Science.gov

Sample records for black powder substitutes

  1. Coal as a Substitute for Carbon Black

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.

    1982-01-01

    New proposal shows sprayed coal powder formed by extrusion of coal heated to plastic state may be inexpensive substitute for carbon black. Carbon black is used extensively in rubber industry as reinforcing agent in such articles as tires and hoses. It is made from natural gas and petroleum, both of which are in short supply.

  2. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral....6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a desired result cannot be...) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally enclosed cargo space while...

  3. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral...-Surface and Underground § 57.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a... dimension stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder...

  8. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cargo vessel; (c) The black powder must be packed in inner metal or heavy wall conductive plastic... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed...

  9. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cargo vessel; (c) The black powder must be packed in inner metal or heavy wall conductive plastic... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed...

  10. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cargo vessel; (c) The black powder must be packed in inner metal or heavy wall conductive plastic... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed...

  11. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cargo vessel; (c) The black powder must be packed in inner metal or heavy wall conductive plastic... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed...

  12. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cargo vessel; (c) The black powder must be packed in inner metal or heavy wall conductive plastic... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6901...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6901...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6901...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6901...

  17. 1. LOOKING NORTH TOWARD BUILDING NO. 602, BLACK POWDER BLENDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING NORTH TOWARD BUILDING NO. 602, BLACK POWDER BLENDER. POWDER TO BE BLENDED IS BROUGHT IN ON UPPER LEVEL, WHERE IT IS POURED INTO BLENDING MACHINE. BLENDED POWDER IS TRANSPORTED IN PUSH CARTS FROM LOWER LEVEL TO MAGAZINE. NOTE THAT ALL LIGHTS FOR BUILDING ARE MOUNTED OUTSIDE AND SHINE THROUGH WINDOWS. BUILDING ITSELF IS CONSTRUCTED OF WOOD. - Picatinny Arsenal, 600 Area, Test Areas District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  18. 2. LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD BUILDING NO. 602, BLACK POWDER BLENDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD BUILDING NO. 602, BLACK POWDER BLENDER. ALL LIGHTING IS ON EXTERIOR OF BUILDING TO MINIMIZE EXPLOSION HAZARD. ALL METAL CONDUIT AND PIPING IS GROUNDED. - Picatinny Arsenal, 600 Area, Test Areas District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  19. Carbonate substituted hydroxyapatite (CHA) powder consolidated at 450C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Ya Yu; Klimashina, E. S.; Ankudinov, A. B.; Putlayev, V. I.

    2011-04-01

    CHA powder was consolidated without noticeable changing of its carbonate content using low-melting Na-Ca phosphate glass with the composition referred to 54% Na4CaP6O18 and 46% Na2CaP2O7 as a binder. A temperature window suitable for obtaining the composite was assessed as 450 - 475C. The composites obtained at 450C and 400 MPa for 1 hr demonstrate compressive strength up to 25 MPa.

  20. Nd–Co substituted strontium hexaferrite powders with enhanced coercivity

    SciTech Connect

    Herme, C.A.; Bercoff, P.G.; Jacobo, S.E.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Sr{sub 1−x}Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 11−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 19} was prepared by sol–gel auto-combustion method with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4. ► Coercivity increases 11% with 0.2 Nd–Co substitution, reaching a value of 68.9 A/m. ► The appearance of two magnetic orderings is noticed in susceptibility measurements. ► This is supported by Curie temperature and susceptibility data. -- Abstract: In this work we report the synthesis of Nd–Co substituted strontium hexaferrites of composition Sr{sub 1−x}Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 11−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 19} by the sol–gel auto-combustion method with further heat treatment. The analysis of the X-ray diffraction spectra shows the M-type hexagonal structure in samples treated at 1100 °C for 2 h. Coercivity increases 11% with 0.2 Nd–Co substitution, reaching a value of 68.9 A/m (5480 Oe) while saturation magnetization is reduced 6% to 91 A m{sup 2}/kg (91 emu/g). The behavior of magnetic susceptibility with an applied field shows two different maxima which are assigned to different magnetic orderings. This assumption is supported by the appearance of two experimental values of Curie temperatures (T{sub C}) for all the prepared samples. Magnetic susceptibility χ and T{sub C} measurements suggest an uneven distribution of the iron vacancies.

  1. Differences in the microstructure of iron mechanically processed powder alloyed with interstitial and substitutional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.; Krabbe, R.A.; Cook, D.C.; Kim, T.H.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanically processing iron powder with interstitial and substitutional elements resulted in different microstructures (grain size, rms-strains, and phases) depending upon the alloying composition. Alloying iron powder with substitutional elements (approximately 4 at% Al, Cr, Nb, and Ti) resulted in a microstructure similar to mechanically processed iron powder: grain size ?7nm, local, rms strain ?0.5%, and bcc-Fe nanograins. Small reductions in grain size and increase in rms strain occurred with increasing radius of the substitute alloy atoms. Substitutional atoms were not uniformly distributed throughout the bcc-Fe matrix, but were distributed in clusters within the nanosgrains and/or as a thin coating on the grain boundaries. Alloying iron powder with interstitial elements (48 at% C and N) resulted in significantly different microstructures: decrease in grain size and increase in rms-strain occurred with inceasing the interstitial concentration and a bct-Fe nanograin phase developed. Interstitial atoms were also predominately distributed in clusters and/ or in a thin region along or in the grain boundaries of the iron nanograins.

  2. Spherical Granule Production from Micronized Saltwort (Salicornia herbacea) Powder as Salt Substitute

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Myung-Gon; Lee, Gyu-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The whole saltwort plant (Salicornia herbacea) was micronized to develop the table salt substitute. The micronized powder was mixed with distilled water and made into a spherical granule by using the fluid-bed coater (SGMPDW). The SGMPDW had superior flowability to powder; however, it had low dispersibility. To increase the dispersibility of SGMPDW, the micronized powder was mixed with the solution, which contained various soluble solid contents of saltwort aqueous extract (SAE), and made into a spherical granule (SGMPSAE). The SGMPSAE prepared with the higher percentages of solid content of SAE showed improved dispersibility in water and an increase in salty taste. The SGMPSAE prepared with 10% SAE was shown to possess the best physicochemical properties and its relative saltiness compared to NaCl (0.39). In conclusion, SGMPSAEs can be used as a table salt substitute and a functional food material with enhanced absorptivity and convenience. PMID:24471111

  3. 40 CFR 721.10150 - Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10150 Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-523)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10149 - Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10149 Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-522)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10150 - Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10150 Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-523)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10149 - Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10149 Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-522)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10149 - Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10149 Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-522)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10150 - Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10150 Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-523)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10150 - Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10150 Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-523)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10150 - Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10150 Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-523)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10149 - Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10149 Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-522)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10149 - Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10149 Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-522)...

  13. Quality of powdered substitutes for breast milk with regard to members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Muytjens, H L; Roelofs-Willemse, H; Jaspar, G H

    1988-01-01

    Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were cultured from 52.5% of 141 milk substitute infant formulas which were obtained in 35 countries. The concentration did not exceed a level of 1 CFU/g in any product. The species which were isolated most frequently were Enterobacter agglomerans, cloacae, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. If infections due to these organisms occur, it can be useful to include a check of the hygienic precautions which are taken during the preparation and storage of the formula. Milk powders without members of the Enterobacteriaceae might offer extra protection to the newborn if some multiplication does occur in the formula. PMID:3284901

  14. Test report on measurement of thrust-time behavior of very small black powder propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasch, W.

    1987-01-01

    The equipment used in the experimental measurements of very small black powder propulsion systems is described, giving particular attention to the approach used for the determination of thrust as a function of time. A diagram is shown of the circuit used for the recording of the force. The thrust characteristics of a number of very small propulsion units are considered.

  15. The substitution of nickel for cobalt in hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy UDIMET 700 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harf, Fredric H.

    1985-06-01

    Nickel was substituted in various proportions for cobalt in a series of five hot-isostatically-pressed powder metallurgy alloys based on the UDIMET 700 composition. These alloys were given 5-step heat treatments appropriate for use in turbine engine disks. The resultant microstructures displayed three distinct sizes of ?' particles in a ? matrix. The higher cobalt-content alloys contained larger amounts of the finest ?' particles, and had the lowest ?-?' lattice mismatch. While all alloys had approximately the same tensile properties at 25 and 650C, the rupture lives at 650 and 760C peaked in the alloys with cobalt contents between 12.7 and 4.3 pct. Minimum creep rates increased as cobalt contents were lowered, suggesting their correlation with the ?' particle size distribution and the ?-?' mismatch. It was also found that, on overaging at temperatures higher than suitable for turbine disk use, the high cobalt-content alloys were prone to sigma phase formation.

  16. Identification of mitochondrial DNA substitutions related to meat quality in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Mannen, H; Morimoto, M L; Oyamat, K; Mukai, F; Tsuji, S

    2003-01-01

    Complete sequences of mitochondrial (mt) genomes of eight Japanese Black cattle were determined to investigate the relationships between mt deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) displacement loop (D-loop) types and other mtDNA regions and to identify the variation in the coding region that may influence the economic traits. The survey of mitochondrial sequences in the encoding region revealed 14 substitutions including six antonymous substitutions and one in 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA). Three methods of polymorphic DNA analyses (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP], mismatch PCR-RFLP, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism [SSCP]) were performed on these seven candidate substitutions (base pair [bp] 2,232, 12,158, 12,908, 13,310, 14,122, 14,140, and 14,565) for 202 Japanese Black cattle. The substitution of bp 13,310 was observed in all samples, but not in the reference sequence, indicating that this is a minor substitution or a sequencing mistake in the reference sequence. The substitutions at bp 14,122, 14,140, and 14,565 were observed in only a few samples, suggesting that these were also minor substitutions. The substitutions at bp 2,232 (16S rRNA), 12,158, and 12,908 (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain-5) were closely related to mitochondrial D-loop types that have previously been related to differences in the carcass traits of Japanese Black cattle. Evaluation of the effects on six carcass traits with mixed model procedures suggests that the bp 2,232 substitution affects longissimus muscle area and beef marbling score. The substitution at bp 2,232 is a strong candidate for the mitochondrial effect on meat quality. PMID:12597374

  17. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of carbon powder from catalysed carbon black in X and Ku bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Bin; Zhao, Jijun; Duan, Yuping; Zhang, Xingguo; Zhao, Yanbo; Dong, Chuang; Liu, Shunhua; Li, Tingju

    2006-05-01

    Carbon powder from catalysed carbon black (CPCCB) was prepared after a pyrogenation of carbon black (CB) with nanosized iron catalyst at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 1100 C. The complex relative permittivity and permeability of the CPCCB were measured by a reflection/transmission technique in the X and Ku bands. The reflection loss of CPCCB/paraffin wax composite was recorded. A wider absorption frequency range in the X band and Ku band could be obtained by adding 3 vol.% and 6 vol.% CPCCB in paraffin wax, respectively. Our results indicate that CPCCB could be a promising microwave absorption material.

  18. Evaluating Renewable Cornstarch/biochar Fillers as Potential Substitutes for Carbon Black in SBR Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continually growing demand for fossil fuels coupled with the potential risk of relying on foreign sources for these fuels strengthens the need to find renewable substitutes for petroleum products. Carbon black is a petroleum product that dominates the rubber composite filler market. Agricultur...

  19. The substitution of nickel for cobalt in hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy UDIMET 700 alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel was substituted in various proportions for cobalt in a series of five hot-isostatically-pressed powder metallurgy alloys based on the UDIMET 700 composition. These alloys were given 5-step heat treatments appropriate for use in turbine engine disks. The resultant microstructures displayed three distinct sizes of gamma-prime particles in a gamma matrix. The higher cobalt-content alloys contained larger amounts of the finest gamma-prime particles, and had the lowest gamma-gamma-prime lattice mismatch. While all alloys had approximately the same tensile properties at 25 and 650 gamma C, the rupture lives at 650 and 760 C peaked in the alloys with cobalt contents between 12.7 and 4.3 pct. Minimum creep rates increased as cobalt contents were lowered, suggesting their correlation with the gamma-prime particle size distribution and the gamma-gamma-prime mismatch. It was also found that, on overaging at temperatures higher than suitable for turbine disk use, the high cobalt-content alloys were prone to sigma phase formation.

  20. Black pepper powder microbiological quality improvement using DBD systems in atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Maciej; Hołub, Marcin; Balcerak, Michał; Kalisiak, Stanisław; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2015-07-01

    Preliminary results are given regarding black pepper powder decontamination using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in atmospheric pressure. Three different DBD reactor constructions were investigated, both packaged and unpackaged material was treated. Due to potential, industrial applications, in addition to microbiological results, water activity, loss of mass and the properties of packaging material, regarding barrier properties were investigated. Argon based treatment of packed pepper with DBD reactor configuration is proposed and satisfactory results are presented for treatment time of 5 min or less. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  1. Danger assessment of a spring-gun device (muzzleloader) loaded only with black powder.

    PubMed

    Voisard, Matthias X; Kneubuehl, Beat P

    2010-03-01

    We report a case involving a spring-gun device (muzzleloader) loaded solely with gunpowder, installed next to shoes to prevent the neighbors' puppy from removing them. The booby trap was triggered by the 15-year-old dog-owners son when he tried to put the shoes out of the reach of the puppy. The boy suffered second degree superficial burns located mainly at the dorsal side of the right hand and fingers. To estimate the danger of the used weapon, several tests were undertaken on soap blocks from different distances and with different loads of black powder. The particle density per mm and the depth of black powder tattooing in the soap was compared with the boy's injuries, and found conclusive with the gun-owners statement regarding the loading of the weapon. Furthermore, our experiments indicated that the gunpowder load involved was not able to inflict permanent damage, not even to the eyes, at the here estimated firing distance. PMID:20010291

  2. Effects of Ce-substitution on magnetic properties and microstructure of Nd-Pr-Fe-B melt-spun powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Kun; Zhang, Xing; Lin, Min; Yan, Aru

    2016-01-01

    The effects of Ce-substitution on the magnetic properties and microstructure of [(Nd4Pr)1-xCex]27Fe72B (x=0, 0.1, 0.24, 0.5, 0.8 wt%) melt-spun powders have been investigated. The magnetic properties Br and (BH)max of Nd-Pr-Fe-B melt-spun powders decrease with the increase of Ce proportion except the [(Nd4Pr)0.76Ce0.24]27Fe72B (x=0.24) sample, in which coercivity is relatively high (Hcj=8.49 kOe). It may result from the mixed valence, the fine microstructure and higher volume fraction of grain boundary phase. The α-Fe and Fe2B phases tend to increase with higher content of the Ce. Both the Curie temperature and the crystallization temperature decrease with the Ce content increasing.

  3. The effect of refinement of carbon-substituted MgB2 filling powder using various starting powders on the microstructure and critical current density of ex situ processed superconducting tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, H.; Ozawa, K.; Kitaguchi, H.

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the effect of refinement of homemade carbon-substituted MgB2 (MBC) filling powders prepared by using various commercially available Mg and B powders on the microstructure and critical current density (Jc) of Fe-sheathed MgB2 tapes fabricated through an ex situ process in a powder-in-tube (PIT) technique. The homemade MBC powders contained a substantial amount of MgO as a main impurity phase when using fine Mg powder, whereas the use of coarse Mg powder significantly reduced the formation of MgO. This was independent of the starting B powder. The MgO was present as isolated particles and platelets inside MgB2 crystallites. Weak acid could dissolve the MgO partially, whereas strong acid could dissolve it almost completely. When using the as-sintered MBC powders, the Jc properties of tapes were very poor. However, they were remarkably enhanced by the refinement of these powders with the acid solutions. The quality of the refined MBC powder prepared with low-cost B powder was comparable to that prepared with high-cost B. The Jc values of tapes using these powders reached about 6 kA cm-2 at 4.2 K and 10 T.

  4. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    PubMed

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions. PMID:22663136

  5. 40 CFR 721.10075 - Carbon black, 4-[[2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic). 721.10075 Section 721.10075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10075 - Carbon black, 4-[[2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic). 721.10075 Section 721.10075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10075 - Carbon black, 4-[[2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic). 721.10075 Section 721.10075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10075 - Carbon black, 4-[[2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic). 721.10075 Section 721.10075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10075 - Carbon black, 4-[[2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic). 721.10075 Section 721.10075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  10. Selective Laser Sintering Method Using Titanium Powder Sheet Toward Fabrication of Porous Bone Substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Terutake; Maekawa, Katsuhiro; Tamura, Masashi; Hanyu, Kenichi

    The present paper investigates the laser sintering of titanium sheets toward the fabrication of porous artificial bones. The novelty lies in the use of a titanium powder sheet mixed with an organic binder and the application of selective laser sintering to the fabrication of a laminated porous structure. Alternating irradiation of Nd: YAG pulses with short scanning paths results in the suppression of distortion of the sintered part as well as enhanced mechanical properties. Under the appropriate conditions identified in the experiment, a bending strength of 63MPa and a Youngs modulus of 1.5GPa are attained when the load is applied parallel to the lamination direction, whereas load vertical to the lamination direction yields 79MPa and 1.8GPa, respectively. The size of pores varies from 200 to 300m, and the porosity is approximately 65%. These values, other than Youngs modulus, are almost equivalent to those of human bones.

  11. (210)Pb content in natural gas pipeline residues ("black-powder") and its correlation with the chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Jos Marcus; Carvalho, Franciane; Cordilha, Aloisio; Matta, Luiz Ernesto; Godoy, Maria Luiza

    2005-01-01

    The present work was carried out to assess the (210)Pb content in "black-powder" found in pigging operations on gas pipelines in Brazil, in particular, on the Campos Basin gas pipeline. Additionally, the chemical composition of such deposits was determined and an eventual correlation with (210)Pb concentration evaluated. Typical "black-powder" generated in the natural gas pipeline from Campos Basin oilfield contains mainly iron oxide ( approximately 81%) and residual organic matter ( approximately 9%). The (210)Pb content ranges from 4.9 to 0.04k Bqkg(-1) and seems to be inversely correlated with the distance to the platforms. On the other hand, (226)Ra concentration is higher on the pipeline branch between the platform and the onshore installations. (228)Ra was only observed in few samples, in particular, in the samples with the highest (226)Ra content. PMID:15885858

  12. Influence of setting liquid composition and liquid-to-powder ratio on properties of a Mg-substituted calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Pina, S; Olhero, S M; Gheduzzi, S; Miles, A W; Ferreira, J M F

    2009-05-01

    The influence of four variables on various properties of a Mg-substituted calcium phosphate cement (CPC) was investigated. The variables were the heat treatment temperature of the precipitated powders, the composition of the setting liquid, the liquid-to-powder ratio (LPR), and the time over which hardened specimens were cured in air. The properties analysed were the phase composition of the starting powder, the initial setting time, the evolution of the storage shear modulus (G') and the loss shear modulus (G'') with the cement paste curing time (t), and the compressive strength. The presence of alpha-TCP in CPC facilitated the setting and hardening properties due to its progressive dissolution and the formation of brushite crystals. As far as the liquid composition is concerned, in cases where citric acid was used, adding a rheology modifier (10 wt.% polyethylene glycol or 0.5 wt.% hydroxyl propylmethylcellulose) to the acid led to an increase in the initial setting time, while an increase in the acid concentration led to a decrease in the initial setting time. The initial setting time showed to be very sensitive towards the LPR. The evolution of G' and G'' with curing time reflected the internal structural changes of cement pastes during the setting process. The compressive strength of the wet-hardened cement specimens with and without Mg increased with curing time increasing, being slightly higher in the case of Mg-substituted CPC. The results suggest that Mg-substituted CPC holds a promise for uses in orthopaedic and trauma surgery such as for filling bone defects. PMID:19121609

  13. Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhi, Payodhar; Sahoo, G.; Das, K.; Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C.

    2008-10-01

    The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient physicians could get rid of free mercury by milling and proper choice of the ratio of ingredients as is shown in the investigation by X-ray diffraction studies. In the traditional method for synthesis of mercury sulfide, mercury and pure sulfur were taken and milled in a mortar and pastel. During milling process, the white mercury and yellow sulfur yielded to a gray black colored sulfide. Synthesis of red sulfide of mercury required additional steps of heating and subsequent milling. For therapeutically application, the sulfide thus obtained needed detoxification, which was done using organic extracts. In the present investigation, the same method was followed to synthesize the sapphires and the product was characterized using modern methods like XRD, SEM and HRTEM. With increase in milling time the fineness of the powder increases, which increases the efficacy of the medicine, and free mercury, which is not desirable for medicinal application is found to decrease. The powder obtained at the end of 48 hours of milling is found to be of a size finer than l0nm.

  14. Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application

    SciTech Connect

    Padhi, Payodhar; Sahoo, G.; Das, K.; Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C.

    2008-10-23

    The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient physicians could get rid of free mercury by milling and proper choice of the ratio of ingredients as is shown in the investigation by X-ray diffraction studies. In the traditional method for synthesis of mercury sulfide, mercury and pure sulfur were taken and milled in a mortar and pastel. During milling process, the white mercury and yellow sulfur yielded to a gray black colored sulfide. Synthesis of red sulfide of mercury required additional steps of heating and subsequent milling. For therapeutically application, the sulfide thus obtained needed detoxification, which was done using organic extracts. In the present investigation, the same method was followed to synthesize the sapphires and the product was characterized using modern methods like XRD, SEM and HRTEM. With increase in milling time the fineness of the powder increases, which increases the efficacy of the medicine, and free mercury, which is not desirable for medicinal application is found to decrease. The powder obtained at the end of 48 hours of milling is found to be of a size finer than l0nm.

  15. Evaluating the effects of amylose and Concord grape extract powder substitution on physicochemical properties of wheat flour extrudates produced at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tacer-Caba, Zeynep; Nilufer-Erdil, Dilara; Boyacioglu, M Hikmet; Ng, Perry K W

    2014-08-15

    In this study, the effects of Concord grape extract powder (CGEP), high-amylose starch, and their combinations on quality parameters of extruded products were investigated by substituting wheat flour with those ingredients in the formulations. Physical quality parameters such as water absorption, bulk density, diametric expansion and hardness of extrudates were evaluated in addition to thermal properties, pasting properties and resistant starch contents. Average values obtained for 90, 120 and 150 C extrusion temperatures changed respectively as follows: 0.916, 0.987 and 0.467 N for hardness; 2.12, 4.07 and 5.12 ml water/g sample for water absorption; 1.35, 2.09 and 2.51 for diametric expansions and 1286.6, 723.6 and 311.1 kg/m(3) for bulk densities. Extrusion temperature was found to have more distinct effect on physical quality parameters of extrudates than the substitution level of ingredients. Both CGEP and amylose additions negatively affected pasting properties, slightly affected resistant starch content and prevented gelatinization. However retardation of retrogradation was more evident when substitution was with CGEP alone rather than its combination with amylose. PMID:24679807

  16. Urinary excretion of phenolic acids in rats fed cranberry, blueberry, or black raspberry powder.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Ramesh; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L

    2014-05-01

    Dietary polyphenolics can be converted into smaller phenolic acids (PA) by microorganisms in the colon and may contribute to health benefits associated with the parent polyphenolics. Urinary excretion of 18 PA and their conjugates was studied, using HPLC-MS/MS, in rats fed AIN93G-based diets containing 5% (dry weight basis) of either cranberry (CB), blueberry (BB), or black raspberry (BRB). Hippuric, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were excreted in greatest quantity in the urine over a 24 h period in all diets. Primary PA excreted in the berry diets were 4-hydroxycinnamic acid for CB; chlorogenic, ferulic, and 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acids for BB; and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic, 3-hydroxybenzoic, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acids for BRB. PA were present in conjugated form with cinnamic acid derivatives being 50-70% and phenylacetic acid derivatives conjugated <10%. Conjugated, and not just the free, PA are significant contributors to total urinary excretion. PMID:24180593

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of freeze-dried black raspberry powder in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Montrose, David C.; Horelik, Nicole A.; Madigan, James P.; Stoner, Gary D.; Wang, Li-Shu; Bruno, Richard S.; Park, Hea Jin; Giardina, Charles; Rosenberg, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colonic mucosa that can dramatically increase the risk of colon cancers. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a dietary intervention of freeze-dried black raspberries (BRB), a natural food product with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities, on disease severity in an experimental mouse model of UC using 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control diet or a diet containing BRB (5 or 10%) for 714 days and then the extent of colonic injury was assessed. Dietary BRB markedly reduced DSS-induced acute injury to the colonic epithelium. This protection included better maintenance of body mass and reductions in colonic shortening and ulceration. BRB treatment, however, did not affect the levels of either plasma nitric oxide or colon malondialdehyde, biomarkers of oxidative stress that are otherwise increased by DSS-induced colonic injury. BRB treatment for up to 7 days suppressed tissue levels of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin 1?. Further examination of the inflammatory response by western blot analysis revealed that 7 day BRB treatment reduced the levels of phospho-I?B? within the colonic tissue. Colonic cyclooxygenase 2 levels were also dramatically suppressed by BRB treatment, with a concomitant decrease in the plasma prostaglandin E2 (276 versus 34 ng/ml). These findings demonstrate a potent anti-inflammatory effect of BRB during DSS-induced colonic injury, supporting its possible therapeutic or preventive role in the pathogenesis of UC and related neoplastic events. PMID:21098643

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of freeze-dried black raspberry powder in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Montrose, David C; Horelik, Nicole A; Madigan, James P; Stoner, Gary D; Wang, Li-Shu; Bruno, Richard S; Park, Hea Jin; Giardina, Charles; Rosenberg, Daniel W

    2011-03-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colonic mucosa that can dramatically increase the risk of colon cancers. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a dietary intervention of freeze-dried black raspberries (BRB), a natural food product with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities, on disease severity in an experimental mouse model of UC using 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control diet or a diet containing BRB (5 or 10%) for 7-14 days and then the extent of colonic injury was assessed. Dietary BRB markedly reduced DSS-induced acute injury to the colonic epithelium. This protection included better maintenance of body mass and reductions in colonic shortening and ulceration. BRB treatment, however, did not affect the levels of either plasma nitric oxide or colon malondialdehyde, biomarkers of oxidative stress that are otherwise increased by DSS-induced colonic injury. BRB treatment for up to 7 days suppressed tissue levels of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin 1?. Further examination of the inflammatory response by western blot analysis revealed that 7 day BRB treatment reduced the levels of phospho-I?B? within the colonic tissue. Colonic cyclooxygenase 2 levels were also dramatically suppressed by BRB treatment, with a concomitant decrease in the plasma prostaglandin E? (276 versus 34 ng/ml). These findings demonstrate a potent anti-inflammatory effect of BRB during DSS-induced colonic injury, supporting its possible therapeutic or preventive role in the pathogenesis of UC and related neoplastic events. PMID:21098643

  19. 40 CFR 721.10080 - Carbon black, 4-[(17-substituted-3,6,9,12,15-pentaazaheptadec-1-yl) substituted] phenyl-modified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10080 Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (generic). (a... generically as carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (PMN P-06-8) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10080 - Carbon black, 4-[(17-substituted-3,6,9,12,15-pentaazaheptadec-1-yl) substituted] phenyl-modified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10080 Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (generic). (a... generically as carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (PMN P-06-8) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10080 - Carbon black, 4-[(17-substituted-3,6,9,12,15-pentaazaheptadec-1-yl) substituted] phenyl-modified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10080 Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (generic). (a... generically as carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (PMN P-06-8) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10080 - Carbon black, 4-[(17-substituted-3,6,9,12,15-pentaazaheptadec-1-yl) substituted] phenyl-modified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10080 Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (generic). (a... generically as carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (PMN P-06-8) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10080 - Carbon black, 4-[(17-substituted-3,6,9,12,15-pentaazaheptadec-1-yl) substituted] phenyl-modified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10080 Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (generic). (a... generically as carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (PMN P-06-8) is subject to reporting...

  4. Defect structure in aliovalently-doped and isovalently-substituted PbTiO3 nano-powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, Emre; Jakes, Peter; Parashar, S. K. S.; Kiraz, Kamil; Somer, Mehmet; Rüdiger, Andreas; Eichel, Rüdiger-A.

    2010-09-01

    The defect structure of Fe3 + -, Cu2 + -, Mn4 + - and Gd3 + -doped PbTiO3 nano-powders has been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Analogous to the situation for 'bulk' ferroelectrics, Fe3 + and Cu2 + act as acceptor-type functional centers that form defect complexes with charge-compensating oxygen vacancies. The corresponding defect dipoles are aligned along the direction of spontaneous polarization, PS, and possess an additional defect polarization, PD. Upon the transition to the nano-regime, the defect structure is modified such that orientations perpendicular to PS, (FeTi'-\\mathrm {V}_{\\mathrm {O}}^{\\bdot \\bdot })_{\\perp }^{\\bdot } and (\\mathrm {Cu}^{\\prime \\prime }_{\\mathrm {Ti}} \\mbox {-} \\mathrm {V}_{\\mathrm {O}}^{\\bdot \\bdot })_{\\perp }^{\\times } also become realized. Moreover, the binding energy for the defect complexes is lowered such that instead 'free' FeTi' and \\mathrm {V}_{\\mathrm {O}}^{\\bdot \\bdot } -centers are formed. As a consequence, the concentration of mobile \\mathrm {V}_{\\mathrm {O}}^{\\bdot \\bdot } that enhances the ionic conductivity through drift diffusion is increased for the nano-powders. Finally, in the nano-regime the ferroelectric 'hardening' is expected to be considerably decreased as compared to the 'bulk' compounds. In contrast to the acceptor-type dopants, the donor-type Gd3 + dopant is incorporated as an 'isolated' functional center, where charge compensation by means of lead vacancies is performed in distant coordination spheres.

  5. Processes of microstructural evolution during high-energy mechanical treatment of ZnO and black NiO powder mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakazey, M.; Vlasova, M.; Vorobiev, Y.; Leon, I.; Cabecera Gonzalez, M.; Chvez Urbiola, Edgar Arturo

    2014-11-01

    Kinetics of microstructural evolution in ZnO and NiO black powder mixture during prolonged high-energy mechanical ball milling were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Laser Particle Sizer, X-ray diffraction, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and UV-vis Diffuse Reflection methods. The use of these methods allows us to control the macrostructural processes (ZnO particles and NiO granules grinding, the deagglomeration and secondary agglomeration), the microstructural processes (formation and annealing of different native defects in ZnO [VZn-:Zni0 (I), VZn- (II), and (VZn-)2- (III) centers] and NiO black) and the mechanothermal processes in samples. This allows to establish the relationship between microstructural evolution and the properties of the samples depending on the duration of the mechanical processing.

  6. Fatal contact shot to the chest caused by the gas jet from a muzzle-loading pistol discharging only black powder and no bullet: case study and experimental simulation of the wounding effect.

