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Sample records for black muslim women

  1. Factors that Influence Body Image Representations of Black Muslim Women

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Research on the body image perceptions of black women is limited. Although previous body image studies have explored the intersection between race and gender, the influence of religion has been neglected. Guided by a grounded theory framework, the focus of this investigation, conducted in Upstate New York, USA, was to examine the role of race and religion in the body image perceptions of 22 African-American Sunni Muslim women. Analysis of individual interviews revealed that, in contrast to using standard medical guidelines, participants’ views about their bodies were largely based on positive images of an earlier body size/shape, social and family expectations and contexts, cultural norms and values, and spirituality and religious beliefs. Although the body image perceptions of black Muslim women were similar to those expressed in previous body image studies with black women, participants expressed the importance of highlighting the spiritual versus physical self by adhering to religious guidelines regarding proper dress and appearance. These findings suggest that religion, race, and gender are all important factors to be considered when conducting body image studies with black women. PMID:18384923

  2. Muslim women having abortions in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, Ellen; Najafi, Roya; Soheil, Naghma; Kamani, Alya

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To improve understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of Muslim patients presenting for abortion. Design Exploratory study in which participants completed questionnaires about their attitudes, beliefs, and experiences. Setting Two urban, free-standing abortion clinics. Participants Fifty-three self-identified Muslim patients presenting for abortion. Main outcome measures Women’s background, beliefs, and attitudes toward their religion and toward abortion; levels of anxiety, depression, and guilt, scored on a scale of 0 to 10; and degree of pro-choice or anti-choice attitude toward abortion, assessed by having respondents identify under which circumstances a woman should be able to have an abortion. Results The 53 women in this study were a diverse group, aged 17 to 47 years, born in 17 different countries, with a range of beliefs and attitudes toward abortion. As found in previous studies, women who were less pro-choice (identified fewer acceptable reasons to have an abortion) had higher anxiety and guilt scores than more pro-choice women did: 6.9 versus 4.9 (P = .01) and 6.9 versus 3.6 (P = .004), respectively. Women who said they strongly agreed that abortion was against Islamic principles also had higher anxiety and guilt scores: 9.3 versus 5.9 (P = .03) and 9.5 versus 5.3 (P = .03), respectively. Conclusion Canadian Muslim women presenting for abortion come from many countries and schools of Islam. The group of Muslim women that we surveyed was so diverse that no generalizations can be made about them. Their attitudes toward abortion ranged from being completely pro-choice to believing abortion is wrong unless it is done to save a woman’s life. Many said they found their religion to be a source of comfort as well as a source of guilt, turning to prayer and meditation to cope with their feelings about the abortion. It is important that physicians caring for Muslim women understand that their patients come from a variety of

  3. Counseling Muslim Women: Navigating Cultural and Religious Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Masaud, Carema; Wiggins, Marsha I.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors consider strategies for counseling female Muslim clients. First, they review general beliefs and practices of Muslims in the United States. Through the use of a case study, they illustrate a collaborative method of counseling Muslim women that is based on a trusting client-counselor relationship.

  4. Defeating Stereotypes of Muslim Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Leila Ahmed's memoir, "A Border Passage: From Cairo to America--A Woman's Journey", pulses with a theme of many women's stories: the struggle to define oneself in the face of social restraints. The 1999 book by Ahmed, the first professor of women's studies in religion at Harvard's Divinity School, came long before the recent wave of memoirs…

  5. Women's autonomy and child survival: a comparison of Muslims and non-Muslims in four Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Ghuman, Sharon J

    2003-08-01

    In this article, I evaluate the hypothesis that higher infant and child mortality among Muslim populations is related to the lower autonomy of Muslim women using data from 15 pairs of Muslim and non-Muslim communities in India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Women's autonomy in various spheres is not consistently lower in Muslim than in non-Muslim settings. Both across and within communities, the association between women's autonomy and mortality is weak, and measures of autonomy or socioeconomic status are generally of limited import for understanding the Muslim disadvantage in children's survival. PMID:12962056

  6. Not Too "College-Like," Not Too Normal: American Muslim Undergraduate Women's Gendered Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir, Shabana

    2009-01-01

    Building on an ethnographic study of American Muslim undergraduate women at two universities in Washington, D.C., I examine undergraduate Muslim women's construction of gendered discourses. Stereotypes feed into both majority and minority constructions of Muslim women's gendered identities. I highlight Muslim women's resistance to and adoption of…

  7. Effects of religious veiling on Muslim men's attractiveness ratings of Muslim women.

    PubMed

    Pazhoohi, Farid; Hosseinchari, Masoud

    2014-08-01

    Hijab and other Islamic veiling clothing are important social and political symbols for Muslim women's identity. Although recently there has been a large body of literature on the social and political aspects of hijab in Western countries, there has been no investigation of the origin and function of veiling itself. This article hypothesized that religious veiling, which eliminates the estrogen-induced body curves of reproductive age women, decreases men's perceptions of women's physical attractiveness, thereby serving mate guarding functions against rival men. To test this hypothesis. Measures of the motivational appeal and self-reported perceived attractiveness of women exhibiting different degrees of veiling were obtained from 80 Muslim male participants. The results showed that men were more motivated to view women exhibiting the less veiling and rated them more attractive than those women whose bodily curves were less apparent. These results support veiling serving a mate guarding function and reinforcing the marital bond. PMID:24464549

  8. Modern Traditions? British Muslim Women and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Fauzia

    2001-01-01

    Interviewed British Muslim women of South Asian origin regarding their motivations for entering higher education. Women increasingly viewed higher education as a necessary asset for maintaining and gaining social prestige. Motivations included parental encouragement, independence, and personal satisfaction. Respondents continually negotiated and…

  9. Women in Islam: Qur'anic ideals versus Muslim realities.

    PubMed

    Hassan, R

    1995-01-01

    The tragic irony of Islam is that its sacred text, the Qur'an, is particularly solicitous of women's well-being and development, yet Islamic traditions discriminate against girls from the moment of their lamented births. Islam is proud to have abolished female infanticide, yet one of the most common crimes in many Muslim countries is the "honor killing" of women by male relatives. The Qur'anic description of marriage suggests closeness, mutuality, and equality, but tradition defines a husband as his wife's god in earthly form (despite the Qur'an prohibition against human deification as the one unpardonable sin), her gateway to heaven, and the arbiter of her final destiny. The Qur'an permits divorce without fault, but Muslim societies have made divorce both legally and socially very difficult for women. The Qur'an stipulates that both parents must concur on the raising of children and not use the children against each other, but in many Muslim countries divorced women automatically lose custody of their children when the boys turn 7 and the girls 12. Muslim traditions have misinterpreted the Qur'an's spirit and intentions in the matters of polygamy, inheritance rights, purdah (keeping women isolated and at home), and veiling. These customs were originally intended to protect women and even guarantee women autonomy; they have become instead instruments of oppression. The Qur'an does not prohibit family planning, a review of the literature suggests ample religious and ethical support for family planning, but there is the mistaken impression that family planning is anti-Islam. The challenge for all women, and especially Muslim women, is to move from a reactive mind set, in which women must assert their autonomy over patriarchal opposition, to a proactive mind set, in which they can speak of themselves as full and independent human beings with minds and spirits as well as bodies. Muslim women must work in full partnership with Muslim men, rejecting Western models of

  10. Jordanian Muslim women's intention to use oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Kridli, Suha Al-Oballi; Schott-Baer, Darlene

    2004-01-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) are the second most popular method of contraception in Jordan; however, their use remains low compared with the intrauterine device. The purpose of this article is to report the effect of factors identified by The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) on Jordanian Muslim women's intention to use OCs. TPB was used to develop an investigator-developed instrument, the Intention to Use Oral Contraceptive Tool (IUOCT). The IUOCT measured attitude (general attitude and attitudinal beliefs), social norms and perceived behavioral control factors in a total of 83 women participants. A stepwise regression analysis was calculated using the IUOCT subscales as predictors of Jordanian Muslim women's intention to use OCs. The findings demonstrated that the attitude, specifically general attitude and positive beliefs, about OC use affect Jordanian Muslim women's intention to use OCs. However, the findings provide limited support for social norms and perceived behavioral control as factors influencing Jordanian Muslim women's intention to use OCs. The findings indicate that more attention should be devoted to health education programs on the benefits of using OCs rather than focusing only on correcting misinformation. Nursing implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:15776755

  11. Sexual Health Knowledge and Needs: Young Muslim Women in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Rebecca M; Liamputtong, Pranee; Wollersheim, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the sexual health knowledge and needs among young Muslim women living in Melbourne, Australia. Eleven young Muslim women were individually interviewed about issues relating to sexual health knowledge and needs, access to sexual health services, and their experiences of balancing their lives in relation to sexual health. Findings revealed a marked influence of religion and culture on sexual health of young Muslim women. They often faced challenges balancing Muslim culture, Australian culture, and Islamic religion. Our findings have implications for health services in a multicultural society. They could be used to promote culturally sensitive sexual health services for young Muslim women in Australia and elsewhere. PMID:26536914

  12. "Just to Make Sure People Know I Was Born Here": Muslim Women Constructing American Selves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir, Shabana

    2011-01-01

    The scene for this paper is set in the USA immediately post-9/11 when the meaning of nation shifted dramatically, in turn shaping Muslim American identity. I examine Muslim American undergraduate women's performance of immigrant, gendered, youthful, Muslim and American identities. The findings are framed within symbolic interactionist, Foucauldian…

  13. Black Women in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tina Sloan; And Others

    An overview of the achievements of black women in sports is presented in this collection of essays, biographical sketches, and philosophical investigations. The work is divided into five chapters, the first of which focuses on prejudice (racial and sexual), absence of black women as subjects in the research base, work/home/family pressures, black…

  14. Notable Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellin, Nancy

    Readings, activities, and teaching strategies for a secondary unit on black women are included in this teacher handbook. Instructional material is divided into four sections. Following a note on the use of the booklet, section 1 consists of 24 two-page biographies of black women, including Selma Burke, Lena Horne, Leontyne Price, Charlayne…

  15. Self-Esteem as a Predictor of Attitudes toward Wife Abuse among Muslim Women and Men in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Alisha; Toner, Brenda B.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the attitudes toward wife abuse in a sample of Muslim women and men in Canada and whether thos e attitudes were influenced by self-esteem. Reveals that Muslim women and men did not differ on levels of self-esteem, but their attitudes were related to self-esteem, and Muslim men had more lenient attitudes toward wife abuse. (CMK)

  16. Educating American Muslim Leadership (Men and Women) for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    al-Islam, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Educating and training Muslim men and women leaders who are capable of effectively navigating the multi-ethnic and multi-religious terrain in America--particularly in the post 9-11 milieu--requires the development of a new critical American Muslim pedagogy. This new pedagogy, centered in Islamic epistemology and ontology, should selectively…

  17. Education & Agency: Muslim Women and the Tensions of Traditional & Modern Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Shabnam Syed

    2010-01-01

    This hermeneutically crafted qualitative study examines how six university-educated middle-class Pakistani Muslim women negotiate the competing expectations of traditional Muslim culture and the emancipated ethos of the university. It uses Robert Kegan's constructive-developmental theory, whose Subject-Object scoring system distinguishes a…

  18. Blacks and the Women's Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loiacono, Stephanie

    1989-01-01

    Although Black female leaders were influential in creating the modern women's movement, feminism has evolved differently for both Black and White women. Suggests that, although Black women have struggled largely against racial and economic inequalities, women of all colors and backgrounds should embrace their diversity and unite to oppose racism…

  19. A multiculturalism-feminism dispute: Muslim women and the Sharia debate in Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Ghobadzadeh, Naser

    2010-01-01

    Canadian Muslim women, as opposed to their Australian counterparts, have attained prominent social status not only in terms of their contribution to electoral politics but also in other political spheres. With its focus on the Sharia debate, this paper investigates one potential explanation for this difference. Challenging Okin's feminist perspective, which claims that multiculturalism is an undesirable policy for emancipation, it is argued that multiculturalism facilitates agency of female members of Muslim communities. A comparative examination of the Sharia debate between the two secular countries of Canada and Australia demonstrates that the former's more robust multicultural polity in terms of responding to requests to adopt the Sharia have not only culminated in Muslim women's empowerment but have enhanced their political representation. In contrast, Australian Muslim women have neither had the opportunity to articulate their position with regard to Sharia nor to contribute to an important issue that could have empowered them. PMID:20617587

  20. Behind the Veil: An In-Depth Exploration of Egyptian Muslim Women's Lives through Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toncy, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Muslim women in Arabic countries have unique experiences that are shaped in large part by their cultures' beliefs regarding the female body. Mandated behaviors and men's attitudes towards women's role in society have likewise created oppressive situations which have affected women's sense of self. Because many of those experiences are body-based,…

  1. Exploring Identity in Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani Immigrant Women

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Cristina; Tagliabue, Semira

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a qualitative investigation of how Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani female immigrants living in Italy conceptualize their cultural identity. Ten Moroccan and 10 Pakistani (adolescent and adult) women were interviewed through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The interviewees expressed a strong attachment to their culture of origin: their religion is a crucial aspect of their identity, along with certain cultural rules and traditional values. At the same time, both Moroccan and Pakistani participants were ambivalent toward and experienced difficulties in developing a connection to the host country, although the two groups exhibit their lack of connection to their host country in different ways: Moroccans’ self-representation is marked by a sense of foreignness and by a lack of an emotional connection with places where they are living while Pakistanis tend to express cultural distance and conflict with the host culture’s values. For both the Moroccan and Pakistani groups, the challenge of integration and biculturalism seems demanding in the Italian context and is marked by a deep feeling of emptiness, a lack of an emotional bond with the new country, and a strong cultural ambivalence. Finally, narrative themes are articulated across four interrelated dimensions (cultural, religious, gendered, spatial), revealing interesting differences based on national origin and generation. PMID:27247642

  2. Exploring Identity in Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Cristina; Tagliabue, Semira

    2015-02-01

    This study presents a qualitative investigation of how Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani female immigrants living in Italy conceptualize their cultural identity. Ten Moroccan and 10 Pakistani (adolescent and adult) women were interviewed through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The interviewees expressed a strong attachment to their culture of origin: their religion is a crucial aspect of their identity, along with certain cultural rules and traditional values. At the same time, both Moroccan and Pakistani participants were ambivalent toward and experienced difficulties in developing a connection to the host country, although the two groups exhibit their lack of connection to their host country in different ways: Moroccans' self-representation is marked by a sense of foreignness and by a lack of an emotional connection with places where they are living while Pakistanis tend to express cultural distance and conflict with the host culture's values. For both the Moroccan and Pakistani groups, the challenge of integration and biculturalism seems demanding in the Italian context and is marked by a deep feeling of emptiness, a lack of an emotional bond with the new country, and a strong cultural ambivalence. Finally, narrative themes are articulated across four interrelated dimensions (cultural, religious, gendered, spatial), revealing interesting differences based on national origin and generation. PMID:27247642

  3. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  4. Body satisfaction and pressure to be thin in younger and older Muslim and non-Muslim women: the role of Western and non-Western dress preferences.

    PubMed

    Dunkel, Trisha M; Davidson, Denise; Qurashi, Shaji

    2010-01-01

    Younger and older Muslim and non-Muslim women living in the United States completed questionnaires about body satisfaction and their internalization of Western standards of beauty (thin-ideal). Younger Muslim women wearing non-Western clothing and a head veil were significantly less likely to express drive for thinness or pressure to attain a thin-ideal standard of beauty than women wearing Western dress or younger women wearing non-Western dress without a head veil. Older women, while expressing greater discrepancy between their ideal body shape and their current body shape, and less satisfaction with their bodies than younger women, reported less drive for thinness and less pressure to attain the Western thin-ideal standard of beauty than younger women. These results are discussed in terms of how factors such as age and religion may serve as protective factors against a strong or unhealthy drive for thinness or thin-ideal standard. PMID:19945924

  5. Is the hijab protective? An investigation of body image and related constructs among British Muslim women.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Miah, Jusnara; Noorani, Nazerine; Taylor, Donna

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have reported equivocal findings concerning the impact of wearing a hijab, or Islamic head- and body-cover, on Muslim women's body image. Here, we sought to examine that impact using a larger sample of Muslim women than has been relied upon and a wider range of body image measures. A total of 587 British Muslim women completed a battery of scales assessing their frequency and conservativeness of hijab use, body image variables, attitudes towards the media and beauty ideals, importance of appearance, and religiosity. Preliminary results indicated that 218 women never used the hijab and 369 women used some form of the hijab at least rarely. Controlling for religiosity, women who wore the hijab had more positive body image, lower internalization of media messages about beauty standards, and placed less importance on appearance than women who did not wear the hijab. Among women who wore the hijab, hijab use significantly predicted weight discrepancy and body appreciation over and above religiosity. These results are discussed in terms of the possible protective impact among British Muslim women of wearing the hijab. PMID:25040005

  6. Community History as a Male-Constructed Space: Challenging Gendered Memories among South African Muslim Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Doria

    2009-01-01

    The post-Apartheid community history is a male-constructed space, narrated into present-day consciousness by male community leaders and history writers. The patriarchal worldview disparages women's contributions and activisms. This article reports on how Muslim women from a small fishing village in South Africa in the early 1900s strategized to…

  7. A Transnational Community of Pakistani Muslim Women: Narratives of Rights, Honor, and Wisdom in a Women's Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khurshid, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    Using ethnographic data, this article explores how Muslim women teachers from low-income Pakistani communities employ the notion of "wisdom" to construct and perform their educated subjectivity in a transnational women's education project. Through Butler's performativity framework, I demonstrate how local and global discourses overlap to shape…

  8. A qualitative investigation of Muslim and Christian women's views of religion and feminism in their lives.

    PubMed

    Ali, Saba Rasheed; Mahmood, Amina; Moel, Joy; Hudson, Carolyn; Leathers, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative investigation explored a relatively understudied aspect of cultural diversity: feminism and religion in the lives of religiously diverse women. More specifically, structured interviews were used to investigate views of religion, women's issues, gender roles, culture, and feminism for a small group of Muslim and Christian women living in the United States. The data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research methods (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997). Findings indicated a complex relationship between feminism, gender roles, culture, and religion for these women with the majority of the Muslim women reporting that their religion supports feminist principles and identifying themselves as feminist. Christian women were less willing to endorse the feminist label. Implications for multicultural feminist practice are discussed. PMID:18229999

  9. Muslim Women and Education in Indonesia: The "Pondok Pesantren" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srimulyani, Eka

    2007-01-01

    The "pondok pesantren" education is a "traditional" form of Muslim education in Indonesia. This boarding school system can be traced back to the 18th century or further. However, it was not until 1930 that the "pesantren" officially admitted female students, beginning with the Pesantren Denanyar of Jombang. The acceptance of female students in the…

  10. Sufis on parade: the performance of Black, African, and Muslim identities.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Zain

    2009-01-01

    For over twenty years, West African Muslims from the Murid Sufi Brotherhood have organized the annual Cheikh Amadou Bamba Day parade in New York City. It is a major site where they redefine the boundaries of their African identities, cope with the stigma of blackness, and counteract an anti-Muslim backlash. Rather than viewing religion as a subset of ethnicity, this study shows how African Murids interrogate the meanings of religion, race and ethnicity as intersecting constructs. National flags from Senegal, Islamic chants, and banners advocating Black solidarity all indicate a negotiation of terms. Clothes worn during the parade act as symbols and afford them another opportunity to work out these borderlands, especially in contradistinction to African American converts who follow a slightly different course. This article examines how their religious procession creates a Murid cosmopolitanism, allowing them a space in which to reconcile multiple belongings. PMID:20681085

  11. Young Muslim Women's Experiences of Islam and Physical Education in Greece and Britain: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagkas, Symeon; Benn, Tansin

    2006-01-01

    Previous research suggests that Muslim women can experience particular problems when taking physical education (PE) lessons, for example with dress codes, mixed-teaching and exercise during Ramadan; and they can face restrictions in extra-curricular activities for cultural and religious reasons. The area is under-researched and there is little…

  12. Swimming against the Tide: Characteristics of Muslim-Arab Women in Israel Who Initiated Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Liat; Klein, Dana

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared Muslim-Arab women in Israel who initiated divorce (n=45) with those who stayed in stressful marital relationships (n=46). Based on an ecological approach and using a cross-sectional design, we explored the differences between the two groups with regard to the following variables: personal resources (education, paid…

  13. Young Pakistani Muslim Women's Reflections on Difference, Future, and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation employs data collected from multiple sites in Southern California over a period of nine months. Several in-depth ethnographic interviews and participant observations were conducted with Pakistani Muslim women (age 17-22) and their parents in an effort to better understand the influence that parents and ethno-religious communities…

  14. U.S. Muslim Women and Body Image: Links among Objectification Theory Constructs and the Hijab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolaymat, Lana D.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    This study tested tenets of objectification theory and explored the role of the hijab in body image and eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 118 Muslim women in the United States. Results from a path analysis indicated that individual differences in wearing the hijab were related negatively with reported sexual objectification experiences.…

  15. Accidental hijab pin ingestion in Muslim women: an emerging endoscopic emergency?

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Jason; Patel, Neeral; Boulton, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Ingested foreign body is an infrequent indication for emergency endoscopy in the adult gastroenterology practice. We describe the clinical features and endoscopic management of the first four cases of accidental ingestion of hijab pins by Muslim women in our unit, all presenting within a 12-month period. The pins were all successfully retrieved without any complications. In this report, we review published guidelines and the current literature, as well as discussing the approach (conservative vs proactive endoscopic retrieval) and timing of endoscopic treatment. The Muslim community may need to be alerted to the potential health hazard of hijab pins. PMID:24390968

  16. Contraceptive decision making in a sample of Jordanian Muslim women: delineating salient beliefs.

    PubMed

    Libbus, K; Kridli, S

    1997-01-01

    In this article, the authors identify attitudes, normative beliefs, and behavioral control beliefs of Muslim Jordanian women with regard to avoiding unplanned pregnancy and using specific contraceptive methods. Based on Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of planned behavior, open-ended questions were used in audio-taped face-to-face interviews with 25 married 19-44-year-old Jordanian Muslim women. A majority of respondents interviewed were currently using an intrauterine device (IUD) for contraception. Few women were using oral contraceptives, condoms, or the rhythm method and none of them reported using foam or a diaphragm. Content analyses of narrative transcriptions suggest the individual's concerns for family and individual well-being, as well as husbands' and families' opinions, may influence women's contraceptive behavior in this population. PMID:9119785

  17. B Is for "Burqa," C Is for Censorship: The Miseducative Effects of Censoring Muslim Girls and Women's Sartorial Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruitenberg, Claudia W.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I add a discursive analysis to the discussion about Muslim girls and women's dress in non-Muslim educational contexts. I argue that a law or policy that prohibits the wearing of "khimar," "burqa," "chador," "niqab," "hijab," or "jilbab" in the context of public schools is a form of censorship in educational contexts. This…

  18. Muslim Women in America and Hijab: A Study of Empowerment, Feminist Identity, and Body Image.

    PubMed

    Al Wazni, Anderson Beckmann

    2015-10-01

    This article presents an exploratory, qualitative study of 12 Muslim women living in the Triangle area of North Carolina, who were interviewed regarding their voluntary practice of hijab (Muslim tradition of veiling), exercise of choice in hijab, their relationship to feminist belief and identity, female empowerment, and body image. Through examining the influence of political movements in concert with market capitalism, this article examines how the hijab and those who voluntarily practice this Muslim tradition challenge or contradict mainstream images of what is marketed in the West as feminist. Moreover, this article seeks to examine how, if at all, the hijab empowers those women who practice it, whether it offers an avenue of female empowerment and liberation not traditionally included in prevailing feminist thought, and how this may contribute to third-wave feminist theory. This article informs social work practitioners of the strength of Muslim women, the exercise of choice in hijab, and contributions to feminist thought as participants respond to assumptions of oppression, patriarchal control, and prejudice in a post-9/11 society. PMID:26489353

  19. Muslim women and foreign prostitutes: victim discourse, subjectivity, and governance.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Christine M; Stenvoll, Dag

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we juxtapose the ways “Muslim women” and “foreign prostitutes” are commonly constituted as victims in media and politics. We analyze the functions of these two prototypical female victims in terms of the role they play in epitomizing “the problems of globalization” and in reinforcing the existing social and political structures. Victim discourse, when tied to the transnational proliferation of the sex industry and of (radical) Islam, has depoliticizing effects because it places nonindividual causes of victimization outside of “our” polity and society and casts the state as protector and neutral arbiter of national and global inequalities, marginalization, and social conflict. PMID:20821898

  20. Israeli Arab Muslim women's willingness to be screened for intimate partner violence: A survey.

    PubMed

    Ben Natan, Merav; Muasi, Hiba; Farhan, Fidaa; Shhada, Miada; Masarwa, Gada

    2014-03-17

    In the present study, we explored whether the research model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action predicts Israeli Arab Muslim women's willingness to be screened for intimate partner violence at healthcare facilities. Three hundred women completed a questionnaire. Most women (68.4%) expressed willingness to be screened, however, only 16% of them had been screened over the past year. Women's beliefs about screening for intimate partner violence and the support of significant others were found to predict this willingness. The study may constitute an initial foundation for determining national policy with the aim of detecting and eradicating the phenomenon among this unique population. PMID:24636365

  1. Muslim and Hindu Women's public and private behaviors: gender, family, and communalized politics in India.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda

    2014-12-01

    Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship among gender, family, and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of "doing gender," we argue that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors, such as household decision-making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender. PMID:25143018

  2. Muslim women's reflections on the acceptability of vaginal microbicidal products to prevent HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Hoel, Nina; Shaikh, Sadiyya; Kagee, Ashraf

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines South African Muslim women's opinions of the acceptability of microbicidal products to prevent HIV infection if these were to become available in the future. In the context of the HIV pandemic, prophylactic methods such as male circumcision, vaccines and microbicidal preparations are increasingly thought of as ways to reduce the incidence of infection. We examine the extent to which participants' religious beliefs and the implications of religious norms and ideals might influence decision-making concerning hypothetical acceptability to use a microbicide. We conducted qualitative interviews with 29 Muslim women residing in South Africa, a country with one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world. Four themes emerged from the data, namely, (1) participants' questioning of the need for microbicides; (2) reasons they gave in favour of microbicide use; (3) the juxtaposition of microbicide use and religious ethics; and (4) the role of religious authorities in decision-making regarding microbicide use. The juxtaposition of microbicide use and religious ethics was further informed by three sub-themes, namely, the life-promoting nature of both Islam and microbicide use, the possibility that microbicide use could encourage sexual risk-taking among male partners, and that the use of these products contradicted womens' notions of ethical agency and ideals about marriage. These themes and sub-themes are analysed in the context of gender relations among South African Muslims. The study findings are significant in light of recent data showing the effectiveness of a microbicidal preparation in reducing the risk of HIV infection in South Africa. We also show that the acceptability of microbicidal products is to a certain extent linked to a variety of religious persuasions and ideals. When microbicides become available in the future, proponents of their use will need to consider religious reasoning of potential users, including that of Muslim women. PMID

  3. On the Compatibility of Islam and Gender Equality: Effects of Modernization, State Islamization, and Democracy on Women's Labor Market Participation in 45 Muslim Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spierings, Niels; Smits, Jeroen; Verloo, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    Although the Muslim world is sometimes depicted as a homogeneous civilization lacking democracy and gender equality, Muslim countries show tremendous economic, political and cultural variation. In this paper, this variation is used to gain insight into the determinants of women's labor market participation (LMP) in the Muslim world. We use data on…

  4. U.S. Muslim women and body image: links among objectification theory constructs and the hijab.

    PubMed

    Tolaymat, Lana D; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-07-01

    This study tested tenets of objectification theory and explored the role of the hijab in body image and eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 118 Muslim women in the United States. Results from a path analysis indicated that individual differences in wearing the hijab were related negatively with reported sexual objectification experiences. Sexual objectification experiences, in turn, had significant positive indirect relations with body surveillance, body shame, and eating disorder symptoms, primarily through the mediating role of internalization. Internalization of cultural standards of beauty also had a significant positive direct relation with body shame and significant positive direct and indirect relations with eating disorder symptoms. By contrast, the direct and indirect relations of body surveillance were significant only when the role of internalization was constrained to 0 (i.e., eliminated), suggesting that internalization of cultural standards of beauty subsumed the hypothesized role of body surveillance in the model. Taken together, these results support some of the tenets of objectification theory with a sample of U.S. Muslim women, point to the importance of internalization of dominant cultural standards of beauty within that framework, and suggest the utility of considering individual differences in wearing the hijab among U.S. Muslim women. PMID:21604859

  5. Constructions and experiences of sexual health among young, heterosexual, unmarried Muslim women immigrants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wray, Anneke; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Minority ethnic immigrant women are frequently vulnerable to poor sexual health outcomes, due to poor use of sexual health services, lack of knowledge and social stigma associated with the discussion of sexuality. This paper explores the sexual health accounts provided by a group of young, unmarried heterosexual Muslim women immigrants residing and studying in Sydney, an under-researched group in the Australian context. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted, focusing on sex before marriage, spouse selection and contraceptive use. Feminist discourse analysis identified 'purity versus corruption' as the primary construction of women's sexuality, where women positioned their sexual behaviour as that of purity and uninvolvement or corruption through unwedded participation. The subthemes 'maintaining ignorance and naivety', 'remaining virginal', 'sex segregation' and 'the fallen woman' capture women's personal sexuality-related experiences and values within the context of their religious and cultural communities. Additional research with this community is needed to examine the effects of negative social constructions of sex on young sexually active Muslim women, as well as further research on young women's sexual health within immigrant communities. PMID:24087911

  6. Young black women: defining health.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, H J; Keller, C

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elicit a definition of health as described by young Black women and to characterize the factors related to their definitions of health. The research questions were: (a) How do young Black women define health and (b) what factors are related to their definition of health? Using interviews and open-ended questions, an exploratory descriptive design examined the factors which contribute to the definition of health. Twenty-two young Black women between the ages of 21 and 40 comprised the sample. A wide range of incomes, occupations, educational levels, marital status, and family sizes were represented. The informants defined health as comprising those characteristics, behaviors, and/or activities which include: (a) having or avoiding a disease, (b) the presence or absence of obesity, (c) experiencing and reducing stress, (d) good and bad health habits, (e) eating good and bad foods, and (f) engaging (or not) in exercise. PMID:8106873

  7. Do Black Women Need Liberating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Theresa I.

    1975-01-01

    Among the findings of this survey are that black women place high values on intelligence, desire an equalitarian type of marriage, desire to combine marriage, career and children, oppose receiving alimony, want more than two children, stress discipline in raising children and have mixed feelings about today's new sexual morality. (Author/AM)

  8. Breast Cancer Screening Practices Among First-Generation Immigrant Muslim Women

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Usha; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Szalacha, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs about breast cancer, screening practices, and factors associated with mammography use among first-generation immigrant Muslim women in Chicago, IL. Methods: A convenience sample of 207 first-generation immigrant Muslim women (Middle Eastern 51%; South Asian 49%) completed a culturally adapted questionnaire developed from established instruments. The questionnaire was administered in Urdu, Hindi, Arabic, or English, based on participant preference. Internal-consistency reliability was demonstrated for all scales (alpha coefficients ranged from 0.64 to 0.91). Associations between enabling, predisposing, and need variables and the primary outcome of mammography use were explored by fitting logistic regression models. Results: Although 70% of the women reported having had a mammogram at least once, only 52% had had one within the past 2 years. Four factors were significant predictors of ever having had a mammogram: years in the United States, self-efficacy, perceived importance of mammography, and intent to be screened. Five factors were significant predictors of adherence (having had a mammogram in the past 2 years): years in the United States, having a primary care provider, perceived importance of mammography, barriers, and intent to be screened. Conclusions: This article sheds light on current screening practices and identifies theory-based constructs that facilitate and hinder Muslim women's participation in mammography screening. Our findings provide insights for reaching out particularly to new immigrants, developing patient education programs grounded in culturally appropriate approaches to address perceived barriers and building women's self-efficacy, as well as systems-level considerations for ensuring access to primary care providers. PMID:24865517

  9. Black Women, Crime and Crime Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Elsie L.

    Several factors indicate that there is a relationship between economic conditions and crime among black women. Crime statistics show that outside of the misdemeanors of drunkenness and disorderly conduct, black women tend to be arrested for larceny and prostitution, both economic crimes. The fact that black women are at the bottom of the economic…

  10. The magnitude of reciprocity in chronic pain management: experiences of dispersed ethnic populations of Muslim women.

    PubMed

    Müllersdorf, Maria; Zander, Viktoria; Eriksson, Henrik

    2011-12-01

    Dispersed ethnic populations believe their health to be worse than the ethnic majority group in Sweden. Most studies in rehabilitation exclude dispersed ethnic populations who can not read or speak the national language although this group seems to be in need of rehabilitation to a larger extent than privileged majority groups. The aim of the study was to examine the experience of living with musculoskeletal pain and experience of health care among dispersed ethnic populations of Muslim women. The method used was inspired by Grounded Theory in this study. Interviews were made with five first-generation Muslim immigrant women who had come to Sweden via Iraq as refugees. Two interviews were performed with interpreters. A preliminary core category 'The magnitude of reciprocity' based on three categories emerged from the analysis: (1) Impact of pain, (2) Managing pain and (3) Facing health care. Chronic pain limited the informants physically and emotionally, as well as impacting on their everyday life. Informants managed their pain primarily through medicine and physical activity, which gave at least temporary relief. Health care providers were perceived as doing their best but experiences of bad meetings were also witnessed. The factors important in achieving a good meeting in this study appeared to be; time, dialogue, honesty and understanding. Communication skills, feelings of being taken seriously and a sense of security were additional factors. Not being properly examined, or offered optimal treatment, not being believed or understood, were all seen as signs of dismissal within health care. The limitations of this study are primarily concerned with language difficulties resulting in various shortcomings. Reciprocal recognition and support connected to the specific life experiences of women that come with forced resettlement from the Muslim world to the European diaspora is a vital part of a holistic approach to pain management. PMID:21371070

  11. Establishing reliability and validity of an instrument measuring Jordanian Muslim women's contraceptive beliefs.

    PubMed

    Kridli, Suha Al-Oballi; Libbus, Kay

    2002-12-01

    We tested the psychometric properties of an instrument entitled intention to use oral contraceptive tool (IUOCT). This instrument was developed to evaluate Jordanian Muslim women's intention to use oral contraceptives (OCs). We used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a conceptual framework for developing the IUOCT. The internal consistency of the IUOCT ranged from .70 to .94. The stability of IUOCT ranged from.79 to.85. Factor analysis identified four factors that represented the three constructs of the TPB. The known-group technique showed significant difference between past users and nonpast users of OCs. The predictive validity analysis showed that each scale contributed to the variability in the intention. PMID:12487702

  12. Religion and spirituality in coping with advanced breast cancer: perspectives from Malaysian Muslim women.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farizah; Muhammad, Mazanah binti; Abdullah, Amini Amir

    2011-03-01

    This article is part of a larger study on the role of spirituality in coping with breast cancer among Malaysian Muslim women. The study seeks to reveal the meaning of the experience through the stories of three Muslim women surviving advanced breast cancer, to better understand the deep meanings that inform their experiences with spirituality and transformation as they cope with the challenges of breast cancer. Data were gathered using in-depth interview. Qualitative methods were used in identifying two themes--illness as an awakening and hope and freedom comes from surrendering to God. The themes were discussed in the context of two broad areas: (1) what are the new meanings these women discovered in their experiences with cancer; and (2) how did the new meanings change their lives? The study suggests that cancer survivors' experiences with cancer and their learning processes must be understood within the appropriate cultural context. This is especially so for spirituality. The common emphasis of spirituality on relationship with God, self and others, may significantly influence how people learn to live with cancer. PMID:20924683

  13. Black Women's Leadership: Challenges and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill-Davidson, Leslie

    1987-01-01

    Responds to presentations made at a 1986 symposium on black women's leadership in the United States. Asserts that the symposium participants successfully celebrated black women, but few were willing to discuss the connection between systems of oppression (i.e., racial and sexist), and there was little recognition of class distinctions among black,…

  14. Ramadan fasting and newborn's birth weight in pregnant Muslim women in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Savitri, Ary I; Yadegari, Nasim; Bakker, Julia; van Ewijk, Reyn J G; Grobbee, Diederick E; Painter, Rebecca C; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2014-11-14

    Many Muslim women worldwide are pregnant during Ramadan and adhere to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. In the present study, we determined whether maternal adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy has an impact on the birth weight of the newborn, and whether the effects differed according to trimester in which Ramadan fasting took place. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 130 pregnant Muslim women who attended antenatal care in Amsterdam and Zaanstad, The Netherlands. Data on adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy and demographics were self-reported by pregnant women, and the outcome of the newborn was retrieved from medical records after delivery. The results showed that half of all the women adhered to Ramadan fasting. With strict adherence to Ramadan fasting in pregnancy, the birth weight of newborns tended to be lower than that of newborns of non-fasting mothers, although this was not statistically significant ( - 198 g, 95 % CI - 447, 51, P= 0·12). Children of mothers who fasted in the first trimester of pregnancy were lighter at birth than those whose mothers had not fasted ( - 272 g, 95 % CI - 547, 3, P= 0·05). There were no differences in birth weight between children whose mothers had or had not fasted if Ramadan fasting had taken place later in pregnancy. Ramadan fasting during early pregnancy may lead to lower birth weight of newborns. These findings call for further confirmation in larger studies that should also investigate potential implications for perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality. PMID:25231606

  15. The Faith Is the Pace: Educational Perspectives of Three Women Principals of Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Ultra-Orthodox Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnieli, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Israel is a multicultural state where ultra-Orthodox groups run their own separate schools. The present phenomenological study examined and compared the management patterns and educational emphases of three women principals of religious schools (Muslim, Christian [Franciscan], and ultra-Orthodox Jewish). The findings show that the ultra-Orthodox…

  16. The Elusive Access to Education for Muslim Women in Kenya from the Late Nineteenth Century to the "Winds of Change" in Africa (1890s to 1960s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshavjee, Rashida

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the denial of access to education to Ismaili Muslim women in colonial Kenya during the 1890s and the 1960s. The Ismailis were part of the "Asians" in Africa, a working class, religious, Muslim immigrant group from India, circumscribed by poverty and a traditional culture, the orthodox elements of which, with regard to their…

  17. Two Special Cases: Women and Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coursen, David; And Others

    Chapter 4 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter discusses the relative scarcity of women and blacks in educational administration. After decades of civil rights legislation and women's movement activities, there are fewer women and minority school administrators than there were 35 years ago. Arguing persuasively for educational…

  18. Evaluating Religious Influences on the Utilization of Maternal Health Services among Muslim and Christian Women in North-Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mujtaba, Maryam; Cornelius, Llewellyn J.; Galadanci, Hadiza; Erekaha, Salome; Okundaye, Joshua N.; Adeyemi, Olusegun A.; Sam-Agudu, Nadia A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Uptake of antenatal services is low in Nigeria; however, indicators in the Christian-dominated South have been better than in the Muslim-dominated North. This study evaluated religious influences on utilization of general and HIV-related maternal health services among women in rural and periurban North-Central Nigeria. Materials and Methods. Targeted participants were HIV-positive, pregnant, or of reproductive age in the Federal Capital Territory and Nasarawa. Themes explored were utilization of facility-based services, provider gender preferences, and Mentor Mother acceptability. Thematic and content approaches were applied to manual data analysis. Results. Sixty-eight (68) women were recruited, 72% Christian and 28% Muslim. There were no significant religious influences identified among barriers to maternal service uptake. All participants stated preference for facility-based services. Uptake limitations were mainly distance from clinic and socioeconomic dependence on male partners rather than religious restrictions. Neither Muslim nor Christian women had provider gender preferences; competence and positive attitude were more important. All women found Mentor Mothers highly acceptable. Conclusion. Barriers to uptake of maternal health services appear to be minimally influenced by religion. ANC/PMTCT uptake interventions should target male partner buy-in and support, healthcare provider training to improve attitudes, and Mentor Mother program strengthening and impact assessment. PMID:27006944

  19. Patterns of occurrence and concordance between subjective and objective hot flashes among Muslim and Hindu women in Sylhet, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Begum, Khurshida; Sharmeen, Taniya; Chowdhury, Osul; Muttukrishna, Shanthi; Bentley, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the pattern of occurrence and the rate of concordance between objective hot flashes measured by sternal skin conductance and the subjective experience of "gorom vap laga" (feeling steaming hot) among Muslim and Hindu women living in Sylhet, Bangladesh. Participants were aged 40-55, not pregnant or lactating, not using hormone therapy, and with no history of hysterectomy. Thirty women wore an ambulatory hot flash monitor for 8 h on average, from mid-morning to early evening. True positive, false negative, and false positive measures of hot flashes were examined in relation to demographic, reproductive, and lifestyle variables. On body diagrams, women were most likely to indicate hot flashes on the top of their head (64%) and upper chest (68%). The greatest number of objective hot flashes occurred during the hour of 17:00, perhaps due to the heat of the day, and the clothing and activity associated with prayer. Muslim participants demonstrated more objective hot flashes per woman than Hindu participants (1.5 vs. 0.1, P < 0.05), and Muslims had more false positive measures (86%) compared with Hindu participants (0%, P = 0.06). Among all women who reported subjective hot flashes (n = 19), the proportion of true positive scores was 19%. Overall, the frequency of objective hot flashes was low compared with reports from studies in the United States. The pattern of sweating assessed by body diagrams was not associated with variation in hot flash experience. PMID:18461600

  20. Evaluating Religious Influences on the Utilization of Maternal Health Services among Muslim and Christian Women in North-Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Al-Mujtaba, Maryam; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Galadanci, Hadiza; Erekaha, Salome; Okundaye, Joshua N; Adeyemi, Olusegun A; Sam-Agudu, Nadia A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Uptake of antenatal services is low in Nigeria; however, indicators in the Christian-dominated South have been better than in the Muslim-dominated North. This study evaluated religious influences on utilization of general and HIV-related maternal health services among women in rural and periurban North-Central Nigeria. Materials and Methods. Targeted participants were HIV-positive, pregnant, or of reproductive age in the Federal Capital Territory and Nasarawa. Themes explored were utilization of facility-based services, provider gender preferences, and Mentor Mother acceptability. Thematic and content approaches were applied to manual data analysis. Results. Sixty-eight (68) women were recruited, 72% Christian and 28% Muslim. There were no significant religious influences identified among barriers to maternal service uptake. All participants stated preference for facility-based services. Uptake limitations were mainly distance from clinic and socioeconomic dependence on male partners rather than religious restrictions. Neither Muslim nor Christian women had provider gender preferences; competence and positive attitude were more important. All women found Mentor Mothers highly acceptable. Conclusion. Barriers to uptake of maternal health services appear to be minimally influenced by religion. ANC/PMTCT uptake interventions should target male partner buy-in and support, healthcare provider training to improve attitudes, and Mentor Mother program strengthening and impact assessment. PMID:27006944

  1. A Special Issue on Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Saundra Rice, Ed.; Scott, Patricia Bell, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    In six articles presents research reflective of the diversity and commonalities of the Black female experience. Deals with educational, career, and psychological issues surrounding Black adolescents, working and professional women, college students, and employed mothers. Discusses militancy, fear of success, coping, nontraditional careers, and…

  2. Women heal women: spirit possession and sexual segregation in a Muslim society.

    PubMed

    Constantinides, P

    1985-01-01

    Sexual segregation and sexual asymmetry are prominent features of Northern Sudanese society. Women's sexuality and fertility are powerful and polluting, carrying with them the danger of dishonor and needing to be controlled and directed to their 'proper' social ends by men. Men pay for their daughters' infibulation, retain the right to dispose of them in marriage, honour their wives after childbirth, and claim children of the union for their patriline. However, it is women who actually practice infibulation and who keep firmly within their hands all the ritual surrounding vital stages of their life cycle. Throughout, women symbolically assert the fundamental nature of their reproductive power. The healing cult of the zar fits into this symbolic system with its woman-centred, woman run curative ritual. PMID:4059951

  3. Black Women in Film Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Describes a symposium sponsored in April of last year by the Afro-American and American Studies Departments at Boston University on "Black Image in Films, Stereotyping and Self-Perception"; participants included Susan Batson, Cynthia Belgrave, Ruby Dee, Beah Richards, and Cicely Tyson. (Author/JM)

  4. Who Is to Blame? Rape of Hindu-Muslim Women in Interethnic Violence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Meera

    2009-01-01

    This research examined attitudes that predict rape blame in contexts of interethnic violence between minority Muslims and dominant Hindu communities in Mumbai, India. I hypothesized that, in contexts of interethnic violence, prejudicial attitudes toward communities and attitudes that view rape as a conflict tool (i.e., an effective strategy to…

  5. John Wheatley Award Talk: Promoting Under-Represented Physicists in Asian and Arab Countries and Muslim Women in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana

    2013-04-01

    Physics fascinates people's minds regardless of their geographic location. Often the best students choose the challending profession of physics. Physicists in developing countries in Asia and Arab countries work mostly on their own with limited resources or external collaboration and some do extraordinarily well. However, these dedicated individuals need the support and interactive modalities with their fellow physicists, particularly from developed countries, for coherent and rapid advances in knowledge, discoveries and inventions. My main objective is to promote and motivate physics education and research in developing and Arab countries to a level of excellence commensurate with that at U.S. institutions, and to facilitate connection through the strong network of APS. I have developed a general STEM based program. Another focus of this initiative is the very weak community of Muslim women in science, who have have remained behind owing to surrounding circumstances. To encourage them in scientific professions, and to enable them to nurture their intellectuality, we have formed a network called the International Society of Muslim Women in Science. It now has 85 enthusiastic and aspiring members from 21 countries. I will discuss these and the special needs of the these under-represented scientists, and how APS might lend them its valuable support.

