Sample records for black smoker hydrothermal

  1. Black Smokers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This webpage contains a brief introduction to the discovery of hydrothermal systems and black smokers. Within the webpage are links to information on gigantic tube worms, polychaete worms, oceans, and extreme environments. This site also provides a list of hydrothermal systems, relevant links to organizations, laboratories and observatories, WebQuests, and other websites with further information on hydrothermal systems. As part of the Environmental Literacy Council site, this webpage also contains links to other resources with environmental content, including air climate, land, water, ecosystems, energy, food, and environment and society.

  2. The Sound Generated by Mid-Ocean Ridge Black Smoker Hydrothermal Vents

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Timothy J.; Wilcock, William S.D.; Barclay, Andrew H.; Parsons, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrothermal flow through seafloor black smoker vents is typically turbulent and vigorous, with speeds often exceeding 1 m/s. Although theory predicts that these flows will generate sound, the prevailing view has been that black smokers are essentially silent. Here we present the first unambiguous field recordings showing that these vents radiate significant acoustic energy. The sounds contain a broadband component and narrowband tones which are indicative of resonance. The amplitude of the broadband component shows tidal modulation which is indicative of discharge rate variations related to the mechanics of tidal loading. Vent sounds will provide researchers with new ways to study flow through sulfide structures, and may provide some local organisms with behavioral or navigational cues. PMID:17205137

  3. Black Smokers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Svitil, Kathy A.

    This brief web article features black smokers and discusses the history of their discovery, the geologic processes creating black smokers, and the various life forms inhabiting this extreme environment. As part of the PBS "Savage Earth" series, the site contains animations of basic geologic processes, QuickTime videos and additional web articles discussing the ring of fire, the Kola well in Russia, the internal structure of the Earth, earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. This website also provides a link to the PBS home, where other PBS online programs can be found. The QuickTime program is required to view the videos and can be downloaded free of charge on site.

  4. High-resolution surveys along the hot spot–affected Gálapagos Spreading Center: 3. Black smoker discoveries and the implications for geological controls on hydrothermal activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel M. Haymon; Scott M. White; Edward T. Baker; Peter G. Anderson; Ken C. Macdonald; Joseph A. Resing

    2008-01-01

    To explore effects of hot spots on mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems, we conducted nested sonar, hydrothermal plume, and near-bottom photographic surveys along the portion of the Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC) influenced by the Galápagos hot spot, from longitude 95°–89.5°W. We report the first active high-temperature black smokers to be found on the GSC, at longitudes 94°4.5?W and 91°56.2?–54.3?W; describe two

  5. Microearthquakes in the black smoker hydrothermal field, East Pacific Rise at 21/sup 0/N

    SciTech Connect

    Riedesel, M.; Orcutt, J.A.; MacDonald, K.C.; McClain, J.S.

    1982-12-10

    In July and August 1980, an array of five ocean bottom seismographs was deployed within 3 km of the 350 /sup 0/C hydrothermal vents at the Rivera submersible experiment (RISE) site at 21/sup 0/N, on the East Pacific Rise. Two of these instruments were placed within 600 m of the vents, using a transponder navigation network. The array detected four basic types of events. The first type consisted of local, very small microearthquakes. Locations obtained for 11 of these events place three within 1 km of the vents, with the others elsewhere along the rise crest. They appear to originate either from movement on the faults in the area or from the hydrothermal system beneath this area. A study of the S-P times of this type indicates a maximum hypocentral depth of 2-3 km, implying a similar limit to the depth of hydrothermal circulation and brittle fracturing in the vicinity of the vents. The second type of event found consisted of emergent earthquakes that have many of the characteristics of volcanic harmonic tremor. The frequency of these events falls in the 1-5 Hz range and are similar in appearance to those seen at Mount St. Helens prior to and during its May 1980 eruption. They may be either hydrothermal or volcanic in origin. The third type of event produced a very monochromatic, high-frequency seismogram, with the energy concentrated at 20 Hz. These events also appear to have a local origin.

  6. Distribution and solubility limits of trace elements in hydrothermal black smoker sulfides: An in-situ LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Viljoen, Fanus; Petersen, Sven; Vorster, Clarisa

    2015-06-01

    The key for understanding the trace metal inventory of currently explored VHMS deposits lies in the understanding of trace element distribution during the formation of these deposits on the seafloor. Recrystallization processes already occurring at the seafloor might liberate trace elements to later hydrothermal alteration and removement. To investigate the distribution and redistribution of trace elements we analyzed sulfide minerals from 27 black smoker samples derived from three different seafloor hydrothermal fields: the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the basaltic-hosted Turtle Pits field on the mid-atlantic ridge, and the felsic-hosted PACMANUS field in the Manus basin (Papua New Guinea). The sulfide samples were analyzed by mineral liberation analyser for the modal abundances of sulfide minerals, by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for As, Sb, Se, Te, and Au. The samples consist predominantly of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, galena and minor isocubanite as well as inclusions of tetrahedrite-tennantite. Laser ablation spectra were used to evaluate the solubility limits of trace elements in different sulfide minerals at different textures. The solubility of As, Sb, and Au in pyrite decreases with increasing degree of recrystallization. When solubility limits are reached these elements occur as inclusions in the different sulfide phases or they are expelled from the mineral phase. Most ancient VHMS deposits represent felsic or bimodal felsic compositions. Samples from the felsic-hosted PACMANUS hydrothermal field at the Pual ridge (Papua New Guinea) show high concentrations of Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Hg, and Te, which is likely the result of an additional trace element contribution derived from magmatic volatiles. Co-precipitating pyrite and chalcopyrite are characterized by equal contents of Te, while chalcopyrite that replaced pyrite (presumably during black smoker growth) is enriched in Te relative to pyrite. These higher Te concentrations may be related to higher fluid temperature.

  7. In-situ Chemistry of Hydrothermal Fluids from Black Smokers in Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.; Zhang, Z.; Foustoukos, D.; Pester, N. J.

    2005-12-01

    After an off-axis earthquake swarm in 1999, dramatic changes were observed in vent fluids of Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Three month latter, we also recorded this sudden variation using a high temperature in-situ chemical sensor. The results at that time indicated some of the vent temperatures as high as 374°C. This change was also characterized by relatively high in-situ pH, high dissolved H2, and H2S concentrations in the fluids that were in excess of 5, 0.7 mmol/kg and 20 mmol/kg respectively. In order to further track time dependent changes over the past 6 years, we revisited Main Endeavour Field during the recent AT 11-31 cruise in Aug.~Sept. 2005. The high temperature chemical sensor was again used on selected dives with DSV Alvin to conduct in-situ measurements of pH, dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations along with temperatures. The data were obtained in a real time mode of 3 seconds per-reading from a series of measurements at high temperature conditions in the depth of 2200 m. Conventional gas-tight samples were also collected for verification and further study. In this study, Puffer, Sully and Bastille black smoker vent sites were specifically investigated owing to the high fluid temperatures that characterize these vents in comparison with other vents in the area. The measured temperatures for these vents were 362°C, 358°C, and 361°C respectively, which were generally about 20~30°C higher than the others currently in the area, but approximately 10°C lower than the highest temperatures measured in the aftermath of the 1999 seismic-magmatic event. Although the drops in vent temperatures were not substantial, the measured in-situ chemistry showed large departures from previous reported data. The in-situ pH values in these vents ranged from 4.43 to 4.89, in comparison with values above 5 in 1999. This difference may be linked directly to the decrease in temperature. The measured in-situ dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations were 0.12~0.18 mmol/kg and 7.96~8.90 mmol/kg, respectively. These concentrations clearly demonstrate substantially lower values than reported in the past, which cannot be simply the result of the observed decrease in temperature of the MEF vent fluids. These data reveal a strong departure from the pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite equilibrium state as observed in 1999 to more oxidizing conditions, consistent with the assemblage of anhydrite-anorthite-clinozoisite. Compared to dissolved H2, the decrease in H2S concentration is less obvious, but still significant in comparison with previous data. From these in-situ measurements, we suggest that the MEF vent systems have not yet fully returned to a pre-seismic condition. The comparatively high temperature and high dissolved H2S may be the cause for the current dense faunal communities observed most recently at the vent sites.

  8. Black Smokers: Life Forms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Museum of Natural History

    This educational web site features life forms of deep sea hydrothermal systems. Hosted by the American Museum of Natural History, this site offers a brief introduction of the community and then focuses on Vestimentiferan tube worms, Vescomyid clams, and Bathymodiolid mussels. The site includes interactive games, teacher resources, a glossary, and more.

  9. ELSEVIER Earth and Planetary Science Letters 167 (1999) 335345 Trace element distributions in the chalcopyrite wall of a black smoker

    E-print Network

    1999-01-01

    in the chalcopyrite wall of a black smoker chimney: insights from laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass distributions within the chalcopyrite wall of an immature black smoker chimney. The data are the first nucleation. Precipitation of chalcopyrite produces a sulphide conduit lining, and advection of hydrothermal

  10. Near-field entrainment in black smoker plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. E.; Germanovich, L. N.; Lowell, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we study the entrainment rate of the ambient fluid into a plume in the extreme conditions of hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths that would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Specifically, we investigate the flow regime in the lower parts of three black smoker plumes in the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge discharging at temperatures of 249°C, 333°C, and 336°C and a pressure of 21 MPa. Such flow conditions are typical for ocean floor hydrothermal venting but would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. The centerline temperature was measured at several heights in the plume above the orifice. Using a previously developed turbine flow meter, we also measured the mean flow velocity at the orifice. Measurements were conducted during dives 4452 and 4518 on the submersible Alvin. Using these measurements, we obtained a range of 0.064 - 0.068 for values of the entrainment coefficient ?, which is assumed constant near the orifice. This is half the value of ? ? 0.12 - 0.13 that would be expected for plume flow regimes based on the existing laboratory results and field measurements in lower temperature and pressure conditions. In fact, ? = 0.064 - 0.068 is even smaller than the value of ? ? 0.075 characteristic of jet flow regimes and appears to be the lowest reported in the literature. Assuming that the mean value ? = 0.066 is typical for hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths, we then characterized the flow regimes of 63 black smoker plumes located on the Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Work with the obtained data is ongoing, but current results indicate that approximately half of these black smokers are lazy in the sense that their plumes exhibit momentum deficits compared to the pure plume flow that develops as the plume rises. The remaining half produces forced plumes that show the momentum excess compared to the pure plumes. The lower value of the entrainment coefficient has important implications for measurements of mass and heat output at mid-oceanic ridges. For example, determining heat output based on the maximum height of plume rise has become a common method of measuring heat flux produced by hydrothermal circulation at mid-oceanic ridges. The fundamental theory for the rise and spreading of turbulent buoyant plumes suggests that the heat output in this method is proportional to ?2 and is, therefore, sensitive to the value of ?. The considerably different entrainment rates in lazy and forced black smoker plumes may be important for understanding larvae transport mechanism in the life cycle of macrofauna near hydrothermal vents.

  11. Distribution of Archaea in a Black Smoker Chimney Structure

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Ken; Komatsu, Tetsushi; Inagaki, Fumio; Horikoshi, Koki

    2001-01-01

    Archaeal community structures in microhabitats in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney structure were evaluated through the combined use of culture-independent molecular analyses and enrichment culture methods. A black smoker chimney was obtained from the PACMANUS site in the Manus Basin near Papua New Guinea, and subsamples were obtained from vertical and horizontal sections. The elemental composition of the chimney was analyzed in different subsamples by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, indicating that zinc and sulfur were major components while an increased amount of elemental oxygen in exterior materials represented the presence of oxidized materials on the outer surface of the chimney. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that a shift in archaeal ribotype structure occurred in the chimney structure. Through sequencing of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clones from archaeal rDNA clone libraries, it was demonstrated that the archaeal communities in the chimney structure consisted for the most part of hyperthermophilic members and extreme halophiles and that the distribution of such extremophiles in different microhabitats of the chimney varied. The results of the culture-dependent analysis supported in part the view that changes in archaeal community structures in these microhabitats are associated with the geochemical and physical dynamics in the black smoker chimney. PMID:11472939

  12. The acute tobacco withdrawal syndrome among black smokers.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Waters, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Black smokers have greater difficulty quitting tobacco than White smokers, but the mechanisms underlying between-race differences in smoking cessation are not clear. One possibility is that Black smokers experience greater acute withdrawal than Whites. We investigated whether Black (n = 104) and White smokers (n = 99) differed in abstinence-induced changes in self-report, physiological, and cognitive performance measures. Smokers not wishing to quit completed two counterbalanced experimental sessions. Before one session, they abstained from smoking for at least 12 hr. They smoked normally before the other session. Black smokers reported smaller abstinence-induced changes on a number of subjective measures including the total score of the 10-item Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (QSU) and the total score of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS). However, on most subjective measures, and on all objective measures, there were no between-race differences in abstinence-induced change scores. Moreover, Black participants did not report lower QSU and WSWS ratings at the abstinent session, but they did experience significantly higher QSU and WSWS ratings at the nonabstinent session. Abstinence-induced changes in subjective, physiological, and cognitive measures in White smokers were similar for smokers of nonflavored and menthol-flavored cigarettes. There was no evidence that Black smokers experienced greater acute tobacco withdrawal than Whites. To the contrary, Black participants experienced smaller abstinence-induced changes in self-reported craving and withdrawal on some measures. Racial differences in smoking cessation are unlikely to be explained by acute withdrawal. PMID:23528199

  13. A thermodynamic explanation for black smoker temperatures

    PubMed

    Jupp; Schultz

    2000-02-24

    There is a remarkable difference between the maximum temperature of black smoker effluent (350 degrees C-400 degrees C) and the temperature of the solidifying magma which heats it (approximately 1,200 degrees C). It has been suspected for some time that the nonlinear thermodynamic properties of water might be responsible for this discrepancy. Here, we translate this hypothesis into a physical model, by examining the internal temperature structure of convection cells in a porous medium. We demonstrate that, at pressures appropriate to seafloor crust, plumes of pure water form naturally at approximately 400 degrees C for any heat source with temperature greater than approximately 500 degrees C. Higher temperatures are confined to a boundary layer at the base of the convection cell, where the flow is horizontal. The phenomenon is explained analytically using the thermodynamic properties of water, and is illustrated by numerical simulations. Our model predicts the existence of the high-temperature 'reaction zone' found in ophiolites and suggests that vent temperatures will remain steady as magma chambers solidify and cool. PMID:10706282

  14. Particulate DNA in smoker fluids: Evidence for existence of microbial populations in hot hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Straube, W.L.; Colwell, R.R. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA) Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (USA)); Deming, J.W.; Baross, J.A. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Somerville, C.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))

    1990-05-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary study of hydrothermal vents on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, we used the submersible ALVIN to collect 57 fluid samples from 17 different hot vents (smokers and flanges) and their environs for the purpose of extracting particulate DNA. Particulate material concentrated from these samples was lysed enzymatically (enz) and by a combination of enzyme and French press treatment (fp). Concentrations of partially purified DNA recovered from these lysates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Ambient seawater surrounding the vents was found to contain low DNA concentrations, 0.18 to 0.32 ng of DNA per ml, while low-temperature vent samples yielded significantly higher concentrations of 0.37 to 2.12 ng of DNA per ml. Although DNA recovery values from superheated (210 to 345{degree}C) flange samples were not significantly different from ambient seawater values, most of the superheated (174 to 357{degree}C) smoker fluid samples contained particulate DNA in concentrations too high to be attributable to entrained seawater. Detailed sampling at one smoker site demonstrated not only the existence of significant levels of particulate DNA in the superheated smoker fluids but also the presence of an elevated microbial population in the buoyant plume 20 to 100 m above the smoker. These results underscore the heterogeneity of smoker environments within a given hydrothermal vent fluid and indicate that microorganisms exist in some superheated fluids.