    PubMed

    Große Perdekamp, Markus; Glardon, Matthieu; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Bielefeld, Lena; Nadjem, Hadi; Pollak, Stefan; Pircher, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In modern medico-legal literature, only a small number of publications deal with fatal injuries from black powder guns. Most of them focus on the morphological features such as intense soot soiling, blast tattooing and burn effects in close-range shots or describe the wound ballistics of spherical lead bullets. Another kind of "unusual" and potentially lethal weapons are handguns destined for firing only blank cartridges such as starter and alarm pistols. The dangerousness of these guns is restricted to very close and contact range shots and results from the gas jet produced by the deflagration of the propellant. The present paper reports on a suicide committed with a muzzle-loading percussion pistol cal. 45. An unusually large stellate entrance wound was located in the precordial region, accompanied by an imprint mark from the ramrod and a faint greenish discoloration (apparently due to the formation of sulfhemoglobin). Autopsy revealed an oversized powder cavity, multiple fractures of the anterior thoracic wall as well as ruptures of the heart, the aorta, the left hepatic lobe and the diaphragm. In total, the zone of mechanical destruction had a diameter of approx. 15 cm. As there was no exit wound and no bullet lodged in the body, the injury was caused exclusively by the inrushing combustion gases of the propellant (black powder) comparable with the gas jet of a blank cartridge gun. In contact shots to ballistic gelatine using the suicide's pistol loaded with black powder but no projectile, the formation of a nearly spherical cavity could be demonstrated by means of a high-speed camera. The extent of the temporary cavity after firing with 5 g of black powder roughly corresponded to the zone of destruction found in the suicide's body. PMID:25119685

  7. Effects of black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elkhair, R; Ahmed, H A; Selim, S

    2014-06-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens. PMID:25050023

  8. Effects of Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum), Turmeric Powder (Curcuma Longa) and Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum Sativum) and Their Combinations as Feed Additives on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Some Blood Parameters and Humoral Immune Response of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Elkhair, R.; Ahmed, H. A.; Selim, S.

    2014-01-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens. PMID:25050023

  9. Cheap, Gram-Scale Fabrication of BN Nanosheets via Substitution Reaction of Graphite Powders and Their Use for Mechanical Reinforcement of Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Mo, Xiaoshu; Gan, Haibo; Guo, Tongyi; Wang, Xuebin; Chen, Bin; Chen, Jun; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most important two-dimensional (2D) materials, BN nanosheets attracted intensive interest in the past decade. Although there are many methods suitable for the preparation of BN sheets, finding a cheap and nontoxic way for their mass and high-quality production is still a challenge. Here we provide a highly effective and cheap way to synthesize gram-scale-level well-structured BN nanosheets from many common graphite products as source materials. Single-crystalline multi-layered BN sheets have a mean lateral size of several hundred nanometers and a thickness ranging from 5?nm to 40?nm. Cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis shows that the structures exhibit a near band-edge emission and a broad emission band from 300?nm to 500?nm. Utilization of nanosheets for the reinforcement of polymers revealed that the Young's modulus of BN/PMMA composite had increased to 1.56?GPa when the BN's fraction was only 2 wt.%, thus demonstrating a 20% gain compared to a blank PMMA film. It suggests that the BN nanosheet is an ideal mechanical reinforcing material for polymers. In addition, this easy and nontoxic substitution method may provide a universal route towards high yields of other 2D materials. PMID:24572725

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of dye naphthol blue black in the presence of zirconia-supported Ti-substituted Keggin-type polyoxometalates

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Chunjie; Guo Yihang; Hu Changwen; Wang Chungang; Li Danfeng

    2004-02-02

    Zirconia-supported Ti-substituted Keggin-type polyoxometalates, Li{sub 5}PW{sub 11}TiO{sub 40}/ZrO{sub 2} (PW{sub 11}Ti/ZrO{sub 2}) and K{sub 7}PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 40}/ZrO{sub 2} (PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2}), were prepared by incorporating PW{sub 11}Ti and PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2} cluster into a zirconia matrix via a sol-gel technique. These insoluble and readily separable composites were characterized by DR-UV (DR: diffuse reflectance) and FT-IR spectra, {sup 31}P MAS NMR, ICP-AES, and nitrogen adsorption determination, indicating that the clusters were chemically attached to the zirconia supports, and the primary Keggin structure remained intact. The photocatalytic activity of the supported PW{sub 11}Ti and PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2} was tested via degradation of an aqueous dye naphthol blue black (NBB). It indicated that the dye NBB can be degraded totally and mineralized into the inorganic products such as CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions by irradiating the composite slurry in the near-UV area. Dropped of PW{sub 11}Ti or PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2} cluster from the zirconia matrix into the reaction system was hardly observed during the photocatalytic tests, attributed to the strong chemical interactions between the Keggin units and the zirconia support.

  11. Powder Diffraction: By Decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, William I. F.

    This introductory chapter reviews the first 100 years of powder diffraction, decade by decade, from the earliest X-ray powder diffraction measurements of the crystal structure of graphite through to the diversity and complexity of twenty-first century powder diffraction. Carbon features as an illustrative example throughout the discussion of these ten decades from graphite and the disorder of carbon black through to lonsdaleite, the elusive hexagonal polymorph of diamond, and C60, the most symmetrical of molecules. Electronics and computing have played a leading role in the development of powder diffraction, particularly over the past 60 years, and the Moore's Law decade-by-decade rise in computing power is clear in the increasing complexity of powder diffraction experiments and material systems that can be studied. The chapter concludes with a final discussion of decades - the four decades of length-scale from the ngstrom to the micron that not only represent the domain of powder diffraction but are also the distances that will dominate twenty-first century science and technology.

  12. Cation substitution in synthetic meridianiite (MgSO411H2O) II: variation in unit-cell parameters determined from X-ray powder diffraction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, A. Dominic; Browning, Frank; Wood, Ian G.

    2012-06-01

    We have prepared aqueous MgSO4 solutions doped with various divalent metal cations (Ni2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, and Co2+) in proportions up to and including the pure end-members. These liquids have been solidified into fine-grained polycrystalline blocks of metal sulfate hydrate + ice by rapid quenching in liquid nitrogen. In a companion paper (Fortes et al., in Phys Chem Min 39) we reported the identification of various phases using X-ray powder diffraction, including meridianiite-structured undecahydrates, melanterite- and epsomite-structured heptahydrates, novel enneahydrates and a new octahydrate. In this work we report the changes in unit-cell parameters of these crystalline products where they exist over sufficient dopant concentrations. We find that there is a linear relationship between the rate of change in unit-cell volume as a function of dopant concentration and the ionic radius of the dopant cation; large ions such as Mn2+ produce a substantial inflation of the hydrates' unit-cell volume, whereas smaller ions such as Ni2+ produce a modest reduction in unit-cell volume. Indeed, when the data for all hydrates are normalised (i.e., divided by the number of formula units per unit-cell, Z, and the hydration number, n), we find a quantitatively similar relationship for different values of n. Conversely, there is no relationship between the degree of unit-cell inflation or deflation and the limit to which a given cation will substitute into a certain hydrate structure; for example, Co2+ and Zn2+ affect the unit-cell volume of MgSO411H2O to a very similar degree, yet the solubility limits inferred in our companion paper are >60 mol. % Co2+ and <30 mol. % Zn2+.

  13. Metal powder reactions in ball milling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, A.

    1976-01-01

    On milling chromium powder in three metal chlorides and either chromium or nickel powders in ten organic liquids representative of nine different functional groups, the powders always reacted with the liquids and became contaminated with elements from them. The milled powders had specific surface areas ranging from 0.14 to 37 sq m/g, and the total contamination with elements from the milling liquid ranged from 0.01 to 56 wt%. In most milling runs, compounds resulting from substitution, addition, or elimination reactions formed in or from the milling liquid, and in most runs with organic liquids H2, CH4, and CO2 were generated.

  14. Gene flow, population growth and a novel substitution rate estimate in a subtidal rock specialist, the black-faced blenny Tripterygion delaisi (Perciformes, Blennioidei, Tripterygiidae) from the Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Steinwender, Bernd; Weiß, Sara; Sefc, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Population histories depend on the interplay between exogeneous and endogeneous factors. In marine species, phylogeographic and demographic patterns are often shaped by sea level fluctuations, water currents and dispersal ability. Using mitochondrial control region sequences (n = 120), we infer phylogeographic structure and historic population size changes of a common littoral fish species, the black-faced blenny Tripterygion delaisi (Perciformes, Blennioidei, Tripterygiidae) from the north-eastern Adriatic Sea. We find that Adriatic T. delaisi are differentiated from conspecific populations in the remaining Mediterranean, but display little phylogeographic structure within the Adriatic basin. The pattern is consistent with passive dispersal of planktonic larvae along cyclonic currents within the Adriatic Sea, but limited active dispersal of adults. Demographic reconstructions are consistent with recent population expansion, probably triggered by rising sea levels after the last glacial maximum (LGM). Placing the onset of population growth between the LGM and the warming of surface waters (18 000–13 000 years BP) and employing a novel expansion dating approach, we inferred a substitution rate of 2.61–3.61% per site per MY. Our study is one of only few existing investigations of the genetic structure of animals within the Adriatic basin and is the first to provide an estimate for mitochondrial control region substitution rates in blennioid fishes. PMID:26617435

  15. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  16. Powder forging

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, H.A.; Ferguson, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental and applications aspects of powder-forging (PF) technology are examined in an introduction and reference guide for practicing engineers. The treatment is based on a combined metallurgical-mechanical approach, and the potential benefits of FEM process simulations and expert-system design-optimization methods are illustrated. Chapters are devoted to materials considerations for PF, PF mechanics, PF analysis, PF process design, and PF practice. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and micrographs are provided. 160 refs.

  17. Blood substitutes.

    PubMed Central

    Kostrzewska, E.

    1976-01-01

    With the development of modern methods of surgery, anaesthesia, and pre- and postoperative care the requirement for blood substitutes is continuously increasing. We present a review of the different blood substitutes which are already in clinical use or in an advanced stage of experimental investigation for possible practical administration. Our own clinical experience with dextrans and experimental studies on stroma-free haemoglobin and hydroxyethyl starch solutions are described. PMID:57736

  18. Energetic powder

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Danen, Wayne C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-12-23

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles. The particles have a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer. The particles may be prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  19. Ceramic Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In developing its product line of specialty ceramic powders and related products for government and industrial customers, including companies in the oil, automotive, electronics and nuclear industries, Advanced Refractory Technologies sought technical assistance from NERAC, Inc. in specific areas of ceramic materials and silicon technology, and for assistance in identifying possible applications of these materials in government programs and in the automotive and electronics industry. NERAC conducted a computerized search of several data bases and provided extensive information in the subject areas requested. NERAC's assistance resulted in transfer of technologies that helped ART staff develop a unique method for manufacture of ceramic materials to precise customer specifications.

  20. X-ray powder diffraction, vibration and thermal studies of [A{sub 0.92}(NH{sub 4}){sub 0.08}]{sub 2}TeCl{sub 4}Br{sub 2} with A = Cs, Rb: Influence of mixed cationic and anionic substitutions

    SciTech Connect

    Aribia, W. Ben; Abdelmouleh, M.; Kabadou, A.; Van Der Lee, A.

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: The structures of [A{sub 0.92}(NH{sub 4}){sub 0.08}]{sub 2}TeCl{sub 4}Br{sub 2} with A = Cs, Rb belong to the tetragonal {beta}-K{sub 2}SnCl{sub 6} structure type. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two new compound crystallises in P4/mnc tetragonal space group. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure is considered as isolated octahedred TeCl{sub 4}Br{sup 2-}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The octahedra connected by ionic and hydrogen bonding through the Cs/Rb or N atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A DTA/TGA experiment reveals one endothermic peak at 780 K for these compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One endothermic peak is detected at around 213 K by DSC experiment. -- Abstract: The crystal structures of [A{sub 0.92}(NH{sub 4}){sub 0.08}]{sub 2}TeCl{sub 4}Br{sub 2} with A = Cs, Rb have been determined using X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The two compounds crystallize in the tetragonal space group P4/mnc, with the unit cell parameters: a = 7.452(1) Angstrom-Sign , c = 10.544(3) Angstrom-Sign , Z = 2 and a = 7.315(2) Angstrom-Sign , c = 10.354(4) Angstrom-Sign , Z = 2 in the presence of Cs and Rb, respectively. These two compounds have an antifluorite-type arrangement of NH{sub 4}{sup +}/Rb{sup +}/Cs{sup +} and octahedral TeCl{sub 4}Br{sub 2}{sup 2-} anions. The stability of these structure is by ionic and hydrogen bonding contacts: A Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis Cl, A Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis Br and N-H Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis Cl, N-H Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis Br. The different vibrational modes of these powders were analysed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopic studies. A DTA/TGA experiment reveals one endothermic peak at 780 K implicating the decomposition of the sample. At low temperature, one endothermic peak in thermal behavior is detected at around 213 K by DSC experiment. This transition was confirmed by dielectric measurements.

  1. Solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  2. Black Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is a Black Eye? Tweet Black eye is a phrase used to describe bruising ... dark bruising in the tissue. What Is a Black Eye? Black Eye Symptoms What Causes a Black ...

  3. Powder treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  4. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, John D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1988-01-01

    (1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

  5. The role of substitutional boron in carbon oxidation: Inhibitor and catalyst!

    SciTech Connect

    Radovic, L.R.; Karra, M.; Thrower, P.A.

    1996-10-01

    Boron is considered to be one of the very few promising candidates for chemical protection of carbon/carbon composite materials against oxidation. The conventional wisdom is that boron inhibits carbon oxidation. Its inhibiting effect can be manifested in three different ways: (1) Substitutional boron enhances the graphitization of carbon. (2) As the surface carbon atoms are consumed, substitutional boron forms an oxide surface film, which acts as an O{sub 2} diffusion harrier and an active site blocker. (3) Substitutional boron redistributes the {pi} electrons in the basal plane (graphene layer), lowers the Fermi level of carbon, and hence presumably inhibits the desorption of CO and CO{sub 2}. This last mode of inhibition is of great fundamental interest; it had not been verified in the past. Upon closer examination of some early studies, its closer scrutiny is wan-anted. We provide such a scrutiny in the present communication. Three widely differing carbon materials were used: a heat-treated ({open_quote}graphitized{close_quote}) carbon black (Graphon), Saran char and a glassy carbon. Boron was introduced substitutionally into the quasi-graphitic lattice by heating these carbons, physically mixed with boron powder. Isothermal carbon oxidation experiments were performed. In selected cases, the reactive surface area of the carbons was determined.

  6. Location and oxidation state of iron in Fe-substituted CuInS{sub 2} chalcopyrites

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, Johanna D.; Xu Tianhong; Sorescu, Monica; Strohmeier, Brian R.; Sturgeon, Jacqueline; Gourdon, Olivier; Baroudi, Kristen; Yao Jinlei; Aitken, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-15

    CuIn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S{sub 2}(x=0-0.30) was synthesized via high-temperature, solid-state synthesis. Phase-pure materials were found in samples where x=0-0.15, after which a secondary phase became apparent. The materials were characterized with the use of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and Reitveld refinement revealed a linear decrease in unit cell volume as the amount of iron substitution increases in accordance with Vegard's Law. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) confirms that the actual stoichiometry is close to the nominal composition of the materials. The temperature for both the chalcopyrite-to-sphalerite and the sphalerite-to-wurtzite phase transitions decreases with increasing iron substitution for indium. These findings suggest that the Fe is being randomly incorporated into the crystal structure of the CuInS{sub 2}. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were used to determine the oxidation state of the ions (Cu{sup 1+}, In{sup 3+,} and S{sup 2-}), and Fe{sup 57} Moessbauer spectroscopy verified that the iron is in the 3{sup +} oxidation state. Band gaps of the solid solution were estimated to be in the range of 0.70-0.85 eV. Rietveld refinement of neutron diffraction data indicates that the iron is occupying the In site within the chalcopyrite structure. - Graphical abstract: CuIn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S{sub 2} samples were prepared by solid-state synthesis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy indicate Cu{sup +}, In{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+} and S{sup 2-} in the samples. Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction data shows Fe{sup 3+} residing on the indium site. The band gaps of the iron-containing samples decrease to {approx}0.7 eV. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of Cu{sup +}, In{sup 3+} and S{sup 2-}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moessbauer spectroscopy indicates the presence of Fe{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction data shows iron on the indium site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The band gap decreases to {approx}0.7 eV with only 5% iron substitution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Additional characterization is reported.

  7. The Black Body Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses using black body function for radiative heat transfer, which can be used in a real-life application in a number of different topics in A-level and first-year undergraduate mathematical methods courses such as differentiation, solving nonlinear equations, and integration by substitution. (ASK)

  8. A study of a tissue equivalent gelatine based tissue substitute

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, J.L.

    1992-11-01

    A study of several tissue substitutes for use as volumetric dosimeters was performed. The tissue substitutes studied included tissue substitutes from previous studies and from ICRU 44. The substitutes were evaluated for an overall match to Reference Man which was used as a basis for this study. The evaluation was based on the electron stopping power, the mass attenuation coefficient, the electron density, and the specific gravity. The tissue substitute chosen also had to be capable of changing from a liquid into a solid form to maintain an even distribution of thermoluminesent dosimetry (TLD) powder and then back to a liquid for recovery of the TLD powder without adversely effecting the TLD powder. The gelatine mixture provided the closest match to the data from Reference Man tissue. The gelatine mixture was put through a series of test to determine it's usefulness as a reliable tissue substitute. The TLD powder was cast in the gelatine mixture and recovered to determine if the TLD powder was adversely effected. The distribution of the TLD powder after being cast into the gelatin mixture was tested in insure an even was maintained.

  9. Nonlinear optical properties of p-substituted benzalbarbituric acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, K.; Ochiai, S.; Takemoto, K.; Irie, M.

    1990-02-01

    A number of p-substituted benzalbarbituric acid derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of p-substituted benzaldehyde with barbituric acid, and their nonlinear optical properties were investigated by using the Kurtz powder test. p-acetamidobenzalbarbituric acid derivatives were found to exhibit the relatively high second-harmonic intensity and have the higher thermal stability.

  10. Preparation of titanium diboride powder

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, Jorulf; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1985-01-01

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  11. Preparation of metal diboride powders

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group of consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  12. Ceramic powder synthesis in supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, C.L.J.; Russick, E.M.; Cesarano, J; Tadros, M.E.; Voigt, J.A.

    1996-04-01

    Gas-phase processing plays an important role in the commercial production of a number of ceramic powders. These include titanium dioxide, carbon black, zinc oxide, and silicon dioxide. The total annual output of these materials is on the order of 2 million tons. The physical processes involved in gas-phase synthesis are typical of those involved in solution -phase synthesis: chemical reaction kinetics, mass transfer, nucleation, coagulation, and condensation. This report focuses on the work done under a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that explored the use of various high pressure techniques for ceramic powder synthesis. Under this project, two approaches were taken. First, a continuous flow, high pressure water reactor was built and studied for powder synthesis. And second, a supercritical carbon dioxide static reactor, which was used in conjunction with surfactants, was built and used to generate oxide powders.

  13. Vitreous Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Foster, William Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Modern vitreoretinal surgery is a young science. While tremendous developments have occurred in instrument design and technique since Machemer first described vitrectomy surgery in 1973[1], the application of advanced materials concepts to the development of intra-ocular compounds is a particularly exciting area of research. To date, the development of vitreous substitutes has played a significant role in enabling the dramatic and progressive improvement in surgical outcome, but perhaps no other area of research has the potential to further improve the treatment of retinal detachment and other retinal disorders. While prior research has focused solely upon the ability of a compound to re-attach the retina, future research should seek to enable the surgeon to inhibit the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy and re-detachment, the integration of stem-cell therapies with surgical retina, long-term delivery of medications to the posterior segment, and the promotion of more rapid and complete visual rehabilitation. PMID:19343097

  14. Blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Andre F; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2014-07-11

    The toxic side effects of early generations of red blood cell substitutes have stimulated development of more safe and efficacious high-molecular-weight polymerized hemoglobins, poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated hemoglobins, and vesicle-encapsulated hemoglobins. Unfortunately, the high colloid osmotic pressure and blood plasma viscosity of these new-generation materials limit their application to blood concentrations that, in general, are not sufficient for full restoration of oxygen-carrying and -delivery capacity. However, these materials may serve as oxygen therapeutics for treating tissues affected by ischemia and trauma, particularly when the therapeutics are coformulated with antioxidants. These new oxygen therapeutics also possess additional beneficial effects owing to their optimal plasma expansion properties, which induce systemic supraperfusion that increases endothelial nitric oxide production and improves tissue washout of metabolic wastes, further contributing to their therapeutic role. PMID:24819476

  15. PLASMA SUBSTITUTES

    PubMed Central

    Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Miller, L. L.; Alling, E. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1946-01-01

    Hemoglobin and globin alone, supplemented, or modified in various ways are seriously considered as plasma substitutes. Human globin given to doubly depleted (anemic and hypoproteinemic) dogs by vein contributes to the production of new hemoglobin and plasma protein, but there is some toxicity and weight loss. Dog hemoglobin given intraperitoneally is better tolerated and somewhat more completely utilized with more blood proteins formed and less weight loss. Dog globin (tryptic digest) given by vein in anemic dogs is associated with a moderate production of new hemoglobin. Horse globin by mouth contributes to the formation of new hemoglobin in the standard anemic dog. Dog hemoglobin given intraperitoneally in protein fasting, non-anemic dogs is well utilized to maintain nitrogen and weight balance. A dl-isoleucine supplement fails to improve this utilization of hemoglobin for maintenance in the dog. A small supplement of dl-methionine greatly improves the utilization of dog hemoglobin for maintenance in the dog and further addition of isoleucine is without effect. The intermediary metabolism of dog hemoglobin is not yet worked out. Electrophoretic analyses (Table 6) suggest that globin appears in the peripheral circulation after intraperitoneal injections of hemoglobin. PMID:19871535

  16. Effect of powder-free latex examination glove use on airborne powder levels in a dental school clinic.

    PubMed

    Hermesch, C B; Spackman, G K; Dodge, W W; Salazar, A

    1999-11-01

    Cornstarch powder on latex examination gloves acts as an airborne carrier of natural latex allergens resulting in cutaneous, conjunctival, and/or respiratory responses to latex, a particular concern in a dental school environment where concentrated use of latex examination gloves occurs. This study measured airborne powder levels associated with a trial substitution of powder-free latex examination gloves for powdered latex examination gloves in a dental school clinic. Secondary aims of the study were to assess user acceptance of powder-free gloves during the trial and to assess the financial impact of converting the entire dental school to a powder-free environment. Air was sampled from two areas (dispensary and treatment room) of a student clinic fifteen to thirty minutes before the beginning of normal clinic sessions and again about 1.5 hours into the clinic session. The samples were microscopically analyzed for particulate counts of cornstarch powder. A written survey instrument assessed user acceptance of the two types of gloves. Historical financial data were used to estimate the cost of converting the entire dental school to a powder-free environment. Both the dispensary and the treatment room showed significant reductions in airborne powder counts during use of powder-free latex gloves and a return to high powder counts with resumption of powdered glove use. During the weeks of powdered glove use, the powder counts were also significantly lower before the beginning of the clinic session and higher during the clinic session. User acceptance of the powder-free latex gloves was high. The increased cost per year to convert the entire dental school to a powder-free environment was estimated to be $13,943. PMID:10608927

  17. Production of metal powder

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, R.B.

    1982-01-20

    Fine mesh metal powder, such as titanium powder, is prepared by reaction of a halide of the metal, in vapor form, with a fine spray of molten sodium at a temperature below the melting point of the metal.

  18. Precision powder feeder

    DOEpatents

    Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Schmale, David T. (Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Michael S. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2001-07-10

    A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

  19. Composite powder particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Donald S. (Inventor); MacDowell, Louis G. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A liquid coating composition including a coating vehicle and composite powder particles disposed within the coating vehicle. Each composite powder particle may include a magnesium component, a zinc component, and an indium component.

  20. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flumerfelt, Joel Fredrick

    In recent years, the aluminum powder industry has expanded into non-aerospace applications. However, the alumina and aluminum hydroxide in the surface oxide film on aluminum powder require high cost powder processing routes. A driving force for this research is to broaden the knowledge base about aluminum powder metallurgy to provide ideas for fabricating low cost aluminum powder components. The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization commercial inert gas atomization and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). The commercial atomization methods are bench marks of current aluminum powder technology. The GARS process is a laboratory scale inert gas atomization facility. A benefit of using pure aluminum powders is an unambiguous interpretation of the results without considering the effects of alloy elements. A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  1. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    SciTech Connect

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  2. Dustiness of Fine and Nanoscale Powders

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Douglas E.; Baron, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Dustiness may be defined as the propensity of a powder to form airborne dust by a prescribed mechanical stimulus; dustiness testing is typically intended to replicate mechanisms of dust generation encountered in workplaces. A novel dustiness testing device, developed for pharmaceutical application, was evaluated in the dustiness investigation of 27 fine and nanoscale powders. The device efficiently dispersed small (mg) quantities of a wide variety of fine and nanoscale powders, into a small sampling chamber. Measurements consisted of gravimetrically determined total and respirable dustiness. The following materials were studied: single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and carbon blacks; fumed oxides of titanium, aluminum, silicon, and cerium; metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, manganese, and silver) silicon carbide, Arizona road dust; nanoclays; and lithium titanate. Both the total and respirable dustiness spanned two orders of magnitude (0.337.9% and 0.131.8% of the predispersed test powders, respectively). For many powders, a significant respirable dustiness was observed. For most powders studied, the respirable dustiness accounted for approximately one-third of the total dustiness. It is believed that this relationship holds for many fine and nanoscale test powders (i.e. those primarily selected for this study), but may not hold for coarse powders. Neither total nor respirable dustiness was found to be correlated with BET surface area, therefore dustiness is not determined by primary particle size. For a subset of test powders, aerodynamic particle size distributions by number were measured (with an electrical low-pressure impactor and an aerodynamic particle sizer). Particle size modes ranged from approximately 300nm to several micrometers, but no modes below 100nm, were observed. It is therefore unlikely that these materials would exhibit a substantial sub-100nm particle contribution in a workplace. PMID:23065675

  3. Black Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black

  4. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  5. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  6. Powder metallurgy in 1995

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.G.

    1995-08-01

    The powder metallurgy industry has enjoyed extraordinary growth during the last three years, based on progress in materials, processes, and equipment. Total metal powder shipments increased 18% in 1994 to 426,050 tons. For the first time, North American iron powder shipments went beyond 338,000 tons in 1994, a 17.4% increase over 1993. The copper and copper-base powder markets in 1994 reached 23,000 tons, growing slightly less than 3% over 1993. The parts segment of this market reached 19,670 tons, almost flat with 1993 because of the sharply rising price of copper on world commodity markets. This article will discuss advances in steel powders and processing, the range of iron powder applications, advanced particulate materials, equipment improvements, and standards development.

  7. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital. PMID:26730123

  8. Powder Crystallography on Macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Margiolaki,I.; Wright, J.

    2008-01-01

    Following the seminal work of Von Dreele, powder X-ray diffraction studies on proteins are being established as a valuable complementary technique to single-crystal measurements. A wide range of small proteins have been found to give synchrotron powder diffraction profiles where the peak widths are essentially limited only by the instrumental resolution. The rich information contained in these profiles, combined with developments in data analysis, has stimulated research and development to apply the powder technique to microcrystalline protein samples. In the present work, progress in using powder diffraction for macromolecular crystallography is reported.

  9. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brgmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  10. Morphology and composition of Ni-Co electrodeposited powders

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimovic, V.M.; Lacnjevac, U.C.; Stoiljkovic, M.M.; Pavlovic, M.G.; Jovic, V.D.

    2011-12-15

    The morphology, phase and chemical composition of Ni-Co alloy powders electrodeposited from an ammonium sulfate-boric acid containing electrolyte with different ratio of Ni/Co ions were investigated. The ratios of Ni/Co ions were 1/1, 1/2 and 1/3. The morphology, chemical composition and phase composition of the electrodeposited alloy powders were investigated using AES, SEM, EDS and XRD analysis. Composition of the electrolyte, i.e. the ratio of Ni/Co concentrations was found to influence both, the alloy phase composition and the morphology of Ni-Co alloy powders. At the highest ratio of Ni/Co = 1/1 concentrations typical 2D fern-like dendritic particles were obtained. With a decrease of Ni/Co ions ratio among 2D fern-like dendrites, 3D dendrites and different agglomerates were obtained. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the alloy powders mainly consisted of the face-centered cubic {alpha}-nickel phase and hexagonal close-packed {epsilon}-cobalt phase and minor proportions of face-centered cubic {alpha}-cobalt phase. The occurrence of the latter phase was observed only in the alloy powder with the higher cobalt concentration in electrolyte. The electrodeposition of Ni-Co powders occurred in an anomalous manner. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Co alloys powders were successfully electrodeposited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition of the electrolyte (Ni/Co ions ratio) was found to influence on morphology of powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrodeposition of Ni-Co powders occurred in an anomalous manner.

  11. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-05

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  12. Microbial synthesis and the characterization of metal-substituted magnetites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Y.; Lauf, R. J.; McMillan, A. D.; Zhang, C.; Rawn, C. J.; Bai, J.; Phelps, T. J.

    2001-06-01

    The use of bacteria as a novel biotechnology to facilitate the production of nanoparticles is in its infancy. We describe a bacterially mediated electrochemical process in which metal (Co, Cr, or Ni)-substituted magnetite powders were synthesized by iron(III)-reducing bacteria under anaerobic conditions. Amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides plus soluble metal species (Co, Cr, Ni) comprise the electron acceptor and hydrogen or simple organics comprise the electron donor. The microbial processes produced copious amount of nm-sized, metal-substituted magnetite crystals. Chemical analysis and X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed that metals such as Co, Cr, and Ni were substituted into biologically facilitated magnetites. These results suggest that the bacteria may be viewed as a nonspecific source of electrons at a potential that can be calculated or surmised based on the underlying thermodynamics. Microbially facilitated synthesis of the metal-substituted magnetites at near ambient temperatures may expand the possible use of the specialized ferromagnetic particles.

  13. Single crystalline and rare earth substituted La{sub 2}RuO{sub 5} investigated by x-ray diffraction and EXAFS spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Riegg, S.; Reller, A.; Ebbinghaus, S.G.

    2012-04-15

    Single crystals of La{sub 2}RuO{sub 5} were obtained from a BaCl{sub 2} flux. The structure was determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction and compared to earlier x-ray and neutron powder diffraction results. The local structures of Ru and La/Ln in pure La{sub 2}RuO{sub 5} and the rare earth substituted La{sub 2-x}Ln{sub x}RuO{sub 5} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy) polycrystalline samples were determined from the extended x-ray absorption fine structures (EXAFS) of the K- and L{sub III}-edges of Ru, La, and Ln, respectively. A four shell model was developed to reduce the number of refinable parameters in the fit of the EXAFS spectra. The distribution of the Ln-ions in the layered crystal structure was determined by a comparison of the coordination spheres obtained from the Ln-edges with the unsubstituted La{sub 2}RuO{sub 5}. Interatomic distances were compared to the values obtained from the single crystal diffraction and were found to agree very well. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of La{sub 2-x}Ln{sub x}RuO{sub 5} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy) is shown viewed along the c-axis. The alternating stacking of LaRuO{sub 4} and LnO layers leads to the formation of zig-zag layers of corner sharing RuO{sub 6} octahedra. The La sites in the LaRuO{sub 4} layers are represented by light blue spheres, while the La/Ln sites in the LnO layers are colored dark blue. EXAFS investigations reveal a cationic ordering with roughly 65% of the substituting Ln ions occupying the LnO layers. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure determination of La{sub 2}RuO{sub 5} by single crystal x-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ru-K EXAFS investigations of La{sub 2-x}Ln{sub x}RuO{sub 5} powder samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EXAFS of La and Ln in La{sub 2-x}Ln{sub x}RuO{sub 5} powder samples using K- and L{sub III}-absorption edges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement of EXAFS results and crystal structure data despite low symmetry space group. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Observed partial cationic ordering of the inserted Ln on the two La sites.

