Science.gov

Sample records for black powder substitutes

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to substitute hair dyes in a patient allergic to para-phenylenediamine: Pure henna, black tea and indigo powder.

    PubMed

    Swan, Bonnie C; Tam, Mei M; Higgins, Claire L; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of a 50-year-old lady with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine, who in her quest to find a substitute hair dye, subsequently reacted to a number of plant-based hair dyes, including pure henna, black tea and indigo powder respectively. While these substances all contain tannins, testing to possible constituents tannic acid and gallic acid was negative. PMID:26916211

  2. Coal as a Substitute for Carbon Black

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.

    1982-01-01

    New proposal shows sprayed coal powder formed by extrusion of coal heated to plastic state may be inexpensive substitute for carbon black. Carbon black is used extensively in rubber industry as reinforcing agent in such articles as tires and hoses. It is made from natural gas and petroleum, both of which are in short supply.

  3. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral...-Surface and Underground § 57.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a... dimension stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral....6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a desired result cannot be...) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally enclosed cargo space while...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral....6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a desired result cannot be...) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally enclosed cargo space while...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral...-Surface and Underground § 57.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a... dimension stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral...-Surface and Underground § 57.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a... dimension stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral....6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a desired result cannot be...) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally enclosed cargo space while...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder...

  10. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder...

  11. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in....58; (b) The total quantity of black powder in one motor vehicle, rail car, or freight container...

  12. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in....58; (b) The total quantity of black powder in one motor vehicle, rail car, or freight container...

  13. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in....58; (b) The total quantity of black powder in one motor vehicle, rail car, or freight container...

  14. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in..., rail freight, and cargo vessel only, subject to the following conditions: (a) The powder must...

  15. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in..., rail freight, and cargo vessel only, subject to the following conditions: (a) The powder must...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6901...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6901...

  18. Substitution of Micron by Nanometer Scale Powders in Magnetorheological Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, A.; Wang, G.; Wereley, N. M.; Tasovksi, Vasil; Radhakrishnan, R.

    The effects of substitution of micron size powder by nanometer size powder in magnetorheological (MR) fluids are investigated in this study. Three MR fluid samples containing iron powder with 45% weight fraction in a carrier fluid were made by Materials Modification Inc. The difference among these three fluids is size of the magnetic particles. The first MR fluid sample contained only micron size iron powder with 10μm particle size. In the second sample, 5% micron iron was substituted with nano powders having 30~40nm mean diameter, while the third sample had 37.5% micron powder and 7.5% nano powder. Rheological tests were conducted on the three samples using a parallel disk rheometer. Highest yield stress was observed in the second MR fluid sample containing 40% micron and 5% nano iron powder. By replacing only 5% micron iron powder with nanoparticles, we achieved substantial increment in yield stress. However, when nano powder content is increased to 7.5%, the yield stress decreases and is lower than that in the all micron MR fluid. Thus, by doping a reasonable percent of nano iron powder in the MR fluid, a substantial change in the rheological characteristics is obtainable. Further investigations of effects of nano iron powder in MR fluids for higher weight fraction MR fluids will be carried out in future.

  19. Fatalities from black powder percussion handguns.

    PubMed

    Karger, B; Teige, K

    1998-12-21

    Three suicides and one homicide from black powder muzzle loading handguns are reported and the muzzle velocities of two weapons are recorded. The fatal head shots caused wide wound tracts traversing the brains and intracerebral haemorrhages remote from the tract were present in every case. The skulls showed considerable fractures which were pronounced in the cases of contact shots but were also present when the range of fire was 5 m. These extensive injuries from soft lead spheres with muzzle velocities of only approximately 200 m/s are attributed to the expansion of the spheres. The regularly occurring deformation resulted in 13-16 mm calibre missiles in the cases of .44 spheres. The special features of black powder such as incomplete and slow combustion resulted in intense soot deposits in the vicinity of the entrance wound and in long ranges the gunshot residues travelled. In contact shots, large pocket-like underminings even in deeper tissue layers, abundant soot along the trajectory and skin burns were observed. PMID:9924783

  20. Comparative studies of industrial grade carbon black powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Komal; Chauhan, Alok P. S.

    2016-05-01

    Comparative studies of two dissimilar industrial grade Carbon Black (CB) powders (N375 and N405) were conducted. The structure, surface area and particle size are the three important characteristics of CB powder that determine their processability and application as filler in preparing rubber compounds. The powders were characterized for their structure using dibutyl phthalate absorption (DBPA), particle size via laser particle size analyzer and surface area by nitrogen adsorption method. The structural characterization showed that N405 had lower DBPA in comparison to N375, confirming low structure of N405 grade CB powder. It was observed from the particle size analysis that N375 was coarser than N405 grade CB. The total surface area values were determined by the BET method based on the cross sectional area of the nitrogen molecule. N375, a coarse grade CB powder with high structure, depicted less surface area as compared to N405.

  1. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    PubMed Central

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR. PMID:27284222

  2. Performance Characteristics of Waste Glass Powder Substituting Portland Cement in Mortar Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, P.; Csetényi, L. J.; Borosnyói, A.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, soda-lime glass cullet (flint, amber, green) and special glass cullet (soda-alkaline earth-silicate glass coming from low pressure mercury-discharge lamp cullet and incandescent light bulb borosilicate glass waste cullet) were ground into fine powders in a laboratory planetary ball mill for 30 minutes. CEM I 42.5N Portland cement was applied in mortar mixtures, substituted with waste glass powder at levels of 20% and 30%. Characterisation and testing of waste glass powders included fineness by laser diffraction particle size analysis, specific surface area by nitrogen adsorption technique, particle density by pycnometry and chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry. Compressive strength, early age shrinkage cracking and drying shrinkage tests, heat of hydration of mortars, temperature of hydration, X-ray diffraction analysis and volume stability tests were performed to observe the influence of waste glass powder substitution for Portland cement on physical and engineering properties of mortar mixtures.

  3. Spherical Granule Production from Micronized Saltwort (Salicornia herbacea) Powder as Salt Substitute.

    PubMed

    Shin, Myung-Gon; Lee, Gyu-Hee

    2013-03-01

    The whole saltwort plant (Salicornia herbacea) was micronized to develop the table salt substitute. The micronized powder was mixed with distilled water and made into a spherical granule by using the fluid-bed coater (SGMPDW). The SGMPDW had superior flowability to powder; however, it had low dispersibility. To increase the dispersibility of SGMPDW, the micronized powder was mixed with the solution, which contained various soluble solid contents of saltwort aqueous extract (SAE), and made into a spherical granule (SGMPSAE). The SGMPSAE prepared with the higher percentages of solid content of SAE showed improved dispersibility in water and an increase in salty taste. The SGMPSAE prepared with 10% SAE was shown to possess the best physicochemical properties and its relative saltiness compared to NaCl (0.39). In conclusion, SGMPSAEs can be used as a table salt substitute and a functional food material with enhanced absorptivity and convenience. PMID:24471111

  4. 40 CFR 721.10150 - Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10150 Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-523)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10150 - Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10150 Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-523)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10149 - Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10149 Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-522)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10150 - Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10150 Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-523)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10149 - Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10149 Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-522)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10150 - Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10150 Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-523)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10149 - Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10149 Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-522)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10149 - Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10149 Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-522)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10150 - Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10150 Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-523)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10149 - Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10149 Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-522)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10075 - Carbon black, 4-[[2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10075 Carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl...) The chemical substance identified generically as carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl-modified,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10075 - Carbon black, 4-[[2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10075 Carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl...) The chemical substance identified generically as carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl-modified,...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10075 - Carbon black, 4-[[2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10075 Carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl...) The chemical substance identified generically as carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl-modified,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10075 - Carbon black, 4-[[2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10075 Carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl...) The chemical substance identified generically as carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl-modified,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10075 - Carbon black, 4-[[2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10075 Carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl...) The chemical substance identified generically as carbon black, 4- substituted] phenyl-modified,...

  19. Mechanochemical-hydrothermal synthesis of calcium phosphate powders with coupled magnesium and carbonate substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchanek, Wojciech L.; Byrappa, Kullaiah; Shuk, Pavel; Riman, Richard E.; Janas, Victor F.; TenHuisen, Kevor S.

    2004-03-01

    Magnesium- and carbonate-substituted calcium phosphate powders (Mg-, CO 3-CaP) with various crystallinity levels were prepared at room temperature via a heterogeneous reaction between MgCO 3/Ca(OH) 2 powders and an (NH 4) 2HPO 4 solution using the mechanochemical-hydrothermal route. X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis were performed. It was determined that the powders containing both Mg 2+ and CO 32- ions were incorporated uniformly into an amorphous calcium phosphate phase while in contrast, the as-prepared powder free of these dopants was crystalline phase-pure, stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. Dynamic light scattering revealed that the average particle size of the room temperature Mg-, CO 3-CaP powders was in the range of 482 nm-700 nm with a specific surface area between 53 and 91 m 2/g. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the Mg-, CO 3-CaP powders consisted of agglomerates of equiaxed, ≈20-35 nm crystals.

  20. Quality of powdered substitutes for breast milk with regard to members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Muytjens, H L; Roelofs-Willemse, H; Jaspar, G H

    1988-01-01

    Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were cultured from 52.5% of 141 milk substitute infant formulas which were obtained in 35 countries. The concentration did not exceed a level of 1 CFU/g in any product. The species which were isolated most frequently were Enterobacter agglomerans, cloacae, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. If infections due to these organisms occur, it can be useful to include a check of the hygienic precautions which are taken during the preparation and storage of the formula. Milk powders without members of the Enterobacteriaceae might offer extra protection to the newborn if some multiplication does occur in the formula. PMID:3284901

  1. Influence of Mg-substitution on the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate powders

    SciTech Connect

    Marchi, J.; Dantas, A.C.S.; Greil, P.; Bressiani, J.C.; Bressiani, A.H.A.; Mueller, F.A. . E-mail: Frank.Mueller@ww.uni-erlangen.de

    2007-06-05

    Tricalcium phosphate based ceramics (TCP) are bioresorbable and thereby considered to be promising bone replacement materials. The differences in crystal structure between {alpha} and {beta}-TCP phases gives rise for different dissolution rates in vitro and in vivo, which may alter the bioresorbable behavior of TCP ceramics. It is suggested that the addition of magnesium ions, which are also present in biological tissues, stabilizes {beta}-phase to higher temperatures and thus enables the sintering of {beta}-TCP at elevated temperatures compared to Mg free TCP. In this paper, Mg-substituted TCP, with the general formula (Ca{sub 1-x}Mg {sub x}){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and 0.01 {<=} x {<=} 0.045, were produced by wet chemical synthesis from Ca(OH){sub 2}, H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and MgO, after calcinations at three different temperatures between 750 and 1050 deg. C. The influence of different amounts of Mg substitution on the physical properties, microstructure, and sintering behavior of calcium phosphate powders was evaluated. Thermal analytical techniques, together with X-ray diffraction analysis, were successfully combined in order to characterize the occurring phase transformations during annealing of the powders. The results show that the addition of small amounts of Mg (up to 1.5 mol%) are adequate to postpone the {beta}-{alpha} TCP phase transformation to 1330 deg. C and to accelerate the densification process during sintering of {beta}-TCP ceramics.

  2. Synthesis of SiC Powders by Carbothermal Reduction of Enriched Brown Sepiolite with Carbon Black

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bağci, Cengiz; Arik, Halil

    2013-04-01

    Ultrafine β-silicon carbide (β-SiC) powders were successfully synthesized by carbothermal-reduction reaction (CRR) of sepiolite. Sepiolite of Turkish deposits as a silica (SiO2) precursor and carbon black as a reducing agent were mixed with constant C/SiO2 molar ratio of 4. Mixed powders were subjected to CRR at temperatures of 1450, 1500, and 1550 °C for 1 h in an atmosphere-controlled tube furnace under argon flow of 5 cm3/min. The precursor and resultant powder products were characterized by XRD, SEM, and EDX. Phase transformation was observed in powder products after CRR as a function of the reaction temperature. The results show that the cotton-like nature of sepiolite makes it an effective mineral precursor for synthesis of SiC powders, and that SiC transformation was optimized at 1550 °C with a particle size of approximately 200 nm.

  3. Evaluating Renewable Cornstarch/biochar Fillers as Potential Substitutes for Carbon Black in SBR Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continually growing demand for fossil fuels coupled with the potential risk of relying on foreign sources for these fuels strengthens the need to find renewable substitutes for petroleum products. Carbon black is a petroleum product that dominates the rubber composite filler market. Agricultur...

  4. Solid state NMR study of dietary fiber powders from aronia, bilberry, black currant and apple.

    PubMed

    Wawer, I; Wolniak, M; Paradowska, K

    2006-09-01

    13C CPMAS NMR spectra of dietary fiber powders from aronia (chokeberry), bilberry, black currant and apple were recorded. The spectra are complex owing to superposition of resonances from different polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds. Standard, dipolar dephased and the TH(1rho) partially relaxed spectra enabled the identification of several constituents: microcrystalline cellulose, pectins, lignins, cutin-like polymers and condensed tannins. The fiber powders obtained from berries contain significant amounts of anthocyanins, as indicated by their dark violet color, but not verified by chemical shifts. The anthocyanin-rich extract from aronia berries and its major components, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and (-)epicatechin were also studied. PMID:16750905

  5. The substitution of nickel for cobalt in hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy UDIMET 700 alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel was substituted in various proportions for cobalt in a series of five hot-isostatically-pressed powder metallurgy alloys based on the UDIMET 700 composition. These alloys were given 5-step heat treatments appropriate for use in turbine engine disks. The resultant microstructures displayed three distinct sizes of gamma-prime particles in a gamma matrix. The higher cobalt-content alloys contained larger amounts of the finest gamma-prime particles, and had the lowest gamma-gamma-prime lattice mismatch. While all alloys had approximately the same tensile properties at 25 and 650 gamma C, the rupture lives at 650 and 760 C peaked in the alloys with cobalt contents between 12.7 and 4.3 pct. Minimum creep rates increased as cobalt contents were lowered, suggesting their correlation with the gamma-prime particle size distribution and the gamma-gamma-prime mismatch. It was also found that, on overaging at temperatures higher than suitable for turbine disk use, the high cobalt-content alloys were prone to sigma phase formation.

  6. The substitution of nickel for cobalt in hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy UDIMET 700 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harf, Fredric H.

    1985-06-01

    Nickel was substituted in various proportions for cobalt in a series of five hot-isostatically-pressed powder metallurgy alloys based on the UDIMET 700 composition. These alloys were given 5-step heat treatments appropriate for use in turbine engine disks. The resultant microstructures displayed three distinct sizes of γ' particles in a γ matrix. The higher cobalt-content alloys contained larger amounts of the finest γ' particles, and had the lowest γ-γ' lattice mismatch. While all alloys had approximately the same tensile properties at 25 and 650°C, the rupture lives at 650 and 760°C peaked in the alloys with cobalt contents between 12.7 and 4.3 pct. Minimum creep rates increased as cobalt contents were lowered, suggesting their correlation with the γ' particle size distribution and the γ-γ' mismatch. It was also found that, on overaging at temperatures higher than suitable for turbine disk use, the high cobalt-content alloys were prone to sigma phase formation.

  7. Influence of the preparation methods on the structure and magnetic properties of nanosized Al-substituted barium hexaferrite powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peneva, P.; Koutzarova, T.; Kolev, S.; Ghelev, Ch.; Vertruyen, B.; Henrist, C.; Closet, R.; Cloots, R.; Zaleski, A.

    2016-03-01

    We report studies on the correlation between the method of preparation, microstructure and magnetic properties of nanosized monodomain Al-substituted barium hexaferrite (BaAlFe11O19) powders. The powders were obtained by the co-precipitation and single microemulsion methods. The particles in the samples had a size between 80 nm and 135 nm depending on the synthesis conditions. The value of the saturation magnetization Ms measured was very high, namely, 66.12 emu/g. The hysteresis loop was very narrow, with the coercivity Hc being 163 Oe, which indicated that the particles were in a near-superparamagnetic state.

  8. Black pepper powder microbiological quality improvement using DBD systems in atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Maciej; Hołub, Marcin; Balcerak, Michał; Kalisiak, Stanisław; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2015-07-01

    Preliminary results are given regarding black pepper powder decontamination using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in atmospheric pressure. Three different DBD reactor constructions were investigated, both packaged and unpackaged material was treated. Due to potential, industrial applications, in addition to microbiological results, water activity, loss of mass and the properties of packaging material, regarding barrier properties were investigated. Argon based treatment of packed pepper with DBD reactor configuration is proposed and satisfactory results are presented for treatment time of 5 min or less. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  9. Danger assessment of a spring-gun device (muzzleloader) loaded only with black powder.

