfried; Manel, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are major tools to protect biodiversity and sustain fisheries. For species with a sedentary adult phase and a dispersive larval phase, the effectiveness of MPA networks for population persistence depends on connectivity through larval dispersal. However, connectivity patterns between MPAs remain largely unknown at large spatial scales. Here, we used a biophysical model to evaluate connectivity between MPAs in the Mediterranean Sea, a region of extremely rich biodiversity that is currently protected by a system of approximately a hundred MPAs. The model was parameterized according to the dispersal capacity of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus, an archetypal conservation-dependent species, with high economic importance and emblematic in the Mediterranean. Using various connectivity metrics and graph theory, we showed that Mediterranean MPAs are far from constituting a true, well-connected network. On average, each MPA was directly connected to four others and MPAs were clustered into several groups. Two MPAs (one in the Balearic Islands and one in Sardinia) emerged as crucial nodes for ensuring multi-generational connectivity. The high heterogeneity of MPA distribution, with low density in the South-Eastern Mediterranean, coupled with a mean dispersal distance of 120 km, leaves about 20% of the continental shelf without any larval supply. This low connectivity, here demonstrated for a major Mediterranean species, poses new challenges for the creation of a future Mediterranean network of well-connected MPAs providing recruitment to the whole continental shelf. This issue is even more critical given that the expected reduction of pelagic larval duration following sea temperature rise will likely decrease connectivity even more. PMID:23861917

  9. Does mating behaviour affect connectivity in marine fishes? Comparative population genetics of two protogynous groupers (Family Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Portnoy, D S; Hollenbeck, C M; Renshaw, M A; Cummings, N J; Gold, J R

    2013-01-01

    Pelagic larval duration (PLD) has been hypothesized to be the primary predictor of connectivity in marine fishes; however, few studies have examined the effects that adult reproductive behaviour may have on realized dispersal. We assessed gene flow (connectivity) by documenting variation in microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequences in two protogynous species of groupers, the aggregate spawning red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, and the single-male, harem-spawning coney, Cephalopholis fulva, to ask whether reproductive strategy affects connectivity. Samples of both species were obtained from waters off three islands (Puerto Rico, St. Thomas and St. Croix) in the Caribbean Sea. Despite the notion that aggregate spawning of red hind may facilitate larval retention, stronger signals of population structure were detected in the harem-spawning coney. Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on microsatellites, involved St. Croix (red hind and coney) and the west coast of Puerto Rico (coney). Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on mitochondrial DNA, involved St. Croix (coney only). Genetic divergence in both species was stronger for microsatellites than for mitochondrial DNA, suggesting sex-biased dispersal in both species. Long-term migration rates, based on microsatellites, indicated asymmetric gene flow for both species in the same direction as mean surface currents in the region. Red hind had higher levels of variation in microsatellites and lower levels of variation in mitochondrial DNA. Long-term effective size and effective number of breeders were greater for red hind; estimates of θ(f) , a proxy for long-term effective female size, were the same in both species. Patterns of gene flow in both species appear to stem in part from shared aspects of larval and adult biology, local bathymetry and surface current patterns. Differences in connectivity and levels of genetic variation between the species, however, likely stem from differences in behaviour

  10. Low Connectivity between Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas: A Biophysical Modeling Approach for the Dusky Grouper Epinephelus marginatus

    PubMed Central

    Andrello, Marco; Mouillot, David; Beuvier, Jonathan; Albouy, Camille; Thuiller, Wilfried; Manel, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are major tools to protect biodiversity and sustain fisheries. For species with a sedentary adult phase and a dispersive larval phase, the effectiveness of MPA networks for population persistence depends on connectivity through larval dispersal. However, connectivity patterns between MPAs remain largely unknown at large spatial scales. Here, we used a biophysical model to evaluate connectivity between MPAs in the Mediterranean Sea, a region of extremely rich biodiversity that is currently protected by a system of approximately a hundred MPAs. The model was parameterized according to the dispersal capacity of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus, an archetypal conservation-dependent species, with high economic importance and emblematic in the Mediterranean. Using various connectivity metrics and graph theory, we showed that Mediterranean MPAs are far from constituting a true, well-connected network. On average, each MPA was directly connected to four others and MPAs were clustered into several groups. Two MPAs (one in the Balearic Islands and one in Sardinia) emerged as crucial nodes for ensuring multi-generational connectivity. The high heterogeneity of MPA distribution, with low density in the South-Eastern Mediterranean, coupled with a mean dispersal distance of 120 km, leaves about 20% of the continental shelf without any larval supply. This low connectivity, here demonstrated for a major Mediterranean species, poses new challenges for the creation of a future Mediterranean network of well-connected MPAs providing recruitment to the whole continental shelf. This issue is even more critical given that the expected reduction of pelagic larval duration following sea temperature rise will likely decrease connectivity even more. PMID:23861917

  11. How black holes stay black

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzel, Reinhard

    1998-01-01

    The dimness of the black holes located at the center of galaxies surprises astrophysicists, but a possible explanation has been found in the behavior of the plasma they consume. In a hot accretion flow, the gas is ionized to form a plasma. The heavy ions carry most of the mass, and thus of the energy, whereas the electrons produce most of the radiation. But, crucially, in a low-density flow the temperatures of the ions and of the electrons may decouple. Consequently, most of the gravitational energy would be viscously converted into thermal energy of the ions and not radiated away by the electrons. Instead, the gravitational energy is carried with the flow across the event horizon of the black hole. Such a flow leads to a low radiation efficiency even in a highly dissipative accretion disk.

  12. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  13. On Responsible Black Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrakhan, Louis

    1985-01-01

    Black leaders in the United States must unite among themselves and work for the Black community. Black elected officials should know the will of their constituency before taking a particular stance. Finally, Black leaders should ally themselves with international leaders friendly to the cause of American Blacks. (GC)

  14. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  15. Orexin-A stimulates the expression of GLUT4 in a glucose dependent manner in the liver of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Sun, Caiyun; Wang, Bin; Yan, Peipei; Wu, Amin; Yang, Guokun; Li, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the central regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wake cycle and other physiological functions. Orexin-A can regulate energy metabolism and increase glucose uptake, suggesting a role in glucose metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of orexin-A on GLUT4 mRNA and protein levels and the intracellular signaling mechanisms mediating orexin-A activity in the hepatocytes of grouper. Our results demonstrate that intraperitoneal injection of orexin-A increased the expression of GLUT4 in the liver, and this effect was significantly enhanced by co-injection of glucose. Treatment of primary cultured hepatocytes with either orexin-A or glucose alone had no effect on the expression of GLUT4, while co-treatment with orexin-A and glucose significantly increased the expression of GLUT4. This stimulatory effect was partially blocked by inhibitors to ERK1/2, JNK or p38 MAPK and was further blocked by an orexin receptor antagonist, which indicates that orexin-A could stimulate the expression of GLUT4 in a glucose dependent manner in primary hepatocytes via ERK1/2, JNK and p38 signaling. Our results suggest that orexin-A could play a pivotal role in stimulating glucose utilization in grouper, for a long-term goal, which might be useful in reducing costs in the aquaculture industry. PMID:27264958

  16. The effects of fishing, climate change, and other anthropogenic disturbances on red grouper and other reef fishes in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Felicia C; Koenig, Christopher C

    2010-08-01

    In this article, we consider the potential effects of anthropogenic disturbances on marine fish species known or suspected to be habitat engineers. The three species of interest inhabit different marine habitats at different life stages, and therefore can have significant influences across the sea floor at broad spatial scales. The primary species include the shallow-water Atlantic goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara), which inhabits mangrove root systems as juveniles, and caves, shipwrecks, and rocky reefs as adults; red grouper (E. morio), which excavates habitat throughout its benthic life in Karst regions of the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic, from the coast to the shelf-edge; and tilefish (Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps), a species that lives on the continental slope and constructs elaborate, pueblo-esque burrows. The anthropogenic disturbances of greatest interest in the Gulf of Mexico include fishing, hypoxia, red tide, oil and gas exploration, and climatic change. We suggest that to understand the broader effects of both natural and anthropogenic disturbances on biomass and productivity in these species requires that we first understand the strength of interactions between them and the other species residing within their communities (e.g., predators, prey, commensals, and mutualists). PMID:21558199

  17. Administration of recombinant Reishi immunomodulatory protein (rLZ-8) diet enhances innate immune responses and elicits protection against nervous necrosis virus in grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yen-Chou; Sheu, Fuu; Lee, Guo-Chi; Tsai, Ming-Wei; Hung, Chih-Liang; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2012-06-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection during larvae and juvenile stage in grouper (Epinephelus coioides) has caused severe economic losses in the aquaculture industry in Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of recombinant Reishi protein, rLZ-8, on the innate immune responses and the viral resisting ability in fish. Groupers were fed with rLZ-8 supplemented diet (1.25-37.5 mg (rLZ-8)/kg(diet)), and the cytokine gene expression, innate immune responses, and survival rate after NNV challenge were examined. The fish fed with rLZ-8 diet showed 6- to 11-fold upregulated TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression, along with significant increased respiratory burst and phagocytic activity. Moreover, feeding the fish with 37.5 mg/kg rLZ-8 diet elicited significant improvement in post viral challenge survival rate (85.7%). These discoveries indicated that rLZ-8 could be utilized as an ant-pathogen immunostimulant, and provided a new candidate to fight against NNV infection in fish. PMID:22366063

  18. Protective immunity against nervous necrosis virus in convict grouper Epinephelus septemfasciatus following vaccination with virus-like particles produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wi, Ga Ram; Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kang, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2015-05-15

    Infection with nervous necrosis virus (NNV) causes viral nervous necrosis, which inflicts serious economic losses in marine fish cultivation. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are protein complexes consisting of recombinant virus capsid proteins, whose shapes are similar to native virions. VLPs are considered a novel vaccine platform because they are not infectious and have the ability to induce neutralizing antibodies efficiently. However, there have been few studies of protective immune responses employing virus challenge following immunization with NNV VLPs, and this is important for evaluating the utility of the vaccine. In the present study, we produced red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) NNV (RGNNV) VLPs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and investigated protective immune responses in convict grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus) following intraperitoneal injection and oral immunization with the RGNNV VLPs. The parenterally administered VLPs elicited neutralizing antibody with high efficacy, and provided the fish with full protection against RGNNV challenge: 100% of the immunized fish survived compared with only 37% of the control fish receiving phosphate-buffered saline. RGNNV VLPs administered orally provoked neutralizing antibody systemically and conferred protective immunity against virus challenge: however only 57% of the fish survived. Our results demonstrate that RGNNV VLP produced in yeast has great potential as vaccine in fish. PMID:25759291

  19. 76 FR 63563 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure of the 2011-2012 Recreational Sector for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... FR 82280, December 30, 2010), set the recreational ACL for black sea bass in the South Atlantic EEZ... recreational ACL beginning October 4, 2011, for the 2011-2012 fishing year (76 FR 61285) due to an ACL overage... the South Atlantic; Closure of the 2011-2012 Recreational Sector for Black Sea Bass in the...

  20. 77 FR 32408 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... published a notice of availability for Amendment 18A and requested public comment (77 FR 4754). On March 23, 2012, NMFS published a proposed rule for Amendment 18A and requested public comment (77 FR 16991). NMFS..., established ACLs and AMs for black sea bass to ensure overfishing of black sea bass does not occur (75...

  1. 76 FR 23930 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... Snapper and Gag Commercial Trip Limits Amendment 17B to the FMP (75 FR 82280, December 30, 2010), recently... recreational bag limit for black sea bass, establish a split season for the black sea bass commercial quota... ended for an overfished stock, and biomass increases, a species specific ACL is likely to be met...

  2. 76 FR 41141 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XA552 Fisheries of the Caribbean...-2012 Commercial Sector for Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS closes the commercial sector for black sea bass in the exclusive economic zone...

  3. Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Black Sea in eastern Russia is experiencing an ongoing phytoplankton bloom. This image, the most recent in a series that began in early may, shows the waters to be even more colorful than before. part of the increased brightness may be due to the presence of sun glint , especially in the center of the sea. However, more organisms appear to be present as well, their photosynthetic pigments reflecting different wavelengths of light.This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured on June 15, 2002.

  4. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Black nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of the black nightshade plant. This article is for information only. ... Poisons are found in the black nightshade plant, especially in the unripened fruit and leaves.

  5. Radionic nonuniform black strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.

  6. Why Black-on-Black Homicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeff, Morris F. X., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The causes of homicides committed against Blacks by Blacks are examined. Major preventive measures are said to be equal opportunity, better jobs, reduction of racial discrimination, elimination of organized crime, removal of drugs from community, and better schools. (JCD)

  7. A comprehensive description and evolutionary analysis of 22 grouper (perciformes, epinephelidae) mitochondrial genomes with emphasis on two novel genome organizations.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xuan; Qu, Meng; Zhang, Xiang; Ding, Shaoxiong

    2013-01-01

    Groupers of the family Epinephelidae are a diverse and economically valuable group of reef fishes. To investigate the evolution of their mitochondrial genomes we characterized and compared these genomes among 22 species, 17 newly sequenced. Among these fishes we identified three distinct genome organizations, two of them never previously reported in vertebrates. In 19 of these species, mitochondrial genomes followed the typical vertebrate canonical organization with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, two rRNAs, and a non-coding control region. Differing from this, members of genus Variola have an extra tRNA-Ile between tRNA-Val and 16S rRNA. Evidence suggests that this evolved from tRNA-Val via a duplication event due to slipped strand mispairing during replication. Additionally, Cephalopholisargus has an extra tRNA-Asp in the midst of the control region, likely resulting from long-range duplication of the canonical tRNA-Asp through illicit priming of mitochondrial replication by tRNAs. Along with their gene contents, we characterized the regulatory elements of these mitochondrial genomes' control regions, including putative termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. Looking at the mitochondrial genomic constituents, rRNA and tRNA are the most conserved, followed by protein-coding genes, and non-coding regions are the most divergent. Divergence rates vary among the protein-coding genes, and the three cytochrome oxidase subunits (COI, II, III) are the most conserved, while NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and the ATP synthase subunit 8 (ATP8) are the most divergent. We then tested the phylogenetic utility of this new mt genome data using 12 protein-coding genes of 48 species from the suborder Percoidei. From this, we provide further support for the elevation of the subfamily Epinephelinae to family Epinephelidae, the resurrection of the genus Hyporthodus, and the combination of the monotypic genera Anyperodon and Cromileptes to genus

  8. Isolation and characterization of cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b promoters in the protogynous hermaphrodite orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weimin; Lu, Huijie; Jiang, Haiyan; Li, Mu; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Qiongyou; Zhang, Lihong

    2012-02-01

    Aromatase (CYP19A1) catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens. In teleosts, duplicated copies of cyp19a1 genes, namely cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b, were identified, however, the transcriptional regulation of these two genes remains poorly understood. In the present study, the 5'-flanking regions of the orange-spotted grouper cyp19a1a (gcyp19a1a) and cyp19a1b (gcyp19a1b) genes were isolated and characterized. The proximal promoter regions of both genes were relatively conserved when compared to those of the other teleosts. Notably, a conserved FOXO transcriptional factor binding site was firstly reported in the proximal promoter of gcyp19a1a, and deletion of the region (-112 to -60) containing this site significantly decreased the promoter activities. The deletion of the region (-246 to -112) containing the two conserved FTZ-F1 sites also dramatically decreased the transcriptional activities of gcyp19a1a promoter, and both two FTZ-F1 sites were shown to be stimulatory cis-acting elements. A FTZ-F1 homologue isolated from ricefield eel (eFTZ-F1) up-regulated gcyp19a1a promoter activities possibly via the FTZ-F1 sites, however, a previously identified orange-spotted grouper FTZ-F1 homologue (gFTZ-F1) did not activate the transcription of gcyp19a1a promoter unexpectedly. As to gcyp19a1b promoter, all the deletion constructs did not show good promoter activities in either TM4 or U251-MG cells. Estradiol (100nM) up-regulated gcyp19a1b promoter activities by about 13- and 36-fold in TM4 and U251-MG cells, respectively, via the conserved ERE motif, but did not stimulate gcyp19a1a promoter activities. These results are helpful to further elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b expression in the orange-spotted grouper as well as other teleosts. PMID:22197207

  9. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of PPAR gamma in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after the Vibrio alginolyticus challenge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shengwei; Huang, Youhua; Xie, Fuxing; Huang, Xiaohong; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Weina; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-04-01

    PPAR gamma was a key nuclear receptor, playing an important role in the immune defense and the anti-inflammatory mechanism. In this study, the full-length PPAR gamma (EcPPAR gamma) was obtained, containing a 5'UTR of 133 bp, an ORF of 1602 bp and a 3'UTR of 26 bp besides the poly (A) tail. The EcPPAR gamma gene encoded a protein of 533 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 60.02 KDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.26. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that EcPPAR gamma consisted of the conserved residues and the domains known to be critical for the PPAR gamma function. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that EcPPAR gamma transcript was expressed in all the examined tissue, while the strong expression was observed in intestine, followed by the expression in liver, gill, spleen heart, kidney and muscle. Vibrio challenge could stimulate the inflammatory response in grouper and induce a sharp increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, while the up-regulation of vibrio-induced inflammation could also increase the non-specific immune defense. The groupers challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a sharp increase of EcPPAR gamma transcript in immune tissues. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that EcPPAR gamma was distributed in the nucleus. Furthermore, overexpression of EcPPAR gamma could down-regulated the expression of IL1b, IL6, TNF1 and TNF2. In addition, the administration of PPAR gamma antagonist, GW9662, could up-regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, including IL1b, IL6, TNF1 and TNF2. Together, these results indicated that EcPPAR gamma serving as a negative regulator of pro-inflammatory cytokines may play an important role in the immune defense against vibrio-induced inflammation in grouper. PMID:25592876

  10. Black Entrepreneurship in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Shelley; Pryde, Paul

    The economic condition of black Americans is discussed, proceeding from the assumption that black economic progress does not depend on a renewed struggle for unobtained civil rights, but rather on the creative response of black Americans to economic opportunity and problems. In the long run, black economic development must rely on the…

  11. Black Teachers on Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michele

    The importance to the black community of teaching as a profession can be seen in reference material and other literature about blacks, but this book is unique in presenting the voices of black teachers themselves. The stories of 20 black teachers, born between 1905 and 1973, are told in their own voices. These 20 life interviews collect the…

  12. Graduating Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…

  13. 50 CFR 622.33 - Caribbean EEZ seasonal and/or area closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., black, tiger, yellowfin, or yellowedge grouper. From February 1 through April 30, each year, no person may fish for or possess red, black, tiger, yellowfin, or yellowedge grouper in or from the...