  14. Application of Composite Powders Recycled from Graphite Tailings in Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Yun; Liao, Libing; Lv, Guocheng; Qin, Faxiang; Mei, Lefu; Wei, Yaozu

    2015-11-01

    With styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) as matrix and composite powders recycled from graphite tailings as fillers, the influence of the particle size and content of the composite powders on the tensile strength and electrical conductivity of the composite powder-filled SBR were studied. The results showed that composite powder recycled from graphite tailings could reinforce SBR, whose tensile strength was significantly increased with reducing the particle size of the composite powder, but it had little effect on the conductivity of the system. With composite powders as fillers in conjunction with conductive carbon black, the tensile strength and electrical conductivity of the system were greatly improved. The maximum tensile strength of the SBR filled with composite powder and conductive carbon black increased by 47% compared to that of the single composite powder-filled SBR. When the filling content of conductive carbon black was 10 phr and that of composite powder was above 30 phr, the volume resistivity of SBR showed a sharp decline, reaching a minimum about 106 Ω cm at 40 phr. All the results indicated that composite powder recycled from graphite tailings can be applied effectively as filler in SBR. It has great economic and environmental benefits.

  15. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen J. Gerdemann; Paul D. Jablonski

    2010-11-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 ?m, <75 ?m, and < 45 ?m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH] <75 ?m and < 45 ?m; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  16. Sintering titanium powders

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Alman, David E.

    2005-09-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in low-cost titanium. Near-net-shape powder metallurgy offers the potential of manufacturing titanium articles without costly and difficult forming and machining operations; hence, processing methods such as conventional press-and-sinter, powder forging and powder injection molding are of interest. The sintering behavior of a variety of commercial and experimental titanium powders was studied. Commercial powders were acquired that were produced different routes: (i) sponge fines from the primary titanium processing; (ii) via the hydride-dehydride process; and (iii) gas atomization. The influence of vacuum sintering time (0.5 to 32 hrs) and temperature (1200, 1275 or 1350C) on the microstructure (porosity present) of cold pressed powders was studied. The results are discussed in terms of the difference in powder characteristics, with the aim of identify the characteristics required for full density via press-and-sinter processing. Near-net-shape tensile bars were consolidated via cold pressed and sintered. After sintering, a sub-set of the tensile bars was hot-isostatic pressed (HIPed). The microstructure and properties of the bars were compared in the sintered and HIPed conditions.

  17. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Jablonski, Paul D.

    2011-05-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 ?m, <75 ?m, and < 45 ?m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH] <75 ?m and < 45 ?m; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  18. Cow dung powder poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as “saani powder” in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital. PMID:26730123

  19. Black tea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer. Lung cancer. Green tea and black tea contain chemicals called phytoestrogens. Some research shows that men ... ratings while performing stressful tasks. Stroke. Black tea contains chemicals called flavonoids. Early research suggests that eating ...

  20. Black psyllium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... amounts of fiber. Fiber can decrease how much lithium the body absorbs. Taking lithium along with black psyllium might decrease the effectiveness of lithium. To avoid this interaction, take black psyllium at ...

  1. Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    The black student revolt did not start with the highly publicized activities of the black students at San Francisco State College. The roots of the revolt lie deeply imbedded within the history and structure of the overall black liberation struggle in America. The beginnings of this revolt can be found in the students of Southern Negro colleges in

  2. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William

  3. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of black historian Ed Cabbell by Pat

  4. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  5. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarik, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (-20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties.

  6. Combustibility of titanium powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, Ye. I.; Poyarkov, V. G.; Finayev, Yu. A.

    1989-01-01

    The combustion of compact samples was studied; the mechanism of autoignition is defined. Several studies are made of the combustibility of titanium using 50 samples. The data provide a clear idea of the combustibility of titanium powders.

  7. POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

  8. Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder by continuous precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Boz, Ismail; Kaluza, Stefan; Boroglu, Mehtap Safak; Muhler, Martin

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: High surface area ZnO powders are synthesized by a low temperature continuous precipitation under ultrasonication. Urea is used as precipitating agent so that no contamination of ZnO powder emanating from precipitating agent, such as, alkalis, is observed. pH and type of precursor greatly affects the surface area and other properties. In this manuscript, we report a very simple and effective continuous precipitation to synthesize high surface area ZnO powder. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved at 90 Degree-Sign C in a continuous precipitation unit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous precipitation unit was ultrasonicated to improve final product homogeneity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation intermediate, hydrozincite, was led to high surface area ZnO powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had a rather uniform mesoporous structure. -- Abstract: Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved by continuous precipitation using zinc ions and urea at low temperature of 90 Degree-Sign C. The powder precipitated resulted in high-purity single-phase ZnO powder when calcined at 280 Degree-Sign C for 3 h in air. The solution pH and the precipitation duration strongly affected the surface area of the calcined ZnO powder. Detailed structural characterizations demonstrated that the synthesized ZnO powder were single crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase. The powdered samples precipitated by homogeneous precipitation crystallized directly to hydrozincite without any intermediate phase formation. The phase structures, morphologies and properties of the final ZnO powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering particle size analysis (DLS), and nitrogen physisorption in order to determine the specific surface area (BET) and the pore size distribution (BJH).

  9. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Feikert, John H. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  10. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  11. Optimal Substitution of Cotton Burr and Linters in Thermoplastic Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate various substitutions of cotton burr and linters fractions of cotton gin waste (CGW) as a natural fiber source in ligno-cellulosic polymer composites (LCPC.) Samples were fabricated with approximately 50% natural fiber, 40% of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) powder...

  12. Powder aspirator for shock tube studies of heterogeneous reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, M. T.; Kirsch, M. J.; Lester, T. W.

    1988-02-01

    The application of single-pulse shock tube techniques in the study of heterogeneous reactions is described. In particular, nitric oxide removal on carbonaceous materials at temperatures simulating pulverized coal firing is reported. Carbon black particulates were suspended and heated behind reflected shock waves in order to simulate flame-borne particulates. To meet the specific requirement of preshock conditions, a novel and simple powder aspirator was designed and fabricated for dispersing carbon black. Particle concentrations measured by a gravimetric method and by in-line light transmission were compared. Changes of nitric oxide concentration, reaction products and volatile species emitted from the particulates were analyzed with gas chromatographic techniques. Representative results of nitric oxide reduction by carbon black particulates at concentrations up to 50 g/m3 are provided, and indicate that single-pulse shock tubes coupled with a simple powder aspirator may be used to infer global rates for gas/solid reactions of potential importance in combustion.

  13. Mechanochemical synthesis of nanocrystalline carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coreo A., J.; Coreo A., O.; Cruz R., J. J.; Rodrguez C., C.

    2005-04-01

    Carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite has been produced by solid-state reactions using a mechanochemical synthesis method. Ammonium phosphate monobasic and calcium carbonate were used as raw materials. Mixtures of the initial powders were prepared using a Ca/P molar ratio similar to that of non-substituted hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Dry milling of the powders was performed by using a ball to powder weight ratio equals 20:1. The obtained product was characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Under the employed synthesis conditions hydroxyapatite is obtained after 2 h of milling. The crystallinity and the amount of the hydroxyapatite increase as milling time does. After milling for 6 h, nanosized apatite which has a possible composition Ca9+y(CO3)(PO4)5(OH)1+2y is obtained.

  14. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-19

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  15. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-05-10

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  16. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  17. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  18. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-01-25

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  19. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goval, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-06-07

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  20. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-14

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  1. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-28

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  2. Review of Bone Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Landon S.; Gage, Earl; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Herrera, Fernando; Breithaupt, Andrew D.; Gordon, Chad R.; Afifi, Ahmed M.; Zins, James E.; Meltzer, Hal; Gosman, Amanda; Cohen, Steve R.; Holmes, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Bone substitutes are being increasingly used in craniofacial surgery and craniomaxillofacial trauma. We will review the history of the biomaterials and describe the ideal characteristics of bone substitutes, with a specific emphasis on craniofacial reconstruction. Some of the most commonly used bone substitutes are discussed in more depth, such as calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite ceramics and cements, bioactive glass, and polymer products. Areas of active research and future directions include tissue engineering, with an increasing emphasis on bioactivity of the implant. PMID:22110809

  3. Effects of scandium substitution on the crystal structure and luminescence properties of LuBO{sub 3}: Ce{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yuntao; Ren, Guohao; Ding, Dongzhou; Pan, Shangke; Yang, Fan

    2012-10-15

    The calcite phase of LuBO{sub 3} and ScBO{sub 3} polycrystalline powders were synthesized by solid state reaction method, and the Lu{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}BO{sub 3}:Ce (x=0.2, 0.5, 0.7) single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. A large composition deviation between the initial polycrystalline powders and final single crystal was confirmed by electron probe micro-analysis. Raman spectroscopy revealed that moderate lattice disorder was induced by scandium substitution. However, based on the single crystal X-ray study, we finally concluded that the crystal structure of lutetium scandium orthoborate still crystallized in the rhombohedral system belonging to R3{sup -}c. Furthermore, the relationship between the energies of the five 5d levels of Ce{sup 3+} and the crystalline environment was revealed. The total redshift, total crystal field splitting, and centroid shift of Lu{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}BO{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+} were calculated based on their VUV excitation spectra. The variations trend of these observed spectroscopic parameters was in accordance with the predicted ones. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of Lu{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}BO{sub 3}:Ce is rhombohedral system with R3{sup -}c space group. The relationship between the energies of the five Ce{sup 3+} 5d levels and the crystalline environment is established. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate lattice disorder is induced by scandium doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure of Lu{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}BO{sub 3}:Ce is rhombohedral system with R3{sup -}c space group. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relationship between energies of Ce{sup 3+} 5d levels and crystalline environment is established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spectroscopic parameters are experimentally and theoretically calculated.

  4. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  5. Stable powders made from photosensitive polycrystalline complexes of heterocyclic monomers and their polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a low electronic conductivity polymer composition having well dispersed metal granules, a stable powder made from photosensitive polycrystalline complexes of pyrrole, or its substituted derivatives and silver cations for making the polymer composition, and methods of forming the stable powder and polymer composition, respectively. A polycrystalline complex of silver and a monomer, such as pyrrole, its substituted derivatives or combinations thereof, is precipitated in the form of a stable photosensitive powder upon addition of the monomer to a solvent solution, such as toluene containing an electron acceptor. The photosensitive powder can be stored in the dark until needed. The powder may be dissolved in a solvent, cast onto a substrate and photopolymerized.

  6. Properties of magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite and the plasma coatings based on it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyasnikova, A. V.; Pichkhidze, S. Ya.; Dudareva, O. A.; Markelova, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite is synthesized and deposited by plasma spraying, and the coating and the products of hydroxyapatite decomposition are analyzed. The phase composition of magnesium- substituted hydroxyapatite deposited by plasma spraying undergoes changes. The coating consisting of molten magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite powder particles with pores between them has a homogeneous structure over the surface and throughout the internal structure and adhesion characteristics that exceed those of hydroxyapatite coatings.

  7. Specific surface area and chemical reactivity of quartz powders during mechanical processing

    SciTech Connect

    Meloni, Paola; Laboratorio per lo studio dei Materiali 'Colle di Bonaria', Universita degli Studi di Cagliari, via Ravenna, I-09100 Cagliari ; Carcangiu, Gianfranco; Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria , CNR, piazza d'Armi, I-09123 Cagliari ; Delogu, Francesco

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quartz powders were submitted to mechanical processing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The specific surface area and the chemical reactivity increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model was developed to describe the observed processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of powder processed at impact was estimated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface density of reactive centers was also estimated by using a test reaction. -- Abstract: The present work focuses on the specific surface area increase, and on the related chemical reactivity enhancement of quartz powders submitted to mechanical processing. The mechanical treatment was carried out in a suitably developed ball mill allowing the control of the frequency and energy of the impacts between ball and reactor. The specific surface area was directly measured by nitrogen physisorption, whereas electron microscopy was used to determine the size distribution of powder particles. Based on the experimental results, a simplified mathematical model was developed to describe the process of specific surface area increase on a phenomenological basis. The model permits to gain valuable information on the amount of powder processed in individual impacts. The density of reactive centers at the surface of powder particles was also estimated by using the neutralization of a free radical as a test reaction. It is shown that the surface density of reactive centers increases with the energy of collisions.

  8. Application of acid-modified Imperata cylindrica powder for latent fingerprint development.

    PubMed

    Low, Wei Zeng; Khoo, Bee Ee; Aziz, Zalina Binti Abdul; Low, Ling Wei; Teng, Tjoon Tow; bin Abdullah, Ahmad Fahmi Lim

    2015-09-01

    A novel powdering material that utilizes acid-modified Imperata cylindrica (IC) powder for the development of fingermarks was studied. Experiments were carried out to determine the suitability, adherence quality and sensitivity of the acid-modified IC powder. Fingermarks of different constituents (eccrine, sebaceous and natural fingermarks) on different types of surfaces were used. Acid-modified IC powder was also used to develop fingermarks of different ages as well as aged fingermarks recovered from the water. From the visual inspection, acid-modified IC powder was able to interact with different fingermark constituents and produced distinct ridge details on the examined surfaces. It was also able to develop aged fingermarks and fingermarks that were submerged in water. A statistical comparison was made against the Sirchie® Hi-Fi black powder in terms of the powders' sensitivity and quality of the developed natural fingermarks. The image quality was analyzed using MITRE's Image Quality of Fingerprint (IQF) software. From the experiments, acid-modified IC powder has the potential as a fingermark development powder, although natural fingermarks developed by Sirchie® black powder showed better quality and sensitivity based on the results of the statistical comparison. PMID:26385718

  9. The Substitution of a Super Black Fixed Micro-Object for an Optical Microcavity in a Delayed Choice Experiment to Send Information Immediately Between 2 Paired Particles: Simplifying the Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    An experiment has been described that relies on a delayed choice for an idler photon that immediately affects the signal photon with which it is at least initially entangled and for which the idler photon provides which-way information. The delayed choice concerns whether to maintain or eliminate the entanglement before any measurements are made. In one option of the delayed choice, the entanglement can be eliminated because the relevant state of the idler photon related to its entanglement is eliminated when the idler photon enters an optical microcavity filled with photons with the same mode as the incoming idler photon. The microcavity is located at the crossroads of two possible idler photon paths. The relevant state of the idler photon characterizes the particular path taken by the photon and this information is eliminated when the particle enters the cavity. Over a number of runs with this choice, the distribution of the paired signal photons shows interference. If the entanglement is maintained, the distribution of the paired signal photons shows which-way information. This experiment can be simplified by using a super black material (e.g., Vantablack) affixed to a fixed micro-object located at the crossroads of the two possible idler photon paths instead of the optical microcavity. The photon would be absorbed by the material and there would be no way to detect from which direction it came. Objects such as fixed mirrors in a Mach Zehnder interferometer do not provide ww information. The super black fixed micro-object should not either.

  10. Powder towpreg process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1991-01-01

    The process for dry powder impregnation of carbon fiber tows being developed at LaRC overcomes many of the difficulties associated with melt, solution, and slurry prepregging. In the process, fluidized powder is deposited on spread tow bundles and fused to the fibers by radiant heating. Impregnated tows have been produced for preform, weaving, and composite materials applications. Design and operating data correlations were developed for scale up of the process to commercial operation. Bench scale single tow experiments at tow speeds up to 50 cm/sec have demonstrated that the process can be controlled to produce weavable towpreg. Samples were woven and molded into preform material of good quality.

  11. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  12. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-03-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  13. Florida's Substitute Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odutola, Adeniji A.; Etemadi, Judy N.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the statutory duties of the Florida Education Standards Commission, highlighting a study of the working conditions of Florida's substitute teachers. Researchers collected data on school board policies regarding substitutes' educational levels required, initial training and staff development opportunities required, salary schedules, and…

  14. Sustainability and substitutability.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-02-01

    Developing a quantitative science of sustainability requires bridging mathematical concepts from fields contributing to sustainability science. The concept of substitutability is central to sustainability but is defined differently by different fields. Specifically, economics tends to define substitutability as a marginal concept while fields such as ecology tend to focus on limiting behaviors. We explain how to reconcile these different views. We develop a model where investments can be made in knowledge to increase the elasticity of substitution. We explore the set of sustainable and optimal trajectories for natural capital extraction and built and knowledge capital accumulation. Investments in substitutability through knowledge stock accumulation affect the value of natural capital. Results suggest that investing in the knowledge stock, which can enhance substitutability, is critical to desirable sustainable outcomes. This result is robust even when natural capital is not managed optimally. This leads us to conclude that investments in the knowledge stock are of first order importance for sustainability. PMID:24789570

  15. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders: Synthesis, thermal stability and sinterability

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Alessandra Cacciotti, Ilaria; Lombardi, Mariangela Montanaro, Laura

    2009-02-04

    Synthetic hydroxyapatites incorporating small amounts of Si have shown improved biological performances in terms of enhanced bone apposition, bone in-growth and cell-mediated degradation. This paper reports a systematic investigation on Si-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si 1.40 wt%) nanopowders produced following two different conventional wet methodologies: (a) precipitation of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O and (b) titration of Ca(OH){sub 2}. The influence of the synthesis process on composition, thermal behaviour and sinterability of the resulting nanopowders is studied. Samples were characterised by electron microscopy, induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and dilatometry. Semicrystalline Si-substituted hydroxyapatite powders made up of needle-like nanoparticles were obtained, the specific surface area ranged between 84 and 110 m{sup 2}/g. Pure and Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders derived from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O decomposed around 1000 deg. C. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders obtained from Ca(OH){sub 2} were thermally stable up to 1200 deg. C and showed a distinct decreased thermal stability with respect to the homologous pure sample. Si-substituted hydroxyapatites exhibited higher sintering temperature and increased total shrinkage with respect to pure powders. Nanostructured dense ceramics were obtained by sintering at 1100 deg. C Si-substituted hydroxyapatites derived from Ca(OH){sub 2}.

  16. Demystifying Mystery Powders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotar, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes science activities which use simple chemical tests to distinguish between materials and to determine some of their properties. Explains the water, iodine, heat, acid, baking soda, acid/base indicator, glucose, and sugar tests. Includes activities to enhance chemical testing and a list of suggested powders for use. (RT)

  17. Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szwed, John F., Ed.

    The twenty-three contributors to this volume show that, despite racism, American blacks have independently developed some of their own cultural strengths. If these are correctly harnessed, they could provide important resources for the revitalization and development of the black community. The four parts of which this book is comprised are: (1)…

  18. Black Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E., Ed.

    The essays in this book examine some of the major issues affecting the behavior and status of black men in the United States. The volume is divided into four sections. Part one compares black and white men on such indicators as sex ratio, age distribution, marital and family status, educational attainment, employment, income, social and political

  19. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  4. Copper thiocyanato complexes and cocaine - a case of 'black cocaine'.

    PubMed

    Laussmann, Tim; Grzesiak, Ireneus; Krest, Alexander; Stirnat, Kathrin; Meier-Giebing, Sigrid; Ruschewitz, Uwe; Klein, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of a black powder confiscated by German customs was elucidated. Black powders are occasionally used as a 'transporter' for cocaine and are obviously especially designed to cloak the presence of the drug. The material consisting of cocaine, copper, iron, thiocyanate, and graphite was approached by analytical tools and chemical modelling. Graphite is added to the material probably with the intention of masking the typical infrared (IR) fingerprints of cocaine and can be clearly detected by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Cu(2+) and NCS(-) ions, when carefully reacted with cocaine hydrochloride, form the novel compound (CocH)2 [Cu(NCS)4 ] (CocH(+) ?=?protonated cocaine), which has been characterised by single crystal XRD, IR, NMR, UV/Vis absorption and EPR spectroscopy. Based on some further experiments the assumed composition of the original black powder is discussed. PMID:24753444

  5. Sugar substitutes during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question I have a pregnant patient who regularly consumes sugar substitutes and she asked me if continuing their use would affect her pregnancy or child. What should I tell her, and are there certain options that are better for use during pregnancy? Answer Although more research is required to fully determine the effects of in utero exposure to sugar substitutes, the available data do not suggest adverse effects in pregnancy. However, it is recommended that sugar substitutes be consumed in moderate amounts, adhering to the acceptable daily intake standards set by regulatory agencies. PMID:25392440

  6. Substitution site and effects on magnetism in Sr-for-Ca substituted CaBaCo4O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurelio, G.; Curiale, J.; Bardelli, F.; Junqueira Prado, R.; Hennet, L.; Cuello, G.; Campo, J.; Thiaudire, D.

    2015-10-01

    Cationic substitutions in the novel magnetoelectric compound CaBaCo4O7 lead to profound changes in its magnetic and electric behaviors. In this work, we present a structural study of the isovalent substitution Sr-for-Ca in CaBaCo4O7. X-ray diffraction, as well as neutron powder diffraction experiments, are reported for a series of samples Ca1-xSrxBaCo4O7 with 0 ? x ? 0.10 . Special emphasis is given to the identification of the substitution site, as Sr has also been reported to substitute for Ba in this crystal structure. The solubility limit for Sr at the Ca site is shown to be at x ? 0.08 . The variation of lattice constants with Sr-doping firmly supports the Sr-for-Ca substitution. Rietveld refinements of the Sr-substituted samples are presented, and used as starting point to analyse the local structure around Sr by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Sr K-edge. Both the near-edge absorption and the extended absorption fine-structure confirm the substitution of Sr for Ca, giving definite support to the proposed nominal formula. In addition, macroscopic magnetization measurements are presented which reveal the striking effects of Sr-substitution over the magnetic landscape of this puzzling compound.

  7. Method for synthesizing powder materials

    DOEpatents

    Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.

    1988-01-21

    A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400/degree/K (127/degree/C). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material. 1 fig.

  8. Method to blend separator powders

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM); Andazola, Arthur H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  9. Modern developments in powder metallurgy

    SciTech Connect

    Aqua, E.N.; Whitman, C.I.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on metal powders. Topics considered at the conference included sintering fundamentals, liquid phase and activated sintering, stainless steels, copper-base powder metallurgy, aluminium alloys, refractory metals, carbides, cutting tools, friction, wear, and powder production.

  10. Proteins and Powders: Technical Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jonathan P.

    Protein powder samples offer many technical challenges for powder diffraction experiments and data analysis. Samples are sensitive to radiation damage and the large unit cells lead to severe peak overlaps, creating interesting challenges. Powder diffraction remains as the unique tool to characterize certain polymorphic forms of crystalline proteins.

  11. Sugar Substitutes: Aspartame

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sugar substitute. It is a combination of 2 amino acids: aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is about 200 ... to metabolize phenylalanine, which is one of the amino acids in aspartame. If you are concerned that consuming ...

  12. Powder metallurgy of superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gessinger, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Powder metallurgy superalloys were developed in the mid-1960's when stronger aircraft turbine disk materials were needed. Their characteristics of greatly reduced segregation, better hot-workability, improved mechanical properties, and cost-effective manufacturing processes made P/M superalloys highly desirable in high-temperature applications. This book deals with prealloyed superalloys including rapidly solidified (RSR) alloys and oxide-dispersion strengthened alloys, as well as processing techniques such as sintering, hot isostatic pressing, extrusion, and isothermal forging. The large range of microstructures possible are correlated with mechanical properties at intermediate and elevated temperatures. Methods of powder production and consolidation are detailed, as are thermomechanical processing principles by which different microstructures can be created. Non-destructive testing techniques, and problems and advances relating to mechanical properties and processing are also covered.

  13. Processing polymeric powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throne, James L.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of uniformly and continuously depositing and sinter-fusing nominal 0.1 to 40 microns dimensioned electrostatically charged polymer powder particles onto essentially uniformly spread 5 to 20 micron grounded continuous fiber tow to produce a respoolable thermoplastic composite two-preg was formulated at NASA Langley. The process was reduced to practice under a NASA grant at the University of Akron this spring. The production of tow-preg is called phase 1. The production of ultrafine polymer powders from 5 to 10 percent (wt) polymer solids in solvent is considered. This is phase 0 and is discussed. The production of unitape from multi tow-pregs was also considered. This is phase 2 and is also discussed. And another approach to phase 1, also proposed last summer, was scoped. This is phase 1A and is also discussed.

  14. Vacuum powder injector and method of impregnating fiber with powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Working, Dennis C. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus uniformly impregnate stranded material with dry powder such as low solubility, high melt flow polymer powder to produce, for example, composite prepregs. The stranded material is expanded in an impregnation chamber by an influx of air so that the powder, which may enter through the same inlet as the air, penetrates to the center of the stranded material. The stranded material then is contracted for holding the powder therein. The stranded material and powder may be pulled through the impregnation chamber in the same direction by vacuum. Larger particles of powder which do not fully penetrate the stranded material may be combed into the stranded material and powder which does not impregnate the stranded material may be collected and reused.

  15. Substitution of anticonvulsant drugs

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Runge, Uwe; Witte, Otto W; Stefan, Hermann; Hufnagel, Andreas; Mayer, Thomas; Krämer, Günter

    2009-01-01

    Changing from branded drugs to generic alternatives, or between different generic formulations, is common practice aiming at reducing health care costs. It has been suggested that antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) should be exempt from substitution because of the potential negative consequences of adverse events and breakthrough seizures. Controlled data are lacking on the risk of substitution. However, retrospective data from large medical claims databases suggest that switching might be associated with increased use of AED and non-AED medications, and health care resources (including hospitalization). In addition, some anecdotal evidence from patients and health care providers’ surveys suggest a potentially negative impact of substitution. Well-controlled data are needed to assess the real risk associated with substitution, allowing health care professionals involved in the care of patients with epilepsy to make informed decisions. This paper reviews currently available literature, based on which the authors suggest that the decision to substitute should be made on an individual basis by the physician and an informed patient. Unendorsed or undisclosed substitution at the pharmacy level should be discouraged. PMID:19707254

  16. Dry powder inhaler formulation.

    PubMed

    Telko, Martin J; Hickey, Anthony J

    2005-09-01

    A drug product combines pharmacologic activity with pharmaceutical properties. Desirable performance characteristics are physical and chemical stability, ease of processing, accurate and reproducible delivery to the target organ, and availability at the site of action. For the dry powder inhaler (DPI), these goals can be met with a suitable powder formulation, an efficient metering system, and a carefully selected device. This review focuses on the DPI formulation and development process. Most DPI formulations consist of micronized drug blended with larger carrier particles, which enhance flow, reduce aggregation, and aid in dispersion. A combination of intrinsic physicochemical properties, particle size, shape, surface area, and morphology affects the forces of interaction and aerodynamic properties, which in turn determine fluidization, dispersion, delivery to the lungs, and deposition in the peripheral airways. When a DPI is actuated, the formulation is fluidized and enters the patient's airways. Under the influence of inspiratory airflow, the drug particles separate from the carrier particles and are carried deep into the lungs, while the larger carrier particles impact on the oropharyngeal surfaces and are cleared. If the cohesive forces acting on the powder are too strong, the shear of the airflow may not be sufficient to separate the drug from the carrier particles, which results in low deposition efficiency. Advances in understanding of aerosol and solid state physics and interfacial chemistry are moving formulation development from an empirical activity to a fundamental scientific foundation. PMID:16122404

  17. Effects of substituting Fe with Ni in iron borides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbucicchio, M.; Palombarini, G.; Sambogna, G.

    1993-04-01

    Powder samples of pure Fe 2B and FeB were mixed with different amounts of Ni powder and treated at 1000C for 200 h. The Ni alloying effects were studied by means of transmission Mssbauer and X-ray diffraction measurements. Ni enters borides substituting for Fe and the liberated iron, in the case of Fe 2B, interacts with residual Ni giving rise to a fcc Fe-Ni alloy, while, in the case of FeB, the free iron reacts preferentially with FeB itself giving rise to Ni-containing Fe 2B.

  18. Application of planetary ball mill for manufacturing of shielding composite coatings based on polyester powder paints and carbon fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, S. V.; Yazykov, S. Yu; Suslyaev, V. I.; Dorozhkin, K. V.

    2015-10-01

    Blend polyester powder paint and particulate carbon filler in the form of colloidal graphite and the carbon black product were investigated. Powder paint and carbon materials were treated together in a planetary ball mill. The data of the structural analysis and transmission coefficients of electromagnetic waves of terahertz range through the flat shape samples are presented.

  19. Black Cohosh

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common names, what the science says, potential side effects and cautions, and resources for more information. Black cohosh, a member of the buttercup family, is a plant native to North America. It was used in ...

  20. Black Hills

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... surfaces with lower absorption appear as green, yellow, orange or red. Black pixels indicate areas where albedo could not be derived, ... notably reduced in extent, and higher albedo areas (yellow, orange and red pixels) have increased. Because incoming sunlight is ...

  1. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath (Littleton, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  2. In situ synthesis of magnesium-substituted biphasic calcium phosphate and in vitro biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Hyeong-Shin; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jin, Hyeong-Ho; Hwang, Kyu-Hong; Lee, Jong Kook; Park, Hong-Chae; Yoon, Seog-Young

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► Mg–BCP were successfully prepared through in situ aqueous co-precipitation method. ► The amount of β-TCP phase was changed with the magnesium substitution level. ► The substitution of magnesium led to a decrease in the unit cell volume. ► Mg–BCP could be able to develop a new apatite phase on the surface faster than BCP. -- Abstract: In situ preparation of magnesium (Mg) substituted biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) of hydroxyapatite (HAp)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were carried out through aqueous co-precipitation method. The concentrations of added magnesium were varied with the calcium in order to obtain constant (Ca + Mg)/P ratios of 1.602. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure of synthesized magnesium substituted BCP powders. The results have shown that substitution of magnesium in the calcium deficient apatites revealed the formation of biphasic mixtures of different HAp/β-TCP ratios after heating at 1000 °C. The ratios of the formation of phase mixtures were dependent on the content of magnesium. After immersing in Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1 week, 1 wt% magnesium substituted BCP powders were degraded and precipitation started to be formed with small granules consisting of number of flake-like crystal onto the surface of synthesized powders. On the other hand, in the case of pure BCP powders, the formation of new precipitates was detected after immersion in HBSS for 2 weeks. On the basis of these results, magnesium substituted BCP could be able to develop a new apatite phase on the surface in contact with physiological fluids faster than BCP does. In addition, the retention time to produce the new apatite phase in implantation operation for the BCP powder could be controlled by the amount of magnesium substitution.