    PubMed

    Voisard, Matthias X; Kneubuehl, Beat P

    2010-03-01

    We report a case involving a spring-gun device (muzzleloader) loaded solely with gunpowder, installed next to shoes to prevent the neighbors' puppy from removing them. The booby trap was triggered by the 15-year-old dog-owners son when he tried to put the shoes out of the reach of the puppy. The boy suffered second degree superficial burns located mainly at the dorsal side of the right hand and fingers. To estimate the danger of the used weapon, several tests were undertaken on soap blocks from different distances and with different loads of black powder. The particle density per mm and the depth of black powder tattooing in the soap was compared with the boy's injuries, and found conclusive with the gun-owners statement regarding the loading of the weapon. Furthermore, our experiments indicated that the gunpowder load involved was not able to inflict permanent damage, not even to the eyes, at the here estimated firing distance. PMID:20010291

  10. Preparation of yellowish-red Al-substituted α-Fe2O3 powders and their thermostability in color.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Nakanishi, Makoto; Asaoka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Tomoaki; Kusano, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Tatsuo; Takada, Jun

    2014-11-26

    Inspired by the traditional Japanese pigment Fukiya bengala, nanocomposite materials were synthesized using a polymer complex method, comprising Al-substituted α-Fe2O3 (hematite) particles with diameters ranging from 40 to 100 nm and ultrafine Fe-substituted α-Al2O3 (corundum) particles smaller than 10 nm in diameter. The obtained powders exhibited a vivid yellowish-red color and high thermostability, making them attractive as potential overglaze enamels on porcelain. Quantitative color measurements revealed that, when heated to 700, 800, and 900 °C, samples displayed high lightness (L*) and color-opponent dimensions (a* and b*) at 10 mol % Al. For the same particle size samples, L*, a*, and b* values increased with the Al molar ratio, revealing that Al substitution in the hematite structure intrinsically enhances lightness and chroma in hematite color. These samples mostly retained their color upon reheating at 900 °C, indicating their high thermostability. This thermostability should originate from the Al substitution-induced enhancement in lightness and chroma in hematite color, which should counter color fading caused by particle growth. These composite materials are expected to find application in the porcelain industry, cosmetics, and nanotechnology. PMID:25313688

  11. Magnetic exchange interactions of rare-earth-substituted DyCrO3 bulk powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDannald, A.; Kuna, L.; Seehra, M. S.; Jain, M.

    2015-06-01

    Effects of the substitution of rare-earths R =Y , Er, and Ho on the magnetic properties of Dy0.7R0.3CrO3 are reported here in order to probe the nature of magnetism and related exchange interactions in these materials. By fitting the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility to a modified Curie-Weiss law, which includes a correction for the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction, the strengths of the symmetric and antisymmetric Cr3 +-Cr3 + exchange interactions were determined. It was found that the rare-earth substitutions had a slight effect on the strength of the symmetric Cr3 +-Cr3 + interaction (reflected in the slight changes in the Néel temperatures), while the antisymmetric Cr3 +-Cr3 + interaction remained unchanged. Isothermal magnetic measurements of the samples at successive temperatures revealed a plateau in the temperature dependent magnetic coercivity data, which was explained by the magnetic properties of the substituted ions. It was found that the Y substitution led to the reduction of the strength of the magnetization and a larger peak value of magnetic coercivity as compared to that in pure DyCrO3. The observed increase in magnetic coercivity with Er and Ho substitution can be attributed to an increased R3 +-Cr3 + interaction strength dominated by the DM mechanism.

  12. A method for producing superfine black tea powder with enhanced infusion and dispersion property.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weihua; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Chongxin; Han, Lujia

    2017-01-01

    Tea is rich in healthy components including polyphenols, caffeine, gallic acids, and others. Current technology of tea infusion and extraction leads to more than 40% soluble solids wasted in spent leaf. To increase the bioaccessibility of black tea, we report a method of pulverization treatments including general and superfine grinding to reduce the particle size. In comparison with coarsely ground black tea powders (BTPs), the superfine ground BTP with medium diameter 6.9μm resulted in significant higher infusion yield of total polyphenols (TPP), caffeine, and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC). The total water-soluble solids (WSS) of superfine BTP infusion increased markedly by twice due to the accelerated diffusion and enhanced solubility. High correlation between particle size and sedimentation ratio suggested improved dispersion stability of superfine BTP. The optimal dispersion of 0.1% superfine BTP in water was obtained by combination of homogenization and 0.08% CMC-Na formulation with 27.05% centrifugal sedimentation ratio. PMID:27507472

  13. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    PubMed

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions. PMID:22663136

  14. Effect of Gallium and Indium Co-Substituting on Upconversion Properties of Er/Yb:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Powders Prepared by the Co-Precipitation Method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liang, Yun-Ling; Hu, Zheng-Fa; Feng, Zu-Yong; Lun, Ma; Zhang, Xiu-ping; Sheng, Xia; Liu, Qian; Luo, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Gallium and Indium co-substituted Yb, Er:YAG was fabricated through the chemical co-precipitation method. The formation process and structure of the Ga3+ and In3+ substituted phosphor powders were characterized by the X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetry analyzer, infrared spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the effects of Ga3+ and In3+ concentration on the luminescence properties were investigated by spectrum. The results showed that the blue shift occurred after the substitution of Ga3+ and In3+ for Al3+ in matrix, and the intensity of emission spectrum was affected by the concentration of Ga3+ and In3+. PMID:27451659

  15. Hematoxylin substitutes: fluorone black and methyl fluorone black (9-phenyl- and 9-methyl-2,3,7-trihydroxy-6-fluorone) as metachrome iron alum mordant dyes.

    PubMed

    Lillie, R D; Pizzolato, P; Donaldson, P T

    1975-03-01

    The phenyl and methyl trihydroxyfluorones, hitherto used histologically only in the rather difficult and unreliable Turchini technics for discriminating deoxyribonucleic from ribonucleic acid, find a new use as iron mordant metachrome dyes which act as nuclear stains. Nuclear staining is unaffected by acid extraction of nucleic acids, as with hematoxylin lakes. The two dyes, named by Liebermann and Lindenbaum 9-phenyl-2, 3, 7-trihydroxy-6-fluorone, have also acquired (illustrating with the phenyl homolog) longer chemical names of the form 2,6,7-trihydroxy-9-phenylisoxanthene-3-one (Eastman). Aldrich and Pfalz-Bauer adhere to the Liebermann-Lindenbaum nomenclature. The trivial name fluorone black is proposed for the phenyl homolog and methyl fluorone black for the methyl homolog. The iron lake of fluorone black appears to be a useful substitute for iron hematoxylin, methyl flurone black less useful. Neither dye has the diverse capability of hematoxylin. PMID:49945

  16. (210)Pb content in natural gas pipeline residues ("black-powder") and its correlation with the chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Godoy, José Marcus; Carvalho, Franciane; Cordilha, Aloisio; Matta, Luiz Ernesto; Godoy, Maria Luiza

    2005-01-01

    The present work was carried out to assess the (210)Pb content in "black-powder" found in pigging operations on gas pipelines in Brazil, in particular, on the Campos Basin gas pipeline. Additionally, the chemical composition of such deposits was determined and an eventual correlation with (210)Pb concentration evaluated. Typical "black-powder" generated in the natural gas pipeline from Campos Basin oilfield contains mainly iron oxide ( approximately 81%) and residual organic matter ( approximately 9%). The (210)Pb content ranges from 4.9 to 0.04k Bqkg(-1) and seems to be inversely correlated with the distance to the platforms. On the other hand, (226)Ra concentration is higher on the pipeline branch between the platform and the onshore installations. (228)Ra was only observed in few samples, in particular, in the samples with the highest (226)Ra content. PMID:15885858

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the black surfperch, Embiotoca jacksoni: Selection and substitution rates among surfperches (Embiotocidae).

    PubMed

    Longo, Gary C; O'Connell, Brendan; Green, Richard E; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2016-08-01

    The complete 16,515bp nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome was determined for the black surfperch, Embiotoca jacksoni (Perciformes: Embiotocidae). The black surfperch mitochondrial genome contains 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and the non-coding control region (D-loop), the gene order of which is identical to that observed in most vertebrates. The protein-coding gene sequences of E. jacksoni mitochondrial DNA were compared with two other embiotocid surfperches with available complete mitochondrial genomes, Cymatogaster aggregata and Ditrema temminckii. Across all mitochondrial protein-coding genes in surfperches the weighted average substitution rate was 2.079% per My and average dN/dS ratios for each protein-coding gene ranged from 0.016 in CytB to 0.608 in ND3. Substitution rates and dN/dS ratios were relatively high for ATP8 compared to other protein-coding genes. Although most protein-coding genes showed signals of purifying selection, we found evidence for positive selection in ND3 in E. jacksoni. PMID:26994927

  18. Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhi, Payodhar; Sahoo, G.; Das, K.; Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C.

    2008-10-01

    The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient

  19. Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application

    SciTech Connect

    Padhi, Payodhar; Sahoo, G.; Das, K.; Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C.

    2008-10-23

    The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient

  20. The Textures of Heroin: User Perspectives on "Black Tar" and Powder Heroin in Two U.S. Cities.

    PubMed

    Mars, Sarah G; Bourgois, Philippe; Karandinos, George; Montero, Fernando; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, U.S. heroin consumers have been divided from the full range of available products: east of the Mississippi River, Colombian-sourced powder heroin (PH) dominates the market while, to the west, Mexican-sourced "black tar" (BTH) is the main heroin available. By conducting qualitative research in two exemplar cities, Philadelphia (PH) and San Francisco (BTH), we compare users' experiences of heroin source-types, markets, health consequences, and consumption preferences. The strict division of heroin markets may be changing with novel forms of powder heroin appearing in San Francisco. Our researchers and interviewees perceived vein loss stemming from the injection of heroin alone to be a particular problem of BTH while, among the Philadelphia sample, those who avoided the temptations of nearby cocaine sales displayed healthier injecting sites and reported few vein problems. Abscesses were common across both sites, the Philadelphia sample generally blaming missing a vein when injecting cocaine and the San Francisco group finding several explanations, including the properties of BTH. Consumption preferences revealed a "connoisseurship of potency," with knowledge amassed and deployed to obtain the strongest heroin available. We discuss the reasons that their tastes take this narrow form and its relationship to the structural constraints of the heroin market. PMID:27440088

  1. LTCC processed CoTi substituted M-type barium ferrite composite with BBSZ glass powder additives for microwave device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Yingli; Li, Jie; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Huaiwu; Harris, Vincent. G.

    2016-05-01

    Hexagonal magnetoplumbite ferrites typically have sintering temperatures above 1100∘C in order to stabilize a single phase compound, which is much higher than the melting point of silver leading to device fabrication challenges. Application of low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technologies may prove effective in decreasing the sintering temperature of hexagonal ferrites. Ferrite powders combined with glass frit powder is an effective pathway to lowering the sintering temperature. Here, hexagonal M-type barium ferrite (i.e., Ba(CoTi)1.5Fe9O19) ceramics, combined with BBSZ glass powder as a sintering aid were synthesized. Co and Ti ions where used to substitute for Fe cations in order to modify the magnetic anisotropy field. The density, microstructure, magnetic properties and complex permeability are reported. The BBSZ glass addition was shown to improve the densification and magnetic properties of the barium ferrite. The densification of the BaM ferrite Ba(CoTi)1.5Fe9O19 was further enhanced by the glass additive at low firing temperatures of below 900∘C because of the formation of a liquid phase. Complex permeability of ferrites sintered at 900∘C was also influenced by the BBSZ addition and the resonance frequency was shown to decrease with increased amounts of the glass modifier.

  2. Urinary excretion of phenolic acids in rats fed cranberry, blueberry, or black raspberry powder.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Ramesh; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L

    2014-05-01

    Dietary polyphenolics can be converted into smaller phenolic acids (PA) by microorganisms in the colon and may contribute to health benefits associated with the parent polyphenolics. Urinary excretion of 18 PA and their conjugates was studied, using HPLC-MS/MS, in rats fed AIN93G-based diets containing 5% (dry weight basis) of either cranberry (CB), blueberry (BB), or black raspberry (BRB). Hippuric, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were excreted in greatest quantity in the urine over a 24 h period in all diets. Primary PA excreted in the berry diets were 4-hydroxycinnamic acid for CB; chlorogenic, ferulic, and 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acids for BB; and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic, 3-hydroxybenzoic, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acids for BRB. PA were present in conjugated form with cinnamic acid derivatives being 50-70% and phenylacetic acid derivatives conjugated <10%. Conjugated, and not just the free, PA are significant contributors to total urinary excretion. PMID:24180593

  3. 40 CFR 721.10080 - Carbon black, 4-[(17-substituted-3,6,9,12,15-pentaazaheptadec-1-yl) substituted] phenyl-modified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10080 Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (generic). (a... generically as carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (PMN P-06-8) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10080 - Carbon black, 4-[(17-substituted-3,6,9,12,15-pentaazaheptadec-1-yl) substituted] phenyl-modified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10080 Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (generic). (a... generically as carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (PMN P-06-8) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10080 - Carbon black, 4-[(17-substituted-3,6,9,12,15-pentaazaheptadec-1-yl) substituted] phenyl-modified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10080 Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (generic). (a... generically as carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (PMN P-06-8) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10080 - Carbon black, 4-[(17-substituted-3,6,9,12,15-pentaazaheptadec-1-yl) substituted] phenyl-modified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10080 Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (generic). (a... generically as carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (PMN P-06-8) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10080 - Carbon black, 4-[(17-substituted-3,6,9,12,15-pentaazaheptadec-1-yl) substituted] phenyl-modified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10080 Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (generic). (a... generically as carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (PMN P-06-8) is subject to reporting...

  8. The effect of La-substitution on magnetic properties of nanosized Sr 1- xLa xTi 0.05Zn 0.2(Fe 3+) 11.75- δ(Fe 2+) δO 19 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amighian, J.; Mozaffari, M.; Arab, A.; Yousefi, M. H.

    2010-03-01

    A series of La-substituted M-type Sr hexaferrite powders Sr 1- xLa xTi 0.05Zn 0.2Fe 3+11.75O 19, wherein x ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 with a step of 0.1, have been prepared by the conventional ceramic method and were then milled in a high energy mill to prepare nanosized powders. XRD investigation of the calcined and the milled powders shows that single phase hexaferrite structure has been formed after calcining and has not changed after milling. The lattice parameters and the mean crystallite sizes of the samples have been determined from the XRD data and Scherrer's formula. The results show that the lattice parameters ("а" and "c") decrease with increase in La-substitution and the mean crystallite size of the milled powders is about 17 nm. Coercivities and magnetizations of the samples in a magnetic field of 16 kOe have been determined from the room temperature hysteresis loops. It was found that both parameters increase with La substitutions up to 0.3 and then decrease for higher substitutions. These variations were attributed to the enhancement of hyperfine field and spin-canting magnetic structure when La content increases. In addition, the magnetizations were smaller for the nanosized samples in comparison with those of bulk ones, which were discussed according to the core-shell model. Also the results show that annealing of the nanosized samples up to 500 °C can enhance coercivity and magnetization of the samples, which is discussed based on crystallite size growth.

  9. Fatal contact shot to the chest caused by the gas jet from a muzzle-loading pistol discharging only black powder and no bullet: case study and experimental simulation of the wounding effect.