  14. Capillaria plectropomi n. sp. (Nematoda: Capillariidae), a new intestinal parasite of the leopard coral grouper Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae) off New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2014-01-01

    A new nematode species, Capillaria plectropomi n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described from the intestine of the leopard coral grouper Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède) from coral reefs off New Caledonia. The new species, belonging to the subgenus Neocapillaria Moravec, 1987, differs from other congeneric species of this subgenus from marine fishes mainly in the length (168–186 μm), shape and structure of the spicule. It is characterized, in the male, by the presence of two well-developed dorsolateral caudal lobes, a pair of lateral papillae, a heavily sclerotized spicule with many rough transverse grooves in the middle part, a spinose spicular sheath, and in the female, by eggs measuring 60–66 × 27 μm without protruding polar plugs. The buccal cavity contains a small finger-shaped stylet. Capillaria plectropomi n. sp. is the first known species of this genus parasitizing fishes of the perciform family Serranidae. PMID:25531932

  15. Six new and one previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) infecting the gills of groupers (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Panama.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Violante-González, Juan; Rojas Herrera, Agustín A

    2011-02-01

    Six new and 1 previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Diplectanidae) are described and/or reported from the gill lamellae of 5 serranid (Perciformes) fish species from the Pacific waters in Guerrero State of Mexico and Panama City, Panama. These species are Pseudorhabdosynochus guerreroensis n. sp. from the Pacific mutton hamlet Alphestes inmaculatus Breder (type host), rivulated mutton hamlet Alphestes multiguttatus (Günther), and spotted grouper Epinephelus analogus Gill from Mexico; Pseudorhabdosynochus urceolus n. sp. from the Pacific graysby Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner) from Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus spirani n. sp. from the starry grouper Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns) from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus fulgidus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus tabogaensis n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus anulus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; and Pseudorhabdosynochus amplidiscatum (Bravo-Hollis, 1954) Kritsky and Beverley-Burton, 1986 from E. analogus and E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama. All new species are mainly distinguished from other species of the genus by the shape and size of the sclerotized vagina and haptoral structures. The present specimens of Alphestes, Cephalopholis, and Epinephelus spp. represent new host records and Panama represents a new geographic record for species of Pseudorhabdosynochus. The apparent common feature supporting a close similarity of these diplectanids is a single, secondary ejaculatory bulb with thickened wall. PMID:21348602

  16. Effects of small peptides, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on growth performance, digestive enzymes, and oxidative stress in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, juveniles reared in artificial seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Cheng, Yongzhou; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhaopu; Long, Xiaohua

    2016-04-01

    Aquaculture production efficiency may increase by using feed additives. This study investigated the effects of diff erent dietary additives [w/w: 2% small peptides, 0.01% probiotics (Bacillus licheniformis) and 0.2% prebiotics (inulin)] on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, and oxidative stress in juvenile Epinephelus coioides reared in artificial seawater of two salt concentrations (13.5 vs. 28.5). Weight gain rate was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides, B. licheniformis, inulin, or synbiotics than that in fish fed the basal diet; the greatest weight gain rate was found in fish fed the small peptide treatment [56.0% higher than basal diet]. Higher feed efficiency was detected in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides than that of fish in the other dietary treatments. Total protease activity in the stomach and intestines was highest in fish fed the small peptide-treated diet, whereas lipase activity was highest in those fed synbiotics (combination of Bacillus licheniformis and inulin) than that in fish fed the other treatments. Antioxidant enzyme (total superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde content were higher in fish receiving the dietary supplements and maintained in artificial seawater containing 13.5 salinity compared with those in the control (28.5). Hepatic catalase activity in grouper fed the diets with small peptides or synbiotics decreased significantly compared with that in control fish. Overall, the three types of additives improved growth rate of juvenile grouper and digestive enzymes activities to varying degrees but did not effectively improve antioxidant capacity under low-salinity stress conditions.

  17. Molecular Cloning, Functional Characterization and Nutritional Regulation of the Putative Elongase Elovl5 in the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Songlin; Yuan, Yuhui; Wang, Tianjiao; Xu, Wei; Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui

    2016-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are widely studied in fish species, as fish are the main source of n-3 LC-PUFAs for human beings. In the present study, a putative gene for elovl5, which encodes a key enzyme involved in LC-PUFA synthesis, was cloned and functionally characterized, and its transcription in response to dietary n-3 LC-PUFA exposure was investigated. Moreover, cell transfection and luciferase assays were used to explore the mechanism underlying the regulation of elovl5. The full-length cDNA of elovl5 was 1242 bp (excluding the polyA tail), including an 885 bp coding region encoding a 295 amino acid protein that possesses all of the characteristic features of elovl proteins. Functional characterization of heterologously expressed grouper Elovl5 indicated that it effectively elongates both C18 (18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3) and C20 (20:4n-6 and C20:5n-3) PUFAs, but not the C22 substrates. The expression of elovl5 was significantly affected by dietary n-3 LC-PUFA exposure: a high n-3 LC-PUFA level repressed the expression of elovl5 by slightly down-regulating the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 and liver X receptor (LXR) α, which are major regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism. Promoter studies showed that grouper elovl5 reporter activity was induced by over-expression of LXRα but not SREBP-1. This finding suggests that elovl5 is a direct target of LXRα, which is involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs via transcriptional regulation of elovl5. These findings may contribute to a further understanding of the mechanism underlying the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in marine fish species. PMID:26950699

  18. Pleurocidin Peptide Enhances Grouper Anti-Vibrio harveyi Immunity Elicited by Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-Encapsulated Recombinant Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Huang, Wan-Ling; Kau, Sau-Wei; Yang, Yun-Pei; Yang, Chung-Da

    2014-01-01

    Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as pleurocidin (PLE), play important roles in activating and recruiting immune cells, thereby contributing to subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to use PLE peptide as a potent adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of V. harveyi recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH). In order to prepare a controlled-release vaccine, PLE peptide and rGAPDH protein were simultaneously encapsulated into polymeric microparticles made from the biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) polymer. The resulting PLG-encapsulated PLE plus rGAPDH (PLG-PLE/rGAPDH) microparticles, 3.21–6.27 μm in diameter, showed 72%–83% entrapment efficiency and durably released both PLE and rGAPDH for a long 30-day period. Following peritoneal immunization in grouper (Epinephelus coioides), PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.05, nested design) long-lasting GAPDH-specific immunity (serum titers and lymphocyte proliferation) than PLG-encapsulated rGAPDH (PLG-rGAPDH) microparticles. After an experimental challenge of V. harveyi, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles conferred a high survival rate (85%), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05, chi-square test) than that induced by PLG-rGAPDH microparticles (67%). In conclusion, PLE peptide exhibits an efficacious adjuvant effect to elicit not only improved immunity, but also enhanced protection against V. harveyi in grouper induced by rGAPDH protein encapsulated in PLG microparticles. PMID:26344624

  19. Pleurocidin Peptide Enhances Grouper Anti-Vibrio harveyi Immunity Elicited by Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-Encapsulated Recombinant Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Huang, Wan-Ling; Kau, Sau-Wei; Yang, Yun-Pei; Yang, Chung-Da

    2014-01-01

    Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as pleurocidin (PLE), play important roles in activating and recruiting immune cells, thereby contributing to subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to use PLE peptide as a potent adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of V. harveyi recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH). In order to prepare a controlled-release vaccine, PLE peptide and rGAPDH protein were simultaneously encapsulated into polymeric microparticles made from the biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) polymer. The resulting PLG-encapsulated PLE plus rGAPDH (PLG-PLE/rGAPDH) microparticles, 3.21-6.27 μm in diameter, showed 72%-83% entrapment efficiency and durably released both PLE and rGAPDH for a long 30-day period. Following peritoneal immunization in grouper (Epinephelus coioides), PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.05, nested design) long-lasting GAPDH-specific immunity (serum titers and lymphocyte proliferation) than PLG-encapsulated rGAPDH (PLG-rGAPDH) microparticles. After an experimental challenge of V. harveyi, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles conferred a high survival rate (85%), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05, chi-square test) than that induced by PLG-rGAPDH microparticles (67%). In conclusion, PLE peptide exhibits an efficacious adjuvant effect to elicit not only improved immunity, but also enhanced protection against V. harveyi in grouper induced by rGAPDH protein encapsulated in PLG microparticles. PMID:26344624

  20. Modulatory effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide on a DNA vaccine against nervous necrosis virus in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiang-Peng; Peng, Ran-Hong; Chiou, Pinwen P

    2015-08-01

    We report the development of a DNA vaccine pcMGNNV2 against nervous necrosis virus (NNV), a leading cause of mass mortality in grouper larvae. In addition, the modulatory effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), a Toll-like receptor 9 agonist, on the DNA vaccine was evaluated. The DNA vaccine alone elicited the production of NNV-specific antibodies, indicating that the vaccine was capable of triggering adaptive humoral response. Furthermore, significant induction of TLR9, Mx and IL-1β was observed in the spleen on day 7 post-vaccination, supporting that the vaccine could trigger TLR9 signaling. The incorporation of CpG ODN at high dose did not significantly affect the level of NNV-specific antibodies, but was able to moderately enhance the expression of Mx and IL-1β on day 7, indicating its ability in modulating innate response. After challenge with NNV, the vaccine alone enhanced the survival rate in infected larvae at both 1 and 2 weeks post-vaccination. The combination of CpG ODN further increased the survival rate at week 1 but not week 2. Interestingly, at week 2 the ODN appeared to induce a Th1-like response, as indicated by upregulation of T-bet (a Th1 marker) and downregulation of GATA-3 (a Th2 marker). Thus, the results suggest that the boosted Th1 response by CpG ODN does not augment the protection efficacy of pcMGNNV2 vaccine. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of a successful DNA vaccine against NNV in grouper. PMID:26093207

  1. Expression profiles of gonadotropins and their receptors during 17α-methyltestosterone implantation-induced sex change in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Hu, Xuesong; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Haifa; Zhang, Yong; Li, Shuisheng; Sang, Qing; Wang, Qian; Luo, Wenna; Liu, Qizhi; Lu, Danqi; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

    2011-06-01

    It is known that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis participates in the sex change of hermaphrodite teleosts, and gonadal steroid hormones mediate this physiological process. The secretion of gonadal steroids is directly regulated by signaling pathways involving gonadotropins (GtHs) and gonadotropin receptors (GtHRs) in teleosts. To gain insight into the involvement of GtH/GtHR systems in the sex change process, cDNAs encoding follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) were firstly isolated from gonads of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), a protogynous hermaphrodite fish. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that the expression of the FSHR was confined to the brain, pituitary gland, ovary, and testis, while the LHR was expressed only in the brain, ovary, and testis. Furthermore, the expression profiles of GtH subunits (FSHβ and LHβ) and their receptors were analyzed in parallel with the serum levels of estradiol-17β (E(2) ), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) during 17α-methyltestosterone (MT)-induced sex change. Quantitative real-time PCR determined that the abundances of FSHβ and FSHR were significantly inhibited after MT treatment for 2 and 4 weeks, but subsequently returned to the control level after 6 weeks. In contrast, the mRNA levels of LHβ and LHR were significantly elevated throughout the sex change process. During MT-induced sex change, serum concentrations of E(2) remained constant while T and 11-KT levels were significantly increased. Taken together, our results suggest that GtH/GtHR systems are involved in MT-induced sex change, and two signaling pathways may have distinct roles in modulating the variations of the corresponding steroid hormones in the orange-spotted grouper. PMID:21567650

  2. Recognition of Linear B-Cell Epitope of Betanodavirus Coat Protein by RG-M18 Neutralizing mAB Inhibits Giant Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (GGNNV) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Wen; Wu, Ming-Shan; Huang, Yi-Jen; Cheng, Chao-An; Chang, Chi-Yao

    2015-01-01

    Betanodavirus is a causative agent of viral nervous necrosis syndrome in many important aquaculture marine fish larvae, resulting in high global mortality. The coat protein of Betanodavirus is the sole structural protein, and it can assemble the virion particle by itself. In this study, we used a high-titer neutralizing mAB, RG-M18, to identify the linear B-cell epitope on the viral coat protein. By mapping a series of recombinant proteins generated using the E. coli PET expression system, we demonstrated that the linear epitope recognized by RG-M18 is located at the C-terminus of the coat protein, between amino acid residues 195 and 338. To define the minimal epitope region, a set of overlapping peptides were synthesized and evaluated for RG-M18 binding. Such analysis identified the 195VNVSVLCR202 motif as the minimal epitope. Comparative analysis of Alanine scanning mutagenesis with dot-blotting and ELISA revealed that Valine197, Valine199, and Cysteine201 are critical for antibody binding. Substitution of Leucine200 in the RGNNV, BFNNV, and TPNNV genotypes with Methionine200 (thereby simulating the SJNNV genotype) did not affect binding affinity, implying that RG-M18 can recognize all genotypes of Betanodaviruses. In competition experiments, synthetic multiple antigen peptides of this epitope dramatically suppressed giant grouper nervous necrosis virus (GGNNV) propagation in grouper brain cells. The data provide new insights into the protective mechanism of this neutralizing mAB, with broader implications for Betanodavirus vaccinology and antiviral peptide drug development. PMID:25938761

  3. Descriptions of Philometra aenei n. sp. and P. tunisiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Epinephelus spp. off Tunisia confirm a high degree of host specificity of gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 in groupers (Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-02-01

    Based on light and electron microscopical studies of males and mature females, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of groupers, Epinephelus spp. (Perciformes; Serranidae), in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Sfax): Philometra aenei n. sp. from the white grouper E. aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) and P. tunisiensis n. sp. from the goldblotch grouper E. costae (Steindachner). Identification of both fish hosts was confirmed by barcoding of the infected fish specimens. Philometra aenei is mainly characterised by the length of conspicuously distended spicules (108-123 µm), the presence of a distinct dorsal barb at the middle region of the gubernaculum and a distinct protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field at its distal tip, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity and by the body length of the males (2.34-3.05 mm). The male of this species was found to possess minute deirids in the cervical region, which is quite exceptional within the Philometridae. Philometra tunisiensis is distinguished from other gonad-infecting congeneric species parasitising serranids by the length of the needle-like spicules and gubernaculum (201-219 and 78-87 µm, respectively), spicule length representing 9-11% of body length, the gubernaculum/spicules length ratio of 1:2.52-2.77, the length of oesophagus in the male comprising 15-16% of the body length, the absence of a dorsal protuberance on the distal lamellar part of the gubernaculum and a pair of large papillae posterior to the cloaca, a dorsally interrupted mound on the male caudal extremity and the body length of the male (2.01-2.42 mm). The presence of three morphologically very different species of Philometra in congeneric hosts in the Mediterranean Sea confirms a high degree of host specificity of these gonad-infecting nematodes parasitising groupers. PMID:26790677

  4. Black Hole Syndrome 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun

    2000-08-01

    A black hole falling into the Earth would syndrome toward the center, while it would shine through mass accretion. The author has re-examined the dynamics of such a black hole in the Earth. In the case of a non-radiating black hole, the timescale of the syndrome is inversely proportional to the initial mass of the black hole. In the case of a radiating black hole, on the other hand, the syndrome time is of the order of the Eddington time. The radiating black hole in the Earth would act as a strong heat source.

  5. 76 FR 61285 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... rule (75 FR 82280) to implement Amendment 17B to the FMP (Amendment 17B). Amendment 17B established... recreational sector on February 12, 2011 (76 FR 5717, February 2, 2011) for the remainder of the 2010-2011... reduce overfishing of the South Atlantic black sea bass resource. DATES: This rule is effective October...

  6. 77 FR 55448 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... identification tags for black sea bass pots. In the final rule for Amendment 18A (77 FR 32408, June 1, 2012), the..., implemented through final rulemaking on July 1, 2012, (77 FR 32408, June 1, 2012), includes a provision to... Ecosystem-Based Amendment 2 for the South Atlantic (76 FR 82183, December 30, 2011). That rule...

  7. 75 FR 71565 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... would reach the quota on, or before, October 7, 2010, and closed the fishery on that date (75 FR 60008... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XZ82 Fisheries of the Caribbean... 2010- 2011 Commercial Sector for Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine...

  8. 76 FR 5717 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Hatteras Light, North Carolina. Regulations effective January 31, 2011 (75 FR 82280, December 30, 2011... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XA154 Fisheries of the Caribbean...-2011 Recreational Sector for Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine...

  9. NASA Now: Black Holes

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now episode, Dr. Daniel Patnaude talks about how his team discovered a baby black hole, why this is important and how black holes create tidal forces. Throughout his discussion, Patnau...

  10. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone eats pieces of the black nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... Poisons are found in the black nightshade plant, especially in the unripened fruit and leaves.