  15. ronments: sandy submarine sediments, venting water, and material from black smokers from the East Pacific Rise

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    continental solfataric areas at Yellowstone National Park, USA (Obsidian Pool), Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, designated LPC33 (black smoker fragment), and two continental samples: Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National

  16. Laboratory models of growing flanges, and a comparison with other growth mechanisms of “black smoker” chimneys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Turner

    1995-01-01

    The first measurements of the structure of black smoker chimneys suggested that they form initially by the precipitation of anhydrite from seawater, because of the reverse solubility effect due to the heating of its surroundings by the effluent, rather than directly from the less dense hot plume. This initial growth is followed by replacement of the solid anhydrite framework, successively

  17. Loki's Castle: Discovery and geology of a black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Lilley, M. D.; Barriga, F. J.; Früh-Green, G.; Nakamura, K.

    2010-12-01

    Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting at the ultraslow spreading and magma starved parts of the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge (AMOR) have been unsuccessful. A black smoker vent field was eventually discovered at the Mohns-Knipovich bend at 73.5°N in 2008, and the field was revisited in 2009 and 2010. The Loki’s Castle vent field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge that is bordered by a tectonic terrain dominated by core complexes to the NW, and a ridge flank that is buried by sediments from the Bear Island Fan to the SE. Fluid compositions are anomalous to other basalt-hosted fields and indicate interactions with sediments at depths. The vent field is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting occurs at ultraslow spreading ridges despite the strongly reduced magmatic heat budget. ROV surveys have shown that venting occurs in two areas separated by around 100 m. Micro-bathymetry acquired by a Hugin AUV documents that two 20-30 tall mounds that coalesce at the base have developed around the vent sites. The micro-bathymetry also shows that the venting is located above two normal faults that define the NW margin of a rift that runs along the crest of the volcano. The black smoker fluids reach 317 °C, with an end-member SiO2 content of 16 mmol/kg. End-member chlorinity is around 85% of seawater suggesting that the fluids have phase-separated at depth. The fluid compositions indicate that the rock-water reactions occur around 2 km below the seafloor. The crustal thickness is estimated to be 4 +/- 0.5 km in the area. Whereas the depth of the reaction zone is comparable with faster spreading ridges, the fraction of crust cooled convectively by hydrothermal circulation is two times that of vent fields at ridges with normal crustal thickness.

  18. Solid fuel production by hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shimin; Li, Xianglan; Fan, Juan; Chang, Jie

    2012-04-01

    Formaldehyde was used as a polymerization agent to perform hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor for solid fuel production from 220 to 285°C. Compared to hydrochar prepared without formaldehyde, hydrochar produced in the presence of a 2.8wt.% formaldehyde solution (hydrochar-F) had 1.27-2.13 times higher yield, 1.02-1.36 times higher heating value (HHV), 1.20-2.31 times higher C recovery efficiency, 1.20-2.44 times higher total energy recovery efficiency, 0.51-0.64 times lower sulfur content, and 0.48-0.89 times lower ash content. The HHV of hydrochar-Fs ranged from 2.2×10(4) to 3.0×10(4)kJ/kg, while the HHV of hydrochar-F produced at 285°C was 1.90 times greater than that of the raw material (black liquor solid). These considerable improvements indicated that formaldehyde was an effective additive in hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor. PMID:22330593

  19. A Serpentinite-Hosted Ecosystem: The Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    organisms that are typical of volcanically driven systems. In 1979, the world was astounded by the discovery any hydrothermal system found to date, hosting diffusely venting carbonate monoliths towering tens of hydrothermal chimneys and black smoker vents driven by the cooling of magma beneath mid-ocean ridges and host

  20. Rare earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal deposits from the active TAG Mound, 26°N Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel A. Mills; Henry Elderfield

    1995-01-01

    The rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of various phases from the active TAG hydrothermal mound has been examined and related to their mineralogy and fluid chemistry. The mound deposits range from black and white smoker chimneys, massive anhydrite\\/sulphide mixtures, oxides, and ochres. All phases, except black smoker chimney anhydrite, demonstrate a positive Eu anomaly when normalised to chondrite REE values.

  1. Diversity of microbial communities of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeschke, A.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Früh-Green, G.

    2010-12-01

    Here we present an organic geochemical study of Loki’s Castle, a black smoker field recently discovered at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around 73.2°N. Located at the Mohn-Knipovich Ridge, which is one of the slowest spreading ridge segments on Earth, Loki’s Castle is the most northerly major hydrothermal vent field known to date. The vent field is composed of five actively venting (320°C) black-smoker chimneys that tower on top of a large mound of hydrothermal sulfide deposits. Loki’s Castle is a basalt-hosted hydrothermal system, but high methane and ammonium contents in the vent fluids strongly indicate a sedimentary component below the volcanic ridge. In 2009, another site of low-temperature hydrothermal venting hosting numerous barite chimneys was discovered in the vicinity of the black smokers, which probably results from subsurface mixing of diffuse hydrothermal fluid with seawater. In our study, variations in microbial communities associated with the formation of actively venting, sulfide and sulfate chimneys in this essentially unexplored ultraslow spreading ridge system are assessed based on biomarker lipid and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses. Lipid extracts from an active, high-temperature sulfide chimney yielded abundant archaeal di- and tetraether lipids as well as irregular isoprenoidal hydrocarbons (PMIs) that are associated with archaeal methanogens and methanotrophs. Predominant archaeal biomarker lipids include archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as well as glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) containing 0-4 cyclopentyl moieties. In addition, GDGTs with an additional covalent bond between the isoprenoid hydrocarbon chains, so-called H-shaped GDGTs, containing 0-4 cyclopentyl rings were also found to be abundant components and are indicative of hyperthermophilic methanogens. Biomarkers characteristic of eukaryotes (sterols) and bacteria (fatty acids and hopanoids) were less prevalent in the sulfide chimney samples indicating a predominance of archaeal communities within the warmer interior zones of the chimney walls that are dominated by the iron sulfides sphalerite and pyrrhotite. The SiO2-bearing cooler outer parts of a chimney revealed predominantly bacterial fatty acids, whereas archaeal GDGTs were detected only to a minor extent. In contrast, the low-temperature barite-bearing vents located at the slope of the massive sulfide mound revealed the dominance of a range of unusual branched and unsaturated fatty acids that are specific for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). PMIs, archaeol, and sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as typically observed in methanogenic and methanotrophic archaea (AOM) have also been detected, although in much lower abundances. Ongoing compound-specific ?13C analyses will give additional information about carbon sources and metabolism of microbial consortia inhabiting actively venting sulfide and barite chimneys at Loki’s castle.

  2. Visual Observations and Geologic Settings of the Newly-Discovered Black Smoker Vent Sites Across the Galapagos Ridge-Hotspot Intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, P.; Haymon, R.; MacDonald, K.; White, S.

    2006-12-01

    Nearly one-fifth of the global mid-ocean ridge is hotspot-affected, yet very little is known about how hotspots affect quantity and distribution of high-temperature hydrothermal vents along the ridge. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, acoustic and plume sensor surveys were conducted across the Galapagos ridge- hotspot intersection, lon. 94.5ºW- lon. 89.5ºW, to map fine scale geologic features and locate hydrothermal plumes emanating from the ridge crest. Where significant plumes were detected, the Medea fiber-optic camera sled was used successfully to find and image high-temperature vents on the seafloor. With Medea we discovered and imaged the first active and recently extinct black smokers known along the entire Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC), and documented the geologic setting of these vents. The Medea survey imaged numerous inactive vents as well as 3 active high-temperature vent fields along the ridge at 94º 04.5'W (Navidad Site), 91º56.2'W (Iguanas Site) and 91º54.3'W (Pinguinos Site). Two recently extinct vent fields also were identified at 91º23.4'-23.7'W and 91º13.8'W. All of the high-temperature vent sites that we identified along the GSC are found above relatively shallow AMC reflectors and are located in the middle 20% of ridge segments. Without exception the vent sites are located along fissures atop constructional axial volcanic ridges (AVR's) composed of relatively young pillow basalts. In some cases, the vents were associated with collapses adjacent to the fissures. The fissures appear to be eruptive sources of the pillow lavas comprising the AVR's. Video images of the chimneys show mature, cylindrical structures, up to 14m high; little diffuse flow; few animals; and some worm casts and dead clam shells, suggesting prior habitation. We conclude that distribution of the vents is controlled by magmatic processes, (i.e., by locations of shallow AMC magma reservoirs and eruptive fissures above dike intrusions), and that there is surprising similarity in the settings of the vents and the apparent ages of the chimneys and lavas along ~400 n.m of the GSC spanning the Galapagos mantle plume.

  3. Associations between black tea and coffee consumption and risk of lung cancer among current and former smokers.

    PubMed

    Baker, Julie A; McCann, Susan E; Reid, Mary E; Nowell, Susan; Beehler, Gregory P; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2005-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking is a clear risk factor for lung cancer, the other determinants of lung cancer risk among smokers are less clear. Tea and coffee contain catechins and flavonoids, which have been shown to exhibit anticarcinogenic properties. Conversely, caffeine may elevate cancer risk through a variety of mechanisms. The current study investigated the effects of regular consumption of black tea and coffee on lung cancer risk among 993 current and former smokers with primary incident lung cancer and 986 age-, sex-, and smoking-matched hospital controls with non-neoplastic conditions. Results indicated that lung cancer risk was not different for those with the highest black tea consumption (>or=2 cups/day) compared with nondrinkers of tea [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.66-1.24]. However, elevated lung cancer risk was observed for participants who consumed 2-3 cups of regular coffee daily (aOR=1.34; 95% CI=0.99-1.82) or >or=4 cups of regular coffee daily (aOR=1.51, 95% CI=1.11-2.05). In contrast, decaffeinated coffee drinking was associated with decreased lung cancer risk for both participants who consumed or=2 cups/day (aOR=0.64; 95% CI=0.51-0.80). These results suggest that any chemoprotective effects of phytochemicals in coffee and tea may be overshadowed by the elevated risk associated with caffeine in these beverages. PMID:16090999

  4. Direct observation of the evolution of a seafloor 'black smoker' from vapor to brine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Damm, K. L.; Buttermore, L.G.; Oosting, S.E.; Bray, A.M.; Fornari, D.J.; Lilley, M.D.; Shanks, Wayne C., III

    1997-01-01

    A single hydrothermal vent, 'F' vent, occurring on very young crust at 9??16.8???N, East Pacific Rise, was sampled in 1991 and 1994. In 1991, at the measured temperature of 388??C and seafloor pressure of 258 bar, the fluids from this vent were on the two-phase curve for seawater. These fluids were very low in chlorinity and other dissolved species, and high in gases compared to seawater and most sampled seafloor hydrothermal vent fluids. In 1994, when this vent was next sampled, it had cooled to 351??C and was venting fluids ???1.5 times seawater chlorinity. This is the first reported example of a single seafloor hydrothermal vent evolving from vapor to brine. The 1991 and 1994 fluids sampled from this vent are compositionally conjugate pairs to one another. These results support the hypothesis that vapor-phase fluids vent in the early period following a volcanic eruption, and that the liquid-phase brines are stored within the oceanic crust, and vent at a later time, in this case 3 years. These results demonstrate that the venting of brines can occur in the same location, in fact from the same sulfide edifice, where the vapor-phase fluids vented previously.

  5. Dynamics and storage of brine in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice J. Fontaine; William S. D. Wilcock

    2006-01-01

    Mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems are known to vent fluids with salinities substantially different from seawater as a result of phase separation and segregation of the resulting vapor and brine phases. Time series of vent temperature and salinity (chlorinity) show that some black-smoker vent fields such as the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge have vented fluids with

  6. Major off-axis hydrothermal activity on the northern Gorda Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rona, Peter A.; Denlinger, Roger P.; Fisk, M. R.; Howard, K. J.; Taghon, G. L.; Klitgord, Kim D.; McClain, James S.; McMurray, G. R.; Wiltshire, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    The first hydrothermal field on the northern Gorda Ridge, the Sea Cliff hydrothermal field, was discovered and geologic controls of hydrothermal activity in the rift valley were investigated on a dive series using the DSV Sea Cliff. The Sea Cliff hydrothermal field was discovered where predicted at the intersection of axis-oblique and axis-parallel faults at the south end of a linear ridge at mid-depth (2700 m) on the east wall. Preliminary mapping and smpling of the field reveal: a setting nested on nearly sediment-free fault blocks 300 m above the rift valley floor 2.6 km from the axis; a spectrum of venting types from seeps to black smokers; high conductive heat flow estimated to be equivalent to the convective flux of multiple black smokers through areas of the sea floor sealed by a caprock of elastic breccia primarily derived from basalt with siliceous cement and barite pore fillings; and a vent biota with Juan de Fuca Ridge affinites. These findings demonstrate the importance of off-axis hydrothermal activity and the role of the intersection of tectonic lineations in controlling hydrothermal sites at sea-floor spreading centers.

  7. Hydrothermal activity at the Arctic mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Rolf B.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Nygård, Tor Eivind; Lilley, Marvin D.; Kelley, Deborah S.

    Over the last 10 years, hydrothermal activity has been shown to be abundant at the ultraslow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridges (AMOR). Approximately 20 active and extinct vent sites have been located either at the seafloor, as seawater anomalies, or by dredge sampling hydrothermal deposits. Decreasing spreading rates and decreasing influence of the Icelandic hot spot toward the north along the AMOR result in a north-south change from a shallow and magmatically robust to a deep and magmatically starved ridge system. This contrast gives rise to large variability in the ridge geology and in the nature of the associated hydrothermal systems. The known vent sites at the southern part of the ridge system are either low-temperature or white smoker fields. At the deep, northern parts of the ridge system, a large black smoker field has been located, and seawater anomalies and sulfide deposits suggest that black smoker-type venting is common. Several of these fields may be peridotite-hosted. The hydrothermal activity at parts of the AMOR exceeds by a factor of 2 to 3 what would be expected by extrapolating from observations on faster spreading ridges. Higher fracture/fault area relative to the magma volume extracted seems a likely explanation for this. Many of the vent fields at the AMOR are associated with axial volcanic ridges. Strong focusing of magma toward these ridges, deep rifting of the ridges, and subsequent formation of long-lived detachment faults that are rooted below the ridges may be the major geodynamic mechanisms causing the unexpectedly high hydrothermal activity.