    PubMed

    Große Perdekamp, Markus; Glardon, Matthieu; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Bielefeld, Lena; Nadjem, Hadi; Pollak, Stefan; Pircher, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In modern medico-legal literature, only a small number of publications deal with fatal injuries from black powder guns. Most of them focus on the morphological features such as intense soot soiling, blast tattooing and burn effects in close-range shots or describe the wound ballistics of spherical lead bullets. Another kind of "unusual" and potentially lethal weapons are handguns destined for firing only blank cartridges such as starter and alarm pistols. The dangerousness of these guns is restricted to very close and contact range shots and results from the gas jet produced by the deflagration of the propellant. The present paper reports on a suicide committed with a muzzle-loading percussion pistol cal. 45. An unusually large stellate entrance wound was located in the precordial region, accompanied by an imprint mark from the ramrod and a faint greenish discoloration (apparently due to the formation of sulfhemoglobin). Autopsy revealed an oversized powder cavity, multiple fractures of the anterior thoracic wall as well as ruptures of the heart, the aorta, the left hepatic lobe and the diaphragm. In total, the zone of mechanical destruction had a diameter of approx. 15 cm. As there was no exit wound and no bullet lodged in the body, the injury was caused exclusively by the inrushing combustion gases of the propellant (black powder) comparable with the gas jet of a blank cartridge gun. In contact shots to ballistic gelatine using the suicide's pistol loaded with black powder but no projectile, the formation of a nearly spherical cavity could be demonstrated by means of a high-speed camera. The extent of the temporary cavity after firing with 5 g of black powder roughly corresponded to the zone of destruction found in the suicide's body. PMID:25119685

  10. Effect of Cu{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} substitution at the Mn site in (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})MnO{sub 3}: A neutron powder diffraction investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinelli, A.; Ferretti, M.; Castellano, C.; Cimberle, M.R.; Ritter, C.

    2013-04-15

    The crystal and magnetic structures of the (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})(Mn{sub 1−x}TM{sub x})O{sub 3} compounds (x=0.00, 0.03, 0.08; TM=Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}) were investigated between 5 K and 300 K by means of dc magnetic measurements and neutron powder diffraction analysis followed by Rietveld refinement. Both substituting cations lead to a reduction of the long range ferromagnetic ordering temperature; ferromagnetism is strongly suppressed in the 8% Cu-substituted sample, where long- and short-range FM magnetic orders coexist together with short-range A-type AFM order. This particular feature can be related to the Jahn–Teller character of Cu{sup 2+}, absent in Ni{sup 2+}, and suggests the occurrence of a quantum critical point in the (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})(Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x})O{sub 3} system. - Graphical abstract: Rietveld refinement plot of (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})(Mn{sub 0.92}Cu{sub 0.08})O{sub 3} showing in the inset the coexistence of broad A-type AFM peaks with FM ones. Highlights: ► (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})MnO{sub 3} was substituted with Ni and Cu. ► Neutron powder diffraction and Rietveld refinement were carried out. ► A quantum critical point possibly occurs in the (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})(Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x})O{sub 3} system.

  11. Effects of black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elkhair, R; Ahmed, H A; Selim, S

    2014-06-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens. PMID:25050023

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of dye naphthol blue black in the presence of zirconia-supported Ti-substituted Keggin-type polyoxometalates

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Chunjie; Guo Yihang; Hu Changwen; Wang Chungang; Li Danfeng

    2004-02-02

    Zirconia-supported Ti-substituted Keggin-type polyoxometalates, Li{sub 5}PW{sub 11}TiO{sub 40}/ZrO{sub 2} (PW{sub 11}Ti/ZrO{sub 2}) and K{sub 7}PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 40}/ZrO{sub 2} (PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2}), were prepared by incorporating PW{sub 11}Ti and PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2} cluster into a zirconia matrix via a sol-gel technique. These insoluble and readily separable composites were characterized by DR-UV (DR: diffuse reflectance) and FT-IR spectra, {sup 31}P MAS NMR, ICP-AES, and nitrogen adsorption determination, indicating that the clusters were chemically attached to the zirconia supports, and the primary Keggin structure remained intact. The photocatalytic activity of the supported PW{sub 11}Ti and PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2} was tested via degradation of an aqueous dye naphthol blue black (NBB). It indicated that the dye NBB can be degraded totally and mineralized into the inorganic products such as CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions by irradiating the composite slurry in the near-UV area. Dropped of PW{sub 11}Ti or PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2} cluster from the zirconia matrix into the reaction system was hardly observed during the photocatalytic tests, attributed to the strong chemical interactions between the Keggin units and the zirconia support.

  13. Cheap, Gram-Scale Fabrication of BN Nanosheets via Substitution Reaction of Graphite Powders and Their Use for Mechanical Reinforcement of Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Mo, Xiaoshu; Gan, Haibo; Guo, Tongyi; Wang, Xuebin; Chen, Bin; Chen, Jun; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most important two-dimensional (2D) materials, BN nanosheets attracted intensive interest in the past decade. Although there are many methods suitable for the preparation of BN sheets, finding a cheap and nontoxic way for their mass and high-quality production is still a challenge. Here we provide a highly effective and cheap way to synthesize gram-scale-level well-structured BN nanosheets from many common graphite products as source materials. Single-crystalline multi-layered BN sheets have a mean lateral size of several hundred nanometers and a thickness ranging from 5 nm to 40 nm. Cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis shows that the structures exhibit a near band-edge emission and a broad emission band from 300 nm to 500 nm. Utilization of nanosheets for the reinforcement of polymers revealed that the Young's modulus of BN/PMMA composite had increased to 1.56 GPa when the BN's fraction was only 2 wt.%, thus demonstrating a 20% gain compared to a blank PMMA film. It suggests that the BN nanosheet is an ideal mechanical reinforcing material for polymers. In addition, this easy and nontoxic substitution method may provide a universal route towards high yields of other 2D materials. PMID:24572725

  14. Cation substitution in synthetic meridianiite (MgSO4·11H2O) I: X-ray powder diffraction analysis of quenched polycrystalline aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, A. Dominic; Browning, Frank; Wood, Ian G.

    2012-05-01

    Meridianiite, MgSO4·11H2O, is the most highly hydrated phase in the binary MgSO4-H2O system. Lower hydrates in the MgSO4-H2O system have end-member analogues containing alternative divalent metal cations (Ni2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, and Co2+) and exhibit extensive solid solution with MgSO4 and with one another, but no other undecahydrate is known. We have prepared aqueous MgSO4 solutions doped with these other cations in proportions up to and including the pure end-members. These liquids have been solidified into fine-grained polycrystalline blocks of metal sulfate hydrate + ice by rapid quenching in liquid nitrogen. The solid products have been characterised by X-ray powder diffraction, and the onset of partial melting has been quantified using a thermal probe. We have established that of the seven end-member metal sulfates studied, only MgSO4 forms an undecahydrate; ZnSO4 forms an orthorhombic heptahydrate (synthetic goslarite), MnSO4, FeSO4, and CoSO4 form monoclinic heptahydrates (syn. mallardite, melanterite, bieberite, respectively), and CuSO4 crystallises as the well-known triclinic pentahydrate (syn. chalcanthite). NiSO4 forms a new hydrate which has been indexed with a triclinic unit cell of dimensions a = 6.1275(1) Å, b = 6.8628(1) Å, c = 12.6318(2) Å, α = 92.904(2)°, β = 97.678(2)°, and γ = 96.618(2)°. The unit-cell volume of this crystal, V = 521.74(1) Å3, is consistent with it being an octahydrate, NiSO4·8H2O. Further analysis of doped specimens has shown that synthetic meridianiite is able to accommodate significant quantities of foreign cations in its structure; of the order 50 mol. % Co2+ or Mn2+, 20-30 mol. % Ni2+ or Zn2+, but less than 10 mol. % of Cu2+ or Fe2+. In three of the systems we examined, an `intermediate' phase occurred that differed in hydration state both from the Mg-bearing meridianiite end-member and the pure dopant end-member hydrate. In the case of CuSO4, we observed a melanterite-structured heptahydrate at Cu

  15. Powder Diffraction: By Decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, William I. F.

    This introductory chapter reviews the first 100 years of powder diffraction, decade by decade, from the earliest X-ray powder diffraction measurements of the crystal structure of graphite through to the diversity and complexity of twenty-first century powder diffraction. Carbon features as an illustrative example throughout the discussion of these ten decades from graphite and the disorder of carbon black through to lonsdaleite, the elusive hexagonal polymorph of diamond, and C60, the most symmetrical of molecules. Electronics and computing have played a leading role in the development of powder diffraction, particularly over the past 60 years, and the Moore's Law decade-by-decade rise in computing power is clear in the increasing complexity of powder diffraction experiments and material systems that can be studied. The chapter concludes with a final discussion of decades - the four decades of length-scale from the ångstrom to the micron that not only represent the domain of powder diffraction but are also the distances that will dominate twenty-first century science and technology.

  16. Influence of moisture content on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in powdered red and black pepper spices by radio-frequency heating.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seul-Gi; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-04-17

    The influence of moisture content during radio-frequency (RF) heating on heating rate, dielectric properties, and inactivation of foodborne pathogens was investigated. The effect of RF heating on the quality of powdered red and black pepper spices with different moisture ranges was also investigated. Red pepper (12.6%, 15.2%, 19.1%, and 23.3% dry basis, db) and black pepper (10.1%, 17.2%, 23.7%, and 30.5% db) inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were treated in a RF heating system with 27.12 MHz. The heating rate of the sample was dependent on moisture content up to 19.1% (db) of red pepper and 17.2% (db) of black pepper, but there was a significant decrease in the heating rate when the moisture content was increased beyond these levels. The dielectric properties of both samples increased with a rise in moisture content. As the moisture content increased, treatment time required to reduce E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium by more than 7 log CFU/g (below the detection limit, 1 log CFU/g) decreased and then increased again without affecting product quality when the moisture content exceeded a level corresponding to the peak heating rate. RF treatment significantly (P<0.05) reduced moisture content of both spices. These results suggest that RF heating can be effectively used to not only control pathogens but also reduce moisture levels in spices and that the effect of inactivation is dependent on moisture content. PMID:24555992

  17. Revealing the powdering methods of black makeup in Ancient Egypt by fitting microstructure based Fourier coefficients to the whole x-ray diffraction profiles of galena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungár, T.; Martinetto, P.; Ribárik, G.; Dooryhée, E.; Walter, Ph.; Anne, M.

    2002-02-01

    Galena (PbS) is a major ingredient in ancient Egyptian eye makeup. The microstructure of PbS in Egyptian cosmetic powders is used as a fingerprint and is matched with the microstructures produced artificially in geological galena minerals. The microstructure of PbS is determined by x-ray diffraction peak profile analysis in terms of dislocation density, crystallite size, and size distribution. High-resolution powder diffractograms were measured at the ESRF Grenoble synchrotron source with high resolution and high peak-to-background ratios. The Fourier coefficients of the first nine measured reflections of galena are fitted using physically based Fourier coefficients of strain and size functions. Strain anisotropy is accounted for by the dislocation model of the mean square strain. The x-ray data are supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, and are compared with archæological documents. It enables us to describe the procedures of eye makeup manufacturing in the Middle and New Kingdoms of Egypt some 2000 years before Christ.

  18. Gene flow, population growth and a novel substitution rate estimate in a subtidal rock specialist, the black-faced blenny Tripterygion delaisi (Perciformes, Blennioidei, Tripterygiidae) from the Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Steinwender, Bernd; Weiß, Sara; Sefc, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Population histories depend on the interplay between exogeneous and endogeneous factors. In marine species, phylogeographic and demographic patterns are often shaped by sea level fluctuations, water currents and dispersal ability. Using mitochondrial control region sequences (n = 120), we infer phylogeographic structure and historic population size changes of a common littoral fish species, the black-faced blenny Tripterygion delaisi (Perciformes, Blennioidei, Tripterygiidae) from the north-eastern Adriatic Sea. We find that Adriatic T. delaisi are differentiated from conspecific populations in the remaining Mediterranean, but display little phylogeographic structure within the Adriatic basin. The pattern is consistent with passive dispersal of planktonic larvae along cyclonic currents within the Adriatic Sea, but limited active dispersal of adults. Demographic reconstructions are consistent with recent population expansion, probably triggered by rising sea levels after the last glacial maximum (LGM). Placing the onset of population growth between the LGM and the warming of surface waters (18 000–13 000 years BP) and employing a novel expansion dating approach, we inferred a substitution rate of 2.61–3.61% per site per MY. Our study is one of only few existing investigations of the genetic structure of animals within the Adriatic basin and is the first to provide an estimate for mitochondrial control region substitution rates in blennioid fishes. PMID:26617435

  19. Chemical characterization of some substituted hydroxyapatites

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic multi-substituted hydroxyapatite nano powders containing silicon and or carbonate prepared by a wet chemical method. The process parameters are set up to allow the simultaneous substitution of carbonate and silicon ions in the place of phosphorus. The chemical and structural characterizations of the prepared powders are determined with the aid of; XRF, ICP, XRD and FTIR. The results show that, the ion substitution in the crystal lattice of HA caused a change in the unit cell dimensions and affected the degree of crystallization of the produced powders. The apatite formation abilityy of the prepared discs from the synthesized powders is determined by immersing in SBF solution for different periods. The degree of ion release was determined in the obtained solutions. The examined surface of the immersed discs under SEM and analyzed by CDS showed a more dense HA layer than those of un-substituted ones. The HA with the substituted silicon and carbonate ions, showed the highest solubility with greater rate of ion release, compared with carbonate-free powder. All prepared powders took sodium ion from the SBF solution during immersion, which was not recorded before. PMID:22122971

  20. Metal powder reactions in ball milling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, A.

    1976-01-01

    On milling chromium powder in three metal chlorides and either chromium or nickel powders in ten organic liquids representative of nine different functional groups, the powders always reacted with the liquids and became contaminated with elements from them. The milled powders had specific surface areas ranging from 0.14 to 37 sq m/g, and the total contamination with elements from the milling liquid ranged from 0.01 to 56 wt%. In most milling runs, compounds resulting from substitution, addition, or elimination reactions formed in or from the milling liquid, and in most runs with organic liquids H2, CH4, and CO2 were generated.

  1. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  2. Face powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in this substance. This article is for information ... The ingredients in face powder that can be harmful are: Baking soda Talcum powder Many other types of powder

  3. X-ray powder diffraction, vibration and thermal studies of [A{sub 0.92}(NH{sub 4}){sub 0.08}]{sub 2}TeCl{sub 4}Br{sub 2} with A = Cs, Rb: Influence of mixed cationic and anionic substitutions

    SciTech Connect

    Aribia, W. Ben; Abdelmouleh, M.; Kabadou, A.; Van Der Lee, A.

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: The structures of [A{sub 0.92}(NH{sub 4}){sub 0.08}]{sub 2}TeCl{sub 4}Br{sub 2} with A = Cs, Rb belong to the tetragonal {beta}-K{sub 2}SnCl{sub 6} structure type. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two new compound crystallises in P4/mnc tetragonal space group. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure is considered as isolated octahedred TeCl{sub 4}Br{sup 2-}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The octahedra connected by ionic and hydrogen bonding through the Cs/Rb or N atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A DTA/TGA experiment reveals one endothermic peak at 780 K for these compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One endothermic peak is detected at around 213 K by DSC experiment. -- Abstract: The crystal structures of [A{sub 0.92}(NH{sub 4}){sub 0.08}]{sub 2}TeCl{sub 4}Br{sub 2} with A = Cs, Rb have been determined using X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The two compounds crystallize in the tetragonal space group P4/mnc, with the unit cell parameters: a = 7.452(1) Angstrom-Sign , c = 10.544(3) Angstrom-Sign , Z = 2 and a = 7.315(2) Angstrom-Sign , c = 10.354(4) Angstrom-Sign , Z = 2 in the presence of Cs and Rb, respectively. These two compounds have an antifluorite-type arrangement of NH{sub 4}{sup +}/Rb{sup +}/Cs{sup +} and octahedral TeCl{sub 4}Br{sub 2}{sup 2-} anions. The stability of these structure is by ionic and hydrogen bonding contacts: A Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis Cl, A Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis Br and N-H Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis Cl, N-H Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis Br. The different vibrational modes of these powders were analysed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopic studies. A DTA/TGA experiment reveals one endothermic peak at 780 K implicating the decomposition of the sample. At low temperature, one endothermic peak in thermal behavior is detected at around 213 K by DSC experiment. This transition was confirmed by dielectric measurements.

  4. Solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  5. Ceramic Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In developing its product line of specialty ceramic powders and related products for government and industrial customers, including companies in the oil, automotive, electronics and nuclear industries, Advanced Refractory Technologies sought technical assistance from NERAC, Inc. in specific areas of ceramic materials and silicon technology, and for assistance in identifying possible applications of these materials in government programs and in the automotive and electronics industry. NERAC conducted a computerized search of several data bases and provided extensive information in the subject areas requested. NERAC's assistance resulted in transfer of technologies that helped ART staff develop a unique method for manufacture of ceramic materials to precise customer specifications.

  6. Energetic powder

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Danen, Wayne C.

    2003-12-23

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles. The particles have a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer. The particles may be prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  7. Sensory Substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrillo, Ronald T.