  3. Brominated carbon black: An EDXD study

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Marilena; Gontrani, Lorenzo

    2014-06-19

    An energy dispersive X-Ray study of pure and brominated carbon black was carried out. The analysis of the diffraction patterns reveals that the low bromine load (ca.1% mol) is trapped into the structure, without significantly modifying it. This allows the application of the difference methods, widely tested for electrolyte solutions, inorganic matrices containing metals and isomorphic substitutions.

  4. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-06-11

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  5. The substitutability of reinforcers.

    PubMed

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E

    1993-07-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportion. At the center of the continuum are reinforcers that are independent with respect to each other; consumption of one has no influence on consumption of another. Psychological research and analyses in terms of substitutability employ standard operant conditioning paradigms in which humans and nonhumans choose between alternative reinforcers. The range of reinforcer interactions found in these studies is more readily accommodated and predicted when behavior-analytic models of choice consider issues of substitutability. New insights are gained into such areas as eating and drinking, electrical brain stimulation, temporal separation of choice alternatives, behavior therapy, drug use, and addictions. Moreover, the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) gains greater explanatory power and comprehensiveness when measures of substitutability are included. PMID:16812696

  6. The substitutability of reinforcers

    PubMed Central

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E.

    1993-01-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportion. At the center of the continuum are reinforcers that are independent with respect to each other; consumption of one has no influence on consumption of another. Psychological research and analyses in terms of substitutability employ standard operant conditioning paradigms in which humans and nonhumans choose between alternative reinforcers. The range of reinforcer interactions found in these studies is more readily accommodated and predicted when behavior-analytic models of choice consider issues of substitutability. New insights are gained into such areas as eating and drinking, electrical brain stimulation, temporal separation of choice alternatives, behavior therapy, drug use, and addictions. Moreover, the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) gains greater explanatory power and comprehensiveness when measures of substitutability are included. PMID:16812696

  7. Structure and photoluminescence of (Ca,Eu)2SiS4 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smet, P. F.; Avci, N.; Loos, B.; Van Haecke, J. E.; Poelman, D.

    2007-06-01

    The photoluminescence of Ca2SiS4:Eu powders was investigated in detail as a function of europium concentration (from 0.1% Ca substitution to the fully substituted Eu2SiS4). At low europium dopant concentration (<10%) the powders crystallize in an orthorhombic structure and the emission spectrum is dominated by two broad emission bands, at 564 and 660 nm. The emission can be tuned from yellow (CIE x = 0.46,y = 0.53) to red (CIE x = 0.65,y = 0.35) by variation of the Eu concentration. An energetic coupling exists between both bands, leading to a broad excitation wavelength range. Powders with high europium concentration (>40%) crystallize in a monoclinic structure, details of which were determined by Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data. For the composition CaEuSiS4 (i.e. 50% substitution), the luminescence peaks at 614 nm, shifting to shorter wavelengths upon further substitution of Ca by Eu. Although considerable thermal quenching is present at room temperature in the fully Eu-substituted compound, Eu2SiS4 is still photoluminescent, with a peak emission wavelength of 577 nm. A strong correlation is found between the crystallographic and luminescent properties of the (Ca,Eu)2SiS4 powders. The broad emission and excitation bands make this phosphor a good candidate for use in phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes (pcLEDs).

  8. LARC powder prepreg system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    Thermoplastic prepregs of LARC-TPI have been produced in a fluidized bed unit on spread continuous fiber tows. The powders are melted on the fibers by radiant heating to adhere the polymer to the fiber. This process produces tow prepreg uniformly without imposing severe stress on the fibers or requiring long high temperature residence times for the polymer. Unit design theory and operating correlations have been developed to provide the basis for scale up to commercial operation. Special features of the operation are the pneumatic tow spreader, fluidized bed and resin feed systems.

  9. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban

  10. Polymer powder prepregging: Scoping study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throne, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Early on, it was found that NEAT LARC-TPI thermoplastic polyimide powder behaved elastoplastically at pressures to 20 ksi and temperatures to 260 degrees celcius (below MP). At high resin assay, resin powder could be continuously cold-flowed around individual carbon fibers in a metal rolling mill. At low resin assay (2:1, C:TPI), fiber breakage was prohibitive. Thus, although processing of TPI below MP would be quite unique, it appears that the polymer must be melted and flowed to produce low resin assay prepreg. Fiber tow was spread to 75 mm using a venturi slot tunnel. This allowed intimate powder/fiber interaction. Two techniques were examined for getting room temperature powder onto the room temperature fiber surface. Electrostatic powder coating allows the charged powder to cling tenaciously to the fiber, even while heated with a hot air gun to above its melt temperature. A variant of the wet slurry coating process was also explored. The carbon fibers are first wetted with water. Then dry powder is sprinkled onto the wet tow and doctor-rolled between the fibers. The wet structure is then taken onto a heated roll, with hot air guns drying and sinter-melting the powder onto the fiber surfaces. In both cases SEM shows individual fibers coated with powder particles that have melted in place and flowed along the fiber surface via surface tension.

  11. Proteins and Powders: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margiolaki, Irene

    Following the seminal work of Von Dreele, powder X-ray diffraction studies on proteins are being established as a valuable complementary technique to single crystal measurements. A wide range of small proteins have been found to give synchrotron powder diffraction profiles where the peak widths are essentially limited only by the instrumental resolution. The rich information contained in these profiles, combined with developments in data analysis, has stimulated research and development to apply the powder technique to microcrystalline protein samples. In this chapter, progress in using powder diffraction for macromolecular crystallography is reported.

  12. Black Literature vs. Black Studies: Three Lynchings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Melvin G.

    1977-01-01

    Considers three works by black authors, all dealing with lynchings, that may be used in a black literature course to introduce students to the esthetic dimension of black literature, as well as to its cultural and racial significance. (GW)

  13. Chemical reactions of metal powders with organic and inorganic liquids during ball milling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, A.

    1975-01-01

    Chromium and/or nickel powders were milled in metal chlorides and in organic liquids representative of various functional groups. The powders always reacted with the liquid and became contaminated with elements from them. The milled powders had specific surface areas ranging from 0.14 to 37 sq m/g, and the total contamination with elements from the milling liquid ranged from 0.01 to 56 weight percent. Compounds resulting from substitution, addition, or elimination reactions formed in or from the milling liquid.

  14. Performing Substitute Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bletzer, Keith V.

    2010-01-01

    Formal education is both a right and an obligation bestowed on young people in most all nations of the world. Teachers (adults) and students (youth) form a co-present dyadic contract that must be maintained within the classroom. Substitute teachers fill a role in sustaining the integrity of this teacher-student link, whenever teachers are absent.…

  15. The Age of Substitutability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeller, H. E.; Weinberg, Alvin M.

    1976-01-01

    Dwindling mineral resources might cause a shift from nonrenewable resources to renewable resources and inexhaustible elements such as iron and aluminum. Alternative energy sources such as breeder, fusion, solar, and geothermal power must be developed for production and recycling of materials. Substitution and, hence, living standards ultimately…

  16. The Age of Substitutability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeller, H. E.; Weinberg, Alvin M.

    1976-01-01

    Dwindling mineral resources might cause a shift from nonrenewable resources to renewable resources and inexhaustible elements such as iron and aluminum. Alternative energy sources such as breeder, fusion, solar, and geothermal power must be developed for production and recycling of materials. Substitution and, hence, living standards ultimately

  17. Performing Substitute Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bletzer, Keith V.

    2010-01-01

    Formal education is both a right and an obligation bestowed on young people in most all nations of the world. Teachers (adults) and students (youth) form a co-present dyadic contract that must be maintained within the classroom. Substitute teachers fill a role in sustaining the integrity of this teacher-student link, whenever teachers are absent.

  18. Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates

    SciTech Connect

    Song Haiyan; Sjastad, Anja O.; Fjellvag, Helmer; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Vistad, Ornulv B.; Arstad, Bjornar; Norby, Poul

    2011-12-15

    Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating, the thermal transformation into anatase and further to rutile is retarded. This suppression of the phase transition upon higher valent substitution may promote technological applications of anatase thin films, hereunder development of films with TCO properties. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during the transformation, the Nb-substitution into TiO{sub 2} provokes different defect situations and also electronic properties. At reducing conditions, Nb is incorporated as Nb{sup V} and an equivalent amount of Ti{sup IV} is transformed to Ti{sup III} as evidenced by XPS. Magnetic susceptibility data show accordingly paramagnetic behavior. For samples heated in air Ti{sup IV} and Nb{sup V} cations prevail, the latter is compensated by cation vacancies. {sup 93}Nb MAS NMR data prove that Nb is finely dispersed into the transformed (Ti,Nb)O{sub 2} oxide matrices without sign of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} (nano)precipitates. The Nb-O-Ti bonds and defects at cation sites are considered key factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment. - Graphical abstract: Layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single layer Nb-substituted nanosheets were obtained by exfoliation of layered titanates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nb(V) successfully introduced into anatase and rutile solid solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anatase obtained from reconstructed nanosheets exhibit enhanced thermal stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen partial pressure influences the valence of Nb in heat-treated samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deposition of oriented thin Ti(Nb)O{sub 2} layers by spray coating was demonstrated.

  19. Characterization of mutagenic activity in grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, M.A.E.; Knize, M.G.; Felton, J.S.; Jagerstad, M.

    1994-06-01

    Several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees showed a mutagenic response in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024 and YG1O29 with metabolic activation. The beverage powders contained 150 to 500 TA98 and 1150 to 4050 YG1024 revertant colonies/gram, respectively. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment. Characterization of the mutagenic activity, using HPLC-and the Ames test of the collected fractions, showed the coffee-substitutes and instant coffees contain several mutagenic compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines.

  20. Nanoliposomal Dry Powder Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Gaurang; Chougule, Mahavir; Singh, Mandip; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2013-01-01

    Liposomal dry powder formulations (DPFs) have proven their superiority over conventional DPFs due to favorably improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of entrapped drugs, and thus, reduced local and systemic toxicities. Nanoliposomal DPFs (NLDPFs) provide stable, high aerosolization efficiency to deep lung, prolonged drug release, slow systemic dilution, and avoid macrophage uptake of encapsulated drug by carrier-based delivery of nano-range liposomes. This chapter describes methods of preparation of nanoliposomes (NLs) and NLDPFs, using various techniques, and their characterization with respect to size distribution, flow behavior, in vitro drug release profile, lung deposition, cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, and in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Some examples have been detailed for better understanding of the methods of preparation and evaluation of NLDPFs by investigators. PMID:19903555

  1. Melamine milk powder and infant formula sold in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Schoder, Dagmar

    2010-09-01

    This is the first study proving the existence of melamine in milk powder and infant formula exported to the African market. A total of 49 milk powder batches were collected in Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania, East Africa), the center of international trade in East Africa, which serves as a commercial bottleneck and shipment hub for sub-Saharan, Central, and East Africa. Two categories of samples were collected between October and December 2008, immediately after the melamine contamination of Chinese products became public: (i) market brands of all international companies supplying the East African market and (ii) illegally sold products from informal channels. Melamine concentration was determined with the AgraQuant Melamine Sensitive Assay. Despite the national import prohibition of Chinese milk products and unlabeled milk powder in Tanzania, 11% (22 of 200) of inspected microretailers sold milk powder on the local black market. Manufacturers could be identified for only 55% (27) of the 49 investigated batches. Six percent (3 of 49) of all samples and 11% (3 of 27) of all international brand name products tested revealed melamine concentrations up to 5.5 mg/kg of milk powder. This amount represents about twice the tolerable daily intake as suggested by the U.S Food and Drug Administration. Based on our study, we can assume that the number of affected children in Africa is substantial. PMID:20828481

  2. Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    This volume presents an overview of contemporary black adolescents from social, psychological, economic, educational, medical, historical, and comparative perspectives, with most emphasizing the roles that race, socioeconomic status, and environmental forces play in this critical period. The volume includes 19 chapters by various authors arranged

  3. Counseling Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate

  4. Black Bear

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Oklahoma Unit has been studying population expansion and genetics of black bear in southeastern Oklahoma since 2001. Live capture and hair snares have been used to collect samples; from left to right: field technician, JD Davis and M.S. candidates, Angie Brown and Meredith Magnuson....

  5. Mound powder loader, Mod 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gress, A.V. Jr.

    1985-08-21

    At the investigation of Sandia Albuquerque, a semiautomatic powder loader was designed and fabricated for pyrotechnics devices. The basic functions of the system were to load a precise, measured amount of powder into a charge holder and to compact the mixture to a specified density. This report documents the history, rationale, design, and performance of the Mod 1 loader.

  6. Skin substitutes: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Singh, A. K.; Shenoy, Y. R.

    2012-01-01

    There have been numerous alternatives developed to replace skin. These can either be permanent substitutes or temporary substitutes, which need to be replaced later by autologous grafts. These have been tried in recent times as an attempt to reduce the need or in the case of permanent substitutes ,altogether replace autologous skin grafts. However till date no ideal skin substitute has been developed. Various factors have to be considered while choosing one of these substitutes. In a developing country like India awareness and availability of these skin substitutes is not adequate considering the volume of cases that require this modality of treatment. Also there are skin substitutes developed in our country that need to be highlighted. This article is an attempt to review the vast array of skin substitutes that have been developed and consider their utility and feasibility for developing countries. PMID:23162239

  7. Structural studies of magnesium nitride fluorides by powder neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Brogan, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert W.; Smith, Ronald I.; Gregory, Duncan H.

    2012-01-15

    Samples of ternary nitride fluorides, Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF have been prepared by solid state reaction of Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} at 1323-1423 K and investigated by powder X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} is cubic (space group: Pm3m) and has a structure related to rock-salt MgO, but with one cation site vacant. Mg{sub 2}NF is tetragonal (space group: I4{sub 1}/amd) and has an anti-LiFeO{sub 2} related structure. Both compounds are essentially ionic and form structures in which nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered. The nitride fluorides show temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour between 5 and 300 K. - Graphical abstract: Definitive structures of the ternary magnesium nitride fluorides Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and the lower temperature polymorph of Mg{sub 2}NF have been determined from powder neutron diffraction data. The nitride halides are essentially ionic and exhibit weak temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definitive structures of Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF were determined by neutron diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered in both structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds exhibit weak, temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compounds are essentially ionic with ionicity increasing with F{sup -} content.

  8. Light extinction in metallic powder beds: Correlation with powder structure

    SciTech Connect

    Rombouts, M.; Froyen, L.; Gusarov, A.V.; Bentefour, E.H.; Glorieux, C.

    2005-07-01

    A theoretical correlation between the effective extinction coefficient, the specific surface area, and the chord length distribution of powder beds is verified experimentally. The investigated powder beds consist of metallic particles of several tens of microns. The effective extinction coefficients are measured by a light-transmission technique at a wavelength of 540 nm. The powder structure is characterized by a quantitative image analysis of powder bed cross sections resulting in two-point correlation functions and chord length distributions. The specific surface area of the powders is estimated by laser-diffraction particle-size analysis and by the two-point correlation function. The theoretically predicted tendency of increasing extinction coefficient with specific surface area per unit void volume is confirmed by the experiments. However, a significant quantitative discrepancy is found for several powders. No clear correlation of the extinction coefficient with the powder material and particle size, and morphology is revealed, which is in line with the assumption of geometrical optics.

  9. Black Talk and Black Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Roger D.

    1969-01-01

    Demonstrates the need for cultural relativity in avoiding stereotyped reactions to the language of the lower-class black child. Appears in "The Florida FL Reporter special anthology issue, "Linguistic-Cultural Differences and American Education. The central portion of this essay is part of the opening argument of the author's forthcoming book

  10. Variations on Black Themes: English, Black Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Gloria D.

    Variations on Black Themes, an introductory course in the study of black literature, permits students to make cursory examination of representative works of many black writers for the purpose of identifying major writers and recurring themes. The course content includes: introduction to some works of major Black American authors; identification of

  11. 21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... specified name of the food is Vanilla powder _-fold or _-fold vanilla powder, except that if sugar is...-fold, the term _-fold is omitted from the name. (2) The label of vanilla powder shall bear the...

  12. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath (Littleton, CO); Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  13. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, R.

    1998-08-04

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

  14. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions (black Strings and Black Rings)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    The main focus of this session was the presentation of new higher-dimensional black hole solutions, including black rings, black strings, and multi black holes, and the study of their properties. Besides new asymptotically flat and locally asymptotically flat black objects also new black holes with anti-de Sitter asymptotics were reported. The studies of their properties included the investigation of their stability, their thermodynamics, their analyticity and their existence. Furthermore, the geodesics in such higher-dimensional space-times were investigated.

  15. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1995-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  16. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1996-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  17. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1994-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  18. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

    1996-01-02

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

  19. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  20. Shock compaction of molybdenum powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

    1983-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

  1. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOEpatents

    Janney, M.A.

    1990-01-16

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, where after the product may be sintered.

  2. Preparation and characterization of cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Saebel, Crystal E.; Carbone, Ryan; Dabous, John R.; Lo, Suet Y.; Siemann, Stefan

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor (CoLF) is highly active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoLF can be prepared by bio-assimilation and direct exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lethal factor binds cobalt tightly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic spectrum of CoLF reveals penta-coordination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of CoLF with thioglycolic acid follows a 2-step mechanism. -- Abstract: Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases near their N-termini. The current report concerns the preparation of cobalt-substituted LF (CoLF) and its characterization by electronic spectroscopy. Two strategies to produce CoLF were explored, including (i) a bio-assimilation approach involving the cultivation of LF-expressing Bacillus megaterium cells in the presence of CoCl{sub 2}, and (ii) direct exchange by treatment of zinc-LF with CoCl{sub 2}. Independent of the method employed, the protein was found to contain one Co{sup 2+} per LF molecule, and was shown to be twice as active as its native zinc counterpart. The electronic spectrum of CoLF suggests the Co{sup 2+} ion to be five-coordinate, an observation similar to that reported for other Co{sup 2+}-substituted gluzincins, but distinct from that documented for the crystal structure of native LF. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies following the exposure of CoLF to thioglycolic acid (TGA) revealed a sequential mechanism of metal removal from LF, which likely involves the formation of an enzyme: Co{sup 2+}:TGA ternary complex prior to demetallation of the active site. CoLF reported herein constitutes the first spectroscopic probe of LF's active site, which may be utilized in future studies to gain further insight into the enzyme's mechanism and inhibitor interactions.

  3. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  6. Vacancy and Doping States in Monolayer and bulk Black Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2015-09-01

    The atomic geometries and transition levels of point defects and substitutional dopants in few-layer and bulk black phosphorus are calculated. The vacancy is found to reconstruct in monolayer P to leave a single dangling bond, giving a negative U defect with a +/- transition level at 0.24?eV above the valence band edge. The V- state forms an unusual 4-fold coordinated site. In few-layer and bulk black P, the defect becomes a positive U site. The divacancy is much more stable than the monovacancy, and it reconstructs to give no deep gap states. Substitutional dopants such as C, Si, O or S do not give rise to shallow donor or acceptor states but instead reconstruct to form non-doping sites analogous to DX or AX centers in GaAs. Impurities on black P adopt the 8-N rule of bonding, as in amorphous semiconductors, rather than simple substitutional geometries seen in tetrahedral semiconductors.

  7. Trifluoromethyl-substituted polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Current work sponsored by the grant at Southwest Texas State University is directed toward the synthesis and characterization of: (1) N-alkylated polyamides derived from o-fluorinated diacids; (2) highly fluorinated polyethers; (3) polyesters derived from 2-hydroxy-2-propyl substituted arenes and/or 2,5-difluoroterephthalic acid; and (4) silicon-containing fluoropolymers. Work during the period from 1 July to 31 Dec. 1993 focused primarily on items 3 and 4 and on the development of a phosphorus containing modification of '12F-PEK.'

  8. Polyimides comprising substituted benzidines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A new class of polyimides and copolyimides made from substituted benzidines and aromatic dianhydrides and other aromatic diamines. The polyimides obtained with said diamines are distinguished by excellent thermal, excellent solubility, excellent electrical properties such as very low dielectric constants, excellent clarity and mechanical properties making the polyimides ideally suited as coating materials for microelectronic apparatii, as membranes for selective molecular or gas separation, as fibers in molecular composites, as high tensile strength, high compression strength fibers, as film castable coatings, or as fabric components.

  9. Ceramic powder for sintering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akiya, H.; Saito, A.

    1984-01-01

    Surface activity of ceramic powders such as MgO and Al2O3, for use in sintering with sp. emphasis on their particle size, shape, particle size distribution, packing, and coexisting additives and impurities are reviewed.

  10. Rotary powder feed through apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

  11. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  12. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel

  13. Luminescence of powdered uranium glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eubanks, A. G.; Mcgarrity, J. M.; Silverman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Measurement of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence efficiencies in powdered borosilicate glasses having different particle size and different uranium content. Excitation with 100 to 350 keV electrons and with 253.7 nm light was found to produce identical absolute radiant exitance spectra in powdered samples. The most efficient glass was one containing 29.4 wt% B2O3, 58.8 wt% SiO2, 9.8 wt% Na2O and 2.0 wt% UO2.

  14. Neutron detectors comprising boron powder

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

    2013-05-21

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  15. Method for Production of Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M. (Inventor); Sircar, Subhasish (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for producing oxides of metals and of metal alloys. The metal or alloy is placed in an oxygen atmosphere in a combustion chamber and ignited. Products of the combustion include one or more oxides of the metal or alloy in powdered form. In one embodiment of the invention a feeder is provided whereby material to be oxidized by combustion can be achieved into a combustion chamber continuously. A product remover receives the powder product of the combustion.

  16. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powder for oral bone defects treatment applications.

    PubMed

    Saqaei, Mahboobe; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Edris, Hossein; Mortazavi, Vajihesadat

    2015-11-01

    Bone defects which emerge around dental implants are often seen when implants are placed in areas with insufficient alveolar bone, in extraction sockets, or around failing implants. Bone regeneration in above-mentioned defects using of bone grafts or bone substitutes may cure the long-term prognoses of dental implants. Biocompatibility, bioactivity and osteogenic properties are key factors affecting the applications of a bone substitute. This study was aimed at preparation, characterization, biocompatibility and bioactivity evaluation of the bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powder as a desired candidate for oral bone defect treatments. Nanocomposite powders containing 58S bioactive glass and different amounts of forsterite nanopowder were synthesized in situ by sol-gel technique. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite powders and their cytotoxicity assessment was performed via MTT test. Bioactivity assessment was done by immersing the prepared powder in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Results showed that nanocomposite powders containing forsterite with crystallite size of 20-50nm were successfully fabricated by calcination at 600°C. The prepared bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powders revealed high in vitro biocompatibility; besides, the nanocomposite containing 20wt.% forsterite showed a substantial increase in the cell viability compared with control groups. During immersion in SBF, the formation of apatite layer confirmed the bioactivity of bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powders. According to the results, the fabricated nanocomposite powders can be introduced as a promising candidate for oral bone imperfection treatments and hard tissue mend. PMID:26249608

  17. Thorough analysis of silicon substitution in biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics: a multi-technique study.

    PubMed

    Gomes, S; Renaudin, G; Mesbah, A; Jallot, E; Bonhomme, C; Babonneau, F; Nedelec, J-M

    2010-08-01

    Four samples of composition Ca(10)(PO(4))(6-x)(SiO(4))(x)(OH)(2-x), with x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5, were prepared and characterized using powder X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, and (1)H, (31)P and (29)Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The composition of the Si-substituted HAp phases was determined by joint Rietveld refinements from powder X-ray and powder neutron diffraction data. Taking into account electroneutrality, a chemical formula for the Si-substituted HAp phases with indication of the incorporated silicate amount is proposed. Solid-state (29)Si NMR confirms the presence of only Q(0) species, in good agreement with the presence of substituted HAp and beta-TCP phases only. Thanks to NMR spectroscopy, two types of protons in the Si-substituted HAp phase were identified, the new site corresponding to species engaged in hydrogen bonding with silicate anions. This allowed further refinement of the formulae for these phases with very good quantitative agreement for populations derived from the refinement and integration of NMR data. PMID:20188871

  18. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Terpstra, R.L.; Moore, J.A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing. 4 figures.

  19. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA); Moore, Jeffery A. (Ames, IA)

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing.

  20. Development of dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Mahavir B; Padhi, Bijay K; Jinturkar, Kaustubh A; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2007-01-01

    Development of dry powder inhalers involves powder recrystallization, formulation, dispersion, delivery, and deposition of the therapeutic agent in different regions of the airways in prophylaxis/ treatment/ diagnosis of pulmonary and systemic disorders. Conventional powder production by crystallization and milling has many limitations resulting into development of alternative techniques to overcome the problems. In the last decade many patents have been filed claiming improvement in aerosol performance of dry powder inhalers through the use of (i) incorporation of fines of carrier particles to occupy active sites on the surface and use of hydrophobic carriers to facilitate deaggregation through reduced surface energy and particle interaction (ii) reducing aerodynamic diameters through particle engineering and incorporating drug into porous or low particle density, and/or (iii) preparing less cohesive and adhesive particles through corrugated surfaces, low bulk density, reduced surface energy and particle interaction and hydrophobic additives. Moisture within dry powder inhaler (DPI) products has also been shown to influence aerosol performance via capillary force and electrostatic interaction. Better understanding of particle forces and surface energy has been achieved by the use of sophisticated analytical techniques. Understanding the intricacies of particle shape and surface properties influencing specific lung deposition has been further facilitated by the availability of newer and advanced softwares. A critical review of recent patents claiming different approaches to improve lung deposition of dry powder inhalers will help in deciding the focus of the research in the area of technological gaps. PMID:19075871

  1. Marketplace analysis demonstrates quality control standards needed for black raspberry dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is currently no standard for the minimum anthocyanin concentration a black raspberry dietary supplement must contain for legal sale in the US. All consumer available black raspberry products (n=19), packaged as dietary supplements or otherwise prepared (freeze-dried whole and pre-ground powder...

  2. New Bismuth-Substituted Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Bone Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Bargan, Ana Maria; Luca, Constantin

    2015-11-01

    New bismuth-substituted hydroxyapatite [Ca10- x Bi x (PO4)6(OH)2 where x = 0-2.5] nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method from aqueous solutions. The structural properties of the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with x-ray analysis, x-ray powder diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. The results confirm that bismuth ions have been incorporated into the hydroxyapatite lattice. The prepared nanocrystalline powders consisted of hydroxyapatite as single phase with hexagonal structure, crystal sizes smaller than 60 nm and (Bi + Ca)/P atomic ratio of around 1.67. The hydroxyapatite samples doped with Bi have mesoporous textures with pores size of around 2 nm and specific surface area in the range of 12-25 m2/g. The Bi-substituted hydroxyapatite powders are more effective against Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria than Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  3. Homozygous tyrosinase gene mutation in an American black with tyrosinase-negative (type IA) oculocutaneous albinism.

    PubMed Central

    Spritz, R A; Strunk, K M; Hsieh, C L; Sekhon, G S; Francke, U

    1991-01-01

    We have identified a tyrosinase gene mutation in an American black with classic, tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism. This mutation results in an amino acid substitution (Cys----Arg) at codon 89 of the tyrosinase polypeptide. The proband is homozygous for the substitution, suggesting that this mutation may be frequently associated with tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism in blacks. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1899321

  4. Black Widow Spider

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sheet Protect Yourself! Workers may be exposed to Black Widow Spider The black widow belongs to a group of spiders commonly ... located on the underside of the abdomen. Female black widows are dangerous and can bite and inject ...

  5. Powder lubrication of faults by powder rolls in gouge zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Madden, A. S.; Reches, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Powder-lubrication by fault gouge can be an effective mechanism of dynamic weakening of faults (Reches & Lockner, 2010); however, the physical mechanisms of this lubrication are poorly understood. While the flow of coarse-grained (> 100 ?m) materials, e.g. glass beads or quartz sand, was extensively studied, the flow of fine-grained (< 1 ?m) powders, e.g., fault-gouge and nano-powders, have remained enigmatic. We report here experimental results of a new efficient mechanism for powder lubrication. We conducted friction tests on high-velocity rotary shear apparatus (Reches & Lockner, 2010). Two types of experimental faults were tested: (1) faults made of solid, igneous rocks (granite, tonalite and diorite); and (2) fault-zones made of 2-3 mm thick layer of granular materials (oolites, calcite or gypsum) sheared in a confined cell. We performed 21 runs with total slip of 0.14-13 m, normal stress of 1.2-14.5 MPa, slip velocity of 0.012-0.97 m/s. The ultra-microscopic (SEM and AFM) analysis of the experimental slip surfaces revealed two outstanding features in 17 out of the 21 experiments: (1) localized fault-slip along Principal Slip Zones (PSZs) that are composed of a dense, shiny, cohesive crust, 0.5-1 micron thick, that overlaid a porous substrate, and (2) elongated rolls composed of gouge-powder into three-dimensional structures of closely-packed powder grains, (20-50 nm in size). The rolls are cylindrical, 0.75-1.4 micron wide, and 1.7-30 micron long, with smooth outer surface, and laminated, concentric layers of compacted grains. The rolls were exclusively found on the PSZs. Many rolls were destroyed fracturing and smearing on the PSZ, suggesting that the rolls underwent a life cycle of formation and destruction. Significant macroscopic friction reduction was measured in experiments with observed rolls, and no (or minor) friction reduction in the four experiments without rolls. The final, reduced friction coefficients have a general reciprocal relation to the rolls surface coverage, suggesting that increased development of rolls (= increasing surface coverage) enhanced fault weakening. We applied the Eldredge and Tabor (1955) model for rolling friction to the AFM observed morphology of the rolls and PSZs, and found good agreement between measured and modeled friction coefficients. We conclude that the measured friction reduction reflects a transition from sliding-dominated slip to rolling-dominated slip due to the presence and density of powder rolls. We further argue that powder rolling is an effective mechanism of powder lubrication, and that spontaneous growth of such rolls along crustal faults is likely to control earthquake weakening.

  6. Explicit Substitutions and All That

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayala-Rincon, Mauricio; Munoz, Cesar; Busnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Explicit substitution calculi are extensions of the Lambda-calculus where the substitution mechanism is internalized into the theory. This feature makes them suitable for implementation and theoretical study of logic-based tools such as strongly typed programming languages and proof assistant systems. In this paper we explore new developments on two of the most successful styles of explicit substitution calculi: the lambda(sigma)- and lambda(s(e))-calculi.

  7. Explicit Substitutions and All That

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayala-Rincon, Mauricio; Munoz, Cesar

    2000-01-01

    Explicit substitution calculi are extensions of the lambda-calculus where the substitution mechanism is internalized into the theory. This feature makes them suitable for implementation and theoretical study of logic-based tools such as strongly typed programming languages and proof assistant systems. In this paper we explore new developments on two of the most successful styles of explicit substitution calculi: the lambda sigma- and lambda S(e)-calculi.

  8. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper....

  9. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper....

  10. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper....

  11. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper....

  12. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper....

  13. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.

    1993-12-07

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.

  14. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Joseph L. (Baltimore, MD); Hung, Cheng-Hung (Baltimore, MD)

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions.