  11. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  12. Black Endobronchial Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Samjot S; Harris, Kassem; Ylagan, Lourdes

    2015-10-01

    The infrequent bronchoscopic finding of black airway pigmentation due to a variety of causes has been labeled as "Black Bronchoscopy." Black bronchioalveolar lavage has been sometimes described in tobacco, marijuana, and crack cocaine smokers. To add to this interesting panorama of bronchoscopic findings, we describe cases of black endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspirates due to metastatic melanoma and anthracotic lymph nodes. PMID:26348692

  13. Accelerating black diholes and static black dirings

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, Edward

    2006-01-15

    We show how a recently discovered black-ring solution with a rotating 2-sphere can be turned into two new solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The first is a four-dimensional solution describing a pair of oppositely charged, extremal black holes--known as a black dihole--undergoing uniform acceleration. The second is a five-dimensional solution describing a pair of concentric, static extremal black rings carrying opposite dipole charges--a so-called black diring. The properties of both solutions, which turn out to be formally very similar, are analyzed in detail. We also present, in an appendix, an accelerating version of the Zipoy-Voorhees solution in four-dimensional Einstein gravity.

  14. Marketing for Black Alums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Tracy A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers need for colleges and universities to develop effective marketing plan for recruitment of black students. Highlights advantages of designing marketing plan for recruitment of black alumni to assist in recruitment and retention of black students. Identifies key indicators that often hinder institutions in their recruitment of black…

  15. BLACK ROOT ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black Root Rot Prepared by G. S. Abawi, Revised by L.E. Hanson Black root rot is caused by Thielaviopsis basicola (syn. Chalara elegans). The pathogen is widely distributed, can infect more than 130 plant species in 15 families, and causes severe black root rot diseases in ornamentals and crops suc...

  16. The Black Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Juanita M.

    The Black woman has been the transmitter of culture in the black community. Two of the important roles of African women were perpetuated during slavery and continue until today. They are her role in economic endeavor and her close bond with her children. The woman in African society was additionally politically significant. The black woman has…

  17. Black Male in Jeopardy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kenneth M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes educational, economic, and other social factors combining to fill the life of a Black American man with a disproportionate share of pressures and obstacles. Argues that guidance from older Black men is crucial for young Blacks who must prepare for a lifelong struggle. Provides statistics on marital status and occupational distribution.…

  18. Black Nuns as Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rector, Theresa A.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the contributions of Black Roman Catholic nuns to Black education in the United States since the early 1800s. Also shows that, despite declining membership, the three existing religious orders continue to be active in Black education and social change. (GC)

  19. Magnetized static black Saturn

    SciTech Connect

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.

    2008-06-15

    We present a new static solution to the 5D Einstein-Maxwell equations describing a static black hole surrounded by a nonrotating dipole black ring. The configuration is kept in equilibrium by an external magnetic field interacting with the dipole charge of the black ring. The properties of the black Saturn-like configuration are studied and the basic physical quantities are calculated. The solution demonstrates 2-fold continuous nonuniqueness of the 5D magnetized static neutral black objects for fixed total mass and Melvin background.

  20. Black Hole Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  1. Characterization of RAG1 and IgM (mu chain) marking development of the immune system in red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara).

    PubMed

    Mao, Ming-Guang; Lei, Ji-Lin; Alex, Perálvarez-Marín; Hong, Wan-Shu; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2012-10-01

    In vertebrates, lymphoid-specific recombinase protein encoded by recombination-activating genes (RAG1/2) plays a key role in V(D)J recombination of the T-cell receptor and B-cell receptor. In this study, both RAG1 and the immunoglobulin M (IgM) mu chain were cloned to characterize their potential role in the immune defense at developmental stages of red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara. The open reading frame (ORF) of E. akaara RAG1 included 2778 nucleotide residues encoding a putative protein of 925 amino acids, while the ORF of the IgM mu chain had 1734 nucleotide residues encoding 578 amino acids including variable (VH) and constant (CH1-CH2-CH3-CH4) regions. E. akaara RAG1 was composed of a zinc-binding dimerization domain (ZDD) with a RING finger and zinc finger A (ZFA) in the non-core region and a nonamer-binding region (NBR), with a zinc finger B (ZFB), the central and C-terminal domains in the core region. Tridimensional models of the ZDD and NBR of E. akaara RAG1 were constructed for the first time in fishes, while a 3D model of the E. akaara IgM mu chain was also clarified. The RAG1 mRNA was only detected in the thymus and kidney of 4-month and 1.5-year old groupers using qPCR, and the RAG1 protein was confirmed using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The IgM mu mRNA was examined in most tissues except the gonad. RAG1 and IgM mu gene expression were observed at 15 dph (days post-hatching) and 23 dph respectively, and increased to a higher level at 37 dph. In addition, this was the first time that the morphology of the E. akaara thymus was characterized. The oval-shaped thymus of 4-month old fish was clearly seen and there were amounts of T lymphocytes present. The results suggested that the immune action of E. akaara was likely to start to develop around 15 dph to 29 dph. The transcript level of the RAG1 gene and the number of lymphocytes in the thymus between 4-month and 1.5-year old groupers indicated that age-related thymic

  2. IMAGES OF BLACK AMERICANS

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Susan T.; Bergsieker, Hilary B.; Russell, Ann Marie; Williams, Lyle

    2013-01-01

    Images of Black Americans are becoming remarkably diverse, enabling Barack Obama to defy simple-minded stereotypes and succeed. Understood through the Stereotype Content Model’s demonstrably fundamental trait dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, images of Black Americans show three relevant patterns. Stereotyping by omission allows non-Blacks to accentuate the positive, excluding any lingering negativity but implying it by its absence; specifically, describing Black Americans as gregarious and passionate suggests warmth but ignores competence and implies its lack. Obama’s credentials prevented him from being cast as incompetent, though the experience debate continued. His legendary calm and passionate charisma saved him on the warmth dimension. Social class subtypes for Black Americans differentiate dramatically between low-income Blacks and Black professionals, among both non-Black and Black samples. Obama clearly fit the moderately warm, highly competent Black-professional subtype. Finally, the campaign’s events (and nonevents) allowed voter habituation to overcome non-Blacks’ automatic emotional vigilance to Black Americans. PMID:24235974

  3. The Use of Per Recruit Models for Stock Assessment and Management of Greasy Grouper Epinephelus tauvina in The Arabian Gulf Waters off Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Barr, Mehdat A; El-Sayed, Abdel Fattaqh M; Osman, Amany M

    2010-01-01

    Per recruit models were applied to assess greasy grouper, Epinephelus tauvina, stock in the gulf waters off Qatar. Yield per recruit (Y/R) increased rapidly at low values of fishing mortality (F). At present natural mortality (M = 0.17 per year) and age at first capture (Tc = 7.6 years), the Y/R increased with increasing F to reach a maximum value of 1067.8 g per recruit at F = 0.65 per year. Above this level of F, Y/R was constant or slightly decreased. The current level of F is higher than the biological reference points F0.1 (0.15 per year), FSB40% (0.13 per year), FSB50% (0.08 per year) and FSB25% (0.24 per year). Increasing the Tc by one year resulted in a slight increase in the Y/R, while additional increases in Tc led to a decrease in Y/R values. At constant M, the increase in Tc caused an increase in F required to obtain the maximum Y/R until reaching a non-maximum state at the oldest Tc. At the current level of F, increasing the Tc by one year would result in a small increase in biomass per recruit (B/R), while further increases would lead to a decrease in B/R. At higher levels of F, any increase in Tc would cause a gradual increase in B/R, followed by a decline after a certain value of Tc. These results provide evidence of recruitment over-fishing at all optimum fishing levels, F0.1, FSB40%, FSB50% and at the threshold level, FSB25%. Therefore, sustainable management and conservation of greasy grouper in Qatari waters would require a decrease in F to levels less than F0.1 and FSB40%, which can be achieved through a reduction in fishing effort but not through an increase in Tc. PMID:24575192

  4. The expression of two novel orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) TNF genes in peripheral blood leukocytes, various organs, and fish larvae.

    PubMed

    Lam, Freda Wai-San; Wu, Szu-Yin; Lin, Shih-Jie; Lin, Chin-Chou; Chen, Yi-Ming; Wang, Han-Ching; Chen, Tzong-Yueh; Lin, Han-Tso; Lin, John Han-You

    2011-02-01

    The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) super-family is a group of important cytokines involved in inflammation, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and the general stimulation of the immune system. The TNF gene has been cloned in some bony fish; however, its counterparts are still unidentified in the majority of fish species. In this study, we cloned gTNF-1 and gTNF-2 from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), an economically important farmed fish. Both genes include 4 exons and 3 introns and encoded 253 and 241 amino acid proteins with a molecular weight of approximately 27 and 26 kDa, respectively. The identity of the putative amino acid sequences between gTNF-1 and gTNF-2 was only 38%. The positions of cysteine residues, a protease cleavage site, and a transmembrane domain sequence derived from gTNF-1 and gTNF-2 were similar to those in other fish and mammalian TNF-α. The mRNA expression levels of the 2 gTNF molecules were evaluated in unstimulated/stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes, various organs, and fish larvae. Following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, gTNF-2 was expressed at higher levels, was up-regulated more quickly, and was more sensitive to the immune response than gTNF-1. gTNF-1 was constitutively expressed in the thymus, brain, and spleen, but it was also expressed in the heart, head kidney, and trunk kidney after LPS stimulation. gTNF-2 was constitutively expressed in the thymus, head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen, and intestine; further, gTNF-2 was highly expressed in all organs post-LPS stimulation. Finally, the gTNF expression levels were evaluated at various developmental stages in grouper larvae. A higher variation of gTNF expression levels was observed in fish larvae from a contaminated hatchery. This study revealed the different expression patterns of gTNF-1 and gTNF-2. In addition, gTNF-2 was more sensitive to pathogens than gTNF-1; therefore, it may be an appropriate marker for pathogen invasion and the evaluation of the larval

  5. Sexual Fate Reprogramming in the Steroid-Induced Bi-Directional Sex Change in the Protogynous Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guan-Chung; Tey, Wei-Guan; Li, Hau-Wen; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Androgen administration has been widely used for masculinization in fish. The mechanism of the sex change in sexual fate regulation is not clear. Oral administration or pellet implantation was applied. We orally applied an aromatase inhibitor (AI, to decrease estrogen levels) and 17α-methyltestosterone (MT, to increase androgen levels) to induce masculinization to clarify the mechanism of the sex change in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper. After 3 mo of AI/MT administration, male characteristics were observed in the female-to-male sex change fish. These male characteristics included increased plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), decreased estradiol (E2) levels, increased male-related gene (dmrt1, sox9, and cyp11b2) expression, and decreased female-related gene (figla, foxl2, and cyp19a1a) expression. However, the reduced male characteristics and male-to-female sex change occurred after AI/MT-termination in the AI- and MT-induced maleness. Furthermore, the MT-induced oocyte-depleted follicle cells (from MT-implantation) had increased proliferating activity, and the sexual fate in a portion of female gonadal soma cells was altered to male function during the female-to-male sex change. In contrast, the gonadal soma cells were not proliferative during the early process of the male-to-female sex change. Additionally, the male gonadal soma cells did not alter to female function during the male-to-female sex change in the AI/MT-terminated fish. After MT termination in the male-to-female sex-changed fish, the differentiated male germ cells showed increased proliferating activities together with dormancy and did not show characteristics of both sexes in the early germ cells. In conclusion, these findings indicate for the first time in a single species that the mechanism involved in the replacement of soma cells is different between the female-to-male and male-to-female sex change processes in grouper. These results also demonstrate that sexual fate determination

  6. Response of rocky reef top predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae) in and around marine protected areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Hackradt, Carlos Werner; García-Charton, José Antonio; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Pérez-Ruzafa, Ángel; Le Diréach, Laurence; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Charbonnel, Eric; Ody, Denis; Reñones, Olga; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Valle, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs) can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of three species of grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, Epinephelus costae and Mycteroperca rubra, and to understand in which circumstances MPAs are able to export biomass to neighbouring areas. All the studied MPAs, except one where no grouper was observed, were able to maintain high abundance, biomass and mean weight of groupers. Size classes were more evenly distributed inside than outside MPAs. In two reserves, biomass gradients could be detected through the boundaries of the reserve as an indication of spillover. In some cases, habitat structure appeared to exert a great influence on grouper abundance, biomass and mean individual weight, influencing the gradient shape. Because groupers are generally sedentary animals with a small home range, we suggest that biomass gradients could only occur where groupers attain sufficient abundance inside MPA limits, indicating a strongly density-dependent process. PMID:24905331

  7. Response of Rocky Reef Top Predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae) in and Around Marine Protected Areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hackradt, Carlos Werner; García-Charton, José Antonio; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Pérez-Ruzafa, Ángel; Le Diréach, Laurence; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Charbonnel, Eric; Ody, Denis; Reñones, Olga; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Valle, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs) can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of three species of grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, Epinephelus costae and Mycteroperca rubra, and to understand in which circumstances MPAs are able to export biomass to neighbouring areas. All the studied MPAs, except one where no grouper was observed, were able to maintain high abundance, biomass and mean weight of groupers. Size classes were more evenly distributed inside than outside MPAs. In two reserves, biomass gradients could be detected through the boundaries of the reserve as an indication of spillover. In some cases, habitat structure appeared to exert a great influence on grouper abundance, biomass and mean individual weight, influencing the gradient shape. Because groupers are generally sedentary animals with a small home range, we suggest that biomass gradients could only occur where groupers attain sufficient abundance inside MPA limits, indicating a strongly density-dependent process. PMID:24905331

  8. Bumpy black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Figueras, Pau; Martínez, Marina

    2014-12-01

    We study six-dimensional rotating black holes with bumpy horizons: these are topologically spherical, but the sizes of symmetric cycles on the horizon vary nonmonotonically with the polar angle. We construct them numerically for the first three bumpy families, and follow them in solution space until they approach critical solutions with localized singularities on the horizon. We find strong evidence of the conical structures that have been conjectured to mediate the transitions to black rings, to black Saturns, and to a novel class of bumpy black rings. For a different, recently identified class of bumpy black holes, we find evidence that this family ends in solutions with a localized singularity that exhibits apparently universal properties, and which does not seem to allow for transitions to any known class of black holes.

  9. Quantization of Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    We show that black holes can be quantized in an intuitive and elegant way with results in agreement with conventional knowledge of black holes by using Bohr's idea of quantizing the motion of an electron inside the atom in quantum mechanics. We find that properties of black holes can also be derived from an ansatz of quantized entropy Δ S = 4π k Δ R/{{-{λ }}}, which was suggested in a previous work to unify the black hole entropy formula and Verlinde's conjecture to explain gravity as an entropic force. Such an Ansatz also explains gravity as an entropic force from quantum effect. This suggests a way to unify gravity with quantum theory. Several interesting and surprising results of black holes are given from which we predict the existence of primordial black holes ranging from Planck scale both in size and energy to big ones in size but with low energy behaviors.

  10. Black hole explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciama, D. W.

    A physical account of the processes of black hole explosions is presented. Black holes form when the degeneracy pressure in a neutron star can no longer balance gravitational forces because the mass of the star is too large. Although black holes absorb surrounding matter through the action of a gravitational field, quantum fluctuations have been theoretically demonstrated to occur in the vacuum, and feature a thermal character. The temperature field decreases outwards, in accordance with the nonuniformity of the gravitational field, but does allow thermal radiation, i.e., Hawking radiation, to escape the black hole. The time scale for the radiation shortens as the mass of the black hole decreases, until a time scale is reached which is short enough for the process to be called an explosion. Observations of electron-positron Hawking radiation are suggested to offer proof of a black hole explosion.