    The idea that the cutaneous surface may be employed as a substitute for the eyes and ears is by no means a modern notion. Although the sense of touch has long been considered as a surrogate for both the visual and auditory modalities, the focus of this chapter will be on the efforts to develop a tactile substitute for hearing, especially that of human speech. The visual system is our primary means of processing information about environmental space such as orientation, distance, direction and size. It is much less effective in making temporal discriminations. The auditory system is unparalleled in processing information that involves rapid sequences of temporal events, such as speech and music. The tactile sense is capable of processing both spatial and temporal information although not as effective in either domain as the eye or the ear.

  8. Location and oxidation state of iron in Fe-substituted CuInS{sub 2} chalcopyrites

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, Johanna D.; Xu Tianhong; Sorescu, Monica; Strohmeier, Brian R.; Sturgeon, Jacqueline; Gourdon, Olivier; Baroudi, Kristen; Yao Jinlei; Aitken, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-15

    CuIn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S{sub 2}(x=0-0.30) was synthesized via high-temperature, solid-state synthesis. Phase-pure materials were found in samples where x=0-0.15, after which a secondary phase became apparent. The materials were characterized with the use of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and Reitveld refinement revealed a linear decrease in unit cell volume as the amount of iron substitution increases in accordance with Vegard's Law. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) confirms that the actual stoichiometry is close to the nominal composition of the materials. The temperature for both the chalcopyrite-to-sphalerite and the sphalerite-to-wurtzite phase transitions decreases with increasing iron substitution for indium. These findings suggest that the Fe is being randomly incorporated into the crystal structure of the CuInS{sub 2}. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were used to determine the oxidation state of the ions (Cu{sup 1+}, In{sup 3+,} and S{sup 2-}), and Fe{sup 57} Moessbauer spectroscopy verified that the iron is in the 3{sup +} oxidation state. Band gaps of the solid solution were estimated to be in the range of 0.70-0.85 eV. Rietveld refinement of neutron diffraction data indicates that the iron is occupying the In site within the chalcopyrite structure. - Graphical abstract: CuIn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S{sub 2} samples were prepared by solid-state synthesis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy indicate Cu{sup +}, In{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+} and S{sup 2-} in the samples. Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction data shows Fe{sup 3+} residing on the indium site. The band gaps of the iron-containing samples decrease to {approx}0.7 eV. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of Cu{sup +}, In{sup 3+} and S{sup 2-}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moessbauer spectroscopy indicates the presence of Fe{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rietveld refinement of neutron

  9. A study of a tissue equivalent gelatine based tissue substitute

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, J.L.

    1992-11-01

    A study of several tissue substitutes for use as volumetric dosimeters was performed. The tissue substitutes studied included tissue substitutes from previous studies and from ICRU 44. The substitutes were evaluated for an overall match to Reference Man which was used as a basis for this study. The evaluation was based on the electron stopping power, the mass attenuation coefficient, the electron density, and the specific gravity. The tissue substitute chosen also had to be capable of changing from a liquid into a solid form to maintain an even distribution of thermoluminesent dosimetry (TLD) powder and then back to a liquid for recovery of the TLD powder without adversely effecting the TLD powder. The gelatine mixture provided the closest match to the data from Reference Man tissue. The gelatine mixture was put through a series of test to determine it`s usefulness as a reliable tissue substitute. The TLD powder was cast in the gelatine mixture and recovered to determine if the TLD powder was adversely effected. The distribution of the TLD powder after being cast into the gelatin mixture was tested in insure an even was maintained.

  10. A study of a tissue equivalent gelatine based tissue substitute

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, J.L.

    1992-11-01

    A study of several tissue substitutes for use as volumetric dosimeters was performed. The tissue substitutes studied included tissue substitutes from previous studies and from ICRU 44. The substitutes were evaluated for an overall match to Reference Man which was used as a basis for this study. The evaluation was based on the electron stopping power, the mass attenuation coefficient, the electron density, and the specific gravity. The tissue substitute chosen also had to be capable of changing from a liquid into a solid form to maintain an even distribution of thermoluminesent dosimetry (TLD) powder and then back to a liquid for recovery of the TLD powder without adversely effecting the TLD powder. The gelatine mixture provided the closest match to the data from Reference Man tissue. The gelatine mixture was put through a series of test to determine it's usefulness as a reliable tissue substitute. The TLD powder was cast in the gelatine mixture and recovered to determine if the TLD powder was adversely effected. The distribution of the TLD powder after being cast into the gelatin mixture was tested in insure an even was maintained.

  11. Borate substituted ettringites

    SciTech Connect

    Csetenyi, L.J.; Glasser, F.P.

    1993-12-31

    The setting of cement is adversely affected by soluble borates. To reduce interference, the extent to which borate can be insolubilized has been investigated. One specific mechanism of insolubilization is by inclusion into ettringite. Ettringite, Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH){sub 12}{center_dot}26H{sub 2}O, is a normal and stable constituent of Portland cement. It has an open but non-zeolitic framework. Borate can substitute partially or fully for sulfate. Formation conditions, solubility and stability of borate ettringites, Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(BO{sub 4}){sub 2-4}(OH,O){sub 12}{center_dot}26H{sub 2}O, are characterized using XRD, IR, DTA, and SEM. The potential durability of borate ettringites in a repository environment have been assessed by exposing it to Na-sulfate and Na-carbonate attack at different concentrations. Ion exchange occurs; back substitution of borate by sulfate is incomplete; high carbonate concentrations can, however, decompose borate ettringite. On heat treatment up to 85{degrees}C the crystalline morphology and the OH arrangement of the structure are altered, but the X-ray powder pattern, and hence its structural framework are largely unaffected. It is concluded that ettringite has potential to reduce the solubility of borate.

  12. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  13. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, John D.

    1988-01-01

    (1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

  14. Vitreous Substitutes.

    PubMed

    Foster, William Joseph

    2008-04-01

    Modern vitreoretinal surgery is a young science. While tremendous developments have occurred in instrument design and technique since Machemer first described vitrectomy surgery in 1973[1], the application of advanced materials concepts to the development of intra-ocular compounds is a particularly exciting area of research. To date, the development of vitreous substitutes has played a significant role in enabling the dramatic and progressive improvement in surgical outcome, but perhaps no other area of research has the potential to further improve the treatment of retinal detachment and other retinal disorders. While prior research has focused solely upon the ability of a compound to re-attach the retina, future research should seek to enable the surgeon to inhibit the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy and re-detachment, the integration of stem-cell therapies with surgical retina, long-term delivery of medications to the posterior segment, and the promotion of more rapid and complete visual rehabilitation. PMID:19343097

  15. An examination of the H/D isotope substitution effect on selectivity and activity in the cavitating ultrasound hydrogenation of aqueous 3-buten-2-ol and 1,4-pentadien-3-ol on Pd-black

    SciTech Connect

    Boyles, Kelly R.; Chajkowski, Sarah M.; Disselkamp, Robert S.; Peden, Charles HF

    2006-05-24

    An H/D isotope effect study of the (H2 versus D2) hydrogenation of the aqueous substrates 3-buten-2-ol (3B2OL) and 1,4-pentadien-3-ol (14PD3OL) was performed using Pd-black catalyst. Either H2O or D2O solvents were employed (for alcohol H/D isotope substitution). Two experimental processing conditions of cavitating ultrasound (CUS) and stirred/silent (SS) methods were used. Products formed include 2-butanol and 2-butanone for the former, and 3-pentanol and 3-pentanone for the latter. The observed selectivity and pseudo-first order reaction rate coefficients (e.g., activity) to these products enabled a mechanistic interpretation of the various reaction conditions to be proposed. Experiments utilized a 50 mL batch reactor maintained at 298 K, employed 5.4 atm of H2 or D2 gas, while seven aliquots were collected during the course of the reaction. We have utilized 1-propanol as an inert dopant in all experiments to enable the rapid onset of cavitation in the CUS systems as described earlier [R.S. Disselkamp et al., J. Catal., 227, 552 (2004)]. The following conclusions were noted. First, the activity of the CUS compared to SS processing were ~100-fold larger. Second, variable catalyst loading experiments for stirred/silent D2 hydrogenation processing indicated that mass transfer of hydrogen gas to the Pd-surface played a role such that higher catalyst loading reduced surface D-atom concentrations and reduced saturated alcohol formation (e.g., via reduced H-addition to surface alkyl radicals). Third, for CUS processing the ketone selectivities for experiments employing water compared to D2O indicated that 3B2OL were twice as large, whereas for 14PD3OL they were comparable. This suggests, somewhat surprisingly, that for 3B2OL enol tautomerization to ketone is a slow, and possibly rate-controlling, process. Finally, again for CUS processing, the similarity in ketone selectivities (all ~17%) for H2 compared to D2 hydrogenation for both 3B2OL and 14PD3OL suggest that both H

  16. Preparation of metal diboride powders

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group of consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  17. Preparation of titanium diboride powder

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, Jorulf; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1985-01-01

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  18. Ceramic powder synthesis in supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, C.L.J.; Russick, E.M.; Cesarano, J; Tadros, M.E.; Voigt, J.A.

    1996-04-01

    Gas-phase processing plays an important role in the commercial production of a number of ceramic powders. These include titanium dioxide, carbon black, zinc oxide, and silicon dioxide. The total annual output of these materials is on the order of 2 million tons. The physical processes involved in gas-phase synthesis are typical of those involved in solution -phase synthesis: chemical reaction kinetics, mass transfer, nucleation, coagulation, and condensation. This report focuses on the work done under a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that explored the use of various high pressure techniques for ceramic powder synthesis. Under this project, two approaches were taken. First, a continuous flow, high pressure water reactor was built and studied for powder synthesis. And second, a supercritical carbon dioxide static reactor, which was used in conjunction with surfactants, was built and used to generate oxide powders.

  19. Face powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002700.htm Face powder poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes ...

  20. Composite powder particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Donald S. (Inventor); MacDowell, Louis G. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A liquid coating composition including a coating vehicle and composite powder particles disposed within the coating vehicle. Each composite powder particle may include a magnesium component, a zinc component, and an indium component.

  1. Precision powder feeder

    DOEpatents

    Schlienger, M. Eric; Schmale, David T.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2001-07-10

    A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

  2. Dustiness of Fine and Nanoscale Powders

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Douglas E.; Baron, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Dustiness may be defined as the propensity of a powder to form airborne dust by a prescribed mechanical stimulus; dustiness testing is typically intended to replicate mechanisms of dust generation encountered in workplaces. A novel dustiness testing device, developed for pharmaceutical application, was evaluated in the dustiness investigation of 27 fine and nanoscale powders. The device efficiently dispersed small (mg) quantities of a wide variety of fine and nanoscale powders, into a small sampling chamber. Measurements consisted of gravimetrically determined total and respirable dustiness. The following materials were studied: single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and carbon blacks; fumed oxides of titanium, aluminum, silicon, and cerium; metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, manganese, and silver) silicon carbide, Arizona road dust; nanoclays; and lithium titanate. Both the total and respirable dustiness spanned two orders of magnitude (0.3–37.9% and 0.1–31.8% of the predispersed test powders, respectively). For many powders, a significant respirable dustiness was observed. For most powders studied, the respirable dustiness accounted for approximately one-third of the total dustiness. It is believed that this relationship holds for many fine and nanoscale test powders (i.e. those primarily selected for this study), but may not hold for coarse powders. Neither total nor respirable dustiness was found to be correlated with BET surface area, therefore dustiness is not determined by primary particle size. For a subset of test powders, aerodynamic particle size distributions by number were measured (with an electrical low-pressure impactor and an aerodynamic particle sizer). Particle size modes ranged from approximately 300nm to several micrometers, but no modes below 100nm, were observed. It is therefore unlikely that these materials would exhibit a substantial sub-100nm particle contribution in a workplace. PMID:23065675

  3. Egg substitutes: chemical and biologic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Childs, M T; Ostrander, J

    1976-03-01

    The total lipid, cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid content of dried whole egg (DWE), a refrigerated liquid egg substitute, a powdered egg substitute, and a commercial egg yolk replacer (EYR) were compared. All substitutes contained less total lipid, cholesterol, and phospholipid than DWE. The powdered substitute contained only half the total lipid content reported by the producers and only a fifth of the cholesterol of DWE, while the percentage distribution of fatty acids was similar to that of DWE. The liquid substitute and EYR had fatty acid distributions similar to soybean oil. Rat growth and lipid response were compared for diets containing either DWE or a mixture of EYR and egg white. Both diets were fed with and without vitamin and mineral supplements. Rat growth response was greatest on the DWE diets, either with or without the supplements, was intermediate on the supplemented EYR diets, and was least on the unsupplemented EYR diets. The consumption of DWE-containing diets, when compared with the EYR-containing diets, caused greater liver weight, greater liver total lipid and total cholesterol content, and slightly higher serum cholesterol. PMID:942984

  4. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flumerfelt, Joel Fredrick

    In recent years, the aluminum powder industry has expanded into non-aerospace applications. However, the alumina and aluminum hydroxide in the surface oxide film on aluminum powder require high cost powder processing routes. A driving force for this research is to broaden the knowledge base about aluminum powder metallurgy to provide ideas for fabricating low cost aluminum powder components. The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization commercial inert gas atomization and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). The commercial atomization methods are bench marks of current aluminum powder technology. The GARS process is a laboratory scale inert gas atomization facility. A benefit of using pure aluminum powders is an unambiguous interpretation of the results without considering the effects of alloy elements. A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a

  5. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    SciTech Connect

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  6. Direct current conduction in SiC powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mârtensson, E.; Gäfvert, U.; Lindefelt, U.

    2001-09-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) powder is used in nonlinear field grading materials. The composite material, consisting of an insulating polymer matrix filled with the SiC-grains, is usually a percolated system with established conducting paths. In order to explain the properties, the electrical characteristic and conduction mechanisms of the SiC powder itself are of interest. SiC powders have been studied by current-voltage measurements and the influences of grain size and doping have been investigated. The macroscopic current characteristics of green and black SiC powders can be described by the transport mechanisms at the grain contacts, which can be modeled by Schottky-like barriers. The SiC is heavily doped and tunneling by field emission is the dominating conduction mechanism over the major part of the nonlinear voltage range. It is suggested that preavalanche multiplication influences the current at the highest voltages, especially for p-type black SiC.

  7. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  8. Black Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  9. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  10. Granulation of fine powder

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Ching-Fong

    2016-08-09

    A mixture of fine powder including thorium oxide was converted to granulated powder by forming a first-green-body and heat treating the first-green-body at a high temperature to strengthen the first-green-body followed by granulation by crushing or milling the heat-treated first-green-body. The granulated powder was achieved by screening through a combination of sieves to achieve the desired granule size distribution. The granulated powder relies on the thermal bonding to maintain its shape and structure. The granulated powder contains no organic binder and can be stored in a radioactive or other extreme environment. The granulated powder was pressed and sintered to form a dense compact with a higher density and more uniform pore size distribution.

  11. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  12. Single crystalline and rare earth substituted La{sub 2}RuO{sub 5} investigated by x-ray diffraction and EXAFS spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Riegg, S.; Reller, A.; Ebbinghaus, S.G.

    2012-04-15

    Single crystals of La{sub 2}RuO{sub 5} were obtained from a BaCl{sub 2} flux. The structure was determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction and compared to earlier x-ray and neutron powder diffraction results. The local structures of Ru and La/Ln in pure La{sub 2}RuO{sub 5} and the rare earth substituted La{sub 2-x}Ln{sub x}RuO{sub 5} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy) polycrystalline samples were determined from the extended x-ray absorption fine structures (EXAFS) of the K- and L{sub III}-edges of Ru, La, and Ln, respectively. A four shell model was developed to reduce the number of refinable parameters in the fit of the EXAFS spectra. The distribution of the Ln-ions in the layered crystal structure was determined by a comparison of the coordination spheres obtained from the Ln-edges with the unsubstituted La{sub 2}RuO{sub 5}. Interatomic distances were compared to the values obtained from the single crystal diffraction and were found to agree very well. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of La{sub 2-x}Ln{sub x}RuO{sub 5} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy) is shown viewed along the c-axis. The alternating stacking of LaRuO{sub 4} and LnO layers leads to the formation of zig-zag layers of corner sharing RuO{sub 6} octahedra. The La sites in the LaRuO{sub 4} layers are represented by light blue spheres, while the La/Ln sites in the LnO layers are colored dark blue. EXAFS investigations reveal a cationic ordering with roughly 65% of the substituting Ln ions occupying the LnO layers. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure determination of La{sub 2}RuO{sub 5} by single crystal x-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ru-K EXAFS investigations of La{sub 2-x}Ln{sub x}RuO{sub 5} powder samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EXAFS of La and Ln in La{sub 2-x}Ln{sub x}RuO{sub 5} powder samples using K- and L{sub III}-absorption edges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement of EXAFS results and crystal structure data despite low symmetry space group. Black

  13. Morphology and composition of Ni-Co electrodeposited powders

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimovic, V.M.; Lacnjevac, U.C.; Stoiljkovic, M.M.; Pavlovic, M.G.; Jovic, V.D.