  15. Trifluoromethyl-substituted tetrathiafulvalenes

    PubMed Central

    Jeannin, Olivier; Barrire, Frdric

    2015-01-01

    Summary A series of tetrathiafulvalenes functionalized with one or two trifluoromethyl electron-withdrawing groups (EWG) is obtained by phosphite coupling involving CF3-substituted 1,3-dithiole-2-one derivatives. The relative effects of the EWG such as CF3, CO2Me and CN on the TTF core were investigated from a combination of structural, electrochemical, spectrochemical and theoretical investigations. Electrochemical data confirm the good correlations between the first oxidation potential of the TTF derivatives and the ?meta Hammet parameter, thus in the order CO2Me < CF3 < CN, indicating that, in any case, the mesomeric effect of the substituents is limited. Besides, crystal structure determinations show that the deformation of the unsymmetrically substituted dithiole rings, when bearing one, or two different EWG, and attributed to the mesomeric effect of ester or nitrile groups, is not notably modified or counter-balanced by the introduction of a neighboring trifluoromethyl group. DFT calculations confirm these observations and also show that the low energy HOMOLUMO absorption band found in nitrile or ester-substituted TTFs is not found in TTF-CF3, where, as in TTF itself, the low energy absorption band is essentially attributable to a HOMO?LUMO + 1 transition. Despite relatively high oxidation potentials, these donor molecules with CF3 EWG can be involved in charge transfer complexes or cation radical salts, as reported here for the CF3-subsituted EDT-TTF donor molecule. A neutral charge transfer complex with TCNQ, (EDT-TTF-CF3)2(TCNQ) was isolated and characterized through alternated stacks of EDT-TTF-CF3 dimers and TCNQ in the solid state. A radical cation salt of EDT-TTF-CF3 is also obtained upon electrocrystallisation in the presence of the FeCl4 ? anion. In this salt, formulated as (EDT-TTF-CF3)(FeCl4), the (EDT-TTF-CF3)+ radical cations are associated two-by-two into centrosymmetric dyads with a strong pairing of the radical species in a singlet state. PMID:26124867

  16. Thermal evolution behavior of carbides and {gamma} Prime precipitates in FGH96 superalloy powder

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Lin; Liu Hengsan; He Xinbo; Rafi-ud-din; Qu Xuanhui; Qin Mingli; Li Zhou; Zhang Guoqing

    2012-05-15

    The characteristics of rapidly solidified FGH96 superalloy powder and the thermal evolution behavior of carbides and {gamma} Prime precipitates within powder particles were investigated. It was observed that the reduction of powder size and the increase of cooling rate had transformed the solidification morphologies of atomized powder from dendrite in major to cellular structure. The secondary dendritic spacing was measured to be 1.02-2.55 {mu}m and the corresponding cooling rates were estimated to be in the range of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4}-4.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K{center_dot}s{sup -1}. An increase in the annealing temperature had rendered the phase transformation of carbides evolving from non-equilibrium MC Prime carbides to intermediate transition stage of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, and finally to thermodynamically stable MC carbides. The superfine {gamma} Prime precipitates were formed at the dendritic boundaries of rapidly solidified superalloy powder. The coalescence, growth, and homogenization of {gamma}' precipitates occurred with increasing annealing temperature. With decreasing cooling rate from 650 Degree-Sign C{center_dot}K{sup -1} to 5 Degree-Sign C{center_dot}K{sup -1}, the morphological development of {gamma} Prime precipitates had been shown to proceed from spheroidal to cuboidal and finally to solid state dendrites. Meanwhile, a shift had been observed from dendritic morphology to recrystallized structure between 900 Degree-Sign C and 1050 Degree-Sign C. Moreover, accelerated evolution of carbides and {gamma}' precipitates had been facilitated by the formation of new grain boundaries which provide fast diffusion path for atomic elements. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural characteristic of FGH96 superalloy powder was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relation between microstructure, particle size, and cooling rate was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal evolution behavior of {gamma} Prime and carbides in loose FGH96 powder was studied.

  17. Black Hessians: American Blacks as German Soldiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elliott W.

    1981-01-01

    The German army in America during the Revolutionary War enlisted Blacks as musicians, laborers, and soldiers. Black soldiers contributed to the mercenaries' military activities, while the German units offered Blacks employment, clothing, food, and a type of escape from slavery. (Author/MJL)

  18. Rare-earth substitutions in Z-type hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquiod, Catherine; Autissier, Denis

    1992-02-01

    Z-type hexaferrite (Ba 3Co 2Fe 24O 41) presents a gyromagnetic permeability whose resonance frequency stands around 2 GHz. The damping coefficient ? is less than 0.1. The influence on the damping coefficient of doping this ferrite by a rare-earth (La) has been studied. Powders have been synthesized by carbonate coprecipitation, dried and calcined at different temperatures. Different phases have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. Solubility in the range of weak concentrations has been verified. The synthesized powders were processed by slip casting in the presence of a magnetic field in order to align the particles. The microstructural and hyperfrequency characteristics have been evaluated. The influence of the substitution on anisotropy fields and damping are studied in comparison with pure Co 2Z, whose processing and properties have been optimized as a reference.

  19. Displacement, Substitution, Sublimation: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Sigmund Freund worked with the mechanisms of displacement, substitution, and sublimation. These mechanisms have many similarities and have been studied diagnostically and therapeutically. Displacement and substitution seem to fit in well with phobias, hysterias, somatiyations, prejudices, and scapegoating. Phobias, prejudices, and scapegoating

  20. Enhancement in magnetic properties of magnesium substituted bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jianlong; Xie, Dan E-mail: RenTL@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Teng, Changjiu; Zhang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Yilin; Ren, Tian-Ling E-mail: RenTL@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Zeng, Min; Gao, Xingsen; Zhao, Yonggang

    2015-06-14

    We report a potential way to effectively improve the magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) nanoparticles through Mg{sup 2+} ion substitution at the Fe-sites of BFO lattice. The high purity and structural changes induced by Mg doping are confirmed by X-ray powder diffractometer and Raman spectra. Enhanced magnetic properties are observed in Mg substituted samples, which simultaneously exhibit ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic properties at room temperature. A physical model is proposed to support the observed ferromagnetism of Mg doped samples, and the superparamagnetic properties are revealed by the temperature dependent magnetization measurements. The improved magnetic properties and soft nature obtained by Mg doping in BFO nanoparticles demonstrate the possibility of BFO nanoparticles to practical applications.

  1. Rapid hydrothermal flow synthesis and characterisation of carbonate- and silicate-substituted calcium phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Jonathan C; Rehman, Ihtesham; Darr, Jawwad A

    2013-01-01

    A range of crystalline and nano-sized carbonate- and silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite has been successfully produced by using continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis technology. Ion-substituted calcium phosphates are better candidates for bone replacement applications (due to improved bioactivity) as compared to phase-pure hydroxyapatite. Urea was used as a carbonate source for synthesising phase pure carbonated hydroxyapatite (CO3-HA) with ?5?wt% substituted carbonate content (sample 7.5CO3-HA) and it was found that a further increase in urea concentration in solution resulted in biphasic mixtures of carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the particle size of hydroxyapatite decreased with increasing urea concentration. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy result revealed a calcium deficient apatite with Ca:P molar ratio of 1.45 (0.04) in sample 7.5CO3-HA. For silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiO4-HA) silicon acetate was used as a silicate ion source. It was observed that a substitution threshold of ?1.1?wt% exists for synthesis of SiO4-HA in the continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis system, which could be due to the decreasing yields with progressive increase in silicon acetate concentration. All the as-precipitated powders (without any additional heat treatments) were analysed using techniques including Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Differential scanning calorimetry, Thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:22983020

  2. Rapid hydrothermal flow synthesis and characterisation of carbonate- and silicate-substituted calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Aqif A; Knowles, Jonathan C; Rehman, Ihtesham; Darr, Jawwad A

    2013-09-01

    A range of crystalline and nano-sized carbonate- and silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite has been successfully produced by using continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis technology. Ion-substituted calcium phosphates are better candidates for bone replacement applications (due to improved bioactivity) as compared to phase-pure hydroxyapatite. Urea was used as a carbonate source for synthesising phase pure carbonated hydroxyapatite (CO?-HA) with ?5?wt% substituted carbonate content (sample 7.5CO?-HA) and it was found that a further increase in urea concentration in solution resulted in biphasic mixtures of carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the particle size of hydroxyapatite decreased with increasing urea concentration. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy result revealed a calcium deficient apatite with Ca:P molar ratio of 1.45 (0.04) in sample 7.5CO?-HA. For silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiO?-HA) silicon acetate was used as a silicate ion source. It was observed that a substitution threshold of ?1.1?wt% exists for synthesis of SiO?-HA in the continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis system, which could be due to the decreasing yields with progressive increase in silicon acetate concentration. All the as-precipitated powders (without any additional heat treatments) were analysed using techniques including Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Differential scanning calorimetry, Thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:22983020

  3. In situ studies of zeolite syntheses using powder diffraction methods: Crystallization of ``instant zeolite A`` powder and CoAPO-5

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, P.; Christensen, A.N.; Hanson, J.C.

    1994-02-01

    A series of hydrothermal zeolite synthesis were performed on a powder diffractometer using synchrotron radiation and a position sensitive detector. Direct observation of the induction period (nucleation stage), crystallization and transformation of zeolite 4A (Na-LTA) was possible due to the intense X-ray beam which allows fast data collection. High pressure experiments were performed, allowing observation of hydrothermal synthesis of a cobalt substituted AlPO{sub 4}-zeolite, CoAPO-5, up to 165{degrees}C. The temperature dependence of crystallization rates of CoAPO-5 was studied. This is to our knowledge the first time resolved powder diffraction studies of zeolite syntheses using angle dispersive synchrotron powder diffraction.

  4. How Do Substitute Teachers Substitute? An Empirical Study of Substitute-Teacher Labor Supply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershenson, Seth

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the daily labor supply of a potentially important, but often overlooked, source of instruction in U.S. public schools: substitute teachers. I estimate a sequential binary-choice model of substitute teachers' job-offer acceptance decisions using data on job offers made by a randomized automated calling system. Importantly, this

  5. Nanocrystalline M-type hexaferrite powders: Preparation, geometric and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Goernert, P.; Pfeiffer, H.; Sinn, E.; Mueller, R.; Schueppel, W.; Roesler, M.; Batlle, X.; Garcia del Muro, M.; Tejada, J.; Gali, S.

    1994-03-01

    Co-Ti-Sn-Ge substituted M-type barium hexaferrite powders with mean grain sizes between about 10 nm and about 1 {mu}m and a narrow size distribution were prepared reproducible by means of a modified glass crystallization method. At annealing temperatures between 560 and 580 C of the amorphous flakes nanocrystalline particles grow. They behave super paramagnetically at room temperature and change into stable magnetic single domains at lower temperatures. The magnetic volume of the powders is considerably less than the geometric one. However, the effective anisotropy fields are larger by a factor of two or three.

  6. Black Churches: Can They Strengthen the Black Family?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie Quarterly, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Project SPIRIT, a Carnegie Corporation sponsored program of the Congress on National Black Churches, has worked within the black community, particularly black churches, to try to strengthen black families. Black churches have played a critically important role in sustaining the black family since the days of slavery. The black church in the 1980s,

  7. Investigations of Light Transfer in Powder Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuri, Chivel

    At selective laser sintering / melting of powder bodies by laser irradiation it is very important to determine the actual energy deposited in a layer of powder and its distribution over the thickness of the powder bed. By varying the thickness of the powder bed the distribution of absorbed energy over the thickness of the powder bed has been determined. The modeling of sintering of the powder bed from two layers of spherical metal particles in pulse mode of operation validate the efficiency of the method of sintering, the essence of which is the directional focusing of laser radiation to the space between the particles of upper layer under appropriate focus spot dimension.

  8. POWDER COATINGS: A TECHNOLOGY REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1995, surface coatings accounted for nearly 2.55 million Mg of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions nationally, which is more than 12% of VOC emissions from all sources. In recent years, powder coatings have been steadily gaining popularity as an alternative to solvent-bo...

  9. Storage study and quality evaluation of coconut protein powder.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aduja; Prakash, Maya; R, Ravi; Raghavarao, Ksms

    2013-11-01

    Coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are 2 major byproducts in the production of virgin coconut oil. Coconut skim milk was homogenized along with insoluble protein and spray dried to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder (CPP). This study deals with the storage study of CPP under different conditions (refrigerated [control], ambient and accelerated). CPP samples were withdrawn periodically at designated intervals of 15 d for accelerated and control, and 30 d for ambient condition. CPP stored at different conditions exhibited marginal moisture uptake (by 0.74 % w/w for control, 0.76 % w/w for ambient, and 1.26 % w/w for accelerated condition) and as a result, had very little effect on the functional properties of the powder. Withdrawn CPP was tested for sensory quality aspects and subjected to instrumental analysis as well. Withdrawn CPP was incorporated as a milk substitute in dessert (Kheer). Quantitative descriptive analysis of the powder and product (Kheer) showed no significant difference in attributes of CPP during the storage period of 2 mo. Electronic nose analysis revealed that CPP samples were not much different with respect to aroma pattern matching, respectively. PMID:24245897

  10. Enhancement of aged and denatured fingerprints using the cyanoacrylate fuming technique following dusting with amino acid-containing powders.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Carly; Almond, Matthew J; Baum, John V; Bond, John W

    2013-03-01

    We have carried out experiments to investigate the aging of latent fingerprints deposited on black PVC over a period of 4-15 weeks. A thumbprint was used in each case and before deposition of the print the donor rubbed their thumb around their nose to add sebaceous deposits. We have studied the effect of heat, light, and moisture and we find that moisture is the most significant factor in the degradation of the latent print. We have attempted to enhance these latent prints by dusting with valine powder or powders composed of valine mixed with gold or red fluorescent commercial fingerprint powders. To make a direct comparison between "treated" and "untreated" prints, the prints were cut in half with one-half being "treated" and one-half not. Our studies show the best results being obtained when powders of valine and red fluorescent powders are applied prior to cyanoacrylate fuming. PMID:23316682

  11. Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder

    DOEpatents

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Fleischhauer, Grier (Midlothian, VA); German, Randall M. (State College, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  12. Vitreous substitutes: challenges and directions

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qian-Ying; Fu, Yue; Hui, Yan-Nian

    2015-01-01

    The natural vitreous body has a fine structure and complex functions. The imitation of the natural vitreous body by vitreous substitutes is a challenging work for both researchers and ophthalmologists. Gases, silicone oil, heavy silicone oil and hydrogels, particularly the former two vitreous substitutes are clinically widely used with certain complications. Those, however, are not real artificial vitreous due to lack of structure and function like the natural vitreous body. This article reviews the situations, challenges, and future directions in the development of vitreous substitutes, particularly the experimental and clinical use of a new artificial foldable capsular vitreous body. PMID:26085987

  13. Synthesis and spectral characterization of silver/magnesium co-substituted hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopi, D.; Shinyjoy, E.; Kavitha, L.

    2014-06-01

    The present work is aimed at the synthesis of antibacterial and bioactive silver/magnesium co-substituted hydroxyapatite (Ag/Mg-HAP) powders. For this purpose, firstly, different concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 2.5 wt.%) of silver substituted HAP (Ag-HAP) powders were prepared by ultrasonic irradiation technique and were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Secondly, magnesium (Mg) is co-substituted as secondary material into Ag-HAP to offset the potential cytotoxicity of Ag, as higher concentration of Ag is toxic. The antibacterial activity of as-synthesized powders was evaluated by Escherichia coli (E. coli) and was found to be effectively high against bacterial colonization. Also, the in vitro cell-material interaction is evaluated with human osteosarcoma MG63 (HOS MG63) cells for cell proliferation. The results showed the evidence of cytotoxic effects of the higher concentration of Ag-HAP characterized by poor cellular viability whereas, Ag/Mg-HAP showed better cell viability indicating that co-substitution of Mg in Ag-HAP effectively offset the negative effects of Ag and improve performance compared with pure HAP. Thus, the as synthesized Ag/Mg-HAP will serve as a better candidate for biomedical applications with good antibacterial property and bone bonding ability.

  14. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-05-01

    Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder. PMID:25582173

  15. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder. PMID:25582173

  16. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  17. Theory for optimization of thermoelectric powder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Anatychuk, L.I.; Kosyachenko, S.V.; Melnychuk, S.V.; Chernov, V.M.

    1994-08-10

    The methods for optimization of thermoelectric powder materials are discussed. Possibilities to optimize powder thermoelectric materials by computer-aided modelling are demonstrated. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  18. Nucleophilic Substitution by Benzodithioate Anions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnans-Plaisance, Chantal; Gressier, Jean-Claude

    1988-01-01

    Describes a two-session experiment designed to provide a good illustration of, and to improve student knowledge of, the Grignard reaction and nucleophilic substitution. Discusses the procedure, experimental considerations, and conclusion of this experiment. (CW)

  19. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN SOLVENT SUBSTITUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the signing of 1987 Montreal Protocol, reducing and eliminating the use of harmful solvents has become an internationally imminent environmental protection mission. Solvent substitution is an effective way to achieve this goal. The Program for Assisting the Replacement of...

  20. Process for manufacturing uranium dioxide powder

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Sh.I.; Sekine, M.; Takano, E.

    1985-03-19

    A process is described for manufacturing uranium dioxide powder which comprises forming fine uranium dioxide powder having a high sinterability and coarse uranium dioxide powder having a low sinterability continuously in one process by changing periodically the precipitation condition of the ammonium diuranate under the same condition of calcining and reducing of the ammonium diuranate. The thus obtained mixture of these uranium dioxide powders is suitable for uranium dioxide pellets which are a fuel of nuclear power reactor.

  1. Chemical and Physical Properties of Tantalum Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purushotham, Y.; Balaji, T.; Kumar, Arbind; Govindaiah, R.; Sharma, M. K.; Sethi, V. C.; Prakash, T. L.

    The present work is intended to produce capacitor grade Tantalum powder by sodium reduction of potassium tantalum fluoride prepared from an indigenous ore source. The powder has been characterized for its chemical and physical properties, and compared with the commercially available powders. It is found that indigenous powder has higher impurity levels which could, however, be reduced to acceptance limits. The average particle size is within the prescribed limits.

  2. Method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials

    DOEpatents

    Buss, Richard J. (Albuquerque, NM); Ho, Pauline (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400.degree. K. (127.degree.C.). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material.

  3. Container Prevents Oxidation Of Metal Powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodford, William H.; Power, Christopher A.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Burns, David H.

    1992-01-01

    Sealed high-vacuum container holds metal powder required free of contamination by oxygen from point of manufacture to point of use at vacuum-plasma-spraying machine. Container protects powder from air during filling, storage, and loading of spraying machine. Eliminates unnecessary handling and transfer of powder from one container to another. Stainless-steel container sits on powder feeder of vacuum-plasma-spraying machine.

  4. Improved Production Of Wrought Articles From Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, James R.; Singleton, Ogle R.

    1994-01-01

    Improved technique for consolidation of powders into dense articles developed. Peripheral bands used in consolidation, forging, and rolling operations. Facilitates consolidation of dispersion-hardened aluminous powders and composite mixtures for processing to such useful wrought articles as plates and sheets. Potential use in production of plates and sheets and perhaps other objects from "hard" powders, particularly from powders, objects made from which have propensity to crack when mechanically worked to other forms.

  5. Dyscravia: voicing substitution dysgraphia.

    PubMed

    Gvion, Aviah; Friedmann, Naama

    2010-06-01

    We report a new type of dysgraphia, which we term dyscravia. The main error type in dyscravia is substitution of the target letter with a letter that differs only with respect to the voicing feature, such as writing "coat" for "goat", and "vagd" for "fact". Two Hebrew-speaking individuals with acquired dyscravia are reported, TG, a man aged 31, and BG, a woman aged 66. Both had surface dysgraphia in addition to their dyscravia. To describe dyscravia in detail, and to explore the rate and types of errors made in spelling, we administered tests of writing to dictation, written naming, and oral spelling. In writing to dictation, TG made voicing errors on 38% of the words, and BG made 17% voicing errors. Voicing errors also occurred in nonword writing (43% for TG, 56% for BG). The writing performance and the variables that influenced the participants' spelling, as well as the results of the auditory discrimination and repetition tasks indicated that their dyscravia did not result from a deficit in auditory processing, the graphemic buffer, the phonological output lexicon, the phonological output buffer, or the allographic stage. The locus of the deficit is the phoneme-to-grapheme conversion, in a function specialized in the conversion of phonemes' voicing feature into graphemes. Because these participants had surface dysgraphia and were forced to write via the sublexical route, the deficit in voicing was evident in their writing of both words and nonwords. We further examined whether the participants also evinced parallel errors in reading. TG had a selective voicing deficit in writing, and did not show any voicing errors in reading, whereas BG had voicing errors also in the reading of nonwords (i.e., she had dyslegzia in addition to dyscravia). The dissociation TG demonstrated indicated that the voicing feature conversion is separate for reading and writing, and can be impaired selectively in writing. BG's dyslegzia indicates that the grapheme-to-phoneme conversion also includes a function that is sensitive to phonological features such as voicing. Thus the main conclusion of this study is that a separate function of voicing feature conversion exists in the phoneme-to-grapheme conversion route, which may be selectively impaired without deficits in other functions of the conversion route, and without a parallel deficit in reading. PMID:20298704

  6. Synthesis and crystal chemical evolution of fresnoite powders

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Chui L.; Madhavi, S.; Phonthammachai, N.; White, Timothy J.

    2012-03-15

    (Ba,Sr){sub 2}TiSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} fresnoite powders were prepared via a Pechini process in which citric acid and ethylene glycol were used as complexing agents. The resulting gel contained a homogeneous distribution of the metal ions that suppressed the formation of (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} perovskite as a secondary phase during calcination. Phase development was examined as by isochronal and isothermal reaction analysis. A combination of thermo- and differential gravimetric analysis (TGA-DGA), quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed that calcination at 900 Degree-Sign C/12 h yielded finely crystalline ({approx}70 nm) Ba{sub 2}TiSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} (BTS) and Sr{sub 2}TiSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} (STS). The endmembers and compositional intermediates crystallized directly from the Pechini resin and indirectly through reaction of (Ba,Sr)CO{sub 3}, (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} and a silica-rich glass intermediates. This new method for preparing fresnoite yields materials suitable for consolidation as dense monolithic dielectrics or for use as high surface area catalytic powders. - Graphical abstract: The Pechini synthesis of (Ba, Sr){sub 2}TiSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} titano-silicate fresnoites delivers finely divided precursors for applications as diverse as solid electrolytes and photocatalysis that exploit the unique Ti-O and Si-O bonding and structural morphology of these materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Pechini method for synthesizing (Ba,Sr){sub 2}TiSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} fresnoites is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method minimizes a persistent glassy intermediate phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Pechini process is generally applicable for tailoring fresnoites as functional materials.

  7. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.1646 Section 73.1646 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs 73.1646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bronze powder is a very fine metallic...

  8. 7 CFR 160.93 - Powdered rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powdered rosin. 160.93 Section 160.93 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing 160.93 Powdered rosin. The classification and grade of any rosin sold in commerce in a powdered or finely broken condition shall be stated in...

  9. 7 CFR 160.93 - Powdered rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Powdered rosin. 160.93 Section 160.93 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing 160.93 Powdered rosin. The classification and grade of any rosin sold in commerce in a powdered or finely broken condition shall be stated in...

  10. 7 CFR 160.93 - Powdered rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Powdered rosin. 160.93 Section 160.93 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing 160.93 Powdered rosin. The classification and grade of any rosin sold in commerce in a powdered or finely broken condition shall be stated in...

  11. 7 CFR 160.93 - Powdered rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Powdered rosin. 160.93 Section 160.93 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing 160.93 Powdered rosin. The classification and grade of any rosin sold in commerce in a powdered or finely broken condition shall be stated in...

  12. 7 CFR 160.93 - Powdered rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Powdered rosin. 160.93 Section 160.93 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing 160.93 Powdered rosin. The classification and grade of any rosin sold in commerce in a powdered or finely broken condition shall be stated in...

  13. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.1646 Section 73.1646 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bronze powder is a very fine metallic...

  14. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.1646 Section 73.1646 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bronze powder is a very fine metallic...

  15. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.1646 Section 73.1646 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bronze powder is a very fine metallic...

  16. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.1646 Section 73.1646 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bronze powder is a very fine metallic...

  18. Calcium carbonate powder containing gentamicin for mixing with bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Coraa-Huber, Dbora; Hausdorfer, Johann; Fille, Manfred; Nogler, Michael; Khn, Klaus-Dieter

    2014-08-01

    Bone grafts are used for reconstructing bone defects caused by implant-associated complications, trauma, and tumors. Surgery with bone allografts is complex and time consuming; therefore, it is prone to a higher infection rate (2.0%-2.5%). In the case of site infection, systemically administered antibiotics cannot reach the infected bone graft. This study evaluated the use of resorbable bone graft substitute powder (HERAFILL; Heraeus Medical GmbH, Wehrheim, Germany) as a bone void-filling material as well as an antibiotic carrier for mixing with bone grafts. The antibiotic activity of the bone chips mixed with HERAFILL powder was measured by drug release tests and bacterial susceptibility with Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus. HERAFILL powder was added to the bone chips (bone chips/HERAFILL; w/w = 1:1), mixed with a spatula, and vortexed for 1 minute. Gentamicin base release was evaluated in phosphate-buffered saline for up to 7 days using B subtilis bioassay. Antimicrobial efficacy was tested with S aureus and S epidermidis. The average amount of gentamicin base released from bone chips mixed with HERAFILL at 0 to 12 hours was 99.66 mg/mL. On day 7, the gentamicin base released 0.42 mg/mL. The elution released from bone chips mixed with HERAFILL promoted the formation of a zone of inhibition on S epidermidis and S aureus plates. This study confirmed the capacity of bone grafts to act as antibiotic carriers once mixed with HERAFILL powder. Bone chips mixed with HERAFILL showed efficacy against S aureus and S epidermidis. PMID:25102500

  19. MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF POWDER COMPACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Lomov, Ilya; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

    2009-12-28

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  20. Wetter for fine dry powder

    DOEpatents

    Hall, James E.; Williams, Everett H.

    1977-01-01

    A system for wetting fine dry powders such as bentonite clay with water or other liquids is described. The system includes a wetting tank for receiving water and a continuous flow of fine powder feed. The wetting tank has a generally square horizontal cross section with a bottom end closure in the shape of an inverted pyramid. Positioned centrally within the wetting tank is a flow control cylinder which is supported from the walls of the wetting tank by means of radially extending inclined baffles. A variable speed motor drives a first larger propeller positioned immediately below the flow control cylinder in a direction which forces liquid filling the tank to flow downward through the flow control cylinder and a second smaller propeller positioned below the larger propeller having a reverse pitch to oppose the flow of liquid being driven downward by the larger propeller.

  1. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine...

  2. Competitive reactivity of iron towards boron and silicon in surface treatments with powder mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbucicchio, M.; Casagrande, A.; Palombarini, G.

    1990-07-01

    The processes occurring at the surface of iron in contact with fluoride-activated B4C-base powder mixtures at 850°C were investigated by substituting the diluent SiC with different silicon compounds. The coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, surface Mössbauer spectroscopy and metallographic techniques. The possibility of passing from iron boriding to iron siliciding was shown, and a mechanism proposed for the process.

  3. [Impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on powder property of fermented cordyceps powder].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Hua; Yue, Guo-Chao; Guan, Yong-Mei; Yang, Ming; Zhu, Wei-Feng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate such physical indexes as hygroscopicity, angle of repose, bulk density, fillibility of compression of mixed powder of directly compressed auxiliary materials and fermented cordyceps powder by using micromeritic study methods. The results showed that spray-dried lactose Flowlac100 and microcrystalline cellulose Avicel PH102 had better effect in liquidity and compressibility on fermented cordyceps powder than pregelatinized starch. The study on the impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on the powder property of fermented cordyceps powder had guiding significant to the research of fermented cordyceps powder tablets, and could provide basis for the development of fermented cordyceps powder tablets. PMID:24754170

  4. Anti-Corrosive Powder Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Donald; MacDowell, Louis, III

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks partners for a new approach in protecting embedded steel surfaces from corrosion. Corrosion of reinforced steel in concrete structures is a significant problem for NASA structures at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) because of the close proximity of the structures to salt spray from the nearby Atlantic Ocean. In an effort to minimize the damage to such structures, coatings were developed that could be applied as liquids to the external surfaces of a substrate in which the metal structures were embedded. The Metallic Pigment Powder Particle technology was developed by NASA at KSC. This technology combines the metallic materials into a uniform particle. The resultant powder can be sprayed simultaneously with a liquid binder onto the surface of concrete structures with a uniform distribution of the metallic pigment for optimum cathodic protection of the underlying steel in the concrete. Metallic Pigment Powder Particle technology improves upon the performance of an earlier NASA technology Liquid Galvanic Coating (U.S. Patent No. 6,627,065).

  5. Injectability of brushite-forming Mg-substituted and Sr-substituted alpha-TCP bone cements.

    PubMed

    Pina, S; Torres, P M C; Ferreira, J M F

    2010-02-01

    The influence of magnesium- and strontium-substitutions on injectability and mechanical performance of brushite-forming alpha-TCP cements has been evaluated in the present work. The effects of Mg- and Sr-substitutions on crystalline phase composition and lattice parameters were determined through quantitative X-ray phase analysis and structural Rietveld refinement of the starting calcium phosphate powders and of the hardened cements. A noticeable dependence of injectability on the liquid-to-powder ratio (LPR), smooth plots of extrusion force versus syringe plunger displacement and the absence of filter pressing effects were observed. For LPR values up to 0.36 ml g(-1), the percentage of injectability was always higher and lower for Mg-containing cements and for Sr-containing cements, respectively, while all the pastes could be fully injected for LPR > 0.36 ml g(-1). The hardened cements exhibited relatively high wet compressive strength values (~17-25 MPa) being the Sr- and Mg-containing cements the strongest and the weakest, respectively, holding an interesting promise for uses in trauma surgery such as for filling bone defects and in minimally invasive techniques such as percutaneous vertebroplasty to fill lesions and strengthen the osteoporotic bone. PMID:19851845

  6. Radioluminescence enhancement in Eu3+-doped Y3Al5O12 phosphors by Ga substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos S. Rezende, Marcos V.; Paschoal, Carlos William A.

    2015-08-01

    Effects of the Ga substitution on the radioluminescence properties of Eu3+-doped Y3Al5O12 nanopowders were investigated. These nanopowders were synthesized by a sol-gel method. The nanopowders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The samples obtained have good crystallinity and mean sizes between 40 and 100 nm. The Ga substitution at low levels induces an enhancement on the radioluminescence due to the Y-site symmetry distortion, as probed by the asymmetric ratio of the magnetic and electric dipole transition.

  7. Black hole hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  8. Accounting: Deficit in Black

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aun, Emil Michael

    1970-01-01

    Because of increasing shortages of accountants, the profession is opening up rapidly to blacks and women. Many more blacks would enter accounting if college counselors informed them of the available opportunities. (BH)

  9. Empowering Rhetoric: Black Students Writing Black Panthers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pough, Gwendolyn D.