  11. Exploring Black Hole Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hyeyoun

    2015-10-01

    This thesis explores the evolution of different types of black holes, and the ways in which black hole dynamics can be used to answer questions about other physical systems. We first investigate the differences in observable gravitational effects between a four-dimensional Randall-Sundrum (RS) braneworld universe compared to a universe without the extra dimension, by considering a black hole solution to the braneworld model that is localized on the brane. When the brane has a negative cosmological constant, then for a certain range of parameters for the black hole, the intersection of the black hole with the brane approximates a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole on the brane with corrections that fall off exponentially outside the horizon. We compute the quasinormal modes of the braneworld black hole, and compare them to the known quasinormal modes of the three-dimensional BTZ black hole. We find that there are two distinct regions for the braneworld black hole solutions that are reflected in the dependence of the quasinormal modes on the black hole mass. The imaginary parts of the quasinormal modes display phenomenological similarities to the quasinormal modes of the three-dimensional BTZ black hole, indicating that nonlinear gravitational effects may not be enough to distinguish between a lower-dimensional theory and a theory derived from a higher-dimensional braneworld. Secondly, we consider the evolution of non-extremal black holes in N=4, d=2 supergravity, and investigate how such black holes might evolve over time if perturbed away from extremality. We study this problem in the probe limit by finding tunneling amplitudes for a Dirac field in a single-centered background, which gives the decay rates for the emission of charged probe black holes from the central black hole. We find that there is no minimum to the potential for the probe particles at a finite distance from the central black hole, so any probes that are emitted escape to infinity. If

  12. Molecular and morphometric characteristics of Ceratomyxa hamour n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting the gallbladder of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides from the Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Lamjed; Al-Qahtani, Hussain A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

    2015-01-01

    Ceratomyxa hamour n. sp. was found to infect the gallbladder of the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides located off the Saudi Arabian coast of the Arabian Gulf. The infection was reported as a free-floating spore in the bile, and pseudoplasmodia were not observed. Mature spores were crescent-shaped and measured on average 7 μm in length and 16 μm in thickness. The polar capsule, meanwhile, had length to width measurements of 4 μm and 3 μm on average. A periodical survey was conducted throughout a sampling period between December 2012 and December 2013, with the results showing that the parasite was present throughout the year with a mean prevalence of 32.6%. The objective of this study was to characterize this new species based on its morphological and molecular differences from previously described species. Molecular analysis based on the partial sequence of the SSU rDNA gene, showed the highest similarity (97.8%) to Ceratomyxa buri, reported in the cultured yellow tail Seriola quinqueradiata in Japan. Indeed, C. buri and the new species described here formed an individual cluster with a high degree of bootstrap support. This is the first reported species of genus Ceratomyxa from the Arabian Gulf fishes off Saudi Arabia. PMID:25041508

  13. miR-homoHSV of Singapore Grouper Iridovirus (SGIV) Inhibits Expression of the SGIV Pro-apoptotic Factor LITAF and Attenuates Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Huachun; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence demonstrates that various large DNA viruses could encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate host and viral genes to achieve immune evasion. In this study, we report that miR-homoHSV, an miRNA encoded by Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), can attenuate SGIV-induced cell death. Mechanistically, SGIV miR-homoHSV targets SGIV ORF136R, a viral gene that encodes the pro-apoptotic lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α (LITAF)-like factor. miR-homoHSV suppressed exogenous and endogenous SGIV LITAF expression, and thus inhibited SGIV LITAF-induced apoptosis. Meanwhile, miR-homoHSV expression was able to attenuate cell death induced by viral infection, presumably facilitating viral replication through the down-regulation of the pro-apoptotic gene SGIV LITAF. Together, our data suggest miR-homoHSV may serve as a feedback regulator of cell death during viral infection. The findings of this study provide a better understanding of SGIV replication and pathogenesis. PMID:24312676

  14. GHRH, PRP-PACAP and GHRHR Target Sequencing via an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine Reveals an Association with Growth in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liang; Xia, Junhong; Yang, Sen; Li, Mingming; You, Xinxin; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and the receptor, GHRHR, constitute important components of the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis and act on the downstream growth hormone (GH). PACAP-related peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PRP-PACAP) is a paralog of GHRH. These genes all play key roles in development and growth patterns. To improve the quality of cultured fish strains, natural genetic variation must be examined and understood. A mixed linear model has been widely used in association mapping, taking the population structures and pairwise kinship patterns into consideration. In this study, a mass cross population of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was examined. These candidate genes were found to harbor low nucleotide diversity (θw from 0.00154 to 0.00388) and linkage disequilibrium levels (delay of 50% within 2 kbp). Association mapping was employed, and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (KR269823.1:g.475A>C and KR269823.1:g.2143T>C) were found to be associated with growth (false discovery rate Q < 0.05), explaining 9.0%–17.0% of the phenotypic variance. The association of KR269823.1:g.2143T>C was also found via haplotype-based association (p < 0.05). The identified associations offer new insights into gene functions, and the associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be used for breeding purposes. PMID:26540042

  15. What Black Educators are Saying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nathan, Jr., Ed.

    Contents of this book are comprised of five groups of articles: Part I. The Black Educator: "Education for black humanism; a way of approaching it," Preston Wilcox; "The new black dimension in our society," Olivia Pearl Stokes; "The black teacher and black Power," Leslie Campbell; and, "The difference," Leslie Campbell. Part II. The White…

  16. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    PubMed

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six. PMID:23368298

  17. Evidence for black holes.

    PubMed

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2003-06-20

    Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity. PMID:12817138

  18. Black stain - a review.

    PubMed

    Ronay, Valerie; Attin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarise the fundamentals about black stain, its diagnosis and possible differential diagnoses as well as its microbiology and therapy. In addition, various studies investigating the relationship between black stain and dental caries are examined. Many studies report lower caries prevalence in children with black stain, but this finding could not be confirmed by all authors. Also, a negative relation between degree of staining and caries severity has been described. Reasons for these results are not yet clear but it was speculated that they are related to the specific oral microflora described in black stain-affected individuals. PMID:21594205

  19. Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus (Monogenea, Diplectanidae), a parasite of deep-sea groupers (Serranidae) occurs transatlantically on three congeneric hosts (Hyporthodus spp.), one from the Mediterranean Sea and two from the western Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Gey, Delphine; Bakenhaster, Micah D.; Neifar, Lassad

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the diversity of the monogenean parasites infesting deep-sea groupers, and there is even less information available about their geographic distributions within the ranges of their hosts. To improve our understanding of these host-parasite relationships we conducted parasitological evaluations of the deep-water Haifa grouper Hyporthodus haifensis from the southern Mediterranean off Tunisia and Libya. We collected more than one species of diplectanid monogeneans from this host, but among these only one dominant species was abundant. This proved to be morphologically very similar to Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000, a species originally described from the congeneric host H. niveatus off Brazil and also recorded from H. niveatus and H. nigritus off Florida. Here, we conducted a morphological comparison between newly collected specimens and those previously deposited in museum collections by other authors. Further, we used COI barcoding to ascertain the specific identity of the three host species to better elucidate the circumstances that might explain the unexpectedly broad distribution of P. sulamericanus. We assigned our specimens from H. haifensis to P. sulamericanus primarily on the basis of morphological characteristics of the sclerotized vagina. We also noted morphological characteristics of eastern and western Atlantic specimens that are not clearly described or not given in previous descriptions and so prepared a redescription of the species. We confirmed, by COI barcoding, that no sister-species relationships were evident among the three hosts of P. sulamericanus. Our observation that P. sulamericanus infects unrelated host species with putatively allopatric distributions was unexpected given the very limited dispersive capabilities and the high degree of host specificity common to members of Pseudorhabdosynochus. This transatlantic distribution raises questions with regard to phylogeography and assumptions

  20. The mRNA expression of P450 aromatase, gonadotropin beta-subunits and FTZ-F1 in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus Coioides) during 17alpha-methyltestosterone-induced precocious sex change.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weimin; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Lihong; Zhao, Huihong; Li, Xin; Huang, He; Lin, Haoran

    2007-06-01

    The orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides is a protogynous hermaphroditic fish, but the physiological basis of its sex change remains largely unknown. In the present study, the 2-year-old orange-spotted grouper was induced to change sex precociously by oral administration of 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT, 50 mg/Kg diet, twice a day at daily ration of 5% bodyweight) for 60 days. The serum testosterone levels were significantly elevated after MT treatment for 20 and 40 days as compared to control, but the levels of serum estradiol (E(2)) remained unchanged. The expression of P450aromA in the gonad significantly decreased after MT treatment for 20, 40, and 60 days. Accordingly, the enzyme activity of gonadal aromatase was also lower. The expression of FSHbeta subunit in the pituitary was significantly decreased after MT treatment for 20 days, but returned to the control levels after 40 and 60 days; however, the expression of LHbeta subunit was not altered significantly by MT treatment. The expression of FTZ-F1 in the gonad also decreased significantly in response to MT treatment for 40 and 60 days, but its expression in the pituitary was not altered significantly. Interestingly, when tested in vitro on ovarian fragments, MT had no direct effect on the expression of P450aromA and FTZ-F1 as well as the activity of gonadal aromatase, suggesting that the inhibition of gonadal P450aromatase and FTZ-F1 by MT may be mediated at upper levels of the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis. Taken together, these results indicated that FSH, P450aromA, FTZ-F1, and serum testosterone are associated with the MT-induced sex change of the orange-spotted grouper, but the cause-effect relationship between these factors and sex change in this species remains to be characterized. PMID:17075797

  1. Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus (Monogenea, Diplectanidae), a parasite of deep-sea groupers (Serranidae) occurs transatlantically on three congeneric hosts (Hyporthodus spp.), one from the Mediterranean Sea and two from the western Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Justine, Jean-Lou; Gey, Delphine; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Neifar, Lassad

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the diversity of the monogenean parasites infesting deep-sea groupers, and there is even less information available about their geographic distributions within the ranges of their hosts. To improve our understanding of these host-parasite relationships we conducted parasitological evaluations of the deep-water Haifa grouper Hyporthodus haifensis from the southern Mediterranean off Tunisia and Libya. We collected more than one species of diplectanid monogeneans from this host, but among these only one dominant species was abundant. This proved to be morphologically very similar to Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000, a species originally described from the congeneric host H. niveatus off Brazil and also recorded from H. niveatus and H. nigritus off Florida. Here, we conducted a morphological comparison between newly collected specimens and those previously deposited in museum collections by other authors. Further, we used COI barcoding to ascertain the specific identity of the three host species to better elucidate the circumstances that might explain the unexpectedly broad distribution of P. sulamericanus. We assigned our specimens from H. haifensis to P. sulamericanus primarily on the basis of morphological characteristics of the sclerotized vagina. We also noted morphological characteristics of eastern and western Atlantic specimens that are not clearly described or not given in previous descriptions and so prepared a redescription of the species. We confirmed, by COI barcoding, that no sister-species relationships were evident among the three hosts of P. sulamericanus. Our observation that P. sulamericanus infects unrelated host species with putatively allopatric distributions was unexpected given the very limited dispersive capabilities and the high degree of host specificity common to members of Pseudorhabdosynochus. This transatlantic distribution raises questions with regard to phylogeography and assumptions

  2. 77 FR 33159 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... dealers who process greater amberjack, red porgy, gag, black grouper, red grouper, scamp, red hind, rock..., Departmental Paperwork Clearance Officer, (202) 482-0336, Department of Commerce, Room 6616, 14th...

  3. 50 CFR 622.185 - Size limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery... (61.0 cm), TL. (c) Other snapper-grouper species—(1) Black sea bass. (i) For a fish taken by a...

  4. 50 CFR 622.185 - Size limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery... (61.0 cm), TL. (c) Other snapper-grouper species—(1) Black sea bass. (i) For a fish taken by a...

  5. Humanism in Black Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschenbrenner, Joyce C.

    We can identify black culture in terms of certain institutions and values which they share as members of an ethnic group, while recognizing that individual families and communities identify in important respects with other groups. The ascription of a humanistic character--defined as those values and institutions which black Americans have in…

  6. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid Mehdipour, S.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t — r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  7. Black Women in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tina Sloan; And Others

    An overview of the achievements of black women in sports is presented in this collection of essays, biographical sketches, and philosophical investigations. The work is divided into five chapters, the first of which focuses on prejudice (racial and sexual), absence of black women as subjects in the research base, work/home/family pressures, black…

  8. The Black Woman's Burden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Not even the first lady of the most powerful nation in the world is immune to stereotypes that have plagued Black women since first setting foot on American soil. Stereotypes of being the "angry Black woman" and curiosity about differences in appearance still persist from the academy to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. As African-American women rise in…

  9. Reconstructing the Black Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothe, Gordon de la

    This books aims to develop curriculum approaches and material appropriate to black students that can enhance their personal development, self-esteem, competence, and understanding of society, while it helps young whites develop a greater understanding of the contributions made by black people to history and social development. The context is that…

  10. Black holes in inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, R.; Hawking, S. W.

    1997-08-01

    We summarise recent work on the quantum production of black holes in the inflationary era. We describe, in simple terms, the Euclidean approach used, and the results obtained both for the pair creation rate and for the evolution of the black holes.

  11. Learning Mathematics while Black

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Danny Bernard

    2012-01-01

    While research by scholars has contributed greatly to an emerging knowledge base on Black children and mathematics, there continues to be a dire need for insightful research that de-centers longstanding accounts that have contributed to the construction of Black children as mathematically illiterate and as less than ideal learners relative to…

  12. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  13. Black Americans: A Chartbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Sylvia S.

    This book is a compilation of data on black Americans. The record of the past two decades shows that blacks have been migrating out of the rural South into the cities of the North and West. There, with greater choices, many have been progressing economically from unskilled low-paid jobs into white-collar and skilled occupations. In search of…

  14. Black Families. Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.; Stewart, James B., Ed.

    Since the early 1960s, the black family has been characterized as pathological. This six-part collection of 18 research studies presents alternative approaches to understanding the special characteristics of black families. Part I, "Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives," comprises a comparison of the pioneering work of W. E. B. Du Bois and…

  15. Black Studies Year One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Richard A.

    Though Dubois tried to begin a series of scientific studies on the Negro problem in America more than 70 years ago, only recently have attempts been made to present a true history of the Black man in institutions of higher learning. Until that time, the experience of the Black man was defined in Euro-American terms, or in most cases was completely…

  16. Black Males Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the overall economic gains in the 1990s, many young black men continue to have the poorest life chances of anyone in our society. Joblessness and low earnings among these less-educated young adults are contributing to reductions in marriage, increases in nonmarital childbearing, and a host of other social problems. In "Black Males Left…

  17. Notable Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellin, Nancy

    Readings, activities, and teaching strategies for a secondary unit on black women are included in this teacher handbook. Instructional material is divided into four sections. Following a note on the use of the booklet, section 1 consists of 24 two-page biographies of black women, including Selma Burke, Lena Horne, Leontyne Price, Charlayne…

  18. The Black College Mystique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V.; Reddick, Richard J.; Brown, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the culture of black colleges and universities a generation ago with those that exist today, and makes projections into the future, based on a comprehensive review of professional literature and an analysis of the management skills of contemporary black college leaders. The book considers the assets and liabilities of…

  19. American Black Duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Clugston, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    A brief summary of the annual cycle of the American Black duck (Anas rubripes) is presented. The history of the American black duck population is tracked by the Mid-Winter Index (MWI) and related to annual harvest. Previous to effective restrictions in the United States in 1982 and later in Canada, the MWI was declining significantly at about 4% annually. Since restrictions were established the black duck population has stabilized, but to reach the goal of 260,000 wintering black ducks in the Atlantic Flyway continued or even more restrictions will be necessary. If the number of breeding pairs can be increased from current levels the black duck population is expected to increase.

  20. Contact dermatitis in blacks.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Maibach, H I

    1988-07-01

    Black skin is characterized by structural and functional differences such as increased stratum corneum cohesion, melanin content, and stratum corneum layers. These differences seem to make black skin difficult for irritants and light to penetrate, thus explaining the common opinion that skin in blacks is harder and develops contact dermatitis less frequently. The paucity of interpretable epidemiologic data and of clinical and experimental studies does not permit confirmation of this hypothesis, and the few data available are controversial. This article describes the main physiologic differences between black and white barrier function and reviews the literature on irritation, sensitization, and transcutaneous penetration. We found that the data are still too incomplete to generalize on the resistance, or lack thereof, of black skin (versus white skin) to chemical irritation, sensitization, and penetration. PMID:3048818

  1. Fluctuating black hole horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jianwei

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.

  2. Black holes and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Samir D.

    2012-11-15

    The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome 'remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a 'fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The information paradox is a serious problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To solve it we need to find 'hair' on black holes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In string theory we find 'hair' by the fuzzball construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.

  3. Extreme black hole holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Thomas Edward

    The connection between black holes in four dimensions and conformal field theories (CFTs) in two dimensions is explored, focusing on zero temperature (extreme) black holes and their low-temperature cousins. It is shown that extreme black holes in a theory of quantum gravity are holographically dual to field theories living in two dimensions without gravity, and that the field theory reproduces a variety of black hole phenomena in detail. The extreme black hole/CFT correspondence is derived from a symmetry analysis near the horizon of a Kerr black hole with mass M and maximal angular momentum J=M 2. The asymptotic symmetry generators form one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge c=12J, which implies that the near-horizon quantum states are identical to those of a two-dimensional CFT. We discuss extensions of this result to near-extreme black holes and cosmological horizons. Astrophysical black holes are never exactly extremal, but the black hole GRS1915+105 observed through X-ray and radio telescopy is likely within 1% of the extremal spin, suggesting that this extraordinary and well studied object is approximately dual to a two-dimensional CFT with c˜1079. As evidence for the correspondence, microstate counting in the CFT is used to derive the Bekenstein-Hawking area law for the Kerr entropy, S=Horizon area/4. Furthermore, the correlators in the dual CFT are shown to reproduce the scattering amplitudes of a charged scalar or spin-½ field by a near-extreme Kerr-Newman black hole, and a neutral spin-1 or spin-2 field by a near-extreme Kerr black hole. Scattering amplitudes probe the vacuum of fields living on the black hole background. For scalars, bound superradiant modes lead to an instability, while for fermions, it is shown that the bound superradiant modes condense and form a Fermi sea which extends well outside the ergosphere. Assuming no further instabilities, the low energy effective theory near the black hole is described by ripples in the

  4. Black Youth Unemployment and the Black Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Linus A.

    This paper analyzes the results of a survey conducted to ascertain the attitudes of 400 employers, youth, and academic/community professionals in Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D.C., toward an approach to Black youth unemployment centered on the creation of jobs and training among minority businesses in selected metropolitan areas. Minority…

  5. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  6. The Black Family in American Economy: Black Capitalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeocha, Peter A.

    Black capitalism that is well planned and run is a source of enumerable benefits to the American society in general and to blacks in particular. It generates opportunities for blacks to perform in occupations which for many years were closed to them. For hundreds of years blacks have been despised and often looked down upon on account of the fact…

  7. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2015-01-10

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production.

  8. Arginine vasotocin V1a2 receptor and GnRH-I co-localize in preoptic neurons of the sex changing grouper, Epinephelus adscensionis.