    2011-12-15

    The morphology, phase and chemical composition of Ni-Co alloy powders electrodeposited from an ammonium sulfate-boric acid containing electrolyte with different ratio of Ni/Co ions were investigated. The ratios of Ni/Co ions were 1/1, 1/2 and 1/3. The morphology, chemical composition and phase composition of the electrodeposited alloy powders were investigated using AES, SEM, EDS and XRD analysis. Composition of the electrolyte, i.e. the ratio of Ni/Co concentrations was found to influence both, the alloy phase composition and the morphology of Ni-Co alloy powders. At the highest ratio of Ni/Co = 1/1 concentrations typical 2D fern-like dendritic particles were obtained. With a decrease of Ni/Co ions ratio among 2D fern-like dendrites, 3D dendrites and different agglomerates were obtained. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the alloy powders mainly consisted of the face-centered cubic {alpha}-nickel phase and hexagonal close-packed {epsilon}-cobalt phase and minor proportions of face-centered cubic {alpha}-cobalt phase. The occurrence of the latter phase was observed only in the alloy powder with the higher cobalt concentration in electrolyte. The electrodeposition of Ni-Co powders occurred in an anomalous manner. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Co alloys powders were successfully electrodeposited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition of the electrolyte (Ni/Co ions ratio) was found to influence on morphology of powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrodeposition of Ni-Co powders occurred in an anomalous manner.

  14. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Walter B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is a microscale organic chemistry experiment which demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and provides an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry. Experimental procedures and instructor notes for this activity are provided. (CW)

  15. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital. PMID:26730123

  16. Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2011-02-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Anton Koekemoer; 1. Black holes, entropy, and information G. T. Horowitz; 2. Gravitational waves from black-hole mergers J. G. Baker, W. D. Boggs, J. M. Centrella, B. J. Kelley, S. T. McWilliams and J. R. van Meter; 3. Out-of-this-world physics: black holes at future colliders G. Landsberg; 4. Black holes in globular clusters S. L. W. McMillan; 5. Evolution of massive black holes M. Volonteri; 6. Supermassive black holes in deep multiwavelength surveys C. M. Urry and E. Treister; 7. Black-hole masses from reverberation mapping B. M. Peterson and M. C. Bentz; 8. Black-hole masses from gas dynamics F. D. Macchetto; 9. Evolution of supermassive black holes A. Müller and G. Hasinger; 10. Black-hole masses of distant quasars M. Vestergaard; 11. The accretion history of supermassive black holes K. Brand and the NDWFS Boötes Survey Teams; 12. Strong field gravity and spin of black holes from broad iron lines A. C. Fabian; 13. Birth of massive black-hole binaries M. Colpi, M. Dotti, L. Mayer and S. Kazantzidis; 14. Dynamics around supermassive black holes A. Gualandris and D. Merritt; 15. Black-hole formation and growth: simulations in general relativity S. L. Shapiro; 16. Estimating the spins of stellar-mass black holes J. E. McClintock, R. Narayan and R. Shafee; 17. Stellar relaxation processes near the Galactic massive black hole T. Alexander; 18. Tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes S. Gezari; 19. Where to look for radiatively inefficient accretion flows in low-luminosity AGN M. Chiaberge; 20. Making black holes visible: accretion, radiation, and jets J. H. Krolik.

  17. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-05

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  18. Application of Composite Powders Recycled from Graphite Tailings in Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Yun; Liao, Libing; Lv, Guocheng; Qin, Faxiang; Mei, Lefu; Wei, Yaozu

    2015-11-01

    With styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) as matrix and composite powders recycled from graphite tailings as fillers, the influence of the particle size and content of the composite powders on the tensile strength and electrical conductivity of the composite powder-filled SBR were studied. The results showed that composite powder recycled from graphite tailings could reinforce SBR, whose tensile strength was significantly increased with reducing the particle size of the composite powder, but it had little effect on the conductivity of the system. With composite powders as fillers in conjunction with conductive carbon black, the tensile strength and electrical conductivity of the system were greatly improved. The maximum tensile strength of the SBR filled with composite powder and conductive carbon black increased by 47% compared to that of the single composite powder-filled SBR. When the filling content of conductive carbon black was 10 phr and that of composite powder was above 30 phr, the volume resistivity of SBR showed a sharp decline, reaching a minimum about 106 Ω cm at 40 phr. All the results indicated that composite powder recycled from graphite tailings can be applied effectively as filler in SBR. It has great economic and environmental benefits.

  19. 40 CFR 721.8780 - Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted pyridine azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8780 Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl. (a) Chemical substance... substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl (PMNs P-96-767 and P-96-773) are subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.8780 - Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted pyridine azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8780 Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl. (a) Chemical substance... substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl (PMNs P-96-767 and P-96-773) are subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.8780 - Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted pyridine azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8780 Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl. (a) Chemical substance... substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl (PMNs P-96-767 and P-96-773) are subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.8780 - Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted pyridine azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8780 Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl. (a) Chemical substance... substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl (PMNs P-96-767 and P-96-773) are subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.8780 - Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted pyridine azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8780 Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl. (a) Chemical substance... substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl (PMNs P-96-767 and P-96-773) are subject to reporting under...

  4. Black Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraka, Amiri

    1987-01-01

    Discusses black art as not only an expression of black life but as revolutionary art. It must be collective, functional, and committing. It must also be anti-racist, anti-capitalist, and anti-imperialist. (LHW)

  5. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... that the caffeine in black tea might slow blood clotting, though this hasn’t been shown in people. ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. Caffeine ...

  6. Black Ageism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Herbert M.

    1976-01-01

    Notes that attempts to apply research findings based on undifferentiated comparisons between black and white elderly toward the solution of problems faced by black elderly are doomed to ineffectiveness. (Author/AM)

  7. Black psyllium

    MedlinePlus

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the ... to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond ...

  8. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    Black tea is a product made from the Camellia sinesis plant. The aged leaves and stems are ... of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness as ...

  9. Black Cohosh

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References Black cohosh. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on April ... Black cohosh ( Cimicifuga racemosa [L.] Nutt. ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on April ...

  10. Partial substitution of Mo{sup 6+} by S{sup 6+} in the fast oxide ion conductor La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9}: Synthesis, structure and sulfur depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Mhadhbi, Noureddine; Corbel, Gwenaeel; Lacorre, Philippe; Bulou, Alain

    2012-06-15

    Powder-solid state reaction route using La{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} as sulfur source was used to prepare compositions of the solid solution La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9}. Single phases were only obtained in the substitution range extending up to y=0.8 (40 mol% S) at the annealing temperature of 850 Degree-Sign C with regard to the limit of stability of the lanthanum sulphate reactant. Within the synthesis conditions, a stabilization of the high temperature {beta}-form is observed from and above y=0.1 (5 mol% S). Temperature-controlled X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses have shown that La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders undergo thermal decompositions in two steps. Heating above 900 Degree-Sign C, a sulfur depletion to the benefit of molybdenum in La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders leads to the formation of La{sub 2}SO{sub 6}. At higher temperature, the exsolved La{sub 2}SO{sub 6} phase then decomposes into La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which in turn reacts with the sulfur-depleted La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} phase to form La{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. The present study also reveals that depending on the substitution rate y, the sulfur depletion can be induced by ball-milling of raw powders. Along the La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} series, the isovalent substitution of molybdenum by sulfur tends to restrict in magnitude, or even to suppress above 400 Degree-Sign C, the distortive thermal expansion of the cubic {beta}-type structure, thus strongly decreasing the conductance at high temperature. - Graphical abstract: La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MoO{sub 3}-'SO{sub 3}' ternary phase diagram showing the exsolution path at low temperature (white arrows) and the total decomposition path at high temperature (black arrows) of {beta}-La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isovalent substitution of molybdenum by sulfur in La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} up to 40 mol%. Black

  11. Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    The black student revolt did not start with the highly publicized activities of the black students at San Francisco State College. The roots of the revolt lie deeply imbedded within the history and structure of the overall black liberation struggle in America. The beginnings of this revolt can be found in the students of Southern Negro colleges in…

  12. Talking Black.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Roger D.

    This book contains essays which focus on the systems of communication that operate within and between various social segments of Afro-American communities in the United States. The essays are presented under the following headings: (1) "Getting Into It: Black Talk, Black Life and the Academic," (2) "'Talking My Talk': Black Talk Varieties and…

  13. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of black historian Ed Cabbell by Pat…

  14. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  15. Optimal Substitution of Cotton Burr and Linters in Thermoplastic Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate various substitutions of cotton burr and linters fractions of cotton gin waste (CGW) as a natural fiber source in ligno-cellulosic polymer composites (LCPC.) Samples were fabricated with approximately 50% natural fiber, 40% of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) powder...

  16. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen J. Gerdemann; Paul D. Jablonski

    2010-11-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 μm, <75 μm, and < 45 μm; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH] <75 μm and < 45 μm; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  17. Sintering titanium powders

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Alman, David E.

    2005-09-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in low-cost titanium. Near-net-shape powder metallurgy offers the potential of manufacturing titanium articles without costly and difficult forming and machining operations; hence, processing methods such as conventional press-and-sinter, powder forging and powder injection molding are of interest. The sintering behavior of a variety of commercial and experimental titanium powders was studied. Commercial powders were acquired that were produced different routes: (i) sponge fines from the primary titanium processing; (ii) via the hydride-dehydride process; and (iii) gas atomization. The influence of vacuum sintering time (0.5 to 32 hrs) and temperature (1200, 1275 or 1350°C) on the microstructure (porosity present) of cold pressed powders was studied. The results are discussed in terms of the difference in powder characteristics, with the aim of identify the characteristics required for full density via press-and-sinter processing. Near-net-shape tensile bars were consolidated via cold pressed and sintered. After sintering, a sub-set of the tensile bars was hot-isostatic pressed (HIPed). The microstructure and properties of the bars were compared in the sintered and HIPed conditions.

  18. Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder by continuous precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Boz, Ismail; Kaluza, Stefan; Boroglu, Mehtap Safak; Muhler, Martin

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: High surface area ZnO powders are synthesized by a low temperature continuous precipitation under ultrasonication. Urea is used as precipitating agent so that no contamination of ZnO powder emanating from precipitating agent, such as, alkalis, is observed. pH and type of precursor greatly affects the surface area and other properties. In this manuscript, we report a very simple and effective continuous precipitation to synthesize high surface area ZnO powder. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved at 90 Degree-Sign C in a continuous precipitation unit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous precipitation unit was ultrasonicated to improve final product homogeneity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation intermediate, hydrozincite, was led to high surface area ZnO powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had a rather uniform mesoporous structure. -- Abstract: Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved by continuous precipitation using zinc ions and urea at low temperature of 90 Degree-Sign C. The powder precipitated resulted in high-purity single-phase ZnO powder when calcined at 280 Degree-Sign C for 3 h in air. The solution pH and the precipitation duration strongly affected the surface area of the calcined ZnO powder. Detailed structural characterizations demonstrated that the synthesized ZnO powder were single crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase. The powdered samples precipitated by homogeneous precipitation crystallized directly to hydrozincite without any intermediate phase formation. The phase structures, morphologies and properties of the final ZnO powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering particle size analysis (DLS), and nitrogen physisorption in order to determine the specific surface area (BET) and the pore size distribution (BJH).

  19. Ceramic powder compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, S.J.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Mahoney, F.M.

    1995-12-31

    With the objective of developing a predictive model for ceramic powder compaction we have investigated methods for characterizing density gradients in ceramic powder compacts, reviewed and compared existing compaction models, conducted compaction experiments on a spray dried alumina powder, and conducted mechanical tests and compaction experiments on model granular materials. Die filling and particle packing, and the behavior of individual granules play an important role in determining compaction behavior and should be incorporated into realistic compaction models. These results support the use of discrete element modeling techniques and statistical mechanics principals to develop a comprehensive model for compaction, something that should be achievable with computers with parallel processing capabilities.

  20. Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  1. Effects of scandium substitution on the crystal structure and luminescence properties of LuBO{sub 3}: Ce{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yuntao; Ren, Guohao; Ding, Dongzhou; Pan, Shangke; Yang, Fan

    2012-10-15

    The calcite phase of LuBO{sub 3} and ScBO{sub 3} polycrystalline powders were synthesized by solid state reaction method, and the Lu{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}BO{sub 3}:Ce (x=0.2, 0.5, 0.7) single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. A large composition deviation between the initial polycrystalline powders and final single crystal was confirmed by electron probe micro-analysis. Raman spectroscopy revealed that moderate lattice disorder was induced by scandium substitution. However, based on the single crystal X-ray study, we finally concluded that the crystal structure of lutetium scandium orthoborate still crystallized in the rhombohedral system belonging to R3{sup -}c. Furthermore, the relationship between the energies of the five 5d levels of Ce{sup 3+} and the crystalline environment was revealed. The total redshift, total crystal field splitting, and centroid shift of Lu{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}BO{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+} were calculated based on their VUV excitation spectra. The variations trend of these observed spectroscopic parameters was in accordance with the predicted ones. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of Lu{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}BO{sub 3}:Ce is rhombohedral system with R3{sup -}c space group. The relationship between the energies of the five Ce{sup 3+} 5d levels and the crystalline environment is established. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate lattice disorder is induced by scandium doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure of Lu{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}BO{sub 3}:Ce is rhombohedral system with R3{sup -}c space group. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relationship between energies of Ce{sup 3+} 5d levels and crystalline environment is established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spectroscopic parameters are experimentally and theoretically calculated.

  2. Talcum powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... powder As a filler in street drugs, like heroin Other products may also contain talc. ... have developed serious lung damage and cancer. Injecting heroin that contains talc into a vein may lead ...

  3. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarik, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (-20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties.

  4. Gelcasting superalloy powders

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Gelcasting is a process for forming inorganic powders into complex shapes. It was originally developed for ceramic powders. A slurry of powder and a monomer solution is poured in to mold and polymerized in-situ to form gelled parts. Typically, only 2-4 wt % Polymer is used. The process has both aqueous and nonaqueous versions. Gelcasting is a generic process and has been used to produce ceramic parts from over a dozen different ceramic compositions ranging from alumina-based refractories to high-performance silicon nitride. Recently, gelcasting has been applied to forming superalloy powders into complex shapes. This application has posed several challenges not previously encountered in ceramics. In particular, problems were caused by the larger particle size and the higher density of the particles. Additional problems were encountered with binder removal. How these problems were overcome will be described.

  5. POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

  6. Pyrotechnic filled molding powder

    DOEpatents

    Hartzel, Lawrence W.; Kettling, George E.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to thermosetting molding compounds and more particularly to a pyrotechnic filled thermosetting compound comprising a blend of unfilled diallyl phthalate molding powder and a pyrotechnic mixture.

  7. Properties of magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite and the plasma coatings based on it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyasnikova, A. V.; Pichkhidze, S. Ya.; Dudareva, O. A.; Markelova, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite is synthesized and deposited by plasma spraying, and the coating and the products of hydroxyapatite decomposition are analyzed. The phase composition of magnesium- substituted hydroxyapatite deposited by plasma spraying undergoes changes. The coating consisting of molten magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite powder particles with pores between them has a homogeneous structure over the surface and throughout the internal structure and adhesion characteristics that exceed those of hydroxyapatite coatings.

  8. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Tran, Tri D.; Feikert, John H.; Mayer, Steven T.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  9. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  10. Method for classifying ceramic powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takabe, K.

    1983-01-01

    Under the invented method, powder A of particles of less than 10 microns, and carrier powder B, whose average particle diameter is more than five times that of powder A, are premixed so that the powder is less than 40 wt.% of the total mixture, before classifying.