  8. Chemical characteristics of hydrothermal fluids from the TAG Mound of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in August 1994: Implications for spatial and temporal variability of hydrothermal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamo, Toshitaka; Chiba, Hitoshi; Masuda, Harue; Edmonds, Henrietta N.; Fujioka, Kantaro; Kodama, Yukio; Nanba, Hiromi; Sano, Yuji

    The TAG hydrothermal mound on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (26°08?N, 44°50?W) was revisited in August 1994 with the submersible Shinkai 6500 in order to characterize time-series fluid chemistry prior to the ODP drilling. Fluid samples were taken from both black smokers and white smokers. Si, pH, alkalinity, H2S, major cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+), major anions (Cl-, SO42-), and minor elements (Li, Sr, B, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Br) as well as Sr isotope ratios were measured. We report the first Br/Cl ratios for the TAG hydrothermal fluids, showing no fractionation between Br and Cl during the fluid-rock interaction. This study shows small changes in composition of the black smoker fluids from the 1990 data (Edmond et al., 1995). Changes of pH, alkalinity, Fe, K, and 87Sr/86Sr values are suggestive of subsurface FeS precipitation and a decrease of water/rock ratio at a deeper reaction zone. Differences in chemical characteristics between the black and white smoker fluids were similarly observed as in 1990.

  9. Volcanic and Hydrothermal Activity of the North Su Volcano: New Insights from Repeated Bathymetric Surveys and ROV Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thal, J.; Bach, W.; Tivey, M.; Yoerger, D.

    2013-12-01

    Bathymetric data from cruises in 2002, 2006, and 2011 were combined and compared to determine the evolution of volcanic activity, seafloor structures, erosional features and to identify and document the distribution of hydrothermal vents on North Su volcano, SuSu Knolls, eastern Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea). Geologic mapping based on ROV observations from 2006 (WHOI Jason-2) and 2011 (MARUM Quest-4000) combined with repeated bathymetric surveys from 2002 and 2011 are used to identify morphologic features on the slopes of North Su and to track temporal changes. ROV MARUM Quest-4000 bathymetry was used to develop a 10 m grid of the top of North Su to precisely depict recent changes. In 2006, the south slope of North Su was steeply sloped and featured numerous white smoker vents discharging acid sulfate waters. These vents were covered by several tens of meters of sand- to gravel-sized volcanic material in 2011. The growth of this new cone changed the bathymetry of the south flank of North Su up to ~50 m and emplaced ~0.014 km3 of clastic volcanic material. This material is primarily comprised of fractured altered dacite and massive fresh dacite as well as crystals of opx, cpx, olivine and plagioclase. There is no evidence for pyroclastic fragmentation, so we hypothesize that the fragmentation is likely related to hydrothermal explosions. Hydrothermal activity varies over a short (~50 m) lateral distance from 'flashing' black smokers to acidic white smoker vents. Within 2 weeks of observation time in 2011, the white smoker vents varied markedly in activity suggesting a highly episodic hydrothermal system. Based on ROV video recordings, we identified steeply sloping (up to 30°) slopes exposing pillars and walls of hydrothermal cemented volcaniclastic material representing former fluid upflow zones. These features show that hydrothermal activity has increased slope stability as hydrothermal cementation has prevented slope collapse. Additionally, in some places, hydrothermal crusts cover loose volcaniclastic material on the steep slopes and stabilize them.

  10. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such determinations rely on studies of pieces of deep oceanic crust uplifted by tectonic forces such as along the Southwest Indian Ridge, or more complete sections of oceanic crust called ophiolite sequences which are presently exposed on continents owing to tectonic emplacement. Much of what is thought to happen in submarine hydrothermal systems is inferred from studies of ophiolite sequences, and especially from the better-exposed ophiolites in Oman, Cyprus and North America. The focus of much that follows is on a few general features: pressure, temperature, oxidation states, fluid composition and mineral alteration, because these features will control whether organic synthesis can occur in hydrothermal systems.

  11. Energetics of hydrothermal convection in heterogeneous ocean crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruepke, Lars; Hasenclever, Joerg; Andersen, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in hydrothermal flow modeling have revealed the key thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic controls on hydrothermal convection and vent temperatures at oceanic spreading centers. The observed upper limit to black smoker vent temperatures of approx. 400°C can be explained by the thermodynamic properties of water (Jupp and Schultz, 2000). Likewise, 3D models of hydrothermal flow at fast-spreading ridges show cylindrical upwellings with closely interwoven recharge flow (Coumou et al., 2008, Hasenclever et al., 2014). While these studies provide a robust theoretical basis for hydrothermal flow observations at fast-spreading ridges, the situation at slow-spreading ridges is different. The slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge produces highly heterogeneous crust along its tectonic and magmatic segments with significant permeability contrasts across structural and lithological interfaces. The sub-seafloor permeability structure has a strong control on vent field location such that off-axis hydrothermal systems are apparently consistently located at outcropping fault zones. We have recently shown that preferential flow along high-permeability conduits inevitably leads to the entrainment of cold ambient seawater (Andersen et al., 2014), which causes a temperature drop that is difficult to reconcile with fault-related high-temperature venting. A fundamental question is therefore how hydrothermal fluids can maintain their high temperature while flowing kilometers from a driving heat source through highly heterogeneous crust to a vent site at the seafloor? We address this question by exploring the energetics of hydrothermal convection in heterogeneous ocean crust using 2D and 3D flow simulations. In our analysis we focus on the energy balance of rising hydrothermal plumes and on mixing processes at permeability boundaries, with the aim to establish a more robust theoretical framework for hydrothermal flow through highly heterogeneous seafloor.

  12. Steady state and a singular event observed at the TAG hydrothermal mound by a long-term monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, K.; Aoki, M.; Mitsuzawa, K.; Kato, K.; Kinoshita, M.; Nishizawa, A.

    2005-12-01

    The steady state variability and occasional O`randomO_L event of hydrothermal activity were observed by several long-term monitoring systems deployed on the TAG hydrothermal mound and observed by submersible video and still cameras in the Mid Atlantic Ridge 26 N. We measured current direction and velocity, visibility, temperature, and salinity of sea water as well as observed newly formed black smokers by video and still camera system. Heat flow measurement system and an OBSH were also deployed around the central black smoker and newly formed black smokers for more than two weeks. Steady state change of the temperature, current direction and velocity, visibility and pressure change by hydrophone show a regular semidiurnal periodic variation, which may be caused by ocean, and earth tides. A singular event occurred during our research at the TAG hydrothermal mound. Small earthquakes beneath the TAG mound were followed by a huge slope failure, which apparently caused by a debris flow, killing swimming eel-like fish. A thin bed of the dead shrimps may be related to a nearly simultaneous increase of hot water flux from vent.

  13. Methanotorris formicicus sp. nov., a novel extremely thermophilic, methane-producing archaeon isolated from a black smoker chimney in the Central Indian Ridge.

    PubMed

    Takai, Ken; Nealson, Ken H; Horikoshi, Koki

    2004-07-01

    A novel extremely thermophilic, methane-producing archaeon was isolated from a black smoker chimney at the Kairei field in the Central Indian Ridge. Cells of this isolate were irregular cocci with several flagella; motility was not observed. Growth was observed between 55 and 83 degrees C (optimum of 75 degrees C; 30 min doubling time) and between pH 6.0 and 8.5 (optimum of pH 6.7). The isolate was a strictly anaerobic, methanogenic autotroph capable of using hydrogen and carbon dioxide as sole energy and carbon sources. Formate was utilized as an alternative energy source. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 33.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate was most closely related to Methanotorris igneus strain Kol 5T. The isolate, however, could be genetically differentiated from this species by DNA-DNA hybridization analysis and on the basis of its physiological properties. The name Methanotorris formicicus sp. nov. is proposed for this isolate; the type strain is Mc-S-70T (=JCM 11930T=ATCC BAA-687T). PMID:15280275

  14. Effects of anhydrite precipitation on hydrothermal convection patterns at fast-spreading ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruepke, Lars; Hasenclever, Joerg

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in hydrothermal modeling capabilities have revealed the key thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic controls on hydrothermal convection patterns and vent temperatures at oceanic spreading centers. The observed upper limit to black smoker vent temperatures of approx. 400°C can be explained by the thermodynamic properties of water (Jupp and Schultz, 2000). Likewise, 3D models of hydrothermal flow at fast-spreading ridges show cylindrical upwellings with adjacent warm recharge flow (Coumou et al., 2008). This close relation between dis- and recharge flow implies that hydrothermal convection cells have a relatively short wavelength (~500m), which is difficult to reconcile with ideas on elongated along-axis convection cells proposed for the East Pacific Rise (Tolstoy et al., 2008) and with the irregular spacing of hydrothermal sites along ridge segments. One possible additional process controlling the spacing/wavelength of hydrothermal convection cells may be chemical precipitation reactions. A key reaction in hydrothermal systems is the precipitation of anhydrite. In recharge zones, heating of 1 kg of seawater to approx. 350°C results in the precipitation of roughly 1.4 g of anhydrite, which is buffered by the amount of calcium dissolved in seawater. More significant may be the precipitation of anhydrate when calcium-rich hydrothermal fluids mix with sulfate rich seawater. A consequence of anhydrite precipitation is the progressive clogging of pore space, which in turn affects permeability and thereby hydrothermal flow. We have implemented the above processes into 2D and 3D hydrothermal flow models and will present first results of how chemical reactions can affect hydrothermal flow patterns at fast-spreading ridges.

  15. Extensive hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau basin revealed by ROV dives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embley, R. W.; Resing, J. A.; Tebo, B.; Baker, E. T.; Butterfield, D. A.; Chadwick, B.; Davis, R.; de Ronde, C. E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Merle, S. G.; Rubin, K. H.; Shank, T. M.; Walker, S. L.; Arculus, R. J.; Bobbitt, A. M.; Buck, N. J.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Crowhurst, P. V.; Mitchell, E.; Olson, E. J.; Ratmeyer, V.; Richards, S.; Roe, K. K.; Kenner-Chavis, P.; Martinez-Lyons, A.; Sheehan, C.; Brian, R.

    2014-12-01

    Dives with the QUEST 4000 ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) in September 2012 discovered nine hydrothermal sites in the arc and rear-arc region of the NE Lau Basin in 1150 m to 2630 m depth. These sites, originally detected by water column and seafloor surveys conducted in 2008-2011, include: (1) a paired sulfur-rich/black smoker field on the summit of a tectonically deformed magmatic arc volcano (Niua), (2) fracture-controlled black smoker venting on several small en echelon seamounts (north Matas) that lie between the magmatic arc and the backarc spreading center and (3) a magmatic degassing site on the summit of a dacite cone within a large (~12 km diameter) caldera volcano (Niuatahi). Dives at West Mata Seamount, which was undergoing strombolian volcanic activity and effusive rift-zone eruptions from 2008 to 2010, revealed a dormant volcanic phase in September 2012, with continued low-temperature diffuse venting. The high-temperature venting is likely driven by magmatic heat indicative of underlying partial melt zones and/or melt pockets distributed through the region. The occurrence of the youngest known boninite eruptions on the Mata volcanoes is consistent with subduction fluid flux melting extending into the rear-arc zone. Extension related to the transition from subduction to strike-slip motion of the northern Tonga Arc over the active Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault probably contributes to the enhanced volcanism/hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau Basin. Chemosynthetic ecosystems at these sites range from mostly motile, lower diversity ecosystems at the eruptive/magmatically-degassing sites to higher diversity ecosystems with less mobile faunal components at the black-smoker systems. The wide range of fluid chemistry, water depth and geologic settings of the hydrothermal systems in this area provides an intriguing template to study the interaction of hydrothermal fluid chemistry, chemosynthetic habitats and their geologic underpinning within an arc/backarc setting.

  16. Submarine Hydrothermal Systems - No Two Fields Are Alike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Over 300 hydrothermal systems have been discovered since the first finding of Galapagos vents over three decades ago. The size, morphology, chemistry and associated biology show a rich diversity that is in part governed by their host rocks and tectonic setting. Each vent system is unique in terms of the morphology of black smoker edifices and associated diffuse flow, which suggests that local processes and feedback loops govern the nature and evolution of these dynamic systems. In fast-spreading environments (e.g. EPR), vent fields are spaced far apart and individual structures are small in number and size. In contrast, to date, the highest concentrations of fields per kilometer of ridge segment, and the largest individual black smokers occur in intermediate-spreading systems (e.g. Endeavour hosting 45 m-tall chimneys). The largest complexes occur in intermediate and slow-spreading environments (e.g. TAG at 200 m across). The highest temperature vents are transient, with temperature excursions at or above the critical point of seawater. Extremely high temperatures are associated with diking and eruptive events that likely vaporize subsurface fluids, forcing them across the two-phase boundary briefly. Along slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges, the character of vents is strongly controlled by faulting, in particular, long-lived detachment faults that expose variably deformed and altered ultramafic rocks. Here, vent systems evolve from high-temperature black smokers within the axial valley with fluids rich in CO2, to black smokers with mantle and basaltic signatures along the axial valley walls, to end member systems such as the Lost City Field with chimneys and fluid chemistries never before seen: 60 m tall limestone towers that vent 90°C, metal-poor, pH 9-11 fluids devoid of CO2, yet rich in H2, CH4 and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons formed abiotically. This relatively stable environment, free from volcanic events, promotes venting for >150,000 years.

  17. Seafloor Hydrothermal Activity at the Galapagos Triple Junction, East Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Yu, Z.; Zhang, G.; Tao, C.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Since the first discovery of black smokers on the Gaplapgaos spreading center, over 500 hydrothermal sites have been confirmed on the mid-ocean ridge, arc and back-arc settings (Beaulieu et al., 2013). However, the hydrothermal activity at triple-junction has not received much attention. Consequently, there are outstanding questions regarding the features of the hydrothermal system, and the effect of the hydrothermal circulation on the tectonic activity of the triple-junction. In 2009, the Chinese Dayang Cruise 21 discovered the Precious Stone field (PSF) on the Dietz Semount at the southern flank of the Galapagos triple junction (GTJ). Most studies of the GTJ focus on the topographictectonic and stresssimulation, which suggest that the GTJ had complex evoluation(Smith et al., 2011, 2013; Mitchell et al., 2011,Schouten et al., 2012). Water anomay were clear detected and samples of hydrothermal deposit and rocks were collected by TV-Grab (Figure.1). This study aims to understand the geological features of the PSF related hydrothermal activity. Hydrothermal mineralization Three types of sedimentary hydrothermal deposits representing three different hydrothermal activity stages (Figure 1)are confirmed in the PSF: 1) sediments with native sulfur and pyrite clasts(Type I), 2) Fe—Mn oxides (Type II), and 3) clay minerals mainlynontronite(Type III). Type II sedimentsprecipitate early and the source comprises of clasts of distal hydrothermal plume. The nontronite-rich sediments propably derive from the low-temperature alteration of Fe—Mn oxides. Type 1 sediments are found on the active hydrothermal venting field. Hydrothermal plume Water anomaly were detected at the southewestern PSF. We observed widespreadsedimentary hydrothermal depositsin the western PSF, but no water anomaly. According to the results of five water anomaly dectection lines, we predicted the existence of three hydrothermal vents in the PSF. Seafloor type inversion Multi-beam backscatter data were used to study the seafloor type and distribution of the PSF. The results indicate that sedimentary hydrothermal deposits are widespread at the western PSF. Basalt makes up of the seafloor of the active hydrothermal vents. The results mentioned above suggest that the hydrothemal activity at the PSF is multi-stage, long-lived and wildspread.