    PubMed

    Kline, Richard J; Holt, G Joan; Khan, Izhar A

    2016-01-01

    The arginine vasotocin/vasopressin (AVT/AVP) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) systems are known to control sexual behaviors and reproduction, respectively, in different vertebrate groups. However, a direct functional connection between these two neuroendocrine systems has not been demonstrated for any vertebrate species. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that AVT acts on the GnRH system via an AVT V1a receptor in a sex changing grouper species, the rock hind, Epinephelus adscensionis. AVT V1a2 receptors were co-localized with GnRH-I on neurons in the preoptic anterior hypothalamus identifying a structural linkage between the AVT system and GnRH-I. Transcripts for avt, gnrh-I, and two AVT receptor subtypes (v1a1 and v1a2) were isolated and characterized for E. adscensionis and their expression was measured in males and females by q-RT-PCR. Translation of V1a-type cDNA sequences revealed two distinct forms of the AVT V1a receptor in E. adscensionis brain similar to those reported for other species. The observation of significantly higher gnrh-I mRNA in the POA+H of rock hind males as compared to females suggests differential regulation of the gnrh-I transcripts in the two sexes of this protogynous species. In male E. adscensionis, but not in females, a negative relationship was seen between plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and the v1a1 receptor mRNA levels in the POA+H, while a positive trend was observed between 11-KT and v1a2 receptor mRNA levels, indicating that these receptor forms may be differentially regulated. PMID:26361870

  9. Recombinant production of biologically active giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) growth hormone from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli by fed-batch culture.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen-Jen; Huang, Chi-Lung; Gong, Hong-Yi; Ou, Tsung-Yin; Hsu, Jue-Liang; Hu, Shao-Yang

    2015-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) performs important roles in regulating somatic growth, reproduction, osmoregulation, metabolism and immunity in teleosts, and thus, it has attracted substantial attention in the field of aquaculture application. Herein, giant grouper GH (ggGH) cDNA was cloned into the pET28a vector and expressed in Shuffle® T7 Competent Escherichia coli. Recombinant N-terminal 6× His-tagged ggGH was produced mainly in insoluble inclusion bodies; the recombinant ggGH content reached 20% of total protein. For large-scale ggGH production, high-cell density E. coli culture was achieved via fed-batch culture with pH-stat. After 30h of cultivation, a cell concentration of 41.1g/l dry cell weight with over 95% plasmid stability was reached. Maximal ggGH production (4.0g/l; 22% total protein) was achieved via mid-log phase induction. Various centrifugal forces, buffer pHs and urea concentrations were optimized for isolation and solubilization of ggGH from inclusion bodies. Hydrophobic interactions and ionic interactions were the major forces in ggGH inclusion body formation. Complete ggGH inclusion body solubilization was obtained in PBS buffer at pH 12 containing 3M urea. Through a simple purification process including Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and refolding, 5.7mg of ggGH was obtained from 10ml of fed-batch culture (45% recovery). The sequence and secondary structure of the purified ggGH were confirmed by LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry and circular dichroism analysis. The cell proliferation-promoting activity was confirmed in HepG2, ZFL and GF-1 cells with the WST-1 colorimetric bioassay. PMID:25703054

  10. Detection of Growth-Related Quantitative Trait Loci and High-Resolution Genetic Linkage Maps Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers in the Kelp Grouper (Epinephelus bruneus).

    PubMed

    Kessuwan, Kanonkporn; Kubota, Satoshi; Liu, Qi; Sano, Motohiko; Okamoto, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Takashi; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Yoji; Ozaki, Akiyuki

    2016-02-01

    To initiate breeding programs for kelp grouper (Epinephelus bruneus), the establishment of genetic linkage maps becomes essential accompanied by the search for quantitative trait loci that may be utilized in selection programs. We constructed a high-resolution genetic linkage map using 1055 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in an F1 family. Genome-wide and chromosome-wide significances of growth-related quantitative trait loci (QTLs) (body weight (BW) and total length (TL)) were detected using non-parametric mapping, Kruskal-Wallis (K-W) analysis, simple interval mapping (IM) and a permutation test (PT). Two stages and two families of fish were used to confirm the QTL regions. Ultimately, 714 SSR markers were matched that evenly covered the 24 linkage groups. In total, 509 and 512 markers were localized to the female and male maps, respectively. The genome lengths were approximately 1475.95 and 1370.39 cM and covered 84.68 and 83.21% of the genome, with an average interval of 4.1 and 4.0 cM, in females and males, respectively. One major QTL affecting BW and TL was found on linkage group EBR 17F that identified for 1% of the genome-wide significance and accounted for 14.6-18.9 and 14.7-18.5% of the phenotypic variance, and several putative QTL with 5% chromosome-wide significance were detected on eight linkage groups. Furthermore, the confirmed results of the regions harboring the major and putative QTLs showed consistent significant experiment-wide values of 1 and 5% as well as a chromosome-wide value of 5%. We identified growth-related QTLs that could be applied to find candidate genes for growth traits in further studies, and potentially useful in MAS breeding. PMID:26511529

  11. Probiotic applications of two dominant gut Bacillus strains with antagonistic activity improved the growth performance and immune responses of grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yun-Zhang; Yang, Hong-Ling; Ma, Ru-Long; Lin, Wen-Yan

    2010-11-01

    The effect of dietary administration of Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus clausii, the dominant bacteria with antagonistic activity in the gut of fast growing fish, on the growth performance and immune responses of grouper Epinephelus coioides were assessed. The fish were fed for 60 days with three different diets: control (without probiotics), diet T1 supplemented with 1.0x10(8) cells g(-1) B. pumilus, diet T2 with 1.0x10(8) cells g(-1) B. clausii. No significant improvements of weight gain or specific growth rate were observed in the probiotic fed groups, but a significant improvement of feed conversion ratio was observed after 60 days of feeding. Phagocytic activity and phagocytic index of fish fed probiotic diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed the control diet for 60 days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations showed no significant difference between the treatments and the control during the whole experiment period, but which increased by 11.4% and 18.5% after 60 days of fed with diets T1 and T2, respectively. The serum lysozyme activities of fish fed diets T1 and T2 were significantly higher than that of fish fed control diet, and had respectively increased by 34.7% and 17.4% compared to the control after 60 days of feeding. Serum complement C3 levels of the treatments were significantly higher than that of control after 30 days of feeding, but no significant difference in serum complement C3 and C4 levels were observed between the treatments and the control after 60 days of feeding. The serum IgM levels of fish fed diet T1 and diet T2 were higher than that of fish fed control diet, and significant increase was observed in fish fed diet T2 for 30 days. The results demonstrated potential for B. pumilus and B. clausii to improve growth performance and immune responses of E. coioides. PMID:20637875

  12. Measuring Black Hole Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Gordon

    1999-09-01

    WE PROPOSE TO CARRY OUT A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF EMISSION AND ABSORPTION SPECTRAL FEATURES THAT ARE OFTEN SEEN IN X-RAY SPECTRA OF BLACK HOLE BINARIES. THE EXCELLENT SENSITIVITY AND ENERGY RESOLUTION OF THE ACIS/HETG COMBINATION WILL NOT ONLY HELP RESOLVE AMBIGUITIES IN INTERPRETING THESE FEATURES, BUT MAY ALLOW MODELLING OF THE EMISSION LINE PROFILES IN DETAIL. THE PROFILES MAY CONTAIN INFORMATION ON SUCH FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES AS THE SPIN OF BLACK HOLES. THEREFORE, THIS STUDY COULD LEAD TO A MEASUREMENT OF BLACK HOLE SPIN FOR SELECTED SOURCES. THE RESULT CAN THEN BE DIRECTLY COMPARED WITH THOSE FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES BASED ON INDEPENDENT METHODS.

  13. Genome-Wide Mapping of Growth-Related Quantitative Trait Loci in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) Using Double Digest Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing (ddRADseq).

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; You, Xinxin; Li, Jia; Liu, Hankui; Meng, Zining; Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Haifa; Lin, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is essential for the discovery of genetic structures that related to complex quantitative traits. In this study, we identified 264,072 raw SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) by double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq), and utilized 3029 of these SNPs to construct a genetic linkage map in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using a regression mapping algorithm. The genetic map contained 24 linkage groups (LGs) spanning a total genetic distance of 1231.98 cM. Twenty-seven significant growth-related QTLs were identified. Furthermore, we identified 17 genes (fez2, alg3, ece2, arvcf, sla27a4, sgk223, camk2, prrc2b, mchr1, sardh, pappa, syk, tert, wdrcp91, ftz-f1, mate1 and notch1) including three (tert, ftz-f1 and notch1) that have been reported to be involved in fish growth. To summarize, we mapped growth-related QTLs in the orange-spotted grouper. These QTLs will be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) efforts to improve growth-related traits in this economically important fish. PMID:27058532

  14. Genome-Wide Mapping of Growth-Related Quantitative Trait Loci in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) Using Double Digest Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing (ddRADseq)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hui; You, Xinxin; Li, Jia; Liu, Hankui; Meng, Zining; Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Haifa; Lin, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is essential for the discovery of genetic structures that related to complex quantitative traits. In this study, we identified 264,072 raw SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) by double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq), and utilized 3029 of these SNPs to construct a genetic linkage map in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using a regression mapping algorithm. The genetic map contained 24 linkage groups (LGs) spanning a total genetic distance of 1231.98 cM. Twenty-seven significant growth-related QTLs were identified. Furthermore, we identified 17 genes (fez2, alg3, ece2, arvcf, sla27a4, sgk223, camk2, prrc2b, mchr1, sardh, pappa, syk, tert, wdrcp91, ftz-f1, mate1 and notch1) including three (tert, ftz-f1 and notch1) that have been reported to be involved in fish growth. To summarize, we mapped growth-related QTLs in the orange-spotted grouper. These QTLs will be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) efforts to improve growth-related traits in this economically important fish. PMID:27058532

  15. The Price of "Black Dominance."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoberman, John

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of stereotyping black males as athletes, noting that over-identification with athletes and the world of physical performance limits black children's development by discouraging academic achievement. Examines the negative influence of mass media focus on black athletes, rappers, and stylized ghetto blackness. Discusses…

  16. Black Writers' Views of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladner, Joyce

    1979-01-01

    Black literature of the 1960s reflected protest and an affirmation of Black power and Black consciousness. The 1970s have produced a counterwave in which Blacks, in order to achieve literary and financial recognition, have begun to focus less on race and social criticism and more on conservative and narcissistic themes. (Author/EB)

  17. Black Writers' Views of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairston, Loyle

    1979-01-01

    This article argues that the stagnation, pessimism, and self-pity evident in recent Black writing results in part from the alienation of Black writers from the mainstream of Black life, and in part from the illusions that they share with other Blacks who have embraced the American value system. (Author/EB)

  18. Black Writers' Views of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Angela

    1979-01-01

    Contrary to their portrayal in "Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman," Black women were not passive in the Black liberation movement of the 1960s. Wallace does not acknowledge the organizing efforts of both Black men and women to challenge racism and sexism within the larger capitalist system. (Author/EB)

  19. Janus black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Janik, Romuald A.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper Janus black holes in A dS 3 are considered. These are static solutions of an Einstein-scalar system with broken translation symmetry along the horizon. These solutions are dual to interface conformal field theories at finite temperature. An approximate solution is first constructed using perturbation theory around a planar BTZ blackhole. Numerical and exact solutions valid for all sets of parameters are then found and compared. Using the exact solution the thermodynamics of the system is analyzed. The entropy associated with the Janus black hole is calculated and it is found that the entropy of the black Janus is the sum of the undeformed black hole entropy and the entanglement entropy associated with the defect.

  20. Blacks in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Fayetta A.

    1974-01-01

    More than 1.3 million blacks live in Appalachian region reaching from Mississippi to New York State. Their existence and plight are ignored; they are colonized, exploited, and have few or no outlets for redress. (Author)

  1. Introducing the Black Hole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  2. Illuminating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O’Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.

  3. Tuberculosis in Blacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... the United States is declining, there is decreased awareness of TB signs and symptoms among health care ... working on projects designed to educate and raise awareness about TB in black communities. In one project, ...

  4. Charging black Saturn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chng, Brenda; Mann, Robert; Radu, Eugen; Stelea, Cristian

    2008-12-01

    We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordström solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordström solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordström solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we found contain either a conical or naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.

  5. Beyond Black and White.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, James P.

    Black and white conflict is a by-product of a more basic problem: the failure of this society to develop a social system that enables all people to meet their basic human needs at a reasonable level. Until this is done, we will not be able to move beyond black and white. The underlying problem is related to a sudden acceleration of human history…

  6. Can Blacks Be Racists? Black-on-Black Principal Abuse in an Urban School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study examines Black student and parental perceptions of exclusionary practices of Black school principals. I ask why students and parents viewed two Black principals as contributing to abusive and exclusionary school environments that marginalized Black students. After a two-year ethnographic study, it was revealed that exclusionary…

  7. Charged Galileon black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  8. Searching for Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, M.

    1998-01-01

    Our UV/VIS work concentrates on black hole X-ray nova. These objects consist of two stars in close orbit, one of which we believe is a black hole - our goal is to SHOW that one is a black hole. In order to reach this goal we carry out observations in the Optical, UV, IR and X-ray bands, and compare the observations to theoretical models. In the past year, our UV/VIS grant has provided partial support (mainly travel funds and page charges) for work we have done on X-ray nova containing black holes and neutron stars. We have been very successful in obtaining telescope time to support our project - we have completed approximately a dozen separate observing runs averaging 3 days each, using the MMT (5M), Lick 3M, KPNO 2.1M, CTIO 4M, CTIO 1.5M, and the SAO/WO 1.2M telescopes. These observations have allowed the identification of one new black hole (Nova Oph 1977), and allowed the mass of another to be measured (GS2000+25). Perhaps our most exciting new result is the evidence we have gathered for the existence of 'event horizons' in black hole X-ray nova.

  9. Black Sea in Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem

  10. Black Sea Becomes Turquoise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of color variance. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably due to sediments carried in from high waters and snowmelt from upstream. This scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on May 14, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is ?one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.? The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated'supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem

  11. Virtual black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1996-03-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foamlike structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the nontrivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of S2×S2 and K3 bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the S2×S2 bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix S/ that does not factorize into an S matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the θ angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The picture of virtual black holes given here also suggests that macroscopic black holes will evaporate down to the Planck size and then disappear in the sea of virtual black holes.

  12. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-05-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  13. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, John

    2009-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  14. Melanoma in Black Patients

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    Melanoma in black patients is uncommon but not rare. This paper reports six cases seen in one general surgeon's practice in Arkansas during a 14-year period. A review of the current literature regarding melanoma in blacks is given. Characteristically, melanoma in blacks is found on the soles of the feet, palms of the hands, or mucous membranes. The tumor has a deadly potential unless it is treated at an early stage; four of the patients reported have died of metastatic disease. A public health program is needed to make physicians and the public aware of the incidence and location of this tumor. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:7120473

  15. Turbulent Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability—which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold—akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies—a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2 +1 )-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  16. Black ring deconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Gimon, Eric; Gimon, Eric G.; Levi, Thomas S.

    2007-06-22

    We present a sample microstate for a black ring in four and five dimensional language. The microstate consists of a black string microstate with an additional D6-brane. We show that with an appropriate choice of parameters the piece involving the black string microstate falls down a long AdS throat, whose M-theory lift is AdS_3 x S2. We wrap a spinning dipole M2-brane on the S2 in the probe approximation. In IIA, this corresponds to a dielectric D2-brane carrying only D0-charge. We conjecture this is the firstapproximation to a cloud of D0-branes blowing up due to their non-abelian degrees of freedom and the Myers effect.

  17. Black Hole Bose Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2013-12-01

    General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a "cold", stable remnant.

  18. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  19. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wove detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  20. Turbulent black holes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids. PMID:25768746

  1. Slowly balding black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-10-15

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N{sub B}=e{Phi}{sub {infinity}}/({pi}c({h_bar}/2{pi})), where {Phi}{sub {infinity}}{approx_equal}2{pi}{sup 2}B{sub NS}R{sub NS}{sup 3}/(P{sub NS}c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  2. Slowly balding black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-10-01

    The “no-hair” theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively “frozen in” the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πcℏ), where Φ∞≈2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole’s magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  3. The Changing Black Teacher and Diminishing Opportunities for Black Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Asa G., III

    Racism remains a distinct factor in problems faced by black teachers and teacher educators. The number of black teachers in the public schools is diminishing, especially in the southern states, where the black student population is the highest. The higher education environment has been undergoing drastic changes in faculty and student body…

  4. Black Elite: The New Market for Highly Educated Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Richard B.

    This examination of the collapse in traditional discriminatory patterns in the market for highly qualified black Americans documents the World War II gain of college trained and related high level black workers, investigates the response of black college students and qualified personnel to the new market setting, and explores the factors that…

  5. Noncommutative solitonic black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone

    2012-05-01

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.

  6. Better Physician's 'Black Bags'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The "black bag" is outgrowth of astronaut monitoring technology from NASA's Johnson Space Center. Technically known as the portable medical status system, a highly advanced physician's "black bag" weighs less than 30 pounds, yet contains equipment for monitoring and recording vital signs, electrocardiograms, and electroencephalograms. Liquid crystal displays are used to present 15 digits of data simultaneously for long periods of time without excessive use of battery power. Single printed circuit card contains all circuitry required to measure and display vital signs such as heart and respiration rate, temperature, and blood pressure.

  7. Euclidean black hole vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowker, Fay; Gregory, Ruth; Traschen, Jennie

    1991-01-01

    We argue the existence of solutions of the Euclidean Einstein equations that correspond to a vortex sitting at the horizon of a black hole. We find the asymptotic behaviors, at the horizon and at infinity, of vortex solutions for the gauge and scalar fields in an abelian Higgs model on a Euclidean Schwarzschild background and interpolate between them by integrating the equations numerically. Calculating the backreaction shows that the effect of the vortex is to cut a slice out of the Schwarzschild geometry. Consequences of these solutions for black hole thermodynamics are discussed.

  8. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  9. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Black-hole mergers take place in regions of very strong and dynamical gravitational fields, and are among the strongest sources of gravitational radiation. Probing these mergers requires solving the full set of Einstein's equations of general relativity numerically. For more than 40 years, progress towards this goal has been very slow, as numerical relativists encountered a host of difficult problems. Recently, several breakthroughs have led to dramatic progress, enabling stable and accurate calculations of black-hole mergers. This article presents an overview of this field, including impacts on astrophysics and applications in gravitational wave data analysis.