  11. Managing Substitute Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin R.

    1999-01-01

    This news brief presents information on managing substitute teaching. The information is based on issues discussed at a summit meeting which included public school administrators and personnel directors from around the nation. The main topics of concern focused around four core components related to the management of substitute teaching:…

  12. Stable powders made from photosensitive polycrystalline complexes of heterocyclic monomers and their polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a low electronic conductivity polymer composition having well dispersed metal granules, a stable powder made from photosensitive polycrystalline complexes of pyrrole, or its substituted derivatives and silver cations for making the polymer composition, and methods of forming the stable powder and polymer composition, respectively. A polycrystalline complex of silver and a monomer, such as pyrrole, its substituted derivatives or combinations thereof, is precipitated in the form of a stable photosensitive powder upon addition of the monomer to a solvent solution, such as toluene containing an electron acceptor. The photosensitive powder can be stored in the dark until needed. The powder may be dissolved in a solvent, cast onto a substrate and photopolymerized.

  13. The Substitution of a Super Black Fixed Micro-Object for an Optical Microcavity in a Delayed Choice Experiment to Send Information Immediately Between 2 Paired Particles: Simplifying the Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    An experiment has been described that relies on a delayed choice for an idler photon that immediately affects the signal photon with which it is at least initially entangled and for which the idler photon provides which-way information. The delayed choice concerns whether to maintain or eliminate the entanglement before any measurements are made. In one option of the delayed choice, the entanglement can be eliminated because the relevant state of the idler photon related to its entanglement is eliminated when the idler photon enters an optical microcavity filled with photons with the same mode as the incoming idler photon. The microcavity is located at the crossroads of two possible idler photon paths. The relevant state of the idler photon characterizes the particular path taken by the photon and this information is eliminated when the particle enters the cavity. Over a number of runs with this choice, the distribution of the paired signal photons shows interference. If the entanglement is maintained, the distribution of the paired signal photons shows which-way information. This experiment can be simplified by using a super black material (e.g., Vantablack) affixed to a fixed micro-object located at the crossroads of the two possible idler photon paths instead of the optical microcavity. The photon would be absorbed by the material and there would be no way to detect from which direction it came. Objects such as fixed mirrors in a Mach Zehnder interferometer do not provide ww information. The super black fixed micro-object should not either.

  14. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-19

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  15. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goval, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-06-07

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  16. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  17. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-14

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  18. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-05-10

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  19. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  20. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-28

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  1. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-01-25

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  2. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders: Synthesis, thermal stability and sinterability

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Alessandra Cacciotti, Ilaria; Lombardi, Mariangela Montanaro, Laura

    2009-02-04

    Synthetic hydroxyapatites incorporating small amounts of Si have shown improved biological performances in terms of enhanced bone apposition, bone in-growth and cell-mediated degradation. This paper reports a systematic investigation on Si-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si 1.40 wt%) nanopowders produced following two different conventional wet methodologies: (a) precipitation of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O and (b) titration of Ca(OH){sub 2}. The influence of the synthesis process on composition, thermal behaviour and sinterability of the resulting nanopowders is studied. Samples were characterised by electron microscopy, induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and dilatometry. Semicrystalline Si-substituted hydroxyapatite powders made up of needle-like nanoparticles were obtained, the specific surface area ranged between 84 and 110 m{sup 2}/g. Pure and Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders derived from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O decomposed around 1000 deg. C. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders obtained from Ca(OH){sub 2} were thermally stable up to 1200 deg. C and showed a distinct decreased thermal stability with respect to the homologous pure sample. Si-substituted hydroxyapatites exhibited higher sintering temperature and increased total shrinkage with respect to pure powders. Nanostructured dense ceramics were obtained by sintering at 1100 deg. C Si-substituted hydroxyapatites derived from Ca(OH){sub 2}.

  3. Application of acid-modified Imperata cylindrica powder for latent fingerprint development.

    PubMed

    Low, Wei Zeng; Khoo, Bee Ee; Aziz, Zalina Binti Abdul; Low, Ling Wei; Teng, Tjoon Tow; bin Abdullah, Ahmad Fahmi Lim

    2015-09-01

    A novel powdering material that utilizes acid-modified Imperata cylindrica (IC) powder for the development of fingermarks was studied. Experiments were carried out to determine the suitability, adherence quality and sensitivity of the acid-modified IC powder. Fingermarks of different constituents (eccrine, sebaceous and natural fingermarks) on different types of surfaces were used. Acid-modified IC powder was also used to develop fingermarks of different ages as well as aged fingermarks recovered from the water. From the visual inspection, acid-modified IC powder was able to interact with different fingermark constituents and produced distinct ridge details on the examined surfaces. It was also able to develop aged fingermarks and fingermarks that were submerged in water. A statistical comparison was made against the Sirchie® Hi-Fi black powder in terms of the powders' sensitivity and quality of the developed natural fingermarks. The image quality was analyzed using MITRE's Image Quality of Fingerprint (IQF) software. From the experiments, acid-modified IC powder has the potential as a fingermark development powder, although natural fingermarks developed by Sirchie® black powder showed better quality and sensitivity based on the results of the statistical comparison. PMID:26385718

  4. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  5. Acoustic properties of organic powders as ultrasonic contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, V. A.; Loginov, S. V.; Dmitriev, K. V.

    2011-11-01

    The results of experiments on measuring attenuation and the effective acoustic nonlinear parameter of the second order are given for a suspension of cocoa-powder in water at different concentrations of the suspension. In the process of evaluating the value of the nonlinear parameter the attenuation in the suspension and generation of the second harmonic not only in the suspension but also in water are taken into account. The obtained results are evidence of the possibility of using a suspension of cocoa-powder in water as a technical substitute for ultrasonic contrast agents. The values of attenuation (up to 60 m-1 at the concentration of 1 g of the powder per 1 l of water) and the nonlinear parameter (up to 120 m-1 at the same concentration) mean that the suspension of cocoa-powder in water has smaller attenuation and the nonlinear parameter than ultrasonic contrast agents at the same concentration. However, these values for the suspension differ considerably from corresponding values for water or blood and, therefore, a suspension of cocoa-powder in water is a promising "substitute" for ultrasonic contrast agents in the case of technical testing of systems for nonlinear tomography of a blood flow, but cannot replace them in medical studies.

  6. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  11. Sugar substitutes during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question I have a pregnant patient who regularly consumes sugar substitutes and she asked me if continuing their use would affect her pregnancy or child. What should I tell her, and are there certain options that are better for use during pregnancy? Answer Although more research is required to fully determine the effects of in utero exposure to sugar substitutes, the available data do not suggest adverse effects in pregnancy. However, it is recommended that sugar substitutes be consumed in moderate amounts, adhering to the acceptable daily intake standards set by regulatory agencies. PMID:25392440

  12. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  13. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-03-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  14. Black Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E., Ed.

    The essays in this book examine some of the major issues affecting the behavior and status of black men in the United States. The volume is divided into four sections. Part one compares black and white men on such indicators as sex ratio, age distribution, marital and family status, educational attainment, employment, income, social and political…

  15. Copper thiocyanato complexes and cocaine - a case of 'black cocaine'.

    PubMed

    Laussmann, Tim; Grzesiak, Ireneus; Krest, Alexander; Stirnat, Kathrin; Meier-Giebing, Sigrid; Ruschewitz, Uwe; Klein, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of a black powder confiscated by German customs was elucidated. Black powders are occasionally used as a 'transporter' for cocaine and are obviously especially designed to cloak the presence of the drug. The material consisting of cocaine, copper, iron, thiocyanate, and graphite was approached by analytical tools and chemical modelling. Graphite is added to the material probably with the intention of masking the typical infrared (IR) fingerprints of cocaine and can be clearly detected by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Cu(2+) and NCS(-) ions, when carefully reacted with cocaine hydrochloride, form the novel compound (CocH)2 [Cu(NCS)4 ] (CocH(+)  = protonated cocaine), which has been characterised by single crystal XRD, IR, NMR, UV/Vis absorption and EPR spectroscopy. Based on some further experiments the assumed composition of the original black powder is discussed. PMID:24753444

  16. Alternate current characteristics of SiC powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mârtensson, E.; Gäfvert, U.; Önneby, C.

    2001-09-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) powder is used in nonlinear field grading materials. The composite material, consisting of an insulating polymer matrix filled with the SiC grains, is usually a percolated system with established conducting paths. In order to explain the properties, the electrical characteristic of the SiC powder itself is of interest. The ac characteristics of SiC powders have been studied by dielectric response, capacitance-voltage, and ac-pulse measurements. The frequency, electric field, and pressure dependencies have been analyzed for green and black SiC, which have different doping. The ac characteristics of green and black SiC powders are governed by both the barrier regions at the SiC-grain contacts and the surrounding matrix. The nonlinear loss is determined by the conduction current at the contacts. Depending on the doping level of the SiC grains, the capacitance may be controlled by either the nonlinear capacitance of the barrier region or the linear capacitance of the surrounding matrix. Each contact zone may be modeled by a nonlinear resistance in parallel with both a nonlinear and a linear capacitance. The components are considered to be frequency independent. However, in order to explain the macroscopic frequency and field dependencies of the SiC powders, the use of a network of unique contact zones with dissimilar properties is suggested.

  17. Substitution of anticonvulsant drugs

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Runge, Uwe; Witte, Otto W; Stefan, Hermann; Hufnagel, Andreas; Mayer, Thomas; Krämer, Günter

    2009-01-01

    Changing from branded drugs to generic alternatives, or between different generic formulations, is common practice aiming at reducing health care costs. It has been suggested that antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) should be exempt from substitution because of the potential negative consequences of adverse events and breakthrough seizures. Controlled data are lacking on the risk of substitution. However, retrospective data from large medical claims databases suggest that switching might be associated with increased use of AED and non-AED medications, and health care resources (including hospitalization). In addition, some anecdotal evidence from patients and health care providers’ surveys suggest a potentially negative impact of substitution. Well-controlled data are needed to assess the real risk associated with substitution, allowing health care professionals involved in the care of patients with epilepsy to make informed decisions. This paper reviews currently available literature, based on which the authors suggest that the decision to substitute should be made on an individual basis by the physician and an informed patient. Unendorsed or undisclosed substitution at the pharmacy level should be discouraged. PMID:19707254

  18. Demystifying Mystery Powders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotar, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes science activities which use simple chemical tests to distinguish between materials and to determine some of their properties. Explains the water, iodine, heat, acid, baking soda, acid/base indicator, glucose, and sugar tests. Includes activities to enhance chemical testing and a list of suggested powders for use. (RT)

  19. Novelty shop 'itching powder'.

    PubMed

    Albert, M R

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate causes of itch, commercial 'itching powders' were sought for evaluation. Only one product, produced in Germany and consisting of ground rose hips, is currently sold in novelty shops in the Boston area. These plant fibres appear to provoke itch and prickle sensations by non-allergic mechanical stimulation, similar to the action of wool fibres. PMID:9737050

  20. Method to blend separator powders

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  1. Method for synthesizing powder materials

    DOEpatents

    Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.

    1988-01-21

    A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400/degree/K (127/degree/C). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material. 1 fig.

  2. In situ synthesis of magnesium-substituted biphasic calcium phosphate and in vitro biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Hyeong-Shin; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jin, Hyeong-Ho; Hwang, Kyu-Hong; Lee, Jong Kook; Park, Hong-Chae; Yoon, Seog-Young

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► Mg–BCP were successfully prepared through in situ aqueous co-precipitation method. ► The amount of β-TCP phase was changed with the magnesium substitution level. ► The substitution of magnesium led to a decrease in the unit cell volume. ► Mg–BCP could be able to develop a new apatite phase on the surface faster than BCP. -- Abstract: In situ preparation of magnesium (Mg) substituted biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) of hydroxyapatite (HAp)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were carried out through aqueous co-precipitation method. The concentrations of added magnesium were varied with the calcium in order to obtain constant (Ca + Mg)/P ratios of 1.602. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure of synthesized magnesium substituted BCP powders. The results have shown that substitution of magnesium in the calcium deficient apatites revealed the formation of biphasic mixtures of different HAp/β-TCP ratios after heating at 1000 °C. The ratios of the formation of phase mixtures were dependent on the content of magnesium. After immersing in Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1 week, 1 wt% magnesium substituted BCP powders were degraded and precipitation started to be formed with small granules consisting of number of flake-like crystal onto the surface of synthesized powders. On the other hand, in the case of pure BCP powders, the formation of new precipitates was detected after immersion in HBSS for 2 weeks. On the basis of these results, magnesium substituted BCP could be able to develop a new apatite phase on the surface in contact with physiological fluids faster than BCP does. In addition, the retention time to produce the new apatite phase in implantation operation for the BCP powder could be controlled by the amount of magnesium substitution.

  3. Application of planetary ball mill for manufacturing of shielding composite coatings based on polyester powder paints and carbon fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, S. V.; Yazykov, S. Yu; Suslyaev, V. I.; Dorozhkin, K. V.

    2015-10-01

    Blend polyester powder paint and particulate carbon filler in the form of colloidal graphite and the carbon black product were investigated. Powder paint and carbon materials were treated together in a planetary ball mill. The data of the structural analysis and transmission coefficients of electromagnetic waves of terahertz range through the flat shape samples are presented.

  4. The substitutability of reinforcers

    PubMed Central

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E.

    1993-01-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportion. At the center of the continuum are reinforcers that are independent with respect to each other; consumption of one has no influence on consumption of another. Psychological research and analyses in terms of substitutability employ standard operant conditioning paradigms in which humans and nonhumans choose between alternative reinforcers. The range of reinforcer interactions found in these studies is more readily accommodated and predicted when behavior-analytic models of choice consider issues of substitutability. New insights are gained into such areas as eating and drinking, electrical brain stimulation, temporal separation of choice alternatives, behavior therapy, drug use, and addictions. Moreover, the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) gains greater explanatory power and comprehensiveness when measures of substitutability are included. PMID:16812696

  5. The substitutability of reinforcers.

    PubMed

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E

    1993-07-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportion. At the center of the continuum are reinforcers that are independent with respect to each other; consumption of one has no influence on consumption of another. Psychological research and analyses in terms of substitutability employ standard operant conditioning paradigms in which humans and nonhumans choose between alternative reinforcers. The range of reinforcer interactions found in these studies is more readily accommodated and predicted when behavior-analytic models of choice consider issues of substitutability. New insights are gained into such areas as eating and drinking, electrical brain stimulation, temporal separation of choice alternatives, behavior therapy, drug use, and addictions. Moreover, the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) gains greater explanatory power and comprehensiveness when measures of substitutability are included. PMID:16812696

  6. Black Hills

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... surfaces with lower absorption appear as green, yellow, orange or red. Black pixels indicate areas where albedo could not be derived, ... notably reduced in extent, and higher albedo areas (yellow, orange and red pixels) have increased. Because incoming sunlight is ...

  7. Brominated carbon black: An EDXD study

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Marilena; Gontrani, Lorenzo

    2014-06-19

    An energy dispersive X-Ray study of pure and brominated carbon black was carried out. The analysis of the diffraction patterns reveals that the low bromine load (ca.1% mol) is trapped into the structure, without significantly modifying it. This allows the application of the difference methods, widely tested for electrolyte solutions, inorganic matrices containing metals and isomorphic substitutions.

  8. Vacuum powder injector and method of impregnating fiber with powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Working, Dennis C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus uniformly impregnate stranded material with dry powder such as low solubility, high melt flow polymer powder to produce, for example, composite prepregs. The stranded material is expanded in an impregnation chamber by an influx of air so that the powder, which may enter through the same inlet as the air, penetrates to the center of the stranded material. The stranded material then is contracted for holding the powder therein. The stranded material and powder may be pulled through the impregnation chamber in the same direction by vacuum. Larger particles of powder which do not fully penetrate the stranded material may be combed into the stranded material and powder which does not impregnate the stranded material may be collected and reused.

  9. Advanced powder processing

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  10. Processing polymeric powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throne, James L.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of uniformly and continuously depositing and sinter-fusing nominal 0.1 to 40 microns dimensioned electrostatically charged polymer powder particles onto essentially uniformly spread 5 to 20 micron grounded continuous fiber tow to produce a respoolable thermoplastic composite two-preg was formulated at NASA Langley. The process was reduced to practice under a NASA grant at the University of Akron this spring. The production of tow-preg is called phase 1. The production of ultrafine polymer powders from 5 to 10 percent (wt) polymer solids in solvent is considered. This is phase 0 and is discussed. The production of unitape from multi tow-pregs was also considered. This is phase 2 and is also discussed. And another approach to phase 1, also proposed last summer, was scoped. This is phase 1A and is also discussed.