  18. Characteristics of low-level smokers.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Andrew; Rezaishiraz, Hamed; Bauer, Joseph; Giovino, Gary A; Cummings, K Michael

    2005-06-01

    Average daily cigarette consumption has decreased, and some evidence suggests that the rate of "some day" smoking has increased; however, relatively little is known about low-level smokers. The present analysis describes and compares low-level versus heavier smokers, using cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Data from the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) were used in this analysis. Population-based cross-sectional tobacco use telephone surveys were performed in 22 North American communities in 1988 and 1993, and the prevalence and characteristics of low-level smoking and reasons for quitting are reported from the 1993 prevalence survey. In addition, a cohort of 6,603 smokers was identified in 1988 and interviewed again in 1993 and 2001 to assess patterns of low-level smoking over time and its association with smoking cessation. In 1988, 7.6% were low-level smokers; in 1993, 10.7% were low-level smokers. Compared with heavier smokers, low-level smokers were more likely to be female, older, not married, Black or Hispanic; to have a 4-year college degree; to have no other adult smokers in the household; and to wait longer in the day to have their first cigarette. Low-level smokers also were less likely to report trying to quit because of the expense of smoking or physician advice to quit. They were more likely to try to quit because of trying to set a good example; concern for second-hand smoke; and factors such as bad breath, smell, or the taste of smoking. Those who smoked full-priced premium brands and who worked in a completely smoke-free worksite were more likely to be low-level smokers. Compared with heavier smokers, low-level smokers had similar rates of making a future quit attempt, lower use rates of nicotine replacement therapy, and higher cessation rates. Low-level smokers may be a growing segment of the smoker population and have different characteristics, health risks, and intervention needs compared with their heavier smoking counterparts. PMID:16085514

  19. Rare earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal deposits from the active TAG Mound, 26{degrees}N mid-Atlantic ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, R.A. [Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom); Elderfield, H. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    The rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of various phases from the active TAG hydrothermal mound has been examined and related to their mineralogy and fluid chemistry. The mound deposits range from black and white smoker chimneys, massive anhydrite/sulphide mixtures, oxides, and ochres. All phases, except black smoker chimney anhydrite, demonstrate a positive Eu anomaly when normalised to chondrite REE values. REE substitution into sulphide and sulphate phases appears to be strongly influenced by crystallographic control for all REE other than Eu. Precipitation of anhydrite within the TAG mound is the major mechanism for removal of REE during mound circulation and 0.15-0.35 g anhydrite is inferred to precipitate from every kg of fluid venting from the white smoker chimneys. Oxides from the mound fall into three different categories with distinct REE patterns: oxide rims on sulphides, atacamite-bearing oxides, and silica-rich Fe-oxides and ochres. The oxide rim phases contain sulphide and seawater derived REEs whereas the atacamite-bearing oxides and the ochreous material exhibit no seawater signature which suggests precipitation from, or alteration by, a modified hydrothermal fluid.

  20. VERY High Temperature Hydrothermal Record in Plagioclase of BLACK Gabbros in Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudier, F. I.; Mainprice, D.; Nicolas, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The lower crustal section in Oman ophiolite includes 'black gabbros' that have escaped the common medium-low temperature hydrous alteration. Their plagioclases are totally fresh, but contain in their mass, nebulous inclusions most times below the resolution of optical microscope, or expressed as solid silicate phases clinopyroxene and pargasitic amphibole, up to 10 µm sized, having T equilibrium above 900°C with their host plagioclase. These gabbros have a well-expressed magmatic foliation, relayed by plastic strain marked by stretched olivine crystals, and pinching twins in plagioclase. In addition to major elements analyses, the crystallographic relationships of these Mg silicate inclusions to their host plagioclase are explored by Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD) processing. - Diopsidic clinopyroxene inclusions are dominant over pargasitic amphibole that tend to locate close to the margins of host plagioclase (Fig 1). Some inclusions are mixed clinopyroxene-amphibole, separated by a non-indexed phase that could represent a pyribole-type structure, suggesting transformation from clinopyroxene to amphibole during cooling. High chlorine content in the amphibole sign the seawater contamination at least during the development of this phase. - Preliminary statistical pole figures (Fig. 2) in the six joined plagioclase grains studied, show that both plagioclase and diopside inclusions have a strong crystal preferred orientation (CPO) connected such that the strong [010]pl maximum coincide with the strong [100]di. In addition, a coincidence appears between three sub-maxima of [100]pl and [001]di. These interesting relationships are refined. It is inferred that clinopyroxene developed through corrosion of the plagioclase by a Mg-bearing hydrous fluid, penetrating possibly via twin interface and diffusing at T~1100°C, upper limit of clinopyroxene stability in hydrous conditions. Development of pargasite implies increasing hydration during cooling.

  1. Dodo Field and Solitaire Field: Newly Discovered Hydrothermal Fields at the Central Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, K.; Shipboard Scientists Of Yk09-13 Leg1 Cruise

    2010-12-01

    In October 2009, we conducted seafloor reconnaissance by means of a manned deep-sea submersible vehicle (DSV) Shikai6500 in two regions of the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) 18 deg-20’S and successfully discovered two active hydrothermal sites; one is the Dodo field at the Dodo Great Lava Plain (CIR Segment 16 at 18 deg 20’S ) and the other is the Solitaire Field at the Roger Plateau (Segment 15 at 19 deg 33’S). The black smoker fluids in the Dodo field exhibit unusually high concentrations of H2 in spite of the slightly brine-enriched feature of the fluids. Chemosynthetic faunal communities in the Dodo field are emaciated in size and composition. The Solitaire field is characterized by extensive diffusing flows throughout the field, suggesting that the emission patterns of the hydrothermal fluids were atypical among the CIR hydrothermal systems known so far including the Dodo field. The most outstanding feature was the prosperous macrofaunal communities that potentially contained the almost entire members of macrofaunal genera found in the CIR hydrothermal environments and even previously unexplored animal members (e.g., Alvinellidae polychaetes). Moreover, a new morphotype of scaly foot gastropod, of which one type has been known only in the Kairei field in the world, dominated the chemosynthetic animal communities in the Solitaire field. These findings provide important insights into geochemical diversity of hydrothermal activity and biodiversity and biogeography of vent-endemic ecosystem in the Indian Ocean.

  2. Manifestations of hydrothermal discharge from young abyssal hills on the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise flank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haymon, Rachel M.; MacDonald, Ken C.; Benjamin, Sara B.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.

    2005-02-01

    Spectacular black smokers along the mid-ocean-ridge crest represent a small fraction of total hydrothermal heat loss from ocean lithosphere. Previous models of measured heat flow suggest that 40% 50% of oceanic hydrothermal heat and fluid flux is from young seafloor (0.1 5 Ma) on mid-ocean-ridge flanks. Despite evidence that ridge-flank hydrothermal flux affects crustal properties, ocean chemistry, and the deep-sea biosphere, few ridge-flank vent sites have been discovered. We describe the first known seafloor expressions of hydrothermal discharge from tectonically formed abyssal hills flanking a fast-spreading ridge. Seafloor manifestations of fluid venting from two young East Pacific Rise abyssal hills (0.1 Ma at 10°20?N, 103°33.2?W; 0.5 Ma at 9°27?N, 104°32.3?W) include fault-scarp hydrothermal mineralization and macrofauna; fault-scarp flocculations containing hyperthermophilic microbes; and hilltop sediment mounds and craters possibly created by fluid expulsion. These visible features can be exploited for hydrothermal exploration of the vast abyssal hill terrain flanking the mid-ocean ridge and for access to the subseafloor biosphere. Petrologic evidence suggests that abyssal hills undergo repeated episodes of transitory fluid discharge, possibly linked to seismic events, and that fluid exit temperatures can be briefly high enough to transport copper (?250 °C).

  3. Control of fault geometry and permeability contrast on fault-related hydrothermal fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Christine; Rüpke, Lars; Hasenclever, Jörg; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Petersen, Sven

    2015-04-01

    High-temperature black smoker systems along slow-spreading ridges such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) are frequently related to tectonic fault zones and therefore are commonly found off axis. While preferential flow of hot fluids along highly permeable, fractured rocks seems intuitive, such efficient flow leads to the entrainment of cold ambient seawater resulting in a drastic decrease in vent temperatures. This temperature drop is difficult to reconcile with high-temperature black smoker activity observed at outcropping fault zones. In our recent study we aim to resolve this apparent contradiction by combining newly acquired seismological data (Grevemeyer et al., 2013) from the high-temperature, off-axis Logatchev 1 hydrothermal field (LHF1) along the MAR with 2D hydrothermal flow modeling. The seismic data shows intense off-axis seismicity with focal mechanisms suggesting a fault zone dipping from LHF1 toward the ridge axis. In order to explain fault-related high-temperature hydrothermal discharge as observed at LHF1, our simulations predict that fault zones need to be just permeable and wide enough to capture and redirect hydrothermal plumes rising from depth but, because they are not isolated conduits, must not be too wide or permeable in order to prevent cooling through mixing with ambient colder fluids. The two controlling parameters fault width and permeability contrast between fault and surrounding rock can be expressed as a single term, the relative transmissibility of the fault zone, which is defined by the product of the two. Low relative fault transmissibility leads to plumes that cross the fault and vent above the heat source rather than at the fault termination at the seafloor. High relative fault transmissibility leads to significantly lower vent exit temperatures than those observed at black smoker systems. Our findings further illustrate the intrinsic relationship between permeability, mass flux and upflow temperature: the higher the permeability, the higher the mass flux and the lower the vent temperature. The common occurrence of fault-linked high-temperature vent fields strongly points at a not-yet-quantified self-adjusting permeability that depends on pore space-clogging reactions between hydrothermal and ambient cold fluids. Furthermore, the temperature drop associated with any high permeability zone in heterogeneous crust may well explain the sparse high-temperature vent fields along the MAR and why the heterogeneous crust of the Atlantic, with its strong permeability contrasts, is predominantly cooled by lower-temperature fluid flow.

  4. COPD in Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    McBurnie, Mary Ann; Vollmer, William M.; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Welte, Tobias; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa; Studnicka, Michael; Bateman, Eric; Anto, Josep M.; Burney, Peter; Mannino, David M.; Buist, Sonia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of patients with COPD. Their characteristics and possible risk factors in this population are not yet well defined. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 countries that participated in the international, population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study. Participants were aged ? 40 years and completed postbronchodilator spirometry testing plus questionnaires about respiratory symptoms, health status, and exposure to COPD risk factors. A diagnosis of COPD was based on the postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio, according to current GOLD (Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease) guidelines. In addition to this, the lower limit of normal (LLN) was evaluated as an alternative threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Results: Among 4,291 never smokers, 6.6% met criteria for mild (GOLD stage I) COPD, and 5.6% met criteria for moderate to very severe (GOLD stage II+) COPD. Although never smokers were less likely to have COPD and had less severe COPD than ever smokers, never smokers nonetheless comprised 23.3% (240/1,031) of those classified with GOLD stage II+ COPD. This proportion was similar, 20.5% (171/832), even when the LLN was used as a threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Predictors of COPD in never smokers include age, education, occupational exposure, childhood respiratory diseases, and BMI alterations. Conclusion: This multicenter international study confirms previous evidence that never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of individuals with COPD. Our data suggest that, in addition to increased age, a prior diagnosis of asthma and, among women, lower education levels are associated with an increased risk for COPD among never smokers. PMID:20884729

  5. Hydrothermal systems: A decade of discovery in slow spreading environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Deborah S.; Shank, Timothy M.

    Although much of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is unexplored, investigations this past decade show that it hosts a rich diversity of hydrothermal systems with fluid chemistries and biogeographic heterogeneity that span much greater compositional ranges than those within intermediate and fast spreading mid-ocean ridge systems. Extreme attenuation of the crust and formation of detachment faults are now known to be key to this diversity, resulting in three classes of hydrothermal systems. Type 1 systems host high-temperature, black smokers driven by heat extracted from cooling magma and/or proximal gabbroic crust. Acidic vent fluids are enriched in magmatically derived carbon dioxide, with variable concentrations of methane, hydrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. Type II fields host black smokers driven by cooling of variable mixtures of gabbroic and ultramafic material. Fluids are enriched in carbon dioxide, reflecting the magmatic-gabbroic influence, but they also contain elevated concentrations of methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons: hallmarks of serpentinization reactions. Type III systems are low-temperature, peridotite-hosted environments where fluid circulation is driven predominantly by cooling of mantle material. Carbon dioxide is absent, but fluids are enriched in methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons of abiogenic origin. There are now more than 225 endemic species inhabiting slow spreading ridges with full species diversity ranging from ˜30 to >100 species within a given site. The fundamental drivers of vent faunal community structure are considered to be a function of geologic setting, composition, and variability of the resulting vent fluid chemistry, differences in depth, life history strategies of individual species, and the great geographic distance typically separating vent sites on slow spreading ridges.

  6. The Vilification of Smokers: Students' Perceptions of Current Smokers, Former Smokers, and Nonsmokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kathleen; Katona, Chris; Brosh, Joanne; Shull, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    Smokers are increasingly stigmatized in our society. Pressures to limit public smoking have mounted, and there is evidence of discrimination against smokers in the workplace. This study examined how current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers were differentially characterized by students drawn from a suburban high school and college. Students…

  7. Dietary intake in male and female smokers, ex-smokers, and never smokers: The INTERMAP Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AR Dyer; P Elliott; J Stamler; Q Chan; H Ueshima; BF Zhou

    2003-01-01

    This report examines dietary intakes in smokers, ex-smokers, and never smokers in INTERMAP. The 4680 participants aged 40–59 years—from 17 population samples in four countries (China, Japan, UK, USA)—provided four 24-h recalls to assess nutrient intakes and two 24-h urine collections to assess excretion of urea, sodium (Na), potassium (K), etc. Compared to never smokers, current smokers generally consumed more

  8. Propidium Monoazide-based Method for Identifying Phylogenetic Association of Necromass Near Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Gustavo; Edwards, Katrina

    2014-05-01

    Black Smoker hydrothermal systems are geologically driven systems located near subduction zones and spreading centers associated with plate margins. The high temperature and low pH of fluids that are often associated with basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems select for unique microbial communities primarily comprised of prokaryotes capable of S and Fe cycling. High temperature fluids, where temperatures exceed 300° C, are likely to have a lethal effect on transient deep water planktonic communities and, over long temporal scales, may influence the molecular composition of pelleted necromass aggregates near the chimney system. We have developed a method for discriminative sequencing permitting intra vs. extracellular 16S rDNA sequencing to reveal community differences between biologically-relevant and necromass-associated DNA. This method has only recently been applied to marine environments and, here, we propose its use as relevant tool for studying the molecular ecology of high temperature hydrothermal systems, as physical drivers of massive transient community die offs and associated detrital 16S rDNA community shifts. Ultimately, we aim to understand the fraction of 16S rDNA communities that do not represent living taxa, or the information-containing fraction of total necromass pool, to better frame ecological hypotheses regarding environmental biogeochemical cycling in hydrothermal system environments.