    2002-01-01

    Examines Black student responses to Black Panther Party documents and how those documents moved the students toward change. Maintains that by allowing the classroom to function as a public space which students can discuss the issues that matter to them, teachers can help to foster and encourage student activism and ultimately their empowerment.

  10. 14 CFR 1260.55 - Reports substitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports substitution. 1260.55 Section 1260.55 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions 1260.55 Reports substitution. Reports Substitution October 2000 Technical Reports may be substituted for...

  11. Accelerating black diholes and static black dirings

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, Edward

    2006-01-15

    We show how a recently discovered black-ring solution with a rotating 2-sphere can be turned into two new solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The first is a four-dimensional solution describing a pair of oppositely charged, extremal black holes--known as a black dihole--undergoing uniform acceleration. The second is a five-dimensional solution describing a pair of concentric, static extremal black rings carrying opposite dipole charges--a so-called black diring. The properties of both solutions, which turn out to be formally very similar, are analyzed in detail. We also present, in an appendix, an accelerating version of the Zipoy-Voorhees solution in four-dimensional Einstein gravity.

  12. Black Endobronchial Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Samjot S; Harris, Kassem; Ylagan, Lourdes

    2015-10-01

    The infrequent bronchoscopic finding of black airway pigmentation due to a variety of causes has been labeled as "Black Bronchoscopy." Black bronchioalveolar lavage has been sometimes described in tobacco, marijuana, and crack cocaine smokers. To add to this interesting panorama of bronchoscopic findings, we describe cases of black endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspirates due to metastatic melanoma and anthracotic lymph nodes. PMID:26348692

  13. Compaction and Sintering of Mo Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, Stephen D; Kiggans, Jim; Bryan, Chris

    2013-01-01

    To support the development of Mo-99 production by NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC, Mo metal powders were evaluated for compaction and sintering characteristics as they relate to Mo-100 accelerator target disk fabrication. Powders having a natural isotope distribution and enriched Mo-100 powder were examined. Various powder characteristics are shown to have an effect on both the compaction and sintering behavior. Natural Mo powders could be cold pressed directly to >90% density. All of the powders, including the Mo-100 samples, could be sintered after cold pressing to >90% density. As an example, a compacted Mo-100 disk reached 89.7% density (9.52 g/cm3) after sintering at 1000 C for 1 hr. in flowing Ar/4%H2. Higher sintering temperatures were required for other powder samples. The relationships between processing conditions and the resulting densities of consolidated Mo disks will be presented.

  14. Compactible powders of omega-3 and ?-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Vestland, Tina Lien; Jacobsen, yvind; Sande, Sverre Arne; Myrset, Astrid Hilde; Klaveness, Jo

    2015-10-15

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used in both nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals in the form of triglycerides and ethyl esters. Administration forms available for omega-3 include bulk oil, soft gel capsules, emulsions and some powder compositions. Cyclodextrins are substances well known for their ability to encapsulate lipophilic molecules. In the present work, powders loaded with omega-3 oil, ranging from 10 to 40% (w/w), have been prepared by vacuum drying, freeze drying or spray granulation of aqueous mixtures of omega-3 oil and ?-cyclodextrin. The powders were found to be partially crystalline by powder X-ray diffraction and to contain crystalline phases not present in pure ?-cyclodextrin, indicating true complexation. The compactibility of the powders has been explored, revealing that a dry and compactible powder can be prepared from various omega-3 oils and ?-cyclodextrin. Spray granulation was found to be the superior drying method for the preparation of compactible powders. PMID:25952853

  15. Asymmetric Black Diholes

    SciTech Connect

    Manko, V. S.; Sanchez-Mondragon, J.; Ruiz, E.

    2009-05-01

    In the present paper we enlarge the list of black dihole spacetimes by introducing the notion of asymmetric black diholes which describe configurations composed of two static charged black holes endowed with unequal masses and equal but opposite charges. The asymmetric dihole solutions are considered both in the Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories.

  16. The Nearest Black Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Garcia, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both 'stellar mass' x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies.

  17. The Nearest Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Michael R.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both "stellar mass" x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies.

  18. Point substitutions in Japanese alloalbumins.

    PubMed Central

    Arai, K; Madison, J; Huss, K; Ishioka, N; Satoh, C; Fujita, M; Neel, J V; Sakurabayashi, I; Putnam, F W

    1989-01-01

    We have completed the structural study of five rare types of inherited albumin variants (alloalbumins) discovered in the Biochemical Genetics Study of 15,581 unrelated children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We have also identified the structural change in five other alloalbumin specimens detected during clinical electrophoresis of sera from Japanese living near Tokyo. Each of the five albumin variants from Nagasaki and Hiroshima has a single amino acid substitution. All of these substitutions differ, and none has been reported in non-Japanese populations. No instances of proalbumin variants or of albumin B (the most frequent alloalbumins in Caucasians) were detected in the children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. However, one instance of a variant proalbumin and two examples of albumin B occurred in Japanese from the vicinity of Tokyo. In addition a previously unreported point substitution was found in albumin Tochigi, which is present in two unrelated persons from Tochigi prefecture. Four of the point mutations in the Japanese alloalbumins are in close proximity in a short segment of the polypeptide chain (residues 354-382) in which three additional point substitutions have been reported in diverse populations. These results, combined with earlier data, suggest that point substitutions are grouped in certain segments of the albumin molecule. Images PMID:2762316

  19. Anion substitution in zinc chalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Jug, Karl; Tikhomirov, Viatcheslav A

    2006-07-30

    Anion substitution effects on the structure and energy of zinc chalcogenides were studied with the semiempirical molecular orbital method MSINDO. Cyclic clusters of different sizes were chosen as model systems. The convergence of the bulk properties of the perfect clusters with increasing cluster size was tested. Single and multiple substitution of oxygen atoms in zinc oxide by sulfur and of sulfur atoms in zinc sulfide by oxygen served to determine the energetics of substitution for these two cases. It was found that the substitution of oxygen by sulfur in ZnO is easier than the substitution of sulfur by oxygen in ZnS in agreement with experimental results. The interaction between two oxygen atoms vs. two selenium atoms in zinc sulfide was investigated. Oscillations of the cluster energy in dependence of the distance between the two doping atoms were observed. These are explained by the relative sites of the doping atoms in the crystal lattice. The magnitude of the oscillations is smaller in ZnS:Se than in ZnS:O, because the difference between the anion radii of S2- and Se2- is smaller than between S2- and O2-. This is also reflected in the band gap. PMID:16691570

  20. Synthesis of La{sup 3+} doped nanocrystalline ceria powder by urea-formaldehyde gel combustion route

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, M.; Bandyopadhyay, S.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano LC synthesized by gel combustion, using urea-formaldehyde fuel for first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Largely single crystals were produced in average range of 20-30 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La{sup 3+} doping increases cell dimension linearly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La{sup 3+} doping introduces ionic point defects but does not change electronic band gap. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of Ce{sup 3+} indicates that this synthesis route produces reactive powders. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline ceria powders doped with various concentrations of lanthanum oxide have been prepared following gel combustion route using for the first time urea-formaldehyde as fuel. The synthesized products were characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, PL and UV-vis spectroscopy. Peak positions of XRD were refined and the lattice parameters were obtained by applying Cohen's method. Unit cell parameter increases with concentration of La{sup 3+} ion and the variation is consistently linear. XRD calculations showed the dependence of crystallite size on dopant concentrations at lower level. TEM observation revealed unagglomerated particles to be single crystals in the average range of 20-30 nm. Band gap of the La{sup 3+} doped ceria materials does not change with doping. Spectroscopic experiments proved the existence of Ce{sup 3+} in the formed powder.

  1. Nutritional implications of fat substitutes.

    PubMed

    Mela, D J

    1992-04-01

    The possibility of replacing fats in foods through the use of alternative ingredients has generated substantial interest among food industry and nutrition professionals as well as among the lay public and news media. However, even in academic circles, there is a tendency to consider "fat substitutes" as a homogeneous group, when they are not, and also to make unproven assumptions regarding their likely efficacy in reducing fat intake and aiding in maintenance of appropriate energy balance. Governmental and industrial bodies have tended to place much greater emphasis on the potential risks of these materials than on their possible benefits. A reasoned consideration of the nutritional implications of fat substitutes examines what these materials are, how they might be used, and how they might affect eating behavior and nutritional status in the general population. The existing literature suggests that although the risks of existing and proposed fat substitutes are probably limited, their nutritional benefits are largely unproven. PMID:1290482

  2. Substitution systems and nonextensive statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Morales, V.

    2015-12-01

    Substitution systems evolve in time by generating sequences of symbols from a finite alphabet: At a certain iteration step, the existing symbols are systematically replaced by blocks of Nk symbols also within the alphabet (with Nk, a natural number, being the length of the kth block of the substitution). The dynamics of these systems leads naturally to fractals and self-similarity. By using B-calculus (García-Morales, 2012) universal maps for deterministic substitution systems both of constant and non-constant length, are formulated in 1D. It is then shown how these systems can be put in direct correspondence with Tsallis entropy. A 'Second Law of Thermodynamics' is also proved for these systems in the asymptotic limit of large words.

  3. Magnesium substitution in brushite cements.

    PubMed

    Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Cabrejos-Azama, Jatsue; Rodríguez, Carmen Rueda; Jerez, Luis Blanco; Cabarcos, Enrique López

    2013-01-01

    The use of magnesium-doped ceramics has been described to modify brushite cements and improve their biological behavior. However, few studies have analyzed the efficiency of this approach to induce magnesium substitution in brushite crystals. Mg-doped ceramics composed of Mg-substituted β-TCP, stanfieldite and/or farringtonite were reacted with primary monocalcium phosphate (MCP) in the presence of water. The cement setting reaction has resulted in the formation of brushite and newberyite within the cement matrix. Interestingly, the combination of SAED and EDX analyses of single crystal has indicated the occurrence of magnesium substitution within brushite crystals. Moreover, the effect of magnesium ions on the structure, and mechanical and setting properties of the new cements was characterized as well as the release of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. Further research would enhance the efficiency of the system to incorporate larger amounts of magnesium ions within brushite crystals. PMID:25428098

  4. Resistance-induced antibiotic substitution.

    PubMed

    Howard, David H

    2004-06-01

    In many cases, physicians prescribe antibiotics without knowing whether an individual patient is infected with a susceptible or resistant pathogen. As the proportion of resistant organisms in a community increases, physicians substitute away from older-inexpensive drugs to newer, more expensive agents as first line therapy. This paper explores the implications of resistance-induced antibiotic substitution for epidemiological models to predict future resistance levels, efforts to measure the health care costs associated with resistance, and policies to improve physicians' antibiotic prescribing decisions. The extent of resistance-induced substitution in outpatient settings is documented using a data set consisting of observations on initial physician office visits for otitis media in the US controlling for new product introductions and price increases, per prescription antibiotic spending increased by 22% between 1980 and 1996, corresponding to a steep increase in resistance levels over the same period. PMID:15185388

  5. Bone Graft Substitution and Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Nauth, Aaron; Lane, Joseph; Watson, J Tracy; Giannoudis, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Selection of appropriate bone graft or bone graft substitute requires careful recognition of the bone healing needs of the patient's specific clinical problem and a thorough understanding of the different properties possessed by the available bone grafts and substitutes. Although autogenous iliac crest bone graft remains the gold standard of treatment for delayed unions, nonunions, and bone defects, there are a number of promising alternatives available, and emerging evidence suggests that they can be very effective when used in the proper setting. Among these, reamer-irrigator-aspirator bone graft, bone marrow concentrate, bone morphogenetic proteins, and calcium phosphate cements have received a great deal of attention in the literature. This review describes these grafts in detail along with the evidence for their use. In addition, a framework is provided for selecting the appropriate graft or substitute based on their provided properties. PMID:26584264

  6. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Copper complex of (substituted... Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt... substances identified generically as copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Copper complex of (substituted... Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt... substances identified generically as copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copper complex of (substituted... Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt... substances identified generically as copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copper complex of (substituted... Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt... substances identified generically as copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1620 - Benzenesulfonamide, alkylphenyl substituted phenyl substituted carbonyl- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted phenyl substituted carbonyl- (generic). 721.1620 Section 721.1620 Protection of Environment... substituted phenyl substituted carbonyl- (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... phenyl substituted carbonyl- (PMN P-00-368) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1620 - Benzenesulfonamide, alkylphenyl substituted phenyl substituted carbonyl- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted phenyl substituted carbonyl- (generic). 721.1620 Section 721.1620 Protection of Environment... substituted phenyl substituted carbonyl- (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... phenyl substituted carbonyl- (PMN P-00-368) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1620 - Benzenesulfonamide, alkylphenyl substituted phenyl substituted carbonyl- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted phenyl substituted carbonyl- (generic). 721.1620 Section 721.1620 Protection of Environment... substituted phenyl substituted carbonyl- (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... phenyl substituted carbonyl- (PMN P-00-368) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1620 - Benzenesulfonamide, alkylphenyl substituted phenyl substituted carbonyl- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted phenyl substituted carbonyl- (generic). 721.1620 Section 721.1620 Protection of Environment... substituted phenyl substituted carbonyl- (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... phenyl substituted carbonyl- (PMN P-00-368) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.1620 - Benzenesulfonamide, alkylphenyl substituted phenyl substituted carbonyl- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted phenyl substituted carbonyl- (generic). 721.1620 Section 721.1620 Protection of Environment... substituted phenyl substituted carbonyl- (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... phenyl substituted carbonyl- (PMN P-00-368) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. Magnetized static black Saturn

    SciTech Connect

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.

    2008-06-15

    We present a new static solution to the 5D Einstein-Maxwell equations describing a static black hole surrounded by a nonrotating dipole black ring. The configuration is kept in equilibrium by an external magnetic field interacting with the dipole charge of the black ring. The properties of the black Saturn-like configuration are studied and the basic physical quantities are calculated. The solution demonstrates 2-fold continuous nonuniqueness of the 5D magnetized static neutral black objects for fixed total mass and Melvin background.

  16. Black hole levitron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-04-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  17. Searching for Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garica, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 we proposed to carry out ground-based observations in order to securely identify stellar mass black holes in our galaxy. This type 4 proposal under NASA's UV, Visible, and Gravitational Astrophysics program compliments NASA's space-based research by following up black hole candidates found and studied with space-based observatories, in order to determine if they are indeed black holes. While our primary goal is to securely identify black holes by measuring their masses, a secondary goal is identifying unique visible-range signatures for black holes.

  18. Architectural relationships involving symbolic substitution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J L

    1988-02-01

    A functional correspondence is shown among neural networks, symbolic substitution, digital computers, the permutation group S(N), and optical correlator devices. Group and element networks are postulated. The dimensionality of the group number N is interpreted as a measure of the parallel capacity of a network. The principle of symbolic substitution is used to design S(2) rules for a full binary adder, and neura! model techniques are applied to produce a neural net implementing the adder. Optical neuromorphs are described for the processing nodes of the network. PMID:20523635

  19. Powder metallurgy: Solid and liquid phase sintering of copper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Rex; Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Basic powder metallurgy (P/M) principles and techniques are presented in this laboratory experiment. A copper based system is used since it is relatively easy to work with and is commercially important. In addition to standard solid state sintering, small quantities of low melting metals such as tin, zinc, lead, and aluminum can be added to demonstrate liquid phase sintering and alloy formation. The Taguchi Method of experimental design was used to study the effect of particle size, pressing force, sintering temperature, and sintering time. These parameters can be easily changed to incorporate liquid phase sintering effects and some guidelines for such substitutions are presented. The experiment is typically carried out over a period of three weeks.

  20. Powder neutron diffraction studies of a carbonate fluorapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Leventouri, Th.; Chakoumakos, B. C.; Moghaddam, H. Y.; Perdikatsis, V.

    2000-02-01

    Atomic positional disorder of a single-phase natural carbonate fluorapatite (francolite) is revealed from analysis of the atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) refined from neutron powder diffraction data as a function of temperature and carbonate content. The ADPs of the francolite show a strong disturbance at the P, O3, and F sites. When it is heat treated to partially or completely remove the carbonate, the ADPs as well as the other structural parameters resemble those of a fluorapatite (Harding pegmatite) that was measured under the same conditions. The various structural changes are consistent with a substitution mechanism whereby the planar carbonate group replaces a phosphate group and lies on the mirror plane of the apatite structure. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society.

  1. Roller compaction of moist pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    Wu, C-Y; Hung, W-L; Miguélez-Morán, A M; Gururajan, B; Seville, J P K

    2010-05-31

    The compression behaviour of powders during roller compaction is dominated by a number of factors, such as process conditions (roll speed, roll gap, feeding mechanisms and feeding speed) and powder properties (particle size, shape, moisture content). The moisture content affects the powder properties, such as the flowability and cohesion, but it is not clear how the moisture content will influence the powder compression behaviour during roller compaction. In this study, the effect of moisture contents on roller compaction behaviour of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, Avicel PH102) was investigated experimentally. MCC samples of different moisture contents were prepared by mixing as-received MCC powder with different amount of water that was sprayed onto the powder bed being agitated in a rotary mixer. The flowability of these samples were evaluated in terms of the poured angle of repose and flow functions. The moist powders were then compacted using the instrumented roller compactor developed at the University of Birmingham. The flow and compression behaviour during roller compaction and the properties of produced ribbons were examined. It has been found that, as the moisture content increases, the flowability of moist MCC powders decreases and the powder becomes more cohesive. As a consequence of non-uniform flow of powder into the compaction zone induced by the friction between powder and side cheek plates, all produced ribbons have a higher density in the middle and lower densities at the edges. For the ribbons made of powders with high moisture contents, different hydration states across the ribbon width were also identified from SEM images. Moreover, it was interesting to find that these ribbons were split into two halves. This is attributed to the reduction in the mechanical strength of moist powder compacts with high moisture contents produced at high compression pressures. PMID:20176096

  2. IMAGES OF BLACK AMERICANS

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Susan T.; Bergsieker, Hilary B.; Russell, Ann Marie; Williams, Lyle

    2013-01-01

    Images of Black Americans are becoming remarkably diverse, enabling Barack Obama to defy simple-minded stereotypes and succeed. Understood through the Stereotype Content Model’s demonstrably fundamental trait dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, images of Black Americans show three relevant patterns. Stereotyping by omission allows non-Blacks to accentuate the positive, excluding any lingering negativity but implying it by its absence; specifically, describing Black Americans as gregarious and passionate suggests warmth but ignores competence and implies its lack. Obama’s credentials prevented him from being cast as incompetent, though the experience debate continued. His legendary calm and passionate charisma saved him on the warmth dimension. Social class subtypes for Black Americans differentiate dramatically between low-income Blacks and Black professionals, among both non-Black and Black samples. Obama clearly fit the moderately warm, highly competent Black-professional subtype. Finally, the campaign’s events (and nonevents) allowed voter habituation to overcome non-Blacks’ automatic emotional vigilance to Black Americans. PMID:24235974

  3. Evaluation of suitable porosity for sintered porous {beta}-tricalcium phosphate as a bone substitute

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin-Hong; Bae, Ji-Yong; Shim, Jaebum; Jeon, Insu

    2012-09-15

    Structural and mechanical characterization is performed for sintered porous beta tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) to determine the appropriate porosity for use as a bone substitute. Four different types of porous {beta}-TCP specimen with different porosities are fabricated through a sintering process. For structural characterization, scanning electron microscopy and a Microfocus X-ray computed tomography system are used to investigate the pore openings on the specimen's surface, pore size, pore distribution, and pore interconnections. Compression tests of the specimens are performed, and mechanical properties such as the elastic modulus and compressive strength are obtained. Also, the geometric shape and volume of the {beta}-TCP around the contact region of two pores, which need to be initially resolved after implantation in order to increase the size of the pore openings, are evaluated through simple calculations. The results show that porous {beta}-TCP with 42.1% porosity may be a suitable bone substitute candidate in terms of sustaining external loads, and inducing and cultivating bone cells. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural and mechanical characterization was performed for sintered porous {beta}-TCP specimens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For structural characterization, SEM and Microfocus X-ray CT system were used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For mechanical characterization, compression tests were performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous {beta}-TCP with 42.1% porosity may be a suitable bone substitute.

  4. ``Black Star'' or Astrophysical Black Hole?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovay, K.

    2008-01-01

    Recently wide publicity has been given to a claim by T. Vachaspati that ``black holes do not exist'', that the objects known as black holes in astrophysics should rather be called ``black stars'' and they not only do not have event horizons but actually can be the source of spectacular gamma ray bursts. In this short essay (no flimsier than the original preprint where these extravagant claims appeared) I demonstrate that these ill-considered claims are clearly wrong. Yet they present a good occasion to reflect on some well known but little discussed conceptual difficulties which arise when applying relativistic terminology in an astrophysical context.

  5. [Identication of pearl powder and conch powder from different origins by differential scanning calorimetry].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Li, Ming-hua; Yu, Kun-zi; Dong, Ya-juan; Zhang, Nan-ping; Hu, Xiao-ru; Wei, Feng; Ma, Shuang-cheng

    2015-04-01

    The paper is aimed to establish a methods for identication of pearl powder and conch powder from different origins. Hermetic aluminum pan was used to encapsulate samples. The optimal testing conditions were: heating rate 10 degrees C x min(-1), sample weight 3 mg and nitrogen gas flow rate 40 mL x min(-1). The enthalpy values of pearl powder and conch powder was obvious different. Identication of pearl powder and conch powder by DSC is a practical method for its accuracy, convenience and practificality. PMID:26281579

  6. Thixoforming of Stellite Powder Compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, S. C.; Atkinson, H. V.; Kapranos, P.

    2007-04-07

    Thixoforming involves processing metallic alloys in the semi-solid state. The process requires the microstructure to be spheroidal when part-solid and part-liquid i.e. to consist of solid spheroids surrounded by liquid. The aim of this work was to investigate whether powder compacts can be used as feedstock for thixoforming and whether the consolidating pressure in the thixoformer can be used to remove porosity from the compact. The powder compacts were made from stellite 6 and stellite 21 alloys, cobalt-based alloys widely used for e.g. manufacturing prostheses. Isothermal heat treatments of small samples in the consolidated state showed the optimum thixoforming temperature to be in the range 1340 deg. C-1350 deg. C for both materials. The alloys were thixoformed into graphite dies and flowed easily to fill the die. Porosity in the thixoformed components was lower than in the starting material. Hardness values at various positions along the radius of the thixoformed demonstrator component were above the specification for both alloys.

  7. Thixoforming of Stellite Powder Compacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, S. C.; Atkinson, H. V.; Kapranos, P.

    2007-04-01

    Thixoforming involves processing metallic alloys in the semi-solid state. The process requires the microstructure to be spheroidal when part-solid and part-liquid i.e. to consist of solid spheroids surrounded by liquid. The aim of this work was to investigate whether powder compacts can be used as feedstock for thixoforming and whether the consolidating pressure in the thixoformer can be used to remove porosity from the compact. The powder compacts were made from stellite 6 and stellite 21 alloys, cobalt-based alloys widely used for e.g. manufacturing prostheses. Isothermal heat treatments of small samples in the consolidated state showed the optimum thixoforming temperature to be in the range 1340C-1350C for both materials. The alloys were thixoformed into graphite dies and flowed easily to fill the die. Porosity in the thixoformed components was lower than in the starting material. Hardness values at various positions along the radius of the thixoformed demonstrator component were above the specification for both alloys.

  8. Cryolubricity of YBCO powder deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Keeley M.; Krim, Jacqueline

    2010-03-01

    Motivated by recent reports of superconductivity-dependent friction [1] in macroscopic pin-on-disk measurements of steel on YBCO, [2] we have investigated the tribological properties of YBCO powder deposits on metal electrodes of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Measurements are performed as a function of temperature over the range 80 - 300K, by monitoring the frequency and amplitude of the QCM both in the presence and absence of adsorbed nitrogen film layers. A pulsed magnetic field was applied to isolate the effect of superconductivity at and around the transition temperature. The powder deposits produce negative shifts in the QCM fundamental frequency, an indication of the strength of their attachment to the surface. The shifts exhibit structure as the temperature passes through the superconducting transition temperature, but the presumed drop in friction is not so large as to produce a decoupling effect which would lead to positive shifts. [3] Measurements on alternate QCM electrodes in the presence of adsorbed film layers are ongoing and will be reported on. Funding provided by NSF DMR. [4pt] [1] Highland, M. and Krim, J. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006, 96, 226107.[0pt] [2] Ding, Q. et al. Wear 2008, 265, 1136.[0pt] [3] Dybwad, G.L. J. Appl. Phys. 1985, 58, 2789.

  9. No Substitute Teacher Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Schools and districts routinely recruit, retain, and support highly qualified teachers to ensure that students receive the best learning opportunities. However, even if one's school employs highly qualified full-time teachers, it is important to acknowledge that substitute teachers also have a significant impact on the education of students. One

  10. Genomic distance under gene substitutions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The distance between two genomes is often computed by comparing only the common markers between them. Some approaches are also able to deal with non-common markers, allowing the insertion or the deletion of such markers. In these models, a deletion and a subsequent insertion that occur at the same position of the genome count for two sorting steps. Results Here we propose a new model that sorts non-common markers with substitutions, which are more powerful operations that comprehend insertions and deletions. A deletion and an insertion that occur at the same position of the genome can be modeled as a substitution, counting for a single sorting step. Conclusions Comparing genomes with unequal content, but without duplicated markers, we give a linear time algorithm to compute the genomic distance considering substitutions and double-cut-and-join (DCJ) operations. This model provides a parsimonious genomic distance to handle genomes free of duplicated markers, that is in practice a lower bound to the real genomic distances. The method could also be used to refine orthology assignments, since in some cases a substitution could actually correspond to an unannotated orthology. PMID:22151231

  11. 'Vegetable' substitutes for diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-22

    Research programs in the US, Brazil, South Africa and the Philippines on efforts to find a vegetable oil substitute for diesel fuel are reported. A narrowing price gap with diesel fuel and a favourable energy balance improve the prospects for such fuels. Much of the current work is centered on blends, rather than the use of the pure oil.

  12. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOEpatents

    Welbon, William W. (Belleair, FL)

    1983-01-01

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  13. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-03-06

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  14. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOEpatents

    Welbon, W.W.

    1983-11-08

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder. 2 figs.

  15. Ten shades of black

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-09-01

    The holographic principle has taught us that, as far as their entropy content is concerned, black holes in (3 + 1)-dimensional curved spacetimes behave as ordinary thermodynamic systems in flat (2 + 1)-dimensional spacetimes. In this paper, we point out that the opposite behavior can also be observed in black-hole physics. To show this we study the quantum Hawking evaporation of near-extremal Reissner-Nordström (RN) black holes. We first point out that the black-hole radiation spectrum departs from the familiar radiation spectrum of genuine (3 + 1)-dimensional perfect black-body emitters. In particular, the would be black-body thermal spectrum is distorted by the curvature potential which surrounds the black-hole and effectively blocks the emission of low-energy quanta. Taking into account the energy-dependent gray-body factors which quantify the imprint of passage of the emitted radiation quanta through the black-hole curvature potential, we reveal that the (3 + 1)-dimensional black holes effectively behave as perfect black-body emitters in a flat (9 + 1)-dimensional spacetime.

  16. Foamed lightweight materials made from mixed scrap metal waste powder and sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuen-Sheng; Chiou, Ing-Jia

    2004-10-01

    The porous properties and pozzolanic effects of sewage sludge ash (SSA) make it possible to produce lightweight materials. This study explored the effects of different metallic foaming agents, made from waste aluminium products, on the foaming behaviours and engineering characteristics, as well as the microstructure of sewage sludge ash foamed lightweight materials. The results indicated that aluminium powder and mixed scrap metal waste powder possessed similar chemical compositions. After proper pre-treatment, waste aluminium products proved to be ideal substitutes for metallic foaming agents. Increasing the amount of mixed scrap metal waste by 10-15% compared with aluminium powder would produce a similar foaming ratio and compressive strength. The reaction of the metallic foaming agents mainly produced pores larger than 10 microm, different from the hydration reaction of cement that produced pores smaller than 1 microm mostly. To meet the requirements of the lightweight materials characteristics and the compressive strength, the amount of SSA could be up to 60-80% of the total solids. An adequate amount of aluminium powder is 0.5-0.9% of the total solids. Increasing the fineness of the mixed scrap metal waste powder could effectively reduce the amount required and improve the foaming ratio. PMID:15560443

  17. Novel Approaches to Improve the Intrinsic Microbiological Safety of Powdered Infant Milk Formula

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Robert M.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:25685987

  18. Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on substituted cathinones.

    PubMed

    Paillet-Loilier, Magalie; Cesbron, Alexandre; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Bourgine, Joanna; Debruyne, Danile

    2014-01-01

    Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain. They appeared in the recreational drug market in the mid-2000s and now represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse. Initially considered as legal highs, their legal status is variable by country and is rapidly changing, with government institutions encouraging their control. Some cathinones (such as diethylpropion or pyrovalerone) have been used in a medical setting and bupropion is actually indicated for smoking cessation. Substituted cathinones are widely available from internet websites, retail shops, and street dealers. They can be sold under chemical, evocative or generic names, making their identification difficult. Fortunately, analytical methods have been developed in recent years to solve this problem. Available as powders, substituted cathinones are self-administered by snorting, oral injestion, or intravenous injection. They act as central nervous system stimulants by causing the release of catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) and blocking their reuptake in the central and peripheral nervous system. They may also decrease dopamine and serotonin transporter function as nonselective substrates or potent blockers and may inhibit monoamine oxidase effects. Nevertheless, considerable differences have been found in the potencies of the different substituted cathinones in vitro. Desired effects reported by users include increased energy, empathy, and improved libido. Cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension) and psychiatric/neurological signs/symptoms (agitation, seizures, paranoia, and hallucinations) are the most common adverse effects reported. Severe toxicity signs compatible with excessive serotonin activity, such as hyperthermia, metabolic acidosis, and prolonged rhabdomyolysis, have also been observed. Reinforcing potential observed in animals predicts a high potential for addiction and abuse in users. In case of overdose, no specific antidote exists and no curative treatment has been approved by health authorities. Therefore, management of acute toxic effects is mainly extrapolated from experience with cocaine/amphetamines. PMID:24966713

  19. Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on substituted cathinones

    PubMed Central

    Paillet-Loilier, Magalie; Cesbron, Alexandre; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Bourgine, Joanna; Debruyne, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain. They appeared in the recreational drug market in the mid-2000s and now represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse. Initially considered as legal highs, their legal status is variable by country and is rapidly changing, with government institutions encouraging their control. Some cathinones (such as diethylpropion or pyrovalerone) have been used in a medical setting and bupropion is actually indicated for smoking cessation. Substituted cathinones are widely available from internet websites, retail shops, and street dealers. They can be sold under chemical, evocative or generic names, making their identification difficult. Fortunately, analytical methods have been developed in recent years to solve this problem. Available as powders, substituted cathinones are self-administered by snorting, oral injestion, or intravenous injection. They act as central nervous system stimulants by causing the release of catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) and blocking their reuptake in the central and peripheral nervous system. They may also decrease dopamine and serotonin transporter function as nonselective substrates or potent blockers and may inhibit monoamine oxidase effects. Nevertheless, considerable differences have been found in the potencies of the different substituted cathinones in vitro. Desired effects reported by users include increased energy, empathy, and improved libido. Cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension) and psychiatric/neurological signs/symptoms (agitation, seizures, paranoia, and hallucinations) are the most common adverse effects reported. Severe toxicity signs compatible with excessive serotonin activity, such as hyperthermia, metabolic acidosis, and prolonged rhabdomyolysis, have also been observed. Reinforcing potential observed in animals predicts a high potential for addiction and abuse in users. In case of overdose, no specific antidote exists and no curative treatment has been approved by health authorities. Therefore, management of acute toxic effects is mainly extrapolated from experience with cocaine/amphetamines. PMID:24966713

  20. Selective laser sintering of amorphous metal powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, P.; Blatter, A.; Romano, V.; Weber, H. P.