  11. [Substitution therapy with diamorphine].

    PubMed

    Roy, Mandy; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    After a long lead time the substitution with diamorphine was taken into the German catalogue of statutory health insurance in 2010. Currently about 570 patients are treated this way in 9 ambulances in Germany. The study phase as well as the clinical practice are showing the success of this therapy concerning physical and mental health of patients and their circumstances of social life. Thereby substitution with diamorphine is underlying very strict admission criteria regarding patients on the one hand and particular organizational requirements of the medical institution on the other hand. This article explains these criteria in detail as well as neurobiological information and clinical workflow is presented. Improvement of mandatory requirements could lead to a better reaching of patients who benefit from substitution with diamorphine. PMID:27029045

  12. Aryl substitution of pentacenes

    PubMed Central

    Waterloo, Andreas R; Sale, Anna-Chiara; Lehnherr, Dan; Hampel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Summary A series of 11 new pentacene derivatives has been synthesized, with unsymmetrical substitution based on a trialkylsilylethynyl group at the 6-position and various aryl groups appended to the 13-position. The electronic and physical properties of the new pentacene chromophores have been analyzed by UV–vis spectroscopy (solution and thin films), thermoanalytical methods (DSC and TGA), cyclic voltammetry, as well as X-ray crystallography (for 8 derivatives). X-ray crystallography has been specifically used to study the influence of unsymmetrical substitution on the solid-state packing of the pentacene derivatives. The obtained results add to our ability to better predict substitution patterns that might be helpful for designing new semiconductors for use in solid-state devices. PMID:25161729

  13. [Delegation yes, substitution no!].

    PubMed

    Schroeder, A

    2014-08-01

    The aging of society leads on the one hand to increasing case numbers and on the other hand to a reduction in the number of physicians available for patient treatment. The delegation and substitution of medical duties as a tried and tested method is increasingly being recommended in order to compensate for the lack of physicians. The Berufsverband der Deutschen Urologen (BDU, Professional Association of German Urologists) supports the guiding principle of the Bundesärztekammer (Federal Medical Council) of "delegation yes, substitution no" and rejects a substitution of medical duties by non-medical academic health personnel. Against the background of the demographic changes, the increasing need for treatment and the current deficiency of junior physicians, a more extensive inclusion of well-qualified and experienced non-medical personnel by the delegation of medically responsible duties (medical scope of practice) can be an appropriate measure to maintain a good medical service in practices, hospitals and nursing homes. PMID:25047595

  14. Thermal properties of carbon black aqueous nanofluids for solar absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dongxiao; Meng, Zhaoguo; Wu, Daxiong; Zhang, Canying; Zhu, Haitao

    2011-07-01

    In this article, carbon black nanofluids were prepared by dispersing the pretreated carbon black powder into distilled water. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were explored. The photothermal properties, optical properties, rheological behaviors, and thermal conductivities of the nanofluids were also investigated. The results showed that the nanofluids of high-volume fraction had better photothermal properties. Both carbon black powder and nanofluids had good absorption in the whole wavelength ranging from 200 to 2,500 nm. The nanofluids exhibited a shear thinning behavior. The shear viscosity increased with the increasing volume fraction and decreased with the increasing temperature at the same shear rate. The thermal conductivity of carbon black nanofluids increased with the increase of volume fraction and temperature. Carbon black nanofluids had good absorption ability of solar energy and can effectively enhance the solar absorption efficiency.

  15. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. 721.6920 Section 721.6920 Protection... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. 721.6920 Section 721.6920 Protection... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. 721.6920 Section 721.6920 Protection... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  18. Reversible mechanochromism and enhanced AIE in tetraphenylethene substituted phenanthroimidazoles.

    PubMed

    Misra, Rajneesh; Jadhav, Thaksen; Dhokale, Bhausaheb; Mobin, Shaikh M

    2014-08-21

    Tetraphenylethene (TPE) substituted phenanthroimidazoles 3a and 3b were designed and synthesized by the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. They show reversible mechanochromic behavior with contrast colors between sky-blue and yellow green. The powder XRD studies show that destruction of a crystalline state into an amorphous state is responsible for mechanochromism. Hydrogen bonding interaction of a cyano-group in 3b results in enhanced AIE and improved thermal stability. PMID:24983656

  19. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  20. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-06-11

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  1. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  2. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of BiOCl Photocatalyst Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z. J.; Fang, J. W.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2015-06-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) was used for the first time to investigate the optical properties and photocatalysis reaction of BiOCl powder. The results of PAS measurements showed that the photoacoustic (PA) amplitude increased gradually in the visible light region and the white BiOCl powder became black when the measurements were repeated many times. Further studies showed that the occurrence of ultraviolet (UV) light-induced oxygen vacancies was the reason for the formation of black BiOCl and increasing visible light absorption. PAS also showed that oxygen vacancies only appeared when the white BiOCl powder was irradiated by UV light with a wavelength smaller than the absorption threshold wavelength. The formation of oxygen vacancies under UV irradiation was focused in the initial 0.5 h. Moreover, photochemical reactions of RhB dye absorbed on the BiOCl powder were studied by means of PAS. The results showed that the oxygen vacancy formation and photocatalytic reaction occurred simultaneously under UV excitation.

  3. The Age of Substitutability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeller, H. E.; Weinberg, Alvin M.

    1976-01-01

    Dwindling mineral resources might cause a shift from nonrenewable resources to renewable resources and inexhaustible elements such as iron and aluminum. Alternative energy sources such as breeder, fusion, solar, and geothermal power must be developed for production and recycling of materials. Substitution and, hence, living standards ultimately…

  4. Performing Substitute Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bletzer, Keith V.

    2010-01-01

    Formal education is both a right and an obligation bestowed on young people in most all nations of the world. Teachers (adults) and students (youth) form a co-present dyadic contract that must be maintained within the classroom. Substitute teachers fill a role in sustaining the integrity of this teacher-student link, whenever teachers are absent.…

  5. No cheap substitutes.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Peter

    2016-06-15

    The Nuffield Trust report on reshaping the healthcare workforce was published last month. Its conclusions were widely reported as a recommendation to 'train up' nurses as a solution to junior doctor shortages, with support workers, in turn, substituting for registered nurses. PMID:27305238

  6. Characterization of mutagenic activity in grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, M.A.E.; Knize, M.G.; Felton, J.S.; Jagerstad, M.

    1994-06-01

    Several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees showed a mutagenic response in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024 and YG1O29 with metabolic activation. The beverage powders contained 150 to 500 TA98 and 1150 to 4050 YG1024 revertant colonies/gram, respectively. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment. Characterization of the mutagenic activity, using HPLC-and the Ames test of the collected fractions, showed the coffee-substitutes and instant coffees contain several mutagenic compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines.

  7. LARC powder prepreg system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    Thermoplastic prepregs of LARC-TPI have been produced in a fluidized bed unit on spread continuous fiber tows. The powders are melted on the fibers by radiant heating to adhere the polymer to the fiber. This process produces tow prepreg uniformly without imposing severe stress on the fibers or requiring long high temperature residence times for the polymer. Unit design theory and operating correlations have been developed to provide the basis for scale up to commercial operation. Special features of the operation are the pneumatic tow spreader, fluidized bed and resin feed systems.

  8. Chemical reactions of metal powders with organic and inorganic liquids during ball milling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, A.

    1975-01-01

    Chromium and/or nickel powders were milled in metal chlorides and in organic liquids representative of various functional groups. The powders always reacted with the liquid and became contaminated with elements from them. The milled powders had specific surface areas ranging from 0.14 to 37 sq m/g, and the total contamination with elements from the milling liquid ranged from 0.01 to 56 weight percent. Compounds resulting from substitution, addition, or elimination reactions formed in or from the milling liquid.

  9. Fabrication and performance of silver coated copper powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiao Guo; Zhang, Hai Yan

    2012-08-01

    Electroless silver coating on copper powder and its effects on oxidation resistance were investigated by varying the fabrication parameters. Using acetylacetone (C5H8O2) as chelating reagent, silver-coated copper powder was fabricated by displacement reaction method. In the process, acetylacetone forms chelating compound with Cu 2+, which prevent the formation of [Cu (NH3)4]2+. Therefore, Ag + can be reduced continully and deposited on the surface of copper particles. As-coated copper particles were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The oxidation resistance of silver coated copper powder was investigated by gravimetric method. It was found that a fairly continuous silver layer was formed on the surface of copper powder by the electroless type of substitution plating. When the silver content reached 10 wt. %, silver was homogeneously distributed around the copper particles and few free silver particles were detected. The results showed that the silver coated copper powder with the best oxidation resistance was prepared at 40°C and the C5H8O2/AgNO3 molar ratio was 1:1.

  10. Polymer powder prepregging: Scoping study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throne, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Early on, it was found that NEAT LARC-TPI thermoplastic polyimide powder behaved elastoplastically at pressures to 20 ksi and temperatures to 260 degrees celcius (below MP). At high resin assay, resin powder could be continuously cold-flowed around individual carbon fibers in a metal rolling mill. At low resin assay (2:1, C:TPI), fiber breakage was prohibitive. Thus, although processing of TPI below MP would be quite unique, it appears that the polymer must be melted and flowed to produce low resin assay prepreg. Fiber tow was spread to 75 mm using a venturi slot tunnel. This allowed intimate powder/fiber interaction. Two techniques were examined for getting room temperature powder onto the room temperature fiber surface. Electrostatic powder coating allows the charged powder to cling tenaciously to the fiber, even while heated with a hot air gun to above its melt temperature. A variant of the wet slurry coating process was also explored. The carbon fibers are first wetted with water. Then dry powder is sprinkled onto the wet tow and doctor-rolled between the fibers. The wet structure is then taken onto a heated roll, with hot air guns drying and sinter-melting the powder onto the fiber surfaces. In both cases SEM shows individual fibers coated with powder particles that have melted in place and flowed along the fiber surface via surface tension.

  11. Detection and characterization of smokeless powders with ion mobility spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Neiza M.; Rosario, Santa V.; Hernandez, Samuel P.; Mina, Nairmen

    2005-05-01

    Smokeless Powders are a class of propellants that were developed in the late 19th century to replace black powder; it has been used as an explosive in shotguns, rifles, firearms and many other larger caliber weapons. These propellants can be placed into one of three different classes according to the chemical composition of their primary energetic ingredients. Advance equipment have been designed and used for the detection of explosives devices and compounds potentially energetic. In this research we are developing an analytical methodology to detect different formulation of smokeless powders: Alliant-American Select, Alliant-Bullseye, and Alliant-Red Dot using the ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) technique. We used different surfaces like computer diskettes, CD"s, book covers and plastics to study their adsorption/desorption process. Using micropipettes, we delivered solutions with different amounts of Smokeless Powders from a 1000 ppm solution and deposit it on various types of filters to make a calibration curve. Several amounts of Smokeless Powder were deposited to the different surfaces and collected with filter paper. The samples were desorbed directly from the filter to the instrument inlet port. Subsequently, the percentage of explosive recovered was calculated.

  12. Nasal Absorption of Macromolecules from Powder Formulations and Effects of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose on Their Absorption.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiko; Furubayashi, Tomoyuki; Matsushita, Akifumi; Inoue, Daisuke; Kimura, Shunsuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The nasal absorption of macromolecules from powder formulations and the effect of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) as a pharmaceutical excipient on their absorption were studied. Model macromolecules were fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (average molecular weight of 4.4kDa, FD4) and insulin. The plasma concentration of FD4 after application of the powder containing 50% starch (control) was higher than that after application of the solution, and the absorption from 50% starch powder was enhanced by the substitution of starch with CMC-Na. The fractional absorption of FD4 after administration of the CMC-Na powder formulation was 30% and 40% higher than that after administration from the solution and the starch powder, respectively. The nasal absorption of insulin from the powder and the effect of CMC-Na were similar with those of FD4. The effective absorption of FD4 and insulin after application of powder with CMC-Na could be due to the increase in the nasal residence of FD4 and insulin. No damage in the nasal mucosa or dysfunction of the mucociliary clearance was observed after application of the drug powder and CMC-Na. The present findings indicate that nasal delivery of powder formulations with the addition of CMC-Na as an excipient is a promising approach for improving the nasal absorption of macromolecules. PMID:27598527

  13. Clinical applications of skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nyame, Theodore T; Chiang, H Abraham; Orgill, Dennis P

    2014-08-01

    A unique understanding of the components of mammalian skin has led to the development of numerous skin substitutes. These skin substitutes attempt to compensate for functional and physiologic deficits present in damaged tissue. Skin substitutes, when appropriately applied in optimized settings, offer a promising solution to difficult wound management. The body of literature on skin substitutes increases as the understanding of tissue engineering and molecular biology expands. Given the high cost of these products, future randomized large prospective studies are needed to guide the clinical applications of skin substitutes. PMID:25085091

  14. Nanoliposomal Dry Powder Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Gaurang; Chougule, Mahavir; Singh, Mandip; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2013-01-01

    Liposomal dry powder formulations (DPFs) have proven their superiority over conventional DPFs due to favorably improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of entrapped drugs, and thus, reduced local and systemic toxicities. Nanoliposomal DPFs (NLDPFs) provide stable, high aerosolization efficiency to deep lung, prolonged drug release, slow systemic dilution, and avoid macrophage uptake of encapsulated drug by carrier-based delivery of nano-range liposomes. This chapter describes methods of preparation of nanoliposomes (NLs) and NLDPFs, using various techniques, and their characterization with respect to size distribution, flow behavior, in vitro drug release profile, lung deposition, cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, and in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Some examples have been detailed for better understanding of the methods of preparation and evaluation of NLDPFs by investigators. PMID:19903555

  15. Structural studies of magnesium nitride fluorides by powder neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Brogan, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert W.; Smith, Ronald I.; Gregory, Duncan H.

    2012-01-15

    Samples of ternary nitride fluorides, Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF have been prepared by solid state reaction of Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} at 1323-1423 K and investigated by powder X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} is cubic (space group: Pm3m) and has a structure related to rock-salt MgO, but with one cation site vacant. Mg{sub 2}NF is tetragonal (space group: I4{sub 1}/amd) and has an anti-LiFeO{sub 2} related structure. Both compounds are essentially ionic and form structures in which nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered. The nitride fluorides show temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour between 5 and 300 K. - Graphical abstract: Definitive structures of the ternary magnesium nitride fluorides Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and the lower temperature polymorph of Mg{sub 2}NF have been determined from powder neutron diffraction data. The nitride halides are essentially ionic and exhibit weak temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definitive structures of Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF were determined by neutron diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered in both structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds exhibit weak, temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compounds are essentially ionic with ionicity increasing with F{sup -} content.

  16. Preparation and characterization of cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Saebel, Crystal E.; Carbone, Ryan; Dabous, John R.; Lo, Suet Y.; Siemann, Stefan

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor (CoLF) is highly active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoLF can be prepared by bio-assimilation and direct exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lethal factor binds cobalt tightly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic spectrum of CoLF reveals penta-coordination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of CoLF with thioglycolic acid follows a 2-step mechanism. -- Abstract: Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases near their N-termini. The current report concerns the preparation of cobalt-substituted LF (CoLF) and its characterization by electronic spectroscopy. Two strategies to produce CoLF were explored, including (i) a bio-assimilation approach involving the cultivation of LF-expressing Bacillus megaterium cells in the presence of CoCl{sub 2}, and (ii) direct exchange by treatment of zinc-LF with CoCl{sub 2}. Independent of the method employed, the protein was found to contain one Co{sup 2+} per LF molecule, and was shown to be twice as active as its native zinc counterpart. The electronic spectrum of CoLF suggests the Co{sup 2+} ion to be five-coordinate, an observation similar to that reported for other Co{sup 2+}-substituted gluzincins, but distinct from that documented for the crystal structure of native LF. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies following the exposure of CoLF to thioglycolic acid (TGA) revealed a sequential mechanism of metal removal from LF, which likely involves the formation of an enzyme: Co{sup 2+}:TGA ternary complex prior to demetallation of the active site. CoLF reported herein constitutes the first spectroscopic probe of LF's active site, which may be utilized in future studies to gain further insight into the enzyme's mechanism and inhibitor interactions.