  6. Education, Gender and Islam in China: The Place of Religious Education in Challenging and Sustaining "Undisputed Traditions" among Chinese Muslim Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaschok, Maria; Chan, Hau Ming Vicky

    2009-01-01

    The essay investigates the place of religious and secular education in the lives of Chinese Muslim women. Education is treated as a site where state and society are reproduced and/or challenged, where tensions arise over control of minds and bodies, and over interpretations and uses of religion and culture. Specifically, the essay compares…

  7. The Urgency of Visual Media Literacy in Our Post-9/11 World: Reading Images of Muslim Women in the Print News Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Diane Patricia

    2012-01-01

    A decade after the 9/11 attacks, educators concerned with social justice issues are faced with the question of how media representations powerfully constitute the subjectivities of teachers and students. The roles of Muslim women in society are often narrowly construed and projected via media cultures--an unofficial curriculum of the everyday much…

  8. Becoming Black Women: Intimate Stories and Intersectional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I argue that intimate stories are an important resource for the achievement of intersectional identities. Drawing on in-depth interviews with black college students at two predominantly white universities, I examine the stories black college women tell about interracial relationships between black men and white women. I argue that…

  9. Black Women and Higher Education: Spelman and Bennett Colleges Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy-Sheftall, Beverly

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the impact that Spelman and Bennett Colleges have had on educational opportunities for Black women and highlights the contributions to the Black community of several alumnae from these institutions. Also provides an extensive bibliography of materials that focuses on Black women and higher education. (Author/GC)

  10. Reconceptualizing Successful Aging Among Black Women and the Relevance of the Strong Black Woman Archetype

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Tamara A.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Mingo, Chivon A.; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman’s ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. PMID:25416685

  11. Reconceptualizing successful aging among black women and the relevance of the strong black woman archetype.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2015-02-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. PMID:25416685

  12. Counseling Implications of Black Women's Market Position, Aspirations and Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia; Pruitt, Anne

    The major premise of this paper is that career and educational counseling for women, and particularly for black women, needs to be based on an understanding of their market position. Data on black women's options and choices in a discriminatory market, on their occupational and educational aspirations, and on the role of expectations in their work…

  13. Images of Black Women in Afro-American Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Andrea Benton

    1975-01-01

    Notes that, in recent years, the image of Black Women in Afro-American poetry has become more autobiographical and that categories used images of white women -- i.e. formlessness, passivity, instability, confinement, the shrew, and the witch, and others -- are mostly not appropriate to Afro-American images of black women because they are rarely…

  14. On Being a Muslim Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rana, Anniqua

    2007-01-01

    What does it mean to be a Muslim woman? Even a basic understanding could help to dispel generalizations and stereotypes, especially in the context of education. With the controversies related to the wearing of the headscarf in educational institutions, to the general assumption that Muslim women are disempowered, this is even more important for…

  15. Black Views of American Women: The View From Black Newspapers, 1865-1900.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Bess

    Although black journalists from 1865 to 1900 were more sensitive to stereotyping and discrimination than their white counterparts, the black papers approached women idealistically, rather than through the realistic situation in which black women existed or through their own awareness of the fact of oppression. The images and proscriptions of women…

  16. Evaluating Culturally Responsive Group Work with Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lani V.; Warner, Lynn A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a culturally congruent group treatment model, entitled "Claiming Your Connections" (CYC) aimed at reducing depressive symptoms and perceived stress, and enhancing psychosocial competence (i.e., locus of control and active coping) among Black women. Method: A total of 58 Black women recruited from health…

  17. Mental Health and Service Delivery Systems for Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elsie H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines mental health issues, especially alcoholism, suicide, and social depression, related to the counseling of Black women. Recommends improved mental health services, counselor/clinical training programs, and additional research focusing on the causes of stress among Black women. (Author/MW)

  18. Making Meaning: Identity Development of Black Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christa J.; Dean, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary, phenomenological study was to identify factors that influence identity development and meaning-making of Black undergraduate women at a predominately White institution. The goal of this research was two-fold: to share diverse experiences of Black undergraduate women in order to understand the essence of their lived…

  19. Breaking the silence: breast cancer knowledge and beliefs among Somali Muslim women in Seattle, Washington.

    PubMed

    Al-Amoudi, Samia; Cañas, Jordan; Hohl, Sarah D; Distelhorst, Sandra R; Thompson, Beti

    2015-01-01

    We elicited the perspectives of Somali women in Seattle, Washington, about breast cancer. We conducted a focus group of 14 Somali immigrant women at a community center in Seattle, Washington. Participants reported barriers to seeking cancer screening, including fear of pain, difficulty with transport, and lack of knowledge. Participants explained that Somali women tended not to discuss breast cancer or breast cancer screening, and said religion played a central role in their care and treatment decisions and coping mechanisms. If such barriers are addressed, fewer women may present with late-stage breast cancer, resulting in greater chances for long-term breast cancer survival. PMID:24351062

  20. Cumulative Violence Exposures: Black Women's Responses and Sources of Strength.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Bushra; Holliday, Charvonne N; Alexander, Kamila A; Huerta, Julia; Cimino, Andrea; Callwood, Gloria B; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2016-01-01

    Black women with cumulative violence exposures (CVE) may have unique needs for health care and safety. Qualitative data was analyzed from interviews with nine Black women with CVE to explore factors that motivated women to leave abusive relationships, women's sources of strengths, and their responses to abuse. Quantitative data (N = 163) was analyzed to examine relationships between CVEs by intimate partner and health among Black women to further characterize the challenges these women face in making changes and finding their sources of strengths. Findings highlight the need to assess for CVE and identify multiple motivators for change, sources of strengths and coping strategies that could be potential points of intervention for women with CVE. PMID:26954765

  1. Relationship Between Sleep Quality and Spiritual Well-Being/Religious Activities in Muslim Women with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Khoramirad, Ashraf; Mousavi, Maryam; Dadkhahtehrani, Tahmineh; Pourmarzi, Davoud

    2015-12-01

    For determining relationship between quality of sleep and spiritual well-being/religious activities in Muslim women with breast cancer (WBC), we conducted a cross-sectional study on 80 WBC who presented at all chemotherapy clinics in Qom, Iran, in 2012. We used Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), spiritual well-being scale (SWBS), and religious activities (RA) questionnaire. Global PSQI score and its seven components score were not significantly correlated with total score of SWBS and its two subscales. Global PSQI score was not significantly correlated with total score of RA questionnaire (P = 0.278), but its "sleep latency" (r = 0.235, P = 0.044) and "use of sleep medications" (r = 0.237, P = 0.040) components were significantly correlated with total score of RA. Global PSQI was significantly correlated with "I don't get much personal strength and support from my God," "I believe there is some real purpose for my life" questions in SWBS, and "Attendance in mosque or religious places" subscale of RA. PMID:25487182

  2. The Black/White History of Women's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, William Loren

    The coalition of women has roots that reach back through more than a century of American history. In the decades before the Civil War, women spoke out against men on the issue of slavery, and this served a new breed of brilliant and aggressive women who found themselves talking about female as well as black rights and who recognized that white…

  3. Slave of a Slave No More: Black Women in Struggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Frances M.

    1975-01-01

    An account of the involvement of black women in the struggle against racism and oppression which traces the history of their resistance and their unique position in the class struggle. Since the liberation of women cannot be separated from the liberation of society in general, current attempts at women's liberation movements are unsuccessful…

  4. Perspectives and Experiences of Muslim Women Who Veil on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Darnell; Ahmadi, Shafiqa

    2003-01-01

    Conducted prior to September 11, 2001, this qualitative study explored the perceptions and experiences of seven women who veiled on a large college campus in the Midwest. With national origins ranging from Pakistan, Turkey, Egypt, to the United States, some participants reevaluated and subsequently unveiled due to their college experiences.…

  5. Exploring Women's "Madrasahs" in South Africa: Implications for the Construction of Muslim Personhood and Religious Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoel, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Set against the backdrop of a changing pluralistic South African society, this article traces the shifts concerning religion in public education, followed by an examination of the discernible motivations that undergirded the establishment of women's "madrasahs" (Islamic educational institutions). Collectively representing an alternative…

  6. Muslim Women and the Politics of Religious Identity in a (Post) Secular Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    Women's bodies, states Benhabib ("Dignity in adversity: human rights in troubled times," Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011: 168), have become the site of symbolic confrontations between a re-essentialized understanding of religious and cultural differences and the forces of state power, whether in their civic-republican,…

  7. Age and Parenting Skill Among Black Women in Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Joseph H., Jr.; Duffield, Barbara N.

    1986-01-01

    Using a sample of 158 low-income black women and their infants, this study examined the relation between mother's age and measures of maternal behavior reflecting verbal responsivity, punitiveness, and instrumental support for intellectual development. (Author/NH)

  8. Sexual Debut of Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women: Implications for STI/HIV Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Tina M.; Reed, Sarah J.; Miller, Robin Lin; Valenti, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Young Black women continue to be at high risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, little is known about the risks specifically to young Black women who primarily have sex with women (YWSW). As part of a larger sexual health project, in-depth qualitative interviews were completed with 14 Black women ages 16-24, who…

  9. Anemia among Muslim Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in Southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni; Biderman, Aya

    2015-11-01

    There are inequalities in health indicators among different ethnic groups living in the same region and receiving the same medical services. Anemia is a global problem. Although the prevalence of anemia is not high in Israel, differences among ethnic groups have not been studied. Our objective was to assess anemia among Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in southern Israel. A retrospective observational study was conducted based on data from computerized medical records. Seven thousand eight hundred seventy-one women in the study clinics underwent complete blood counts and had blood hemoglobin levels of 11 g/dl or below. The Jewish patients were older (31.7 vs. 29.7 years, P < 0.001), practiced birth control more (24.2 vs. 9.9 %, P < 0.001), and adhered to it more (81.1 vs. 61.9 %, P < 0.001). Bedouin women had more children (3.7 vs. 1.9, P < 0.001), and more Bedouin women were pregnant during the study period (49.3 vs. 35.0 %, P < 0.001). The most prevalent types of anemia were iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease. Two types of anemia were proportionally higher among Jewish women, anemia of chronic disease (18.1 vs. 9.7 %, P < 0.001) and folic acid deficiency (3.3 vs. 2.2 %, P > 0.001). The adherence rates for treatment were very low. Three factors associated with severe anemia (hemoglobin below 8 g/dl) were being Bedouin (odds ratio (OR) = 1.295, P < 0.001), use of birth control (OR = 0.419, P < 0.001), and pregnancy (OR = 0.447, P < 0.001). Being a Bedouin woman is a risk factor for severe anemia, and adherence to treatment for anemia is very low in both groups. These findings should be addressed in a national program to reduce health inequalities. PMID:26211919

  10. Black Women in the Academy. Promises and Perils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lois, Ed.

    This book includes 30 essays by black women college administrators and faculty. The essays explore the thematic issues of identity, power, and change and examining the impact of racism and sexism in institutions of higher education. Essay authors come from both historically black and predominantly white institutions, public and private…

  11. Black Feminist Thought: Implications for a Transformative Women's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Shawn D.

    1996-01-01

    The history of black women's social reform work remains unrecognized in the academy and the general culture. The contributions of courageous black feminist authors such as bell hooks, Nikki Giovanni, and Audre Lorde are important for all students. Hooks works with educators to denounce sexist and racist stereotypes, Giovanni stresses the concept…

  12. Increased Breastfeeding Rates in Black Women After a Treatment Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Endicott, Jean; Goetz, Raymond R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract There has been a considerable increase in rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Despite these trends, black women continue to fall below medical recommendations. Impoverished and poorly educated women also have a comparatively lower rate of breastfeeding. Provider encouragement and supportive interventions increase breastfeeding initiation among women of all backgrounds. The data presented come from a three-site randomized controlled bilingual depression treatment trial from 2005 to 2011 that examined the comparative effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy and a parenting education program. Breastfeeding education and support were provided for the majority of participants in each intervention. Breastfeeding status was queried at postpartum week 4. We found higher rates of breastfeeding in black women compared with those reported in national surveys. The black breastfeeding rate did not significantly differ from that of white or Hispanic women. American-born black women were just as likely to breastfeed as American-born white women, both at significantly greater rates than American-born Hispanic women. We also found no differences in breastfeeding rate in poorly educated and impoverished women. These data must be seen against the backdrop of a significant intervention to treat depression. Because breastfeeding interventions have been shown to increase breastfeeding rates, the support provided in our study likely increased rates in groups that lag behind. PMID:23971683

  13. Increased breastfeeding rates in black women after a treatment intervention.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Margaret G; Endicott, Jean; Goetz, Raymond R

    2013-12-01

    There has been a considerable increase in rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Despite these trends, black women continue to fall below medical recommendations. Impoverished and poorly educated women also have a comparatively lower rate of breastfeeding. Provider encouragement and supportive interventions increase breastfeeding initiation among women of all backgrounds. The data presented come from a three-site randomized controlled bilingual depression treatment trial from 2005 to 2011 that examined the comparative effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy and a parenting education program. Breastfeeding education and support were provided for the majority of participants in each intervention. Breastfeeding status was queried at postpartum week 4. We found higher rates of breastfeeding in black women compared with those reported in national surveys. The black breastfeeding rate did not significantly differ from that of white or Hispanic women. American-born black women were just as likely to breastfeed as American-born white women, both at significantly greater rates than American-born Hispanic women. We also found no differences in breastfeeding rate in poorly educated and impoverished women. These data must be seen against the backdrop of a significant intervention to treat depression. Because breastfeeding interventions have been shown to increase breastfeeding rates, the support provided in our study likely increased rates in groups that lag behind. PMID:23971683

  14. Free Women and the Antebellum Black Press: Gender Oppression Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Frankie

    Black newspapers and journals published between 1827 and 1860, such as "Freedom's Journal,""The Weekly Advocate," and the "Mirror of Liberty," worked to dispel negative images and to set the record straight about women of color, in contrast to the unfounded hyperboles against these women which had been pervasive during the pre-Civil War years. The…

  15. Preventing Depression: Culturally Relevant Group Work with Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lani V.

    2008-01-01

    Recent estimates indicate that 10% to 25% of women in the United States report clinically significant depressive symptoms and that Black women are less likely to obtain care for depression and to receive appropriate treatment when they do seek care. Current mental and social health services necessitate a search for strength-based treatment models…

  16. How Black women make sense of 'White' and 'Black' fashion magazines: a qualitative think aloud study.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Russell, Sheriden

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative think aloud study explored how Black women (n = 32) processed information from a White or Black fashion magazine. Comments to the 'White' magazine were characterised by rejection, being critical of the media and ambivalence, whereas they responded to the 'Black' magazine with celebration, identification and a search for depth. Transcending these themes was their self-identity of being a Black woman that was brought to the fore either by a sense of exclusion (White magazine) or engagement (Black magazine). Such an identity provides resilience against the media's thin ideals by minimising the processes of social comparison and internalisation. PMID:23221493

  17. The Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Black Women Leaders in Fortune 500 Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, LaTonya R.

    2012-01-01

    Black women are underrepresented in leadership positions within organizations. The extent to which self-efficacy influences the advancement potential of Black females is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy beliefs of black women in leadership positions and to determine how Black women leaders' careers are…

  18. Say the Word Islam: School Counselors and Muslim Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleem, Daa'iyah; Rasheed, Sakinah

    2010-01-01

    Two Muslim women who hold Ph.D.'s, a clinical and developmental psychologist and a teacher educator speak personally and professionally about important information school counselors need to know about Islam and providing services to Muslim children. First, the authors draw from personal experiences in parenting Muslim children who have come of age…

  19. "Sometimes I Am Spanish and Sometimes Not": A Study of the Identity and Integration of Spanish Muslim Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibai, Salam Adlbi

    2010-01-01

    This article reports part of a wider investigation which is still being developed and analyzes in depth the lives of female university students who are both Spanish and Muslim. The first part of this research was published in the "Revista Espanola de Educacion Comparada," where the results of the study in Madrid are presented. Here, the second…

  20. Visceral adipose tissue differences in black and white women.

    PubMed

    Conway, J M; Yanovski, S Z; Avila, N A; Hubbard, V S

    1995-04-01

    Fat distribution and metabolic variables were studied in 8 black and 10 white age- and weight-matched obese women undergoing a 6-mo weight-reducing regimen. Fat patterning was determined by using anthropometry and computed tomography to quantitate total, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) areas at the L2-L3 and L4-L5 levels of the lumbar spine, before, during, and after a modified fast. Black women had smaller depots of VAT than white women at both the L2-L3 (P = 0.004) and L4-L5 (P = 0.054) sites. Differences persisted after an average 17.2-kg weight loss. Although waist-hip ratio was similar in both groups, black women had 23% less VAT than white women (P = 0.007). Black women had significantly lower plasma glucose (P = 0.031) and triglycerides (P = 0.006) with significantly higher plasma high-density-lipoprotein concentrations (P < 0.001). Data from this study suggest that racial differences exist in VAT and metabolic risk factors for obesity-related illness. PMID:7702017

  1. Sexual Safety and Sexual Security among Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Design Secondary qualitative content analysis. Setting We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Participants Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. Methods We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. Results We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. Conclusions From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. PMID:24942676

  2. Changes in the Formation and Structure of Black Families: The Impact on Black Women. Working Paper No. 182.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette Pipes

    This paper attempts to dispel stereotypes about black family structures through an examination of the impact of demographic trends on black women. Topics covered include the following: (1) the structure of black families from the arrival of black slaves in North America through the 1950's; (2) the impact that the historical structure and…

  3. The Experiences and Development of Undergraduate Adult Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Joni Denise Dent

    2012-01-01

    Just as there are reasons why Black American women decide not to attend college or to dropout of college when they are young, there are reasons why they choose to enter or reenter college as adults. Among those reasons are self-fulfillment, career aspirations, financial incentives offered by employers, and military benefits (Parr, 2000; Richardson…

  4. Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lolita Chappel; Cervero, Ronald M.; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 10 black women enrolled in or graduated from baccalaureate nursing programs identified intrapersonal and cultural factors encouraging their participation. Hindrances were classified as the experience of being the "other" and the culture of racism. Findings show that individual and institutional racism is a barrier in registered…

  5. Academe as Extreme Sport: Black Women, Faculty Development, and Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dannielle Joy; Chaney, Cassandra; Edwards, LaWanda; Thompson-Rogers, G. Kaye; Gines, Kathryn T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we describe the experiences of Black women academics who participated in one or more of the following programs geared towards supporting the research and professional development of faculty: (a) the Sisters of the Academy's (SOTA) Research Boot Camp; (b) the National Center for Faculty Development and Diversity's Faculty Success…

  6. Approaches to Studying Racism and Sexism in Black Women's Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Althea; Stewart, Abigail J.

    1983-01-01

    Explores limits of existing knowledge and research on the joint and separate effects of racism and sexism. Proposes an "interactive" approach to studying the two problems that, in defining the complex meanings of racism and sexism, capitalizes on the experiences of Black women and all other gender-race groups. (Author/ML)

  7. Early Family Formation among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landale, Nancy S.; Schoen, Robert; Daniels, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Using data from Waves I and III of Add Health, this study examines early family formation among 6,144 White, Black, and Mexican American women. Drawing on cultural and structural perspectives, models of the first and second family transitions (cohabitation, marriage, or childbearing) are estimated using discrete-time multinomial logistic…

  8. Black Women Who Head Families: Economic Needs and Economic Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    Black women bear a heavy burden of family responsibilities, yet their economic position is marginal relative to other groups in American society. It is this imbalance between economic needs and economic resources which poses the greatest challenge to public policy. This paper examines some aspects of this imbalance. It describes the demographic…

  9. Black Women as Role Models: Where Can We Find Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara L.

    1990-01-01

    Considers two books, Sara Lawrence Lightfoot's biography of her mother, "Balm in Gilead: Journey of a Healer" (1988), and Pauli Murray's autobiography, "Song in a Weary Throat: An American Pilgrimage" (1987), to illustrate that, by approaching such literature from perspective of social learning theory, one can learn more about how black women have…

  10. Spoke"tokenism": Black Women "Talking Back" about Graduate School Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Subrina J.

    2013-01-01

    Black women still experience racial oppression in the academy. In this study, I draw on Black feminist theory and oral narrative research to examine the narratives of Black women graduate students discussing their educational experiences. Black female graduate students deal with acts of everyday racism and instances of structural and internalized…

  11. The Black Woman Worker: A Minority Group Perspective on Women at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    1986-01-01

    Being black and female is a double disadvantage in the labor market. Black women work in higher proportions than other women, but their wages are less and many have undesirable jobs. Some black women are experiencing more employment success, but as racial discrimination lessens, they face sexism. (VM)

  12. Black Professional Women's (Teachers and Airline Stewardesses) Attitudes Toward Marriage and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Priscilla D.

    At present, only incomplete data exist on how black professional women view marriage; more complete information could provide insights into the causes of the increased number of single and divorced black women. To determine the attitudes of middle-class black women, respondents in Detroit and Chicago were administered a questionnaire designed to…

  13. Sarcoidosis in Black Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Jeffrey S.; Palmer, Julie R.; Boggs, Deborah A.; Serlin, David M.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unknown cause that occurs among men and women of all races. In the United States, black women are most frequently and most severely affected. There have been few epidemiologic studies of sarcoidosis focusing on black women. Methods: In this article, we present data on incidence, prevalence, and clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis among participants in the Black Women’s Health Study, a cohort study of 59,000 black women from across the United States. Data on incident disease and potential risk factors are obtained through biennial questionnaires. Follow-up has been > 80% through six completed cycles. Results: There were 685 prevalent cases of sarcoidosis at baseline in 1995 and 435 incident cases reported during 611,585 person-years of follow-up through 2007, for an average annual incidence rate of 71/100,000 and a current prevalence of 2.0%. The sarcoid diagnosis was confirmed in 96% of self-reported cases for whom medical records or physician checklists were obtained. The most frequently affected site was the lung. Most patients also had extrapulmonary involvement, with the most common sites being lymph nodes, skin, and eyes. Prednisone had the highest prevalence of use, followed by inhaled corticosteroids. Conclusions: This study confirms previous reports of high incidence and prevalence of sarcoidosis among black women, as well as the extent of extrapulmonary disease, frequent need for steroid therapy, and comorbid conditions in this population. The prospective identification of sarcoidosis cases from a defined population will enable a valid assessment of risk factors for incident disease as follow-up continues. PMID:20595459

  14. Centering Perspectives on Black Women, Hair Politics, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Versey, H. Shellae

    2014-01-01

    As researchers categorize issues facing Black women’s health, obesity and physical exercise continue to be significant topics of debate. General interventions targeted toward Black women to address obesity and increase physical exercise have been largely ineffective. In this article, I situate the current public health discourse on obesity and related interventions within a sociocultural context of body appearance, with a specific focus on hair. Why do some African American women feel such strong ties to their hair that they will avoid exercise? What can be done to understand this phenomenon and address alternatives that may make both hair maintenance and regular exercise feasible? I map a theoretical argument for why hair matters for some women, and discuss how physical activity intervention strategies might be improved by considering such complexities. PMID:24625146

  15. What Makes the Difference? Black Women's Undergraduate and Graduate Experiences in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borum, Viveka; Walker, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increase of women earning degrees in STEM fields, there continues to remain a dearth in the number of women pursuing terminal degrees in mathematics. Additionally, Black women are nearly invisible in the field. This qualitative study examined the undergraduate and graduate experiences of twelve Black women mathematicians. A Black…

  16. Things Are Not as Rosy as They Seem: Psychosocial Issues of Contemporary Black College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.; Butler, Dyonne M.; West, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Black women's participation in postsecondary education appears to have improved drastically because they are outpacing many other minority cultural groups (i.e., Black men, Hispanic men and women, Asian men and women, etc.) in terms of college enrollment and completion rates. However, when compared to White men and women, it is obvious that there…

  17. Black women talk about workplace stress and how they cope.

    PubMed

    Hall, J Camille; Everett, Joyce E; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie

    2012-01-01

    Black women face the same struggles as White women; however, they have to face issues of diversity on top of inequality. The purpose of this study was to explore work-related stressors that affect the lives of Black women and how they cope with them. Using an exploratory design with grounded-theory methods, five basic themes emerged that identify when racism and sexism are experienced as stressors for African American women in the workplace. The themes are: (1) being hired or promoted in the workplace, (2) defending one’s race and lack of mentorship, (3) shifting or code switching to overcome barriers to employment, (4) coping with racism and discrimination, and (5) being isolated and/or excluded. The results from this study indicate African American women use emotion- and problem-focused coping responses to manage stress (e.g., racism and sexism) in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion of practice implications of these findings. PMID:22457894

  18. Gender roles, sociosexuality, and sexual behavior among US Black women

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Pichon, Latrice C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between gender roles and sociosexuality (an individual difference variable describing attitudes about sexual permissiveness and promiscuity), and their predictive pattern of HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. A geographically diverse sample of 275 adult, heterosexual Black women (mean age = 33.60 years), participated in a self-administered survey. Significant relationships were found between feminine traits and sociosexuality, and between sociosexuality and four of the five risky sexual behavior variables. Neither masculine nor feminine gender roles were related to any risky sexual behavior variables. Sociosexuality emerged as an important correlate that requires further exploration of its relationship to the attitudes and behaviors of Black women, and its potential relationship to HIV risk-related sexual behavior. The need for more attention to psychosocial variables, and consideration of context, cultural norms, and values is discussed as an important undertaking in order to garner an accurate picture of sexual risk behavior. PMID:25614852

  19. Childhood sexual abuse among Black women and White women from two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Amodeo, Maryann; Griffin, Margaret L; Fassler, Irene R; Clay, Cassandra M; Ellis, Michael A

    2006-08-01

    Differences in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) between Black women and White women are explored in a community sample of 290 women raised in two-parent families.A self-administered questionnaire and a face-to-face interview assessed CSA characteristics, aftermath, and prevalence as well as family structure and other childhood variables. Siblings served as collateral informants for the occurrence of CSA. Overall, comparisons of the nature, severity, and aftermath of CSA showed similarities by race; some differences, for example, in age of onset, are potentially relevant for the planning of prevention programs. Logistic regression models examined effects of childhood variables on CSA prevalence. Initial analyses showed a higher CSA prevalence among Black women (34.1% [45] of Black women vs. 22.8% [36] of White women) that was attenuated when family structure (e.g., living with two biological parents throughout childhood or not) and social class were considered. Of interest, differences in family structure remained important even among these two-parent families. Understanding the dynamics of abuse by race and family structure will facilitate the design of more targeted CSA prevention programs. PMID:16816321

  20. Richard Wright's Thematic Treatment of Women in "Uncle Tom's Children,""Black Boy," and "Native Son."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewton, Butler E.

    Richard Wright's literary work emphasizes a contrast between black women and white women. Although both are "givers" to black boys, the nature of what they give is different. The black woman gives physical life, feeds it, and protects it at the expense of spiritual or creative vitality. Her goal is to survive bodily, to breathe, to have enough…

  1. Droppin' Knowledge: Black Women's Communication and Informal Learning in an Online Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steptoe, Leslye Carynn

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of black women offer a unique perspective on how life is lived at the juncture of race and gender in the United States. This case study of an online community for black women centers on the site's potentiality as an online learning community as well as a uniquely black woman's space. It also explores interrelated aspects of…

  2. "Say Africa When You Pray": The Activities of Early Black Baptist Women Missionaries Among Liberian Women and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Sylvia M.

    1986-01-01

    The place of Black Baptist women missionaries has been obscured in history. These women served conscientiously in Africa and helped the Baptist mission movement there during the nineteenth century. They made a considerable impact on African women and children. Case studies of these women are presented. (VM)

  3. Medical and surgical therapies for alopecias in black women.

    PubMed

    Callender, Valerie D; McMichael, Amy J; Cohen, George F

    2004-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem that challenges the patient and clinician with a host of cosmetic, psychological and medical issues. Alopecia occurs in both men and women, and in all racial and ethnic populations, but the etiology varies considerably from group to group. In black women, many forms of alopecia are associated with hair-care practices (e.g., traction alopecia, trichorrhexis nodosa, and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia). The use of thermal or chemical hair straightening, and hair braiding or weaving are examples of styling techniques that place African American women at high risk for various "traumatic" alopecias. Although the exact cause of these alopecias is unknown, a multifactorial etiology including both genetic and environmental factors is suspected. A careful history and physical examination, together with an acute sensitivity to the patient's perceptions (e.g., self-esteem and social problems), are critical in determining the best therapy course. Therapeutic options for these patients range from alteration of current hair grooming practices or products, to use of specific medical treatments, to hair replacement surgery. Since early intervention is often a key to preventing irreversible alopecia, the purpose of the present article is to educate the dermatologist on all aspects of therapy for hair loss in black women--including not only a discussion of the main medical and surgical therapies but also an overview of ethnic hair cosmetics, specific suggestions for alterations of hair-care practices, and recommendations for patient education and compliance. PMID:15113284

  4. A Rhetorical Analysis on Black American Women Regarding the Women's Liberation Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson-Ige, Dorothy

    Molefi K. Asante's Afrocentric methodology was used in analysing the rhetoric of Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm, writer Toni Morrison, and sociologist Robert Staples on the women's movement. Three conclusions were drawn from this analysis: (1) that the three rhetors noted more differences than similarities between black and white females; (2) that…

  5. Mortality Risk Among Black and White Working Women: The Role of Perceived Work Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Shippee, Tetyana P.; Rinaldo, Lindsay; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors examine the relationship between perceived work trajectories and mortality risk among Black and White women over 36 years. Method Panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967-2003) are used to evaluate how objective and subjective elements of work shape mortality risk for Black and White women born between 1923 and 1937. Results Estimates from Cox proportional hazards models reveal that Black working women manifest higher mortality risk than White working women even after accounting for occupation, personal income, and household wealth. Perceived work trajectories were also associated with mortality risk for Black women but not for White women. Discussion The findings reveal the imprint of women’s work life on mortality, especially for Black women, and illustrate the importance of considering personal meanings associated with objective work characteristics. PMID:21956101

  6. Tough or Tender: (Dis)Similarities in White College Students' Perceptions of Black and White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Roxanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Although intersectional theory and empirical evidence suggest that race impacts how women are perceived, there is a dearth of research on how the dominant culture stereotypes Black women compared to White women. The current study addresses this gap using an intersectional framework to investigate White college students' stereotypes of Black and…

  7. Sassin' through Sadhana: Learned Leadership Journeys of Black Women in Holistic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panton, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Women of color, especially Black women, are underrepresented in the extant literature and research of adult development and mind, body, spirit leadership. This in-depth qualitative portraiture study explored the lives of three Black women who have been leading their communities as adult educators of mind, body, spirit practices. This examination…

  8. Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity *

    PubMed Central

    Tanus, Aline; Oliveira, Camila Caberlon Cruz; Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Sanchez, Fernando Andres Vargas; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Afro-ethnic hair is different from Caucasian and Asian hair and has unique features. Ethnic hair is more prone to certain conditions or diseases. Such diseases are not only related to the fragile inner structure of the hair, but also to the cultural habits of hairstyles that often exert traction forces upon the pilosebaceous follicle. Women with African hair subject their hair to chemical treatments such as hair straightening and relaxing, and thus modify the structure of their hair shaft, making it more susceptible to damage. For this reason, hair complaints are common among black women and represent a diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist, requiring a thorough clinical examination of the hair and scalp, and a detailed medical history of the patient. The purpose of this review is to warn of the potential side effects and sequelae related to hairstyles and hair treatments used by black women, and to highlight the major diseases that affect this ethnicity. PMID:26375213

  9. U.S. Black Women Get Less Care to Prevent Breast Cancer Return

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159242.html U.S. Black Women Get Less Care to Prevent Breast Cancer ... 7, 2016 TUESDAY, June 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Black breast cancer survivors in the United States are ...

  10. Health Practices and Vaginal Microbicide Acceptability among Urban Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Christine; Chao, Maria T.; Kronenberg, Fredi; Cushman, Linda F.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Intravaginal topical microbicides are being investigated for prevention of HIV transmission. Use of vaginal microbicides will constitute a new type of practice, occurring in the context of other vaginal practices related to contraception, hygiene, and self-care, which are affected by cultural norms and personal beliefs. Given the high rate of HIV infection among black women, research on practices and decision making relevant to microbicide acceptability is needed in this population. Methods Twenty-three black women in New York City, aged 25–64, completed in-person semistructured interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Quantitative analyses examined vaginal practices and willingness to use microbicides. Qualitative analyses explored underlying decision-making processes involved in choices regarding vaginal practices and general healthcare. Results Willingness to use vaginal products for HIV prevention was high, especially among more educated women. Safety was a major concern, and women were cautious about using vaginal products. Whereas some viewed synthetic products as having potentially harmful side effects, others perceived natural products as risky because of insufficient testing. Choices about vaginal practices were affected by assessments of risk and efficacy, prior experience, cultural background, and general approach to healthcare. Conclusions The majority of women in the sample expressed willingness to use a vaginal product for HIV prevention. Decision-making processes regarding vaginal practices were complex and were affected by social, cultural, and personal factors. Although specific preferences may vary, attitudes toward using a vaginal product are likely to be positive when side effects are minimal and the product is considered safe. PMID:18788991

  11. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in black women. Part I.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Jackson, B

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the extent to which a general model for understanding and predicting Black mental health problems accounts for the particular problem of alcohol consumption in an urban sample of 289 African American women. The general model consists of eight variables: life events, social support, religious orientation, internalized racialism, physical health problems, marital status, socioeconomic status, and developmental status. In Part I expected interrelationships among variables are presented, from which a structural equation model for understanding and predicting alcohol consumption is formulated. Methods for evaluating the model are described in Part II (International Journal of the Addictions, Vol. 25, No. 12). PMID:2090628

  12. Food prices and food shopping decisions of black women.

    PubMed

    DiSantis, Katherine I; Grier, Sonya A; Oakes, J Michael; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2014-06-01

    Identifying food pricing strategies to encourage purchases of lower-calorie food products may be particularly important for black Americans. Black children and adults have higher than average obesity prevalence and disproportionate exposure to food marketing environments in which high calorie foods are readily available and heavily promoted. The main objective of this study was to characterize effects of price on food purchases of black female household shoppers in conjunction with other key decision attributes (calorie content/healthfulness, package size, and convenience). Factorial discrete choice experiments were conducted with 65 low- and middle-/higher-income black women. The within-subject study design assessed responses to hypothetical scenarios for purchasing frozen vegetables, bread, chips, soda, fruit drinks, chicken, and cheese. Linear models were used to estimate the effects of price, calorie level (or healthfulness for bread), package size, and convenience on the propensity to purchase items. Moderating effects of demographic and personal characteristics were assessed. Compared with a price that was 35% lower, the regular price was associated with a lesser propensity to purchase foods in all categories (β = -0.33 to -0.82 points on a 1 to 5 scale). Other attributes, primarily calorie content/healthfulness, were more influential than price for four of seven foods. The moderating variable most often associated with propensity to pay the regular versus lower price was the reported use of nutrition labels. Price reductions alone may increase purchases of certain lower-calorie or more healthful foods by black female shoppers. In other cases, effects may depend on combining price changes with nutrition education or improvements in other valued attributes. PMID:24583415

  13. Breast cancer and age in Black and White women in South East England.

    PubMed

    Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A; Møller, Henrik

    2012-03-01

    Black women have lower age-standardized breast cancer incidence rates than White women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about such differences in risk in separate age groups. Records on female residents of South East England diagnosed with breast cancer between 1998 and 2003 were extracted from the Thames Cancer Registry database. Age-specific incidence rates were calculated for each 5-year age group using 2001 Census population data for White, Black Caribbean and Black African women. Black Caribbean and Black African breast cancer patients were younger than both the White patients and those with no ethnicity recorded. Black Caribbean and Black African women in the population also had a younger age profile than White women. The computed age-specific incidence rates in women aged under 50 were similar in the different ethnic groups, whereas in women aged 50 and over White women had higher rates. The younger age of Black Caribbean and Black African breast cancer patients in South East England reflects the younger age of these populations, rather than an increased risk of disease at younger ages. PMID:21445965

  14. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women. PMID:26513636

  15. "Their depression is something different . . . it would have to be": findings from a qualitative study of black women's perceptions of depression in black men.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Daphne C; Abelson, Jamie M; Jefferson, S Olivia

    2013-07-01

    This study reports findings from the Black Women's Perceptions of Black Men's Depression (BWP) study, which included eight focus groups with Black women (N = 46) from southeastern Michigan. Four themes illustrated the impressions of Black women from different socioeconomic backgrounds: Black men's depression is a cultured and gendered phenomenon, the role of Black women in Black men's depression, intergenerational differences with how depression is handled by Black men, and the need (and ways) to reach Black men with depression resources. Results underscore not only the importance of understanding the kind of depression in Black men that meets criteria described by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) but also the psychological distress that may coexist with (or be separate from) DSM depression. Implications for interventions that educate, diagnose, and treat depression in Black men are discussed. PMID:23784520

  16. AIDS and traditional health beliefs and practices of black women.

    PubMed

    Flaskerud, J H; Rush, C E

    1989-01-01

    This study examines whether traditional health beliefs and practices of black Americans reported in the literature were consistent with those of a target population of low-income black women in Los Angeles County and describes how these traditional classifications of illness and healing practices were related to their understanding of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A qualitative approach was used to gather the data in unstructured interviews. Content analysis was used to classify data. Sources of illness and remedies identified by the women were divided into two categories: natural and supernatural. Natural sources included cold, impurities, diet, weakness, lack of moderation, and stress. Supernatural sources included illnesses allowed by God, witchcraft, and evil influences. Remedies included antidotes, food, medicines, prayer, and healing. Analysis of the relationship of AIDS to traditional beliefs revealed that AIDS had been integrated into the traditional conceptualization of illness, health practices, and healing, and was attributed to both natural and supernatural causes. Prevention, prayer, and spiritual healing were recommended as remedies. Implications were that AIDS education, prevention, and treatment programs be within the context of traditional belief system. PMID:2748354

  17. Correlates of obesity in young black and white women: the CARDIA Study.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, G L; Savage, P J; Manolio, T A; Sprafka, J M; Wagenknecht, L E; Sidney, S; Perkins, L L; Liu, K; Jacobs, D R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Although differences in obesity between Blacks and Whites are well documented in adult women, less information is available on potential correlates of these differences, especially in young adults. METHODS. The association between behavioral and demographic factors and body size was assessed in 2801 Black and White women aged 18 to 30 years. RESULTS. Black women had significantly higher age-adjusted mean body mass index and subscapular skinfold thickness than did White women. Obesity had different associations with age and education across racial groups. A positive relationship between age and obesity was seen in Black women but not in White women, whereas a negative association between education and body size was noted only in White women. Potential contributing factors to the increased prevalence of obesity in Black women include a more sedentary lifestyle, higher energy intake, earlier menarche, and earlier age at first childbirth. CONCLUSIONS. The difference in obesity across race could not be explained completely by these factors, since within virtually all strata, Black women had higher body mass indexes. Further investigation is needed to develop interventional strategies to prevent or reduce excess levels of obesity in Black women. PMID:1456336

  18. My Rock: Black Women Attending Graduate School at a Southern Predominantly White University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Quentin R.; Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Participants in this phenomenological study were 11 Black women who received an undergraduate degree from a historically Black college or university and were currently attending graduate school at a southern predominantly White university. This study investigated the adjustment experiences of these women to life on a southern predominantly White…

  19. An Exploration of Personal Financial Behavior of College-Educated Black Women in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Jacqueline D.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative inquire examined the financial behavior of six college educated Black women located in the Midwest. Utilizing Black feminism as a theoretical framework for analysis, a depiction was prepared on the adeptness of the women at managing their finances; the influence of parental teaching on personal finances; and their behavior toward…

  20. Cultural Parallax and Content Analysis: Images of Black Women in High School History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woyshner, Christine; Schocker, Jessica B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the representation of Black women in high school history textbooks. To examine the extent to which Black women are represented visually and to explore how they are portrayed, the authors use a mixed-methods approach that draws on analytical techniques in content analysis and from visual culture studies. Their findings…

  1. Through the Lens of Race: Black and White Women's Perceptions of Womanhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settles, Isis H.; Pratt-Hyatt, Jennifer S.; Buchanan, NiCole T.