  10. Black Musicians Leading the Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes the careers and musical achievements of Blacks who were forerunners in jazz, blues, gospel, music, spirituals, band music, classical music, ragtime, and opera. The list was compiled to provide teachers with historical background information for "Black History Month." (AM)

  11. Conquering the Black Girl Blues.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lani Valencia; Guy-Sheftall, Beverly

    2015-10-01

    An examination of the literature on epidemiology, etiology, and use of services for this population reveals an insufficient application of culturally congruent approaches to intervening with black women. An exploration of the social work practice literature and other relevant fields indicate that black feminist perspectives offer the opportunity to gain a clearer understanding of the intersection and influence of oppression among black women struggling with psychiatric issues and provide a useful framework for mental health practice with this population. This article discusses the evolving black feminist thought and summarizes the scholarship on black women's mental health services needs and utilization issues. The article includes a discussion of black feminisms as an emerging mental health perspective, arguing that black feminist perspectives in therapy provide an ideal framework for services that are responsive to the values and health needs of black women. The article concludes with a case vignette that illustrates some of its points. PMID:26489355

  12. Aspects of hairy black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru

    2015-03-26

    We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.

  13. Brane-world black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamblin, A.; Hawking, S. W.; Reall, H. S.

    2000-03-01

    Gravitational collapse of matter trapped on a brane will produce a black hole on the brane. We discuss such black holes in the models of Randall and Sundrum where our universe is viewed as a domain wall in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. We present evidence that a non-rotating uncharged black hole on the domain wall is described by a ``black cigar'' solution in five dimensions.

  14. African Psychology and Black Personality Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1987-01-01

    The following instruments for measuring Black personality use the world view and cultural orientations of Africa have been developed and are described: (1) the Black Personality Questionnaire; (2) the Black Preference Inventory; (3) the Black Opinion Scale; (4) the Themes of Black Awareness Test; (5) the Themes Concerning Blacks Test; and (6) the…

  15. Uncovering Black Womanhood in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sheree L.; Espino, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing research that outlines the experiences of Blacks and women undergraduates in engineering, little is known about Black women in this field. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover how eight Black undergraduate women in engineering understood their race and gender identities in a culture that can be oppressive to…

  16. Black Progress: Convergence or Cleavage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert B.

    1982-01-01

    The popular view of a permanent Black underclass falling farther behind an expanding Black middle class is disputed by empirical evidence that the underclass is experiencing upward mobility. The discrepancy stems from social scientists' overreliance on cross-sectional data rather than longitudinal data in analyzing economic change among Blacks.…

  17. Black Male Images in Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Francis

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the "super" image of the black male in films served three essential purposes: it gave blacks whatever therapy they needed from films; it had hot box office appeal; and it kept white in control of the images blacks have had of themselves. (Author/JM)

  18. Grant and the Black Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Robert G., Jr.

    General Ulysses S. Grant reflected the prevailing views of his community and times concerning social attitudes. Although opposed to slavery, he was not a strong advocate of liberties and rights for black people. Like President Lincoln, Grant at first opposed use of black troops in the Civil War. On July 17, 1862 black recruitment was approved and…

  19. Black Psychologists Discuss Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardo, Harold R.; And Others

    The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss reasons why blacks should be concerned and actively involved with practices in behavior modification. The concern is that as these techniques are refined it becomes more important to be sure blacks should be involved at all levels of the application of these procedures when other blacks are subjects…

  20. Black Communities and Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazaeli, Toni; Anwar, Naseem

    1991-01-01

    Adult educators can ensure access for Black adults to educational and employment opportunities in 1992 by lobbying, using Black media, developing information exchange programs and networks, supporting recognition of qualifications obtained outside Europe, and teaching about Black people's contributions to Europe. (SK)

  1. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  2. Blacks, Science, and American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Willie, Jr., Ed.; Bechtel, H. Kenneth, Ed.

    Blacks are severely underrepresented in the American scientific community; fewer than two percent of all scientists with doctorates in this country are black. Despite civil rights legislation and integration of schools, school systems still fail to encourage black students to consider and prepare for careers in the sciences. In this book, eight…

  3. Black Athletes at the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, C. Keith

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes Harry Edwards' theories and solutions regarding black male athletes, discussing the single-minded pursuit of sports glory by black males to the exclusion of cultural, educational, and social needs. Examines the systemic channeling of black males by American institutions, noting that though this system promotes opportunity for all,…

  4. Black Responses to Environmental Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Peter

    1978-01-01

    There is general agreement that various types of environmental forces have resulted in the victimization of Black Americans. Victimization implies a condition of passivity. This article challenges that perspective by demonstrating the distinctive role of the Black churches in helping Blacks maintain self-respect and act on their environment.…

  5. Black Magazines: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Marvin

    The purpose of this project was to collect data concerning the black magazine in order to assess whether or not there was sufficient material to merit further study of black publications. A pilot study revealed that the purely mass magazines act as forums for expression and appear to have the following recurrent themes: black awareness, survival,…

  6. Blacks and the Women's Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loiacono, Stephanie

    1989-01-01

    Although Black female leaders were influential in creating the modern women's movement, feminism has evolved differently for both Black and White women. Suggests that, although Black women have struggled largely against racial and economic inequalities, women of all colors and backgrounds should embrace their diversity and unite to oppose racism…

  7. Black Literature? Of Course!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Donna

    1969-01-01

    The inclusion of Afro-American literature in high schools either as an elective course or as a unit within an American literature course provides opportunities for Black students to gain, from members of their own race, pride in themselves and belief in the possibility of personal achievement. Title selection should depend upon class make-up. For…

  8. Normal black kidney

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohamadi, Aliasghar; Rezayat, Ali Reza Akhavan; Memar, Bahram; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Cand, PhD

    2014-01-01

    A black kidney has 3 major differential diagnoses: hemosiderosis, lipofuscin pigment and melanotic renal cell carcinoma. Excluding lipofuscin, the other 2 are accompanied by an abnormal renal function. We report on a 25-year-old man who intended to donate a kidney to his cousin. On the operating room table when we incised the left flank region and exposed the kidney, we found a firm and black kidney so the operation was cancelled due to potential vascular injuries. Days after the incomplete procedure, we reviewed the donor’s biochemistry and imaging to reassess his renal function, but the results showed quite normal renal function again. The result of Ham test was also negative. Two weeks later, we began the operation, removed the same left kidney and found that it was in the same conditions as it was before. We took the opportunity to send needle biopsies of the kidney for histopathologic analysis. The analysis showed a melanotic kidney without pathological changes in glomeruli and interstitium and vessels. A black kidney may result in hemosiderin, lipofuscin or melanin deposits in the kidney, which can confirm the diagnosis; however, special tests for underlying disease and renal function should be considered. Some causes of black kidney lead to abnormal function, but our patients’s kidney returned to normal. PMID:24839502

  9. Survival: Black/White.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Florence

    This book was written to communicate to others how the author became involved in the lives of the southeastern black people and how her perception and understanding of them changed as the result of that involvement. The plan of this book is as follows: the first and, by far the longer, part is devoted to descriptions and examples of the way in…

  10. Black hole magnetospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanail, Antonios; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2014-06-20

    We investigate the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole in various astrophysical settings. The solution Ψ(r, θ) depends on the distributions of the magnetic field line angular velocity ω(Ψ) and the poloidal electric current I(Ψ). These are obtained self-consistently as eigenfunctions that allow the solution to smoothly cross the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner light surface inside the ergosphere, and the outer light surface, which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. Magnetic field configurations that cross both singular surfaces (e.g., monopole, paraboloidal) are uniquely determined. Configurations that cross only one light surface (e.g., the artificial case of a rotating black hole embedded in a vertical magnetic field) are degenerate. We show that, similar to pulsars, black hole magnetospheres naturally develop an electric current sheet that potentially plays a very important role in the dissipation of black hole rotational energy and in the emission of high-energy radiation.

  11. Spring black stem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spring black stem is the most destructive alfalfa diseases in temperate regions of the U.S., Canada, Australia, and countries of Europe, Asia, and South America. The disease causes serious yield losses by reducing canopy dry matter and also decreases seed weight and crown and root mass. Forage qua...

  12. Teaching the Black Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Howard

    1968-01-01

    Instructional materials and teaching approaches can be used to get students to seriously and constructively confront problems in race relations which they will eventually have to solve. For example, Richard Wright's "Black Boy," an anthology of Negro poetry or a collection of poems on race relations, and such films as "Where is Prejudice?" can…

  13. Keeping Black Poetry Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Diane

    2006-01-01

    Thomas Sayers Ellis, assistant professor of creative writing at New York's Sarah Lawrence College, is one of many scholars fighting for the soul of Black poetry, a struggle that takes place largely off-campus. Unless one is accepted into a top-level graduate poetry program, such as Boston University's program or the Iowa Writing Workshop, a poet's…

  14. Moulting Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2012-03-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that some of the CFT states are lifted at strong coupling. Neither the bulk nor the boundary phases are captured by the elliptic genus, which makes the coincidence of the phase boundaries particularly remarkable. Our configurations are supersymmetric, have non-Cardy-like entropy, and are the first instance of a black hole entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual. Furthermore, contrary to common lore, these objects exist in a region of parameter space (between the "cosmic censorship bound" and the "unitarity bound") where no black holes were thought to exist.

  15. Dictionary of Black Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Wade; Runes, Richard N.

    This dictionary is an encyclopedic survey of the cultural background and development of the black American, covering the basic issues, events, contributions and biographies germane to the subject. The author-compiler is Chairman of Classical Languages Department at Southeastern State College, Durant, Oklahoma. Richard Runes is practicing law as a…

  16. Black College Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    Under the leadership of President David H. Swinton, Benedict College (North Carolina) has provided leadership and support for local economic development, benefitting both the community and the school. Trustees invested college endowment funds to help save the sole black-owned banking institution in the state, which now promises to become a…

  17. Black at Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadi-Hanifi, Karima

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory paper, drawing on the author's experiences as well as those of three other black lecturers in Higher Education (HE). Three interviews were carried out, asking the same five questions around themes of concern to the author. These are about the learning and teaching approaches used by these lecturers; their experiences of…

  18. Black History Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noldon, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…

  19. Black Phosphorus Terahertz Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Viti, Leonardo; Hu, Jin; Coquillat, Dominique; Knap, Wojciech; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Politano, Antonio; Vitiello, Miriam Serena

    2015-10-01

    The first room-temperature terahertz (THz)-frequency nanodetector exploiting a 10 nm thick flake of exfoliated crystalline black phosphorus as an active channel of a field-effect transistor, is devised. By engineering and embedding planar THz antennas for efficient light harvesting, the first technological demonstration of a phosphorus-based active THz device is described. PMID:26270791

  20. Failing Our Black Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, which theoretically ended school segregation in America. But many schools are as segregated today as they were before the ruling, and Black children throughout the United States are performing at the bottom of the American educational system. The nation's capital, Washington,…

  1. Black Families. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.

    The chapters of this collection explore the experiences of black families in the United States and Africa, today and in the past. They are: (1) "African American Families: A Historical Note" (John Hope Franklin); (2) "African American Families and Family Values" (Niara Sudarkasa); (3) "Old-Time Religion: Benches Can't Say 'Amen'" (William Harrison…

  2. When Black Holes Collide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  3. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  4. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  5. Newborn Black Holes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  6. Trichomicosis pubis: black variety.

    PubMed Central

    Neri, I; Frassetto, A; Pasquinelli, G; Patrizi, A

    1994-01-01

    A case of a 25 year old man with the black variety of trichomicosis pubis is presented on account of its extreme rareity. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that trichomicosis pubis is caused by bacterial colonisation of the pubic hair and shows that bacteria are able to penetrate cuticular horny cells directly through their free plasma membrane. Images PMID:8001950

  7. Black History Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on Black History month. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines; includes professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  8. A Different Reason Why Black Holes are Black

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farghal, Noha S.

    2009-11-01

    Although it is true that black holes appear to be black on the outside due to the fact that the escape velocity from the event horizon is even higher than that of light, black holes may be black on the inside as well. A recent paper by Zach Adams (2009) presents a new model which provides evidence of gravitons actually being a result of a fusion of 2 photons, which manifests in 4-D space. In fact, the duality between gravitons and photons has been suggested in earlier works as well. Falling Photon Experiment shows that as photons approach a massive body, their energies increase, and their wavelengths decrease. Photon-graviton conversions occur when the wavelengths of photons decrease to Planck's length. As a result, the photons approaching the event horizon of a black hole may gain energy enough for photon pairs to fuse and become gravitons. Therefore, as we will discuss in this work, there exists a probability that photons cannot survive within the event horizon of a black hole. It is true that nothing can escape a black hole, which is the reason why it looks black on the outside, but also the possibility that photons may not be able to survive on a black hole means that black holes may be black on the inside as well.

  9. Weighing supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Alireza

    We calculate the black hole masses for a sample of 27728 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 3 (DR3). To ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio, we reconstruct quasar spectra for this large sample of quasars using the eigenspectra method (Yip et al., 2004). This method reduces the uncertainty of the measurements for even noisy original spectra, making almost all the SDSS quasar spectra usable for our study. A few applications for black hole mass estimates are presented here. Wang et al. (2006) estimated an average radiative efficiency of 30%-35% for quasars at moderate redshift, which implies that most supermassive black holes are rotating very rapidly. Using our black hole mass estimates, we have found that their method is not independent of quasar lifetimes and thus that quasars do not necessarily have such high efficiencies. As a second application, we have investigated a claim by Steinhardt and Elvis (2009) that there exists a sub-Eddington boundary in the quasar mass-luminosity plane using the Shen et al. (2008) mass estimates. We re-calibrate the mass-scaling relations following Wang et al. (2009) with the most up-to-date reverberation estimates of black hole masses. We compare results from the original data sets with the new re-calibrated estimates of the mass-luminosity plane. We conclude that the presence of the sub-Eddington boundary in the original data of Shen et al. (2008) is likely due to biases in the mass-scaling relation and not to any physical process.

  10. Rotating black hole and quintessence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole, which has an additional parameter (ω ) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass ( M). In turn, we employ the Newman-Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence black hole solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for α =-e^2 ne 0 and ω =1/3, exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when α =0. Interestingly, for a given value of parameter ω , there exists a critical rotation parameter (a=aE), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for ablack hole with Cauchy and event horizons, and no black hole for a>aE. We find that the extremal value a_E is also influenced by the parameter ω and so is the ergoregion.

  11. Prisons of light : black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Kitty

    What is a black hole? Could we survive a visit to one -- perhaps even venture inside? Have we yet discovered any real black holes? And what do black holes teach us about the mysteries of our Universe? These are just a few of the tantalizing questions examined in this tour-de-force, jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light - Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.

  12. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Gary T.

    2012-04-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Black holes in four dimensions Gary Horowitz; Part II. Five Dimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory: 2. The Gregory-Laflamme instability Ruth Gregory; 3. Final state of Gregory-Laflamme instability Luis Lehner and Frans Pretorius; 4. General black holes in Kaluza-Klein theory Gary Horowitz and Toby Wiseman; Part III. Higher Dimensional Solutions: 5. Myers-Perry black holes Rob Myers; 6. Black rings Roberto Emparan and Harvey Reall; Part IV. General Properties: 7. Constraints on the topology of higher dimensional black holes Greg Galloway; 8. Blackfolds Roberto Emparan; 9. Algebraically special solutions in higher dimensions Harvey Reall; 10. Numerical construction of static and stationary black holes Toby Wiseman; Part V. Advanced Topics: 11. Black holes and branes in supergravity Don Marolf; 12. The gauge/gravity duality Juan Maldacena; 13. The fluid/gravity correspondence Veronika Hubeny, Mukund Rangamani and Shiraz Minwalla; 14. Horizons, holography and condensed matter Sean Hartnoll; Index.

  13. BLACK HOLE AURORA POWERED BY A ROTATING BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Masaaki; Takahashi, Rohta

    2010-05-15

    We present a model for high-energy emission sources generated by a standing magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) shock in a black hole magnetosphere. The black hole magnetosphere would be constructed around a black hole with an accretion disk, where a global magnetic field could be originated by currents in the accretion disk and its corona. Such a black hole magnetosphere may be considered as a model for the central engine of active galactic nuclei, some compact X-ray sources, and gamma-ray bursts. The energy sources of the emission from the magnetosphere are the gravitational and electromagnetic energies of magnetized accreting matters and the rotational energy of a rotating black hole. When the MHD shock generates in MHD accretion flows onto the black hole, the plasma's kinetic energy and the black hole's rotational energy can convert to radiative energy. In this Letter, we demonstrate the huge energy output at the shock front by showing negative energy postshock accreting MHD flows for a rapidly rotating black hole. This means that the extracted energy from the black hole can convert to the radiative energy at the MHD shock front. When an axisymmetric shock front is formed, we expect a ring-shaped region with very hot plasma near the black hole; this would look like an 'aurora'. The high-energy radiation generated from there would carry to us the information for the curved spacetime due to the strong gravity.

  14. Black-hole astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, P.; Bloom, E.; Cominsky, L.

    1995-07-01

    Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.

  15. Black Pine Circle Project

    ScienceCinema

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-09-15

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  16. Black Pine Circle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-03-31

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  17. Thermal corpuscular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-06-01

    We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number N of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy m (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy ω >m ). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature in the continuum. We first find that, assuming the Hawking radiation is the leading effect of the internal scatterings, the corresponding N -particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M =N m and a Planckian distribution for E >M at the same Hawking temperature. From this collective state, we compute the partition function and obtain an entropy which reproduces the usual area law with a logarithmic correction precisely related with the Hawking component. By means of the horizon wave function for the system, we finally show the backreaction of modes with ω >m reduces the Hawking flux. Both corrections, to the entropy and to the Hawking flux, suggest the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass, if the black hole is in this particular quantum state.