  17. Methodologies in creating skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Mathew N; Jeschke, Marc G; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-09-01

    The creation of skin substitutes has significantly decreased morbidity and mortality of skin wounds. Although there are still a number of disadvantages of currently available skin substitutes, there has been a significant decline in research advances over the past several years in improving these skin substitutes. Clinically most skin substitutes used are acellular and do not use growth factors to assist wound healing, key areas of potential in this field of research. This article discusses the five necessary attributes of an ideal skin substitute. It comprehensively discusses the three major basic components of currently available skin substitutes: scaffold materials, growth factors, and cells, comparing and contrasting what has been used so far. It then examines a variety of techniques in how to incorporate these basic components together to act as a guide for further research in the field to create cellular skin substitutes with better clinical results. PMID:27154041

  18. Structure-substitution limit correlation study on Cr3+ substituted polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modi, K. B.; Sharma, P. U.; Lakhani, V. K.; Vasoya, N. H.; Saija, K. G.; Pathak, T. K.; Zankat, K. B.

    2016-05-01

    Polycrystalline samples of Cr3+ - substituted yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12) system with general chemical formula, Y3Fe5-xCrxO12, x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 were synthesized by double sintering ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry. The Rietveld fitted X-ray diffraction patterns analysis revealed mono phase formation for x = 0.0 - 0.4 compositions while x = 0.6 composition possesses mixed phase character. The observed substitution limit has been discussed in the light of ionic size of substituent, electrostatic energy, electronic configuration and synthesis parameters. These observations strongly suggest that the electronic configuration of Cr3+, which is favorable to the formation of d2sp3 (octahedral) type bonds, must be important. In the case of Cr3+, the substitution does not appear to proceed well for x much greater than 0.5, this limitation probably is a consequence of the strong preference of a smaller ion Cr3+, for a larger octahedral site which quickly leads to a condition not comparable with the requirement of the structure. The distribution of cations, mean ionic radii and theoretical lattice constant values have been determined.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10034 - Substituted pyridine coupled with diazotized substituted nitrobenzonitrile, diazotized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted pyridine coupled with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10034 Substituted pyridine coupled with diazotized substituted... as substituted pyridine coupled with diazotized substituted nitrobenzonitrile, diazotized...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10034 - Substituted pyridine coupled with diazotized substituted nitrobenzonitrile, diazotized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted pyridine coupled with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10034 Substituted pyridine coupled with diazotized substituted... as substituted pyridine coupled with diazotized substituted nitrobenzonitrile, diazotized...

  1. Plasma Influence on Tungsten Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A.; Begrambekova, S.; Grunin, A.

    Modifications of tungsten powder comprised of micro particles with dimensions: 1 ± 0.2 μm and 5 ± 1.5 μm ("small" and «large" particles) under the influence of heating, electric field and hydrogen- and argon ion irradiation are investigated in this work. The processes in irradiated powder are described and discussed. Among them there are powder outgassing, particle emission from the powder surface in the electric field, pasting of small particles all over the large ones, integration of the adhered small particles and formation of the uniform layer around the groups of large particles, cone growth on uniform layers, formation of volumetric chains of sticking together tungsten particles and their transformations. Driving forces and processes providing different types of powder modifications and the role of each of them in the specific phenomena are discussed.

  2. Polyimides comprising substituted benzidines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A new class of polyimides and copolyimides made from substituted benzidines and aromatic dianhydrides and other aromatic diamines. The polyimides obtained with said diamines are distinguished by excellent thermal, excellent solubility, excellent electrical properties such as very low dielectric constants, excellent clarity and mechanical properties making the polyimides ideally suited as coating materials for microelectronic apparatii, as membranes for selective molecular or gas separation, as fibers in molecular composites, as high tensile strength, high compression strength fibers, as film castable coatings, or as fabric components.

  3. Trifluoromethyl-substituted polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Current work sponsored by the grant at Southwest Texas State University is directed toward the synthesis and characterization of: (1) N-alkylated polyamides derived from o-fluorinated diacids; (2) highly fluorinated polyethers; (3) polyesters derived from 2-hydroxy-2-propyl substituted arenes and/or 2,5-difluoroterephthalic acid; and (4) silicon-containing fluoropolymers. Work during the period from 1 July to 31 Dec. 1993 focused primarily on items 3 and 4 and on the development of a phosphorus containing modification of '12F-PEK.'

  4. Physical and electromagnetic properties of nanosized Gd substituted Mg-Mn ferrites by solution combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lwin, Nilar; Ahmad Fauzi, M. N.; Sreekantan, Srimala; Othman, Radzali

    2015-03-01

    Nanosized powders of Gd substituted Mg-Mn ferrites synthesized by solution combustion method using high purity metal nitrates are presented. These powders were calcined, compacted and sintered at 1250 °C. The powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of Gd substitution on phase formation, microstructure and bulk density was also studied. Gd2O3 facilitates the formation of a secondary phase on the grain boundary which suppresses abnormal grain growth. The bulk density was found to decrease from 4.26 to 3.38 g/cm3 with an increase of Gd substitution, but the electrical resistivity was increased. Ferrite with a low dielectric constant in the range of 6-12 was observed and there was no maximum dielectric loss in the frequency range measured to 1 GHz. A decrease in saturation magnetization was also observed by a small fraction of Gd substitution. Correlation between magnetic properties and physical properties were discussed.

  5. How black holes stay black

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzel, Reinhard

    1998-01-01

    The dimness of the black holes located at the center of galaxies surprises astrophysicists, but a possible explanation has been found in the behavior of the plasma they consume. In a hot accretion flow, the gas is ionized to form a plasma. The heavy ions carry most of the mass, and thus of the energy, whereas the electrons produce most of the radiation. But, crucially, in a low-density flow the temperatures of the ions and of the electrons may decouple. Consequently, most of the gravitational energy would be viscously converted into thermal energy of the ions and not radiated away by the electrons. Instead, the gravitational energy is carried with the flow across the event horizon of the black hole. Such a flow leads to a low radiation efficiency even in a highly dissipative accretion disk.

  6. New Bismuth-Substituted Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Bone Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Bargan, Ana Maria; Luca, Constantin

    2015-11-01

    New bismuth-substituted hydroxyapatite [Ca10- x Bi x (PO4)6(OH)2 where x = 0-2.5] nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method from aqueous solutions. The structural properties of the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with x-ray analysis, x-ray powder diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. The results confirm that bismuth ions have been incorporated into the hydroxyapatite lattice. The prepared nanocrystalline powders consisted of hydroxyapatite as single phase with hexagonal structure, crystal sizes smaller than 60 nm and (Bi + Ca)/P atomic ratio of around 1.67. The hydroxyapatite samples doped with Bi have mesoporous textures with pores size of around 2 nm and specific surface area in the range of 12-25 m2/g. The Bi-substituted hydroxyapatite powders are more effective against Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria than Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  7. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  8. On Responsible Black Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrakhan, Louis

    1985-01-01

    Black leaders in the United States must unite among themselves and work for the Black community. Black elected officials should know the will of their constituency before taking a particular stance. Finally, Black leaders should ally themselves with international leaders friendly to the cause of American Blacks. (GC)

  9. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  10. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, R.

    1998-08-04

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

  11. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  12. powder in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ya-Ting; Wu, Chao-Hsien; Shen, Pouyan; Chen, Shuei-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Submicron-sized NiAl2+ X O4 fragments and nanocondensates of Ni-doped γ-Al2O3, Al-doped NiO and β-Ni(OH)2 were synthesized simultaneously by pulsed laser ablation of NiAl2O4 powder in water and characterized using X-ray/electron diffraction and optical spectroscopy. The NiAl2+ X O4 is Al-enriched spinel with dislocations and subgrains. The Ni-doped γ-Al2O3 spinel has paracrystalline distribution (i.e., with fair constant longitudinal spacing, but variable relative lateral translations) of defect clusters and intimate intergrowth of θ-Al2O3 and 2x(3) commensurate superstructure. The Al-doped NiO has perfect cubo-octahedron shape and as small as 5 nm in size. The β-Ni(OH)2 and 1-D turbostratic hydroxide lamellae occurred as a matrix of these oxide nanoparticles. The colloidal suspension containing the composite phases has a minimum band gap of 5.3 eV for potential photocatalytic applications.

  13. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1996-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  14. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

    1996-01-02

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

  15. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1995-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  16. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1994-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  17. Shock compaction of molybdenum powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

    1983-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

  18. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOEpatents

    Janney, M.A.

    1990-01-16

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, where after the product may be sintered.

  19. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  20. Explicit Substitutions and All That

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayala-Rincon, Mauricio; Munoz, Cesar; Busnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Explicit substitution calculi are extensions of the Lambda-calculus where the substitution mechanism is internalized into the theory. This feature makes them suitable for implementation and theoretical study of logic-based tools such as strongly typed programming languages and proof assistant systems. In this paper we explore new developments on two of the most successful styles of explicit substitution calculi: the lambda(sigma)- and lambda(s(e))-calculi.

  1. Explicit Substitutions and All That

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayala-Rincon, Mauricio; Munoz, Cesar

    2000-01-01

    Explicit substitution calculi are extensions of the lambda-calculus where the substitution mechanism is internalized into the theory. This feature makes them suitable for implementation and theoretical study of logic-based tools such as strongly typed programming languages and proof assistant systems. In this paper we explore new developments on two of the most successful styles of explicit substitution calculi: the lambda sigma- and lambda S(e)-calculi.

  2. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powder for oral bone defects treatment applications.

    PubMed

    Saqaei, Mahboobe; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Edris, Hossein; Mortazavi, Vajihesadat

    2015-11-01

    Bone defects which emerge around dental implants are often seen when implants are placed in areas with insufficient alveolar bone, in extraction sockets, or around failing implants. Bone regeneration in above-mentioned defects using of bone grafts or bone substitutes may cure the long-term prognoses of dental implants. Biocompatibility, bioactivity and osteogenic properties are key factors affecting the applications of a bone substitute. This study was aimed at preparation, characterization, biocompatibility and bioactivity evaluation of the bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powder as a desired candidate for oral bone defect treatments. Nanocomposite powders containing 58S bioactive glass and different amounts of forsterite nanopowder were synthesized in situ by sol-gel technique. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite powders and their cytotoxicity assessment was performed via MTT test. Bioactivity assessment was done by immersing the prepared powder in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Results showed that nanocomposite powders containing forsterite with crystallite size of 20-50nm were successfully fabricated by calcination at 600°C. The prepared bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powders revealed high in vitro biocompatibility; besides, the nanocomposite containing 20wt.% forsterite showed a substantial increase in the cell viability compared with control groups. During immersion in SBF, the formation of apatite layer confirmed the bioactivity of bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powders. According to the results, the fabricated nanocomposite powders can be introduced as a promising candidate for oral bone imperfection treatments and hard tissue mend. PMID:26249608

  3. Trifluoromethyl-substituted tetrathiafulvalenes

    PubMed Central

    Jeannin, Olivier; Barrière, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Summary A series of tetrathiafulvalenes functionalized with one or two trifluoromethyl electron-withdrawing groups (EWG) is obtained by phosphite coupling involving CF3-substituted 1,3-dithiole-2-one derivatives. The relative effects of the EWG such as CF3, CO2Me and CN on the TTF core were investigated from a combination of structural, electrochemical, spectrochemical and theoretical investigations. Electrochemical data confirm the good correlations between the first oxidation potential of the TTF derivatives and the σmeta Hammet parameter, thus in the order CO2Me < CF3 < CN, indicating that, in any case, the mesomeric effect of the substituents is limited. Besides, crystal structure determinations show that the deformation of the unsymmetrically substituted dithiole rings, when bearing one, or two different EWG, and attributed to the mesomeric effect of ester or nitrile groups, is not notably modified or counter-balanced by the introduction of a neighboring trifluoromethyl group. DFT calculations confirm these observations and also show that the low energy HOMO–LUMO absorption band found in nitrile or ester-substituted TTFs is not found in TTF-CF3, where, as in TTF itself, the low energy absorption band is essentially attributable to a HOMO→LUMO + 1 transition. Despite relatively high oxidation potentials, these donor molecules with CF3 EWG can be involved in charge transfer complexes or cation radical salts, as reported here for the CF3-subsituted EDT-TTF donor molecule. A neutral charge transfer complex with TCNQ, (EDT-TTF-CF3)2(TCNQ) was isolated and characterized through alternated stacks of EDT-TTF-CF3 dimers and TCNQ in the solid state. A radical cation salt of EDT-TTF-CF3 is also obtained upon electrocrystallisation in the presence of the FeCl4 − anion. In this salt, formulated as (EDT-TTF-CF3)(FeCl4), the (EDT-TTF-CF3)+• radical cations are associated two-by-two into centrosymmetric dyads with a strong pairing of the radical species in a singlet

  4. Trifluoromethyl-substituted tetrathiafulvalenes.

    PubMed

    Jeannin, Olivier; Barrière, Frédéric; Fourmigué, Marc

    2015-01-01

    A series of tetrathiafulvalenes functionalized with one or two trifluoromethyl electron-withdrawing groups (EWG) is obtained by phosphite coupling involving CF3-substituted 1,3-dithiole-2-one derivatives. The relative effects of the EWG such as CF3, CO2Me and CN on the TTF core were investigated from a combination of structural, electrochemical, spectrochemical and theoretical investigations. Electrochemical data confirm the good correlations between the first oxidation potential of the TTF derivatives and the σmeta Hammet parameter, thus in the order CO2Me < CF3 < CN, indicating that, in any case, the mesomeric effect of the substituents is limited. Besides, crystal structure determinations show that the deformation of the unsymmetrically substituted dithiole rings, when bearing one, or two different EWG, and attributed to the mesomeric effect of ester or nitrile groups, is not notably modified or counter-balanced by the introduction of a neighboring trifluoromethyl group. DFT calculations confirm these observations and also show that the low energy HOMO-LUMO absorption band found in nitrile or ester-substituted TTFs is not found in TTF-CF3, where, as in TTF itself, the low energy absorption band is essentially attributable to a HOMO→LUMO + 1 transition. Despite relatively high oxidation potentials, these donor molecules with CF3 EWG can be involved in charge transfer complexes or cation radical salts, as reported here for the CF3-subsituted EDT-TTF donor molecule. A neutral charge transfer complex with TCNQ, (EDT-TTF-CF3)2(TCNQ) was isolated and characterized through alternated stacks of EDT-TTF-CF3 dimers and TCNQ in the solid state. A radical cation salt of EDT-TTF-CF3 is also obtained upon electrocrystallisation in the presence of the FeCl4 (-) anion. In this salt, formulated as (EDT-TTF-CF3)(FeCl4), the (EDT-TTF-CF3)(+•) radical cations are associated two-by-two into centrosymmetric dyads with a strong pairing of the radical species in a singlet state

  5. Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Black Sea in eastern Russia is experiencing an ongoing phytoplankton bloom. This image, the most recent in a series that began in early may, shows the waters to be even more colorful than before. part of the increased brightness may be due to the presence of sun glint , especially in the center of the sea. However, more organisms appear to be present as well, their photosynthetic pigments reflecting different wavelengths of light.This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured on June 15, 2002.

  6. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Black nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of the black nightshade plant. This article is for information only. ... Poisons are found in the black nightshade plant, especially in the unripened fruit and leaves.

  7. Ceramic powder for sintering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akiya, H.; Saito, A.

    1984-01-01

    Surface activity of ceramic powders such as MgO and Al2O3, for use in sintering with sp. emphasis on their particle size, shape, particle size distribution, packing, and coexisting additives and impurities are reviewed.

  8. Rotary powder feed through apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

  9. Luminescence of powdered uranium glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eubanks, A. G.; Mcgarrity, J. M.; Silverman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Measurement of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence efficiencies in powdered borosilicate glasses having different particle size and different uranium content. Excitation with 100 to 350 keV electrons and with 253.7 nm light was found to produce identical absolute radiant exitance spectra in powdered samples. The most efficient glass was one containing 29.4 wt% B2O3, 58.8 wt% SiO2, 9.8 wt% Na2O and 2.0 wt% UO2.

  10. Method for Production of Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M. (Inventor); Sircar, Subhasish (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for producing oxides of metals and of metal alloys. The metal or alloy is placed in an oxygen atmosphere in a combustion chamber and ignited. Products of the combustion include one or more oxides of the metal or alloy in powdered form. In one embodiment of the invention a feeder is provided whereby material to be oxidized by combustion can be achieved into a combustion chamber continuously. A product remover receives the powder product of the combustion.