    2008-01-01

    The intersection of race and gender may create unique experiences for Black and White women in terms of work, family, domestic roles, and interpersonal relationships. Dissimilar gender-role norms may foster different perceptions of gender for these two groups of women. In the current study, we examined similarities and differences in Black and…

  2. Black Women's Leadership and Learning: From Politics to Afritics in the Context of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLany, Janet; Rogers, Elice

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, the academy of higher education did not perceive that the leadership of black women merited scholarly analysis. Thus, the knowledge about how black women in the United States learned to lead and the political forces driving such learning remained primarily oral or described in private correspondence (White, 1999). Those studies…

  3. Invited Reaction: Black and White Women Managers--Access to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    In a survey of Black and White women managers, Linda M. Hite identifies differences in the managers' perceptions of opportunities available to different race and gender groups. Her findings reveal divergent beliefs about the opportunities for people of color; there is more similarity in Black and White women's views when comparing opportunities…

  4. The Effects of HIV/AIDS on the Retention of Black Women in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2013-01-01

    Although only contributing approximately 12% to the United States population, Black Americans account for the majority (51%) of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses in this country. Black women in college between the ages of 18 and 24 fall directly in the center of these alarming statistics. These young women are faced with the psychosocial manifestations of…

  5. Baseline Data on Mid-Career Change and Reentry for Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossey, Beatrice Abel; Toney, Glen O.

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to gather baseline data on the employment picture of black women who are currently employed or have reentered a training educational program involving direct job opportunities. The study sample was selected from the rolls of nine black professional women's organizations in the state of California, and from…

  6. Miniconsultation on the Mental and Physical Health Problems of Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Women's Community Development Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Black Women's Community Development Foundation (BWCDF) examined the mental and physical health issues confronting black women. BWCDF chose to examine these issues through a "miniconsultation," a gathering of some 60 health care professionals, sociologists, educators and others who for two days comprehensively shared their experiences, their…

  7. Black Women's Faculty Voices in New Mexico: Invisible Assets Silent No More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodley, Xeturah Monique

    2014-01-01

    There continues to exist a lack of Black women faculty at institutions of higher education (Moses, 1989; Collins, 1991; Gregory, 2001). Although we can see an increase in the number of research projects focused on Black women faculty there still remains a significant gap in the research (Glover, 2006; Foster-Williamson, 2002; Thomas &…

  8. Challenges in Theorising "Black Middle-Class" Women: Education, Experience and Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maylor, Uvanney; Williams, Katya

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint draws on discussions at two seminars to consider ambivalent attitudes amongst a group of Black women towards considering themselves and/or other Black people as "middle class". The first seminar highlighted the experiences of a group of Black "middle-class" parents and the second, which was organised as a result of the reaction the…

  9. Black Women and the Philosophy of "Race Uplift" Prior to Emancipation. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Linda M.

    The pre-emancipation (1830-1865) black woman reformer was concerned with race "uplift," a sense of duty and obligation to her race. Black women in the North formed mutual aid societies for the economic survival of the destitute. Regardless of economic status, free blacks consistently sought to aid slaves in the South; the poor often saved for…

  10. Going Up for the Oppressed: The Career Mobility of Black Women Community Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkes, Cheryl Townsend

    1983-01-01

    Explores careers of 23 Black professional women involved in social change programs in urban Black communities. Discusses conflict between dominant culture professionalism and goals of social change, and difficulties in predicting behavior of the Black middle class with reference to combined effects of race and class or "nation-class"…

  11. The Measured Black-White Wage Gap among Women Is Too Small.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Derek

    2004-01-01

    Existing work suggests that black-white gaps in potential wages are much larger among men than women and further that black-white differences in patterns of female labor supply are unimportant. However, panel data on wages and income sources demonstrate that the modal young black woman who does not engage in market work is a single mother…

  12. Stereotype threat among black and white women in health care settings.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Fingerhut, Adam W

    2014-07-01

    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat-the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes-to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one's ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women. PMID:25045944

  13. Socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural determinants of obesity in black South African women

    PubMed Central

    Micklesfield, Lisa K; Lambert, Estelle V; Hume, David John; Chantler, Sarah; Pienaar, Paula R; Dickie, Kasha; Goedecke, Julia H; Puoane, Thandi

    2013-01-01

    Summary Abstract South Africa (SA) is undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition and has the highest prevalence of obesity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with black women being the most affected (obesity prevalence 31.8%). Although genetic factors are important, socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural factors, as well as the influence of socio-economic status, more likely explain the high prevalence of obesity in black SA women. This review examines these determinants in black SA women, and compares them to their white counterparts, black SA men, and where appropriate, to women from SSA. Specifically this review focuses on environmental factors influencing obesity, the influence of urbanisation, as well as the interaction with socio-cultural and socio-economic factors. In addition, the role of maternal and early life factors and cultural aspects relating to body image are discussed. This information can be used to guide public health interventions aimed at reducing obesity in black SA women. PMID:24051701

  14. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Design In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. Participants 94 women aged 33–91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Setting Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012–2013. Results There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Conclusions Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma

  15. Thinness expectancies and restraint in Black and White college women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stojek, Monika M K; Fischer, Sarah

    2013-08-01

    Despite stereotypes to the contrary, women of diverse racial backgrounds, including Black women, experience disordered eating symptoms. While there has been an increase in research comparing disordered eating symptoms across ethnic groups, there remains a dearth of research on the mechanisms of action underlying the development of these symptoms in non-White populations. Thinness expectancies prospectively predict disordered eating symptoms in adolescent girls, but the majority of research on expectancies has been conducted with White samples. Restraint, or self-initiated attempts to restrict food intake, may be precipitated by cognitive factors such as thinness expectancies. In the current study, we followed a sample of Black and White women over one semester of college to assess the influence of thinness expectancies and ethnic identity on restraint. Our sample consisted of 193 college women (93 Black women). We found that White women experienced restraint at higher levels than Black women, but both Black and White women experienced an increase in restraint across the first semester in college. The endorsement of thinness expectancies added significant incremental variance to the prediction of restraint over time, when baseline restraint was included in the model. These effects were not moderated by ethnicity nor ethnic identity. This study adds to the scarce literature on phenomenology of disordered eating in Black women. PMID:23910764

  16. Black-White Differences in Attitudes Related to Pregnancy among Young Women1

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jennifer S.; Yarger, Jennifer Eckerman; Gatny, Heather H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use newly available data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life (RDSL) study to compare a wide range of attitudes related to pregnancy for 961 Black and white young women. We also investigate the extent to which race differences are mediated by, or net of, family background, childhood socioeconomic status, adolescent experiences related to pregnancy, and current socioeconomic status. Black women are less positive, in general, than white women, toward young non-marital sex, contraception, and childbearing, and have less desire for sex in the upcoming year. This is largely because Black women are more religious than white women, and in part because they are more socioeconomically disadvantaged in young adulthood. However, in spite of these less positive attitudes, Black women are more likely to expect sex without contraception in the next year, and to expect more positive consequences if they were to become pregnant, relative to white women. This is largely because, relative to white women, Black women have higher rates of sex without contraception in adolescence, and in part because they are more likely to have grown up with a single parent. It is unclear whether attitudes toward contraception and pregnancy preceded or are a consequence of adolescent sex without contraception. Some race differences remain unexplained – net of all potential mediators in our models, Black women have less desire for sex in the upcoming year, but are less willing to refuse to have sex with a partner if they think it would make him angry, and expect more positive personal consequences of a pregnancy, relative to white women. In spite of these differences, Black women's desires to achieve and to prevent pregnancy are very similar to white women's desires. PMID:25962867

  17. Risk of miscarriage among black women and white women in a U.S. Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sudeshna; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Baird, Donna D; Savitz, David A; Hartmann, Katherine E

    2013-06-01

    Many adverse pregnancy outcomes differ by race. We examined the association between self-reported race and miscarriage (pregnancy loss at <20 weeks) in a community-based pregnancy cohort. Women from the southeastern United States (North Carolina, Texas, and Tennessee) were enrolled in "Right from the Start" from 2000 to 2009. They were recruited while trying to conceive or during early pregnancy. Participants completed study ultrasound examinations, interviews, and consent forms for review of medical records. We used proportional hazard models to examine miscarriage risk among black women compared with white women, adjusted for confounders. There were 537 observed miscarriages among 4,070 women, 23% of whom self-identified as black (n = 932). The life table-adjusted cumulative risk of loss after gestational week 5 was 21.3%. With adjustment for age and alcohol use, blacks had increased risk of miscarriage compared with whites (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 1.93). When risk of loss before gestational week 10 was dichotomized at the median gestational age, there was little difference, but black women had a greater risk thereafter compared with white women (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.48, 2.51). Early pregnancy ultrasound examinations did not differ by race. In summary, self-reported race is independently associated with risk of miscarriage, and the higher risk for black women is concentrated in gestational weeks 10-20. PMID:23558353

  18. Differences in skeletal and muscle mass with aging in black and white women.

    PubMed

    Aloia, J F; Vaswani, A; Feuerman, M; Mikhail, M; Ma, R

    2000-06-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies using delayed gamma neutron activation analysis and whole body counting suggested that the relationship of total body calcium (TBCa) to total body potassium (TBK) (muscle mass, body cell mass) remained constant with age. This led to the hypothesis that the muscle mass and skeletal mass compartments are integrated in their response to aging. It had also been hypothesized that loss of skeletal and muscle mass was similar between races. In the current study, delayed gamma neutron activation analysis and whole body counting were performed on 90 black and 143 white women 20-69 yr of age. Black women had higher TBCa and TBK values than white women, even when the data were adjusted for age, height, and weight. TBCa was correlated with height and TBK with weight. The estimated decline of skeletal mass (TBCa) from 20 to 70 yr was 18% in black women and 19% in white women. However, the lifetime decline of TBK was only 8% for black women, compared with 22% for white women. Black women may lose TBK more slowly than TBCa with aging, compared with white women. In particular, correlation of TBCa and age was similar for blacks and whites (r = -0.44 and r = -0.54, respectively). However, for TBK these correlations were r = -0.14 and r = -0.42. These data confirm a higher musculoskeletal mass in black women and suggest that the loss of muscle mass with age may be lower in black than in white women. These ethnic differences do not support the hypothesis of an integrated musculoskeletal system, so that these two components should be considered separately. A prospective study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:10827019

  19. What Black Women Should Know about Lupus: Ideas for Community Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Lupus is a serious health problem that mainly affects young women between the ages of 15 and 44. Although people of all races may get lupus, black women have three times higher rates of incidence, prevalence, and mortality than white women. With early detection and proper treatment, most people with lupus can lead a normal life. This kit is…

  20. Dean of Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Story Left Untold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdlein, Richard; Cali, Christine Frezza; Dina, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    There is a paucity of historical discourse on the distinct contributions of African American women serving as deans of women at historically Black colleges and universities. Using historical research and the case study approach, the analysis focused on three deans of women: Lucy Diggs Slowe--Howard University, Owena Hunter Davis--Johnson C. Smith…

  1. Employment gains and wage declines: the erosion of black women's relative wages since 1980.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Becky; Ewert, Stephanie

    2009-08-01

    Public policy initiatives in the 1950s and 1960s, including Affirmative Action and Equal Employment Opportunity law, helped mitigate explicit discrimination in pay, and the expansion of higher education and training programs have advanced the employment fortunes of many American women. By the early 1980s, some scholars proclaimed near equity in pay between black and white women, particularly among young and highly skilled workers. More recent policy initiatives and labor market conditions have been arguably less progressive for black women's employment and earnings: through the 1980s, 1990s, and the first half of the 2000s, the wage gap between black and white women widened considerably. Using data from the Current Population Survey Merged Outgoing Rotation Group (CPS-MORG), this article documents the racial wage gap among women in the United States from 1979 to 2005. We investigate how demographic and labor market conditions influence employment and wage inequality among black and white women over the period. Although shifts in labor supply influence the magnitude of the black-white wage gap among women, structural disadvantages faced by black women help explain the growth in the racial wage gap. PMID:19771940

  2. Married Black Men’s Opinions as to Why Black Women Are Disproportionately Single: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Tera R.; McElroy, Stacey E.; Sheats, Kameron J.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2015-01-01

    This study’s purpose was to explore the reasons Black women are disproportionately single according to the unique viewpoint of married Black men. The sample comprised 52 married Black men who resided in northeast Georgia (mean age = 43). Qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010 as part of the Pathways to Marriage study. The authors analyzed the data in a collaborative fashion and utilized content analyses to explore the relationships in the data which were derived from qualitative interviews with the men. Findings on the reasons for the disproportionality of singlehood among Black women reflected these four themes: gender relations, marriage education and socialization, individual development, and a preference for gay/lesbian relationships. Recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26082674

  3. The acceptance and completion of mammography by older black women.

    PubMed Central

    Burack, R C; Liang, J

    1989-01-01

    We assessed the relation of patient characteristics, knowledge and beliefs to the utilization of mammography in an inner-city setting by 187 Black women over the age of 50. Thirty per cent of those who were offered mammography initially declined the offer and 40 per cent were subsequently unable to complete the procedure. Patient interviews were used to derive 27 potential knowledge and health belief predictor scales. In multiple regression analysis, two health belief scales and two knowledge scales accounted for 15 per cent of the observed variance in the model of acceptance. The strongest predictor of subsequent completion was initial acceptance. The presence of breast symptoms and two health belief scales together with initial acceptance accounted for 26 per cent of variance in the model of completion. These results suggest that the successful accomplishment of mammography requires coordinated efforts at the level of the provider, patient, and setting. Health beliefs may influence the patient's behavior in this process, but their effect appears to be modest. PMID:2729469

  4. Who Should Mentor Me? Giving a Voice to Black Women Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siple, Bonnie J.; Hopson, Rodney K.; Sobehart, Helen C.; Turocy, Paula S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Black women are dramatically underrepresented in the health care profession of athletic training. It may be theorized that one of the reasons more black female students are not entering into the profession of athletic training is that they do not have adequate mentors to successfully guide them. Objective: The purpose of our qualitative…

  5. This Bridge Called My Leadership: An Essay on Black Women as Bridge Leaders in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to contextualize the existing research literature on leadership for diversity, equity, and social justice in education with "bridge leadership" as historically practiced by Black women leaders in the USA. Its primary aim is to demonstrate how the intersection of race and gender as experienced by the Black woman leader…

  6. Modeling Malignant Breast Cancer Occurrence and Survival in Black and White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, is a heterogeneous disease in which age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) differ by race and mortality rates are higher in blacks than whites. Goals: (i) understand the reasons for the black-to-white ethnic crossover in the ASIRs; (ii) formulate a…

  7. U.S. Black Women Get Less Care to Prevent Breast Cancer Return

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Black Women Get Less Care to Prevent Breast Cancer Return Genetic testing, risk-reducing surgery more likely ... 2016 TUESDAY, June 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Black breast cancer survivors in the United States are less likely ...

  8. Black Women as Scholars and Social Agents: Standing in the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Sherri L.; Moore, Sharon E.; Curtis, Carla M.

    2014-01-01

    The number of Black women in the academy is small. Further, that number decreases as the academic and administrative ranks increase. Yet, these scholars and social agents play roles vital to education. This reflective essay describes the experiences of three Black female scholars at Predominately White Institutions. Using personal narratives as an…

  9. The Social and Economic Statuses of Black Women in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter R.

    1981-01-01

    Cites aggregate statistics summarizing the social and economic statuses of Black women and interprets their implications for the quality of life experienced by Black females. Focuses on educational attainment, marital and fertility patterns, health status, labor force participation rates, and economic roles. (GC)

  10. Perceptions of Power and Faith among Black Women Faculty: Re-Thinking Institutional Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kirsten T.

    2015-01-01

    In this article I report on the perceptions and attitudes of Christian Black women faculty members in regards to religious difference at both historically Black colleges and universities [HBCUs] and predominantly White institutions [PWIs]. By taking a focused look at "uncomplicated Christian privilege" at HBCUs, the study asked what…

  11. Differences in calcium metabolism between black and white men and women.

    PubMed

    Bikle, D D; Ettinger, B; Sidney, S; Tekawa, I S; Tolan, K

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether environmental factors influence racial differences in calcium metabolism, the authors evaluated the influence of three factors (season, length of sunlight exposure, and diet) on calciotropic hormones, renal calcium excretion, and markers of bone turnover in an ambulatory population aged 25-36 years. Included were 109 black men, 114 white men, 95 black women, and 84 white women. Compared with white subjects, black subjects of both genders showed lower levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and higher levels of serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D]. The mean winter levels of 25-OHD were 19 to 29% lower than the summer levels in all groups. The urinary calcium excretion was 26% lower in black men than in white men and was 36% lower in black women than in white women. The parathyroid hormone levels were 29% higher in black women than in white women, but no statistically significant racial differences in parathyroid hormone levels were seen in men. Bone turnover markers (serum osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, urinary pyridinoline cross-link excretion) did not show consistent racial differences. Racial and gender differences in calcium excretion did not significantly correlate with differences in lifestyle or with levels of the calciotropic hormones. Environmental factors such as diet and sunlight exposure do not appear to influence racial differences in the levels of the calciotropic hormones or renal calcium excretion. PMID:10436403

  12. Maternal obesity and breast-feeding practices among white and black women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jihong; Smith, Michael G; Dobre, Mirela A; Ferguson, James E

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increase in obesity among women of reproductive ages, few studies have considered maternal obesity as a risk factor for breast-feeding success. We tested the hypothesis that women who are obese (BMI = 30-34.9) and very obese (BMI >or=35) before pregnancy are less likely to initiate and maintain breast-feeding than are their normal-weight counterparts (BMI = 18.5-24.9) among white and black women. Data from 2000 to 2005 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were used. The overall response rate was 71.0%; there were 3,517 white and 2,846 black respondents. Black women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding and breast-fed their babies for a shorter duration than white women. Compared to normal-weight white women, very obese white women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding (odds ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42, 0.94) and more likely to discontinue breast-feeding within the first 6 months (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.39, 2.58). Among black women, prepregnancy BMI was neither associated with breast-feeding initiation nor with breast-feeding continuation within the first 6 months. Because very obese white women are less likely to initiate or continue breast-feeding than other white women, health professionals should be aware that very obese white women need additional breast-feeding support. Lower rates of breast-feeding among black women suggest that they should continue to be the focus of the programs and policies aimed at breast-feeding promotion in the United States. PMID:19521347

  13. A voice for Muslims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Muhammad Abdul

    2008-06-01

    The Islamic and Western worlds have rarely been at ease with one another. In the Middle Ages, Christians travelled from Europe to the Middle East to wrestle the holy lands from Muslim control. Muslims, meanwhile, conquered much of Spain and in 1683 were knocking on the door of Vienna. Throughout history there has been mistrust between the Western and Islamic worlds - a situation made much worse in recent years by the invasion of Iraq and terrorist attacks on New York, London and elsewhere.

  14. Muslim traditions and attitudes to female education.

    PubMed

    Siann, G; Khalid, R

    1984-06-01

    It has been suggested that girls and women coming from a Muslim background in the Asian sub-continent are disadvantaged in the educational sphere. In this study two particular aspects of this suggested disadvantage are investigated. First, the importance of educating males rather than females and secondly, the issue of parental and husband's control over the rights of women to education and work. Twenty-six Muslim females living in a large Scottish town but of a Pakistani Punjabi background were interviewed in depth. The findings, that these women considered that it is as important to educate girls as it is to educate boys, and that they acquiesced in parental and husband's control over the rights of females to be educated and work, are discussed within a cross-cultural perspective. It is concluded that such issues cannot be isolated from traditional values about the importance of upholding family honour. PMID:6747041

  15. Higher Education for Palestinian Muslim Female Students in Israel and Jordan: Migration and Identity Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Masry-Harzalla, Asmahan; Haj-Yehia, Kussai

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the migration of Palestinian Muslim women, citizens of Israel, to the Hebrew University in Jerusalem or to Jordanian universities for academic studies, and the influence of this migration on their norms, behavior and identity. Narrative interviews were conducted with Palestinian Muslim women graduates: eight from the…

  16. Challenging Stereotypes: Muslim Girls Talk about Physical Activity, Physical Education and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knez, Kelly; Macdonald, Doune; Abbott, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Often labelled as "problematic" within health and physical education (HPE) and sporting literature, young Muslim women's participation is frequently understood through both cultural and religious limitations seen to be placed upon them. Although these factors are negotiated by many young Muslim women, and contribute to the way in which some will…

  17. Unveiled Sentiments: Gendered Islamophobia and Experiences of Veiling among Muslim Girls in a Canadian Islamic School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zine, Jasmin

    2006-01-01

    The practice of veiling has made Muslim women subject to dual oppressions--racism and Islamophobia--in society at large and patriarchal oppression and sexism from within their communities. Based on a narrative analysis of the politics of veiling in schools and society, the voices of young Muslim women attending a Canadian Islamic school speak to…

  18. Barriers to Urinary Incontinence Care Seeking in White, Black, and Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    Willis-Gray, Marcella G.; Sandoval, Juan S.; Maynor, Jean; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Siddiqui, Nazema Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We compared barriers to urinary incontinence (UI) healthcare seeking between white, black, and Latina women. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of white, black, and Latina women. Women completed the Barriers to Incontinence Care Seeking Questionnaire (BICS-Q), the Incontinence Quality of Life Instrument (I-QOL), the Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis (QUID), and the Incontinence Severity Index (ISI). The primary objective was to assess barriers to UI care seeking among groups, as measured by the BICS-Q. Secondary objectives were to assess factors associated with barriers to incontinence care and to compare specific barriers using BICS-Q subscale scores. Regression analyses were used to further assess for differences among groups while adjusting for potential confounding variables. Results We included a total of 93 subjects, including 30 white, 33 black, and 30 Latina women. Mean I-QOL, QUID, and ISI scores were not significantly different among our three groups. Barriers, based on BICS-Q scores, were lowest in white women and higher in blacks and Latinas (2.9 vs. 7.3 vs. 10.9 respectively, p<0.001). When adjusting for potential confounders such as age, income, education, presence of UI, ISI score, and I-QOL score, Latinas continued to demonstrate higher barriers compared to white or black women (β= 7.4, 95% CI: 2.2–12.7; p=0.006). There were no significant differences between black women compared to other groups in the adjusted analyses. Conclusions Latinas experience more barriers to UI healthcare seeking compared to white and black women. PMID:25185610

  19. Mental Health and Sexual Self-Concept Discrepancies in a Sample of Young Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Marcelle Christian

    2002-01-01

    Addressed the mental health consequences of sexual self-concept discrepancies among young black women. Participant surveys examined differences between their actual, ideal, and "ought" sexual selves. Overall, sexual self-concept discrepancies did not predict mental health outcomes. Women who were bothered by the differences between whom they…

  20. The Effects of Sexual Assault on the Identity Development of Black College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and…

  1. Invisible Woman? Narratives of Black Women Leaders in Southeastern Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counts, Shelia Antley

    2012-01-01

    This narrative research study explored the experiences of two Black women executive-level leaders who started their careers within higher education, including two-year technical colleges located in the Southeast during the pivotal sociopolitical moments that occurred during the 1960s to the 1980s. The stories of these women revealed their…

  2. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Rosa, Katemari Diogo

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the…

  3. Earning Autonomy While Maintaining Family Ties: Black Women's Reflections on the Transition into College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Sheena; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    African American women have made great strides in their college enrollment and graduation rates despite social and economic barriers. This study explores Black women's reflections on their college adjustment processes during their sophomore year at a predominantly White university. The findings indicated that the way participants coped with the…

  4. Stress among Black Women in a South African Township: The Protective Role of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea

    2006-01-01

    Communities that have been exposed to high levels of stress and where religiosity is salient are ideal contexts in which to examine the role of religion in stress processes. The present study examines the protective function of religiosity among Black women in a South African township. The women (N = 172) were interviewed about sources of stress,…

  5. Equity Issues and Black-White Differences in Women's ERA Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Susan E.

    1990-01-01

    Using data from 1982 National Opinion Research (NORC) General Social Survey, examines women's support for the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) by analyzing attitudes about gender and racial equality, and socioeconomic status. Explains Black women's higher ERA approval as deriving from gender-role attitudes, but more important, from experience with,…

  6. Toward the Development of the Stereotypic Roles for Black Women Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Witherspoon, Karen McCurtis; Speight, Suzette L.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary findings on the validation of the Stereotypic Roles for Black Women Scale (SRBWS) are presented. A sample of 186 African American women took the SRBWS along with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-B. A confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor structure of the scale, and moderate…

  7. Black Women in the U.S. A Bibliography of Recent Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Rosemary

    1985-01-01

    Presents a selective bibliography of publications about Black women that have appeared since 1975, with the emphasis on women in the United States. Lists titles under these headings: biography, culture, diaspora, economic issues, history, literary history and criticism, literature, psychology and mental health, reference, social conditions, and…

  8. Having Their Lives Narrowed Down? The State of Black Women's College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2015-01-01

    Contradictory trends emerge relative to Black women's college success: They have doubled their enrollment rates in thirty years but their graduation rates remain behind those of White and Asian women. This integrative, interdisciplinary review of both student- and institutional-level factors explores the role of individual characteristics and…

  9. From Mammy to Superwoman: Images that Hinder Black Women's Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds-Dobbs, Wendy; Thomas, Kecia M.; Harrison, Matthew S.

    2008-01-01

    Black women, like other women of color, find themselves at the intersection of both racism and sexism in the workplace. Due to their unique dual status as racial and gender minorities, they encounter unique and unexplored barriers that inhibit their career as well as leadership development. The goal of this article is to highlight the emerging…

  10. Meanings of Ebony: Politics and Black Self-Identification among College Women on Predominately White Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Tehmekah Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how female student members in campus organizations for women of color discuss black self-identification and their understandings of race, ethnicity, and gender. Through qualitative research and a framework that employs postpositivist realism and intersectionality, the study examines how the women's interpretations of their…

  11. Gender Consciousness and Class Action for Women: A Comparison of Black and White Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hraba, Joseph; Yarbrough, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Examines the proposition that objective conditions of inequality, aspirations, media use, gender consciousness, class and race consciousness, and symbolic and social participation in the women's movement affect Black and White female adolescents' commitment to class action for women. Reports on research in three high schools in Waterloo, Iowa.…

  12. Racial differences in the physical and psychosocial health among black and white women with chronic pain.

    PubMed Central

    Ndao-Brumblay, S. Khady; Green, Carmen R.

    2005-01-01

    Gender-based differences in pain epidemiology, pain threshold, attitudes toward pain management, coping styles and social roles are well described, yet little is known about the chronic pain experience in women or the role race plays. A retrospective analysis of self-reported data using a secondary clinical database was performed to elucidate the relationship between race and pain severity, depression, physical disability, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as affective distress in women with chronic pain. White (n=1,088) and black (n=104) adult women were compared based on their responses to the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Pain Disability Index, Posttraumatic Chronic Pain Test and items from the West-Haven Yale Multidisciplinary Pain Inventory. After accounting for sociodemographic, medical, psychological and physical confounders, there was no significant race effect for pain severity or affective distress. However, black women with chronic pain experience more physical impairments than white women with chronic pain (beta = 4.622; p<0.005). Except for the family/home responsibilities, similar differences were found on all PDI subscales. We also found that disability mediates the race-depression relationship such that black women are comparatively more vulnerable to depression as a result of higher disability. Due to the economic, social and emotional impact that disability has on women with chronic pain and their families, these findings have significant implications for chronic pain research as well as its management in black women. PMID:16353658

  13. The Sexual Assault of Undergraduate Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Christopher P.; Barrick, Kelle; Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Boyd, Chimi; Bogan, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Although research has shown that undergraduate women are at high risk for experiencing sexual assault, little research has been conducted with undergraduate women who are attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU). The purpose of this research is to document the prevalence of different types of sexual assault among undergraduate…

  14. Differences in hypertension prevalence among U.S. black and white women of childbearing age.

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, A T; Andersen, H F; Bound, J

    1991-01-01

    Hypertension and its sequelae complicate pregnancy and can result in poor perinatal outcomes. Overall, U.S. blacks are more likely to be hypertensive than whites, but the degree to which this is true among women of childbearing age (including teenagers) is unknown. Using data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), the authors describe hypertension prevalence rates for 422 black and 2,700 white reproductive-age women. The authors present observed data and also predicted prevalence rates derived by modeling the odds of hypertension using logistic regression statistical techniques. They find that black-white differences in hypertension prevalence are negligible among teenagers, but they are pronounced in the older reproductive ages. They estimate that twice the proportion of black women relative to white are hypertensive during pregnancy. Their results suggest that differential rates of hypertension between black and white women may contribute to the persistent excess infant mortality among blacks, but conclusive results cannot be determined from these data. These data are also valuable for the design and evaluation of screening, intervention, and followup programs for hypertensive disease among young women. PMID:1908590

  15. Intimate partner violence victimization among undergraduate women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).

    PubMed

    Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher P; Lindquist, Christine H

    2013-08-01

    Despite the evidence that young and minority women may be particularly vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV), there is little research on the IPV experiences of minority undergraduate women. This study addresses this gap by estimating the prevalence of IPV and examining factors associated with experiencing IPV among undergraduate women attending Historically Black Colleges or Universities (HBCUs). Findings suggest alarmingly high victimization rates; however, factors associated with IPV among HBCU women are similar to those found in prior research with women in the general population. The results also suggest that some risk factors are differentially associated with experiencing specific types of IPV. PMID:24048188

  16. Prepregnancy Depressive Mood and Preterm Birth in Black and White Women: Findings from the CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Chae, David H.; Mustillo, Sarah; Kiefe, Catarina I.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objectives We examine associations among race, prepregnancy depressive mood, and preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation) in a cohort study of black and white women. Methods We tested for mediation of the association between race and preterm birth by prepregnancy depressive mood among 555 women enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Results Black women had significantly higher levels of prepregnancy depressive mood (modified CES-D score 13.0 vs. 9.5, t = −4.64, p < 0.001). After adjustment for covariates, black women had 2.70 times the odds of preterm birth as white women (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41, 5.17). When adding prepregnancy depressive mood to this model, higher depressive mood was associated with greater odds of preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] 1.04; 95% CI 1.01, 1.07), and the effect of black race was attenuated (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.28, 4.77). Conclusions Our data suggest that prepregnancy depressive mood may be a risk factor for preterm birth among black and white women. PMID:19445645

  17. Weight Loss and Black Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Porter, Jerlym S.; Martin, Iman K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. However, the behavioral weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender. Purpose The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all behavioral weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 and 2010 that included and reported results separately for black women. Methods The criteria for inclusion included: 1) participants age ≥18 years; 2) a behavioral weight loss intervention; 3) weight as an outcome variable; 4) inclusion of black women; and 5) weight loss results reported separately by ethnicity and gender. Results The literature search identified 25 studies that met inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest more intensive randomized behavioral weight loss trials with medically at-risk populations yield better results. Conclusions Well-designed and more intensive multi-site trials with medically at-risk populations currently offer the most promising results for black women. Still, black women lose less weight than other subgroups in behavioral weight loss interventions. It is now critical to expand on individual-level approaches and incorporate the biological, social, and environmental factors that influence obesity. This will help enable the adoption of healthier behaviors for this group of women disproportionately affected by obesity. PMID:22074195

  18. Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging?

    PubMed Central

    Hicken, Margaret T.; Pearson, Jay A.; Seashols, Sarah J.; Brown, Kelly L.; Cruz, Tracey Dawson

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature, we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that may be shortened by stressors. Analyzing data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), we estimate that at ages 49–55, black women are 7.5 years biologically “older” than white women. Indicators of perceived stress and poverty account for 27% of this difference. Data limitations preclude assessing objective stressors and also result in imprecise estimates, limiting our ability to draw firm inferences. Further investigation of black-white differences in telomere length using large-population-based samples of broad age range and with detailed measures of environmental stressors is merited. PMID:20436780

  19. White Women Speak, Black Women Write: The Politics of Locution and Location in the Other Researching the Not Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Venitha

    2011-01-01

    This paper scrutinizes a rare methodological moment when I found myself, an unseasoned black woman scholar, researching the lives of three white women. In this reflective process, I make a single point: that the locution of race is limiting if it persists in being a point of struggle for marginalized scholars. In so doing, I distinguish between…

  20. Family planning: Muslim style.

    PubMed

    Virina, I

    1979-01-01

    Early birth control methods practiced by Muslims included a version of rhythm called takwim. Instead of using a thermometer to determine the safe period, the woman pressed her navel hard. If she felt magnetic sensations she was not in the safe period. Withdrawal, called piil, was also used. Old folks prepared juices extracted from roots like safran, pitawali, and when drunk they contracted the uterus and prevented pregnancy. New methods and programs have not gained popularity because of traditional medicines. Some early methods are still used today. To some Muslims sex is sacred and should not be talked about in polite conversation. If a Muslim discusses sex in front of others he has no delicadeza. Muslims must voluntarily accept family planning. If they are forced they reject the idea entirely. Extensive radio drama series have been broadcast since the establishment of the Provincial Population Office in Jolo in 1977. Muslims still believe in having many children as security in cases of tribal or interfamily feuds. Family planning workers in Stanvac, Zamboanga use the economic approach for motivating people. The financial burden of raising a big family is emphasized. PMID:12261886

  1. Jump at the Sun: Perspectives of Black Women Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Virginia Community Coll., Annandale.

    Four community college administrators, including a president, provost, director of learning resources, and dean of student services, offer their perspectives on what it means to be a black woman administrator in higher education today. First, "Jump at the Sun," by Bernadine Coleman Thomas, contends that a black woman administrator can be…

  2. Aspirations of Rural Black Women and Their Orientations Toward Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuvlesky, William P.; And Others

    Ambitions for social mobility among rural southern Blacks and their influence on out-migration trends were explored in this analysis. Data utilized were collected as part of a more comprehensive study of living patterns among disadvantaged families. In the summer of 1970, samples of Black, female adults were drawn from 2 rural villages and a town…

  3. The Church: Black Catholic Women Religious in Antebellum Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNally, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the formation of the Oblate Sisters of Providence and the Congregation of the Holy Family, two orders of Black nuns founded in the American South prior to the Civil War for the purposes of educating Black children and caring for orphans and elderly, abandoned slaves. (GC)

  4. Construction and initial validation of the Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale for Black women.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jioni A; Neville, Helen A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of gendered racial microaggressions (i.e., subtle and everyday verbal, behavioral, and environmental expressions of oppression based on the intersection of one's race and gender) experienced by Black women by applying an intersectionality framework to Essed's (1991) theory of gendered racism and Sue, Capodilupo, et al.'s (2007) model of racial microaggressions. The Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale (GRMS), was developed to assess both frequency and stress appraisal of microaggressions, in 2 separate studies. After the initial pool of GRMS items was developed, we received input from a community-based focus group of Black women and an expert panel. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis using a sample of 259 Black women resulted in a multidimensional scale with 4 factors as follows: (a) Assumptions of Beauty and Sexual Objectification, (b) Silenced and Marginalized, (c) Strong Black Woman Stereotype, and (d) Angry Black Woman Stereotype. In Study 2, results of confirmatory factor analyses using an independent sample of 210 Black women suggested that the 4-factor model was a good fit of the data for both the frequency and stress appraisal scales. Supporting construct validity, the GRMS was positively related to the Racial and Ethnic Microaggressions Scale (Nadal, 2011) and the Schedule of Sexist Events (Klonoff & Landrine, 1995). In addition, the GRMS was significantly related to psychological distress, such that greater perceived gendered racial microaggressions were related to greater levels of reported psychological distress. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:25867696

  5. Knowledge and acceptability of the HPV vaccine among ethnically diverse black women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rula; Brown, Diane R; Boothe, Makini A S; Harris, Caroline E S

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine HPV vaccine knowledge and acceptability among ethnically diverse Black women. Forty-four women were interviewed in 6 focus groups (2 African American, 2 English-speaking Caribbean, 1 Haitian, and 1 African). Thematic content analysis was used to generate common concepts and themes and to compare findings across groups. There was varied but limited knowledge and confusion across ethnic groups about the HPV infection and vaccine. African and Haitian women had the least knowledge. Overall, women were generally receptive toward the HPV vaccine for girls but unclear about the need to vaccinate boys. Concerns about the HPV vaccine were mainly related to side effects/safety and vaccinating children at a young age. Healthcare provider's recommendation of the vaccination was important for decision making. Educational interventions with Black women about HPV vaccination should recognize cultural beliefs that vary by ethnic group. PMID:23197180

  6. Combating Anti-Muslim Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    America's 2.5 million Muslims make up less than 1% of the U.S. population, according to the Pew Research Center. Many Muslim students face discrimination and some cases have warranted investigation by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights. Muslim groups have reported widespread bias as well. For many Muslim…

  7. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  8. Physical activity in young black and white women. The CARDIA Study.