  9. Attentional bias in active smokers, abstinent smokers, and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, B H; Thayer, J F; Laberg, J C; Asbjornsen, A E

    1997-01-01

    Attentional bias was studied with a modified version of the Stroop test in active smokers, abstinent smokers, and nonsmokers. The task was color-naming of incongruent color-words, smoking-related words, and neutral words. The results showed that the active smokers used longer verbal reaction time (VRT) to smoking-related words compared to abstinent smokers, i.e., indicating stronger attentional bias in the active smokers. Furthermore, longer VRTs to the Stroop words compared to the smoking words and the neutral words were found only in nonsmokers and abstinent smokers. Finally, a significant negative correlation was found between attitudes against smoking and VRTs to the smoking-related words. Taken together the main finding was that the active smokers showed no differential response to the stimuli. This could be caused by a lack of ability to modulate attentional processes in active smokers. PMID:9426799

  10. The origin of life near deep-sea hydrothermal systems during the Cambrian explosion: data from the Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Terleev, Alexander; Safonova, Inna; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey; Tokarev, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    On Earth the solar radiation and the hydrothermal circulation both affect life evolution. Recent extensive studies of the World Ocean have shown that the biodiversity of Earth is linked with hydrothermal activity on the oceanic floor. These deep-sea ecosystems use chemical energy, not solar radiation. In the last quarter of the XX century, a new type of hydrothermal systems, so-called black smokers, was discovered in mid-oceanic ridges. As black smokers form sulfide ores and are surrounded by abundant bio-oases or symbioses, identification of their analogues in ancient orogenic belts is necessary for studying life origin and evolution. Of special importance are problems of life associated with deep-sea hydrothermal systems acted at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary - the time of Cambrian explosion (Maruyama et al., 2013). During that explosion life significantly evolved and diversified due to dramatic changes of Earth's environment. Consequently, the early Cambrian - late Precambrian Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit of East Tuva in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is of special interest. This deposit was formed on the bottom of ancient back-arc deep-sea basin as a result of black smoker hydrothermal activity and is hosted by volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks altered by the high temperature solutions. The altered Kyzyl Tashtyg basalts have an amygdules (filled by albite, epidote and carbonates), contain brown-green microfossils, often attached to their walls. The microfossils are thin tubes 5 to 25 microns in diameter and 500 microns long. This tubes are empty and have straight, curved or branching shape. Chemically, the tube material is close to epidote. In consideration of microscopic dimensions, simple morphology and similarity with modern tubular microorganisms, the studied tube-shaped microfossils can be related to cyanobacteria. Almost the same fossils, associated with oceanic basalt complexes, were described earlier (Furnes et al., 2007; Mcloughlin et al., 2007). Our studies of fluid inclusions in minerals of amygdules showed that basalts, which contain microfossils, were altered by hydrothermal solutions heated up to 120-180 C and compositionally close to the sea water. The Kyzyl Tashtyg sedimentary complexes include hydrothermal quartz-hematite constructions. Ferriferous-siliceous rocks from these structures contain different types of ancient biota: monocyatea, cyanobacteria, cribricyatea and sponge spicules. Thus, our study of early Cambrian - late Precambrian volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks determine different types of ancient biota, which natural occurrence was connected with deep-sea hydrothermal ore-forming black smoker systems of the Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit. Some part of these hydrothermal solutions were suppliers of energy and nutritive elements for microfossils in closed spaces of amygdules in altered basalts, where cyanobacteria evolved without light and depend on chemosynthesis only. Presence of fossils in the ferriferous-siliceous rocks, formed on the bottom of the ancient deep-sea basin, was connected with biota growth during formation of quartz-hematite constructions as a result of hydrothermal system activity.

  11. A Personality typology of smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Patton; Gordon E. Barnes; Robert P. Murray

    1997-01-01

    The study of smoker's personality has a long and controversial history. Smokers tend to be more extroverted, tense, and anxious and have more antisocial characteristics than nonsmokers. However, some of the data is contradictory, and the strength of the relationship between personality and smoking is weak, probably because smokers are not a homogeneous group. To test this possibility, we used

  12. Microbial mediated formation of low-temperature hydrothermal barite chimneys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorseth, I. H.; Steen, I. H.; Eickmann, B.; Dahle, H.; Baumberger, T.; Peters, M.; Strauss, H.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    A low-temperature (20 degrees C) venting area with numerous active and extinct barite chimneys (up to 1 m tall) are located on the eastern flank of the hydrothermal mound of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the Mohns-Knipovich bend of the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. The active barite chimneys are covered by white mats containing abundant microbial cells and extracellular material with attached barite crystals. Within the chimneys microbial cells are partly embedded in barite and crystals are covered by extracellular material. These observations indicate that the microbial material serve as a substrate for nucleation and precipitation of barite with the potential of having an important control on the construction of the chimneys. In addition, the presence of framboidal pyrite in black interior flow channels and in the underlying hydrothermal sediment further suggests that the chimney formation is linked to microbial sulphate reduction (MSR). To further investigate the relationship between chimney growth and microbial activity we used a combination of biomolecular and isotope analyses. Pyrosequencing of PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA followed by taxonomic classification revealed that sulphide oxidizers (Sulfurimonas) within the Epsilonproteobacteria dominate the microbial mats and the white barite of the chimney wall. In the black interior flow channel a more diverse microbial community was observed indicating methane, sulphur and ammonia oxidation as well as heterotrophic processes. Multiple isotope analyses (?18O, ?34S, ?33S) reveal that the barite chimneys precipitated from a fluid that was modified by subseafloor MSR in the sulphide mound. This is supported by the sulphur isotope signature of the framboidal pyrite, pore water, and mono- and disulphides extracted from the hydrothermal sediment as well as the biomolecular data. We suggest that the MSR was triggered by mixing of the H2 and CH4 rich high-temperature (320 degrees C) fluids and percolating seawater, which resulted in remobilization of hydrothermal barite deposited as debris and plume fall out in the mound. The combined results strongly suggest that the formation of the barite chimneys is a result of complex seafloor and subseafloor geobio-interactions.

  13. Lung Cancer Risk Among Smokers of Menthol Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sarah S.; Aldrich, Melinda; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Signorello, Lisa B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Menthol cigarettes, preferred by African American smokers, have been conjectured to be harder to quit and to contribute to the excess lung cancer burden among black men in the Unites States. However, data showing an association between smoking menthol cigarettes and increased lung cancer risk compared with smoking nonmenthol cigarettes are limited. The Food and Drug Administration is currently considering whether to ban the sale of menthol cigarettes in the United States. Methods We conducted a prospective study among 85?806 racially diverse adults enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study during March 2002 to September 2009 according to cigarette smoking status, with smokers classified by preference for menthol vs nonmenthol cigarettes. Among 12?373 smokers who responded to a follow-up questionnaire, we compared rates of quitting between menthol and nonmenthol smokers. In a nested case–control analysis of 440 incident lung cancer case patients and 2213 matched control subjects, using logistic regression modeling we computed odds ratios (ORs) and accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer incidence, and applied Cox proportional hazards modeling to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of lung cancer mortality, according to menthol preference. Results Among both blacks and whites, menthol smokers reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day; an average of 1.6 (95% CI = 1.3 to 2.0) fewer for blacks and 1.8 (95% CI = 1.3 to 2.3) fewer for whites, compared with nonmenthol smokers. During an average of 4.3 years of follow-up, 21% of participants smoking at baseline had quit, with menthol and nonmenthol smokers having equal odds of quitting (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.89 to 1.16). A lower lung cancer incidence was noted in menthol vs nonmenthol smokers (for smokers of <10, 10–19, and ?20 cigarettes per day, compared with never smokers, OR = 5.0 vs 10.3, 8.7 vs 12.9, and 12.2 vs 21.1, respectively). These trends were mirrored for lung cancer mortality. In multivariable analyses adjusted for pack-years of smoking, menthol cigarettes were associated with a lower lung cancer incidence (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.90) and mortality (hazard ratio of mortality = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.95) than nonmenthol cigarettes. Conclusions The findings suggest that menthol cigarettes are no more, and perhaps less, harmful than nonmenthol cigarettes. PMID:21436064

  14. Barite in hydrothermal environments as a recorder of subseafloor processes: a multiple-isotope study from the Loki's Castle vent field.

    PubMed

    Eickmann, B; Thorseth, I H; Peters, M; Strauss, H; Bröcker, M; Pedersen, R B

    2014-07-01

    Barite chimneys are known to form in hydrothermal systems where barium-enriched fluids generated by leaching of the oceanic basement are discharged and react with seawater sulfate. They also form at cold seeps along continental margins, where marine (or pelagic) barite in the sediments is remobilized because of subseafloor microbial sulfate reduction. We test the possibility of using multiple sulfur isotopes (?34S, ?33S, ?36S) of barite to identify microbial sulfate reduction in a hydrothermal system. In addition to multiple sulfur isotopes, we present oxygen (?18O) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes for one of numerous barite chimneys in a low-temperature (~20 °C) venting area of the Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultraslow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). The chemistry of the venting fluids in the barite field identifies a contribution of at least 10% of high-temperature black smoker fluid, which is corroborated by 87Sr/86 Sr ratios in the barite chimney that are less radiogenic than in seawater. In contrast, oxygen and multiple sulfur isotopes indicate that the fluid from which the barite precipitated contained residual sulfate that was affected by microbial sulfate reduction. A sulfate reduction zone at this site is further supported by the multiple sulfur isotopic composition of framboidal pyrite in the flow channel of the barite chimney and in the hydrothermal sediments in the barite field, as well as by low SO4 and elevated H2S concentrations in the venting fluids compared with conservative mixing values. We suggest that the mixing of ascending H2- and CH4-rich high-temperature fluids with percolating seawater fuels microbial sulfate reduction, which is subsequently recorded by barite formed at the seafloor in areas where the flow rate is sufficient. Thus, low-temperature precipitates in hydrothermal systems are promising sites to explore the interactions between the geosphere and biosphere in order to evaluate the microbial impact on these systems. PMID:24725254

  15. Alteration at the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field: Constraints from trace element and Sr-O isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, N.; Paulick, H.; Lackschewitz, K. S.; Eisenhauer, A.; Garbe-SchöNberg, D.; Kuhn, T.; Botz, R.; Schmidt, M.

    2012-03-01

    Serpentinized peridotite and gabbronorite represent the host rocks to the active, ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We use trace element,?18O and 87Sr/86Sr data from bulk rock samples and mineral separates in order to constrain the controls on the geochemical budget within the Logatchev hydrothermal system. The trace element data of serpentinized peridotite show strong compositional variations indicating a range of processes. Some peridotites experienced geochemical modifications associated with melt-rock interaction processes prior to serpentinization, which resulted in positive correlations of increasing high field strength element (HFSE) concentrations and light rare earth element (LREE) contents. Other serpentinites and lizardite mineral separates are enriched in LREE, lacking a correlation with HFSE due to interaction with high-temperature, black-smoker type fluids. The enrichment of serpentinites and lizardite separates in trace elements, as well as locally developed negative Ce-anomalies, indicate that interaction with low-T ambient seawater is another important process in the Logatchev hydrothermal system. Hence, mixing of high-T hydrothermal fluids during serpentinization and/or re-equilibration of O-isotope signatures during subsequent low-T alteration is required to explain the trace element and?18O temperature constraints. Highly radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr signatures of serpentinite and lizardite separates provide additional evidence for interaction with seawater-derived fluids. Sparse talc alteration at the Logatchev site are most likely caused by Si-metasomatism of serpentinite associated with the emplacement of shallow gabbro intrusion(s) generating localized hydrothermal circulation. In summary the geochemistry of serpentinites from the Logatchev site document subsurface processes and the evolution of a seafloor ultramafic hydrothermal system.

  16. Diversity of Ultramafic Hosted Hydrothermal Deposits on the Mid Atlantic Ridge: First Submersible Studies on Ashadze, Logatchev 2 and Krasnov Vent Fields During the Serpentine Cruise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouquet, Y.; Cherkashov, G.; Charlou, J.; Ondreas, H.; Cannat, M.; Bortnikov, N.; Silantiev, S.; Etoubleau, J.; Scientific Party Of The Serpentine Cruise

    2007-12-01

    During the Serpentine cruise (March 2007) we have explored and sampled, using the ROV Victor, new ultramafic hydrothermal fields between 13°N and 17°N on the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The Serpentine cruise was part of a 4 years cooperation agreement between France and Russia. Targets were Ashadze1 and 2 (12°58"N), Logatchev 1 (14°45"N) and 2 (14°43"N) and Krasnov (16°38"N) fields localized after several surface cruises of the R/V professor Logatchev. A significant portion of the dives was dedicated to detailed microbathymetry, 50 m and 20 m above the seafloor, and simultaneous physical and chemical plume studies and magnetic surveys. High resolution (30cm) maps were further used for geological, biological, microbiological and fluid sampling operations. The cruise identified three new very active black smoker fields (Ashadze 1 and 2, Logatchev 2) on serpentinized peridotites. One extensive low temperature inactive deposit (dominantly birnessite) was discovered 1 km east of the Logatchev 1 field. The basaltic hosted Krasnov field was inactive. The Ashadze 1 site at 4080m of water depth is the deepest active black smoker field so far known in the ocean. Inactive and basalt hosted sulfide chimneys (Ashadze 4) were found at the base of the rift valley at 4530 m. Extensive gravity sliding related to the emplacement of the ultramafic rocks is evident at all ultramafic sites (see abstract by Ondreas et al.). Fluids, enriched in H2 and hydrocarbon, confirm the originality of ultramafic environments (see abstract by Charlou et al.). Logatchev 2 is venting low salinity black smoker fluids indicating phase separation. In addition, its position 12 km off axis, moves from 8 (Logatchev 1) to 12 km the possibility to have off axis black smokers long the MAR. Basaltic hosted deposits are dominated by pyrite and silica at Krasnov (Fe:39%, Si:11%, Cu:2.2%, Zn:0.14%) and by sphalerite and pyrite at Ashadze 4 (Fe:24%, Si:1.5%, Cu:0.15%, isocubanite. Ashadze 1 (Fe:33%, Si:1.3%, Cu:14%, Zn:14%) and Logatchev 2 (Fe:20%, Si:3%, Cu:14%, Zn:23%) are enriched in sphalerite. New samples at Logatchev 1 confirm that copper is largely dominant at this site (Fe:29%, Si:3%, Cu:28%, Zn:4%). The Ashadze 2 field is unusual. A small active crater can be interpreted as a hydrothermal volcano built up with a mixture of carbonates and secondary copper sulfides and chlorides. Massive sulfide chimneys are associated with the active smokers at the center of the crater. Many inactive carbonates/sulfides mounds are also aligned along a N-S depression. Two types of hydrothermal deposits are observed: massive copper-rich sulfides associated with the black smokers and carbonate/sulfides chimneys. Average composition of hydrothermal deposits for the field is Fe:26%, Si:11%, Cu:11%, Zn:5%, Ca:8%. The dominant carbonate is aragonite, Mg-Calcite is rare, and talc is common. Comparisons with other ultramafic sites along the MAR will also bee presented.