  18. Black Hole Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punsly, Brian

    This chapter compares and contrasts winds and jets driven by the two distinct components of the black magnetosphere: the event horizon magnetosphere (the large scale magnetic field lines that thread the event horizon) and the ergospheric disk magnetosphere associated with poloidal magnetic flux threading plasma near the equatorial plane of the ergosphere. The power of jets from the two components as predicted from single-fluid, perfect MHD numerical simulations are compared. The decomposition of the magnetosphere into these two components depends on the distribution of large scale poloidal magnetic flux in the ergosphere. However, the final distribution of magnetic flux in a black hole magnetosphere depends on physics beyond these simple single-fluid treatments, non-ideal MHD (eg, the dynamics of magnetic field reconnection and radiation effects) and two-fluid effects (eg, ion coupled waves and instabilities in the inner accretion flow). In this chapter, it is emphasized that magnetic field line reconnection is the most important of these physical elements. Unfortunately, in single-fluid perfect MHD simulations, reconnection is a mathematical artifact of numerical diffusion and is not determined by physical processes. Consequently, considerable calculational progress is required before we can reliably assess the role of each of these components of black hole magnetospheres in astrophysical systems.

  19. Perspectives: Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, Joseph F.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When asked to discuss Cyg XR-1, E. E. Salpeter once concluded, 'A black hole in Cyg X(R)-1 is the most conservative hypothesis.' Recent observations now make it likely that a black hole in Cyg XR-1 is the only hypothesis tenable. Chandrasekhar first showed that compact stars - those with the inward force of gravity on their outer layers balanced by the pressure generated by the Pauli exclusion principle acting on its electrons (in white dwarfs) or nucleons (in neutron stars) - have a maximum mass. Equilibrium is achieved at a minimum of the total energy of the star, which is the sum of the positive Fermi energy and the negative gravitational energy. The maximum mass attainable in equilibrium is found by setting E = 0: M(max) = 1.5 M(Sun). If the mass of the star is larger than this, then E can be decreased without bound by decreasing the star's radius and increasing its (negative) gravitational energy. No equilibrium value of the radius exist, and general relativity predicts that gravitational collapse to a point occurs. This point singularity is a black hole.

  20. Black hole jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contopoulos, I.

    2013-09-01

    We revisit the Blandford & Znajek (1977) process and solve the fundamental equation that governs the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole. The solution depends on the distributions of the magnetic field angular velocity and the poloidal electric current I. These are not arbitrary. They are determined self-consistently by requiring that magnetic field lines cross smoothly the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner `light surface' located inside the ergosphere, and the outer `light surface' which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. We obtain the rate of electromagnetic extraction of energy and confirm the results of Blanford & Znajek. Unless the black hole is surrounded by a thick disk and/or extended disk outflows, the asymptotic solution is very similar to the asymptotic pulsar magnetosphere which has no collimation and no significant plasma acceleration. We discuss the role of the surrounding disk and of pair production in the generation of black hole jets.

  1. Non-Abelian magnetic black strings versus black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present d+1 -dimensional pure magnetic Yang-Mills (YM) black strings (or 1-branes) induced by the d -dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dilaton black holes. The Born-Infeld version of the YM field makes our starting point which goes to the standard YM field through a limiting procedure. The lifting from black holes to black strings (with less number of fields) is done by adding an extra, compact coordinate. This amounts to the change of horizon topology from S^{d-2} to a product structure. Our black string in 5 dimensions is a rather special one, with uniform Hawking temperature and non-asymptotically flat structure. As the YM charge becomes large the string gets thinner to tend into a breaking point and transform into a 4-dimensional black hole.

  2. Black Father Involvement in Gifted Education: Thoughts from Black Fathers on Increasing/Improving Black Father-Gifted Teacher Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham, Tarek C.; Henfield, Malik S.

    2011-01-01

    Black fathers are important advocates in addressing the underrepresentation of Black students in gifted programs, as well as the achievement gaps between Black and White students. Black fathers increasingly understand the important role that Black mothers have traditionally played in supporting their gifted children's school experiences. As a…

  3. "They Do Not Relate to Black People like Us": Black Teachers as Role Models for Black Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maylor, Uvanney

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns about the experience and achievement of Black pupils (especially Black males) underpin calls for more Black people to serve as teacher and lay mentor role models in schools. Calls for increased numbers of Black teacher role models assume firstly, that Black teachers regard themselves as role models and want to perform such a role…

  4. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  5. Menus for Feeding Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    Black holes are the ultimate prisons of the Universe, regions of spacetime where the enormous gravity prohibits matter or even light to escape to infinity. Yet, matter falling toward the black holes may shine spectacularly, generating the strongest source of radiation. These sources provide us with astrophysical laboratories of extreme physical conditions that cannot be realized on Earth. This chapter offers a review of the basic menus for feeding matter onto black holes and discusses their observational implications.

  6. Acceleration of black hole universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. X.; Frederick, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Zhang slightly modified the standard big bang theory and developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This paper investigates acceleration of the black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the redshift and luminosity distance measurements of type Ia supernovae. The results indicate that the black hole universe accelerates its expansion when it accretes the ambient matter in an increasing rate. In other words, i.e., when the second-order derivative of the mass of the black hole universe with respect to the time is positive . For a constant deceleration parameter , we can perfectly explain the type Ia supernova measurements with the reduced chi-square to be very close to unity, χ red˜1.0012. The expansion and acceleration of black hole universe are driven by external energy.

  7. Black holes and the multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  8. Black holes as antimatter factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambi, Cosimo; Dolgov, Alexander D.; Petrov, Alexey A.

    2009-09-01

    We consider accretion of matter onto a low mass black hole surrounded by ionized medium. We show that, because of the higher mobility of protons than electrons, the black hole would acquire positive electric charge. If the black hole's mass is about or below 1020 g, the electric field at the horizon can reach the critical value which leads to vacuum instability and electron-positron pair production by the Schwinger mechanism. Since the positrons are ejected by the emergent electric field, while electrons are back-captured, the black hole operates as an antimatter factory which effectively converts protons into positrons.

  9. How black holes saved relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda

    2016-02-01

    While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.

  10. Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface in wavelengths above 1000 nm. On the other hand, carbon absorbs at those and longer wavelengths. Thus, it is possible to combine black silicon with carbon to create an artificial material with very low reflectivity over a wide spectral range. Here we report our results on coating conformally black silicon substrate with amorphous pyrolytic carbon. We present a superior black surface with reflectance of light less than 0.5% in the spectral range of 350 nm to 2000 nm. PMID:27174890

  11. Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N.; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi

    2016-05-01

    Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface in wavelengths above 1000 nm. On the other hand, carbon absorbs at those and longer wavelengths. Thus, it is possible to combine black silicon with carbon to create an artificial material with very low reflectivity over a wide spectral range. Here we report our results on coating conformally black silicon substrate with amorphous pyrolytic carbon. We present a superior black surface with reflectance of light less than 0.5% in the spectral range of 350 nm to 2000 nm.

  12. Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N.; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface in wavelengths above 1000 nm. On the other hand, carbon absorbs at those and longer wavelengths. Thus, it is possible to combine black silicon with carbon to create an artificial material with very low reflectivity over a wide spectral range. Here we report our results on coating conformally black silicon substrate with amorphous pyrolytic carbon. We present a superior black surface with reflectance of light less than 0.5% in the spectral range of 350 nm to 2000 nm. PMID:27174890

  13. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Micu, Octavian; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-10-01

    We review some features of BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the HWF formalism. We consider the KG equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in spherical symmetry. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, so that (approximately) one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The HWF is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons), in agreement with semiclassical calculations and different from a single very massive particle. The spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (the bosons forming the black hole), and a continuous spectrum with energy $\\omega > m$ (representing the Hawking radiation and modelled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature). The $N$-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy $M = N m$ and a Planckian distribution for $E > M$ at the same Hawking temperature. The partition function is then found to yield the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related with the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with $\\omega > m$ is also shown to reduce the Hawking flux and the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass.

  14. Black monazite from Taiwan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, J.J.; Overstreet, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    Two forms of detrital monazite are known in offshore bars in southwestern Taiwan: a yellow-green to colorless form and an unusual but abundant pelletlike form, generally black but also colored gray or brown. These black pellets, which are about 160 by 200 microns in size, are composed of fine-grained monazite crystals from 2 to 20 microns in size. The pellets are associated with highly variable amounts of discrete grains of detrital quartz, rutile, amphibole, tourmaline, and other minerals. Intergrown with the monazite are quartz, a cerium oxide mineral, chlorite, sulfides, and other minerals. Opaqueness of the pelletlike monazite is due principally to the cryptocrystalline nature of part of the monazite; only a small part of the opaqueness can be attributed to opaque inclusions. The black pelletlike monazite lacks thorium and has a high content of europium. In this respect, as in color, shape, size, and inclusions, the pelletlike monazite differs from the yellow-green detrital monazite. Despite the fact that they occur together in the littoral placers, they appear to have had different origins. The yellow-green monazite originated as an accessory mineral in plutonic rocks and has accumulated at the coast through erosion and transport. The origin of the pelletlike monazite is as yet unknown, but it is here inferred that it originated in unconsolidated coastal plain sediments through migration of cerium from the detrital monazite during weathering, and of the intermediate weight mobile rare earths from clay minerals during diagenesis. Possibly these pelletlike grains are detrital particles formed through erosion and transport from originally larger aggregates cemented by diagenetic monazite.

  15. Noncommutative black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.; Dias, N. C.; Prata, J. N.

    2010-04-01

    One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, η. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.

  16. Colored black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Bizon, P. )

    1990-06-11

    We analyze the static spherically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills equations with SU(2) gauge group and show numerically that the equations possess asymptotically flat solutions with regular event horizon and nontrivial Yang-Mills (YM) connection. The solutions have zero global YM charges and asymptotically approximate the Schwarzschild solution with quantized values of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass. Our result questions the validity of the no-hair'' conjecture for YM black holes. This work complements the recent study of Bartnik and McKinnon on static spherically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills soliton solutions.

  17. Black box multigrid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dendy, J. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The black box multigrid (BOXMG) code, which only needs specification of the matrix problem for application in the multigrid method was investigated. It is contended that a major problem with the multigrid method is that each new grid configuration requires a major programming effort to develop a code that specifically handles that grid configuration. The SOR and ICCG methods only specify the matrix problem, no matter what the grid configuration. It is concluded that the BOXMG does everything else necessary to set up the auxiliary coarser problems to achieve a multigrid solution.

  18. Ultrastructure of black piedra.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Júnior, H L; Salebian, A; Rivitti, E A

    1991-01-01

    Black piedra or nodular trichomycosis is a superficial mycosis of the hair shaft, prevalent in the tropical areas of South America and Asia and caused by the fungus Piedraia hortai. By scanning electron microscopy the invasion of the hair keratin and the elimination of spores through canals was seen. Transmission electron microscopy showed a complex, well-organized microsystem, in which cement-producing hyphae constitute the pseudoparenchyma. Both sexual and asexual reproduction were found. Sexual reproduction gives rise to ascospores and asexual reproduction to arthrospores. The ascospores were found in thick-walled bags, the asci; the arthrospores, that undergo gemmation, are eliminated through canals, disseminating the disease. PMID:1824414

  19. Research in the Black Community: A Black Psychologist's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert L.

    Much of the research conducted within the black community served primarily to promote the interests and personal gain of the researchers rather than the community. Consequently, the research proved more harmful than helpful, thereby providing no visible or appreciable payoff or benefits to the black community. Moreover, the perspectives of the…

  20. Black Graduate Education at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert T., Ed.; Hilton, Adriel A., Ed.; Fountaine, Tiffany Patrice, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book provides context about the experiences of Black graduate and professional students attending HBCUs. Indeed, such research is important, particularly since HBCUs play a significant role in the number of Blacks who receive doctorates and professional degrees (i.e. M.D., D.D.S., J.D. etc.), especially in science and engineering. In fact,…

  1. How Black Colleges Empower Black Students: Lessons for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Frank W., Jr., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    To their disadvantage, few Americans--and few in higher education--know much about the successes of historically Black colleges and universities. How is it that historically Black colleges graduate so many low-income and academically poorly prepared students? How do they manage to do so well with students "as they are", even when adopting open…

  2. The Promise of Black Teachers' Success with Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard, IV

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses African American researchers' perspectives on the experiences, impact and success of Black teachers with Black students in public schools. This study builds on an earlier study that focused specifically on these researchers' insights about the impact of the "Brown versus the Topeka Board of Education" decision…

  3. Black Interpretation, Black American Literature, and Grey Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Earl M.

    1981-01-01

    Defines and illustrates language techniques used by Black authors writing to and for Blacks in the 1960s and 1970s. Suggests how language and theme barriers of such literature might be overcome in a contemporary integrated oral interpretation classroom. (PD)

  4. Surfing a Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way

  5. 7 CFR 51.1276 - Black end.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1276 Black end. Black end is evidenced by an abnormally deep green color around the calyx, or black spots...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1318 - Black end.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1318 Black end. Black end is evidenced by an abnormally deep green color around the calyx, or black spots usually...

  7. Black-Hole Feedback in Quasars

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation illustrates how black-hole feedback works in quasars. Dense gas and dust in the center simultaneously fuels the black hole and shrouds it from view. The black-hole wind propels large...

  8. Black holes with a single Killing vector field: black resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.; Way, Benson

    2015-12-01

    We numerically construct asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in four dimensions that contain only a single Killing vector field. These solutions, which we coin black resonators, link the superradiant instability of Kerr-AdS to the nonlinear weakly turbulent instability of AdS by connecting the onset of the superradiance instability to smooth, horizonless geometries called geons. Furthermore, they demonstrate non-uniqueness of Kerr-AdS by sharing asymptotic charges. Where black resonators coexist with Kerr-AdS, we find that the black resonators have higher entropy. Nevertheless, we show that black resonators are unstable and comment on the implications for the endpoint of the superradiant instability.

  9. Black hairy tongue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient’s re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

  10. The Controversy around Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitre, Abul; Ray, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    Controversy over black history began in 1926, when Carter G. Woodson introduced Negro history week, and has continued into the 21st century. Proponents of black history believe it promotes diversity, develops self-esteem, and corrects myths and stereotypes. Opponents argue it is dishonest, divisive, and lacks academic credibility and rigor.…

  11. Whites' Beliefs about Blacks' Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluegel, James R.; Smith, Eliot R.

    1982-01-01

    Cites data which show that Whites tend to perceive widespread reverse discrimination, to see Blacks' opportunities as having greatly improved in recent years, and to deny structural limits to Black opportunity. Posits that these perceptions are related to (1) prevailing public beliefs about stratification and (2) peoples' own social positions and…

  12. Black Americans: A Psychological Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughman, E. Earl

    Contents of this book include: (1) The Concept of Race-Black, Negro, Afro-American, Colored?; Social versus Biological Definitions of Race; and Confounding Race and Social Class; (2) Intelligence-Black-White Differences in IQ: age and sex differences, the genetic explanation, the environmental explanation, family correlates of IQ, and a personal…

  13. Black Youths and Illegal Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Janice; Pearson, Patricia G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effect of drugs on black youths, discussing different types of drug involvement, reasons for drug involvement, extent and nature of involvement, drugs and crime, drugs and health issues, drug control strategies, and prevention. Policy implications include prioritizing drug prevention among black youths, providing alternatives to drug…

  14. Family Life in Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robert Joseph, Ed.; Jackson, James S., Ed.; Chatters, Linda M., Ed.

    This volume draws on data from the National Survey of Black Americans (NSBA) to explore the condition of the black family in America. The first chapter provides a general introduction, and each of the other chapters presents additional information about the NSBA as it pertains to specific subsamples of NSBA respondents. The following chapters are…

  15. Black Agenda for Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roosevelt

    This 12-chapter book contains contributions from selected authors concentrating on a comprehensive analysis of career education for the black American. The treatise takes career education to task for its "white foundations of educational data." Chapter titles and authors are: Black Agenda for Career Education, by Roosevelt Johnson; Career…

  16. Historical Perspectives on Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Asa G., III

    This transcription of the keynote speech delivered at a conference on the black family is a discussion of the black family from an historical perspective. The presentation begins with quotations from ancient African literature and a discussion of the archaeological history of the African continent with references to authors who have used this…

  17. An Interview with Jim Black

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Brad

    2006-01-01

    Jim Black is president of SEM WORKS, one of the leading higher education consulting firms in the area of enrollment management. Dr. Black has delivered keynote addresses and conducted training workshops for business leaders and educators worldwide. His areas of expertise include leadership, organizational change, customer service, strategic…

  18. Black Children in American Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Harry

    Evidence supporting the notion of advanced sensorimotor development in black children is presented in this report directed to school administrators, teachers, parents, and child caretakers. A discussion of selected research literature on early and advanced sensorimotor development in black children, institutional management of these children, and…

  19. Personality Characteristics of Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nina W.

    1977-01-01

    This research attempted to determine 1) the personality profiles of disadvantaged Black adolescents on Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and Gough's Adjective Checklist (ACL), 2) if this group differed significantly on the VPI from Blacks attending college, and 3) what implications for programming and planning could be determined…

  20. Personality Characteristics of Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nina W.

    Four hundred and forty-six poor black urban and rural adolescents ages 15-18 enrolled in a summer poverty-work program are administered Gough's Adjective Checklist (ACL) and Holland's Vocatonal Preference Inventory (VPI) to determine their personality profile, to ascertain differences between this gorup and blacks attending colleges, and to study…

  1. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  2. Role Conflict and Black Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocombe, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Examining the social attitudes and practical consciousness of young black American youth through an analysis of the 1999 rap song, "Bling bling," by the Hot Boyz, in this work, I review the oppositional culture hypothesis as it pertains to the black/white achievement gap, describe the current debate, and reinterpret the hypothesis within a…

  3. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  4. The Isolated Appalachian Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    This paper investigates the isolation of the local black community within the social/cultural perspective. A profile of the community is given in terms of data collected from personal and family interviews. Personal interviews assessed how the Appalachian black viewed his group. Among the 13 variables studied are: trustworthiness, religion, work…

  5. The Black Vote: Election '76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Center for Political Studies, Washington, DC.