    PubMed

    Bild, D E; Jacobs, D R; Sidney, S; Haskell, W L; Anderssen, N; Oberman, A

    1993-11-01

    Total physical activity scores, based on level of participation in 13 types of activities for 2658 black and white women aged 18 to 30 years were examined in relation to demographic, health behavior, psychosocial, and obesity data to compare levels of physical activity and determine reasons for disparities between blacks and whites. Black women had lower scores than white women--geometric mean of 178 (95% confidence interval (CI): 167, 189) versus 318 (95% CI: 305, 332). After controlling for age and education, physical activity was associated with physical activity level before high school, life events score, John Henryism, and competitiveness in both groups. In white women only, it was associated with alcohol intake and need to excel, and negatively associated with number of children, number of cigarettes smoked, and fatness. Race remained a predictor of physical activity after controlling for each variable. Relationships between physical activity and age, education, cigarette smoking, and life events differed significantly by race. Black women had lower physical activity levels than white women, which may contribute to higher rates of obesity and coronary heart disease. Racial differences in physical activity remain largely unexplained by the factors examined. PMID:7921312

  9. Black women queering the mic: Missy Elliott disturbing the boundaries of racialized sexuality and gender.

    PubMed

    Lane, Nikki

    2011-01-01

    Though there were and always have been djs, dancers, graffiti artists, and rappers who were Black women, they are placed on the periphery of hip-hop culture; their voices, along with "gay rappers" and "white rappers" devalued and their contribution to the global rise of hip-hop either forgotten or eschewed. This article is an attempt to articulate the existence of Black women who work outside of the paradigms of the "silence, secrecy, and a partially self-chosen invisibility" that Evelynn Hammonds describes. At the center of this article lies an attempt to locate a new configuration and expression of desire and sexuality, opening a door, wide open, to gain a different view of Black women, their sexuality, their expression of it, and the complexities that arise when they attempt to express it in hip hop nation language. PMID:21740210

  10. Dimensions of Oppression in the Lives of Impoverished Black Women Who Use Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Benoit, Ellen; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-01-01

    Oppression against Black women continues to be a significant problem in the United States. The purpose of this study is to use grounded theory to identify multiple dimensions of oppression experienced by impoverished Black women who use drugs by examining several settings in which participants experience oppression. Three case studies of drug using, impoverished Black women were randomly selected from two large scale consecutive ethnographic studies conducted in New York City from 1998 to 2005. Analysis revealed five dimensions of oppression occurring within eight distinct settings. While dimensions constitute different manifestations of oppression, settings represented areas within participants’ lives or institutions with which participants interact. Dimensions of oppression included classism, sexism, familism, racism, and drugism. Settings included the school system, correction system, welfare system, housing and neighborhood, relationship with men, family, experiences with drug use, and employment. Findings have important implications for social justice, welfare, drug, and justice system policy. PMID:21113410

  11. Dimensions of oppression in the lives of impoverished black women who use drugs.

    PubMed

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Benoit, Ellen; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-01-01

    Oppression against Black women continues to be a significant problem in the United States. The purpose of this study is to use grounded theory to identify multiple dimensions of oppression experienced by impoverished Black women who use drugs by examining several settings in which participants experience oppression. Three case studies of drug using, impoverished Black women were randomly selected from two large scale consecutive ethnographic studies conducted in New York City from 1998 to 2005. Analysis revealed five dimensions of oppression occurring within eight distinct settings. While dimensions constitute different manifestations of oppression, settings represented areas within participants' lives or institutions with which participants interact. Dimensions of oppression included classism, sexism, familism, racism, and drugism. Settings included the school system, correction system, welfare system, housing and neighborhood, relationship with men, family, experiences with drug use, and employment. Findings have important implications for social justice, welfare, drug, and justice system policy. PMID:21113410

  12. Intimate Partner Violence, Depression, PTSD and Use of Mental Health Resources among Ethnically Diverse Black Women

    PubMed Central

    SABRI, BUSHRA; BOLYARD, RICHELLE; MCFADGION, AKOSOA L.; STOCKMAN, JAMILA K.; LUCEA, MARGUERITE B.; CALLWOOD, GLORIA B.; COVERSTON, CATHERINE R.; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined exposure to violence and risk for lethality in intimate partner relationships as factors related to co-occurring MH problems and use of mental health (MH) resources among women of African descent. Methods Black women with intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences (n=431) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in the US and the US Virgin Islands. Results Severity of IPV was significantly associated with co-occurring MH problems, but was not associated with the use of MH resources among African American women. Risk for lethality and co-occurring problems were also not significantly related to the use of resources. African Caribbean women with severe physical abuse experiences were significantly less likely to use resources. In contrast, severity of physical abuse was positively associated with the use of resources among Black women with mixed ethnicity. Conclusions Severe IPV experiences are risk factors for co-occurring MH problems, which in turn, increases the need for MH services. However, Black women may not seek help for MH problems. Thus, social work practitioners in health care settings must thoroughly assess women for their IPV experiences and develop tailored treatment plans that address their abuse histories and MH needs. PMID:23581838

  13. Development of a Brochure for Increasing Awareness of Inherited Breast Cancer in Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Gjyshi, Anxhela; Pal, Tuya

    2011-01-01

    Low levels of awareness about hereditary breast cancer and ovarian cancer and underutilization of genetic services combined with the high incidence of early onset breast cancer in the black community underscore the urgent need to provide information about hereditary breast and ovarian cancer to black women. The primary goal of the present study was to develop a culturally targeted brochure designed to increase awareness about inherited breast cancer among black women using the principles of Learner Verification. Three focus groups were conducted with black women, including those with or without a history of breast cancer (n = 46), to evaluate the brochure. Data were analyzed through hand coding using a simple classification system placing participants' responses in the predetermined Learner Verification categories. On the basis of the feedback obtained, the brochure has been modified to improve cultural-targeting, relevance, and clarity and has been made available for dissemination. Our study illustrates the importance of obtaining feedback from the target audience when developing a culturally targeted informational brochure for black women. Further, the complexity of our subject matter (i.e., inherited breast and ovarian cancer) underscores the importance of using inviting visuals and personal vignettes, while maintaining a simple and clear message. PMID:21275654

  14. The Association between Trust in Health Care Providers and Medication Adherence among Black Women with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Willie M.; Efird, Jimmy T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Black women have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world. Reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. The historical legacy of medical maltreatment of Blacks in the U.S. provides some insight into distrust in the medical profession, refusal of treatment, and poor adherence to treatment regimens. Methods: Black women (N = 80) who were prescribed antihypertensive medications were recruited from urban communities in North Carolina. Study participants completed the Trust in Physician and Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy questionnaires. An exact discrete-event model was used to examine the relationship between trust and medication adherence. Results: Mean age of study participants was 48 ± 9.2 years. The majority of participants (67%) were actively employed and 30% had incomes at or below the federal poverty level. Increasing levels of trust in the health care provider was independently associated with greater medication adherence (PTrend = 0.015). Conclusion: Black women with hypertension who trusted their health care providers were more likely to be adherent with their prescribed antihypertensive medications than those who did not trust their health care providers. Findings suggest that trusting relationships between Black women and health care providers are important to decreasing disparate rates of hypertension. PMID:24350234

  15. Muslim Children's Other School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Leslie C.

    2012-01-01

    Millions of Muslim children around the world participate in Qur'anic schooling. For some, this is their only formal schooling experience; others attend both Qur'anic school and secular school. Qur'anic schooling emphasizes memorization and reproduction (recitation, reading, and transcription) of Qur'anic texts without comprehension of their…

  16. Weight Loss Attitudes and Social Forces in Urban Poor Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Keith, NiCole R.; Hemmerlein, Kimberly A.; Clark, Daniel O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore differences between Blacks and Whites in perceived influences on weight-related behaviors among obese urban poor women. Methods Participants (N = 27) received physician referrals to a weight loss program located in Federally Qualified Health Centers and either never attended or stopped attending. We conducted in-depth, in home interviews using a script informed by focus groups, pilot discussions, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to learn about participants’ weight loss attitudes, social forces and perceived behavioral control. Results White women reported having more social support and social pressure for weight management activities. Black women reported eating for positive reasons whereas white women associated eating with negative emotions. Conclusion Social networks and emotions may be critical factors in weight management and lifestyle program participation. PMID:25290595

  17. Dietary Behaviors and Portion Sizes of Black Women Who Enrolled in "SisterTalk" and Variation by Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Kim M.; Risica, Patricia Markham; Kirtania, Usree; Jennings, Alishia; Strolla, Leslie O.; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Hardy, Norma; Lasater, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the dietary behaviors of black women who enrolled in the SisterTalk weight control study. Design: Baseline data collected via telephone survey and in-person screening. Setting: Boston, Massachusetts and surrounding areas. Participants: 461 black women completed the baseline assessments. Main Outcome Measures: Measured height…

  18. The Use of Lifestyle and Behavioral Modification Approaches in Obesity Interventions for Black Women: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Renee E.; Gordon, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The alarming obesity prevalence in Black women is well documented yet poorly understood. Obesity interventions for Black women have failed to produce long-term reductions in weight. Recommendations to incorporate a lifestyle and behavioral modification approach have been made to address obesity in this population. The purpose of this article was…

  19. Hip-Hop Feminism: A Standpoint to Enhance the Positive Self-Identity of Black College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of hip-hop among young Black college women, coupled with the deluge of negative and positive messages in this culture regarding these women's identity, signals an opportunity for the arrival of a contemporary, culturally relevant epistemology--hip-hop feminism. Through the lens of Black feminist theory, this article explores hip-hop…

  20. We Walk by Faith, Not by Sight: An Inquiry of Spirituality and Career Development of Black Women Leaders in Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown McManus, Kecia Chivonne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore, with eleven Black women leaders in higher education, their perception of spirituality and its impact on their career development. A purposive sample of Black women leaders at research-intensive institutions along the Eastern seaboard was examined in order to understand: (1) How do participants define…

  1. Feminism and the Subtext of Whiteness: Black Women's Experiences as a Site of Identity Formation and Contestation of Whiteness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancy, George

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes how the structure of whiteness has shaped the feminist movement, marginalizing the voices of black women. Shows how racism forms the core ideology of feminism, suggesting that the hegemonic racial epistemological standpoint of feminism is limited. Argues that black women's standpoint must be understood within the framework of their unique…

  2. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Katemari Diogo da

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.

  3. Beyond the Veil: Learning to Teach Fine Arts in a Muslim Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin-Wakefield, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences and challenges in teaching university-level studio art classes for Muslim women in Kuwait. In Kuwait, popular interpretations of the "Quran" (the Koran), the Muslim holy book, prohibit the use of nude models. The author describes how she had to find alternatives to Western tried and true teaching…

  4. Transcendence over Diversity: Black Women in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, Heidi Safia

    2006-01-01

    Universities, like many major public institutions, have embraced the notion of "diversity" virtually uncritically--it is seen as a moral good in itself. But what happens to those who come to represent "diversity"--the black and minority ethnic groups targeted to increase the institutions' thirst for global markets and aversion to accusations of…

  5. Women and Black Students in College Automotive Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Jack; Collard, Rod

    1999-01-01

    In a survey of 17 female and black students majoring in automotive technology, 51% said high school teachers and family influenced them to choose automotive technology as a career; 66.6% identified involvement with other students and faculty encouragement as factors contributing to their success. (Author/JOW)

  6. Fire and Ice: The Wisdom of Black Women in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Joanne Kilgour

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a qualitative research project about a group of Black women scholars who discuss their experiences as academics in a predominantly White setting. The scholars represent fields including anthropology, education, Pan African studies, art education, and language studies. The themes found across the interviews…

  7. Candid Reflections on the Departure of Black Women Faculty from Academe in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Crystal Renee

    2012-01-01

    Critical content analysis is used to identify content within blogs, exposing views within academe that reinforce and normalize racist, sexist, and interactively racist and sexist perspectives. The two themes explored here are unfairness and subjectivities within personnel processes and the qualifications of Black women faculty, as raised through a…

  8. "Can't You Lighten Up a Bit?" Black Women Administrators in the Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Brennetta

    This narrative describes a study that examined the stories of black women administrators in traditionally white colleges, identifying coping strategies, patterns, and themes relating to their success. Participants completed interviews that examined such issues as the role of family in preparation for their current leadership positions, current job…

  9. The Spirit Bears Witness: Reflections of Two Black Women's Journey in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Generett, Gretchen Givens; Cozart, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    This article describes our evolution as two Black American women academics who, after years of dealing with our community's marginalization and our own marginalization in the academy, began to employ research as a way of surviving. To share the significance of this experience, we first reflect on our understandings of our positionality within the…

  10. Care-Sickness: Black Women Educators, Care Theory, and a Hermeneutic of Suspicion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseboro, Donyell L.; Ross, Sabrina N.

    2009-01-01

    This article builds upon earlier work exploring the implications of care theory for Black women educators by exploring the issue of colorblindness more broadly, as it relates to libratory education. Using the work of Freire (1970, 1998a, 1998b) and Noddings (1992a, 1995, 2001, 2005b), the authors revisit the relationship between libratory…

  11. Market Movements and the Dispossessed: Race, Identity, and Subaltern Agency among Black Women Voucher Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedroni, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    Critical educational researchers in the United States and elsewhere are missing something essential in their inattention to considerable support among Black urban women for market-based educational reforms, including vouchers. While the educational left has engaged in important empirical and theoretical work demonstrating the particularly negative…

  12. Experiences of Black Women Who Persist to Graduation at Predominantly White Schools of Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Francine Simms

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the experiences of Black women who attended predominantly White nursing schools. A phenomenological design was used to investigate eight nurses who persisted through to graduation from their nursing programs in the 21st century. The study examined persistence through the lens of academic involvement, alienation,…

  13. Who's that Girl: Television's Role in the Body Image Development of Young White and Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Deborah; Ward, L. Monique; Merriwether, Ann; Caruthers, Allison

    2004-01-01

    Although findings indicate a connection between frequent media use and greater body dissatisfaction, little attention has focused on the role of race. Accordingly, this study investigates the relation between television viewing and body image among 87 Black and 584 White women. Participants reported monthly viewing amounts of mainstream and…

  14. Women in black: challenging Israel's gender and socio-political orders.

    PubMed

    Helman, S; Rapoport, T

    1997-12-01

    The Israeli protest movement 'Women in Black' is studied by focusing on the movement's mode of protest, which is used as a prism through which to analyse the manner in which the structure, contents and goals of protest challenge the socio-political and gender orders. The article analyses the protest vigil of 'Women in Black' in Jerusalem, and characterizes it, following Handelman (1990), as a minimalist public event. After examining and analysing the sources of minimalism it was concluded that minimalism was the result of two social processes attendant at the formation of 'Women in Black' as a social movement: personal interpretation of the political field, and avoidance of ideological deliberation amongst the participants. The minimalism of the public event preserved the movement for six years and created a collective identity that emphasized the symbolic difference between those within the demonstration and those outside it. This difference was symbolized by a juxtaposition of opposites. The essence of opposites is analysed by means of 'thick description', i.e., by deciphering them in the context of Israeli society. The study concluded that the mode of protest of 'Women in Black' has created a symbolic space in which a new type of political woman is enacted. This identity challenges established socio-cultural categories Israel. PMID:9421959

  15. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  16. Black Women's Sex Roles: The Social Context for a New Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malson, Michelene Ridley

    1983-01-01

    Reports on interviews with 54 Black women in single and two-parent families concerning family life and paid work. Reviews findings in five areas: work problems and current occupations; early sex role attitudes; role models; present sex role attitudes and preferences; and strategies for functioning in multiple roles. (Author/ML)

  17. Disclosure of Sexual Assault Experiences among Undergraduate Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher P.; Settles-Reaves, Beverlyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To document the sexual assault disclosure experiences of historically black college or university (HBCU) students. Participants: A total of 3,951 female, undergraduate students at 4 HBCUs. Methods: All women at the participating schools were recruited in November 2008 to participate in a Web-based survey including both closed- and…

  18. Mental health effects of intimate terrorism and situational couple violence among Black and Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Bubriski-McKenzie, Anne; Jasinski, Jana L

    2013-12-01

    An important aspect of Johnson's intimate terrorism (IT) and situational couple violence (SCV) typology is his assertion that victims experience different negative outcomes depending on which category of violence they endure. Anderson calls for reexamining this typology to highlight the importance of coercive control with or without physical violence present. Similar to most studies, Anderson's research uses a sample that includes mostly White women. The current study employs Anderson's methods and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses, but uses a sample of predominantly Black women and Latinas from the 1998 Chicago Women's Health Risk Study. PMID:24493663

  19. Partnerships between Black Women and Behaviorally Bisexual Men: Implications for HIV Risk and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Harawa, Nina T.; Obregon, Nora B.; McCuller, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Although an estimated 87% of new HIV infections in Black/African American women are attributed to sex with men, many women are unaware of their male partners’ HIV risk factors. Research on women who are aware of a high-risk male partner may inform HIV prevention. We analyzed transcripts from semi-structured interviews with 20 Black women who reported sex with at least one man who had sex with men and women (MSMW) in the prior 5 years. We applied Choice and Sexual Network theories to the interpretation. The majority described their partnerships as committed and involving emotional or instrumental support. Substance abuse was a common component of the relationships and very few involved consistent condom use. Although nearly all respondents described it as alarming to learn of their partners’ involvement with other men and several ended the relationships, many continued the relationships without protective changes in their sex behavior. These narratives indicate that although many leave, many other women remain in relationships after learning of a male partners’ high-risk activity. Substance abuse, financial instability, and a desire to remain in intimate partnerships may discourage preventive actions in these women. PMID:25422580

  20. Biology and Gender: False Theories about Women and Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    Asserts that it is irrational that the ideas of genetics should be used by some scientists to support the ideologies of racism and sexism. Whether the boundaries of women's "place in society" were erected with the "bricks of theology or the cement of genetic determinism," the intention is that the barriers shall remain strong. (Author/JM)

  1. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  2. Adverse Trends in Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality among Young New Yorkers, Particularly Young Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R.; Maduro, Gil A.; Lobach, Iryna V.; Chen, Yu; Reynolds, Harmony R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality has been on the decline in the United States for decades. However, declines in IHD mortality have been slower in certain groups, including young women and black individuals. Hypothesis Trends in IHD vary by age, sex, and race in New York City (NYC). Young female minorities are a vulnerable group that may warrant renewed efforts to reduce IHD. Methods IHD mortality trends were assessed in NYC 1980–2008. NYC Vital Statistics data were obtained for analysis. Age-specific IHD mortality rates and confidence bounds were estimated. Trends in IHD mortality were compared by age and race/ethnicity using linear regression of log-transformed mortality rates. Rates and trends in IHD mortality rates were compared between subgroups defined by age, sex and race/ethnicity. Results The decline in IHD mortality rates slowed in 1999 among individuals aged 35–54 years but not ≥55. IHD mortality rates were higher among young men than women age 35–54, but annual declines in IHD mortality were slower for women. Black women age 35–54 had higher IHD mortality rates and slower declines in IHD mortality than women of other race/ethnicity groups. IHD mortality trends were similar in black and white men age 35–54. Conclusions The decline in IHD mortality rates has slowed in recent years among younger, but not older, individuals in NYC. There was an association between sex and race/ethnicity on IHD mortality rates and trends. Young black women may benefit from targeted medical and public health interventions to reduce IHD mortality. PMID:26882207

  3. The sexual assault of undergraduate women at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs).

    PubMed

    Krebs, Christopher P; Barrick, Kelle; Lindquist, Christine H; Crosby, Carmen M; Boyd, Chimi; Bogan, Yolanda

    2011-12-01

    Although research has shown that undergraduate women are at high risk for experiencing sexual assault, little research has been conducted with undergraduate women who are attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU). The purpose of this research is to document the prevalence of different types of sexual assault among undergraduate women at HBCUs and make comparisons to data collected from undergraduate women at non-HBCUs. Data on sexual assault victimization were collected from 3,951 undergraduate women at HBCUs using a cross-sectional, web-based survey. These data are compared to data collected from 5,446 undergraduate women at non-HBCUs using the same research methods. Findings indicate that approximately 9.7% of undergraduate women at HBCUs report experiencing a completed sexual assault since entering college. This rate is considerably lower than the comparable rate obtained from undergraduate women at non-HBCUs (13.7%). This difference seems to be associated with differences in alcohol-use frequency. Perhaps undergraduate women at HBCUs drink alcohol much less frequently and are thus less likely to be sexually assaulted when they are incapacitated and unable to provide consent. Alcohol use frequency, while controlling for other factors, seems to have an independent association with the likelihood of an undergraduate woman being sexually assaulted. Implications for the creation and delivery of sexual assault risk reduction and prevention policies and programs are discussed. PMID:21602199

  4. Metabolic syndrome risk in black South African women compared to Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; Olckers, A

    2007-09-01

    Rapid urbanisation has led African women to have an obesity prevalence double than that of Caucasian women, and this also holds true for the stroke prevalence in Africans. The study aimed to compare various metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) of body mass index and age-matched African (n=102) and Caucasian women (n=115). More Caucasian (30.4%) than African women (24.8%) had MS. Only 48% of African women had waist circumferences (WC) higher than the IDF cutoff, compared to 62.6% of Caucasians. Caucasian women were significantly taller and heavier and had higher triglycerides, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, and cortisol. African women had significantly higher blood pressure, leptin, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, and higher odds ratios for having the MS for HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose than Caucasians. It is concluded that the IDF WC criterion needs a downward adjustment for African women due to a smaller body size. Lean African women seem to be at higher risk for MS than Caucasians. South Africa needs to stem the increasing rates of type 2 diabetes by decreasing obesity and by education (unschooled African women showed a 4.8 times higher likelihood of having MS than schooled women). PMID:17846972

  5. Results of a faith-based weight loss intervention for black women.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Ganschow, Pamela; Schiffer, Linda; Wells, Anita; Simon, Nolanna; Dyer, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for a variety of chronic diseases. Although weight loss may reduce these risks, weight loss programs designed for black women have yielded mixed results. Studies suggest that religion/spirituality is a prominent component of black culture. Given this, the inclusion of religion/spirituality as an active component of a weight loss program may enhance the benefits of the program. The role of religion/spirituality, however, has not been specifically tested as a mechanism that enhances the weight loss process. This paper presents the results of "Faith on the Move," a randomized pilot study of a faith-based weight loss program for black women. The goals of the study were to estimate the effects of a 12-week culturally tailored, faith-based weight loss intervention on weight loss, dietary fat consumption and physical activity. The culturally tailored, faith-based weight loss intervention was compared to a culturally tailored weight loss intervention with no active faith component. Fifty-nine overweight/obese black women were randomized to one of the two interventions. Although the results were not statistically significant, the effect size suggests that the addition of the faith component improved results. These promising preliminary results will need to be tested in an adequately powered trial. PMID:16355489

  6. Racism, Segregation, and Risk of Obesity in the Black Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Cozier, Yvette C.; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F.; Bethea, Traci N.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of “everyday” racism (e.g., “people act as if you are dishonest”) and of “lifetime” racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend < 0.01) and 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.66; Ptrend < 0.01), respectively. These associations were not modified by residential segregation. These results suggest that racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women. PMID:24585257

  7. Racism, segregation, and risk of obesity in the Black Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Cozier, Yvette C; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F; Bethea, Traci N; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of "everyday" racism (e.g., "people act as if you are dishonest") and of "lifetime" racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend < 0.01) and 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.66; Ptrend < 0.01), respectively. These associations were not modified by residential segregation. These results suggest that racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women. PMID:24585257

  8. A Repository of Hope for Social Justice: Black Women Leaders at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane; Normore, Anthony H.

    2006-01-01

    The 1954 ruling of "Brown v. Board of Education" by the U.S. Supreme Court impacted the social lives of African Americans. The primary purpose of this research was to examine the experiences and struggles for social justice in education and educational institutions as viewed from the context of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCU)…

  9. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona; Tharao, Wangari; Logie, Carmen; Aden, Muna A; Chambers, Lori A; Wu, Wei; Abdelmaseh, Marym; Calzavara, Liviana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora). However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma experienced by this population. Methods The Cochrane methodology was used to develop a search strategy in consultation with a librarian scientist. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, Ovid EMBASE, PsycInfo, and 10 others. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for potential relevance and conducted the Cochrane grading of RCTs to assess risk of bias and the Newcastle–Ottawa scale to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Eligible papers were selected if they employed an intervention design with African/Black diasporic women living with HIV as the target population and had a primary outcome of stigma reduction. Results Of the five studies that met all of the eligibility criteria, four demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions in reducing HIV-related stigma. Only two of the five studies were designed specifically for HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. Limitations included the absence of interventions addressing other forms of stigma and discrimination (e.g. gender discrimination, racism, heterosexism). Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are limited interventions designed to address multiple forms of stigma, including gender and racial discrimination, experienced by HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. PMID:25862565

  10. Development of Decision Support Intervention for Black Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Karen Patricia; Harrison, Toni Michelle; Jennings, Yvonne; Lucas, Wanda; Stephen, Juleen; Robinson, Dana; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; Taylor, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant therapy improves breast cancer survival but is underutilized by Black women. Few interventions have addressed this problem. This preliminary report describes the process we used to develop a decision support intervention for Black women eligible for adjuvant therapy. Aims were to use qualitative methods to describe factors that influence Black women’s adjuvant therapy decisions, use these formative data to develop messages for a treatment decision-support intervention, and pilot test the acceptability and utility of the intervention with community members and newly diagnosed women. Thirty-four in-depth interviews were conducted with breast cancer patients in active treatment, survivors and cancer providers to gather qualitative data. Participant ages ranged from 38 to 69 years. A cultural framework was used to analyze the data and to inform intervention messages. Most women relied on their providers for treatment recommendations. Several women reported problems communicating with providers and felt unprepared to ask questions and discuss adjuvant treatment options. Other factors related to treatment experiences were: spiritual coping, collectivism, and sharing breast cancer experiences with other Black survivors. Using these formative data, we developed an intervention that is survivor-based and includes an in-person session which incorporates sharing personal stories, communication skills training and decision support. Intervention materials were reviewed by community members, researchers/clinicians and patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Patients reported satisfaction with the intervention and felt better prepared to talk with providers. The intervention will be tested in a randomized trial to enhance decision support and increase use of indicated adjuvant treatment. PMID:19267384

  11. The Association of Endothelin-1 with Markers of Arterial Stiffness in Black South African Women: The SABPA Study

    PubMed Central

    Huisman, Hugo Willem; Kruger, Ruan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Limited data exist regarding endothelin-1 (ET-1), a vasoactive contributor in vascular tone, in a population subjected to early vascular deterioration. We compared ET-1 levels and explored its association with markers of arterial stiffness in black and white South Africans. Methodology. This cross-sectional substudy included 195 black (men: n = 99; women: n = 95) and 197 white (men: n = 99; women: n = 98) South Africans. Serum ET-1 levels were measured as well as markers of arterial stiffness (blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and arterial compliance). ET-1 levels were higher in black men and white women compared to their counterparts after adjusting for C-reactive protein. In both single and partial (adjusting for body mass index and gamma glutamyl transferase) regression analyses ET-1 correlated with age, interleukin-6, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave velocity in black women. In multivariate regression analyses the independent association of ET-1 with systolic blood pressure (Adj. R2 = 0.13; β = 0.28, p < 0.01) and pulse pressure (Adj. R2 = 0.11; β = 0.27, p < 0.01) was confirmed in black women only. ET-1 additionally associated with interleukin-6 in black women (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Our result suggests that ET-1 and its link with subclinical arteriosclerosis are potentially driven by low-grade inflammation as depicted by the association with interleukin-6 in the black female cohort. PMID:26823980

  12. Combating Anti-Muslim Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    America's 2.5 million Muslims make up less than 1 percent of the U.S. population, according to the Pew Research Center. Anecdotally, educators know that many Muslim students face discrimination. Unfortunately, no group or government agency keeps statistics on the subject. But some cases have warranted investigation by the U.S. Department of…

  13. Muslim American Identities and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Ilhan

    2007-01-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first part provides an overview of Muslim Americans and the role of Islam in their lives. The second part of the article includes a classroom exercise about how to teach Islam and Muslim Americans. The main vehicle for this exercise is a PBS documentary titled "Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet." The exercise…

  14. Depressed mood and self-esteem in young Asian, black, and white women in America.

    PubMed

    Woods, N F; Lentz, M; Mitchell, E; Oakley, L D

    1994-01-01

    During the last two decades, investigators have explored the relationship between women's life conditions and their mental health. Some have related women's socially disadvantaged status, or their socialization to a traditional feminine role, to depression and low self-esteem. Others have emphasized the consequences of women's roles, or the balance of social demands and resources, on their well-being. More recently, feminist scholars have proposed a developmental account of depression. We tested a model comparing the effects of personal resources, social demands and resources, socialization, and women's roles, on self-esteem and depressed mood in young adult Asian, Black, and White women in America. Women who resided in middle-income and racially mixed neighborhoods were interviewed in their homes. Personal resources were indicated by education and income and social resources by unconflicted network size as measured by Barrera's (1981) Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule. Social demands were assessed by conflicted network size as measured by the Barrera scale and by the Positive Life Events and Negative Life Events scales from Norbeck's (1984) revision of the Sarason Life Events Scale. Women's roles included employment, parenting, and partnership with an adult (e.g., marriage). Self-esteem was assessed with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and depressed mood with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (Radloff, 1977). Although models for Asian, Black, and White women differed, social network and social demands as well as personal resources were common to each group as predictors of self-esteem and depression. PMID:8002420

  15. Should obesity be blamed for the high prevalence rates of hypertension in black South African women?

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; Huisman, H W; Van Rooyen, J M; Schutte, R; Malan, L; Reimann, M; De Ridder, J H; van der Merwe, A; Schwarz, P E H; Malan, N T

    2008-08-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in South Africa, resulting in high stroke mortality rates. Since obesity is very common among South African women, it is likely that obesity contributes to the hypertension prevalence. The aims were to determine whether black African women have higher blood pressures (BPs) than Caucasian women, and whether obesity is related to their cardiovascular risk. African (N=102) and Caucasian (N=115) women, matched for age and body mass index, were included. Correlations between obesity (total body fat, abdominal obesity and peripheral fat) and cardiovascular risk markers (haemodynamic parameters, lipids, inflammatory markers, prothrombotic factors, adipokines, HOMA-IR (homoeostasis model assessment insulin resistance)) were compared between the ethnic groups (adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol and physical activity). Comparisons between low- and high-BP groups were also made for each ethnic group. Results showed that African women had higher BP (P<0.01) with increased peripheral vascular resistance. Surprisingly, African women showed significantly weaker correlations between obesity measures and cardiovascular risk markers when compared to Caucasian women (specifically systolic BP, arterial resistance, cardiac output, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin and resistin). Interestingly, the latter risk markers were also not significantly different between low- and high-BP African groups. African women, however, presented significant correlations of obesity with triglycerides, C-reactive protein and HOMA that were comparable to the Caucasian women. Although urban African women have higher BP than Caucasians, their obesity levels are weakly related to traditional cardiovascular risk factors compared to Caucasian women. The results, however, suggest a link with the development of insulin resistance. PMID:18432254

  16. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  17. Student Teaching at Ground Zero: One Muslim Woman's Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atiyat, Zareen Niazi

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author, who is a Muslim English teacher shares her teaching experiences after the events of September 11, 2001 and shares her views on Islam. She points out that her appearance and clothing do not represent oppression and restriction but the liberation of her body from the unwanted gazes of those who reduce women from people…

  18. Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2013-01-01

    Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women’s birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black pregnant women, with US-born women having 4.1 and 7.8 times the odds, respectively, of childhood exposure. In multivariate analyses, US-born women’s personal and group racism exposure also was more pervasive across the eight life domains we queried. Examined by immigrant subgroups, US-born women were more similar in their self-reports of racism to foreign-born women who moved to the US before age 18 than to women who immigrated after age 18. Moreover, US-born women more closely resembled foreign-born women from the Caribbean than those from Africa. Differential exposure to self-reported racism over the life course may be a critically important factor that distinguishes US-born Black women from their foreign-born counterparts. PMID:19386406

  19. Pap screening goals and perceptions of pain among black, Latina, and Arab women: steps toward breaking down psychological barriers.

    PubMed

    Gauss, Julie W; Mabiso, Athur; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2013-06-01

    Understanding women's psychological barriers to getting Papanicolaou (Pap) screening has potential to impact cancer disparities. This study examined pain perceptions of Pap testing among black, Latina, and Arab women and goal setting to receive Pap tests. Data on 420 women, in a longitudinal study, were analyzed using Chi-square tests of differences and generalized linear mixed models. At baseline, 30.3 % of black and 35.5 % of Latina women perceived Pap tests to be very painful compared to 24.2 % of Arab women. Perceptions of pain influenced goal settings, such as scheduling a first ever Pap test (odds ratio=0.58, 95 % confidence interval 0.14-0.94). Immediately following the intervention, women's perception that Pap tests are very painful significantly declined (P value <0.001) with Arab and black women registering the greatest improvements (20.3 and 17.3 % reduction, respectively, compared to 8.4 % for Latina). Having the perception that the Pap test is very painful significantly reduces the likelihood of black, Latina, and Arab women setting the goal to schedule their first ever Pap test. Latina women are the least likely to improve their perception that the Pap test is very painful, though national statistics show they have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. These findings are instructive for designing tailored interventions to break down psychological barriers to Pap screening among underserved women. PMID:23288606

  20. Cervical cancer screening among ethnically diverse black women: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices.

    PubMed

    Brown, Diane R; Wilson, Rula M; Boothe, Makini A S; Harris, Caroline E S

    2011-08-01

    This is a descriptive study of cervical cancer screening knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices among ethnically diverse black women. We conducted 6 focus groups with Haitian, African, English-speaking Caribbean, and African American women recruited from a federally qualified health center. Overall, there was limited knowledge and confusion across ethnic groups about cervical cancer and its risk factors, the Pap test, and the human papilloma virus (HPV) and its association with cervical cancer. At the same time, there were distinct differences between ethnic groups in knowledge, practices, and cultural beliefs about cervical cancer. African women knew the least among all the groups, while African American participants had the greatest knowledge of HPV. However, their knowledge was still limited. Patient-doctor relationship was the single most important facilitator for cervical cancer screening. Barriers to cervical cancer screening included cost, busy work schedule, fear of the unknown, lack of insurance or being unemployed, and fear of disclosing immigration status. Interventions with ethnically diverse black women would benefit from recognizing cultural barriers and misconceptions that vary by ethnic group. Culturally based strategies suggested by the focus groups include the use of existing social networks, the use of indigenous community-based health workers, and the inclusion of women of all ages in cervical cancer education because of the roles they have in extended families. PMID:22046849

  1. Factors Associated with Increased Risk for Lethal Violence in Intimate Partner Relationships among Ethnically Diverse Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Bushra; Stockman, Jamila K.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; O’Brien, Sharon; Campbell, Doris; Callwood, Gloria B.; Bertrand, Desiree; Sutton, Lorna W.; Hart-Hyndman, Greta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with increased risk for lethal violence among ethnically diverse Black women in Baltimore, Maryland (MD) and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Women with abuse experiences (n=456) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with the risk for lethal violence among abused women. Factors independently related to increased risk of lethal violence included fear of abusive partners, PTSD symptoms, and use of legal resources. These factors must be considered in assessing safety needs of Black women in abusive relationships. PMID:25429191

  2. Evaluation of a socio-cultural intervention to reduce unprotected sex for HIV among African American/Black women.

    PubMed

    Boekeloo, B; Geiger, T; Wang, M; Ishman, N; Quinton, S; Allen, G; Ali, B; Snow, D

    2015-10-01

    African American/Black (Black) women suffer disproportionately to other women from HIV. An HIV prevention intervention combining two previous evidenced-based intervention programs; "Coping with Work and Family Stress" and "Hip Hop 2 Prevent Substance Abuse and HIV", was evaluated in a diverse sample of Black women (n = 205). Study participants at ten recruitment sites were assigned non-randomly to either the intervention or comparison group and then surveyed at baseline, immediate posttest, and 6-month follow-up. General Estimating Equation modeling revealed that participants in the comparison group reported less unprotected sex at immediate post-test and the intervention group less unprotected sex at 6-month follow-up. Despite the initial drop in reported unprotected sex in the comparison group, this study suggests that an HIV risk reduction intervention tailored to address Black women's socio-cultural stress and enhance their coping may reduce their unprotected sex at 6-months. PMID:25645327

  3. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in black women. Part II.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Jackson, B

    1990-12-01

    An eight-variable model for understanding and predicting alcohol consumption in a sample of 289 African American women is evaluated using a structural equation methodology. We found that life events, physical health problems, and internalized racialism played important roles in accounting for variance in alcohol consumption. Marital status did not have the predicted inverse effect on alcohol consumption. While religious orientation did not have the expected inverse effect on alcohol consumption, it had an unexpected direct effect on internalized racialism, which had a direct effect on alcohol consumption. We found that the effects of socioeconomic status and developmental status on alcohol consumption were mediated through other variables specified in the model. Overall the model, which provided partial to complete support for five of eight hypotheses, provided a statistically adequate fit. PMID:2094681

  4. Reliability of the McSweeney Acute and Prodromal Myocardial Infarction Symptom Survey among Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, Jean C.; Cleves, Mario A.; Fischer, Ellen P.; Rojo, Martha O.; Armbya, Narain; Moser, Debra K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates are higher among women, particularly Black, than men. Women’s mortality rates may reflect difficulty in recognizing CHD prodromal symptoms (PS) but reliable screening instruments for women are scarce. The McSweeney Acute and Prodromal Myocardial Infarction Symptom Survey (MAPMISS) has been shown to capture women’s PS presentation, but has limited testing among Black women. Aim To assess the test-retest reliability of the MAPMISS PS section for Black and White women. Methods The sample was recruited from women enrolled in a longitudinal study examining the predictive validity of the MAPMISS. The MAPMISS was re-administered to 42 women (22 White, 20 Black) 3–5 days after baseline assessment. Results Women endorsed an average of 7.5 PS (SD =4.8; range: 0–20) initially and 7.6 (SD = 4.7; range: 0–20) at re-test. Over half of the women (54.8%) of both races endorsed the same number of PS at test and retest; for 69%, the number endorsed at both testings differed by no more than 1. Percent agreement and Kappa statistics on the number of PS endorsed were excellent overall and by race. PS test and retest scores, reflecting PS intensity and frequency, were highly correlated overall (r=0.92, p<0.001) and separately for White (r=0.93, p<0.001) and Black women (r=0.91, p<0.001). Racial differences were insignificant. Conclusions Findings indicate a) the MAPMISS PS score has excellent test-retest reliability (r=0.92) when administered to women without a history of CHD, and b) test-retest reliability is as strong for Black (r=0.91) as for White women (r=0.93). PMID:23045304

  5. "Outstanding Services to Negro Health": Dr. Dorothy Boulding Ferebee, Dr. Virginia M. Alexander, and Black Women Physicians' Public Health Activism.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Vanessa Northington

    2016-08-01

    An examination of the lives and careers of physician-activists Dorothy Boulding Ferebee (1898-1972) and Virginia M. Alexander (1899-1949) demonstrates how Black physicians in the first half of the 20th century used public health to improve the health of Black Americans and provides insights into the experiences of Black women physicians. I discuss their professional and personal backgrounds and analyze their divergent strategies to address health inequities. Ferebee used her leadership in Black women's organizations to develop public health programs and become a national advocate for Black health. Alexander, a Quaker, used her religious connections to urge Whites to combat racism in medicine. She also conducted public health research and connected it to health activism. Both were passionate advocates of health equity long before it gained prominence as a major public health issue. An analysis of their work illuminates past efforts to improve the health of Black Americans. PMID:27310348

  6. Muslim Pupils' Lives Changed after Sept. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    Since 9/11, the lives of some Muslim students, and those perceived to be Muslim, have changed across the country, shaped in part by the distrust and harassment Muslims have endured from fellow Americans. In the months immediately following the attacks, accounts of harassment of Muslim students mounted in the news media, as did efforts by Muslim…

  7. Fit and Phat: Black College Women and Their Relationship with Physical Activity, Obesity and Campus Recreation Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter-Francique, Akilah R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to recognize factors that contribute to Black female college students adoption of physically active behaviors. In addition, this paper acknowledges the prevalence of obesity in the United States for Black women, and examines the relationship between body mass index, physical activity and use of campus recreation…

  8. Hope and Despair: Southern Black Women Educators across Pre- and Post-Civil Rights Cohorts Theorize about Their Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loder-Jackson, Tondra L.

    2012-01-01

    Framed by theoretical perspectives on Black Feminist Thought, the life course, and the Generation X/Hip-Hop generation, I present findings from a subset of 10 Black women educators in Birmingham, Alabama who participated in a larger life story project. The participants, who came of age professionally across the pre- and post-civil rights movement…

  9. Trailblazers: An Examination of Community College Black Women in Senior Level Administrator Roles--Their Stories through Their Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Bruce, Tameka Lazette

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how Black women who work in senior level administrative positions at community colleges were able to establish successful career paths. The literature review draws from the theoretical framework of critical race theory, the Black feminist thought, and critical race feminism. The use of counter-stories establishes a platform for…

  10. The differential impact of discrimination on health among Black and White women.

    PubMed

    Versey, H Shellae; Curtin, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Despite a large body of research examining the impact of discrimination on health, the ways in which perceived discrimination may lead to disparate health outcomes through a sense of self and system consciousness is less understood. The current paper is concerned with both mental and physical health consequences of discrimination, as well as mediating pathways among African American and White women. Indirect effects analyses examine mediating paths from discrimination to health outcomes via structural awareness and self-esteem, using data from the Women's Life Path Study (N = 237). Our findings suggest that discrimination is both directly and indirectly associated with health outcomes for both Black and White women, mediated by individual (self-esteem) and group-level (structural awareness) processes. Evidence from this study indicates that discrimination is associated with heightened structural awareness, as well as lower self-esteem - both of which are related to poorer health. Discrimination negatively affected health across three domains, although the mechanisms varied somewhat for Black and White women. Broad implications of this research for interdisciplinary scholarship on the effects of discrimination on health and health disparities are discussed. PMID:26973034

  11. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support, PMID:25996432

  12. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Andrea L.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1,677 women aged 16 to 40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income > $30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. PMID:23394967

  13. Scarves of Many Colors: Muslim Women and the Veil. A Memorial Curriculum in Honor of the Life and Work of Joan Hawkinson Bohorfoush.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Bill; Childs, Sandra; Diamond, Norm; Dickerson, Diana; Haaken, Jan

    The curriculum delineated in this guide is aimed at multiple settings, outlining units on current affairs, globalization, religious and cultural identities, women and gender roles, social theory and social analysis, discrimination, and resistance to commodification. It is adaptable for age groups ranging from middle school through college. The…

  14. The Power of Femininity: Exploring the Gender and Ethnic Experiences of Muslim Women Who Accessed Supervisory Roles in a Bedouin Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quader, Sarab Abu-Rabia; Oplatka, Izhar

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The current paper aims to tell the stories of six female supervisors who have successfully managed to access this high-level position in the Bedouin educational system, putting forward some implications for understanding and exploring the lives and career of women in patriarchal, minority groups. Design/methodology/approach: Six female…

  15. What Black Women Know and Want to Know About Counseling and Testing for BRCA1/2.

    PubMed

    Adams, Inez; Christopher, Juleen; Williams, Karen Patricia; Sheppard, Vanessa B

    2015-06-01

    Black women are just as likely to have hereditary breast cancer mutations as White women, yet their participation in genetic counseling and testing is substantially lower. This study sought to describe Black women's awareness and perceptions of BRCA1/2 testing and to identify barriers and motivators to seeking BRCA1/2 services. Fifty intercept interviews were conducted with Black women in public places (a professional women's basketball game, a grocery store, a faith-based community event, and the waiting area at a breast care clinic) in Washington, DC. More than half of the women (54%) were aware that genetic tests to determine risk for certain breast and ovarian cancers exist, but the majority (88%) had never heard of BRCA1/2, specifically. After hearing a description of BRCA1/2 genetic markers, 82% stated that they would agree to BRCA1/2 testing if it was offered to them. Perceived advantages of testing included cancer prevention and the ability to share information with family members. Perceived disadvantages included emotional distress associated with identification of the mutation and the potential misuse of results to deny healthcare or employment. Physician recommendation, self-care, and known family history were among the motivators for testing. Women listed possible media and venues for intervention. In spite of low rates of BRCA1/2 testing in the Black community, women in this sample were open to the idea. Interventions that address barriers and include cultural tailoring are necessary. PMID:25301325

  16. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Black Hawk College Policy in Responding to the Needs of Returning Women Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beausang, Kenneth R.