  17. The Acoustic Signature of High-Temperature Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crone, T. J.; Wilcock, W. S.; Parsons, J. D.; Barclay, A. H.

    2005-12-01

    Motivated by a desire to find new measurements that might be sensitive to flow rate variations within mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems, we have conducted field studies to collect passive acoustic measurements at black smoker hydrothermal vents using two versions of a simple dual-hydrophone recording device capable of collecting continuous acoustic data for about one week at sampling rates of 1000--2000 Hz. We deployed the first-generation instrument on the Sully sulfide structure in the Main Endeavour Field of the Juan de Fuca Ridge during September of 2004. We were able to collect approximately 48 hours of data before the instrument was partially destroyed by venting fluid. We are in the process of obtaining additional measurements in the same vent field with a second-generation instrument. For the 2004 deployment, the venting fluid produced an acoustic signal that was far above the background level at all measured frequencies. The acoustic spectrum contains a broadband signal that is weighted toward the low frequencies and extends to the Nyquist frequency at 500 Hz. The spectrum also contains several sharp peaks below 150 Hz. The signal is variable in time, with the broadband and peak amplitudes fluctuating by ~20 dB, and the frequencies of the sharp spectral peaks fluctuating by ~1--3 Hz. The complex nature of the acoustic signal suggests that more than one sound production mechanism is operating within the vent. The sharp peaks suggest the presence of a resonant mechanism such as pipe resonance excited by turbulent flow. The high level of the broadband signal is not predicted by theoretical investigations of low Mach number jet acoustics. It is likely that another broadband sound source is present, which could be related to phase separation or to the mixing of different density fluids. More observations will be required to fully understand the basic mechanisms of sound production within black smoker chimneys.

  18. Geochemistry of a sediment push-core from the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Á. S. Dias; R. A. Mills; R. N. Taylor; P. Ferreira; F. J. A. S. Barriga

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal sediment mineralogy and geochemistry can provide insights into seafloor mineralization processes and changes through time. We report a geochemical investigation of a short (22 cm) near-vent hydrothermal metalliferous sediment core from the Lucky Strike site (LS), on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The sediment was collected from the base of an active white smoker vent and comprises pure hydrothermal precipitates, mainly

  19. Investigations of a novel fauna from hydrothermal vents along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, H.; Schander, C.; Halanych, K. M.; Levin, L. A.; Sweetman, A.; Tverberg, J.; Hoem, S.; Steen, I.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic deep ocean hosts a variety of habitats ranging from fairly uniform sedimentary abyssal plains to highly variable hard bottoms on mid ocean ridges, including biodiversity hotspots like seamounts and hydrothermal vents. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna, and since their discovery in 1977 more than 400 species of animals have been described. This fauna includes various animal groups of which the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. The newly discovered deep sea hydrothermal vents on the Mohns-Knipovich ridge north of Iceland harbour unique biodiversity. The Jan Mayen field consists of two main areas with high-temperature white smoker venting and wide areas with low-temperature seepage, located at 5-700 m, while the deeper Loki Castle vent field at 2400 m depth consists of a large area with high temperature black smokers surrounded by a sedimentary area with more diffuse low-temperature venting and barite chimneys. The Jan Mayen sites show low abundance of specialized hydrothermal vent fauna. Single groups have a few specialized representatives but groups otherwise common in hydrothermal vent areas are absent. Slightly more than 200 macrofaunal species have been identified from this vent area, comprising mainly an assortment of bathyal species known from the surrounding area. Analysis of stable isotope data also indicates that the majority of the species present are feeding on phytodetritus and/or phytoplankton. However, the deeper Loki Castle vent field contains a much more diverse vent endemic fauna with high abundances of specialized polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. These specializations also include symbioses with a range of chemosynthetic microorganisms. Our data show that the fauna composition is a result of high degree of local specialization with some similarities to the fauna of cold seeps along the Norwegian margin and wood-falls in the abyssal Norwegian Sea. Few species are common to both the deep and the shallow vents, but some gastropod species show a structured population difference between the sites. Our data indicate that there has been a migration of vent fauna into the Arctic Ocean from the Pacific Ocean rather than from the known vent sites further south in the Atlantic Ocean. The discovery and sampling of these new arctic vent fields provide unique data to further understand the migration of vent organisms and interactions between different deep sea chemosynthetic environments. Based on the high degree of local adaptation and specialization of fauna from the studied sites we propose the AMOR to be a new zoogeographical province for vent fauna.

  20. What Does It Take to Be a Smoker? Adolescents’ Characterization of Different Smoker Types

    PubMed Central

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have demonstrated that clinical- and research-based definitions of who a smoker is and what constitutes smoking often differ from adolescent-derived definitions, which can be problematic for effective intervention and prevention efforts. We investigated how adolescents define different smoker types (nonsmoker, smoker, regular smoker, addicted smoker, heavy smoker, experimental smoker, casual smoker, and social smoker) using multiple indicators of smoking behaviors, including frequency, amount, place, and length of time cigarette smoking, and whether differences exist by smoking experience. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze data from a cohort of adolescents (N = 372) in northern California. Results: We found differences in how adolescents characterized smoker types based on their own smoking experience. Ever-smokers tended to have a greater flexibility in determining what constituted nonsmoking and heavy smoking, while never-smokers had much narrower definitions. Results also indicated that adolescents may mistakenly associate nicotine addiction with a high frequency and amount of cigarette use as 74.3% characterized an addicted smoker as having smoked for a few years or more. In addition, there was a considerable amount of overlap in definitions between different smoker types, particularly among the smoker–regular smoker, addicted smoker–heavy smoker, and casual smoker–social smoker pairs. Conclusion: Health communication strategies for youth smoking prevention need to address the wide variability and overlap in how adolescents define different smoker types. Greater attention should be directed to understanding the nuances of how adolescents define smoking in order to maximize the effectiveness of youth-centered smoking prevention and cessation messages. PMID:21849408

  1. Integrated Fe- and S-isotope study of seafloor hydrothermal vents at East Pacific Rise 9-10°N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rouxel, O.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Bach, W.; Edwards, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we report on coupled Fe- and S-isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids and sulfide deposits from the East Pacific Rise at 9–10°N to better constrain processes affecting Fe-isotope fractionation in hydrothermal environments. We aim to address three fundamental questions: (1) Is there significant Fe-isotope fractionation during sulfide precipitation? (2) Is there significant variability of Fe-isotope composition of the hydrothermal fluids reflecting sulfide precipitation in subsurface environments? (3) Are there any systematics between Fe- and S-isotopes in sulfide minerals? The results show that chalcopyrite, precipitating in the interior wall of a hydrothermal chimney displays a limited range of ?56Fe values and ?34S values, between ? 0.11 to ? 0.33‰ and 2.2 to 2.6‰ respectively. The ?56Fe values are, on average, slightly higher by 0.14‰ relative to coeval vent fluid composition while ?34S values suggest significant S-isotope fractionation (? 0.6 ± 0.2‰) during chalcopyrite precipitation. In contrast, systematically lower ?56Fe and ?34S values relative to hydrothermal fluids, by up to 0.91‰ and 2.0‰ respectively, are observed in pyrite and marcasite precipitating in the interior of active chimneys. These results suggest isotope disequilibrium in both Fe- and S-isotopes due to S-isotopic exchange between hydrothermal H2S and seawater SO42? followed by rapid formation of pyrite from FeS precursors, thus preserving the effects of a strong kinetic Fe-isotope fractionation during FeS precipitation. In contrast, ?56Fe and ?34S values of pyrite from inactive massive sulfides, which show evidence of extensive late-stage reworking, are essentially similar to the hydrothermal fluids. Multiple stages of remineralization of ancient chimney deposits at the seafloor appear to produce minimal Fe-isotope fractionation. Similar affects are indicated during subsurface sulfide precipitation as demonstrated by the lack of systematic differences between ?56Fe values in both high-temperature, Fe-rich black smokers and lower-temperature, Fe-depleted vents.

  2. Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa trough: Mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marumo, Katsumi; Hattori, Kéiko H.

    1999-09-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal activity at Jade has resulted in extensive alteration of the host epiclastic sediments and pumiceous tuffs, forming mica, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite), Mg-rich chlorite, talc, montmorillonite, and a mixed-layer mineral of dioctahedral chlorite and montmorillonite (Chl/Mont). Clay mineral assemblages show a vertical variation, which reflects variable amounts of cold seawater incorporated into hot hydrothermal fluids in subsurface sediments and tuff. However, mixing alone cannot explain the occurrence of abundant kaolin minerals at Jade. The formation of kaolin minerals requires much more acidic fluid than expected from simple mixing of hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Low pH values are likely attained by oxidation of H 2S either dissolved in the hydrothermal fluid or released from the fluid during decompression. The fluid reaching the seafloor is discharged into cold seawater, which caused precipitation of sulfides close to vents and native sulfur and barite at the margins of the vent areas. Halloysite, barite and anhydrite show Sr isotope compositions similar to marine Sr, indicating the derivation of marine Sr directly from seawater or by the dissolution of calcareous nannoplanktons. The isotopic compositions of kaolinite (? 18O = +7.4‰, ?D = -23‰), Chl/Mont (? 18O = +7.0‰, ?D = -32‰), and mica (? 18O = +5.4 to +9.9‰, ?D = -30 to -26‰) suggest fluids of a heated seawater origin. The O isotopic data yielded formation temperatures of 170°C for kaolinite, 61 to 110°C for halloysite, and 145 to 238°C for mica. Barite ? 34S values (+21.0 to +22.5‰) are very similar to the marine sulfate value, confirming that the barite formation took place due to mixing of Ba-bearing hydrothermal fluids and sulfate-rich seawater. Native sulfur shows a large variation in ? 34S in one hand specimen probably because of rapid disequilibrium precipitation of S during fluid exhalation on the seafloor. Sulfur in hydrothermal fluids is usually consumed to form metal sulfides. Therefore, abundant native sulfur at Jade suggests high H 2S/metals ratios of the hydrothermal fluids. The alteration assemblages and isotopic data of hydrothermal minerals from Jade are very similar to those of Kuroko-type barite deposits of middle Miocene age, which formed from fluids of high S/metals ratios at less than 200°C. At Jade, there is only one black smoker actively discharging high temperature (˜320°C) fluid, but there are many fossil sulfide chimneys and mounds in the area. The mineralogy and high Au and Cu in these precipitates suggest highly metalliferous hydrothermal activity in the past. These activities likely resulted in discharge of hydrothermal plumes and fall-outs of sulfides and sulfates on the seafloor. These fall-outs were incorporated in sediments far from the vent areas. They are now recorded as high metal contents in sediments with no petrographic and mineralogical evidence of in-situ hydrothermal activity. Some are high as 8,100 ppm for Cu, 12,500 ppm for Zn, 1,000 ppm for As, 100 ppm for Ag and 21,000 ppm for Pb. Detrital grains of montmorillonite in such sediments are coated with Fe-oxyhydroxides during the suspension in seawater before settling on the seafloor. The depths of such metal anomalies in sediments suggest high levels of metalliferous hydrothermal activities from 1,800 to 300 ybp.

  3. Culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Voordeckers; My H. Do; Michael Hügler; Vivian Ko; Stefan M. Sievert; Costantino Vetriani

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial and archaeal communities of three deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR;\\u000a Rainbow, Logatchev and Broken Spur) were investigated using an integrated culture-dependent and independent approach. Comparative\\u000a molecular phylogenetic analyses, using the 16S rRNA gene and the deduced amino acid sequences of the alpha and beta subunits\\u000a of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes were

  4. “We do not hire smokers”: May employers discriminate against smokers?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel M. Warner

    1994-01-01

    Smoking employees are less healthy than nonsmokers, are absent more, make more and more expensive claims for health and disability\\u000a benefits, and endanger co-workers who breathe smoky air. Employers may establish smoke-free workplaces, but—beyond that—employers\\u000a may absolutely discriminate against smokers. Absent some common-law or statutory prohibition, employers are free to hire whomever\\u000a they wish. The Americans with Disability Act prohibits

  5. Complex hydrothermal alteration and illite K-Ar ages in Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Variscan Badenweiler-Lenzkirch suture zone, Black Forest, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockamp, Olaf; Schlegel, Andreas; Wemmer, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Post-collisional Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Badenweiler-Lenzkirch Zone reveal by microscopy of thin sections different degrees of hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and mica particles, and XRD, IR and XRF data of the <2 µm fractions show illitic material as the dominant clay mineral consisting of a mixture of 1M and 2M1 polytypes. Moreover, small amounts of illite/smectite mixed-layer minerals of R1-ordering are proved in the granites. In the separates, two illite mixing lines with different Fe + Mg contents are verified between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and detrital illite in the molasse sediments, as well as between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and altered mica flakes in the granites. Fe-rich detrital chlorite is present within the molasse sediments, while mixtures of high aluminous Fe-poor dioctahedral/di-trioctahedral chlorite with randomly interstratified chlorite/smectite mixed-layer minerals are formed from feldspar alteration in the granites. Illite K-Ar dating of the <2 and <0.63 µm fractions yields hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and partial resetting of the K-Ar system of detrital illite and mica flakes in the molasse sediments at ?200 °C during Upper Permian to Middle Triassic times, while the granites in the eastern part of the study area were not altered contemporaneously. In contrast, hydrothermal activity at ?200 °C during Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous times occurred in the granites, whereas these temperatures were too low for resetting the older `Permo-Triassic' illite K-Ar ages in the molasse rocks. Within both K-Ar age clusters, the data are seen to decrease with grain size and portion of illite 2M1 polytype. The alteration phenomena indicate multiple hydrothermal episodes in the study area, and they match those from the Central and Western European crust as fluid supply was controlled geodynamically by episodic break up of Pangea.