    Research on black political behavior in the 1976 congressional and presidential elections is presented. The purpose of the report is to present facts and figures which describe the impact of the black vote in the election of Jimmy Carter and of numerous congressional and gubernatorial candidates. Twenty three states were involved in an examination…

  6. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the assessment of air emissions from the manufacture of carbon black, currently manufactured in the U.S. by two major processes: thermal and oil furnace. Sources of atmospheric emissions within oil furnace plants (about 90% of the 30 U.S. carbon black plants...

  7. Health Policies and Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, David P., Ed.

    This collection of essays focuses on the impact of health policy on black Americans by examining the relation between public policy and the distribution of health needs and effects. The book includes an introduction by David P. Willis and is divided into seven sections. Section I, "Who Are Black Americans?" includes the following chapters: (1)…

  8. The Black Community Speaks Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piovia, Esther

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the findings of Black community surveys carried out by the Urban League in several U.S. cities since 1976. Among the principal concerns of urban Blacks surveyed were inflation, unemployment, housing, crime, education, child care, health care, racial discrimination, and police-community relations. (GC)

  9. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  10. Reconceptualizing Retirement for Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Rose C.

    1987-01-01

    Examined subsample of nonworking older Black Americans (N=295) from the National Survey of Black Americans sample. Found four factors contributed significantly to respondents' unretired-retired status: indistinct line between lifetime and old age work patterns, view that occasional work is necessary, income from other than private pensions, and…

  11. Black Thunder reaches new highs

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-03-15

    After successfully merging North Rochelle mine with Black Thunder mine, Arch Coal set its sights on reopening Coal Creek. Coal Creek mine was idled in 2000. An annual production of 15 million tons is targeted. The article describes operations at Black Thunder opencast mine and talks about the integration of North Rochelle. 2 figs., 2 photos.

  12. Managing asthma in Black children.

    PubMed

    Rance, Karen; Oʼlaughlen, Mary; Platts-Mills, Thomas

    2012-06-10

    Black children bear a disproportionate burden of asthma when compared to other segments of the population. This study assessed the role of symptom scores, spirometry testing, and serum-specific immunoglobulin E in the primary care management of asthma in Black children. PMID:22635264

  13. Black hole final state conspiracies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The principle that unitarity must be preserved in all processes, no matter how exotic, has led to deep insights into boundary conditions in cosmology and black hole theory. In the case of black hole evaporation, Horowitz and Maldacena were led to propose that unitarity preservation can be understood in terms of a restriction imposed on the wave function at the singularity. Gottesman and Preskill showed that this natural idea only works if one postulates the presence of “conspiracies” between systems just inside the event horizon and states at much later times, near the singularity. We argue that some AdS black holes have unusual internal thermodynamics, and that this may permit the required “conspiracies” if real black holes are described by some kind of sum over all AdS black holes having the same entropy.

  14. Prisons of Light - Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Kitty

    1998-05-01

    In this jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science, acclaimed science writer Kitty Ferguson examines the discovery of black holes, their nature, and what they can teach us about the mysteries of the universe. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light--Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.

  15. When Charged Black Holes Merge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    Most theoretical models assume that black holes arent charged. But a new study shows that mergers of charged black holes could explain a variety of astrophysical phenomena, from fast radio bursts to gamma-ray bursts.No HairThe black hole no hair theorem states that all black holes can be described by just three things: their mass, their spin, and their charge. Masses and spins have been observed and measured, but weve never measured the charge of a black hole and its widely believed that real black holes dont actually have any charge.That said, weve also never shown that black holes dont have charge, or set any upper limits on the charge that they might have. So lets suppose, for a moment, that its possible for a black hole to be charged. How might that affect what we know about the merger of two black holes? A recent theoretical study by Bing Zhang (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) examines this question.Intensity profile of a fast radio burst, a sudden burst of radio emission that lasts only a few milliseconds. [Swinburne Astronomy Productions]Driving TransientsZhangs work envisions a pair of black holes in a binary system. He argues that if just one of the black holes carries charge possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere then it may be possible for the system to produce an electromagnetic signal that could accompany gravitational waves, such as a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst!In Zhangs model, the inspiral of the two black holes generates a global magnetic dipole thats perpendicular to the plane of the binarys orbit. The magnetic flux increases rapidly as the separation between the black holes decreases, generating an increasingly powerful magnetic wind. This wind, in turn, can give rise to a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst, depending on the value of the black holes charge.Artists illustration of a short gamma-ray burst, thought to be caused by the merger of two compact objects. [ESO/A. Roquette]Zhang calculates lower limits on the charge

  16. Derivatives of Black Knight Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, N.; Wright, D.

    This paper traces the line of descent from Black Knight to Black Arrow, and at the same time looks at various proposed projects, both civil and military, which were to be Black Knight derivatives, but which for one reason or another never saw the light of day. Research in this area is rather akin to anthropological work, tracing fossils from Homo erectus (Black Knight) to Homo sapiens (Black Arrow), knowing that a lot of the fossils found will not be on the direct line of descent, but represent branches that became extinct. This article attempts to cover designs, which, although they never made it to hardware, are none the less interesting technically, or shine light on the evolution of design philosophy.

  17. The Use of the Black Folk Oral Tradition and Other Black Rhetorical and Verbal Strategies in the Teaching of Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Edward

    This paper presents background information on the development of the folk oral tradition of black American literature. It then examines seven types of black literature that are basically oral: black folk tales, black folk sermons, black ballads, black American spirituals, black nonreligious or secular songs, black American blues, and Afro-American…

  18. Slicing black hole spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Donato; Bittencourt, Eduardo; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.

    2015-04-01

    A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand, properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.

  19. Black optic display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1997-01-01

    An optical display includes a plurality of stacked optical waveguides having first and second opposite ends collectively defining an image input face and an image screen, respectively, with the screen being oblique to the input face. Each of the waveguides includes a transparent core bound by a cladding layer having a lower index of refraction for effecting internal reflection of image light transmitted into the input face to project an image on the screen, with each of the cladding layers including a cladding cap integrally joined thereto at the waveguide second ends. Each of the cores is beveled at the waveguide second end so that the cladding cap is viewable through the transparent core. Each of the cladding caps is black for absorbing external ambient light incident upon the screen for improving contrast of the image projected internally on the screen.

  20. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of Application for Partial Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 25, 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor)...

  1. The renaissance of black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Xi; Wang, Han; Huang, Shengxi; Xia, Fengnian; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2015-04-01

    One hundred years after its first successful synthesis in the bulk form in 1914, black phosphorus (black P) was recently rediscovered from the perspective of a 2D layered material, attracting tremendous interest from condensed matter physicists, chemists, semiconductor device engineers, and material scientists. Similar to graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), black P has a layered structure but with a unique puckered single-layer geometry. Because the direct electronic band gap of thin film black P can be varied from 0.3 eV to around 2 eV, depending on its film thickness, and because of its high carrier mobility and anisotropic in-plane properties, black P is promising for novel applications in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics different from graphene and TMDs. Black P as a nanomaterial has already attracted much attention from researchers within the past year. Here, we offer our opinions on this emerging material with the goal of motivating and inspiring fellow researchers in the 2D materials community and the broad readership of PNAS to discuss and contribute to this exciting new field. We also give our perspectives on future 2D and thin film black P research directions, aiming to assist researchers coming from a variety of disciplines who are desirous of working in this exciting research field.

  2. The renaissance of black phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Xi; Wang, Han; Huang, Shengxi; Xia, Fengnian; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2015-01-01

    One hundred years after its first successful synthesis in the bulk form in 1914, black phosphorus (black P) was recently rediscovered from the perspective of a 2D layered material, attracting tremendous interest from condensed matter physicists, chemists, semiconductor device engineers, and material scientists. Similar to graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), black P has a layered structure but with a unique puckered single-layer geometry. Because the direct electronic band gap of thin film black P can be varied from 0.3 eV to around 2 eV, depending on its film thickness, and because of its high carrier mobility and anisotropic in-plane properties, black P is promising for novel applications in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics different from graphene and TMDs. Black P as a nanomaterial has already attracted much attention from researchers within the past year. Here, we offer our opinions on this emerging material with the goal of motivating and inspiring fellow researchers in the 2D materials community and the broad readership of PNAS to discuss and contribute to this exciting new field. We also give our perspectives on future 2D and thin film black P research directions, aiming to assist researchers coming from a variety of disciplines who are desirous of working in this exciting research field. PMID:25820173

  3. Acceleration of Black Hole Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2012-05-01

    An alternative cosmological model called black hole universe has been recently proposed by the author. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole to the present state by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with an infinite number of layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we live, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of space-time, and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. In this study. we will analyze the acceleration of black hole universe that accretes its ambient matter in an increasing rate. We will also compare the result obtained from the black hole universe model with the measurement of type Ia supernova and the result from the big bang cosmology.

  4. A nonsingular rotating black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.

    2015-11-01

    The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a well-defined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m( r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r ≫ k, k>0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k=0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics.

  5. The renaissance of black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Wang, Han; Huang, Shengxi; Xia, Fengnian; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2015-04-14

    One hundred years after its first successful synthesis in the bulk form in 1914, black phosphorus (black P) was recently rediscovered from the perspective of a 2D layered material, attracting tremendous interest from condensed matter physicists, chemists, semiconductor device engineers, and material scientists. Similar to graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), black P has a layered structure but with a unique puckered single-layer geometry. Because the direct electronic band gap of thin film black P can be varied from 0.3 eV to around 2 eV, depending on its film thickness, and because of its high carrier mobility and anisotropic in-plane properties, black P is promising for novel applications in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics different from graphene and TMDs. Black P as a nanomaterial has already attracted much attention from researchers within the past year. Here, we offer our opinions on this emerging material with the goal of motivating and inspiring fellow researchers in the 2D materials community and the broad readership of PNAS to discuss and contribute to this exciting new field. We also give our perspectives on future 2D and thin film black P research directions, aiming to assist researchers coming from a variety of disciplines who are desirous of working in this exciting research field. PMID:25820173

  6. Black Hole Grabs Starry Snack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    This artist's concept shows a supermassive black hole at the center of a remote galaxy digesting the remnants of a star. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer had a 'ringside' seat for this feeding frenzy, using its ultraviolet eyes to study the process from beginning to end.

    The artist's concept chronicles the star being ripped apart and swallowed by the cosmic beast over time. First, the intact sun-like star (left) ventures too close to the black hole, and its own self-gravity is overwhelmed by the black hole's gravity. The star then stretches apart (middle yellow blob) and eventually breaks into stellar crumbs, some of which swirl into the black hole (cloudy ring at right). This doomed material heats up and radiates light, including ultraviolet light, before disappearing forever into the black hole. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to watch this process unfold by observing changes in ultraviolet light.

    The area around the black hole appears warped because the gravity of the black hole acts like a lens, twisting and distorting light.

  7. More Hidden Black Hole Dangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Black holes such as GRO J1655-40 form from collapsed stars. When stars at least eight times more massive than our Sun exhaust their fuel supply, they no longer have the energy to support their tremendous bulk. These stars explode as supernovae, blasting their outer envelopes into space. If the core is more than three times the mass of the Sun, it will collapse into a singularity, a single point of infinite density.Although light cannot escape black holes, astronomers can see black holes by virtue of the hot, glowing gas often stolen from a neighboring star that orbits these objects. From our vantage point, the light seems to flicker. The Rossi Explorer has recorded this flickering (called quasiperiodic oscillations, or QPOs) around many black holes. QPOs are produced by gas very near the innermost stable orbit the closest orbit a blob of gas can maintain before falling pell-mell into the black hole. As gas whips around the black hole at near light speed, gravity pulls the gas in one direction, then another, adding to the flickering. The QPO is related to the speed and size of this orbit and the mass of the black hole.

  8. Using grouper fish as bio-indicator of Cd, Cu, Pb and V in the vicinity of a single buoy mooring (SBM3) at Mina Al Fahal in the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Wahab, S A; Al-Husaini, I S; Rahmalan, A

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigated metal contamination in muscle tissue of the grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in the vicinity of a single buoy mooring (SBM3) at the Sultanate of Oman. The fish samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and vanadium (V). The mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and V in the fish samples were 0.05 ± 0.004, 0.34 ± 0.013, 0.20 ± 0.018 and 0.03 ± 0.006 mg/kg, respectively. The results were compared with the corresponding permissible concentration limits according to the Sultanate of Oman (0.05, 3.28, 0.3 and 1.4 mg/kg for Cd, Cu, Pb and V, respectively) and the European Commission (0.05 mg/kg for Cd and 0.3 mg/kg for Pb). It was found that none of the overall mean metal concentrations exceeded the corresponding Omani legislation or European Commission limits. However, the overall mean concentration of Cd was identical to the maximum permissible limit of 0.05 mg/kg that has been established by both Commissions, and the limits were exceeded for mean Cd levels in fish at two of the six sampling stations at SBM3. In general, this study indicated that the fishes at SBM3 were not highly contaminated with these metals. PMID:24145924

  9. Thermodynamics of Lifshitz black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devecioǧlu, Deniz Olgu; Sarıoǧlu, Özgür

    2011-06-01

    We apply the recently extended conserved Killing charge definition of Abbott-Deser-Tekin formalism to compute, for the first time, the energies of analytic Lifshitz black holes in higher dimensions. We then calculate the temperature and the entropy of this large family of solutions, and study and discuss the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Along the way we also identify the possible critical points of the relevant quadratic curvature gravity theories. Separately, we also apply the generalized Killing charge definition to compute the energy and the angular momentum of the warped AdS3 black hole solution of the three-dimensional new massive gravity theory.

  10. Black Holes: A Traveler's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1998-03-01

    BLACK HOLES A TRAVELER'S GUIDE Clifford Pickover's inventive and entertaining excursion beyond the curves of space and time. "I've enjoyed Clifford Pickover's earlier books . . . now he has ventured into the exploration of black holes. All would-be tourists are strongly advised to read his traveler's guide." -Arthur C. Clarke. "Many books have been written about black holes, but none surpass this one in arousing emotions of awe and wonder towards the mysterious structure of the universe." -Martin Gardner. "Bucky Fuller thought big. Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." -Wired. "The book is fun, zany, in-your-face, and refreshingly addictive." -Times Higher Education Supplement.

  11. Quantum mechanics of black holes.

    PubMed

    Witten, Edward

    2012-08-01

    The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely. PMID:22859480

  12. Gravitational polarizability of black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria

    2009-08-15

    The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h{sub l} of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h{sub l}{sup EM}. The Love numbers h{sub l} give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.

  13. Dynamics of Charged Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilhão, Miguel; Cardoso, Vitor; Herdeiro, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    We report on numerical simulations of charged-black-hole collisions.We focus on head-on collisions of non-spinning black holes, starting from rest and with the same charge to mass ratio. The addition of charge to black holes introduces a new interesting channel of radiation and dynamics. The amount of gravitational-wave energy generated throughout the collision decreases by about three orders of magnitude as the charge-to-mass ratio is increased from 0 to 0.98. This is a consequence of the smaller accelerations present for larger values of the charge.

  14. Evaporation of primordial black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    The usual explanation of the isotropy of the universe is that inflation would have smoothed out any inhomogeneities. However, if the universe was initially fractal or in a foam like state, an overall inflation would have left it in the same state. I suggest that the universe did indeed begin with a tangled web of wormholes connecting pairs of black holes but that the inflationary expansion was unstable: wormholes that are slightly smaller correspond to black holes that are hotter than the cosmological background and evaporate away. This picture is supported by calculations with Raphael Bousso of the evaporation of primordial black holes in the s-wave and large N approximations.

  15. Beyond the Black Queen Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Mas, Alix; Jamshidi, Shahrad; Lagadeuc, Yvan; Eveillard, Damien; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The Black Queen Hypothesis, recently proposed to explain an evolution of dependency based on gene loss, is gaining ground. This paper focuses on how the evolution of dependency transforms interactions and the community. Using agent-based modeling we suggest that species specializing in the consumption of a common good escape competition and therefore favor coexistence. This evolutionary trajectory could open the way for novel long-lasting interactions and a need to revisit the classically accepted assembly rules. Such evolutionary events also reshape the structure and dynamics of communities, depending on the spatial heterogeneity of the common good production. Let Black be the new black! PMID:26953598

  16. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    PubMed

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here. PMID:25768747

  17. 7 CFR 51.1318 - Black end.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Black end. 51.1318 Section 51.1318 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1318 Black end. Black end is evidenced by an abnormally deep green color around the calyx, or black spots usually...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1276 - Black end.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Black end. 51.1276 Section 51.1276 Agriculture... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1276 Black end. Black end is evidenced by an abnormally deep green color around the calyx, or black spots usually occurring on the one-third of...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1276 - Black end.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Black end. 51.1276 Section 51.1276 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1276 Black end. Black end is evidenced by an abnormally deep green color around the calyx, or black spots...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1318 - Black end.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Black end. 51.1318 Section 51.1318 Agriculture... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1318 Black end. Black end is evidenced by an abnormally deep green color around the calyx, or black spots usually occurring on the one-third of the surface...