    Black Hawk College policies and programs were examined to determine their effectiveness in responding to the needs of returning women students, one of the most significant groups in the "new student" population. Literature was reviewed, college documents studied, key personnel were interviewed, and 225 women students aged 25 or older were…

  17. A systematic review of barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Claire EL; Maben, Jill; Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A; Forbes, Lindsay JL; Lucas, Grace; Ream, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women. Design Systematic review. Methods We searched multiple bibliographic databases (January 1991–February 2013) for primary research, published in English, conducted in developed countries and investigating barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with symptomatic breast cancer among black women (≥18 years). Studies were excluded if they did not report separate findings by ethnic group or gender, only reported differences in time to presentation/diagnosis, or reported on interventions and barriers to cancer screening. We followed Cochrane and PRISMA guidance to identify relevant research. Findings were integrated through thematic synthesis. Designs of quantitative studies made meta-analysis impossible. Results We identified 18 studies (6183 participants). Delay was multifactorial, individual and complex. Factors contributing to delay included: poor symptom and risk factor knowledge; fear of detecting breast abnormality; fear of cancer treatments; fear of partner abandonment; embarrassment disclosing symptoms to healthcare professionals; taboo and stigmatism. Presentation appears quicker following disclosure. Influence of fatalism and religiosity on delay is unclear from evidence in these studies. We compared older studies (≥10 years) with newer ones (<10 years) to determine changes over time. In older studies, delaying factors included: inaccessibility of healthcare services; competing priorities and concerns about partner abandonment. Partner abandonment was studied in older studies but not in newer ones. Comparisons of healthy women and cancer populations revealed differences between how people perceive they would behave, and actually behave, on finding breast abnormality. Conclusions Strategies to improve early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women need to address symptom recognition and interpretation of risk, as well as

  18. "I Want More Freedom, but Not Too Much": British Muslim Girls and the Dynamism of Family Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basit, Tehmina N.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the dynamics of Muslim family life and the role of family values in shaping the present experiences and future aspirations of adolescent British Muslim girls. It argues that these young women are getting ambiguous messages about freedom and that they feel ambivalent about various features of their Asian and British ethnicities. (GR)

  19. Recruitment strategies for black women at risk for noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus into exercise protocols: a qualitative assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Nolan, P. L.; Adams-Campbell, L. L.; Williams, J.

    1996-01-01

    The literature is devoid of any specific data describing exercise therapy in blacks at risk for diabetes. The increasing and striking prevalence of obesity and diabetes among several indigenous populations demonstrates the unfortunate interplay between genetic predisposition and a "modern" sedentary lifestyle. Any successful intervention to reduce the risk of acquiring or attenuating the severity of diabetes must focus on behavioral, cultural, psychosocial, and social factors that are amenable to change. Thus, the objective of this study is to present qualitative data that can be useful in the recruitment of blacks into exercise protocols that could prove to be beneficial in preventing diabetes. Focus groups were conducted on 57 black women residing in Washington, DC, Columbia, Maryland, and Hartford, Connecticut. Barriers to exercising included lack of child care, lack of transportation, neighborhood constraints, and family. Incentives that would increase black women's ability to participate in an exercise protocols include transportation, child care, and an exercise environment that includes blacks. PMID:8855646

  20. Technology in Muslim Moral Philosophy.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Ebrahim

    2016-04-01

    The article explores the place, role and status of technology in Muslim moral philosophy. Invoking early Muslim encounters with technology the author makes the case why technology is already deeply embedded in contemporary Muslim bioethical thinking. Due to an absence of the philosophical grounding there remains some ambivalence as to why technology is essential to Muslim ethical thinking. Countering the techno-pessimists, the author makes a case in favor of compositional thinking, namely that our thinking itself is altered by our tools and our environment. Compositional thinking opposes the representational mode of thinking that creates a dichotomy between nature versus culture, and technology versus nature. One should, however, anticipate an environment in which technology would be beneficial and not be viewed as potentially harmful. PMID:26935056

  1. Effect of Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga Racemosa) on Vasomotor Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Nahaee, Jila; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Bayatipayan, Somaye

    2013-01-01

    Introduction:Hot flash is considered to be an early and common symptom of menopause. The present study aimed to determine the impact of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods:This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. This study was performed on 84 postmenopausal women. The participants were randomly divided into control and intervention groups. The participants of the intervention group received one black cohosh tablet per day and the control group received one placebo tablet per day for eight weeks. The severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes were recorded during the pre-intervention phase, and 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and ANCOVA tests. The level of significance was considered lower than 0.05. Results:There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of severity and number of hot flashes in weeks 4 and 8 by controlling the intensity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes before the intervention. Moreover, using repeated measures ANOVA, the intergroup comparison indicated a significant difference in bothgroups (the test and control groups) in terms of severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes. Conclusion:According to the findings of the study, it seems that black cohosh can be used as an effective alternative medicine in relieving menopausal vasomotor symptoms. PMID:25276716

  2. Hair relaxers not associated with breast cancer risk: evidence from the black women's health study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Lynn; Boggs, Deborah A; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Palmer, Julie R

    2007-05-01

    Hair relaxers (straighteners) have been used by millions of African American women, often for many years. Relaxer ingredients can enter the body through scalp lesions and burns. Because manufacturers are not required to list all ingredients, these products may contain unknown harmful substances. We assessed hair relaxer use in relation to breast cancer incidence in the Black Women's Health Study, a nationwide follow-up study of African American women. Information on hair relaxer use was collected in 1997; 48,167 women were followed subsequently through 2003 for incident breast cancer. Incidence rate ratios of breast cancer were estimated with Cox regression. During 266,298 person-years of follow-up, 574 incident cases of breast cancer were ascertained. There were no increases in breast cancer risk associated with any categories of duration of hair relaxer use, frequency of use, age at first use, number of burns experienced during use, or type of relaxer used. The incidence rate ratio for use at least seven times a year for 20 or more years relative to use for less than a year was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.39). These results suggest that hair relaxer use does not increase the incidence of breast cancer in African American women. PMID:17507635

  3. Social support in smoking cessation among black women in Chicago public housing.

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, L P; Manfredi, C; Balch, G; Warnecke, R B; Allen, K; Edwards, C

    1993-01-01

    To accomplish significant reductions in smoking by the year 2000, special populations with relatively low rates of smoking cessation must be reached and helped to quit smoking. These populations are most often groups in which traditional approaches to smoking cessation have not been successful. Focus groups were conducted with black women who were residents of Chicago public housing developments. The purposes were to assess factors related to smoking and the women's willingness to participate in cessation programs. The findings reveal several barriers to smoking cessation. These barriers are linked to the difficult daily existence and environment of these women and to a lack of social support that would help them to achieve smoking cessation. The barriers include (a) managing their lives in highly stressful environments, (b) major isolation within these environments, (c) smoking as a pleasure attainable with very limited financial resources, (d) perceived minimal health risks of smoking, (e) commonality of smoking in their communities, (f) scarcity of information about the process of cessation available to them, and (g) belief that all they need is the determination to quit on their own. The women emphasized that smoking cessation would be more relevant to them if part of broader social support efforts geared to improve their lives. The public health system may need to consider such strategies to engage this group of women. PMID:8497578

  4. Gender and race matter: the importance of considering intersections in Black women's body image.

    PubMed

    Capodilupo, Christina M; Kim, Suah

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, body image literature has used race as a variable to explain ethnic-specific differences in body satisfaction and the prevalence of eating disorders. Instead of employing race as an explanatory variable, the present study utilized a qualitative method to explore the relationships among race, ethnicity, culture, discrimination, and body image for African American and Black women. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how race and gender interface with and inform body image. Women were recruited through community centers in a major metropolitan city and represented a diversity of ethnicities. In total, 26 women who identified racially as Black (mean age = 26 years) participated in 6 focus groups, which explored body ideals, societal messages, cultural values, racism, and sexism. Narrative data from the focus groups were analyzed using grounded theory. The central category, Body/Self Image, was informed by perceptions of and feelings about not only weight and shape but also hair, skin, and attitude. Three additional categories, each with multiple properties, emerged: Interpersonal Influences, Experiences of Oppression, and Media Messages. These categories interact to explain the central category of Body/Self Image, and an emergent theory is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24188651

  5. Social Determinants of Cardiovascular Health among Black and White Women Residing in Stroke Belt and Buckle Regions of the South

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sharon K.; Gebreab, Samson; Quarells, Rakale; Gibbons, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the associations of social determinants on cardiovascular health among White and Black residing in Stroke Belt (urban) and Stroke Buckle (rural) regions of the South. Design A cross-sectional observational analysis based on a random digit-dial telephone survey of a representative sample of White and Black adults residing in urban and rural Georgia conducted from 2004–2005. Separate logistic regression analyses examined the effects of social determinants on cardiovascular health within and between White and Black women and within and between urban and rural residential location. The main outcome measure was poor cardiovascular health defined as ≥2 self-reported clinical cardiovascular disease risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, overweight or obese). Social determinants were defined as socioeconomic status (SES), general daily stress, racial discrimination, and stress due to exposure to racial discrimination. Significance was established as a two-tailed P,.05. Results A total of 674 White and Black women aged 18–90 years were included in the sample. Results showed Black women with lower SES had worse cardiovascular health than White women in both rural and urban areas (rural odds ratio [OR] 2.68; confidence interval [CI] 1.44, 4.90; P=.001; urban OR=2.92; CI=1.62, 5.23; P=.0003). White women reporting high or very high exposure to general daily stress where more likely to have worse cardiovascular health than White women reporting very little to no daily stress (OR =2.85; CI=1.49, P5.44; P5.001). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the importance of social determinants associated with cardiovascular health. Tailored cardiovascular risk reduction intervention is needed among lower SES Black women in Stroke Belt and Buckle regions of the South, as well as stress-reduction intervention among White women in the South. (Ethn Dis. 2014;24[2]:133–143) PMID:24804357

  6. Income incongruity, relative household income, and preterm birth in the Black Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ghasi S; Wise, Lauren A; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Stampfer, Meir J; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Relative income may be a better predictor of health outcomes than absolute income. We examined two measures of relative income—income incongruity and relative household income—in relation to preterm birth in a study of U.S. Black women. Income incongruity is a measure that compares the median household income of an individual’s residential area with that of others who have the same level of marital status and education, but who may live in different areas. Relative household income is a measure that compares an individual’s household income with the median household income of her residential area. We used data collected biennially (1997–2003) from participants in the Black Women’s Health Study: 6,257 singleton births were included in the income incongruity analyses and 5,182 in the relative household income analyses; 15% of the births were preterm. After adjusting for confounders, we found no overall association of income incongruity or relative household income with preterm birth. For relative household income, but not for income incongruity, there was suggestive evidence that neighborhood composition modified the association with preterm birth: higher relative household income was associated with higher risk of preterm birth in neighborhoods with a high percentage of Black residents, and higher relative household income was associated with lower risk in neighborhoods with a low percentage of Black residents. PMID:19394740

  7. Triple-negative breast cancers are increased in black women regardless of age or body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Stead, Lesley A; Lash, Timothy L; Sobieraj, Jerome E; Chi, Dorcas D; Westrup, Jennifer L; Charlot, Marjory; Blanchard, Rita A; Lee, John C; King, Thomas C; Rosenberg, Carol L

    2009-01-01

    Introduction We investigated clinical and pathologic features of breast cancers (BC) in an unselected series of patients diagnosed in a tertiary care hospital serving a diverse population. We focused on triple-negative (Tneg) tumours (oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 negative), which are associated with poor prognosis. Methods We identified female patients with invasive BC diagnosed between 1998 and 2006, with data available on tumor grade, stage, ER, PR and HER2 status, and patient age, body mass index (BMI) and self-identified racial/ethnic group. We determined associations between patient and tumour characteristics using contingency tables and multivariate logistic regression. Results 415 cases were identified. Patients were racially and ethnically diverse (born in 44 countries, 36% white, 43% black, 10% Hispanic and 11% other). 47% were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2). 72% of tumours were ER+ and/or PR+, 20% were Tneg and 13% were HER2+. The odds of having a Tneg tumour were 3-fold higher (95% CI 1.6, 5.5; p = 0.0001) in black compared with white women. Tneg tumours were equally common in black women diagnosed before and after age 50 (31% vs 29%; p = NS), and who were obese and non-obese (29% vs 31%; p = NS). Considering all patients, as BMI increased, the proportion of Tneg tumours decreased (p = 0.08). Conclusions Black women of diverse background have 3-fold more Tneg tumours than non-black women, regardless of age and BMI. Other factors must determine tumour subtype. The higher prevalence of Tneg tumours in black women in all age and weight categories likely contributes to black women's unfavorable breast cancer prognosis. PMID:19320967

  8. Perspectives on HIV Prevention Among Urban Black Women: A Potential Role for HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Valerie E.; Mitty, Jennifer A.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Hall, Kathryn T.; Krakower, Douglas; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Limited data exist regarding attitudes and acceptability of topical and oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among US black women. This investigation explored interest in HIV chemoprophylaxis and modes of use. Five focus groups enrolled 26 black women recruited from an inner-city community health center and affiliated HIV testing sites. Thematic analysis utilized Atlas.ti. Most women expressed interest in PrEP, as many reported condom failure concerns. Most women preferred a pill formulation to intravaginal gel because of greater perceived privacy and concerns about vaginal side effects and gel leakage. Women who had taken pills previously advocated daily dosing and indicated adherence concerns about episodic or post-coital PrEP. Many women desired prophylactic strategies that included partner testing. Urban black women are interested in utilizing PrEP; however, misgivings exist about gel inconvenience and potential side effects for themselves and their partners. Most women preferred oral PrEP, dosed daily. PMID:25295393

  9. Perspectives on HIV prevention among urban black women: a potential role for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Flash, Charlene A; Stone, Valerie E; Mitty, Jennifer A; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Hall, Kathryn T; Krakower, Douglas; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2014-12-01

    Limited data exist regarding attitudes and acceptability of topical and oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among US black women. This investigation explored interest in HIV chemoprophylaxis and modes of use. Five focus groups enrolled 26 black women recruited from an inner-city community health center and affiliated HIV testing sites. Thematic analysis utilized Atlas.ti. Most women expressed interest in PrEP, as many reported condom failure concerns. Most women preferred a pill formulation to intravaginal gel because of greater perceived privacy and concerns about vaginal side effects and gel leakage. Women who had taken pills previously advocated daily dosing and indicated adherence concerns about episodic or post-coital PrEP. Many women desired prophylactic strategies that included partner testing. Urban black women are interested in utilizing PrEP; however, misgivings exist about gel inconvenience and potential side effects for themselves and their partners. Most women preferred oral PrEP, dosed daily. PMID:25295393

  10. The mental health of US Black women: the roles of social context and severe intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Krim K; Parnell, Regina; Mouzon, Dawne M; Matusko, Niki; Head, Doreen; Abelson, Jamie M; Jackson, James S

    2015-01-01

    Objective Black women continue to have rates of mental health conditions that can be negative for their well-being. This study examined the contribution of social and contextual factors and severe physical intimate partner violence on the mental health of US Black women (African-American and Caribbean Black). Setting Data were largely collected via in-person community interviews at participants’ homes. Participants We studied 3277 African-American and Black Caribbean women from the 2001–2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL), the largest and most complete sample of Blacks residing in the USA. Primary and secondary outcomes Key outcomes included an array of psychiatric disorders based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Results Bivariate results revealed noticeably high rates of any anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, any substance disorder, alcohol abuse disorder, suicide ideation and attempts, and any overall mental disorder among African-American women relative to Caribbean Black women. Multiple social and contextual factors were associated with various mental disorders among both sets of Black women in multivariate models, with the most consistent associations found for severe physical intimate partner violence. Everyday discrimination was associated with anxiety disorders (95% AOR=2.08 CI 1.23 to 3.51), eating disorders (95% AOR=2.69 CI 1.38 to 5.22), and any disorder (95% AOR=2.18 CI 1.40 to 3.40), while neighbourhood drug problems contributed to mood (95% AOR=1.19 CI 1.04 to 1.36), substance disorders (95% AOR=1.37 CI 1.11 to 1.69) and any disorder (95% AOR=1.18 CI 1.03 to 1.34). Conclusions Severe physical intimate partner violence, discrimination, and to a lesser extent, neighbourhood problems are important predictors of Black women's health, findings that inform intervention and clinical services tailored to meet the needs of Black women from diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds. PMID:26482770

  11. "Why don't they come to Pike Street and ask us"?: Black American women's health concerns.

    PubMed

    Freedman, T G

    1998-10-01

    It is well known that black American women are poorly represented in medically oriented research and that this has far reaching implications for their personal health, the health of their families and the overall health of the larger society. The research reported was premised on the assumption that learning more about black American women's beliefs and values regarding health and illness could inform public policy initiatives in the area of cancer prevention and control so that a more equitable basis for participation could be achieved in future medical and scientific research. Qualitative methods of research were used in this investigation. A semi-structured interview guide was used in 36 h. of in-depth and face-to-face interviews with 13 black American women recruited to the study using a snowball technique. The women interviewed were middle-class, professional and semi-professional women. The results of the study indicate that there is a poor understanding by the dominant white medical community concerning the beliefs and values of black patients and that this compromises their health and illness care. The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment is often used as the rationale for the low recruitment of black women into clinical trials both therapeutic and non-therapeutic. The women interviewed do not agree with this claim. These women suggest that if they were asked to participate in trials and the trial was relevant to their primary medical concerns they would consider joining. The research results indicate the importance of using specific research methodologies and a number of recommendations are presented. PMID:9722113

  12. A Threat Enfleshed: Muslim College Students Situate Their Identities amidst Portrayals of Muslim Violence and Terror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Arshad Imtiaz

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the raced representations of the "Muslim Other" and how these representations engaged the lived realities and found footing in how Muslim youth understood their identities. Utilizing qualitative life history interviews with 24 Muslim undergraduates, I examine student talk addressing the construction of the Muslim in…

  13. Recruitment of black women with type 2 diabetes into a self-management intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Newlin, Kelley; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo; Jefferson, Vanessa; Langerman, Susan; Womack, Julie; Chyun, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of recruitment methods to enrollment status in Black women with type 2 diabetes screened for entry into a randomized clinical trial (RCT). Using a cross-sectional study design with convenience sampling procedures, data were collected on recruitment methods to which the women responded (N=236). Results demonstrated that the RCT had a moderate overall recruitment rate of 46% and achieved only 84% of its projected accrual goal (N=109). Chi-square analysis demonstrated that enrollment outcomes varied significantly according to recruitment methods (P=.05). Recruitment methods such as community health fairs (77.8%), private practice referrals (75.0%), participant referrals (61.5%), community clinic referrals (44.6%), community advertising and marketing (40.9%), and chart review (40.4%) demonstrated variable enrollment yields. Results confirm previous findings that indicate that Black Americans may be successfully recruited into research studies at moderate rates when traditional recruitment methods are enhanced and integrated with more culturally sensitive methods. Lessons learned are considered. PMID:17061753

  14. [The application of ultrasonography: uterovaginal and pelvic masses in black African women].

    PubMed

    N'Gbesso, R D; N'Goan, A M; Coulibaly, A; Mushi, M; Diabaté, K; Keita, A K

    1996-01-01

    Echography was prospectively performed in 345 black African female patients with pelvic masses which had been clinically detected in some cases. The women were between 11 and 65 years old. The aims of this study were to list the pelvic masses observed in black. African women, to record any potentially distinguishing features and to evaluate the sensitivity and the specificity of echography as applied here. A total of 477 masses were listed. Ovarian masses were the most frequent (56.66%) followed by uterine masses (31.45%). Most masses were benign. We observed only two cases of ovarian cancer. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 97.69%. Eleven cases (2.3%) of the ultrasound diagnoses did not correspond with the final diagnoses. As for distinguishing aspects, these patients were younger than European patients-this was particularly true for patients with fibroid masses (a range of 31 to 40 years compared to 40 to 50 years). Genetic factors in these patients could explain the high rate and early appearance of fibroids. Because the diagnosis of vaginal masses is well established by clinical examination rather than by echography, this lesion was rarely observed. The most frequent clinical complaint was pelvic pain (36.94%), followed by pelvic mass impression (28.65%). We found high rates of both past histories of miscarriage and abortion (60.7%) and postabortion pelvic hematoma. The hematomas comprised 45.4% of the non-genital pelvic masses. Misdiagnosis of pyosalpinx was often a source of diagnostic error. Thus, to avoid false diagnoses of pyosalpinx in evaluating pelvic masses with a void in ultrasound, the possibility of an infectious episode should be evaluated by definitive questioning. Ultrasound examination is of value in evaluating the pelvic masses of women; however, this should be considered within the appropriate disease context. PMID:8764447

  15. Experiences of sexual relationships of young black women in an atmosphere of coercion

    PubMed Central

    Clüver, Frances; Elkonin, Diane; Young, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Negotiations surrounding sexual activity are characterised by multiple power disparities that include race, social status and age, with gender being the most dominant differential in heterosexual interactions. Research has shown that women are physiologically more at risk of contracting HIV than men, as indicated by the higher infection rates of the former. Many African societies operate via a hegemonic masculinity, with patriarchal governance and female subordination being the norm, placing women at even greater risk of HIV infection. In this qualitative phenomenological study, four black school-going adolescent women living in Grahamstown were interviewed using a semi-structured interview to gather data. An interpretative phenomenological analysis was conducted on the data to provide subjective insights of the experiences of the participants with regard to their interactions with men. From the findings, it became apparent that the participants felt pressured, coerced or manipulated by male counterparts. This pressure and coercion was not just felt in their interactions with older men, but also in their romantic partnerships. Three of the participants experienced pressure to engage in sexual intercourse with their boyfriends when they were unwilling or unready, and they reported being faced with additional pressure to engage in unprotected sex. Furthermore, it became apparent that each participant had an underlying fear of being raped and considered this as a genuine threat to her safety and sexual health. The atmosphere within which these participants negotiate their sexual agency is thus heavily informed by male control, coercion and the threat of violence or rape. PMID:23777540

  16. Experiences of sexual relationships of young black women in an atmosphere of coercion.

    PubMed

    Clüver, Frances; Elkonin, Diane; Young, Charles

    2013-03-01

    Negotiations surrounding sexual activity are characterised by multiple power disparities that include race, social status and age, with gender being the most dominant differential in heterosexual interactions. Research has shown that women are physiologically more at risk of contracting HIV than men, as indicated by the higher infection rates of the former. Many African societies operate via a hegemonic masculinity, with patriarchal governance and female subordination being the norm, placing women at even greater risk of HIV infection. In this qualitative phenomenological study, four black school-going adolescent women living in Grahamstown were interviewed using a semi-structured interview to gather data. An interpretative phenomenological analysis was conducted on the data to provide subjective insights of the experiences of the participants with regard to their interactions with men. From the findings, it became apparent that the participants felt pressured, coerced or manipulated by male counterparts. This pressure and coercion was not just felt in their interactions with older men, but also in their romantic partnerships. Three of the participants experienced pressure to engage in sexual intercourse with their boyfriends when they were unwilling or unready, and they reported being faced with additional pressure to engage in unprotected sex. Furthermore, it became apparent that each participant had an underlying fear of being raped and considered this as a genuine threat to her safety and sexual health. The atmosphere within which these participants negotiate their sexual agency is thus heavily informed by male control, coercion and the threat of violence or rape. PMID:23777540

  17. Validation of dietary intake data in black women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amend, Allison; Melkus, Gail D; Chyun, Deborah A; Galasso, Pamela; Wylie-Rosett, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The validity of baseline dietary intake data in women participating in a culturally competent intervention study for black women with type 2 diabetes was assessed. The relationship of sociodemographic and physiologic factors with underreporting of dietary intake was determined. Criterion validity of dietary intake, which had been assessed using the Nutritionist Five Collection Form, a combination of a standard 2-day dietary recall and a modified, culturally appropriate food frequency questionnaire, was determined. Data were analyzed using First Data Bank Nutritionist Five (version 2.3, 2000, First Data Bank, San Bruno, CA) software. Validation of baseline dietary data in 109 women was performed by calculating the ratio of energy intake to resting metabolic rate. Chi(2) and t tests were used to assess relationships between underreporting and sociodemographic and physiologic factors. Mean ratio of energy intake to resting metabolic rate was 1.46 (+/-0.4). Using a lower limit of 1.35, the prevalence of underreporting was 46.8%. Underreporting was significantly associated with body mass index (P< or =0.001) and waist circumference (P<0.001). Use of this combined dietary recall and modified food frequency questionnaire might, therefore, provide more accurate dietary assessment in this population. Additional modification and validity testing is warranted in this and other populations. PMID:17197278

  18. Long term exposure to NO2 and diabetes incidence in the Black Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Coogan, Patricia F; White, Laura F; Yu, Jeffrey; Burnett, Richard T; Marshall, Julian D; Seto, Edmund; Brook, Robert D; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Jerrett, Michael

    2016-07-01

    While laboratory studies show that air pollutants can potentiate insulin resistance, the epidemiologic evidence regarding the association of air pollution with diabetes incidence is conflicting. The purpose of the present study was to assess the association of the traffic-related nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with the incidence of diabetes in a longitudinal cohort study of African American women. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for diabetes associated with exposure to NO2 among 43,003 participants in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS). Pollutant levels at participant residential locations were estimated with 1) a land use regression model for participants living in 56 metropolitan areas, and 2) a dispersion model for participants living in 27 of the cities. From 1995 to 2011, 4387 cases of diabetes occurred. The hazard ratios per interquartile range of NO2 (9.7 ppb), adjusted for age, metropolitan area, education, vigorous exercise, body mass index, smoking, and diet, were 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.06) using the land use regression model estimates and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.10) using the dispersion model estimates. The present results do not support the hypothesis that exposure to NO2 contributes to diabetes incidence in African American women. PMID:27124624

  19. Kinsey revisited, Part II: Comparisons of the sexual socialization and sexual behavior of black women over 33 years.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, G E; Peters, S D; Guthrie, D

    1988-08-01

    Kinsey's findings regarding the sexual behavior of black women were compared with data from a more recent study of sexual socialization and experiences among women in Los Angeles County, Ca. The study examined responses from two groups of college-educated black women, ages 18 to 36, 196 women from the original Kinsey sample and 64 women from the new sample. Log-linear analyses were used to control for differences between the samples on age and marital status. Comparisons were conducted in the areas of childhood family characteristics; sexual socialization and education; sexual behavior in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood; contraceptive practices; and child sexual abuse. Results reflected changes that have taken place in society and in patterns of sexual behavior. Differences in sexual socialization pointed to the increased role of the media and the schools and to more relaxed attitudes about nudity in the home. Shifts in sexual behavior were particularly dramatic. As compared to women in the Kinsey sample, newer subjects began intercourse earlier, were less likely to have a fiance or husband as their first partner, reported a higher number of sexual partners, and participated in a broader range of sexual behaviors. Contraceptive practices differed considerably, especially among never-married women. Women in this study were slightly more likely to report instances of child sexual abuse. Methodological and social factors contributing to the findings are discussed. PMID:3421826

  20. Muslim Textbooks Seen as Intolerant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2004-01-01

    A number of Muslim countries have stepped up plans for revising school textbooks as part of the continuing U.S. driven campaign to combat terrorism. Critics maintain that the efforts are superficial and that the books continue to portray dangerous stereotypes and promote extremist views. Some books for religious and social sciences classes in use…

  1. A veil (hijab) as a public symbol of a Muslim woman modern identity.

    PubMed

    Kulenović, Tarik

    2006-12-01

    In this article the author explains the social role of Muslim woman in a postmodern society through a public symbol of her identity--the veil. The article's thesis is that the Muslim women's manifestation of their Islamic denomination through veiling and wearing appropriate clothes (in the case of men through growing beards and wearing clothes considered appropriate for them) signifies an expression of a new, Islamic shaped identity. This is a postmodern identity based on modernity rather than a fundamental reaction to modernity. The veil, a public symbol of Muslim identity, is often given a different meaning by its observers than the person actually wearing it. Therefore, the intention of this article is to analyze the elements of a particular, postmodern identity that a Muslim woman's veil, as a public symbol, represents. PMID:17243538

  2. Unemployment and Underemployment among Blacks, Hispanics, and Women. United States Commission on Civil Rights Clearinghouse Publication 74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Henry A.; And Others

    Blacks, Hispanics, and women are more likely to be unemployed or underemployed than white males, regardless of economic conditions. This conclusion was drawn from an analysis of data gathered from the March Current Population Survey for the years 1971 through 1980, the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, and state and local unemployment rates…

  3. An Evaluation of the Reliability and Construct Validity of Eating Disorder Measures in White and Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Nichole R.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Gow, Rachel W.; Trace, Sara E.; Lydecker, Janet A.; Bair, Carrie E.; Mazzeo, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Most measures of eating disorder symptoms and risk factors were developed in predominantly White female samples. Yet eating disorders affect individuals of all racial and ethnic backgrounds. Black women appear more vulnerable to certain forms of eating pathology, such as binge eating, and less susceptible to other eating disorder symptoms and risk…

  4. Exploring the Connection between Same-Sex Friendships and the Development of Self-Authorship in Black Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Jamie Glanton

    2010-01-01

    Against a backdrop of increasing diversity in the United States, the number of Black women undergraduates enrolled at predominantly white institutions across the country is growing. Yet while colleges and universities are eager to diversify their campuses, often the climate of these campuses has not changed in ways that support the success of…

  5. Expanding the Psychological Wellness Threshold for Black College Women: An Examination of the Claiming Your Connections Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lani V.; Ahn, Suran; Chan, Keith T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the effectiveness of a culturally congruent group intervention program entitled ''Claiming Your Connections (CYC)'' aimed at reducing stress and enhancing psychosocial competence (i.e., locus of control and active coping) among Black college women. Method: Using an experimental design, a total of 96…

  6. Social Cognitive Predictors of Academic Interests and Goals in Engineering: Utility for Women and Students at Historically Black Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steven D.; Sheu, Hung-Bin; Schmidt, Janet; Brenner, Bradley R.; Gloster, Clay S.; Wilkins, Gregory; Schmidt, Linda C.; Lyons, Heather

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the utility of social cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) in predicting engineering interests and major choice goals among women and men and among students at historically Black and predominantly White universities. Participants (487 students in introductory engineering courses at 3…

  7. Perceptions of Black College Women on Barriers to HIV-Risk Reduction and Their HIV Prevention Intervention Needs.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Rasheeta; Anstey, Erica H; Ross, Henry; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    HIV prevention interventions can help college students engage in safe sexual behaviors. We used the Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills model to frame four focus group discussions with Black women (n = 32) attending a historically Black college/university or a traditional university to understand their HIV prevention needs. Participants wanted clear information about sexually transmitted infections/HIV and access to contraception. Motivators for practicing safe sex were related to cultural and religious expectations, desire to avoid pregnancy, and conscious efforts to defy racial stereotypes. Barriers to practicing safe sex included issues of accountability, stigma associated with accessing HIV testing/prevention services, and media influences. We found general consensus about the need to develop skill-building HIV prevention interventions focused on communication skills, condom negotiation, access to services, and empowerment. We offer insight into culture- and age-appropriate HIV prevention for Black college women to guide the development of future interventions. PMID:26875473

  8. Patterns of Utilization of Adjuvant Radiotherapy and Outcomes in Black Women After Breast Conservation at a Large Multidisciplinary Cancer Center;Black women; Breast cancer; Radiotherapy; RT; Breast conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards-Bennett, Sophia M.; Jacks, Lindsay M.; McCormick, Beryl; Zhang, Zhigang; Azu, Michelle; Ho, Alice; Powell, Simon; Brown, Carol

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Population-based studies have reported that as many of 35% of black women do not undergo radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservation surgery (BCS). The objective of the present study was to determine whether this trend persisted at a large multidisciplinary cancer center, and to identify the factors that predict for noncompliance with RT and determine the outcomes for this subset of patients. Methods and Materials: Between January 2002 and December 2007, 83 black women underwent BCS at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and were therefore eligible for the present study. Of the 83 women, 38 (46%) had Stage I, 38 (46%) Stage II, and 7 (8%) Stage III disease. Of the study cohort, 31 (37%) had triple hormone receptor-negative tumors. RT was recommended for 81 (98%) of the 83 patients (median dose, 60 Gy). Results: Of the 81 women, 12 (15%) did not receive the recommended adjuvant breast RT. Nonreceipt of chemotherapy (p = .003) and older age (p = .009) were associated with nonreceipt of RT. With a median follow-up of 70 months, the 3-year local control, locoregional control, recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival rate was 99% (actuarial 5-year rate, 97%), 96% (actuarial 5-year rate, 93%), 95% (actuarial 5-year rate, 92%), 92% (actuarial 5-year rate, 89%), and 95% (actuarial 5-year rate, 91%), respectively. Conclusion: We found a greater rate of utilization adjuvant breast RT (85%) among black women after BCS than has been reported in recent studies, indicating that excellent outcomes are attainable for black women after BCS when care is administered in a multidisciplinary cancer center.

  9. Exploring the Cervical Cancer Screening Experiences of Black Lesbian, Bisexual, and Queer Women: The Role of Patient-Provider Communication.

    PubMed

    Agénor, Madina; Bailey, Zinzi; Krieger, Nancy; Austin, S Bryn; Gottlieb, Barbara R

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the health and health care of U.S. black lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women. To understand the facilitators of and barriers to cervical cancer screening in this population, focus group discussions were conducted in Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts between November and December 2012. Using purposive sampling methods, the authors enrolled 18 black LBQ women who participated in one of four focus groups. Using thematic analysis, patient-provider communication was identified, which consisted of four sub-themes--health care provider communication style and demeanor; heteronormative provider assumptions; heterosexism, racism, and classism; and provider professional and sociodemographic background--as the most salient theme. Participants reported fears and experiences of multiple forms of discrimination and preferred receiving care from providers who were knowledgeable about same-sex sexual health and shared their life experiences at the intersection of gender, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. The cervical cancer screening experiences of black LBQ women would be improved by training all health care providers in same-sex sexual health, offering opportunities for clinicians to learn about the effects of various forms of discrimination on women's health care, and increasing the presence of LBQ women of color in health care settings. PMID:25909663

  10. Muslim Schools in Secular Societies: Persistence or Resistance!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Saeeda

    2012-01-01

    Muslim schools are a growing phenomenon across the world. Muslim diaspora resulting from multiple factors including political, religious and economic enhanced the need among Muslims to maintain and develop their faith identity. Marginalisation of Muslims, in whatever forms and for whatever reasons, particularly in Muslim minority and/or secular…

  11. What Black Women Know and Want to Know About Counseling and Testing for BRCA1/2

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Inez; Christopher, Juleen; Williams, Karen Patricia; Sheppard, Vanessa B.

    2014-01-01

    Black women are just as likely to have hereditary breast cancer mutations as White women, yet their participation in genetic counseling and testing is substantially lower. This study sought to describe Black women’s awareness and perceptions of BRCA1/2 testing and to identify barriers and motivators to seeking BRCA1/2 services. Fifty intercept interviews were conducted with Black women in public places (a professional women’s basketball game, a grocery store, a faith-based community event, and the waiting area at a breast care clinic) in Washington, DC. More than half of the women (54%) were aware that genetic tests to determine risk for certain breast and ovarian cancers exist, but the majority (88%) had never heard of BRCA1/2 , specifically. After hearing a description of BRCA1/2 genetic markers, 82% stated that they would agree to BRCA1/2 testing if it was offered to them. Perceived advantages of testing included cancer prevention and the ability to share information with family members. Perceived disadvantages included emotional distress associated with identification of the mutation and the potential misuse of results to deny healthcare or employment. Physician recommendation, self-care, and known family history were among the motivators for testing. Women listed possible media and venues for intervention. In spite of low rates of BRCA1/2 testing in the Black community, women in this sample were open to the idea. Interventions that address barriers and include cultural tailoring are necessary. PMID:25301325

  12. In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D

    2016-10-01

    Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27188876

  13. "Staying Black": The Demonstration of Racial Identity and Womanhood among a Group of Young High-Achieving Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Signithia Fordham's theory of "racelessness" purports that while interacting with teachers, administrators, and peers in the school setting, academically successful Blacks must suppress the racial identities of their home worlds to secure and maintain the label of high achiever. My objectives were to examine how young Black women…

  14. Dietary behaviors and portion sizes of Black women who enrolled in SisterTalk and variation by demographic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Gans, Kim M.; Risica, Patricia Markham; Kirtania, Usree; Jennings, Alishia; Strolla, Leslie O.; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Hardy, Norma; Lasater, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the dietary behaviors of Black women who enrolled in the SisterTalk weight control study. Design Baseline data collected via telephone survey and in-person screening. Setting Boston, MA and surrounding areas. Participants A total of 461 Black women completed the baseline. Variables Measured Measured height and weight; self reported demographics, risk factors, and dietary variables including fat-related eating behaviors, food portion size, fruit, vegetable, and beverage intake. Analysis Descriptive analyses for demographic, risk factors and dietary variables; ANOVA models with Food Habits Questionnaire (FHQ) scores as the dependent variable and demographic categories as the independent variables; ANOVA models with individual FHQ item scores as the dependent variable, and ethnic identification as the independent variable. Results The data indicate a low prevalence of many fat lowering behaviors. More than 60% reported eating less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Self-reported portion sizes were large for most foods. Older age, being born outside the US, living without children and being retired were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of fat-lowering behaviors. The frequency of specific fat-lowering behaviors and portion size also differed by ethnic identification. Conclusions and Implications The findings support the need for culturally appropriate interventions to improve the dietary intake of Black Americans. Further studies should examine the dietary habits, food preparation methods and portion sizes of diverse groups of Black women and how such habits may differ by demographics. PMID:19161918

  15. The association of perceived stress, contextualized stress, and emotional eating with body mass index in college-aged Black women.

    PubMed

    Diggins, Allyson; Woods-Giscombe, Cheryl; Waters, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of literature supports the association between adverse stress experiences and health inequities, including obesity, among African American/Black women. Adverse stress experiences can contribute to poor appetite regulation, increased food intake, emotional eating, binge eating, and sedentary behavior, all of which can contribute to weight gain and obesity. Most research studies concerning the effect of psychological stress on eating behaviors have not examined the unique stress experience, body composition, and eating behaviors of African American/Black women. Even fewer studies have examined these constructs among Black female college students, who have an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity compared to their counterparts. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to examine the associations among emotional eating, perceived stress, contextualized stress, and BMI in African American female college students. All participants identified as African American or Black (N=99). The mean age of the sample was 19.4 years (SD=1.80). A statistically significant eating behavior patterns×perceived stress interaction was evident for body mass index (BMI) (β=0.036, S.E.=.0118, p<.01). In addition, a statistically significant eating behavior patterns×contextualized stress interaction was observed for BMI (β=0.007, S.E.=.0027, p=.015). Findings from this study demonstrate that the stress experience interacts with emotional eating to influence BMI. Based on these findings, culturally relevant interventions that target the unique stress experience and eating behavior patterns of young African American women are warranted. PMID:26496005

  16. REDUCED GLUTEAL EXPRESSION OF ADIPOGENIC AND LIPOGENIC GENES IN BLACK SOUTH AFRICAN WOMEN IS ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY-RELATED INSULIN RESISTANCE

    PubMed Central

    Goedecke, Julia H.; Evans, Juliet; Keswell, Dheshnie; Stimson, Roland H.; Livingstone, Dawn E.W.; Hayes, Philip; Adams, Kevin; Dave, Joel A.; Victor, Hendriena; Levitt, Naomi S.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Walker, Brian R.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Olsson, Tommy; Kahn, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Context Black South African women are less insulin sensitive than their white counterparts, despite less central and greater peripheral fat deposition. We hypothesized that this paradox may be explained, in part, by differences in the adipogenic capacity of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Objective To measure adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in abdominal and gluteal SAT depots, and determine their relationships with insulin sensitivity (SI) in South African women. Design Cross-sectional. Participants 14 normal-weight (BMI <25 kg/m2) black, 13 normal-weight white, 14 obese (BMI >30 kg/m2) black and 13 obese white premenopausal South African women. Main outcomes SI (frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) in relation to expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in abdominal and gluteal SAT depots. Results With increasing BMI, black women had less visceral fat (P=0.03) and more abdominal (P=0.017) and gynoid (P=0.041) SAT but had lower SI (P<0.01) than white women. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes was proportionately lower with obesity in black, but not white women in the gluteal and deep SAT depots (P<0.05 for ethnicity x BMI effect). In black women only, the expression of these genes correlated positively with SI (all P<0.05), independently of age and fat mass. Conclusions Obese black women have reduced SAT expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes compared to white women, which associates with reduced SI. These findings suggest that obesity in black women impairs SAT adipogenesis and storage, potentially leading to insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21956425

  17. Message from the Worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mirza Masroor

    2008-07-01

    Abdus Salam was an Ahmadi Muslim from Pakistan, a renowned theoretical physicist who received the Nobel Prize in 1979 for his work in electroweak theory. Although he was the first Muslim Nobel Laureate, Pakistan's military dictator at that time could not admit that its brilliant scientist was a Muslim citizen. Dr Salam's entire award was devoted to the furtherance of education: he did not spend a penny on himself or his family...