  6. Ulcerative colitis in smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bastida, Guillermo; Beltrán, Belén

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major environmental factor that interferes in the establishment and clinical course of ulcerative colitis (UC). Firstly, the risk of smoking status impact in the development of UC is reviewed, showing that current smoking has a protective association with UC. Similarly, being a former smoker is associated with an increased risk of UC. The concept that smoking could have a role in determining the inflammatory bowel disease phenotype is also discussed. Gender may also be considered, as current smoking delays disease onset in men but not in women. No clear conclusions can be driven from the studies trying to clarify whether childhood passive smoking or prenatal smoke exposure have an influence on the development of UC, mainly due to methodology flaws. The influence of smoking on disease course is the second aspect analysed. Some studies show a disease course more benign in smokers that in non-smokers, with lower hospitalizations rates, less flare-ups, lower use of oral steroids and even less risk of proximal extension. This is not verified by some other studies. Similarly, the rate of colectomy does not seem to be determined by the smoking status of the patient. The third issue reviewed is the use of nicotine as a therapeutic agent. The place of nicotine in the treatment of UC is unclear, although it could be useful in selected cases, particularly in recent ex-smokers with moderate but refractory attacks of UC. Finally, the effect of smoking cessation in UC patients is summarised. Given that smoking represents a major worldwide cause of death, for inpatients with UC the risks of smoking far outweigh any possible benefit. Thus, physicians should advise, encourage and assist UC patients who smoke to quit. PMID:21734782

  7. Psychophysiological reactivity to environmental tobacco smoke on smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Ordoñana, Juan R; González-Javier, Francisca; Gómez-Amor, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an air pollutant with a relevant impact on public health. In addition, ETS is a significant stimulus that may elicit different responses depending on previous experience and current status regarding smoking. Exposure to cigarette cues has been shown to be a reliable method for inducing subjective and physiological responses. However, the role of ETS as a stimulus has not received, to date, enough attention in the research literature. This study aimed to analyse both the autonomic and subjective responses of smokers and non-smokers to exposure to ETS. To that end, 41 non-smokers and 57 smokers were exposed to ETS, in a controlled laboratory setting. We measured the subjective perception of smoke, unpleasantness, heart rate and skin conductance to compare the reactions of smokers and non-smokers to ETS. Additionally, subjective tobacco craving after exposure was assessed for current smokers. We found different psychophysiological responses to ETS exposure for smokers and non-smokers. Smokers showed a generalised increase in autonomic activity, significantly greater than that of non-smokers. In addition, heart rate increase during exposure to ETS was positively correlated with subjective craving. Our data suggested that ETS was an important stimulus and acted as a relevant cue for smokers; it induced both psychophysiological reactions and subjective craving. Hence, this kind of stimulus within the cue-reactivity research paradigm may be useful for studying the effect of ETS on smokers' reactions, craving, quitting attempts, or relapse probabilities. PMID:22465376

  8. Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter from Deep-sea Floor Hydrothermal Vents in South Mariana Backarc Spreading Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajima, F.; Yamanaka, T.

    2004-12-01

    In South Mariana Backarc Spreading Center, a few active hydrothermal fields are located. We investigated a characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from hydrothermal vents in this area, in order to clarify the biosphere beneath deep-sea floor. Hot water sample was collected from a drilled hole (APM01 located in Fryer site, 12o 55.22fN, 143o 37.16fE, depth 2850m) during the ROPOS/TN167A cruise in March 2004. The hole had been drilled during Hakurei-Maru 2 cruise in January 2004. Another hot water sample was collected from a natural black smoker located in Pika site (12o 55.15fN, 143o 36.96fE, depth 2773m) during YK03-09 cruise. In this investigation, we developed a standalone filtration system in order to collect and enrich dissolved organic matter of quite low concentration. This system was designed to be put near hydrothermal vents for at least 24h. This system has an ODS disk (EmporeTM High Performance Extraction Disk C18 90mm?) with a pre-filter (Whatman GMF 1 ?)m filter paper) to adsorb dilute organics. We collected DOM from the APM01 casing pipe for about 30h (Tmax = 25-30 o C, the estimated volume of filtrated water is max. 300L) using this filtration system. Adsorbed organics were eluted with methanol for 12h twice and toluene once using soxhlet extractor. Recovered amounts of methanol eluents are 72.8mg for APM01, and 89.7mg for the black smoker. Prior to GCMS analysis, we carried out high resolution 1 H-NMR measurement (400MHz), together with the DOM samples collected from the Suiyo Seamount in July-August 2001 and August 2002. Most of the samples show signals in the region of 3-4 ppm, and the samples from the vents of relatively low temperatures (APM01 and AP04: the natural vent at the Suiyo Seamount, temperature 8-48o C ) show signals also in the region of 0.8-1.6 ppm.

  9. The Case for a Smoker's License

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background to the debate Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a “smoker's license” and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic—the tobacco industry—and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor. PMID:23152726

  10. Methanococcus jannaschii sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic methanogen from a submarine hydrothermal vent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Jones; J. A. Leigh; F. Mayer; C. R. Woese; R. S. Wolfe

    1983-01-01

    A new extremely thermophilic methane-producing bacterium was isolated from a submarine hydrothermal vent sample collected by a research team from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution using the manned submersible ALVIN. The sample was obtained from the base of a “white smoker” chimney on the East Pacific Rise at 20° 50' N latitude and 109° 06' W longitude at a depth

  11. Response of choroidal blood flow to carbogen breathing in smokers and non-smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Wimpissinger; H Resch; F Berisha; G Weigert; L Schmetterer; K Polak

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate a potential difference in ocular vascular reactivity during carbogen breathing in optic nerve head, choroid, and retina between healthy smokers and non-smokers.Methods: 25 (13 smokers and 12 non-smokers) healthy male volunteers participated in this observer masked, two cohort study. During inhalation of carbogen (5% CO2 and 95% O2) over 10 minutes measurements were taken using laser Doppler

  12. Long-term observations of tilt, seafloor pressure and temperatures in the Logatchev Hydrothermal Vent Field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 15°N.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villinger, Heinrich; Gennerich, Hans-Hermann; Fabian, Marcus

    2010-05-01

    The Logatchev Hydrothermal Vent Field (LHF) was one of the foci of the German DFG-funded Priority Program 1144 where over the last 5 years attempts were made to monitor hydrothermal and magmatic activity by long-term measurements of (1) seafloor deformation (subsidence, uplift, tilt), (2) tremor (vertical seafloor acceleration, bottom pressure) (2) bottom water temperature variations and (4) variation of outflow temperatures of black smokers. In addition we measured horizontal temperature distribution and vertical temperature profiles in biological communities (mussel fields). Seafloor deformation was measured with an Ocean Bottom Tilt Station (OBT) with a biaxial bubble tilt sensor with a resolution of 1*10-6 rad. Ocean Bottom Pressure (OBP) - an obvious proxy for uplift or subsidence- was measured with a Paroscientific Digiquartz Pressure Sensor with an absolute resolution of 5 Pa (equivalent of 0.5mm depth change). A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometer of type Kistler with about 10-5 m/s2 nominal resolution was mounted in the OBT's sensor pressure tube to measure vertical acceleration. A short mooring at the seafloor with 25 temperature sensor distributed over 25m, located close to the outflow plume of a black smoker recorded variations in plume activity. In addition a high temperature sensor was placed directly inside the outflow of two black smokers and recorded temperatures over a week resp. over almost one year. In summary, all our deployed systems worked very well and data quality was good to excellent. However we also had to face the occasional data loss due to power failure or corrosion problems inside of underwater connectors. Because of its very high resolution the precise leveling of the tilt station with the help of an ROV was a challenge.. Unfortunately due to logistical problems with ROV and/or cruise scheduling we lost one complete cruise and during the last cruise to LHF in January 2009, not all instruments could be recovered due to extended bad weather conditions. In our presentation we will present an overview of our instruments, discuss our technical design principles, demonstrate the capabilities of our instruments and show and discuss the data collected over the last 4 years. In conclusion, a meaningful interpretation of long-term time series of seafloor deformation, in particular tilt and pressure, is only possible with simultaneous observations of the physical oceanography in the area and the use of sensor arrays instead of single point observations.

  13. Perceived Arsenic-Related Mortality Risks for Smokers and Non-smokers [Revised Draft: December, 2010

    E-print Network

    Shaw, W. Douglass

    Perceived Arsenic-Related Mortality Risks for Smokers and Non-smokers [Revised Draft: December University of Nevada, Las Vegas Abstract: Prolonged ingestion of arsenic in drinking water can increase the risks of dying of lung and bladder cancer, particularly for smokers. In a survey of arsenic hotspots

  14. Acoustic imaging of hydrothermal plumes. East Pacific rise, 21°N, 109°W

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Rona; D. R. Palmer; C. Jones; D. A. Chayes; M. Czarnecki; E. W. Carey; J. C. Guerrero

    1991-01-01

    We report the first observations based on acoustic imaging of large-scale structure and time variability of buoyant plumes emanating from black smoker-type seafloor hot springs. Three-dimensional plume reconstructions were made from a digital data set of acoustic backscattering information recorded on a prototype submersible-mounted sonar system. The acoustic images of two adjacent black smokers depict volume and show zones of

  15. Acoustic imaging of hydrothermal plumes, East Pacific Rise, 21°N, 109°W

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Rona; D. R. Palmer; C. Jones; D. A. Chayes; M. Czarnecki; E. W. Carey; J. C. Guerrero

    1991-01-01

    We report the first observations based on acoustic imaging of large-scale structure and time variability of buoyant plumes emanating from black smoker-type seafloor hot springs. Three-dimensional plume reconstructions were made from a digital data set of acoustic backscattering information recorded on a prototype submersible-mounted sonar system. The acoustic images of two adjacent black smokers depict volume and show zones of

  16. Unplanned Quitting in a Triethnic Sample of U.S. Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Resnicow, Ken; Zhou, Yan; Nollen, Nicole L.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers who report quitting without prior planning have been shown to report longer abstinence compared with those who planned. Little is known about unplanned quitting (UQ) among U.S. smokers, minorities, or nondaily and light smokers. Methods: Using an online panel, we recruited equal numbers of Black, White, and Latino nondaily, light daily, and moderate/heavy daily smokers. Of the 1,127 who reported a past-year quit attempt, we queried whether it was planned and the maximum number of days abstinent. Results: Overall, 38% reported that their last quit attempt was unplanned. The impact of planned versus unplanned quitting interacted with smoking level and race. Among White moderate/heavy smokers, mean days abstinent was 99 for those who reported an unplanned quit attempt compared with 60 days for those who reported a planned attempt (p = .02). Among Black moderate/heavy smokers, the mean days abstinent was higher among those whose last attempt was planned, 92 days, compared with 56 days among those whose last attempt was unplanned (p = .09). The pattern among Latinos resembled Whites but was not significant. Results remained after adjusting for confounds such as age, gender, education, income, time to first cigarette, and menthol use. There were no significant differences in abstinence by quit type for light or nondaily smokers. Conclusions: Future studies are needed to elucidate why UQ appears to have differential effectiveness across racial/ethnic groups and different levels of cigarette use. Research examining the impact of UQ on long-term quitting, which is not addressed here, is needed. PMID:24420329

  17. Global synthesis and analysis of deep-sea hydrothermal time-series data: Toward a characterization of the outflow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreyre, T.; Sohn, R. A.; Crone, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Time-series records of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluid properties and flow rates have the potential to help constrain the hydrogeology, subsurface circulation patterns, heat, mass, and chemical fluxes, and habitat conditions within young oceanic crust. This potential has motivated a concerted international effort to acquire such records from a variety of geologically distinct vent fields at numerous locations along the mid-ocean ridge system. However up until now, the global database has not been systematically explored. These records have only been analyzed in a piecemeal fashion, which is problematic because hydrothermal time-series records from individual sites typically exhibit enigmatic modes of episodic and periodic variability that are difficult to interpret in isolation. In this study, we conduct a systematic analysis of the extant set of hydrothermal time-series records from several mid-ocean ridge sites where observatory-style experiments have been conducted (including, LSHF, TAG, EPR 9°50'N and MEF). We show that most temperature records, regardless of location or geological setting, display systematic tide-related variability, with the strongest signal at the principal semidiurnal tidal periods (M2, S2, N2 and K2). Cross-spectral multi-taper methods applied to the temperature and bottom pressure records reveal robust phase relationships, particularly for the high-temperature, black-smoker records, as predicted by poroelastic theory. These results suggest that tidal pressures diffusely propagate through the formation, perturbing fluid velocities and temperatures, resulting in phase lags between the seafloor loading and the exit-fluid temperatures. Here, we use multi-layer analytical and numerical models to constrain the subseafloor permeability, skin depth, and Darcy velocities required to explain the phase lag observations.

  18. Altered brain functional networks in heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fuchun; Wu, Guangyao; Zhu, Ling; Lei, Hao

    2015-07-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking is associated with changed brain structure and function. However, little is known about alterations of the topological organization of brain functional networks in heavy smokers. Thirty-one heavy smokers and 33 non-smokers underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. The whole-brain functional networks were constructed by thresholding the correlation matrices of 90 brain regions and their topological properties were analyzed using graph network analysis. Non-parametric permutation tests were performed to investigate group differences in network topological measures and multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationships between the network metrics and smoking-related variables. Both heavy smokers and non-smokers exhibited small-world architecture in their brain functional networks. Compared with non-smokers, however, heavy smokers showed altered topological measurements characterized by lower global efficiency, higher local efficiency and clustering coefficients and greater path length. Furthermore, heavy smokers demonstrated decreased nodal global efficiency mainly in brain regions within the default mode network, whereas increased nodal local efficiency predominated in the visual-related regions. In addition, heavy smokers exhibited an association between the altered network metrics and the duration of cigarette use or the severity of nicotine dependence. Our results suggest that heavy smokers may have less efficient network architecture in the brain, and chronic cigarette smoking is associated with disruptions in the topological organization of brain networks. Our findings may further the understanding of the effects of chronic cigarette smoking on the brain and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying nicotine dependence. PMID:24962385

  19. Some Lessons Learned From Observations and Modeling of Mid-ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathles, L. M.

    2004-05-01

    Modeling of critical observations at mid-ocean ridge and continental hydrothermal systems has taught us a good deal about how these systems operate. Aspects will be reviewed from the large to small scale focusing on physical processes. At the largest scale the shape of the axial mid-ocean ridge magma chamber is clearly controlled by seawater convection. If the crust is impermeable, the 400°C isotherm of the magma chamber extends ~15 km from the ridge. As the crust becomes permeable, the width of the magma chamber collapses. A narrow axial magma chamber requires a crust whose permeability decreases exponentially from few 10's of millidarcies to a few tenths of millidarcy at moho depths (or the equivalent). Venting of ~350°C seawater at black smokers requires flow not significantly penetrate hotter rock. Variations in black smoker salinity from half to twice seawater, transit times of ~10 yrs, and megaplume discharge at ~250 times the normal black smoker rates (proceeded and succeeded by normal discharge), suggest a ~3.4 m wide, 350°C flow zone separated by ~180 m from 1200°C magma. With this geometry, periodic thermal contraction cracking in the 180 m wide thermal boundary layer can draw in sufficient flow-zone waters (which flash, leave behind salt, and return and salt-free condensed vapor) to lower the flow zone salinity by a factor of two. Halo-less veins with salt-rich amphiboles and minerals precipitated at >600°C record boundary layer cracking events. Migration of the flow zone toward the axis recovers the salt and doubles flow zone salinity. Increases in flow zone permeability by faulting or magma deflation produces megaplume discharges preceded and succeeded by normal black smoker venting. The routine (discharge salinities almost never equal seawater) interaction of convecting seawater with basalt at temperatures of >600°C makes it difficult to distinguish true magmatic waters (e.g., waters exsolved from magma) from seawater from thermal contraction cracks. Buoyant forces in the flow zone (5 km vertical extent) can equal lithostatic at a depth of several hundred meters, and repeatedly fracture shallow areas if they are plugged by mineral deposition, producing funnel-shaped breccia-vein feeder pipes similar to observed. Magma bodies establish upwelling at their edges whose effects propagate and ultimately control the broad pattern of convection. The axial upwelling at ridges, for example, draws in cold seawater, cools the adjacent crust, and creates horizontal temperature gradients that drive upwelling ~12 km from the axis. This upwelling spawns the next set of cells, etc. The cells interact as they migrate toward the ridge as seafloor spreading occurs. Pulses of more intense off-ridge discharge (e.g., times when the venting is >200°C) occur when interaction is constructive. The Mn lenses observed in ophiolites could form at these times. Similarly, convection developed first at the edges of crustal sills, spawns rings of satellite convection over the top of the sill. Tilts or undulations in the sill can affect the pattern but it is not significantly affected by faults and fractures. The spacing of discharge zones is similar to deposit spacing in massive sulfide districts, as is the variation in size. Deep model sills produce a single, large vent/deposit; shallow sills many small and a few large deposits. Model deposits require enhanced permeability in upwelling zones, however. The mechanism by which this occurs in nature could involve initial selection of permeable pathways with their subsequent isolation by anhydrite selvaging.