    2005-02-01

    For the first time, selective sintering of amorphous PtCuNiP powder with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser has been studied. Upon pulsed interaction, the grains melt only superficially to build necks between the grains. Depending on the laser parameters, the sintered material can be crystallized or retained amorphous. By contrast with crystalline powder, laser sintering of amorphous powder is achieved at substantially lower pulse energies due to its low melting point. The obtained results are compared with previous results from selective laser sintering of titanium powder.

  1. Structure, thermal expansion and electrical conductivity of Nb-substituted LaCoO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Oygarden, Vegar; Lein, Hilde L.; Grande, Tor

    2012-08-15

    The effect of Nb-substitution in LaCoO{sub 3} has been examined by evaluating the electrical conductivity, thermal expansion and crystal structure of the solid solutions LaCo{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0 to 1/3). It was demonstrated that Nb-substitution in LaCoO{sub 3} was mainly compensated by reduction of Co{sup 3+} to Co{sup 2+}, and that oxidation of Co{sup 2+} could destabilise the solid solution. The ambient crystal structure was shown to transform from rhombohedral R3{sup Macron }c perovskite (x=0) to orthorhombic Pbnm (x=0.15, 0.20) and finally to B-site ordered perovskite P2{sub 1}/n (x=0.25, 1/3) perovskite with increasing Nb-substitution. The thermal expansion of LaCo{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} was shown to be strongly depressed with increasing Nb-content, and significantly lower thermal expansion was observed for LaCo{sub 2/3}Nb{sub 1/3}O{sub 3} relative to LaCoO{sub 3}. The electrical conductivity was reduced with increasing Nb-content, and semi-conducting properties was demonstrated for LaCo{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} in contrast to the metallic behaviour of pure LaCoO{sub 3} at elevated temperature. The thermal expansion, electrical conductivity and the stability of the materials were discussed with emphasis on Co/Nb ordering, the oxidation state and spin transitions of Co. - Graphical abstract: Substitution of Nb in LaCoO{sub 3} increases the unit cell volume, reduces the symmetry of the unit cell and introduces cation ordering. The chemical substitution leads to suppression of the electronic conductivity and reduces the thermal expansion of the lattice. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cation ordering and crystal structure is reported for LaCo{sub x}Nb{sub 1-x}O{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substitution of Nb in LaCoO{sub 3} is compensated by reduction of Co{sup 3+} to Co{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal expansion of LaCoO{sub 3} is reduced by Nb-substitution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical conductivity of LaCoO{sub 3} is reduced by Nb-substitution.

  2. The thermochromic vanadium dioxide. I. Role of stresses and substitution on switching properties

    SciTech Connect

    Rakotoniaina, J.C. Universite de Provence, Marseille ); Mokrani-Tamellin, R.; Gavarri, J.R. ); Vacquier, G.; Casalot, A. ); Calvarin, G. )

    1993-03-01

    The monoclinic [Leftrightarrow] tetragonal transition occurring at 341 K for VO[sub 2] vanadium dioxide and the corresponding switching of the optical properties can be affected in various ways by thermal treatments, substitution, and pressure. The transition in pure or substituted powdered samples is characterized by thermal analysis (DSC), X-ray (XRD) and neutron (NRD) diffractions, and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The influence of pressure on the transition is discussed from neutron diffraction experiments at high pressure. The anisotropic compressibility coefficients in the monoclinic and tetragonal phases are considered. Some kinetic effects close to [Tc], the transition temperature, have been observed by X-ray diffraction. The influences of pressure and substitution on the transition are then interpreted from a classical description of the chemical bonds in VO[sub 2]. 38 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. C?H Bond Activation by Pd-substituted CeO[subscript 2]: Substituted Ions versus Reduced Species

    SciTech Connect

    Misch, Lauren M.; Kurzman, Joshua A.; Derk, Alan R.; Kim, Young-Il; Seshadri, Ram; Metiu, Horia; McFarland, Eric W.; Stucky, Galen D.

    2012-02-07

    Substituted metal oxides containing ionic species have been attracting a great deal of attention because of their potential ability to reduce the usage of precious metals in heterogeneous catalysts. We investigate Pd-substituted CeO{sub 2} for C-H bond activation reactions including the partial oxidation and dry reforming of CH{sub 4}. This catalyst has been previously studied for CO oxidation, NO{sub x} reduction, and the water-gas shift reaction. Pd-substituted CeO{sub 2}, Ce{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x}O{sub 2-{delta}}, was prepared as a powder with high surface area and a hollow sphere morphology using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The catalysts were extensively characterized using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and other techniques, confirming phase pure samples up to 10 mol % Pd substitution. Ce{sub 0.95}Pd{sub 0.05}O{sub 2-{delta}} was found to be active for partial oxidation of CH{sub 4} around 500 C and higher. Our studies, including postcatalytic synchrotron diffraction, suggest that the single-phase Ce{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x}O{sub 2-{delta}} material is not the active species and that catalysis occurs instead over the reduced two-phase Pd{sup 0}/CeO{sub 2}. This observation has been further confirmed by verifying the activity of the reduced Pd{sup 0}/CeO{sub 2} catalysts for ethylene hydrogenation, a reaction that is known to require Pd{sup 0}.

  4. Exploring Black Hole Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hyeyoun

    2015-10-01

    This thesis explores the evolution of different types of black holes, and the ways in which black hole dynamics can be used to answer questions about other physical systems. We first investigate the differences in observable gravitational effects between a four-dimensional Randall-Sundrum (RS) braneworld universe compared to a universe without the extra dimension, by considering a black hole solution to the braneworld model that is localized on the brane. When the brane has a negative cosmological constant, then for a certain range of parameters for the black hole, the intersection of the black hole with the brane approximates a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole on the brane with corrections that fall off exponentially outside the horizon. We compute the quasinormal modes of the braneworld black hole, and compare them to the known quasinormal modes of the three-dimensional BTZ black hole. We find that there are two distinct regions for the braneworld black hole solutions that are reflected in the dependence of the quasinormal modes on the black hole mass. The imaginary parts of the quasinormal modes display phenomenological similarities to the quasinormal modes of the three-dimensional BTZ black hole, indicating that nonlinear gravitational effects may not be enough to distinguish between a lower-dimensional theory and a theory derived from a higher-dimensional braneworld. Secondly, we consider the evolution of non-extremal black holes in N=4, d=2 supergravity, and investigate how such black holes might evolve over time if perturbed away from extremality. We study this problem in the probe limit by finding tunneling amplitudes for a Dirac field in a single-centered background, which gives the decay rates for the emission of charged probe black holes from the central black hole. We find that there is no minimum to the potential for the probe particles at a finite distance from the central black hole, so any probes that are emitted escape to infinity. If the central black hole is BPS in the extremal limit, then the potential is flat and so there is no barrier to the emission of probes. If the central black hole is non-BPS in the extremal limit, then there is a barrier to emission and we compute the decay rate, which depends both on the charge of the central black hole and the charges of the emitted black holes. Finally, we consider the possibility that an extremal black hole, the end-point of the evolution of a non-extremal black hole through evaporation, may itself split into a multi-centered black hole solution through quantum tunneling, via a gravitational instanton analogous to the instanton for the symmetric double well in elementary quantum mechanics. We find a gravitational instanton that connects two vacuum states: one state corresponding to a single-centered extremal Reissner-Nordstrom (ERN) black hole configuration, and another state corresponding to a multi-centered ERN configuration. We evaluate the Euclidean action for this instanton and find that the amplitude for the tunneling process is equal to half the difference in entropy between the initial and final configurations.

  5. Deformed hyperbolic black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Lim, Yen-Kheng; Teo, Edward

    2015-08-01

    Black holes with planar or hyperbolic horizons are known to exist in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, alongside the usual ones with spherical horizons. In this paper, we consider a one-parameter generalization of these black holes that is contained in the AdS C-metric. In terms of the domain-structure analysis recently developed for such solutions, these black holes have a domain in the shape of a triangle. It is shown that the horizons of these black holes are deformed hyperbolic spaces, with the new parameter controlling the amount of deformation. The space-times are static and completely regular outside the horizons. We argue that these black holes are hyperbolic analogues of the "slowly accelerating" spherical black holes known to exist in AdS space.

  6. Airmax: a multi-dose dry powder inhaler.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M; Faulds, Diana

    2002-01-01

    Airmax is a multi-dose dry powder inhaler. An internal pump measures out the drug dose using controlled air pressure. Inhalation transports the drug into a cyclone separator (where active drug is separated from the lactose carrier) and then into the patient airway. In vitro studies indicate that Airmax may be less dependent on airflow than Turbuhaler for drug delivery; greater dose consistency was seen with administration of budesonide via Airmax than via Turbuhaler. At a low flow rate, the lung deposition of budesonide administered via Airmax was greater than that of budesonide administered via Turbuhaler or a pressurised metered dose inhaler in patients with asthma. In cumulative-dose studies, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) achieved with salbutamol (albuterol) or formoterol administered via Airmax was equivalent to that achieved with twice the dose administered via dry powder inhalers. black triangle In randomised, double-blind studies, budesonide administration via Airmax was equivalent to administration via Turbuhaler with regards to FEV(1) and improvement in asthma symptoms in both adults and children with asthma. The concentration of adenosine monophosphate producing a 20% fall in FEV(1) increased from pretreatment levels by a greater extent with budesonide administered via Airmax, compared with Turbuhaler. Both adults and children preferred Airmax to Turbuhaler, and more found Airmax easier to use. In one study, the majority of children found learning how to use Airmax trade mark easier than learning how to use Turbuhaler. PMID:12215059

  7. Element composition of ferromanganese concretions in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, G. N.

    2010-02-01

    The ferromanganese concretions spread at the bottom of the shallow northwestern part of the Black Sea are mainly represented by Fe and Mn hydrate nodules on shells and substituted worm tubes. The element composition of these formations was found by the methods of chemical, atomic-absorbtion, neutron activation, and plasmic (ICP-MS) analyses. It is established that the content and the ratio of Fe and Mn in the concretions ranges within considerable limits, which controls the occurrence of several associated iron-free metals and microelements, some which have not been previously studied in the Black Sea concretions.

  8. A multi-analytical approach for the characterization of powders from the Pompeii archaeological site.

    PubMed

    Canevali, Carmen; Gentile, Paolo; Orlandi, Marco; Modugno, Francesca; Lucejko, Jeannette Jacqueline; Colombini, Maria Perla; Brambilla, Laura; Goidanich, Sara; Riedo, Chiara; Chiantore, Oscar; Baraldi, Pietro; Baraldi, Cecilia; Gamberini, Maria Cristina

    2011-10-01

    Nine black powders found in Pompeii houses in three different types of bronze vessels (cylindrical theca atramentaria, unguentaries, and aryballoi) were characterized in order to assess a correspondence between the composition and the type of vessel and, possibly, to verify if these powders were inks or not. For the compositional characterization, a multi-analytical approach was adopted, which involved the use of scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and pyrolysis GC/MS. Powders contained in cylindrical theca atramentaria form a homogeneous group, and their organic and inorganic compositions suggest that they were writing inks, while powders contained in unguentaries and aryballoi could have had several different uses, including writing inks and cosmetics. Furthermore, the composition profile of the powders found in cylindrical cases shows that, at 79?AD: , in Pompeii, carbon-based inks were still used for writing, and iron gall inks had not been introduced yet. PMID:21735063

  9. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    PubMed

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six. PMID:23368298

  10. Kerr black string flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meng; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2015-08-01

    We give a general illumination of a rotating black string falling into a rotating horizon in dimension D = 5. It is a configuration of one smooth intersection between these two objects when the spacetime is axisymmetric and in the limit that the thickness of the black hole is much larger than the thickness of the black string. Following this configuration, we further extend them to the rotating and charged flows.

  11. Styryl dye coated metal oxide powders for the detection of latent fingermarks on non-porous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Scott; Maynard, Philip; Kirkbride, Paul; Lennard, Chris; McDonagh, Andrew; Spindler, Xanthe; Roux, Claude

    2012-06-10

    Conventional fingermark powders rely on contrast induced by absorption/reflection (e.g. black powder) or luminescence in the visible region (e.g. Blitz Green(®)). In most cases, these powders provide sufficient contrast; however, in some circumstances surface characteristics can interfere with the visualisation of powdered fingermarks. Visualisation in the near infra-red (NIR) region, however, has been shown to eliminate interferences commonly encountered in the visible region. In this study, a mixture of rhodamine 6G and the NIR laser dye styryl 11 (STaR 11) was coated onto an aluminium oxide nanopowder and then mixed with silver magnetic powder to develop and visualise fingermarks in the NIR. When compared to Blitz Green(®), it was determined that the STaR 11 magnetic powder was better suited for marks deposited on textured surfaces and for older marks, whereas Blitz Green(®) performed better on smooth glossy surfaces. The ability of the STaR 11 mixed dye formulation to be visualised in both the visible and NIR regions also provides a significant advantage over conventional luminescent fingermark powders. PMID:22284074

  12. Stability of Black Holes and Black Branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollands, Stefan; Wald, Robert M.

    2013-08-01

    We establish a new criterion for the dynamical stability of black holes in D ≥ 4 spacetime dimensions in general relativity with respect to axisymmetric perturbations: Dynamical stability is equivalent to the positivity of the canonical energy, {{E}}, on a subspace, {{T}}, of linearized solutions that have vanishing linearized ADM mass, momentum, and angular momentum at infinity and satisfy certain gauge conditions at the horizon. This is shown by proving that—apart from pure gauge perturbations and perturbations towards other stationary black holes—{{E}} is nondegenerate on {{T}} and that, for axisymmetric perturbations, {{E}} has positive flux properties at both infinity and the horizon. We further show that {{E}} is related to the second order variations of mass, angular momentum, and horizon area by {{E} = δ^2 M -sum_A Ω_A δ^2 J_A - κ/8πδ^2 A}, thereby establishing a close connection between dynamical stability and thermodynamic stability. Thermodynamic instability of a family of black holes need not imply dynamical instability because the perturbations towards other members of the family will not, in general, have vanishing linearized ADM mass and/or angular momentum. However, we prove that for any black brane corresponding to a thermodynamically unstable black hole, sufficiently long wavelength perturbations can be found with {{E} < 0} and vanishing linearized ADM quantities. Thus, all black branes corresponding to thermodynmically unstable black holes are dynamically unstable, as conjectured by Gubser and Mitra. We also prove that positivity of {{E}} on {{T}} is equivalent to the satisfaction of a " local Penrose inequality," thus showing that satisfaction of this local Penrose inequality is necessary and sufficient for dynamical stability. Although we restrict our considerations in this paper to vacuum general relativity, most of the results of this paper are derived using general Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods and therefore can be straightforwardly generalized to allow for the presence of matter fields and/or to the case of an arbitrary diffeomorphism covariant gravitational action.

  13. Decline and Fall of the Substitute Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Herbert E.

    1979-01-01

    This article argues for the abolition of substitute teachers on the grounds that they waste student time and school district money and that the position degrades the individuals who act as substitutes. (JMF)

  14. Black Hole Berry Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Verlinde, Erik

    2009-09-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berrys phase: under adiabatic variations of the background values of the supergravity moduli, the quantum microstates of the black hole mix among themselves. We present a simple example where this mixing is exactly computable, that of small supersymmetric black holes in 5 dimensions.

  15. Black hole Berry phase.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Jan; Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Verlinde, Erik

    2009-09-25

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry's phase: under adiabatic variations of the background values of the supergravity moduli, the quantum microstates of the black hole mix among themselves. We present a simple example where this mixing is exactly computable, that of small supersymmetric black holes in 5 dimensions. PMID:19905501

  16. [Evolution of urinary bladder substitution].

    PubMed

    Kock, N G

    1992-11-01

    The historical background to the currently used methods for continent bladder substitution is shortly outlined. The significance for the patient's quality of life of various methods for bladder reconstruction or urinary diversion is briefly discussed. The importance of reservoir configuration for achieving a high compliant urinary receptacle is pointed out. Factors affecting reabsorption of urinary constituents are stressed and the significance of an antireflux mechanism is discussed. Currently the majority of patients undergoing cystectomy for cancer or for other reasons can be offered bladder substitutes providing continence and easy emptying; that is, complete control over voiding. This can be achieved by orthotopic bladder reconstruction or by diverting the urine to the augmented and valved rectum or to the skin via a continent intestinal reservoir. PMID:1492767

  17. A new approach to assess the chemical composition of powder deposits damaging the stone surfaces of historical monuments.

    PubMed

    Fermo, Paola; Turrion, Raquel Gonzalez; Rosa, Mario; Omegna, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The issue of conservation of the monumental heritage worldwide is mainly related to atmospheric pollution that causes the degradation of stone surfaces. The powder deposits present on the stone monuments reflect the composition of the aerosol particulate matter (PM) to which the surfaces are exposed, so the chemical characterization of the outermost damaged layers is necessary in order to adopt mitigation measurements to reduce PM emissions. In the present paper, a new analytical approach is proposed to investigate the chemical composition of powder deposits present on Angera stone, a dolomitic rock used in the Richini courtyard, a masterpiece of Lombard Baroque and placed in Milan. Inorganic and organic components present in these deposits have been analyzed by IC (ion chromatography) and a new approach mainly bases on thermal analyses, respectively. Gypsum is the main inorganic constituent indicating a composition similar to that of black crusts, hard black patina covering the degraded building surfaces. Ammonium nitrate present in the powder is able to react with the stone substrate to form magnesium nitrate which can migrate into the porous stone. The carbonaceous fraction powder deposits (i.e. OC?=?Organic Carbon and EC?=?Elemental Carbon) have been quantified by a new simple thermal approach based on carbon hydrogen nitrogen (CHN) analysis. The presence of high concentration of EC confirms that the powder deposits are evolving to black crust. Low values of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, determined by total organic carbon-TOC), with respect to what is normally found in PM, may indicate a migration process of organic substances into the stone with a worsening of the conservation conditions. The presence of heavy metals of anthropogenic origin and acting as catalysts in the black crust formation process has been highlighted by SEM-EDS (electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer) as well. PMID:25408080

  18. 21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings... or both, with one or more of the following optional blending ingredients: (1) Sugar. (2) Dextrose. (3... specified name of the food is Vanilla powder _-fold or _-fold vanilla powder, except that if sugar...

  19. Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiko, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

  20. 30 CFR 56.6133 - Powder chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage 56.6133 Powder... CFR part 51. Copies are available at MSHA, 1100 Wilson Blvd., Room 2436, Arlington, Virginia 22209... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Powder chests. 56.6133 Section 56.6133...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6133 - Powder chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage 56.6133 Powder... CFR part 51. Copies are available at MSHA, 1100 Wilson Blvd., Room 2436, Arlington, Virginia 22209... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Powder chests. 56.6133 Section 56.6133...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6133 - Powder chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage 56.6133 Powder... CFR part 51. Copies are available at MSHA, 1100 Wilson Blvd., Room 2436, Arlington, Virginia 22209... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Powder chests. 56.6133 Section 56.6133...

  3. 30 CFR 56.6133 - Powder chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage 56.6133 Powder... CFR part 51. Copies are available at MSHA, 1100 Wilson Blvd., Room 2436, Arlington, Virginia 22209... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Powder chests. 56.6133 Section 56.6133...

  4. 21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1646 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Bronze powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  5. 21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1647 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Copper powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  6. 21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1646 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Bronze powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  7. 21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1647 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Copper powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  8. 21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1647 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Copper powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  9. 21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1646 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Bronze powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1646 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Bronze powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1647 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Copper powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  12. 21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1646 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Bronze powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1647 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Copper powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  14. 21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla powder. 169.179 Section 169.179 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings 169.179 Vanilla powder. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vanilla powder. 169.179 Section 169.179 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings 169.179 Vanilla powder. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilla powder. 169.179 Section 169.179 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings 169.179 Vanilla powder. (a)...

  17. Ethynyl and substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Ethynyl and substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones and a process for preparing the same are disclosed. These polysulfones are thermally cured to induce cross-linking and chain extension, producing a polymer system with improved solvent resistance and use temperature. Also disclosed are substituted 4-ethynylbenzoyl chlorides as precursors to the substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones and a process for preparing the same.

  18. 40 CFR 721.4280 - Substituted hydrazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted hydrazine. 721.4280... Substances 721.4280 Substituted hydrazine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted hydrazine (PMN P-90-594)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4280 - Substituted hydrazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted hydrazine. 721.4280... Substances 721.4280 Substituted hydrazine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted hydrazine (PMN P-90-594)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.323 - Substituted acrylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted acrylamide. 721.323... Substances 721.323 Substituted acrylamide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted acrylamide (PMN P-90-1687)...

  6. Substitutes for School Nurses in Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollinger, Linda Jeno; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Belmonte-Mann, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore utilization of nurse substitutes in the school setting in Illinois. The literature described personnel who staff the school health office in the absence of the school nurse and the barriers to obtaining nurse substitutes. There were no empirical studies conducted on school nurse substitutes in

  7. Ethynyl and substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Ethynyl and substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones and their synthesis are disclosed. These polysulfones are thermally cured to induce cross-linking and chain extension, producing a polymer system with improved solvent resistance and use temperatures. Also disclosed are substituted 4-ethynylbenzoyl chlorides as precursors to the substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones and a process for preparing the same.

  8. Expectations and Experiences of Substitute Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggleby, Patricia; Badali, Sal

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the expectations of support for and the experiences of substitute teachers in an urban school division in Saskatchewan. Data were collected in semistructured interviews with seven substitute teachers. The purpose of the study was to explore how substitute teachers frame their professional experiences and construct their roles

  9. Permanent Teacher Preparation for Substitute Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Steve; Tippetts, Zachary

    2001-01-01

    Presents information about what should be communicated to substitute teachers and why it is important, focusing on the substitute teacher's role, classroom management tools, curriculum management, and preparing students for the substitute teacher by creating bridges that will help minimize the sense of separation students feel when they have a

  10. 40 CFR 721.9820 - Substituted triazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted triazole. 721.9820 Section... Substances 721.9820 Substituted triazole. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as a substituted triazole (PMN P-90-1731)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9820 - Substituted triazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted triazole. 721.9820 Section... Substances 721.9820 Substituted triazole. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as a substituted triazole (PMN P-90-1731)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9820 - Substituted triazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted triazole. 721.9820 Section... Substances 721.9820 Substituted triazole. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as a substituted triazole (PMN P-90-1731)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9820 - Substituted triazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted triazole. 721.9820 Section... Substances 721.9820 Substituted triazole. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as a substituted triazole (PMN P-90-1731)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9820 - Substituted triazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted triazole. 721.9820 Section... Substances 721.9820 Substituted triazole. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as a substituted triazole (PMN P-90-1731)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9488 - Substituted resorcinols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted resorcinols. 721.9488... Substances 721.9488 Substituted resorcinols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as substituted resorcinols (PMNs P-95-1103,...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9488 - Substituted resorcinols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted resorcinols. 721.9488... Substances 721.9488 Substituted resorcinols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as substituted resorcinols (PMNs P-95-1103,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9488 - Substituted resorcinols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted resorcinols. 721.9488... Substances 721.9488 Substituted resorcinols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as substituted resorcinols (PMNs P-95-1103,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9488 - Substituted resorcinols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted resorcinols. 721.9488... Substances 721.9488 Substituted resorcinols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as substituted resorcinols (PMNs P-95-1103,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9488 - Substituted resorcinols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted resorcinols. 721.9488... Substances 721.9488 Substituted resorcinols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as substituted resorcinols (PMNs P-95-1103,...

  20. Iridium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, John F.; Pouy, Mark J.

    Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution has become a valuable method to prepare products from the addition of nucleophiles at the more substituted carbon of an allyl unit. The most active and selective catalysts contain a phosphoramidite ligand possessing at least one arylethyl substituent on the nitrogen atom of the ligand. In these systems, the active catalyst is generated by a base-induced cyclometalation at the methyl group of this substituent to generate an iridium metalacycle bound by the COD ligand of the [Ir(COD)Cl]2 precursor and one additional labile dative ligand. Such complexes catalyze the reactions of linear allylic esters with alkylamines, arylamines, phenols, alcohols, imides, carbamates, ammonia, enolates and enolate equivalents, as well as typical stabilized carbon nucleophiles generated from malonates and cyanoesters. Iridium catalysts for enantioselective allylic substitution have also been generated from phosphorus ligands with substituents bound by heteroatoms, and an account of the studies of such systems, along with a description of the development of iridium catalysts is included.

  1. Bone grafts and their substitutes.

    PubMed

    Fillingham, Y; Jacobs, J

    2016-01-01

    The continual cycle of bone formation and resorption is carried out by osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts under the direction of the bone-signaling pathway. In certain situations the host cycle of bone repair is insufficient and requires the assistance of bone grafts and their substitutes. The fundamental properties of a bone graft are osteoconduction, osteoinduction, osteogenesis, and structural support. Options for bone grafting include autogenous and allograft bone and the various isolated or combined substitutes of calcium sulphate, calcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, and coralline hydroxyapatite. Not all bone grafts will have the same properties. As a result, understanding the requirements of the clinical situation and specific properties of the various types of bone grafts is necessary to identify the ideal graft. We present a review of the bone repair process and properties of bone grafts and their substitutes to help guide the clinician in the decision making process. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(1 Suppl A):6-9. PMID:26733632

  2. Resonant photodissociation in substituted benzenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarborough, Tim; McAcy, Collin; Foote, David; Uiterwaal, Cornelis

    2011-05-01

    Cyclic aromatic molecules are abundant in organic chemistry, with a wide variety of applications, including pharmacology, pollution studies and genetic research. Among the simplest of these molecules is benzene (C6H6) , with many relevant molecules being benzene-like with a single atomic substitution. In such a substitution, the substituent determines a characteristic perturbation of the electronic structure of the molecule. We discuss the substitution of halogens into the ring (C6H5X), and its effects on the dynamics of ionization and dissociation of the molecule without the focal volume effect. In particular, using 800-nm, 50-fs laser pulses, we present results in the dissociation of fluorobenzene, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene and iodobenzene into the phenyl ring (C6H5) and the atomic halogen, and the subsequent ionization of these fragments. The impact of the ``heavy atom effect'' on a 1 (π , π*) -->3 (n , σ*) singlet-triplet intersystem crossing will be emphasized. Currently under investigation is whether such a dissociation can be treated as an effective source of the neutral substituent. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-0355235.

  3. 77 FR 28252 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Griseofulvin Powder; Levamisole...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Sponsor; Griseofulvin Powder; Levamisole Hydrochloride Powder; Oxytetracycline Powder AGENCY: Food and... applications (ANADAs) for griseofulvin powder, levamisole hydrochloride soluble powder, and oxytetracycline..., ANADA 200-391 for Griseofulvin Powder, ANADAs 200-146 and 200-247 for Oxytetracycline...

  4. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOEpatents

    Stang, L.G.

    1979-08-29

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  5. Explosive containment with spherically tamped powders

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, L.A.

    1986-11-15

    An effective technique for maximizing the explosive charge that a given container can safely handle is to fill the space between the charge and the container walls with a porous medium or a powder. Using the wrong powder, however, can be worse than using no powder at all. Moreover, a powder-filled container that performs very well with a small charge may also be worse than a powderless system when the charge is increased. An analysis of this problem is developed with the aim of identifying appropriate buffer material properties and the conditions under which breakdown occurs. The results are compared with various experiments performed with graphite powder, coke chunks, granular salt, snow, and vermiculite.

  6. Tribocharging behaviour of automotive powder coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Aline; Saleh, Khashayar; Guigon, Pierre; Czechowski, Claire

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this work was to build a device allowing the measurement of tribocharging during the fluidization and pneumatic transport of automotive powder coatings. The experimental setup included a fluidization unit, a transport pipe and two 'Faraday cups' allowing continuous monitoring of particle charge. Two batches of industrial automotive powder primers, as well as several other types of powders were tested: alumina, silica... The experimental variables were the length of the conveying pipe and the air flow rate. The results showed that the net amount of acquired tribocharge increases with the length of conveying pipe. The experimental device and procedure allowed to well classify tested powders according to their rate of tribocharging and their maximum charge. More specially, this study pointed out a net difference between electrostatic properties of two powder primers, which behave very differently in the industrial application unit.

  7. Effect of detergent on powder triboelectrification.

    PubMed

    Murtomaa, Matti; Ojanen, Kalle; Laine, Ensio; Poutanen, Jutta

    2002-12-01

    Triboelectrification of pharmaceutical powders during processing and manufacture may cause adhesion/cohesion effects, reduce fill and dose uniformity, affect powder flow and packing behaviour and even obstruct the manufacturing of the product. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the triboelectrification of microcrystalline cellulose in contact with stainless steel pipes washed with several different detergents. Detergents and their concentrations were chosen to be similar to typical industrial manufacturing stages. The adhesion of powder to the surface had a considerable effect on the triboelectrification process. Therefore, polystyrene spheres were also charged in a similar way and the results were compared with the powder charging results. The results clearly indicate that detergent contamination on the pipe surface has a considerable effect on the generated charge. The detergents and powders used could be arranged in a triboelectric series with only one exception. PMID:12453608

  8. Powder-lubricated piston ring development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heshmat, H.

    1991-06-01

    The overall objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new particulate lubrication concept for reducing piston ring/cylinder liner wear in coal-water slurry-fueled diesels by replacing the present oil-lubricated system with powder lubrication that would utilize coal ash, either alone or in combination with another powder. The feasibility of this particular lubrication concept for reducing ring/liner wear was demonstrated in a series of experiments utilizing redesigned and properly selected components. Wear performance for suitable ring/liner materials lubricated with a powder that incorporates the abrasive ash particles was evaluated in terms of load capacity, friction, and rate of wear for the best combination of ring design, ring and liner materials, and powder constituents. In addition, the use of a powder-lubricated system in the upper portion of the cylinder isolated the particulates from the lower portions of the engine, thus further reducing engine wear.

  9. Powder-lubricated piston ring development

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmat, H.