  18. Southall Black Sisters. Hannana Siddiqui speaks to Rasna Warah.

    PubMed

    Warah, R

    1994-01-01

    Southall Black Sisters, an organization for Asian and Afro-Caribbean women in Great Britain, was established in 1979 at the height of anti-racist protests to address the otherwise neglected issue of women's oppression. The group has campaigned against discriminatory immigration laws, illegal virginity tests at Heathrow airport, domestic violence, and other issues of particular concern to British Asian women. Women who migrate to England for an arranged marriage must remain with their husband at least 1 year or face deportation and denial of any public assistance, placing them at risk of unreported domestic violence. Southall Black Sisters has attempted to raise the public consciousness about domestic violence as a criminal issue and garner support for Asian women who leave abusive husbands. However, no support has been forthcoming from the anti-racist movement, which fears that publicity on domestic violence will create a racist backlash against Asian men. More support has been available for the group's campaign to protect battered women who kill their husbands by removing from the law on provocation the need for an immediate response. Another campaign has involved protests against "bounty hunters" hired by Asian families to return girls who have escaped from arranged marriages in their home country or sexual abuse within their family. Southall Black Sisters attributes many of the problems faced by its clients to a rise in religious fundamentalism and Muslim attempts to reverse the gains of the feminist movement. PMID:12287625

  19. Milk banks through the lens of Muslim scholars: one text in two contexts.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Mohammed

    2012-03-01

    When Muslims thought of establishing milk banks, religious reservations were raised. These reservations were based on the concept that women's milk creates 'milk kinship' believed to impede marriage in Islamic Law. This type of kinship is, however, a distinctive phenomenon of Arab tradition and relatively unknown in Western cultures. This article is a pioneer study which fathoms out the contemporary discussions of Muslim scholars on this issue. The main focus here is a religious guideline (fatwa) issued in 1983, referred to in this article as 'one text', by the Egyptian scholar Yūsuf al-Qaradāwī who saw no religious problem in establishing or using these banks. After a number of introductory remarks on the 'Western' phenomenon of milk banks and the 'Islamic' phenomenon of 'milk kinship', this article analyses the fatwa of al-Qaradāwī 'one text' and investigates the 'two contexts' in which this fatwa was discussed, namely, the context of the Muslim world and that of Muslim minorities living in the West. The first context led to rejecting the fatwa and refusing to introduce the milk banking system in the Muslim world. The second context led to accepting this system and thus allowing Muslims living in the West to donate and receive milk from these banks. Besides its relevance to specialists in the fields of Islamic studies, anthropology and medical ethics, this article will also be helpful to physicians and nurses who deal with patients of Islamic background. PMID:21091982

  20. SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. Methods A five group design included a comparison group and a 2 × 2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison groups. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. Results At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison group. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention group, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Conclusions Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial

  1. Sexual harassment across the color line: experiences and outcomes of cross- versus intraracial sexual harassment among Black women.

    PubMed

    Woods, Krystle C; Buchanan, Nicole T; Settles, Isis H

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined differences in appraisal, harassment, and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms among 105 Black women who were sexually harassed by either a White (cross-racial sexual harassment) or a Black man (intraracial sexual harassment). Analyses revealed that women appraised cross-racial more negatively than intraracial harassment, despite there being no significant differences in the likelihood of experiencing gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, or sexual coercion. Further, cross-racial harassment was more likely to include racialized sexual harassment (harassing behaviors combining race and gender simultaneously) and higher status perpetrators. Finally, cross-racial sexual harassment had an indirect (but not direct) mediated effect on posttraumatic stress via participants' appraisals of their harassment. Specifically, the more negative appraisal associated with cross-racial sexual harassment was associated with increased posttraumatic stress symptoms. In light of these findings, consideration of perpetrator race and racially sexualized behaviors could prove significant additions to current models of sexual harassment. PMID:19209981

  2. Perceived racism and vascular reactivity in black college women: moderating effects of seeking social support.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rodney

    2006-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study explored the association of perceived racism and seeking social support to vascular reactivity in a college sample of 110 Black women. Perceived racism and seeking social support were assessed via self-report, and vascular reactivity was measured before and during a standardized speaking task. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived racism was positively related to changes in systolic blood pressure. These analyses also indicated that seeking social support moderated the relationship between perceived racism and systolic blood pressure changes. This interaction effect persisted after controlling for several potential confounders. Follow-up regression analyses showed that perceived racism was positively associated with reactivity among participants who were low in seeking social support. A significant relationship was not observed between perceived racism and systolic blood pressure changes among participants who were high in seeking social support. Perceived racism and seeking social support were not significantly associated with changes in diastolic blood pressure. These findings highlight the importance of examining psychosocial factors that may mitigate the hypothesized relationship between perceived racism and reactivity. PMID:16448294

  3. Variation in Birth Outcomes by Mother’s Country of Birth Among Non-Hispanic Black Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Vang, Zoua; Culhane, Jennifer F.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of prematurity (PTB) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) were compared between US-born and foreign-born non-Hispanic black women. Comparisons were also made between Sub-Saharan African-born and Caribbean-born black women and by maternal country of birth within the two regions. Comparisons were adjusted for sociodemographic, health behavioral and medical risk factors available on the birth record. Birth record data (2008) from all states (n = 27) where mother’s country of birth was recorded were used. These data comprised 58 % of all singleton births to non-Hispanic black women in that year. Pearson Chi square and logistic regression were used to investigate variation in the rates of PTB and SGA by maternal nativity. Foreign-born non-Hispanic black women had significantly lower rates of PTB (OR 0.727; CI 0. 726, 0.727) and SGA (OR 0.742; CI 0.739–0.745) compared to US-born non-Hispanic black women in a fully adjusted model. Sub-Saharan African-born black women compared to Caribbean-born black women had significantly lower rates of PTB and SGA. Within each region, the rates of PTB and SGA varied by mother’s country of birth. These differences could not be explained by adjustment for known risk factors obtained from vital records. Considerable heterogeneity in rates of PTB and SGA among non-Hispanic black women in the US by maternal nativity was documented and remained unexplained after adjustment for known risk factors. PMID:24756226

  4. A Study of the Relationship between Food Group Recommendations and Perceived Stress: Findings from Black Women in the Deep South

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Tiffany L.; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Sharonda; Townsend, Sh'Nese; Ard, Jamy D.; Meneses, Karen; Partridge, Edward E.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2015-01-01

    Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n = 355) provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10), and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall) data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m2) and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16) and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group). Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake. PMID:25821595

  5. One size does not fit all: using variables other than the thin ideal to understand Black women's body image.

    PubMed

    Capodilupo, Christina M

    2015-04-01

    Very few empirical studies have investigated the effect that culturally relevant beauty ideals (such as long, straight hair and lighter skin tones) have on Black women's feelings about their physical appearance. The current investigation examined the direct effect of internalizing idealized media images on Black women's body esteem and appearance satisfaction. The indirect effects of: (a) the presumed influence of the media images on African American men, and (b) feelings of invisibility were also tested. Using an online survey, the sample included 230 women who identified as African American and/or Black American. Through structural equation modeling (SEM), findings reveal that participants' body esteem was directly negatively impacted by higher levels of internalization of idealized media images. Further, the findings support the idea that higher levels of internalization of media lead to a greater presumed influence of media on men, which leads to higher feelings of invisibility, ultimately leading to lower body esteem. Finally, there was evidence to suggest that appearance satisfaction was not directly negatively affected by internalization of media images but was negatively impacted when the images are presumed to have a higher influence on African American men. PMID:25150817

  6. Muslim and non-Muslim adolescents' reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights.

    PubMed

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk

    2008-01-01

    An experimental questionnaire study, conducted in The Netherlands, examined adolescents' reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Muslim minority and non-Muslim majority adolescents (12-18 years) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts. The group membership of participants had a clear effect. Muslim participants were less in favor of freedom of speech if it involved the offending of religious beliefs and were more in favor of Muslim minority rights. There were also cross-group gender differences whereby parental practices that negatively affect females were more strongly rejected by Muslim females than by Muslim males and non-Muslim females and males. The findings are discussed with reference to social-cognitive domain theory and intergroup theories. PMID:18489410

  7. Reluctant Learners? Muslim Youth Confront the Holocaust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    There is good reason to believe that anti-Semitism is rife in Muslim communities across the world. Consequently, one might expect that teaching the Holocaust in schools with a substantial Muslim presence would prove a difficult and stressful experience. In this article, I draw on a diverse body of literature to argue for a more nuanced approach to…

  8. Counseling Muslim Americans: Cultural and Spiritual Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Farah A.; Dykeman, Cass

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors identify the cultural and spiritual assessments needed to conduct counseling with Muslim Americans and Muslim immigrants to the United States. Assessment processes are outlined that include cultural identity (which subsumes several variables); worldview; spiritual assessment along with acculturation level and migration…

  9. Are Young Muslims Adopting Australian Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabir, Nahid Afrose

    2008-01-01

    Recently politicians in Australia have raised concerns that some Muslims are not adopting Australian values to a sufficient extent. In this paper I explore the notion of Australian values with respect to immigrant youth. By analysing interviews with 32 Muslim students who are 15-18 years of age and of diverse backgrounds in two state schools in…

  10. Envisioning the Nation: Women Activists, Religion and the Public Sphere in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldo, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia's Islamic revival has coincided with the growing involvement of women in civil society. Muslim women's organizations are playing an important role in how the Indonesian nation-state is being re-imagined for the 21st century. Muslim women's groups are incubators for women's diverse political activism. The increasing role of Islam in the…

  11. Teaching and Learning Color Consciousness in Black Families: Exploring Family Processes and Women's Experiences with Colorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, JeffriAnne; Cain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Family is regarded as a powerful force in the lives of Black Americans. Often-times, families function as an agent of socialization that counters racism. At the same time, however, Black families can perpetuate skin tone consciousness and bias, or "colorism." Although there is an extensive body of revisionist literature on Black families and a…

  12. The Sexual Lives of Muslim Girls in the "Bustees" of Kolkata, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakraborty, Kabita

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to understand why and how young Muslim women pursue sexual relationships in the urban bustees (slums) of Kolkata, West Bengal, India. I discuss how girls in heterosexual romantic relationships decide where, when and how to have sex, and the importance of class discourses and popular Bollywood culture in this decision-making…

  13. The influence of the hijab (Islamic head-cover) on perceptions of women's attractiveness and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Yusr; Swami, Viren

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of wearing the hijab, or Islamic headwear, on men's perceptions of women's attractiveness and intelligence. A total of 57 non-Muslim men and 41 Muslim men rated a series of images of women, half of whom were unveiled and half of whom wore the hijab. For attractiveness and intelligence ratings, a mixed analysis of variance showed a significant effect of hijab status, with women wearing the hijab being rated more negatively than unveiled women. For attractiveness ratings, there was no significant effect of participant religion, although non-Muslim men rated unveiled women significantly higher than veiled women. For intelligence ratings, non-Muslim men provided significantly higher ratings than Muslim men for both conditions. In addition, Muslim men's ratings of the attractiveness and intelligence of women wearing the hijab was positively correlated with self-reported religiosity. These results are discussed in relation to religious stereotyping within increasingly multi-cultural societies. PMID:19815477

  14. Science in the Muslim world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2010-04-01

    There are more than a billion Muslims in the world today - over a fifth of the world's total population - spread over many more than the 57 member states of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) in which Islam is the official religion. These include some of the world's wealthiest nations, such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, as well as some of the poorest, like Somalia and Sudan. The economies of some of these countries - such as the Gulf States, Iran, Turkey, Egypt, Morocco, Malaysia and Pakistan - have been growing steadily for a number of years, and yet, in comparison with the West, the Islamic world still appears somewhat disengaged from modern science.

  15. No more Black and Blue: Women Against Violence Against Women and the Warner Communications boycott, 1976-1979.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Carolyn

    2008-04-01

    In the mid-1970s, Women Against Violence Against Women (WAVAW), the first national feminist organization to protest mediated sexual violence against women, pressured the music industry to cease using images of violence against women in its advertising. This article presents a case study of WAVAW's national boycott of Warner Communications, Inc. and documents the activists' successful consumer campaign. The study reveals that media violence was central to feminist organizing efforts, and that WAVAW and related organizations helped establish a climate of concern about violence that motivated scientific research on the relationship between exposure to media violence and subsequent aggression. PMID:18359878

  16. Population-Level Correlates of Preterm Delivery among Black and White Women in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Suzan L.; Cullen, Mark R.; Mayo, Jonathan A.; Gould, Jeffrey B.; Loftus, Pooja; Stevenson, David K.; Wise, Paul H.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the ability of social, demographic, environmental and health-related factors to explain geographic variability in preterm delivery among black and white women in the US and whether these factors explain black-white disparities in preterm delivery. Methods We examined county-level prevalence of preterm delivery (20–31 or 32–36 weeks gestation) among singletons born 1998–2002. We conducted multivariable linear regression analysis to estimate the association of selected variables with preterm delivery separately for each preterm/race-ethnicity group. Results The prevalence of preterm delivery varied two- to three-fold across U.S. counties, and the distributions were strikingly distinct for blacks and whites. Among births to blacks, regression models explained 46% of the variability in county-level risk of delivery at 20–31 weeks and 55% for delivery at 32–36 weeks (based on R-squared values). Respective percentages for whites were 67% and 71%. Models included socio-environmental/demographic and health-related variables and explained similar amounts of variability overall. Conclusions Much of the geographic variability in preterm delivery in the US can be explained by socioeconomic, demographic and health-related characteristics of the population, but less so for blacks than whites. PMID:24740117

  17. The context and consequences of sexual assault among undergraduate women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Christine H; Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher; Crosby, Carmen M; Lockard, Allison J; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    2013-08-01

    To examine the context of sexual assault and postassault actions and consequences among women attending historically Black colleges or universities (HBCUs), web-based surveys were administered in November 2008 to 3,951 undergraduate women attending four HBCUs. Data on the context in which assaults occurred were generated for women who had been sexually assaulted since entering college (n = 358). Multivariate models were run on the full sample to examine the association between sexual assault and symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results indicated that most survivors were assaulted by assailants well known to them and when the survivor and perpetrator were drinking alcohol. Very few survivors disclosed their experiences to formal sources of support. Survivors had significantly more symptoms of depression and were more likely to screen positive for PTSD than nonvictims. Further research on disclosure and its moderating role on the mental health consequences of sexual assault is needed. PMID:23515164

  18. Readiness to accept Western standard of beauty and body satisfaction among Muslim girls with and without hijab.

    PubMed

    Đurović, Dušanka; Tiosavljević, Marija; Šabanović, Harisa

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine whether there is a difference in the readiness to accept Western standards of beauty in which thinness is an ideal of beauty and attractiveness, as well in body and appearance satisfaction between Muslim adolescent girls attending madrassa and dressing in accordance with tradition, that is to say wearing hijab, and Muslim adolescent girls who do not wear hijab and who follow contemporary Western-influenced fashion trends. Both of these groups were also compared to a non-Muslim group of adolescent girls. The sample consisted of 75 Muslim adolescent girls with hijab, 75 Muslim adolescent girls without hijab and 75 Orthodox adolescent girls. The following instruments were used: the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-3) and the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS). The highest level of body satisfaction (despite this group having the highest body weight in the sample) was evident among Muslim adolescent girls attending madrassa and wearing hijab. They also showed significantly less pressure to attain the Western thin-ideal standards of beauty than adolescent girls who accept Western way of dressing. Research results indicate a significant role of socio-cultural factors in one's attitude towards the body image, but also opens the question of the role of religion as a protective factor when it comes to the body and appearance attitude among Muslim women who wear hijab. PMID:27477544

  19. Role perception and performance of lower class black men and women of Barbados and their contraceptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Goerge, P M; Ebanks, G E; Nobbe, C E

    1974-07-01

    Data from a survey carried out in Barbados indicate that although both men's and women's role conceptions for themselves are traditional in nature as they relate to family planning decisions and behavior, the role of the male is not as insignificant as one is led to believe from the typical portrayal of what is known as the matrifocal lower class black family. The data came from 2 sample surveys, 1 comprised of 630 men and the other of 4199 women, both from lower and lower middle class black men and women. Analysis of results indicates that both the men and women consider a man's job as the bread-winner of the family as more important than his role in contraception and family planning. Concerning how one's role perception as the bread-winner is related to his role perception as the decision-maker regarding family planning, results indicate that men who consider it their duty to provide for the family do not disproportionately consider it also their duty to make the decisions regarding family planning. Joint responsibility in making contraceptive decisions is widely recognized by both the men and women. Those men and women who have discussed contraception and family with their partners tend to have a more positive attitude and are more inclined to practice birth control compared to those who have not discussed such topics with their partners. It is concluded that the impact of interspousal communication on fertility decline is significant, and the role of the male in family planning can no longer be ignored by those interested in promoting family planning. PMID:12261872

  20. Women Flock to Graduate School in Record Numbers, but Fewer Blacks Are Entering the Academic Pipeline: Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Liz

    1986-01-01

    Many academic administrators consider the future job market "a golden opportunity" for universities to increase the representation of women on their faculties. However, lingering sexual bias in hiring and promotion decisions, as well as a shortage of women with doctorates in scientific fields, may cloud that promise. (MLW)

  1. An Intersectional Social Capital Analysis of the Influence of Historically Black Sororities on African American Women's College Experiences at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American…

  2. The Influence of Parental Attachment on the College Adjustment of White, Black, and Latina/Hispanic Women: A Cross-Cultural Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melendez, Mickey C.; Melendez, Nancy Blanco

    2010-01-01

    Although race and parental attachment are concepts that have been widely researched, few studies have explored how these variables manifest themselves among women or influence their adjustment to college. This study examined how parental attachment effected college adjustment among White, Black, and Latina/Hispanic women attending an urban…

  3. Promoter Polymorphisms in the Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 Gene Are Associated With Ischemic Stroke Susceptibility in Young Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Timothy D.; Giles, Wayne H.; Xu, Jianfeng; Wozniak, Marcella A.; Malarcher, Ann M.; Lange, Leslie A.; Macko, Richard F.; Basehore, Monica J.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Cole, John W.; Kittner, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endothelial nitric oxide exerts a variety of protective effects on endothelial cells and blood vessels, and therefore the nitric oxide synthase 3 gene (NOS3) is a logical candidate gene for stroke susceptibility. Methods We used the population-based Stroke Prevention in Young Women case-control study to assess the association of five NOS3 polymorphisms in 110 cases (46% black) with ischemic stroke and 206 controls (38% black), 15 to 44 years of age. Polymorphisms included 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region (−1468 T>A, −922 G>A, −786 T>C), 1 SNP in exon 7 (G894T), and 1 insertion/deletion polymorphism within intron 4. Results Significant associations with both the −922 G>A and −786 T>C SNPs with ischemic stroke were observed in the black, but not the white, population. This association was attributable to an increased prevalence of the −922 A allele (OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.3 to 6.8; P=0.005) and the −786 T allele (OR=2.9, 95% CI=1.3 to 6.4; P=0.005) in cases versus controls. These 2 SNPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium (D′=1.0), making it impossible to determine, within the confines of this genetic study, whether 1 or both of these polymorphisms are functionally related to NOS3 expression. Two sets of haplotypes were also identified, 1 of which may confer an increased susceptibility to stroke in blacks, whereas the other appears to be protective. Conclusion Promoter variants in NOS3 may be associated with ischemic stroke susceptibility among young black women. PMID:16100023

  4. Fairness Perceptions and Experiences of Muslim University Students in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkan, Serdar; Walker, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the perceptions and experiences of fairness amongst Muslim post-secondary students based on our gathering of data using a web-based survey. The participants, 189 Muslim students, were reached via student organizations, national and local Muslim organizations, and Muslim student groups organized on…

  5. The Role of Body Fat and Fat Distribution in Hypertension Risk in Urban Black South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Nigel J.; Jaff, Nicole G.; Kengne, Andre P.; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries are disproportionately affected by hypertension, with Black women being at greater risk, possibly due to differences in body fat distribution. The objectives of this study were: (1) To examine how different measures of body composition are associated with blood pressure (BP) and incident hypertension; (2) to determine the association between baseline or change in body composition, and hypertension; and (3) to determine which body composition measure best predicts hypertension in Black South African women. The sample comprised 478 non-hypertensive women, aged 29–53 years. Body fat and BP were assessed at baseline and 8.3 years later. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (n = 273) and anthropometry. Hypertension was diagnosed based on a systolic/diastolic BP ≥140/90 mmHg, or medication use at follow-up. All body composition measures increased (p<0.0001) between baseline and follow-up. SBP and DBP increased by ≥20%, resulting in a 57.1% cumulative incidence of hypertension. Both DXA- and anthropometric-derived measures of body composition were significantly associated with BP, explaining 3–5% of the variance. Baseline BP was the most important predictor of hypertension (adjusted OR: 98–123%). Measures of central adiposity were associated with greater odds (50–65%) of hypertension than total adiposity (44–45%). Only change in anthropometric-derived central fat mass predicted hypertension (adjusted OR: 32–40%). This study highlights that body composition is not a major determinant of hypertension in the sample of black African women. DXA measures of body composition do not add to hypertension prediction beyond anthropometry, which is especially relevant for African populations globally, taking into account the severely resource limited setting found in these communities. PMID:27171011

  6. Feelings of Belonging: An Exploratory Analysis of the Sociopolitical Involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Angelique; Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio; Daniels, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts the sociopolitical involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander American sexual minority women within lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities of color. For the analysis, a sample of over 1,200 women from the Social Justice Sexuality project was analyzed. Findings indicate that, for all groups of women, feelings of connectedness to the LGBT community was the most significant predictor of sociopolitical involvement within LGBT communities of color. PMID:26073263

  7. Pathways to healing: curative travel among Muslims and non-Muslims in eastern East Africa.

    PubMed

    Parkin, David

    2014-01-01

    Two areas of therapeutic provision in eastern East Africa are contrasted: a coastal stretch inhabited mainly by Muslims, and a largely non-Muslim hinterland, each with its own healers, medicines, and customary ethic. Spread over both areas are providers of biomedicine associated originally, and to some extent today, with Christianity. Whether or not they also attend biomedical sites, Muslims seek healers in the coastal stretch and non-Muslims usually in the hinterland, each following ethico-religious preferences. However, because people move through the two areas and compare treatments, individuals' journeys can change direction, with non-Muslims sometimes seeking Muslim healers and either of these groups choosing the more dispersed biomedical outlets. The notion of 'pathways' to health thus combines set journeys to areas known for particular healers and a distinctive ethic, with possible detours to alternative sources of therapy, including biomedicine not regarded as governed by the same ethic. PMID:24383750

  8. Cultural similarities and differences between a sample of Black/African and colored women in South Africa: convergence of risk related to substance use, sexual behavior, and violence.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Kyla Marie; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Myers, Bronwyn J

    2006-01-01

    South Africa is one of the six southern African countries where the HIV levels for childbearing women are 20% or higher. We conducted two focus groups aimed at developing an understanding of the intersections of substance abuse, sexual behavior, and violence affecting the lives of women of color in Cape Town, South Africa. Both Colored and Black/African participants reported using cannabis, methaqualone, and alcohol, although they differed on other drugs used. Black/African women also used heroin, and crack cocaine, whereas Colored women used methamphetamines. For participants in both groups, relationships with men affected sexual and substance use risk behaviors. Although the Black/African women did not trust men to use condoms, the Colored women in the study believed that almost all men use condoms. Both groups of women reported high rates of violence, with Colored participants reporting more gang violence and woman-on-woman violence compared with Black/African participants. The paper discusses these issues, as well as the implications for adapting a culturally specific, brief woman-focused HIV prevention intervention for the South African context. PMID:17000612

  9. Making Muslim babies: IVF and gamete donation in Sunni versus Shi'a Islam.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2006-12-01

    Medical anthropological research on science, biotechnology, and religion has focused on the "local moral worlds" of men and women as they make difficult decisions regarding their health and the beginnings and endings of human life. This paper focuses on the local moral worlds of infertile Muslims as they attempt to make, in the religiously correct fashion, Muslim babies at in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics in Egypt and Lebanon. As early as 1980, authoritative fatwas issued from Egypt's famed Al-Azhar University suggested that IVF and similar technologies are permissible as long as they do not involve any form of third-party donation (of sperm, eggs, embryos, or uteruses). Since the late 1990s, however, divergences in opinion over third-party gamete donation have occurred between Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims, with Iran's leading ayatollah permitting gamete donation under certain conditions. This Iranian fatwa has had profound implications for the country of Lebanon, where a Shi'ite majority also seeks IVF services. Based on three periods of ethnographic research in Egyptian and Lebanese IVF clinics, this paper explores official and unofficial religious discourses surrounding the practice of IVF and third-party donation in the Muslim world, as well as the gender implications of gamete donation for Muslim marriages. PMID:17051430

  10. Clinicopathological and molecular significance of Sumolyation marker (ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9)) expression in breast cancer of black women.

    PubMed

    Agboola, A O J; Musa, A A; Ayoade, B A; Banjo, A A; Anunobi, C C; Deji-Agboola, A M; Rakha, E A; Nolan, C; Ellis, I O; Green, A R

    2014-01-01

    The majority of breast cancers (BC) in Nigerian women are triple negative and show breast cancer-associated gene 1 (BRCA1) deficiency as well as the basal like phenotype, with a high mortality rate. In contrast to the well-defined predictive factors for the hormonal therapy, there is a paucity of information on the BRCA1 deficiency breast tumor biology, particularly among African women. BRCA1 Sumoylation (UBC9) has been speculated to be involved in the ER transcription activity, BRCA1 deficiency and triple negative BC. We therefore hypothesized that UBC9, a SUMOylation marker, may have contributed to the aggressive nature of BRCA1 tumor phenotype observed in Nigerian women. This study investigated the immunoprofiles of UBC9 in tissue microarray (TMA) of 199 Nigerian women and correlated their protein expression with clinical outcome, pathological responses and the expression of other biomarkers to demonstrate the functional significance in Nigerian women. The protein expression of UBC9, as compared with other biomarkers, showed an inverse correlation with steroid hormones (ER, progesterone (PgR)), BRCA1, p27, p21 and MDM4, and a positive correlation with triple negative, basal cytokeratins (CK14 and CK5/6), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), basal-like breast cancer phenotype, p53, phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3KCA), placental cadherin, (P-cadherin) and BRCA1 regulators (metastasis tumor antigen-1 (MTA1). Survival analysis showed that those tumors positive for UBC9 expression had a significantly poorer breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) as compared with those showing negative expression. UBC9 remained an independent predictor of outcome for BCSS. This study demonstrates that UBC9 appears to play an important role in the tumor biology of Nigerian women. Therefore, a novel UBC9 targeted therapy in black women with BC could enhance a better patient outcome. PMID:24176171

  11. Gender and Racial Analysis in Sport: Are All the Women White and All the Blacks Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Jennifer E.

    2005-01-01

    Critical race scholarship focuses on people of color, women, and the intersection of race and gender. Conversely, sport scholarship has reflected the dominant White male culture. Sport culture ignores the experience of women and people of color, and most specifically ignores women who are people of color. This paper provides an overview of the…

  12. Alcohol, cannabis, and methamphetamine use and other risk behaviours among Black and Coloured South African women: A small randomized trial in the Western Cape

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Luseno, Winnie K.; Karg, Rhonda S.; Young, Siobhan; Rodman, Nat; Myers, Bronwyn; Parry, Charles D. H.

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a pressing need for brief behavioural interventions to address the intersection of high HIV prevalence, increasing substance use, and high-risk sex practices among South African women. The primary aim of this pilot, randomized trial was to examine whether an adapted evidence-based intervention would be equally, more, or less effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours when delivered using an individual or group format. The secondary aim was to examine differences between Black and Coloured South African women across pre- and post-intervention measures of alcohol and illicit drug use and sex risk behaviours. Methods The Cape Town Women’s Health CoOp was adapted from an evidence-based intervention known as the Women’s CoOp._Study participants included Black (n=60) and Coloured (n=52) women living in the township communities of Cape Town, South Africa, who reported using illicit drugs and alcohol. Results Coloured women reported greater methamphetamine use (13 days in the past 30 days) and Black women reported mostly cannabis use (27days in the past 30 days). Although both groups reported having unprotected sex under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs, Black women reported greater condom use and having one partner; Coloured women reported having more than one sex partner. One-month post-intervention assessments indicated significant reductions in substance use and sex risk behaviours. After controlling for baseline measures, there were no significant differences between the two intervention conditions. Conclusion Significant differences in risk behaviours were observed between Black and Coloured South African women. However, both ethnic groups were responsive to the adapted intervention and no differences were found by intervention assignment. These findings support the assertion that group interventions may be more cost-effective in reaching at-risk women in resource-scarce environments. Larger studies are needed to show efficacy and

  13. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  14. Wedding Pedagogy and Politics: Oral Histories of Black Women Teachers and the Struggle against Apartheid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Presents the stories of three black, female, activist teachers who combined teaching and politics to help fight South Africa's apartheid regime. They promoted alternative curricula and worked against apartheid oppression. Each believed in the struggle and, although they believed in nonracialism, they identified as black, a political construction…

  15. Promoting the Inclusion of Tenure Earning Black Women in Academe: Lessons for Leaders in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dannielle Joy; Reynolds, Rema; Jones, Tamara Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    This narrative work highlights one Black female faculty participant's experience of the Sisters of the Academy (SOTA) Research Boot Camp. She shares the benefits of the initiative, as well as how the program influenced her research and writing productivity as a faculty member. SOTA leadership supports Black female tenure-track and tenured faculty…

  16. A Model of Spirituality for Ageing Muslims.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahjabeen; Khan, Shamsul

    2016-06-01

    Spirituality's influence on general well-being and its association with healthy ageing has been studied extensively. However, a different perspective has to be brought in when dealing with spirituality issues of ageing Muslims. Central to this perspective is the intertwining of religion and spirituality in Islam. This article will contribute to the understanding of the nature of Islamic spirituality and its immense importance in the life of a practicing ageing Muslim. Consequently, it will help care providers to include appropriate spiritual care in the care repertoire of a Muslim care recipient. It is assumed that the framework for a model of spirituality based on Islamic religious beliefs would help contextualise the relationship between spirituality and ageing Muslims. Not only challenges, but also the opportunities that old age provides for charting the spiritual journey have underpinned this model. PMID:25822881

  17. Cultural competence in nursing Muslim patients.

    PubMed

    Rassool, G Hussein

    Delivering high-quality care to Muslim patients involves having an awareness of the ramifications of the Islamic faith and Islamic beliefs. Nurses need to understand the implications of spiritual and cultural values for clinical practice. They should be aware of the need for modesty and privacy, the appropriate use of touch, dietary requirements and use of medications. This article reviews the key issues involved in delivering culturally competent care to Muslim patients. PMID:26182584

  18. On Strengthening Compassionate Care for Muslim Patients.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Danish

    2015-09-01

    In this piece, I contribute to an ongoing conversation on compassionate care for Muslim patients. I address the various barriers hindering such care and ways in which to work around them. In providing an introductory understanding of general Islamic beliefs on the definition of life, the use of palliative care, etc., I hope this reflection can offer insight into the general background of Muslim patients and spark interest in further reading and research. PMID:26463856

  19. Most Black women have a regular source of hair care--but not medical care.

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Ruth C.

    2006-01-01

    In this issue, Brown, Naman, Homel et al. present the results of an innovative community-based health education program that the Arthur Ashe Institute for Urban Health has conducted in African-American beauty salons since 1996. Black Pearls: The Health and Beauty of the Black Woman is a beauty-salon-based health education and screening program in Brooklyn, NY that has recently been replicated in West Philadelphia, PA. PMID:17052057

  20. Muslim and Non-Muslim Adolescents' Reasoning about Freedom of Speech and Minority Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk

    2008-01-01

    An experimental questionnaire study, conducted in the Netherlands, examined adolescents' reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Muslim minority and non-Muslim majority adolescents (12-18 years) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts. The group membership of participants had a clear effect. Muslim…

  1. Gaining Research Access into the Lives of Muslim Girls: Researchers Negotiating "Muslimness", Modesty, "Inshallah", and "Haram"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzeh, Manal Z.; Oliver, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of gaining research access into the lives of Muslim girls in the southwest USA. We discuss four emerging "entry markers" that challenged the process of gaining and sustaining access over a period of 14 months. These included being Muslim enough, being modest enough, "inshallah" ("Allah" or God willing), and "haram"…

  2. High HIV Prevalence Among Low-Income, Black Women in New York City with Self-Reported HIV Negative and Unknown Status

    PubMed Central

    Neaigus, Alan; Jenness, Samuel M.; Hagan, Holly; Wendel, Travis; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Black women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study investigates factors associated with newly identified HIV infection among previously self-reported HIV negative or unknown status black women living in high risk areas (HRAs) of New York City (NYC). Methods Heterosexuals residing in or socially connected to NYC HRAs were recruited using respondent driven sampling for participation in the United States Centers for Disease Control-sponsored National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in 2010. Eligible individuals were interviewed and offered an HIV test. The analysis reported here focused on black women with valid HIV results who did not report being HIV positive, and examined factors related to HIV infection in this group. Results Of 153 black women who did not report being HIV positive at enrollment, 15 (9.8%) tested HIV positive. Age ≥40 years, ever injected drugs, and in the last 12 months had unprotected vaginal sex, exchange sex, last sex partner used crack, non-injection crack use, and non-injection heroin use were significantly associated with HIV infection (p<0.05). Only ever injected drugs (prevalence ratio: 5.1; 95% confidence interval: 2.0, 12.9) was retained in the final model. Conclusions Black women who had reported being either HIV negative or unaware of their serostatus had high HIV prevalence. Efforts to identify and treat HIV positive black women in HRAs should target those with a history of injection drug use. Frequent testing for HIV should be promoted in HRAs. PMID:23931126

  3. Correlates of Obesity in Young Black and White Women: The CARDIA Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gregory L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)

  4. Opening the Black Box: Women's Empowerment and Innovative Secondary Education in Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Graham, Erin

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to clarify the relationship between education and women's empowerment. Drawing from qualitative data collected in a study of four Garifuna villages on the north coast of Honduras, it argues that education can trigger the empowerment process if it expands women's knowledge and understanding, self-confidence and awareness of gender…

  5. Differences in Health Behaviors of Hispanic, White, and Black Childbearing Women: Focus on the Hispanic Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Robin L.

    2007-01-01

    Maternal health behaviors such as substance use and sexual promiscuity can put the health of mothers and their offspring at risk. Sociodemographic factors including low socioeconomic status are also found to correlate with health risks for childbearing women. Hispanic women--particularly those less acculturated--often have sociodemographic risk…

  6. Emotional Responses to Racism: Reflections on a Study of 100 Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Melissa Ruth

    2001-01-01

    Examined African American women's physical and emotional responses to racism. Women from varying socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds completed anxiety questionnaires, rated their stress levels during a video on racial incidents in the U.S., and provided periodic heart and blood pressure measurements. The participants experienced heightened…

  7. Work Status, Work Satisfaction, and Blood Pressure Among Married Black and White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauenstein, Louise S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study examined blood pressure levels of married women in relation to such work-related variables as work load, satisfaction with work, reported strain, and evaluated performance. Differences in work load were unrelated to blood pressure levels. However, currently unemployed working women had lower levels. (Author)

  8. Increased Coronary Artery Disease Severity in Black Women Undergoing Coronary Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.; O’Neal, Wesley T.; Griffin, William F.; Anderson, Ethan J.; Davies, Stephen W.; Landrine, Hope; O’Neal, Jason B.; Shiue, Kristin Y.; Kindell, Linda C.; Bruce Ferguson, T.; Randolph Chitwood, W.; Kypson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Race and sex disparities are believed to play an important role in heart disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between race, sex, and number of diseased vessels at the time of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and subsequent postoperative outcomes. The 13,774 patients undergoing first-time, isolated CABG between 1992 and 2011 were included. Trend in the number of diseased vessels between black and white patients, stratified by sex, were analyzed using a Cochran–Armitage trend test. Models were adjusted for age, procedural status (elective vs. nonelective), and payor type (private vs. nonprivate insurance). Black female CABG patients presented with an increasingly greater number of diseased vessels than white female CABG patients (adjusted Ptrend = 0.0021). A similar trend was not observed between black and white male CABG patients (adjusted Ptrend = 0.18). Black female CABG patients were also more likely to have longer intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay than other race–sex groups. Our findings suggest that black female CABG patients have more advanced coronary artery disease than white female CABG patients. Further research is needed to determine the benefit of targeted preventive care and preoperative workup for this high-risk group. PMID:25700324

  9. Identifying barriers to Muslim integration in France

    PubMed Central

    Adida, Claire L.; Laitin, David D.; Valfort, Marie-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Is there a Muslim disadvantage in economic integration for second-generation immigrants to Europe? Previous research has failed to isolate the effect that religion may have on an immigrant family's labor market opportunities because other factors, such as country of origin or race, confound the result. This paper uses a correspondence test in the French labor market to identify and measure this religious effect. The results confirm that in the French labor market, anti-Muslim discrimination exists: a Muslim candidate is 2.5 times less likely to receive a job interview callback than is his or her Christian counterpart. A high-n survey reveals, consistent with expectations from the correspondence test, that second-generation Muslim households in France have lower income compared with matched Christian households. The paper thereby contributes to both substantive debates on the Muslim experience in Europe and methodological debates on how to measure discrimination. Following the National Academy of Sciences’ 2001 recommendations on combining a variety of methodologies and applying them to real-world situations, this research identifies, measures, and infers consequences of discrimination based on religious affiliation, controlling for potentially confounding factors, such as race and country of origin. PMID:21098283

  10. Mosque-Based Emotional Support Among Young Muslim Americans

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ann W.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.; Ahuvia, Aaron; Izberk-Bilgin, Elif; Lee, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on social support networks in religious settings (i.e., church-based social support), little is known about mosque-based support among Muslims. This study investigates the demographic and religious behavior correlates of mosque-based social support among a multi-racial and ethnic sample of 231 young Muslims from southeast Michigan. Several dimensions of mosque-based support are examined including receiving emotional support, giving emotional support, anticipated emotional support and negative interactions with members of one’s mosque. Results indicated that women both received and anticipated receiving greater support than did men. Higher educational attainment was associated with receiving and giving less support compared to those with the lowest level of educational attainment. Moreover, highly educated members reported fewer negative interactions than less educated members. Mosque attendance and level of congregational involvement positively predicted receiving, giving, and anticipated emotional support from congregants, but was unrelated to negative interactions. Overall, the study results converge with previously established correlates of church-based emotional support. PMID:25484457

  11. Relation of self-image to body size and weight loss attempts in black women: the CARDIA study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Riley, N M; Bild, D E; Cooper, L; Schreiner, P; Smith, D E; Sorlie, P; Thompson, J K

    1998-12-01

    It has been suggested that the prevalence of obesity in black women is high partly because self-image in black women is not strongly dependent on body size. To determine associations between self-image, body size, and dieting behavior among black women, the authors assessed an Appearance Evaluation Subscale (AES) score (range, 1-5), a Body Image Satisfaction (BIS) score (range, 2-11), and reported dieting behavior in a population-based sample of 1,143 black women aged 24-42 years from the fourth follow-up examination (1992-1993) of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Lower AES and BIS scores indicate poorer self-image and lower body size satisfaction, respectively. After adjustment for age, education, smoking, and physical activity, women in the lowest, middle, and highest tertiles of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) had mean AES scores of 3.7, 3.3, and 2.9, respectively (p < 0.001), and mean BIS scores of 7.8, 6.7, and 5.9, respectively (p < 0.001). After additional control for body mass index as a continuous variable, both AES and BIS scores were inversely related to ever dieting, current dieting, and previous weight loss of 10 pounds (4.5 kg) or more in all tertiles of body mass index. These results suggest that among black women, a higher body mass index is associated with poorer self-image and lower body size satisfaction and that these perceptions may be an avenue to promoting weight control. PMID:9850128

  12. PULMONARY RESPONSE OF WHITE AND BLACK MEN AND WOMEN TO SIX CONCENTRATIONS OF OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many early studies of respiratory responsiveness to ozone (O3) were done on healthy young white males. he purpose of this study was to determine if any gender or race difference in O3 response exist among white and black, males and females; and to develop concentration-response c...

  13. Enhancing Visibility in Graduate Education: Black Women' Perceptions of Inclusive Pedagogical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuitt, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research methods were used to develop a deeper understanding of how nine Black female graduate students described and understood the pedagogical practices they perceived as enhancing their visibility in the learning environment. Framed through Ralph Ellison's concept of invisibility, a modified grounded theory analytic approach was…

  14. Retention and Access Issues Affecting Black Women Attending Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De War, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported experiences of Black, female, undergraduate students at a small, predominantly White, Midwestern college in the United States in order to identify factors affecting retention. Specific attention was paid to how participants perceived the effects of personal and institutional factors in relation to their…

  15. Coping with Racism: What Works and Doesn't Work for Black Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Lindsey M.; Donovan, Roxanne A.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has deleterious effects on Black Americans. However, there is minimal empirical research on the influence of gender and coping on the relationship between PRD and mental health. This study posited that coping style (i.e., problem-focused coping and avoidant coping) would moderate the relationship between PRD…

  16. Reconsidering Campus Diversity: An Examination of Muslim Students' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Darnell; Ahmadi, Shafiqa

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether Muslim students' college experiences, GPA, and satisfaction were different from their non-Muslim peers. Muslim students were more engaged in diversity-related activities, but were less satisfied with their college experience than Jewish students. The implications suggest extending the scope of campus diversity beyond…

  17. Grief Counseling for Muslim Preschool and Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Abugideiri, Salma Elkadi

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Sunni Muslims' view of death, mourning and burial rituals, and accepted healing practices. Interventions for addressing death with Muslim children, group counseling, play therapy, and community outreach are discussed. A case study of interventions for coping with a preschool Muslim boy's death is provided.

  18. Teaching about Islam and Muslims While Countering Cultural Misrepresentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbih, Randa

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary global events of the War on Terror, the War on ISIS, and the United States contentious relationship with Muslim societies make it crucial to teach about Islam and Muslims in school. However, negative representations of Islam and Muslims often impede this process. Overcoming these challenges is critical for the development of…

  19. Quality and Features of Education in the Muslim World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Sayyed Farooq; Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; ud-Din, Miraj; Shahzad, Saqib; Ullah, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    The major purpose of this article was to disclose the quality of education in the Muslim world and try to clarify the misperceptions in the West and in the Muslim world about Islamic education. It also tries to highlight the efforts of Islamic scholars in filling the gaps between them. Education in the Muslim world and Islamic education have…

  20. Identity Politics, Justice and the Schooling of Muslim Girls: Navigating the Tensions between Multiculturalism, Group Rights and Feminism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the concerns expressed by three female Muslim educators who are support staff at an English comprehensive school. Consistent with the debates associated with multiculturalism, group rights and feminism, the article illuminates spaces of gender constraint and possibility within the discourses shaping these women's lives…

  1. From Hijab to Jilbab and the "Myth" of British Identity: Being Muslim in Contemporary Britain a Half-Generation on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haw, Kaye

    2009-01-01

    This paper is written as a return to the generation of young Muslim women who were participants in a piece of research carried just over a decade ago. Some of these original participants have been re-interviewed in 2007. The paper traces the shift in discourses around multiculturalism and identity, ethnicity and religion via two recent significant…

  2. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and likelihood of breast cancer among black and white women: a report from the Southern Community Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sarah S.; Matthews, Charles E.; Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Lipworth, Loren; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Increased physical activity has been shown to be protective for breast cancer although few studies have examined this association in black women. In addition, limited evidence to date indicates that sedentary behavior may be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. We examined sedentary behavior and physical activity in relation to subsequent incident breast cancer in a nested case-control study within 546 cases (374 among black women) and 2,184 matched controls enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were assessed via self-report at study baseline (2002–2009) using a validated physical activity questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate mutually adjusted odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for quartiles of sedentary and physical activity measures in relation to breast cancer risk. Being in the highest versus lowest quartile of total sedentary behavior (≥12 hours/day versus <5.5 hours/day) was associated with increased odds of breast cancer among white women (OR=1.94 [95% CI 1.01–3.70], p for trend=0.1) but not black women (OR=1.23 [95% CI 0.82–1.83], p for trend=0.6) after adjustment for physical activity. After adjustment for sedentary activity, greater physical activity was associated with reduced odds for breast cancer among white women (p for trend=0.03) only. In conclusion, independent of one another, sedentary behavior and physical activity are risk factors for breast cancer among white women. Differences in these associations between black and white women require further investigation. Reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity are potentially independent targets for breast cancer prevention interventions. PMID:23576427

  3. Racial Identity Attitudes, Womanist Identity Attitudes, and Self-Esteem in African American College Women Attending Historically Black Single-Sex and Coeducational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Sherry Kay

    2006-01-01

    This study examines racial identity attitudes, womanist identity attitudes, and self-esteem of 111 African American college women attending two historically Black higher educational institutions, one coeducational and one single-sex. The major findings indicate that pre-encounter and encounter attitudes of racial and womanist identity are…

  4. An Investigation into the Social Context of Low-Income, Urban Black and Latina Women: Implications for Adherence to Recommended Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Rachel C.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Allen, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n = 64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the…

  5. "Our Leaders Are Just We Ourself": Black Women College Student Leaders' Experiences with Oppression and Sources of Nourishment on a Predominantly White College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingue, Andrea D.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a theoretical analysis and phenomenological study of the leadership experiences of black women college students at a predominantly white higher education institution. Existing literature argues that leadership development is vital to the college experience as an opportunity to empower and engage students in social change.…

  6. Comparing Sexual Harassment Subtypes among Black and White Women by Military Rank: Double Jeopardy, the Jezebel, and the Cult of True Womanhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, NiCole T.; Settles, Isis H.; Woods, Krystle C.

    2008-01-01

    Drawing upon feminist analyses of double jeopardy and the cult of true womanhood, we examine race, rank, sexual harassment frequency, and psychological distress for Black and White female military personnel (N= 7,714). Results indicated that White women reported more overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and crude behavior, whereas Black…

  7. The politics of particularism: HBCUs, Spelman College, and the struggle to educate Black women in science, 1950--1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scriven, Olivia A.

    Since the close of World War II, higher education has been central to the growth of U.S. science, but the role of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) has been under-explored within this narrative. The nation's 105 HBCUs constitute less than one percent of the U.S. higher education community, but consistently have served as a major conduit for the production of African Americans in the sciences, technology, mathematics and engineering. National Science Foundation data reflect an average 29 percent share for the period 1994-2001. The output is even more striking when examined by degrees awarded in disciplinary clusters---50 percent in the agricultural sciences, 45 percent in the physical sciences and mathematics, and 42 percent in the biological sciences. This research explores the role of HBCUs in educating African Americans in science from the boosterism period shortly following World War II, through affirmative action legislation of the 1960s and 1970s, and concluding with current federal policies. A particular analysis is undertaken of Spelman College, a private liberal arts college founded by New England missionaries in the South during the late 19th century as a seminary for former slave women and girls. Spelman presents a unique case to analyze the particularistic characteristics of race, gender and institutional setting within the context of a so-called normative structure of science. Over a 25-year period, Spelman was able to rise beyond the structural limitations of its position as a Black college, a women's college, and a southern college to become one of the single most productive undergraduate institution for African American women earning the baccalaureate degree in science. What new perspectives might the Spelman story specifically and the history of HBCUs generally offer about the history of U.S. science, the notion that careers be open to talent, and current public policy discourse regarding efforts to increase the participation of

  8. Associations Between Religion-Related Factors and Breast Cancer Screening Among American Muslims

    PubMed Central

    Padela, Aasim I.; Murrar, Sohad; Adviento, Brigid; Liao, Chuanhong; Hosseinian, Zahra; Peek, Monica; Curlin, Farr

    2015-01-01

    American Muslims have low rates of mammography utilization, and research suggests that religious values influence their health-seeking behaviors. We assessed associations between religion-related factors and breast cancer screening in this population. A diverse group of Muslim women were recruited from mosques and Muslim organization sites in Greater Chicago to self-administer a survey incorporating measures of fatalism, religiosity, discrimination, and Islamic modesty. 254 surveys were collected of which 240 met age inclusion criteria (40 years of age or older). Of the 240, 72 respondents were Arab, 71 South Asian, 59 African American, and 38 identified with another ethnicity. 77 % of respondents had at least one mammogram in their lifetime, yet 37 % had not obtained mammography within the past 2 years. In multivariate models, positive religious coping, and perceived religious discrimination in healthcare were negatively associated with having a mammogram in the past 2 years, while having a PCP was positively associated. Ever having a mammogram was positively associated with increasing age and years of US residency, and knowing someone with breast cancer. Promoting biennial mammography among American Muslims may require addressing ideas about religious coping and combating perceived religious discrimination through tailored interventions. PMID:24700026

  9. The Face of Digital Literacy for Muslim Teenage Girls: A Comparative Study of Bradford Muslim Girl Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Javed; Hardaker, Glenn; Sabki, Aishah Ahmad; Elbeltagi, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper is grounded in a qualitative approach, to call forth the views of Muslim teenage girls on their access and use of learning technologies for inclusive educational practice. The 45 Muslim teenage girls, aged 14-19 years old, from three British Muslim girls schools participated in this empirical study. Semi-structured interviews were used…

  10. Reaching and Engaging Non-Gay Identified, Non-Disclosing Black Men who have Sex with both Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Ellen; Pass, Michael; Randolph, Doris; Murray, Deborah; Downing, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Non-gay identified (NGI) Black men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW) and use substances are at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV to their partners. Homophobic community norms can discourage such men from disclosing their risk behaviour to female partners and others, including service providers. It is important to understand the dynamics of risk in this vulnerable population, but research is challenged by the men’s need for secrecy. In this paper we report on successful efforts to recruit 33 non-disclosing, NGI Black MSMW for in-depth interviews concerning substance use, HIV risk and attitudes toward disclosing their risk behaviour. We employed targeted and referral sampling, with initial contacts and/or key informants drawn from several types of settings in New York City including known gay venues, community organisations, neighbourhood networks and the Internet. Key informant gatekeepers and the ability to establish rapport proved central to success. Perceived stigma is a source of social isolation, but men are willing to discuss their risk behaviour when they trust interviewers to protect their privacy and engage with them in a non-judgemental manner. Findings imply that the most effective prevention approaches for this population may be those that target risk behaviours without focusing on disclosure of sexual identities. PMID:22937767

  11. The Effect of Unions on the Employment of Blacks, Hispanics, and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Jonathan S.

    1985-01-01

    To investigate whether unions have helped or hindered the employment prospects of minorities and women, the author analyzes data on 1,273 California manufacturing plants for the period 1974-80. The main finding is that, with the exception of Hispanic females, unions have not been a significant impediment to minority or female blue-collar…

  12. Women's Sports Media, Self-Objectification, and Mental Health in Black and White Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Kristen; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2003-01-01

    Considers that sports media exposure may be linked to female adolescents' body perceptions. Tests this relationship from the perspective of objectification theory. Finds that self-objectification appears to be as problematic for adolescent girls as for college women, regardless of race or body mass. Focuses on self-objectification in adolescents…

  13. Standing on the Promises: A New Generation of Black Women Scholars in Educational Leadership and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Judy A.

    2012-01-01

    African-American women's leadership experiences and "herstories" are absent from the leadership canon. In the context of preparation, practice, and research, a few cornerstones of leadership (power, control, authority, and influence) have historically been used in a negative fashion to marginalize, silence, and erase the accomplishments of…

  14. Race-Related Stress, Racial Identity Attitudes, and Mental Health among Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Hollie L.; Cross, William E., Jr.; DeFour, Darlene C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether racial identity attitudes moderate the relationship between racist stress events, racist stress appraisal, and mental health. One hundred eighteen African American and 144 self-identified Caribbean women completed the Cross Racial Identity Scale, the Schedule of Racist Events, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the…

  15. "And Still We Rise…": Microaggressions and Intersectionality in the Study Abroad Experiences of Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Tasha Y.

    2015-01-01

    Racial microaggressions are racial slights and subtle insults aimed at people of color. These may be verbal, nonverbal, and/or visual, and may be automatic or unconscious. The term microaggression is also applied to women or other groups in society who experience oppression. While it has been established that students of color often face racial…

  16. The Declining Relative Status of Black Women Workers, 1980-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Raine

    2010-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, industrial restructuring led to a marked increase in wage inequality. Women, however, were not as negatively affected by declining manufacturing employment because their pay was relatively low within the industry, and their already high representation in the service sector provided access to newly created opportunities.…

  17. Psychology Meets Women's Studies, Greets Black Studies, Treats Queer Studies: Teaching Diversity and Sexuality across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Aaronette M.

    2006-01-01

    How does an African American feminist psychologist develop and promote an interdisciplinary sexuality course placing the experiences of African American women at the center of analysis while simultaneously maintaining its relevance to all students? This article provides answers by explaining how a course's title, perspective, structure, and…

  18. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population. PMID:26327468

  19. Muslim teachers' conceptions of evolution in several countries.

    PubMed

    Clément, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Using a questionnaire validated by the project Biohead-Citizen, where 15 questions are dedicated to evolution, we analyse Muslim teachers' conceptions of evolution in several countries. The first part compares nine francophone countries, with varying degrees of Muslim or Christian culture: France, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Cameroon and Gabon, and shows a strong contrast between France and the eight other countries. The second part compares Muslim and Christian teachers in the countries where the comparison is possible, finding no difference, or a few differences in Lebanon. The third part analyses the data related to the 2130 Muslim teachers sampled to identify the controlled parameters that can be correlated to their variations. The discussion is structured by three questions: Are Muslim countries, and Muslim teachers, more creationist than other ones? Is the teachers' knowledge related to their more or less creationist conceptions? Are Muslim teachers more creationist in European countries? PMID:23942829

  20. Academics Protest Jailing of Muslim Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasgreen, Allie

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the imprisonment of a Muslim former student on charges related to terrorism that has struck a chord among academics and public intellectuals. Syed Fahad Hashmi, a 28-year-old naturalized U.S. citizen born in Pakistan, is being held in solitary confinement at the Metropolitan Correctional Center in Manhattan, on multiple…

  1. Mental health issues of muslim americans.

    PubMed

    Basit, Abdul; Hamid, Mohammad

    2010-11-01

    The underpinning of all research leading to various schools of thought in the field of psychiatry and psychology is without doubt a product of Western professionals who represent the religio-cultural traditions, historical symbols, and narratives of Western society. Also, the major schools of psychotherapy emerged during an era of individualism and logical positivism reflecting the religious, ethical, and cultural heritage that has shaped the modern Western society. Consequently, the methods and techniques developed in the West may not be always suitable and effective for Muslim Americans. To respond to the growing needs of psychiatric problems encountered by Muslim Americans, many community social service centers have been established in the United States during the past two decades. We now have a growing body of research data suggesting how to tailor our field to the specific needs of this population. We will discuss what kind of emotional and psychiatric problems are most prevalent in Muslim Americans and explain the therapeutic approaches mental health professionals have used and the treatment strategies which have been found effective in the psychosocial rehabilitation of Muslim Americans. PMID:23864761

  2. Supporting Muslim Students in Secular Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlein, Candace; Chan, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of a study examining the challenges and opportunities of supporting Muslim students in secular public schools. Education is explored as a multifaceted interplay between home and family life, community resources, school programs and policies, and classroom lessons to investigate the curricular experiences of…

  3. Teachers and Teaching: A Contemporary Muslim Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogra, Imran

    2010-01-01

    This article appreciates Muhammad as an educator based on the primary sources of Islam with a view to establish teaching as a "sunnah" (practice) of Muhammad in particular and of other messengers in general. In so doing it advocates a reconceptualization for prospective and contemporary Muslim teachers. Consequently such a stance then becomes a…

  4. Father Involvement among Malay Muslims in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhari, Rumaya; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Talib, Mansor Abu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study of 989 fathers of school-going children aged 10 through 16 from intact families in rural and urban areas in Selangor, Malaysia. The study aims to explore the factors that affect father involvement among Malay Muslims. Results indicate that fathers' education, marital quality, and number of…

  5. Mental Health Issues of Muslim Americans

    PubMed Central

    Basit, Abdul; Hamid, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The underpinning of all research leading to various schools of thought in the field of psychiatry and psychology is without doubt a product of Western professionals who represent the religio-cultural traditions, historical symbols, and narratives of Western society. Also, the major schools of psychotherapy emerged during an era of individualism and logical positivism reflecting the religious, ethical, and cultural heritage that has shaped the modern Western society. Consequently, the methods and techniques developed in the West may not be always suitable and effective for Muslim Americans. To respond to the growing needs of psychiatric problems encountered by Muslim Americans, many community social service centers have been established in the United States during the past two decades. We now have a growing body of research data suggesting how to tailor our field to the specific needs of this population. We will discuss what kind of emotional and psychiatric problems are most prevalent in Muslim Americans and explain the therapeutic approaches mental health professionals have used and the treatment strategies which have been found effective in the psychosocial rehabilitation of Muslim Americans. PMID:23864761

  6. Effect of 24-week repeated short-time walking based training program on physical fitness of black Cameroonian obese women

    PubMed Central

    Guessogo, Wiliam R.; Temfemo, Abdou; Mandengue, Samuel H.; Assomo Ndemba, Peguy B.; Messina Ondoua, Regine T.; Hamadou, André; Etoundi-Ngoa, Laurent S.; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of a training program based on repetition of short-time walk sequences on cardiorespiratory response, physical performance and metabolic parameters in black Cameroonian obese women. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (body mass in-dex [BMI]>30 kg/m2) were divided into three groups: premenopausal (Pre-M; 39.7±7.9 yr; n=48), postmenopausal (Post-M; 55.0±2.5 yr; n=61) and control group (CONT; 48.7±9.4 yr; n=30). Only Pre-M and Post-M completed 24-week repeated short-time walking program. An-thropometric, cardiorespiratory, metabolic parameters, and the 6-min walk distance (6MWD) were measured at baseline (S1), 12 weeks follow-up (S2), and 2 days after the last session (S3). Significant changes were observed in weight, BMI, fatty mass and 6MWD in Pre-M and Post-M after 24 weeks. The waist and hip circumferences, percentages of water, muscle mass and bone mass changed in Post-M. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and forced expiratory volumes in 1 and 6 sec showed significant improvements in Pre-M and Post-M. High density lipoprotein increased only in Post-M (0.5±0.2 g/L vs 0.7±0.1 g/L, P=0.041). In conclusion, this training modality could constitute an option for obese women rehabilitation. PMID:27162770

  7. Effect of 24-week repeated short-time walking based training program on physical fitness of black Cameroonian obese women.

    PubMed

    Guessogo, Wiliam R; Temfemo, Abdou; Mandengue, Samuel H; Assomo Ndemba, Peguy B; Messina Ondoua, Regine T; Hamadou, André; Etoundi-Ngoa, Laurent S; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of a training program based on repetition of short-time walk sequences on cardiorespiratory response, physical performance and metabolic parameters in black Cameroonian obese women. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (body mass in-dex [BMI]>30 kg/m2) were divided into three groups: premenopausal (Pre-M; 39.7±7.9 yr; n=48), postmenopausal (Post-M; 55.0±2.5 yr; n=61) and control group (CONT; 48.7±9.4 yr; n=30). Only Pre-M and Post-M completed 24-week repeated short-time walking program. An-thropometric, cardiorespiratory, metabolic parameters, and the 6-min walk distance (6MWD) were measured at baseline (S1), 12 weeks follow-up (S2), and 2 days after the last session (S3). Significant changes were observed in weight, BMI, fatty mass and 6MWD in Pre-M and Post-M after 24 weeks. The waist and hip circumferences, percentages of water, muscle mass and bone mass changed in Post-M. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and forced expiratory volumes in 1 and 6 sec showed significant improvements in Pre-M and Post-M. High density lipoprotein increased only in Post-M (0.5±0.2 g/L vs 0.7±0.1 g/L, P=0.041). In conclusion, this training modality could constitute an option for obese women rehabilitation. PMID:27162770

  8. The Women Who Said, "I Am".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooks, Noliwe

    1988-01-01

    Conditions under which Black women have lived are examined. The Puritan ethic and economic conditions led to a view of Black women as immoral temptations. Later this was reenforced as Black women were given only menial jobs and excluded from participation in women's movements. Still, Black women have made significant contributions. (VM)

  9. Associations of Premenopausal Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy With Breast Cancer Among Black and White Women: The Carolina Breast Cancer Study, 1993-2001.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Whitney R; Nichols, Hazel B; Tse, Chiu Kit; Olshan, Andrew F; Troester, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    Black women experience higher rates of hysterectomy than other women in the United States. Although research indicates that premenopausal hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy decreases the risk of breast cancer in black women, it remains unclear how hysterectomy without ovary removal affects risk, whether menopausal hormone therapy use attenuates inverse associations, and whether associations vary by cancer subtype. In the population-based, case-control Carolina Breast Cancer Study of invasive breast cancer in 1,391 black (725 cases, 666 controls) and 1,727 white (939 cases, 788 controls) women in North Carolina (1993-2001), we investigated the associations of premenopausal hysterectomy and oophorectomy with breast cancer risk. Compared with no history of premenopausal surgery, bilateral oophorectomy and hysterectomy without oophorectomy were associated with lower odds of breast cancer (for bilateral oophorectomy, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.77; for hysterectomy without oophorectomy, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.55, 0.84). Estimates did not vary by race and were similar for hormone receptor-positive and hormone receptor-negative cancers. Use of estrogen-only menopausal hormone therapy did not attenuate the associations. Premenopausal hysterectomy, even without ovary removal, may reduce the long-term risk of hormone receptor-positive and hormone receptor-negative breast cancers. Varying rates of hysterectomy are a potentially important contributor to differences in breast cancer incidence among racial/ethnic groups. PMID:27555487

  10. Antioxidant enzyme activity is associated with blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness in black men and women: The SABPA study.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, Caitlynd; Huisman, Hugo W; Mels, Catharina M C

    2016-05-01

    In the urbanized black population of South Africa, oxidative stress may play a crucial role in the development of hypertension. Since oxidative stress may result from impaired antioxidant capacity we aimed to investigate antioxidant enzyme activity as well as its associations with vascular function and structure in a bi-ethnic population. Participants included 409 subjects almost equally stratified by ethnicity and sex. Blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) were measured and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities were determined. GR activity was significantly higher in black men (7.71 nmol/min/ml vs 2.23 nmol/min/ml) and women (6.46 nmol/min/ml vs 2.86 nmol/min/ml) (p < 0.001) when compared to their white counterparts. In black women, GPx activity was significantly lower (p < 0.001) when compared to white women (31.9 nmol/min/ml vs 37.1 nmol/min/ml). In black men, cIMT was positively and independently associated with GR activity (R(2) = 0.30; β = 0.18; p = 0.048). In black women, systolic blood pressure (R(2) = 0.21; β = -0.24; p = 0.014), diastolic blood pressure (R(2) = 0.11; β = -0.20; p = 0.044) and mean arterial pressure (R(2) = 0.20; β = -0.31; p = 0.002) were inversely associated with GPx activity. No associations were found in the white groups. The positive association between GR activity and cIMT in black men may be the result of a compensatory response to prevent arterial remodelling. The inverse association between GPx activity and blood pressure in black women may indicate a role for decreased GPx activity in hypertension development in this population. PMID:26990726

  11. Muslim refugees in Southeast Asia, the Malaysian response.

    PubMed

    Dorall, R F

    1988-01-01

    This article surveys the arrivals of Muslim refugees from countries in Southeast Asia who have not only come to Malaysia for political refuge, but who have also stayed on, in many instances integrating into the local Muslim community. The author concludes that Burmese, Thai, and Filipino Muslim refugee-cum-migrants, and the estimated 500,000 illegal Indonesian migrant workers in East and Peninsular Malaysia make the presence of economic migrants in Malaysia's towns and rural sectors a far more pressing concern to Malaysians than that posed by the arrival of genuine political refugees. Only the Indonesians present in Malaysia are consistently termed by all parties as illegal migrants and some of them have been subjected to well-publicized deportation by the Malaysian immigration authorities. Sympathy for fellow-Muslims in distress explains Malaysia's open-door policy to Muslim refugees. The Koran specifically enjoins Muslims to assist Muslim refugees who have been persecuted by others. However, the necessity to maintain regional political and military alliances, principally as a bulwark against Communism, and the Malay--Non-Malay, Muslim--Non-Muslim dichotomy in Malaysia which almost evenly divides Malaysia's 16 million population into mutually antagonistic halves, results in any overt public policy in favor of Malays and Muslims to be immediately denounced by the other half of the population as a move against the Non-Malays and Non-Muslims. Without political and media attention, the refugees live wherever they can find work, as do hundreds of thousands of mainly Indonesian illegal migrant workers. They surreptitiously get their children admitted to public schools, and through bribery, can even get Malaysian identification papers. Malaysia is a relatively tranquil haven for Malaysia's Muslim refugees compared to their homelands, but their continued stay remains dependent on the ever-present struggle for more equitable sharing of political and economic power between

  12. Recruiting Black Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women (BMSMW) in an Urban Setting for HIV Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Asare Bempong, Gerald; Ramamurthi, Hema C.; McCuller, Jason; Williams, John K; Harawa, Nina T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Concerns related to stigma and confidentiality limit HIV-related study recruitment and retention of Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). This paper examines lessons learned from recruitment strategies utilized in enrolling 437 participants between 2007 and 2011 for a randomized controlled trial to test a culturally specific HIV risk-reduction intervention for Black MSMW. Methods Interested respondents completed a brief screener and participants completed surveys at baseline and at post, 3 and 6 months follow-up. Recruitment patterns were assessed by examining the source of study information reported when respondents were asked how they learned about the study. Chi-square tests were then conducted to examine differences in the distribution of participants by self-reported HIV status, age group and socio-economic status (SES) for each type of study information source. Results Regardless of HIV or SES, study respondents were more likely to have received information about the study through a service agency than from other sources. Participants ages 30–49 and 50+ years were most likely to have learned about the study from an agency (34.9% and 27.0%, respectively) or another participant/friend (20.1%, 23.1%) and least likely to have found out from bus (0.8%, 0.0%) or radio (1.3%, 0.0%) advertisements; whereas younger participants were more likely to have heard about the study through a friend/participant (23.4%) than an agency (15.4%). Although, 14.1% of participants’ ages less than 30 years reported the Internet as their source of study information, this compared to just 2.7% and 4.8% for participants in the 30–49 and 50-plus age groups. Conclusions While agencies and referrals from personal networks appear to be the most significant recruitment source for potential HIV research participants, there is evidence that Internet based tools may enhance recruitment, particularly among younger Black MSMW. PMID:25984392

  13. Black Writers' Views of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Angela

    1979-01-01

    Contrary to their portrayal in "Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman," Black women were not passive in the Black liberation movement of the 1960s. Wallace does not acknowledge the organizing efforts of both Black men and women to challenge racism and sexism within the larger capitalist system. (Author/EB)

  14. Uncovering Black Womanhood in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sheree L.; Espino, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing research that outlines the experiences of Blacks and women undergraduates in engineering, little is known about Black women in this field. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover how eight Black undergraduate women in engineering understood their race and gender identities in a culture that can be oppressive to…

  15. Muslim and Hindu Women’s Public and Private Behaviors: Gender, Family and Communalized Politics in India

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda

    2015-01-01

    Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship between gender, family and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of “doing gender”, it argues that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors such as household decision making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender. PMID:25143018

  16. The Role of Lifestyle and Psycho-Social Factors in Predicting Changes in Body Composition in Black South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Norris, Shane A.; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Crowther, Nigel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine whether lifestyle and psycho-social factors determine changes in body composition over 10 years in a population of black African females with a high prevalence of obesity. Materials and Methods Data were collected from 430 women at baseline and 10-year follow-up. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived body fat mass and fat free soft tissue mass, and simple anthropometric measures were taken at both time points. Data on physical activity (PA), diet, smoking, and alcohol intake were collected at baseline. Body size dissatisfaction and body size discrepancy were determined at baseline using the feel minus ideal (FID) index and the perceived minus actual weight status discrepancy score (PAD), respectively. Results All body composition measurements increased over 10 years (p<0.0005). Two distinct groups of overweight/obese females were identified using PAD and FID: one that was content with their body size and one that wished to be leaner. Vigorous PA at baseline was inversely associated with absolute changes in all measures of adiposity. In subjects who underestimated their body size at baseline (74.0% of the study population) changes in total and peripheral levels of body fat were less than in subjects who correctly identified their body size. In the group that underestimated body size, more women wanted to be leaner than in the group who knew their body size (60.1% vs 47.5%, p<0.05). Conclusions Underestimation of body size is common and is associated with a lower gain in total body adiposity and a prevalent desire to lose weight. PMID:26171972

  17. Childhood sexual experiences among substance-using non-gay identified Black men who have sex with men and women

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Ellen; Downing, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored potential variations in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) by examining qualitative accounts of first sexual experiences among non-disclosing, non-gay identified Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). We analyzed data from semi-structured qualitative interviews with 33 MSMW who described first sexual experiences with male and female partners. Thematic analysis revealed four patterns of first sexual experiences including: unwanted sexual experiences with a male or female consistent with definitions of childhood sexual abuse; consensual sex with an older male or female; bodily exploration with another male or female child; and, consensual sex with a peer-age female. Most of the experiences described by participants as consensual with an older male or female, however, met criteria for childhood sexual abuse found in the extant literature. Several men discussed childhood sexual experiences (CSE) relative to their experiences with alcohol, drugs, and same-sex behavior as adults. Findings suggest that the relationship between CSE and risk-taking behavior may be shaped by whether men perceive their experiences as abusive or consensual, and have implications for researchers, treatment providers and counselors. PMID:23768936

  18. Childhood sexual experiences among substance-using non-gay identified Black men who have sex with men and women.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Ellen; Downing, Martin J

    2013-09-01

    This study explored potential variations in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) by examining qualitative accounts of first sexual experiences among non-disclosing, non-gay identified Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). We analyzed data from semi-structured qualitative interviews with 33 MSMW who described first sexual experiences with male and female partners. Thematic analysis revealed four patterns of first sexual experiences including: unwanted sexual experiences with a male or female consistent with definitions of childhood sexual abuse; consensual sex with an older male or female; bodily exploration with another male or female child; and consensual sex with a peer-age female. Most of the experiences described by participants as consensual with an older male or female, however, met criteria for childhood sexual abuse found in the extant literature. Several men discussed childhood sexual experiences (CSE) relative to their experiences with alcohol, drugs, and same-sex behavior as adults. Findings suggest that the relationship between CSE and risk-taking behavior may be shaped by whether men perceive their experiences as abusive or consensual, and have implications for researchers, treatment providers and counselors. PMID:23768936

  19. Muslim nursing homes in the United States: barriers and prospects.

    PubMed

    Alfarah, Ziad; Ramadan, Fadi H; Cury, Emily; Brandeis, Gary H

    2012-02-01

    Historically, many nursing homes in the United States have been established by religious groups. This was done to provide care for the elderly when care could not be furnished in other venues. Despite several attempts reported in the literature, there are currently no Muslim nursing homes in the United States. In the Arab and Muslim world, the acceptance and success of such an institution has been somewhat variable. As the Arab Muslim population in the United States ages and becomes more frail, the Muslim community will have to evaluate the need to establish nursing homes to provide care for elderly. PMID:21889415

  20. Body size across the life course and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer in Black women, the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, 1993–2001

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Whitney R.; Tse, Chiu Kit; Olshan, Andrew F.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    It is believed that greater adiposity is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal but increased risk in postmenopausal women. However, few studies have evaluated these relationships among Black women or examined anthropometric measures other than near-diagnosis body mass index (BMI). PURPOSE This study investigated associations between measures of body size across the life course and breast cancer risk among Black and White women living in the U.S. South. METHODS We used data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study of invasive breast cancer in North Carolina women aged 20–74 years. We assessed nine body size variables, including age 10 relative weight; age 18 BMI; adult weight gain; “reference” BMI 1 year before interview; and post-diagnosis measured BMI and abdominal obesity measures. RESULTS Among premenopausal Whites, heavier childhood relative weight was associated with decreased cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]=0.48 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.33–0.70]). Among premenopausal Blacks, greater adult waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were associated with increased risk (waist OR=1.40 [1.00–1.97] and high tertile WHR OR=2.03 [1.29–3.19]), with associations for WHR in a similar direction in Whites. Among postmenopausal women, recalled body size was not associated with risk, except for increased risk associated with adult weight gain among White non-hormone therapy users. ER/PR status and hormone therapy use also modified other associations. DISCUSSION In this population, greater adult BMI was not associated with increased breast cancer risk, but some measures of early-life body size and abdominal obesity were associated with risk. PMID:24924530

  1. Prevalence and health implications of anti-gay discrimination: a study of black and white women and men in the CARDIA cohort. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N; Sidney, S

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of self-reported experiences of discrimination based on sexual orientation among black and white women and men (25 to 37 years old) who are members of CARDIA, a multisite longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk factors. Among the 1,724 participants who responded to a 1989 questionnaire obtaining data on lifetime number of sexual partners and who participated in the Year 7 exam (1992-1993), which included questions about discrimination, 204 (12 percent) reported having at least one same-sex sexual partner: 27 (7 percent) of the 412 black women, 13 (6 percent) of the 221 black men, 87 (14 percent) of the 619 white women, and 77 (16 percent) of the 472 white men. Among these four groups, 33, 39, 52, and 56 percent, respectively, reported having experience discrimination based on sexual orientation. Additionally, 85 percent of black women and 77 percent of the black men reported having experienced racial discrimination, and 89 percent of the black women and 88 percent of the white women reported having experience gender discrimination. In the light of research associating negative stressors with poor health outcomes, including elevated blood pressure, future studies should assess public health implications of discrimination based on sexual orientation, in conjunction with racial and gender discrimination. PMID:9031018

  2. Recruiting and Retaining Arab Muslim Mothers and Children for Research

    PubMed Central

    Aroian, Karen J.; Katz, Anne; Kulwicki, Anahid

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To describe successful and not-so-successful strategies for recruiting and retaining Arab Muslim immigrant women and their adolescent children for research. Design and Methods A longitudinal study of mother-child adjustment of Arab immigrants to the US is used for illustration. A panel of experts was assembled and provided culturally specific advice about gatekeepers, advertising, data collectors, data collection, and how to track and encourage participation at subsequent time points in the study. Findings Most of the strategies recommended by the panel were overwhelmingly positive, including advice about data collectors, how to collect data, financial incentives, avoiding offending families, and personal contacts. Hiring data collectors who were able to establish personal and culturally appropriate relationships with study participants was the single most successful recruitment and retention strategy. Advice from cultural experts about which gatekeepers to engage and how to advertise for study participants was not productive. Conclusions Researchers should not only assemble a panel of cultural experts to provide advice about group specific strategies to build trust and maintain cultural sensitivity, but also to budget generously for time for data collectors to build and maintain rapport with study populations who, like Arab immigrant women, highly value personal relationships. PMID:17044343

  3. The Experience of Antiretroviral Treatment for Black West African Women who are HIV Positive and Living in London: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Johanna; Smith, Jonathan A; Poliquin, Elizabeth; Anderson, Jane; Horne, Rob

    2016-09-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) offers a powerful intervention in HIV but effectiveness can be compromised by inadequate adherence. This paper is a detailed examination of the experience of medication in a purposively selected group of people living with HIV. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 HIV positive, West African women of black heritage living in London, UK. This group was of interest since it is the second largest group affected by HIV in the UK. Interviews were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis, an idiographic, experiential, qualitative approach. The paper details the women's negative experience of treatment. ART can be considered difficult and unrelenting and may be disconnected from the women's sense of health or illness. Participants' social context often exacerbated the difficulties. Some reported an improvement in their feelings about the medication over time. These findings point to some intrinsic and social motivators which could act as spurs to adherence. PMID:26767539

  4. Women's Earnings: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, women's real earnings rose whereas those of men declined. Even as the gender pay gap narrowed, earnings differences between white women and black and Hispanic women continued to grow. (Author)

  5. Breast cancers from black women exhibit higher numbers of immunosuppressive macrophages with proliferative activity and of crown-like structures associated with lower survival compared to non-black Latinas and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Santander, Ana M; Miao, Feng; Sanchez, Lidia G; Jorda, Merce; Glück, Stefan; Ince, Tan A; Nadji, Mehrad; Chen, Zhibin; Penichet, Manuel L; Cleary, Margot P; Torroella-Kouri, Marta

    2016-07-01

    Racial disparities in breast cancer incidence and outcome are a major health care challenge. Patients in the black race group more likely present with an early onset and more aggressive disease. The occurrence of high numbers of macrophages is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in solid malignancies. Macrophages are observed in adipose tissues surrounding dead adipocytes in "crown-like structures" (CLS). Here we investigated whether the numbers of CD163+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and/or CD163+ CLS are associated with patient survival and whether there are significant differences across blacks, non-black Latinas, and Caucasians. Our findings confirm that race is statistically significantly associated with the numbers of TAMs and CLS in breast cancer, and demonstrate that the highest numbers of CD163+ TAM/CLS are found in black breast cancer patients. Our results reveal that the density of CD206 (M2) macrophages is a significant predictor of progression-free survival univariately and is also significant after adjusting for race and for HER2, respectively. We examined whether the high numbers of TAMs detected in tumors from black women were associated with macrophage proliferation, using the Ki-67 nuclear proliferation marker. Our results reveal that TAMs actively divide when in contact with tumor cells. There is a higher ratio of proliferating macrophages in tumors from black patients. These findings suggest that interventions based on targeting TAMs may not only benefit breast cancer patients in general but also serve as an approach to remedy racial disparity resulting in better prognosis patients from minority racial groups. PMID:27283835

  6. Schooling Options for Muslim Children Living in Muslim-Minority Countries--A Thematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musharraf, Muhammad Nabeel; Nabeel, Fatima Bushra

    2015-01-01

    Islamic education of children is a common problem faced by Muslims living in western, European and other developed countries as minority. It can be due to a number of factors such as unavailability of Islamic schools at a particular location, lack of enough number of students to warrant opening a full-fledged Islamic school, curriculum legislated…

  7. Teachers' Perspectives on the Education of Muslim Students: A Missing Voice in Muslim Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niyozov, Sarfaroz; Pluim, Gary

    2009-01-01

    This article builds on an extensive review of the comparative and international literature on teachers' perspectives on the education of Muslim students in public, Catholic, and Islamic schools. Bringing the teachers' voices and practices to the attention of researchers, policy makers, and general readers, the authors emphasize the centrality of…

  8. Helping Muslim Boys Succeed: The Case for History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Matthew L. N.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that Muslim boys have become the "New Folk Devils" of British education, who are characterised by resistance to formal education, especially at secondary level, and under-achievement. Since the 1990s, British Muslim boys would appear to have become increasingly alienated from compulsory schooling, especially in…

  9. Educational Strategies among Muslims in the Context of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun, Holger, Ed.; Walford, Geoffrey, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This volume deals with Islamic conceptualization of knowledge, various types of Islamic education; and educational strategies among selected groups of Muslims in Islamized countries (Pakistan, Iran, Morocco, Senegal, and so on) as well as countries in Europe where Muslims form important minorities. The first chapter gives an overview of Islamic…

  10. Perceptions of Female Muslim Students Who Veil: Campus Religious Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seggie, Fatma Nevra; Sanford, Gretchen

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a small qualitative case study that examined the perceptions of undergraduate Muslim American and Muslim international female students regarding the campus religious climate in a predominantly Christian four-year research university. Specifically, it seeks to understand the opportunities and challenges of female Muslim…

  11. Sunni-Muslim American Religious Development during Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etengoff, Chana; Daiute, Colette

    2013-01-01

    Islam is one of the fastest growing religions in America, with approximately 6 to 7 million Muslims living in America within the past decade. However, there has been little psychological research conducted focusing on the development of the Muslim American self. This inquiry addresses that gap by focusing on how familial religious affiliation…

  12. Religion and Education Gender Gap: Are Muslims Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajj, Mandana; Panizza, Ugo

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses individual-level data and a differences-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys and…

  13. Religious Identity Formation among Bangladeshi American Muslim Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhury, Sadia R.; Miller, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Although Islam is the fastest growing religion in America, very little research has been conducted on the lived experiences of Muslim-Americans. In this pilot study, the first of its kind, the process of religious identity formation among Bangladeshi-American Muslim adolescents is explored. Sixteen participants (6 males) completed semistructured…

  14. An Exploratory Study of Muslim Girls' Understanding of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Z.; Bhana, K.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship between age and understanding of death among 20 Muslim girls aged 7 and 8 and 20 Muslim girls aged 9 and 10. Girls completed biographical inventory, classification and conservation tasks, and death understanding questionnaire. Found significant differences in children's understanding of life in hereafter and ideas…

  15. Highly-Valued Reasons Muslim Caregivers Choose Evangelical Christian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaugh, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated what were the most highly-valued reasons among Muslim caregivers for sending their children to Lebanese evangelical Christian schools. Muslim caregivers (N = 1,403) from four Lebanese evangelical Christian schools responded to determine what were the most highly-valued reasons for sending their children to an evangelical…

  16. Profiles of British Muslim Identity: Adolescent Girls in Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutnik, Nimmi; Street, Rebecca Coran

    2010-01-01

    By asking students to fill in 10 statements beginning with "I am..." and a further 10 statements beginning with "I am not..." we constructed profiles of British Muslim ethnic and national identity. Participants were 108 British Muslim girls of mean age 12.6 years studying in a single sex girls' school in Birmingham, UK. Using content analysis we…

  17. Prevalence and correlates of adult overweight in the Muslim world: analysis of 46 countries.

    PubMed

    Kahan, D

    2015-04-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to calculate overweight prevalence (body mass index ≥ 25.0) and simple correlations between 10 demographic, social welfare and behavioural variables and overweight prevalence for Muslim countries (populations >50% Muslim; N = 46). Overweight data for a country's total, male and female populations were extracted from the World Health Organization's (WHO) STEPwise country reports and relevant publications. Country-level data for potential correlates were extracted from multiple sources: Central Intelligence Agency (literacy), Gallup Poll (religiosity), United Nations (agricultural employment, food supply, gender inequality, human development), World Bank (automobile ownership, Internet, labour force) and WHO (physical inactivity). The overall, male and female overweight prevalence was 37.4, 33.0 and 42.1%, respectively. Prevalence estimates significantly differed by economic classification, gender and ethnicity. Middle- and upper income countries were 1.54-7.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-8.07) times more likely overweight than low-income countries, females were 1.48 (CI: 1.45-1.50) times more likely overweight than males and Arab countries were 2.92 (CI: 2.86-2.97) times more likely overweight than non-Arab countries. All 10 of the potential correlates were significantly associated with overweight for at least one permutation (total, economic classification, gender, ethnicity). The greater percentage of poorer countries among non-Arab Muslim countries, which compared with Arab countries have not as rapidly been transformed by globalization, nutrition transition and urbanization, may partially explain prevalence differences. Evaluation of correlational data generally followed associations seen in non-Muslim countries but more complex analysis of subnational data is needed. Arab women are a particularly vulnerable subgroup and governments should act within religious and cultural parameters to provide