    1991-06-01

    The overall objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new particulate lubrication concept for reducing piston ring/cylinder liner wear in coal-water slurry-fueled diesels by replacing the present oil-lubricated system with powder lubrication that would utilize coal ash, either alone or in combination with another powder. The feasibility of this particular lubrication concept for reducing ring/liner wear was demonstrated in a series of experiments utilizing redesigned and properly selected components. Wear performance for suitable ring/liner materials lubricated with a powder that incorporates the abrasive ash particles was evaluated in terms of load capacity, friction, and rate of wear for the best combination of ring design, ring and liner materials, and powder constituents. In addition, the use of a powder-lubricated system in the upper portion of the cylinder isolated the particulates from the lower portions of the engine, thus further reducing engine wear. (VC)

  10. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOEpatents

    Stang, Louis G. (Sayville, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  11. Impact of alkalization on the antioxidant and flavanol content of commercial cocoa powders.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth B; Hurst, William Jeffery; Payne, Mark J; Stuart, David A; Apgar, Joan; Sweigart, Daniel S; Ou, Boxin

    2008-09-24

    Cocoa is a food ingredient that is important for the contribution of flavor to foods but is also associated with potential health benefits. The chemistry thought to be responsible for its cardiovascular health benefits is the flavanol (flavan-3-ol) antioxidants. Evidence from the literature indicates that natural cocoas are high in flavanols, but when the cocoa is processed with alkali, also known as Dutch processing or Dutching, the flavanols are substantially reduced. This paper provides a survey of the physical and chemical composition of representative natural cocoas and lightly, medium, and heavily alkalized cocoas. As part of the survey, both brown/black and red/brown alkali-processed cocoas were measured. Natural cocoa powders have an extractable pH of 5.3-5.8. Alkalized cocoa powders were grouped into lightly treated (pH 6.50-7.20), medium-treated (pH 7.21-7.60), and heavily treated (pH 7.61 and higher). The natural, nonalkalized powders had the highest ORAC and total polyphenols and flavanols (including procyanidins). These chemical measurements showed a linear decrease as the extractable pH of the cocoa powder increased. Likewise, the flavanol monomers, oligomers, and polymers all showed a linear decrease with increasing pH of the final cocoa powder. When brown/black cocoa powders were compared to red cocoa powders, similar decreases in flavanols were observed with increased alkalization. The average total flavanol contents were 34.6 +/- 6.8 mg/g for the natural cocoas, 13.8 +/- 7.3 mg/g for the lightly processed cocoas, 7.8 +/- 4.0 mg/g for the medium processed cocoas, and 3.9 +/- 1.8 mg/g for the heavily processed cocoa powders. The observed linear and predictable impact of alkalization on flavanol content is discussed with respect to other reports in the literature as well as what implications it may have on diet and food manufacturing. PMID:18710243

  12. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenesulfonic acid copper compound (generic). 721.10126 Section 721.10126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenesulfonic acid copper compound (generic). 721.10126 Section 721.10126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. 721.9545 Section 721.9545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. 721.9545 Section 721.9545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. 721.9545 Section 721.9545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. 721.9545 Section 721.9545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. 721.9545 Section 721.9545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...

  9. Application of powder rheometer to determine powder flow properties and lubrication efficiency of pharmaceutical particulate systems.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, Charu V; Missaghi, Shahrzad; Fassihi, Reza

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the behavior of particulate systems under different conditions of shear dynamics before and after granulation and to investigate the efficiency of powder lubrication. Three drug powders, metronidazole, colloidal bismuth citrate, and tetracycline hydrochloride, were chosen as model drugs representing noncohesive and cohesive powder systems. Each powder was individually granulated with microcrystalline cellulose and 5%PVP as a binder. One portion from each granulation was lubricated with different levels of magnesium stearate for 5 minutes. The powder characterization was performed on the plain powders, nonlubricated and lubricated granules using powder rheometer equipped with a helical blade rotating and moving under experimentally fixed set of parameters. The profiles of interaction during the force-distance measurements indicate that powder compresses, expands, and shears many times in a test cycle. Test profiles also clearly reveal existence of significant differences between cohesive and noncohesive powders. In all cases lubrication normalized the overall interactive nature of the powder by reducing peaks and valleys as observed from the profiles and reduced the frictional effect. The developed methods are easy to perform and will allow formulation scientists to better understand powder behavior and help in predicting potential impact of processing factors on particulate systems. PMID:16353997

  10. An analysis of un-dissolved powders of instant powdered soup by using ultrasonographic image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaai, Yukinori; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kasamatsu, Chinatsu

    2008-11-01

    Nowadays, there are many instant powdered soups around us. When we make instant powdered soup, sometimes we cannot dissolve powders perfectly. Food manufacturers want to improve this problem in order to make better products. Therefore, they have to measure the state and volume of un-dissolved powders. Earlier methods for analyzing removed the un-dissolved powders from the container, the state of the un-dissolved power was changed. Our research using ultrasonographic image can measure the state of un-dissolved powders with no change by taking cross sections of the soup. We then make 3D soup model from these cross sections of soup. Therefore we can observe the inside of soup that we do not have ever seen. We construct accurate 3D model. We can visualize the state and volume of un-dissolved powders with analyzing the 3D soup models.

  11. Black Americans: A Chartbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Sylvia S.

    This book is a compilation of data on black Americans. The record of the past two decades shows that blacks have been migrating out of the rural South into the cities of the North and West. There, with greater choices, many have been progressing economically from unskilled low-paid jobs into white-collar and skilled occupations. In search of

  12. Reaching Black Men. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassman, Marybeth

    2010-01-01

    Journalist Elizabeth Redden brings to the surface several salient issues in her article entitled, "Reaching Black Men." First, she illuminates that fact that access is not enough when it comes to educating African American men. Second, she points to the importance of having campus-wide initiatives to support the success of Black men. And lastly,

  13. Lexicon of Black English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillard, J. L.

    The purpose of this volume is to demonstrate that the fields of linguistics, dialectology, language education, and early reading would be well served by a word book of the Black English vernacular. Chapters are devoted to discussion of the social significance of a lexicon of Black English vernacular, the terminology of sex and lovemaking, religion…

  14. Arizona Black Rattlesnake

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Arizona black rattlesnake is a high-elevation medium-sized (<1,000 mm) rattlesnake found primarily in Arizona and extreme western New Mexico. Adults are dark brown or black in background color, with white- or yellow-edged barker hexagonal blotches. Juveniles are born with a grey background ...

  15. State of Black Cincinnati.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban League of Greater Cincinnati, OH.

    The results of a survey conducted in the black community of Cincinnati, Ohio, are presented in this report. The survey sought to determine the perceptions, views, and attitudes of the city's black citizens regarding key social and economic issues. The report presents findings in the following areas: (1) education, including issues of

  16. Black Families. Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.; Stewart, James B., Ed.

    Since the early 1960s, the black family has been characterized as pathological. This six-part collection of 18 research studies presents alternative approaches to understanding the special characteristics of black families. Part I, "Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives," comprises a comparison of the pioneering work of W. E. B. Du Bois and

  17. Black History Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noldon, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black

  18. Black Children, White Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Thomas J.

    Several years ago the author began visiting a number of families and children in the poor black section of Boston called Roxbury. But unlike many social scientists studying poverty in recent years, he listened--in particular to the thoughts, hopes, fears, and dreams of two fifth graders--William D. Williams and Adrien Keller. Here these two black

  19. Black phosphorus gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ahmad N; Liu, Bilu; Chen, Liang; Ma, Yuqiang; Cong, Sen; Aroonyadet, Noppadol; Kpf, Marianne; Nilges, Tom; Zhou, Chongwu

    2015-05-26

    The utilization of black phosphorus and its monolayer (phosphorene) and few-layers in field-effect transistors has attracted a lot of attention to this elemental two-dimensional material. Various studies on optimization of black phosphorus field-effect transistors, PN junctions, photodetectors, and other applications have been demonstrated. Although chemical sensing based on black phosphorus devices was theoretically predicted, there is still no experimental verification of such an important study of this material. In this article, we report on chemical sensing of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using field-effect transistors based on multilayer black phosphorus. Black phosphorus sensors exhibited increased conduction upon NO2 exposure and excellent sensitivity for detection of NO2 down to 5 ppb. Moreover, when the multilayer black phosphorus field-effect transistor was exposed to NO2 concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppb, its relative conduction change followed the Langmuir isotherm for molecules adsorbed on a surface. Additionally, on the basis of an exponential conductance change, the rate constants for adsorption and desorption of NO2 on black phosphorus were extracted for different NO2 concentrations, and they were in the range of 130-840 s. These results shed light on important electronic and sensing characteristics of black phosphorus, which can be utilized in future studies and applications. PMID:25945545

  20. Empowering Young Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C.

    The purpose of this book is to provide school counselors and related mental health professionals with important information to help them address the crisis of the Black male. The focus of the book is on Black male educational empowerment and how pupil personnel professionals can promote it in the school setting. The book examines important issues…

  1. Black Dean, White College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motley, Frank

    1977-01-01

    There is a natural dilemma and irony in being a Black administrator at a white institution. Black students and white administrators are both suspicious of his intentions and his competence. Race clouds all issues. Success is more dependent upon style than effort or productivity. (Author)

  2. Black Studies Year One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Richard A.

    Though Dubois tried to begin a series of scientific studies on the Negro problem in America more than 70 years ago, only recently have attempts been made to present a true history of the Black man in institutions of higher learning. Until that time, the experience of the Black man was defined in Euro-American terms, or in most cases was completely

  3. The Black Woman's Burden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Not even the first lady of the most powerful nation in the world is immune to stereotypes that have plagued Black women since first setting foot on American soil. Stereotypes of being the "angry Black woman" and curiosity about differences in appearance still persist from the academy to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. As African-American women rise in…

  4. The Black Woman's Burden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Not even the first lady of the most powerful nation in the world is immune to stereotypes that have plagued Black women since first setting foot on American soil. Stereotypes of being the "angry Black woman" and curiosity about differences in appearance still persist from the academy to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. As African-American women rise in

  5. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  6. Learning Mathematics while Black

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Danny Bernard

    2012-01-01

    While research by scholars has contributed greatly to an emerging knowledge base on Black children and mathematics, there continues to be a dire need for insightful research that de-centers longstanding accounts that have contributed to the construction of Black children as mathematically illiterate and as less than ideal learners relative to

  7. Drying of sweet whey using drum dryer technique and utilization of the produced powder in French-type bread and butter cookies.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, L; Alsaed, A K; Al-Domi, H

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to dry sweet liquid whey using drum dryer and to utilize the whey powder in French-type bread and cookies as a sugar substitute. The sweet whey powder was characterized chemically for ash, moisture, water activity, protein, salt, acidity and lactose contents. Optimization parameters including drying temperature, drum speed and starch addition for whey drying by drum dryer were tested to produce the best powder characteristics. The optimum temperature was 140C at a drum speed of 20 rpm with a corn starch level of 2% (weight per weight). Sweet whey powder produced was used as a sugar replacer in French-type bread and butter cookies at substitution levels of 25, 50 and 75% of total sugars. The developed products were analyzed chemically and sensorially. The two developed products were relatively high in protein, ash, lactose and salts compared to the control samples. Regarding the sensory evaluation, the results showed that the sugar substitution of 25 and 50% in bread and cookies were significantly (p<0.05) better than the control. It can be concluded that sweet whey powder can significantly improve the quality of the studied bakery items. PMID:26035954

  8. Contact dermatitis in blacks.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Maibach, H I

    1988-07-01

    Black skin is characterized by structural and functional differences such as increased stratum corneum cohesion, melanin content, and stratum corneum layers. These differences seem to make black skin difficult for irritants and light to penetrate, thus explaining the common opinion that skin in blacks is harder and develops contact dermatitis less frequently. The paucity of interpretable epidemiologic data and of clinical and experimental studies does not permit confirmation of this hypothesis, and the few data available are controversial. This article describes the main physiologic differences between black and white barrier function and reviews the literature on irritation, sensitization, and transcutaneous penetration. We found that the data are still too incomplete to generalize on the resistance, or lack thereof, of black skin (versus white skin) to chemical irritation, sensitization, and penetration. PMID:3048818

  9. American Black Duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Clugston, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    A brief summary of the annual cycle of the American Black duck (Anas rubripes) is presented. The history of the American black duck population is tracked by the Mid-Winter Index (MWI) and related to annual harvest. Previous to effective restrictions in the United States in 1982 and later in Canada, the MWI was declining significantly at about 4% annually. Since restrictions were established the black duck population has stabilized, but to reach the goal of 260,000 wintering black ducks in the Atlantic Flyway continued or even more restrictions will be necessary. If the number of breeding pairs can be increased from current levels the black duck population is expected to increase.

  10. Observing Black Hole Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2015-08-01

    Black hole spin is important in both the fundamental physics and astrophysics realms. In fundamental terms, many extensions and alternatives to General Relativity (GR) reveal themselves through effects related to (or at least of the same order as) spin. Astrophysically, spin is a fossil record of how black holes have grown and may, in addition, be an important source of energy (e.g., powering relativistic jets from black hole systems). I shall review recent progress on observational studies of black hole spin, especially those made in the X-ray waveband. We now have multiple techniques that can be applied in our search for black hole spin; I shall discuss the concordance (or, sometimes, lack thereof) between these techniques. Finally, I shall discuss what we can expect in the next few years with the launch of new X-ray instrumentation as well as the deployment of the Event Horizon Telescope.

  11. Black holes and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Samir D.

    2012-11-15

    The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome 'remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a 'fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The information paradox is a serious problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To solve it we need to find 'hair' on black holes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In string theory we find 'hair' by the fuzzball construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.

  12. Vacancy and Doping States in Monolayer and bulk Black Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2015-01-01

    The atomic geometries and transition levels of point defects and substitutional dopants in few-layer and bulk black phosphorus are calculated. The vacancy is found to reconstruct in monolayer P to leave a single dangling bond, giving a negative U defect with a +/- transition level at 0.24 eV above the valence band edge. The V(-) state forms an unusual 4-fold coordinated site. In few-layer and bulk black P, the defect becomes a positive U site. The divacancy is much more stable than the monovacancy, and it reconstructs to give no deep gap states. Substitutional dopants such as C, Si, O or S do not give rise to shallow donor or acceptor states but instead reconstruct to form non-doping sites analogous to DX or AX centers in GaAs. Impurities on black P adopt the 8-N rule of bonding, as in amorphous semiconductors, rather than simple substitutional geometries seen in tetrahedral semiconductors. PMID:26383634

  13. Vacancy and Doping States in Monolayer and bulk Black Phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2015-01-01

    The atomic geometries and transition levels of point defects and substitutional dopants in few-layer and bulk black phosphorus are calculated. The vacancy is found to reconstruct in monolayer P to leave a single dangling bond, giving a negative U defect with a +/? transition level at 0.24?eV above the valence band edge. The V? state forms an unusual 4-fold coordinated site. In few-layer and bulk black P, the defect becomes a positive U site. The divacancy is much more stable than the monovacancy, and it reconstructs to give no deep gap states. Substitutional dopants such as C, Si, O or S do not give rise to shallow donor or acceptor states but instead reconstruct to form non-doping sites analogous to DX or AX centers in GaAs. Impurities on black P adopt the 8-N rule of bonding, as in amorphous semiconductors, rather than simple substitutional geometries seen in tetrahedral semiconductors. PMID:26383634

  14. Aluminothermic powder boriding of steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunov, Nikolay; Ivanov, Radoslav

    2004-03-01

    Subject of thermodynamical analysis are the probable boron transport reactions, boron precipitation and boride forming in the reaction space with the use of aluminothermic boriding mixtures and activators such as NaF, NH 4F, Na 2O4BF 3 and (NH 4) 24BF 3. Aluminothermic boriding of carbon and alloyed steels have been carried out in a powder boriding mixture containing B 2O 320%, Al7%, Al 2O 372.5%, and (NH 4) 2O4BF 30.5% at a temperature of 1160 K and within a 6 h period. The thickness and the microhardness of the boride layers have been measured and a layer-by-layer chemical spectrum analysis has been made. The proposed structure of an aluminothermic mixture is determined to be suitable for boriding of low-carbon and low-alloyed steels. The boride layers obtained are distinguished for considerable thickness and high microhardness.

  15. Influence of Excipients and Spray Drying on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Nutraceutical Capsules Containing Phytochemicals from Black Bean Extract.

    PubMed

    Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Rempel, Curtis; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    Black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a rich source of flavonoids and saponins with proven health benefits. Spray dried black bean extract powders were used in different formulations for the production of nutraceutical capsules with reduced batch-to-batch weight variability. Factorial designs were used to find an adequate maltodextrin-extract ratio for the spray-drying process to produce black bean extract powders. Several flowability properties were used to determine composite flow index of produced powders. Powder containing 6% maltodextrin had the highest yield (78.6%) and the best recovery of flavonoids and saponins (>56% and >73%, respectively). The new complexes formed by the interaction of black bean powder with maltodextrin, microcrystalline cellulose 50 and starch exhibited not only bigger particles, but also a rougher structure than using only maltodextrin and starch as excipients. A drying process prior to capsule production improved powder flowability, increasing capsule weight and reducing variability. The formulation containing 25.0% of maltodextrin, 24.1% of microcrystalline cellulose 50, 50% of starch and 0.9% of magnesium stearate produced capsules with less than 2.5% weight variability. The spray drying technique is a feasible technique to produce good flow extract powders containing valuable phytochemicals and low cost excipients to reduce the end-product variability. PMID:26633352

  16. Linking flowability and granulometry of lactose powders.

    PubMed

    Boschini, F; Delaval, V; Traina, K; Vandewalle, N; Lumay, G

    2015-10-15

    The flowing properties of 10 lactose powders commonly used in pharmaceutical industries have been analyzed with three recently improved measurement methods. The first method is based on the heap shape measurement. This straightforward measurement method provides two physical parameters (angle of repose ?r and static cohesive index ?r) allowing to make a first screening of the powder properties. The second method allows to estimate the rheological properties of a powder by analyzing the powder flow in a rotating drum. This more advanced method gives a large set of physical parameters (flowing angle ?f, dynamic cohesive index ?f, angle of first avalanche ?a and powder aeration %ae) leading to deeper interpretations. The third method is an improvement of the classical bulk and tapped density measurements. In addition to the improvement of the measurement precision, the densification dynamics of the powder bulk submitted to taps is analyzed. The link between the macroscopic physical parameters obtained with these methods and the powder granulometry is analyzed. Moreover, the correlations between the different flowability indexes are discussed. Finally, the link between grain shape and flowability is discussed qualitatively. PMID:26283279

  17. Dynamic fragmentation of powders in spherical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, A. M.; Floyd, E.; Longbottom, A. W.; Taylor, P.

    2014-09-01

    Experimental evidence from a wide range of sources shows that the expanding cloud of explosively disseminated material comprises of "particles" or fragments which have different dimensions from those associated with the original material. Photographic evidence shows jets or fingers behind these expanding fragments. Powders and liquids have often been used to surround explosives to act as blast mitigants; this is the main driver for our research. Other examples of areas where these features are observed include fuel air explosives and enhanced blast explosives as well as quasi-static pressure mitigation systems. In this paper, we consider the processes occurring when an explosive interacts with a surrounding layer of powder in spherical geometry. Results from explosive experiments designed to investigate the effects of powder grain size and powder fill-to-burster charge mass ratio (/) are presented and compared with results from numerical modelling to explore what determines the primary fragment size distribution resulting from explosive dissemination of a layer of material and when this process begins. The evidence clearly shows that the process starts during the first wave transit period of the powder material and, despite the surrounding material initially being a loose powder, shows the characteristics of a brittle fracture mechanism. Later time video evidence shows the same number of jets or fingers as are identified by X-rays of the early, primary fragmentation process. The number of fragments is only a very weak function of the initial grain size of the powder.

  18. Phenolic Acids in the Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract of Pigs Fed Black Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black raspberries (BRB) contain high levels of anthocyanins and have been demonstrated to be chemopreventative against colon cancer. In this study, pigs were fed freeze-dried BRB powder and three segments of the GI tract (small intestine, cecum and colon; 4 hours after feeding) were collected for an...

  19. Black Literature vs. Black Studies: Three Lynchings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Melvin G.

    When studying Afro-American literature, even in an English class rather than Black Studies class, both student interest and the topic tend to lead discussion toward sociological, not literary, aspects. However, the teacher should emphasize repeatedly the aesthetic dimensions of an artistic work as well as the various literary forms in which a…

  20. Extreme black hole holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Thomas Edward

    The connection between black holes in four dimensions and conformal field theories (CFTs) in two dimensions is explored, focusing on zero temperature (extreme) black holes and their low-temperature cousins. It is shown that extreme black holes in a theory of quantum gravity are holographically dual to field theories living in two dimensions without gravity, and that the field theory reproduces a variety of black hole phenomena in detail. The extreme black hole/CFT correspondence is derived from a symmetry analysis near the horizon of a Kerr black hole with mass M and maximal angular momentum J=M 2. The asymptotic symmetry generators form one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge c=12J, which implies that the near-horizon quantum states are identical to those of a two-dimensional CFT. We discuss extensions of this result to near-extreme black holes and cosmological horizons. Astrophysical black holes are never exactly extremal, but the black hole GRS1915+105 observed through X-ray and radio telescopy is likely within 1% of the extremal spin, suggesting that this extraordinary and well studied object is approximately dual to a two-dimensional CFT with c1079. As evidence for the correspondence, microstate counting in the CFT is used to derive the Bekenstein-Hawking area law for the Kerr entropy, S=Horizon area/4. Furthermore, the correlators in the dual CFT are shown to reproduce the scattering amplitudes of a charged scalar or spin- field by a near-extreme Kerr-Newman black hole, and a neutral spin-1 or spin-2 field by a near-extreme Kerr black hole. Scattering amplitudes probe the vacuum of fields living on the black hole background. For scalars, bound superradiant modes lead to an instability, while for fermions, it is shown that the bound superradiant modes condense and form a Fermi sea which extends well outside the ergosphere. Assuming no further instabilities, the low energy effective theory near the black hole is described by ripples in the Fermi surface. However, in the presence of fermion interactions, the Fermi sea itself can become unstable and condense into a superfluid or superconducting state.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of herbal shampoo powder.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Sachin; Nema, Neelesh; Nayak, S

    2004-07-01

    Two preparations of herbal shampoo powder were formulated using some common traditional drugs used by folk and traditional people of Bundelkhand region (M.P) India, for hair care. The preparations were formulated using bahera, amla, neem tulsi, shikakai henna & brahmi evaluated for organoleptic, powder charecterestics, foam test and physical evaluation. As the selected drugs being used since long time as single drug or in combination, present investigations will further help to establish a standard formulation and evaluation parameters, which will certainly help in the standardization for quality and purity of such type of herbal powder shampoos. PMID:22557149

  2. Preparation and Evaluation of Herbal Shampoo Powder

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sachin; Nema, Neelesh; Nayak, S.

    2004-01-01

    Two preparations of herbal shampoo powder were formulated using some common traditional drugs used by folk and traditional people of Bundelkhand region (M.P) India, for hair care. The preparations were formulated using bahera, amla, neem tulsi, shikakai henna & brahmi evaluated for organoleptic, powder charecterestics, foam test and physical evaluation. As the selected drugs being used since long time as single drug or in combination, present investigations will further help to establish a standard formulation and evaluation parameters, which will certainly help in the standardization for quality and purity of such type of herbal powder shampoos. PMID:22557149

  3. Powder pressing in a macrosonic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protipopescu, A.; Dragan, O.; Ciovica, D.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to extend the technology of powder product manufacturing to new forms and sizes, to improve their quality as well as pressing efficiency and to reduce waste. In the course of metal and nonmetal powder briquette pressing, macrosounds were associated with the external static pressing force, which led to an increase in the relative height, density and physicomechanical characteristics of the briquettes. This method permits the extension of the range of products that can be manufactured from powders and the improvement of their quality.

  4. Measuring Electrical Resistivity Of Compacted Powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Slightly modified micrometer used in conjunction with special cup to measure electrical resistance of specimen of powder as function of packing fraction. Powder pressed between anvils of micrometer, which make electrical contact with specimen. Device used in manufacturing batteries to determine effective electrical conductivities of powders loaded into plastic sheets to make battery substrates. Coupled with good mathematical description of expected conductivity of particulate composite as function of packing density. Also serves as tool for evaluating conductivity of dispersed phase, as well as evaluating electrical resistances of interparticle contacts.

  5. Compatibility of header materials with pyrotechnic powder

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.

    1982-12-01

    The intent of this research program is to qualify several stainless steels, nickel-base alloys and a titanium alloy as candidates for explosive component applications. This report focuses on the compatibility of these materials with pyrotechnic powder. The powder is a combined titanium subhydride-potassium perchlorate mixture, used both wet and dry. Hollow tensile bars were utilized to discern interactions between the metal and powder which underwent accelerated aging. Metallography was employed along with the mechanical property results to characterize the extent of interaction. No degradation in mechanical properties was noted. 6 figures, 6 tables.

  6. Pulmonary drug delivery by powder aerosols.

    PubMed

    Yang, Michael Yifei; Chan, John Gar Yan; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2014-11-10

    The efficacy of pharmaceutical aerosols relates to its deposition in the clinically relevant regions of the lungs, which can be assessed by in vivo lung deposition studies. Dry powder formulations are popular as devices are portable and aerosolisation does not require a propellant. Over the years, key advancements in dry powder formulation, device design and our understanding on the mechanics of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosol have opened up new opportunities in treatment of diseases through pulmonary drug delivery. This review covers these advancements and future directions for inhaled dry powder aerosols. PMID:24818765

  7. Production of powders of maraging steels

    SciTech Connect

    Agbalyan, S.G.; Badeyan, B.F.; Samvelyan, R.G.

    1995-03-01

    Maraging steels have attracted an increasing amount of attention in recent years due to their favorable combination of high strength and ductility properties, resistance to heat, cold, and brittle fracture, and dimensional stability during heat treatment. Unfortunately, maraging steels in powder form have not yet been studied to the extent merited. The main problem is that such powders are obtained by mechanical mixing of the components - an operation that does not ensure homogeneity the alloy after sintering. The present study was undertaken with the goal of obtaining powdered maraging steels by synthesizing and reducing complex oxides.

  8. Powder metallurgy design manual, 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This book is the most concise and comprehensive book of its kind on powder metallurgy (P/M) technology for both component design and application. Completely updated from the previous edition, this valuable reference gives an entirely new coverage on metal injection molding (MIM) and powder forging (P/F) with applicable case histories. There is revised information on P/M compared with other technologies, prototyping, and properties and characteristics of alloys, powders and P/M materials. In addition there`s expanded data on sintering including liquid phase processing and hardening.

  9. Baby powder use in infant skin care. Parental knowledge and determinants of powder usage.

    PubMed

    Hayden, G F; Sproul, G T

    1984-03-01

    One hundred parents of infants aged 2 weeks to 6 months were surveyed at the time of routine well-child visits to assess parental knowledge about baby powder and to determine whether hospital policy of providing a free powder sample to newly delivered mothers was unwittingly promoting powder usage. Most parents (69%) reported regular baby powder use as part of routine infant skin care. Powder-users were significantly more likely than nonusers to attribute to baby powder the ability to kill bacteria and yeast and to prevent diaper rash (p less than 0.01). Even among nonusers, fewer than half were aware that aspiration/ingestion of baby powder was a potential health hazard. Almost all parents reported receiving a free sample of baby powder while in the hospital as part of a complimentary gift pack provided by the manufacturers. Most powder-users were currently using a brand they had received as a sample, and eight parents cited the receipt of a sample as the major determinant for selecting a particular brand of powder. The short- and long-term effects of distributing sample packs to newly delivered parents deserve further study. PMID:6697622

  10. Blacks in Boomtown: The Economics of Houston's Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Robert D.

    This paper assesses the extent to which Houston's black community has benefited from the economic boom that the area is experiencing. The major issues addressed, using Houston as a case study, include (1) residential housing patterns, (2) black unemployment, (3) black-white income differentials, (4) black business and economic development, (5)

  11. Untapped Resources: "Styling" in Black Students' Writing for Black Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Teresa M.

    Two studies compared the impact of black and white audiences on black students' writing style. In the first study, eight students in an all-black intermediate composition class completed one argumentative draft addressed to black opponents and one addressed to white opponents on two different topics. The essays were examined for stylistic features

  12. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  13. Black Dialect: Current Linguistic Studies and Black American Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrells, Mary Suzanne Kirkman

    A representative group of black American novels was examined to discover the extent to which black dialect has been employed by black novelists, to determine the validity of the dialect used, to show a relationship between their representation of dialect and the era in which they lived, and to compare linguistic studies of black dialect with their

  14. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The

  15. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2015-01-10

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production.

  16. Black hole accretion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, Jonathan C.

    Some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), some X-ray binaries, and all active galactic nuclei (AGN) are likely powered by accretion onto a rotating black hole. I model the global, time-dependent accretion flow around a black hole using the nonradiative viscous hydrodynamic (VHD), Newtonian magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), and general relativistic MHD (GRMHD) equations of motion, which are integrated numerically. I wrote the VHD and nonrelativistic MHD numerical codes, and I coauthored the GRMHD code. I found that GRMHD numerical models of thick disks around a rotating black hole show that an evacuated, nearly force-free magnetosphere develops as predicted by Blandford and Znajek (1977). The BZ solution for the energy extracted is remarkably accurate in this region for a slowly rotating black hole and qualitatively accurate for all rotating black holes. GRMHD numerical models of rapidly rotating black holes show a mildly relativistic, collimated Poynting jet around the polar axis. Currently, no self-consistent MHD model of the accretion flow around a black hole shows a jet with Lorentz factors greater than 3. Additional physics is likely required to obtain Lorentz factors of 100 as some GRB models predict, and to obtain up to Lorentz factors of 10 as observed in some microquasars and AGN.

  17. Ultramassive Black Hole Coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production.

  18. Use This Test to Spruce Up Your Substitute Teacher Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendor, Elizabeth

    1982-01-01

    Presents and interprets an 18-question test to determine how well a school's substitute teacher program functions. Topics covered include substitute teacher screening and preparation, lists of substitutes, lesson plans, staff and student evaluation of substitutes, substitutes' salaries, legal considerations, and making substitutes feel needed.

  19. Regular black holes: Electrically charged solutions, Reissner-Nordstroem outside a de Sitter core

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2011-06-15

    To have the correct picture of a black hole as a whole, it is of crucial importance to understand its interior. The singularities that lurk inside the horizon of the usual Kerr-Newman family of black hole solutions signal an endpoint to the physical laws and, as such, should be substituted in one way or another. A proposal that has been around for sometime is to replace the singular region of the spacetime by a region containing some form of matter or false vacuum configuration that can also cohabit with the black hole interior. Black holes without singularities are called regular black holes. In the present work, regular black hole solutions are found within general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. We show that there are objects which correspond to regular charged black holes, whose interior region is de Sitter, whose exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem, and the boundary between both regions is made of an electrically charged spherically symmetric coat. There are several types of solutions: regular nonextremal black holes with a null matter boundary, regular nonextremal black holes with a timelike matter boundary, regular extremal black holes with a timelike matter boundary, and regular overcharged stars with a timelike matter boundary. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular solutions are analyzed.

  20. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Khoo, Teng Lye; Mohd. Yussof, Shah Jumaat

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing. PMID:21321652