  18. Cognitive appraisal vs. exposure-based stress measures: links to perceived mental and physical health in low-income black women.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Lenwood W; Lucas, Todd; Porcerelli, John H

    2014-11-01

    Although stress is linked to mental and physical health, self-reports of stress may be operationalized using measures that emphasize cognitive appraisals of stressors or that simply record stressor exposure. Theory and research suggest that appraisal-based measures may be superior in measuring self-reports of stress. However, use of exposure-based measures persists, especially in ethnic disparities research. This study examined the utility of appraisal-based versus exposure-based stress measures in linking stress to mental and physical health in low-income black women. Measures emphasizing cognitive appraisals were superior in predicting mental and physical health because global stress rating best predicted physical health whereas mental health was best predicted by perceived stress. A checklist of exposure to stressful events was not substantially predictive of either mental or physical health, suggesting that cognitive appraisals of stressors are important in linking stress to health perceptions in blacks. The results also suggest that stress impacts mental health first, which then, in turn, influences physical health. Overall, these results illuminate the importance of cognitive appraisals in linking stress to perceptions of mental and physical health in black women. PMID:25275345

  19. "To Participate or Not to Participate?"--Status and Perception of Physical Education among Muslim Arab-Israeli Secondary School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid Husny; Rigbi, Amihai

    2009-01-01

    It is widely reported that physical education (PE) is less popular among girls than boys. This is sometimes accounted for with reference to puberty-related physical changes associated with growing awareness of gender stereotypes. When it comes to societies which are conservative regarding women's role, such as the Muslim Arab-Israeli society, a…

  20. The puzzle of Muslim advantage in child survival in India.

    PubMed

    Bhalotra, Sonia; Valente, Christine; van Soest, Arthur

    2010-03-01

    The socioeconomic status of Indian Muslims is, on average, considerably lower than that of upper-caste Hindus. Muslims nevertheless exhibit substantially higher child survival rates, and have done for decades. This paper analyses this seeming puzzle. A decomposition of the survival differential confirms that some compositional effects favour Muslims but that, overall, differences in characteristics and especially the Muslim deficit in parental education predict a Muslim disadvantage. The results of this study contribute to a recent literature that debates the importance of socioeconomic status (SES) in determining health and survival. They augment a growing literature on the role of religion or culture as encapsulating important unobservable behaviours or endowments that influence health, indeed, enough to reverse the SES gradient that is commonly observed. PMID:19969383

  1. Associations Between Religion-Related Factors and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslims in Greater Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Padela, Aasim I.; Peek, Monica; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista E.; Hosseinian, Zahra; Curlin, Farr

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess rates of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing and associations between religion-related factors and these rates among a racially and ethnically diverse sample of American Muslim women. Materials and Methods A community-based participatory research design was used in partnering with the Council of Islamic Organizations of Greater Chicago to recruit Muslim women attending mosque and community events. These participants self-administered surveys incorporating measures of fatalism, religiosity, perceived discrimination, Islamic modesty, and a marker of Pap test use. Results A total of 254 survey respondents were collected with nearly equal numbers of Arabs, South Asians, and African American respondents. Of these respondents, 84% had obtained a Pap test in their lifetime, with individuals who interpret disease as a manifestation of God’s punishment having a lower odds of having had Pap testing after controlling for sociodemographic factors (odds ratio [OR] = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.77–1.0). In multivariate models, living in the United States for more than 20 years (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 1.4–16) and having a primary care physician (OR = 7.7, 95% CI = 2.5–23.4) were positive predictors of having had a Pap test. Ethnicity, fatalistic beliefs, perceived discrimination, and modesty levels were not significantly associated with Pap testing rates. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess Pap testing behaviors among a diverse sample of American Muslim women and to observe that negative religious coping (e.g., viewing health problems as a punishment from God) is associated with a lower odds of obtaining a Pap test. The relationship between religious coping and cancer screening behaviors deserves further study so that religious values can be appropriately addressed through cancer screening programs. PMID:24914883

  2. "Because I Am Muslim, I Cannot Wear a Swimsuit:" Muslim Girls Negotiate Participation Opportunities for Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzeh, Manal; Oliver, Kimberly L.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the works of postcolonial critical feminist and Arab Muslim feminist scholars, we discuss in this paper how 4 Muslim girls (ages 14-17 years) negotiated their participation in opportunities for physical activity. Data collection methods included self-mapping questionnaires, digital photos, private journal entries, and recordings of…

  3. Sketching Muslims: A Corpus Driven Analysis of Representations around the Word "Muslim" in the British Press 1998-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Paul; Gabrielatos, Costas; McEnery, Tony

    2013-01-01

    This article uses methods from corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis to examine patterns of representation around the word "Muslim" in a 143 million word corpus of British newspaper articles published between 1998 and 2009. Using the analysis tool Sketch Engine, an analysis of noun collocates of "Muslim" found that the following…

  4. An Investigation into the Social Context of Low-income, Urban Black and Latina Women: Implications for Adherence to Recommended Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower-income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n=64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the experience of requiring diagnostic follow-up after having an abnormal screening mammogram. In addition to holding negative and fatalistic cancer-related beliefs, we found that the social context of these women was largely defined by multiple challenges and major life stressors that interfered with their ability to attain health. Factors commonly mentioned included competing health issues, economic hardship, demanding caretaking responsibilities and relationships, insurance-related challenges, distrust of healthcare providers, and inflexible work policies. Black women also reported discrimination and medical mistrust, while Latinas experienced difficulties associated with immigration and social isolation. These results suggest that effective health interventions not only address change among individuals, but must also change healthcare systems and social policies in order to reduce health disparities. PMID:21856885

  5. The Black Woman's Burden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Not even the first lady of the most powerful nation in the world is immune to stereotypes that have plagued Black women since first setting foot on American soil. Stereotypes of being the "angry Black woman" and curiosity about differences in appearance still persist from the academy to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. As African-American women rise in…

  6. Women's rights: eternal principles, changing forms.

    PubMed

    1993-11-17

    A rising movement within Islam is to turn back to Islamic values and to inject them into everyday life. Another movement gaining popularity is a campaign to grant women improved status. The two movements argue about how to interpret the prerogatives and duties of women addressed in the Koran. The tension between the two movements often threatens social harmony. Muslim communities have different laws and regulations to protect females and to nurture their lives, but they often cause inequalities and become obsolete or impractical. For example, in Malaysia, Muslim women can be theologians and teachers, but not clergy. Many think that Islam prevents them from divorce and allows their husbands to abuse them. Perhaps all leading Islamic scholars should meet to discuss and then agree on Koranic interpretations that would regulate all aspects of social interaction. They must abhor any violation of basic rights, e.g., denying education to females. Any answers to gender inequalities within Islam must be based in Muslim realities. In Malaysia, Sisters of Islam, a Muslim professional group, want a comprehensive gender policy that considers contemporary realities and Muslim culture. They point out that past interpretations of laws may no longer be pertinent, especially since women did not work outside the home in the 7th century. A male Muslim made a commentary that Allah's message does not change over time, but its form may change according to the needs and exigencies of the time. Thus, Islamic leaders can invoke new decrees to conform to modern situations. Pakistanis have done so with usury laws to allow a modern banking system to operate properly. Muslim women are in the forefront of the debate and try to change the system from within while preserving harmony. Men must remember that everyone is equal before God. PMID:12287494

  7. Muslims in America: Identity, Diversity and the Challenge of Understanding. 2001 Carnegie Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afridi, Sam

    This paper discusses challenges and opportunities facing Muslims in the United States, where between 5 to 8 million Muslims live (the fastest growing religion in the country). American Muslims face many challenges, and the public has little understanding of the teachings and practice of Islam. Muslims are prone to negative stereotypes, ethnic…

  8. All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Cancer Mortality Rates in Postmenopausal White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian Women With and Without Diabetes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yunsheng; Hébert, James R.; Balasubramanian, Raji; Wedick, Nicole M.; Howard, Barbara V.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Liu, Simin; Bird, Chloe E.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Ockene, Judith K.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Phillips, Lawrence S.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Garcia, Lorena; Ockene, Ira S.; Merriam, Philip A.; Sepavich, Deidre M.; Mackey, Rachel H.; Johnson, Karen C.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Women's Health Initiative (1993–2009; n = 158,833 participants, of whom 84.1% were white, 9.2% were black, 4.1% were Hispanic, and 2.6% were Asian), we compared all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality rates in white, black, Hispanic, and Asian postmenopausal women with and without diabetes. Cox proportional hazard models were used for the comparison from which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed. Within each racial/ethnic subgroup, women with diabetes had an approximately 2–3 times higher risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality than did those without diabetes. However, the hazard ratios for mortality outcomes were not significantly different between racial/ethnic subgroups. Population attributable risk percentages (PARPs) take into account both the prevalence of diabetes and hazard ratios. For all-cause mortality, whites had the lowest PARP (11.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 10.1, 12.1), followed by Asians (12.9, 95% CI: 4.7, 20.9), blacks (19.4, 95% CI: 15.0, 23.7), and Hispanics (23.2, 95% CI: 14.8, 31.2). To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show that hazard ratios for mortality outcomes were not significantly different between racial/ethnic subgroups when stratified by diabetes status. Because of the “amplifying” effect of diabetes prevalence, efforts to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in the rate of death from diabetes should focus on prevention of diabetes. PMID:24045960

  9. "Just Because It's Out There, People Aren't Going to Use It." HIV Self-Testing Among Young, Black MSM, and Transgender Women.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Wilton, Leo; Hirshfied, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Usher, DaShawn; Lucy, Debbie; McCrossin, Jermaine; Greene, Emily; Koblin, Beryl; Kobin, Beryl

    2015-11-01

    HIV disproportionately affects young black MSM and transgender women in the US. Increasing HIV testing rates among these populations is a critical public health goal. Although HIV self-tests are commercially available, there is a need to better understand access to and uptake of HIV self-testing among this population. Here, we report results of a qualitative study of 30 young black MSM and transgender women residing in the New York City area to understand facilitators of and barriers to a range of HIV testing approaches, including self-testing. Mean age was 23.7 years (SD = 3.4). Over half (54%) had some college or an associate's degree, yet 37% had an annual personal income of less than $10,000 per year. Most (64%) participants had tested in the past 6 months; venues included community health/free clinics, medical offices, mobile testing units, hospitals, emergency departments, and research sites. Just one participant reported ever using a commercially available HIV self-test. Facilitators of self-testing included convenience, control, and privacy, particularly as compared to venue-based testing. Barriers to self-testing included the cost of the test, anxiety regarding accessing the test, concerns around correct test operation, and lack of support if a test result is positive. Participants indicated that instruction in correct test operation and social support in the event of a positive test result may increase the likelihood that they would use the self-test. Alongside developing new approaches to HIV prevention, developing ways to increase HIV self-testing is a public health priority for young, black MSM, and transgender women. PMID:26376029

  10. Textual Silences and the (Re)Presentation of Black Undergraduate Women in Higher Education Journals: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Kimberly Deion

    2015-01-01

    Academic journals serve as a discipline's official discourse reflecting what has been deemed important in that discipline at a specific point in time. For the better part of 20 years, discourses in the field of student affairs have constructed Black men as a population in need of specific attention. The proliferation of scholarship on Black men…

  11. The Power of a Single Mother: The Influence of Black Women on Their Sons' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Quintin L.; Werblow, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the ways single Black mothers contribute to the educational success of their 11th-grade sons, despite the fact that their sons are enrolled in "failing schools." Data from five interviews and one focus group reveal common characteristics of how single-Black mothers help their sons beat the odds.

  12. The AICCC Perspective of Career Management: A Strategy for Personal and Positional Power for Black Women in Higher Education Adminstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Martha A.; Scott, Barbara M.

    Currently, America's racial and ethnic minorities are under-represented in higher education and in almost all occupational fields that require a college education. To investigate the extent to which black females in higher education administration view race as a mediating factor in their career progression, 39 black female administrators in…

  13. The Black Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Juanita M.

    The Black woman has been the transmitter of culture in the black community. Two of the important roles of African women were perpetuated during slavery and continue until today. They are her role in economic endeavor and her close bond with her children. The woman in African society was additionally politically significant. The black woman has…

  14. T594M mutation of the epithelial sodium channel beta-subunit gene in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Black South African women.

    PubMed

    Pegoraro, R J; Roberts, C B; Rom, L; Moodley, J

    2004-09-01

    The possible role of the beta-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel T594M polymorphism in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy has not been examined. This study compared Black South African women with pre-eclampsia (n= 204), early onset pre-eclampsia (n= 67), eclampsia (n= 120) and gestational hypertension (n= 78) with 338 women from the same ethnic group who had full-term normotensive pregnancies, for the presence of the T594M polymorphism. The variant allele was detected in 1.7% to 3.8% of the various patient groups and in 3.6% of the control group reflecting no significant difference. These results suggest that the T594M polymorphism in the sodium channel beta-subunit is not associated with the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertension. PMID:15327619

  15. The Arab Muslim client: implications for anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Sheets, D L; el-Azhary, R A

    1998-06-01

    The Arab Muslim client has unique cultural characteristics that should be incorporated into anesthetic care. In obtaining a preoperative assessment and consent, issues such as privacy, family roles, body language, group decision making, communication distances, and use of translators should be addressed. Intraoperatively, the need for modesty and the client's possible adherence to folk beliefs should also be recognized. Postoperatively, pain and overall needs assessments are a continuing challenge. The anesthetist must also understand the underlying family roles, the high correlation between fear and pain, and the possible coexisting folk beliefs when working within the labor and delivery setting. By addressing these unique issues, the anesthetist can provide appropriate and safe anesthetic care. PMID:9830857

  16. The Bosom Buddy Project: A Breastfeeding Support Group Sponsored by the Indiana Black Breastfeeding Coalition for Black and Minority Women in Indiana.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura J; Curtis, Terry J

    2015-11-01

    In 2012, the Indiana Black Breastfeeding Coalition (IBBC) used grant funds to increase participation in the Bosom Buddy Project, an original breastfeeding support group that pairs breastfeeding mothers with trained mentors. Resources for local organizations that support breastfeeding are extremely limited, making it difficult to expand programs and services. This article describes a variety of strategies used by the IBBC to expand programs and services. These activities provide a template for other community-based organizations that wish to provide culturally sensitive breastfeeding support in their community. PMID:25896467

  17. Troubling Success: Interviews with Black Female Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nivischi N.; Beverly, Monifa Green; Alexander-Snow, Mia

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the complexity of success for Black female faculty members based on six Black women at a public research oriented university in the Southeast. All women shared the challenges they experience as Black female faculty members. Findings indicate that while these women seemingly have attained professional success, they are leery of…

  18. Conquering the Black Girl Blues.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lani Valencia; Guy-Sheftall, Beverly

    2015-10-01

    An examination of the literature on epidemiology, etiology, and use of services for this population reveals an insufficient application of culturally congruent approaches to intervening with black women. An exploration of the social work practice literature and other relevant fields indicate that black feminist perspectives offer the opportunity to gain a clearer understanding of the intersection and influence of oppression among black women struggling with psychiatric issues and provide a useful framework for mental health practice with this population. This article discusses the evolving black feminist thought and summarizes the scholarship on black women's mental health services needs and utilization issues. The article includes a discussion of black feminisms as an emerging mental health perspective, arguing that black feminist perspectives in therapy provide an ideal framework for services that are responsive to the values and health needs of black women. The article concludes with a case vignette that illustrates some of its points. PMID:26489355

  19. Navigating Underrepresented STEM Spaces: Experiences of Black Women in U.S. Computing Science Higher Education Programs Who Actualize Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charleston, LaVar J.; George, Phillis L.; Jackson, Jerlando F. L.; Berhanu, Jonathan; Amechi, Mauriell H.

    2014-01-01

    Women in the United States have long been underrepresented in computing science disciplines across college campuses and in industry alike (Hanson, 2004; Jackson & Charleston, 2012). This disparity is exacerbated when African American women are scrutinized. Additionally, prior research (e.g., Hanson, 2004; Jackson & Charleston, 2012;…

  20. British Asian Women and the Costs of Higher Education in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2016-01-01

    This article will examine Asian women's experiences of financial support in higher education. The article is based on 30 in-depth interviews with Asian women who were studying at a "new" (post-1992) university in the South East of England. Women identified themselves as Muslim, Hindu and Sikh. The findings reveal that women's religious…

  1. Adherence to Self-Monitoring via Interactive Voice Response Technology in an eHealth Intervention Targeting Weight Gain Prevention Among Black Women: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background eHealth interventions are effective for weight control and have the potential for broad reach. Little is known about the use of interactive voice response (IVR) technology for self-monitoring in weight control interventions, particularly among populations disproportionately affected by obesity. Objective This analysis sought to examine patterns and predictors of IVR self-monitoring adherence and the association between adherence and weight change among low-income black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. Methods The Shape Program was a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-month eHealth behavioral weight gain prevention intervention to usual care among overweight and obese black women in the primary care setting. Intervention participants (n=91) used IVR technology to self-monitor behavior change goals (eg, no sugary drinks, 10,000 steps per day) via weekly IVR calls. Weight data were collected in clinic at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Self-monitoring data was stored in a study database and adherence was operationalized as the percent of weeks with a successful IVR call. Results Over 12 months, the average IVR completion rate was 71.6% (SD 28.1) and 52% (47/91) had an IVR completion rate ≥80%. At 12 months, IVR call completion was significantly correlated with weight loss (r =−.22; P=.04) and participants with an IVR completion rate ≥80% had significantly greater weight loss compared to those with an IVR completion rate <80% (−1.97 kg, SE 0.67 vs 0.48 kg, SE 0.69; P=.01). Similar outcomes were found for change in body mass index (BMI; mean difference −0.94 kg, 95% CI −1.64 to −0.24; P=.009). Older, more educated participants were more likely to achieve high IVR call completion. Participants reported positive attitudes toward IVR self-monitoring. Conclusions Adherence to IVR self-monitoring was high among socioeconomically disadvantaged black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. Higher adherence

  2. The Effect of Depressive Symptoms on the Quality of Parenting and Intimate Relationships in Single Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolomucci, Eileen M.

    This study examines depressive symptoms in economically disadvantaged black single mothers involved in an intimate relationship with a male friend for at least six months. The effects of depressive symptoms on the following three dimensions of family functioning are evaluated: (1) quality of parenting; (2) quality of intimate relationships; and…

  3. Perceptions of Online Learning Experiences: Voices of African American Women at a Historically Black College and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee Chief, Irene Mary

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of higher education learners are using online learning. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine non-traditional learners' perceptions and experiences of online learning at a public Historically Black College or University (HBCU). This study examined learners' interactivity with peers, teachers,…

  4. Can Hemispheric Lateralizaton Be Used as a Predictor of Success for Black Women in College Mathematics Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia A.

    Research supports the premise that various mathematical topics can be categorized as being performed better by the left or right brain hemisphere. Hemispheric lateralization is defined as a learner's preferred hemisphere of control. Torrence's "Human Information Processing Survey" was given to 170 black female college students enrolled in…

  5. Race, Gender, and the Superintendency. Departures of Black Women Spark Frank Talk of Factors Making a Tough Job Harder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The recent resignations of three prominent black female superintendents--Arlene Ackerman of San Francisco, Barbara Byrd-Bennett of Cleveland, and Thandiwe Peebles of Minneapolis--have prompted renewed discussion of the roles race and gender play in the superintendency. Current and former such leaders said in interviews that grappling with negative…

  6. Psychometric Properties of Eating Disorder Instruments in Black and White Young Women: Internal Consistency, Temporal Stability, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Boyd, Clarissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the major instruments in the eating disorder field have documented psychometric support only in predominantly White samples. The current study examined the internal consistency, temporal stability, and convergent and discriminant validity of a variety of eating disorder measures in Black (n = 97) and White (n = 179) female undergraduates.…

  7. Revisiting "Color Names and Color Notions": a contemporary examination of the language and attitudes of skin color among young black women.

    PubMed

    Wilder, JeffriAnne

    2010-01-01

    Employing the pioneering work of Charles Parrish as a basis of comparison, this study serves as a follow-up to “Color Names and Color Notions” by deconstructing the contemporary language and attitudes surrounding skin color. Nine focus groups with 58 black women between the ages of 18 and 25 reveal that the color names and color notions offered were consistent with many of the terms and stereotypes that Parrish found, thereby indicating that there has been no change in colorist ideology among African Americans. Participants discussed 40 color names regularly employed to describe light, medium, and dark skin tones. The terms and attitudes associated with light skin tones were generally negative; conversely, the terms and attitudes associated with dark skin tones were derogatory. The language and beliefs connected to medium skin tones indicate that colorism operates as a three-tiered structure rather than the traditionally situated binary paradigm. PMID:21117277

  8. Behavioral reactivity to acute stress among Black and White women with type 2 diabetes: The roles of income and racial discrimination.

    PubMed

    Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Schumann, Kristina P; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Wagner, Julie

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated relationships of income and self-reported racial discrimination to diabetes health behaviors following an acute stressor. A total of 77 diabetic women (51% Black, 49% White) completed a laboratory public speaking stressor. That evening, participants reported same-day eating, alcohol consumption, and medication adherence; physical activity was measured with actigraphy, and the next morning participants reported sleep quality. Measures were repeated on a counterbalanced control day. There was no mean level difference in health behaviors between stressor and control days. On stressor day, lower income predicted lower physical activity, sleep quality, and medication adherence, and higher racial discrimination predicted more eating and alcohol consumed, even after accounting confounders including race and control day behaviors. PMID:25721453

  9. Understanding Engagement in HIV Risk and Prevention Research Among Black Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in the District of Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Ebony; Peterson, James; Kuo, Irene; Magnus, Manya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To develop optimal methods to study sexual health among black young men who have sex with men and transgender women (BYMSM/TW). Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods prospective study to identify recruitment and retention strategies for BYMSM/TW (age 16–21) in Washington D.C., and describe HIV risk behaviors and context. Results: Incentivized peer referral was highly productive, and 60% of BYMSM/TW were retained for 3 months. Participants reported high levels of sexual risk, homophobia, racism, and maternal support. Conclusion: BYMSM/TW studies should utilize a combination of peer-based, in-person, and technology-based recruiting strategies. Additional research is needed to leverage mobile technology and social media to enhance retention. PMID:26651365

  10. The Relationship between Perceived Racism/Discrimination and Health among Black American Women: A Review of the Literature from 2003-2013

    PubMed Central

    Black, Lora L.; Johnson, Rhonda; VanHoose, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature investigating the relationship between perceived racism/discrimination and health among black American women. Methods Searches for empirical studies published from January 2003 to December 2013 were conducted using PubMed and PsycInfo. Articles were assessed for possible inclusion using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009 framework. In addition, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) system for rating the strength of scientific evidence was used to assess the quality of studies included in the review. Results Nineteen studies met criteria for review. There was mixed evidence for general relationships between perceived racism/discrimination and health. Consistent evidence was found for the relationship between adverse birth outcomes, illness incidence, and cancer or tumor risk and perceived racism/discrimination. Inconsistent findings were found for the relationship between perceived racism/discrimination and heart disease risk factors. There was no evidence to support the relationship between perceived racism/discrimination and high blood pressure. Conclusions There is mixed evidence to support the association between perceived racism/discrimination and overall objective health outcomes among black American women. The strongest relationship was seen between perceived racism/discrimination and adverse birth outcomes. Better understanding the relationship between health and racism/discrimination can aid in identifying race-based risk factors developing primary prevention strategies. Future studies should aim to investigate the role of perceived racism/discrimination as a specific chronic stressor within discrete pathogenesis models. PMID:25973361

  11. Women and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangri, Sandra Schwartz; Wirtenberg, Jeana, Eds.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes womens' role in the future of work in 10 articles. Deals with various life cycle aspects of women's lives, options in parenting, child care, changing sex roles, and aging. Analyzes special problems of Blacks, women in energy-boom towns, travel usage, educational trends, and a materialist theory of women's status. (JAC)

  12. The experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women in STEM: Voices to inform work with Black females in STEM education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Beverly A. King

    This grounded theory case study examines the experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women and their membership in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) training and careers. The shortage of Science and Math teachers in 48 of 50 States heightens the need for those trained in STEM. Females of African phenotype have persistently been underrepresented in STEM. However, this trend does not appear to have held for Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women. The current study explores issues related to STEM participation for these women by addressing the overarching question: What key factors from the lived experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women in STEM careers can be used to inform work with females of African phenotype in their pursuit of STEM education and STEM careers? Five women were identified for inclusion in the study's purposive sample. The study draws upon assertions and implications about the relevance of self-identity and collective-identity for membership in STEM. Data for the study was gathered through qualitative interviews, surveys, and observations. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze emergent themes related to participants' responses to the research questions. Two models, the STEM Attainment Model (SAM) and the Ecological Model of Self-Confidence and Bi-Directional Effect, are proposed from evaluation of the identified information. Socio-cultural values and learned strategies were determined to influence self-confidence which is identified as important for persistence in STEM training and careers for females of African phenotype. Evidence supports that the influences of parents, country of origin, neighborhood communities, schools and teachers are factors for persistence. Through the voices of these women, recommendations are offered to the gatekeepers of STEM academic pathways and ultimately STEM careers.

  13. Of Eggshells and Thin-skulls: a consideration of racism-related mental illness impacting Black women.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Camille A

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that the prevalence of mental disorders is estimated to be higher among Blacks than among Whites, most likely due to the nexus of race and socioeconomic disparity. Blacks are under-represented in in-patient populations and more likely than Whites to use the emergency rooms for mental health treatment. Numerous studies confirm that Blacks drop out of mental health services at a significantly higher rate than Whites and use fewer treatment sessions for mental health issues. Furthermore, Blacks enter mental health treatment at a later, more advanced stage than Whites, under-consume community mental health services of all kinds, are misdiagnosed more often than Whites, and are more often diagnosed with a severe mental illness than Whites. People from diverse ethnic backgrounds often are prevented from receiving adequate mental health treatment due to misdiagnoses and lack of access to the services they need. Factors contributing to this disparity include a general mistrust of medical health professionals, cultural barriers, co-occurring disorders, socioeconomic factors, and primary reliance on family and the religious community during times of distress. Unfortunately, the traditional institutions of racialized research largely ignore the disparate social and political exposures confronting people of color, such as residential and occupational segregation, racial profiling, tokenism, discrimination, racism, and the consequential physiological and psychological effects flowing from the macro and micro effects of such interactions and intersectionalities. This article explores these issues and proposes civil law legal frameworks for addressing these disparities. In particular, it is suggested that renewed consideration be made of the Thin-skull and Eggshell doctrines in the United States and comparable traditional international doctrine. PMID:16487588

  14. Muslim Egyptian and Lebanese Students' Conceptions of Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boujaoude, Saouma; Wiles, Jason R.; Asghar, Anila; Alters, Brian

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we investigated distinctions among the diversity of religious traditions represented by Lebanese and Egyptian Muslim high school students regarding their understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and how they relate the science to their religious beliefs. We explored secondary students' conceptions of evolution among members of three Muslim sects—Sunni, Shiite, and Druze—in two cultural contexts; one in which the overwhelming majority of the population is Muslim (Egypt) and another in which there is a sizable Christian community (Lebanon). Data were collected via surveys that examined students' scientific and religious understandings of evolution among 162 Egyptian students (all Sunni Muslims; 63% females and 37% males) and 629 Lebanese students (38.5% Sunni, 38% Shiite, and 23.5% Druze; 49% females and 51% males). Additional data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 30 Lebanese students to allow triangulation of data for accuracy and authenticity. Results indicate that many Egyptian and Lebanese Muslim students have misconceptions about evolution and the nature of science which often lead to rejection of evolution. Also, Lebanese Sunni and Shiite students and Egyptian Sunni students tend to exhibit high levels of religiosity, and these students report that their religious beliefs influence their positions regarding evolution. Finally, Sunni and Shiite Lebanese students have religious beliefs, conceptions of evolution, and positions regarding evolution similar to those of Sunni Egyptian students. These conceptions and positions, however, are substantially different from those of Druze Lebanese students.

  15. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the Black cosmetologists promoting health program

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Georgia R; Ko, Celine M; Cohn, Jennifer A; White, Monique; Weldon, Rai-nesha; Wu, Phillis

    2007-01-01

    Background African American women have higher rates of breast cancer mortality than their white counterparts. Studies have suggested that this is partly caused by discovery of cancer at a later stage, highlighting the importance of encouraging early detection of breast cancer in this population. To guide the creation of a breast cancer education intervention and help focus other health educators' and clinicians' health promotion efforts, this study explored whether a cohort of African American women living in San Diego would demonstrate the possession of adequate baseline knowledge about breast cancer screening and adherence to widely recommended screening guidelines. Methods African American women (N = 1,055) from San Diego, California participated in a beauty salon-based survey about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices. Women's ages ranged from 20 to 94 years, with average age of 42.20 (SD = 13.53) years. Thirty-four percent reported completing college and/or some graduate school training, and 52% reported having some college or post high school formal training. Seventy-five percent of the sample reported working outside their home. Participating cosmetologists and their salons were recruited to the study through word-of-mouth referral by highly respected African American community leaders. Results Salon clients reported low rates of adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Of the 1,055 participants, 31% reporting performing breast self-exam every month. Of those participants 40 and older, 57% reported having had a clinical breast exam and 43% reported having had a mammogram in the past year. Knowledge of breast cancer was associated with adherence to screening guidelines. While women recognized the serious health threat that breast cancer poses and that early detection of breast cancer is important, only 30% of women reported feeling well informed about the disease. Many participants demonstrated a lack of basic

  16. An analysis of consanguineous marriage in the Muslim population of India at regional and state levels.

    PubMed

    Bittles, A H; Hussain, R

    2000-01-01

    Consanguineous marriage is widely favoured in a large majority of the world's Islamic populations. According to recent estimates, the resident Muslim population of India is over 100 million. However, apart from a few numerically small or geographically defined surveys, little is known about their patterns of marriage preferences since partition of the Indian Subcontinent in 1947. This study seeks to determine the prevalence and patterns of consanguineous marriages contracted among Indian Muslims at regional and state levels during the last two generations. Data from the 1992/93 Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS) were used in the analysis. The NFHS was a nationally-representative survey of ever-married women aged 13-49 years, conducted across 25 states of India. Of the initial 9845 respondents, 8436 were included in the final weighted analysis sample. Overall, 22.0% of marriages were found to be contracted between spouses related as second cousins or closer, ranging from 15.9% in the eastern states to 32.9% in the western states of India. In all parts of the country first cousin marriages were the preferred form of consanguineous union, and in four of the five regions paternal first cousin marriages predominated. Despite predictions to the contrary, there was no evidence of a significant change in the prevalence of consanguineous unions over the course of the study period, which extended from the late 1950s to the early 1990s. PMID:10768421

  17. A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Breast Cancer Screening Among African American Women: The Black Cosmetologists Promoting Health Program

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ko, Celine M.; Wu, Phillis; Alisangco, Jennifer; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Kelly, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Background African American women have disproportionately higher rates of breast cancer (BC) mortality than all other ethnic groups, thus highlighting the importance of promoting early detection. Methods African American women (N = 984) from San Diego, California participated in a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of BC education sessions offered in beauty salons. Cosmetologists received ongoing support, training, and additional culturally aligned educational materials to help them engage their clients in dialogues about the importance of BC early detection. Posters and literature about BC early detection were displayed throughout the salons and cosmetologists used synthetic breast models to show their clients how BC lumps might feel. Participants in the control group received a comparable diabetes education program. Baseline and six month follow-up surveys were administered to evaluate changes in women’s BC knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors. Results This intervention was well received by the participants and their cosmetologists and did not interfere with, or prolong, the client’s salon visit. Women in the intervention group reported significantly higher rates of mammography compared to women in the control group. Training a single educator proved sufficient to permeate the entire salon with the health message and salon clients agreed that cosmetologists could become effective health educators. Conclusions Cosmetologists are in an ideal position to increase African American women’s BC knowledge and adherence to BC screening guidelines. PMID:22046851

  18. Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Cynthia M.

    Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

  19. The Experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean Women in STEM: Voices to Inform Work with Black Females in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Beverly A. King

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory case study examines the experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women and their membership in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) training and careers. The shortage of Science and Math teachers in 48 of 50 States heightens the need for those trained in STEM. Females of African phenotype have persistently…

  20. Therapy with Muslim Couples and Families: Basic Guidelines for Effective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Paul R.; Abbott, Douglas A.; Reisbig, Allison M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the growing numbers of Muslims in the United States, there is a scarcity of research dealing with mental health practitioners working with Muslim families. This lack of research may leave clinicians unprepared to adequately help Muslim patients and families faced with discrimination and misunderstanding, which may inadvertently lead to the…

  1. Practical Suggestions to Accommodate the Needs of Muslim Students on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Saba Rasheed; Bagheri, Elham

    2009-01-01

    Given the internal and external challenges Muslim students face, it is important that student affairs practitioners find ways to assist Muslim students in their adherence to their religion as they pursue their degree. In this chapter, the authors present a brief introduction to Islamic tenets, discuss challenges facing Muslim college students, and…

  2. Between Resistance and Assimilation: A Critical Examination of American Muslim Educational Behaviors in Public School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Muhammad; Gooden, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between religious identities of African American Muslims and school performance. We examined how understandings of religion inform how American Muslims view, behave, and imagine their role in school. The first author conducted interviews over the course of a year with four American Muslims, two of whom…

  3. Maximising the Overlapping Area: Multiculturalism and a Muslim Identity for Madrasahs in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent efforts by the Singapore government to construct a Muslim identity for the madrasahs in Singapore. By promoting a prescribed set of desired attributes for the Muslims and introducing new curriculum materials for the madrasahs, the government aspires to construct a Muslim identity that is compatible with the…

  4. Leadership Progression of Muslim Male Teachers: Interplay of Ethnicity, Faith and Visibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Saeeda; Shaikh, Jalil

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on perceived barriers to the career progression of Muslim male teachers to leadership positions in English secondary schools, exploring the impact of ethnicity, faith and Muslim visibility in the post 9/11 scenario. It draws on a small study of Muslim male teachers (MMTs) from five boroughs in London to explore their experiences…

  5. Islam and Muslims in U.S. Public Schools since September 11, 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Liz

    2011-01-01

    While much research has considered the way Muslims are represented in the mass media in recent years, there has been little exploration of the way Muslims and Islam are discussed in U.S. public schools. This article considers how Muslims and Islam are represented in educational standards, textbooks, and supplementary resources, with an eye to the…

  6. Islam, mental health and being a Muslim in the West.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Ahmed; Carrick, Frederick R; Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    The allegation that, 'Being Muslim means that you cannot be British' is often made. In view of this, we conducted a small survey (n=75) utilising purposive sampling on Muslims residing in the United Kingdom. Participants were recruited in a King's College London Islamic Society event in November 2014 in Guy's Hospital, London. 75/75 (100%) of the participants recruited responded. 69/75 (94%) of respondents either disagreed or strongly disagreed that, 'Being Muslim means that you cannot be British' (75/75 (100%) Muslim participants, 43/75 (57.3%) female participants, 32/75 (42.7%) male participants, mean Age 20.5 years, (Std. Dev. ±2.5)). This paper broadly seeks to answer two related questions. Firstly, 'What is the relationship between Islam and the West?' and secondly, 'What is the relationship between Islam and mental health?' In relation to the former, the rise of radicalization over recent years and the Islamophobia that has ensued have brought Islam and Muslims under intense scrutiny. Hence we feel it is both timely and important to offer a brief background of Islam and its relevance to the Western world. In relation to the latter, for many people religion and mental health are deeply and intimately intertwined. For example, religion can enable a person to develop mental health resilience and Islam has been reported to be a protective factor against suicidal behaviour. We conclude our paper by illustrating how the two questions are interrelated. We do so by offering an autobiographical narrative from a Muslim healthcare professional residing in the UK who developed a mental health problem precipitated by war in the country of his origin. His narrative includes descriptions of the role Islam that played in his recovery as well as his attempts to reconcile seemingly disparate aspects of his identity. PMID:26417737

  7. Influence of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) use by postmenopausal women on total hepatic perfusion and liver functions.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Ahmed; Nafeh, Hanan

    2009-11-01

    In this prospective longitudinal clinical trial, 87 postmenopausal women receiving for 12 consecutive months a daily dose of 40 mg of a dry extract preparation of Cimicifuga racemosa (Klimadynon) for relief of vasomotor symptoms were followed up by evaluation of total hepatic blood flow, assessed by color Doppler ultrasound, as well as prothrombin time and concentration, serum albumin, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Because no significant changes in total hepatic blood flow or any of the liver functions tested were reported, we concluded that use of C. racemosa for 1 year by healthy postmenopausal women without evidence of liver disease does not seem to influence the liver. PMID:19539907

  8. Reading the Other and Reading Ourselves: An Interpretive Study of Amazon.com Reviews on Bestsellers about Muslims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angemeer, Alicia Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, Western readers have been turning to bestselling texts written by or about Muslims in their need to learn more about Muslims. These texts promise an insider's view of predominantly Muslim countries and peoples and are informally influencing and educating many Western readers in their perceptions of Muslims because…

  9. The Black Woman Cross-Culturally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steady, Filomina Chioma, Ed.

    This is a collection of anthropological and sociological articles on the black woman. Essays cover the experiences of black women in Africa, the Caribbean, South America, and the United States in politics, business, the community, the arts, the family, and social change. Several themes are present throughout this anthology, including black women's…

  10. Muslim Learners in English Schools: A Challenge for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Saeeda

    2009-01-01

    Faith identity is emerging as significant for Muslim students in the post 9/11 scenario, with implications for their education and wider social cohesion. This poses challenges to school leaders, raising issues not only linked to student achievement and performance, but also with regard to students' identity constructions and their educational…

  11. Muslim Egyptian and Lebanese Students' Conceptions of Biological Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Wiles, Jason R.; Asghar, Anila; Alters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated distinctions among the diversity of religious traditions represented by Lebanese and Egyptian Muslim high school students regarding their understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and how they relate the science to their religious beliefs. We explored secondary students' conceptions of evolution among…

  12. Application of Library Management Software in Aligarh Muslim University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansari, Mehtab Alam

    2008-01-01

    Sir Syed Ahmad founded the Madrasatul Uloom in a small city named Aligarh in India. The establishment of this institute, which was later known as Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental (MAO) College and has now become Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), marks one of the most important events in the educational and social history of modern India. The Maulana…

  13. Religious Observance by Muslim Employees: A Framework for Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This paper discusses the relationship between the religious practices of Muslim employees and the requirements of the workplace. It is designed to provide information on the norms of Islam and the difficulties involved in its workplace practice, and to propose suggestions for resolving these difficulties that can form the basis for discussion and…

  14. Religious Instruction for Turkish Students of Muslim Faith in Bavaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Gerhart

    1989-01-01

    Discusses difficulties of providing religious instruction for Muslim school children in the Federal Republic of Germany. Notes the lack of a united Islamic religious community that could assist in the development and implementation of such an instruction. Explains and analyzes the Bavarian Ministry of Education's guidelines concerning such…

  15. Towards an Understanding of Muslim American Adolescent High School Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seward, Derek X.; Khan, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    The researchers conducted a grounded theory study to explore the experiences of Muslim American adolescents in high school. Findings indicate that students had to navigate unique challenges because of their religious faith, but those obstacles presented opportunities to confront bias and discrimination. Recommendations for how school counselors…

  16. Literature Review: The Growing Need to Understand Muslim Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaway, Azusa

    2010-01-01

    Much educational literature and professional development deals with issues of African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native American, and low-income groups. However, religious diversity is rarely discussed among educators. There is not much literature on the experiences of Muslim children and families and research on the teaching and learning of…

  17. Muslim, Too: Navigating Multiple Identities at an American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Benjamin B.; Sallee, Margaret W.

    2013-01-01

    Although Muslims have a significant presence at American universities, they are largely ignored by campus policies and resources and may find it difficult to reconcile their university experience with their religious values and practices. Using bicultural acculturation as a theoretical lens along with interviews and document analysis, this…

  18. The New Folk Devils: Muslim Boys and Education in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shain, Farzana

    2011-01-01

    Muslim boys, once regarded as passive, hard working and law-abiding, have been recast in the public imagination in recent years. Now the stereotypical image is of volatile, aggressive hotheads who are in danger of being brainwashed into terrorism, or of would-be gangsters who are creating no-go areas in English towns and cities. This timely and…

  19. Muslim Students in Post-9/11 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jandali, Ameena K.

    2012-01-01

    "Terrorist," "son of bin Laden," "camel jockey," "raghead," "towel-head"--variations of the same epithets resurface in each generation with the same painful impact. While Muslim students in public schools were objects of derision and harassment long before 9/11, the situation in the past decade has become markedly worse. Bullying and harassment…

  20. Education and Muslim Identity: The Case of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limage, Leslie J.

    2000-01-01

    Background for understanding the experience of Muslim immigrant students in French schools. Discusses the philosophy of equal education as equal access to the same knowledge (defined exclusively by the state and teachers); lack of teacher accountability; examination-based selection; and church-state separation. Describes government responses to…