  20. Lung Cancer in Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) has lately been recognized as a unique disease based on rapidly gained knowledge from genomic changes to treatment responses. The focus of this article is on current knowledge and challenges with regard to LCINS expanded from recent reviews highlighting five areas: (1) distribution of LCINS by temporal trends, geographic regions, and populations; (2) three well-recognized environmental risk factors; (3) other plausible environmental risk factors; (4) prior chronic lung diseases and infectious diseases as risk factors; and (5) lifestyles as risk or protective factors. This article will also bring attention to recently published literature in two pioneering areas: (1) histological characteristics, clinical features with emerging new effective therapies, and social and psychological stigma; and (2) searching for susceptibility genes using integrated genomic approaches. PMID:21500120

  1. Impaired somatosensation in tongue mucosa of smokers.

    PubMed

    Yekta, Sareh Said; Lückhoff, Andreas; Risti?, Dejan; Lampert, Friedrich; Ellrich, Jens

    2012-02-01

    Smoking has been indicated as a risk factor for oral diseases and can lead to altered sense of taste. So far, the effects of sensory changes on the tongue are not investigated. In this study, quantitative sensory testing was used to evaluate somatosensory function in the lingual region. Eighty healthy volunteers were investigated (20 smokers, 20 non-smokers). Subjects were bilaterally tested in innervation areas of lingual nerves. Thresholds of cold and warm detection, cold and heat pain, and mechanical detection were determined. As control for systemic, extraoral effects of smoking, tests were additionally performed in 40 volunteers (20 smokers, 20 non-smokers) on the skin of the chin innervated by the mental branch of the trigeminal nerve. Cold (p < 0.001), warm detection thresholds (p < 0.001), and thermal sensory limen (p < 0.001) showed higher sensitivity in non-smokers as compared to smokers. Heat pain and mechanical detection, as well as all tests in the skin of the chin, showed no significant differences. The impaired temperature perception in smokers indicates a reduction of somatosensory functions in the tongue, possibly caused by nerve degeneration associated with smoking. Possible systemic effects of smoking do not seem to affect extraoral trigeminal branches. PMID:20938792

  2. Subgingival microbiome in smokers and non-smokers in Korean chronic periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Moon, J-H; Lee, J-H; Lee, J-Y

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is a major environmental factor associated with periodontal diseases. However, we still have a very limited understanding of the relationship between smoking and subgingival microflora in the global population. Here, we investigated the composition of subgingival bacterial communities from the pooled plaque samples of smokers and non-smokers, 134 samples in each group, in Korean patients with moderate chronic periodontitis using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. A total of 17,927 reads were analyzed and classified into 12 phyla, 126 genera, and 394 species. Differences in bacterial communities between smokers and non-smokers were examined at all phylogenetic levels. The genera Fusobacterium, Fretibacterium, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Corynebacterium, TM7, and Filifactor were abundant in smokers. On the other hand, Prevotella, Campylobacter, Aggregatibacter, Veillonellaceae GQ422718, Haemophilus, and Prevotellaceae were less abundant in smokers. Among species-level taxa occupying > 1% of whole subgingival microbiome of smokers, higher abundance (? 2.0-fold compared to non-smokers) of seven species or operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was found: Fusobacterium nucleatum, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria oralis, Corynebacterium matruchotii, Veillonella dispar, Filifactor alocis, and Fretibacterium AY349371. On the other hand, lower abundance of 11 species or OTUs was found in smokers: Neisseria elongata, six Prevotella species or OTUs, Fusobacterium canifelinum, Aggregatibacter AM420165, Selenomonas OTU, and Veillonellaceae GU470897. Species richness and evenness were similar between the groups whereas diversity was greater in smokers than non-smokers. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that differences exist in the subgingival bacterial community between smoker and non-smoker patients with chronic moderate periodontitis in Korea, suggesting that cigarette smoking considerably affects subgingival bacterial ecology. PMID:25283067

  3. Discovering New Mantle-Hosted Submarine Ecosytems: The Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D. S.; Karson, J. A.; Yoerger, D.; Fruh-Green, G. L.; Butterfield, D. A.; Lilley, M.

    2003-12-01

    In April-May 2003, the Lost City Hydrothermal Field was investigated during 19 Alvin dives and 17 missions with the autonomous vehicle ABE to examine the linkages among geological, chemical and biological processes associated with a submarine hydrothermal system hosted on mantle material. In concert, these two programs resulted in 1) delineation of the geologic features that control hydrothermal flow in this area; 2) an extremely high-resolution bathymetric map (meter scale) of the field and adjacent areas of the Atlantis Massif; 3) interdisciplinary sampling of 10 individual venting sites within the field; and 4) documentation of a nearly continuous zone of deformation at the top of the massif that is very likely the surface expression of a long-lived detachment fault that caps the massif. This hydrothermal system, which is driven by exothermic serpentinization reactions beneath the Atlantis Massif, is unlike any known field examined to date. It is hosted on 1-2 my old variably altered mantle material, it contains more than 30 carbonate chimneys that reach up to 60 m in height, and generation of diffusely venting 40-90C fluids with pH 9-11 that are enriched in methane, hydrogen and other hydrocarbons support dense microbial communities. ABE bathymetry shows that a linear array of the largest structures within the field is controlled by an E-W trending, 200 m long lineament intersected by a N-S trending fault. Mapping of the near vertical cliffs adjacent to the field indicates that much of the subsurface flow within this area is controlled by very gently west-dipping faults that result in a nearly horizontal, sheet-like style of flow. Venting of diffuse fluids directly from the near vertical walls forms perpendicular growths of carbonate flanges, and results in the formation of vertical spires, and massive, shingled deposits that cascade down the cliff faces. The plumbing system within this area is very different from the vertical conduits that typify black smoker environments. The large surface areas exposed to hydrothermal fluids along the gently dipping faults may provide important environments for microbiological communities within the subsurface. Stockwork systems and variably cemented breccias preserved along the steep walls immediately adjacent to the field are reminiscent of ancient ophicalcite deposits preserved in ophiolitic rocks since the Archean. The Lost City Field is an astounding, intensely beautiful area that hosts numerous composite chimneys that extend over an area >350 m in length. Many structures contain an array of delicate flanges, multiple pinnacles, and beehive deposits. The complex structure Poseidon dominates the field: it is over 60 m in height, >40 m in length and it hosts multiple active and inactive towers, smaller pinnacles, and flanges. It is unlikely that hydrothermal systems like Lost City are unique along the global mid-ocean ridge spreading network; where massifs similar to those at the Atlantis Fracture Zone are common. In these environments, intense long-lived faulting and seismic activity, coupled with serpentinization reactions act depth serve to promote hydrothermal flow.

  4. Smoking expectancies in smokers and never smokers: An examination of the smoking Consequences Questionnaire—Spanish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abilio Reig-Ferrer; Antonio Cepeda-Benito

    2007-01-01

    The factor structure of smoking expectancies was examined in daily smokers and never smokers. Participants completed the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire—Spanish (SCQ—Spanish; [Cepeda-Benito, A., & Reig-Ferrer, A. (2000). Smoking consequences questionnaire—Spanish. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14, 219-230.]). Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the eight-factor structure of the SCQ—Spanish was replicated in smokers only. Except for beliefs about negative-health outcome expectancies, daily

  5. Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Robertson; Raymond J. LaSala

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the Hydrothermal Program is to develop concepts which allow better utilization of geothermal energy to reduce the life-cycle cost of producing electricity from liquid-dominated, hydrothermal resources. Research in the program is currently ongoing in three areas: (1) Heat Cycle Research, which is looking at methods to increase binary plant efficiencies; (2) Materials Development, which is developing materials

  6. Subgingival Microbial Profiles of Smokers with Periodontitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Y. Shchipkova; H. N. Nagaraja; P. S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The subgingival microbiome is largely uncultivated, and therefore, cultivation-based and targeted molecular approaches have limited value in examining the effect of smoking on this community. We tested the hypothesis that the subgingival biofilm is compositionally different in current and never-smokers by using an open-ended molecular approach for bacterial identification. Subgingival plaque from deep sites of current and never-smokers matched for

  7. The Impact of Cigarette Excise Tax Increases on Purchasing Behaviors Among New York City Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Coady, Micaela H.; Chan, Christina A.; Mbamalu, Ijeoma G.; Kansagra, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between cigarette excise tax increases and tax-avoidant purchasing behaviors among New York City adult smokers. Methods. We analyzed data from the city’s annual Community Health Survey to assess changes in rates of tax avoidance over time (2003–2010) and smokers’ responses to the 2008 state cigarette tax increase. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified correlates of buying more cigarettes on the street in response to the increase. Results. After the 2002 tax increase, the percentage of smokers engaged in tax-avoidant behavior decreased with time from 30% in 2003 to 13% in 2007. Following the 2008 tax increase, 21% of smokers reported buying more cigarettes from another person on the street. Low-income, younger, Black, and Hispanic smokers were more likely than respondents with other sociodemographic characteristics to purchase more cigarettes on the street. Conclusions. To maximize public health impact, cigarette tax increases should be paired with efforts to limit the flow of untaxed cigarettes entering jurisdictions with high cigarette pack prices. PMID:23597382

  8. Personal Fable: Optimistic Bias in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Masiero, Marianna; Lucchiari, Claudio; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several empirical studies have shown the attitude of smokers to formulate judgments based on distortion in the risk perception. This alteration is produced by the activation of the optimistic bias characterized by a set of the unrealistic beliefs compared to the outcomes of their behavior. This bias exposes individuals to adopt lifestyles potentially dangerous for their health, underestimate the risks and overestimate the immediate positive effects. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the relationship between optimistic bias and smoking habits. In particular, it was hypothesized that smokers develop optimistic illusions, able to facilitate the adoption and the maintenance over time of the unhealthy lifestyles, such as cigarette smoking, and the former smokers could acquire a belief system centered on own responsibility. Patients and Methods: The samples (n = 633, female = 345, male = 288) composed of smokers (35.7%), ex-smokers (32.2%) and nonsmokers (32.1%). Each participant filled out two questionnaires including The Fagerström test and the motivational questionnaire as well as a set of items measured on a Likert scales to evaluate health beliefs. Results: The results confirmed the presence of the optimistic bias in comparative judgments, and the attitude to overestimate the effectiveness of their preventive behaviors in the smokers. Conclusions: Cognitive bias in risk perception may influence health behaviors in negative way and reinforce cigarette smoking over the time. Future research should be conducted to identify the better strategies to overtake this cognitive bias to improve the quitting rate. PMID:25883917

  9. Borders of life: lessons from Microbiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieur, D.

    Thirty years ago, the deep-sea was known as a low density biotope due to coldness, darkness and famine-like conditions. The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Eastern Pacific in 1977 and the associated black smokers in 1979 considerably changed our views about life on Earth. For the first time, an ecosystem almost independent (at least for tens of years) of solar nergy was discovered. Besides the spectacular and unexpected communities of invertebrates based on symbiotic associations with chemo-litho-autotrophic bacteria, prokaryotic communities associated with high temperature black smokers fascinated microbiologists of extreme environments. Within mineral structures where temperature gradients may fluctuate from ambient seawater temperatures (2°C) up to 350°C, thermophilic (optimal growth above 60°C) and hyperthermophilic (optimal growth above 80°C) microorganisms thrived under very severe conditions due to elevated hydrostatic pressure, toxic compounds or strong ionizing radiations. These organisms belong to both domains of Bacteria and Archaea and live aerobically but mostly anaerobically, using a variety of inorganic and organic carbon sources, and a variety of electron donnors and acceptors as well. The most thermophilic organism known on Earth was isolated from a mid-Atlantic-Ridge hydrotermal vent: Pyrolobus fumarii grows optimally at 110°c and its upper temperature limit for life is 113°C. Such an organism survived to autoclaving conditions currently used for sterilization procedures. Many other hyperthermophilic organisms were isolated and described, including fermenters, sulphate and sulphur reducers, hydrogen oxidizers, nitrate reducers, methanogens, etc. Although most of anaerobes are killed when exposed to oxygen, several deep-sea hyperthermophiles appeared to survive to both oxygen and starvation exposures, indicating that they probably can colonize rather distant environments Because of elevated hydrostatic pressure that exists at deep-sea vents, hydrothermal fluids remain liquid at temperatures above 100°C (boiling water temperature under atmospheric pressure). If strictly barophilic thermophiles or hyperthermophiles have not been reported yet (the deepest vents known are 3500 m in depth), barophilic Bacteria and Archaea have been reported that grow much more faster when exposed to in situ (pressurized) conditions. Morover, they grow preferentially at pressures above those existing at captures depth, that may indicate that their natural habitat is situated below the sea floor. Recently, several studies reported that hyperthermophiles and particularly deep-sea organisms may resist to elevated doses of gamma ionizing radiations, as strong as 20 kGy, similarly to the famous radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. From these reports, it can be concluded that exploration of Earth is not already finished: novel biotopes, novel organisms with novel metabolic and physiologic properties are waiting for their discovery. Also, severe physio-chemical conditions allow for florishing living forms that use efficiently chemical energy sources. If these data do not allow to claim that life arose at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, they clearly extend physio-chemical and spatial borders of life and stimulate to further exploration of Earth and the solar system.

  10. Subseafloor Microbial Life in Venting Fluids from the Mid Cayman Rise Hydrothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, J. A.; Reveillaud, J.; Reddington, E.; McDermott, J. M.; Sylva, S. P.; Breier, J. A.; German, C. R.; Seewald, J.

    2012-12-01

    In hard rock seafloor environments, fluids emanating from hydrothermal vents are one of the best windows into the subseafloor and its resident microbial community. The functional consequences of an extensive population of microbes living in the subseafloor remains unknown, as does our understanding of how these organisms interact with one another and influence the biogeochemistry of the oceans. Here we report the abundance, activity, and diversity of microbes in venting fluids collected from two newly discovered deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the ultra-slow spreading Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR). Fluids for geochemical and microbial analysis were collected from the Von Damm and Piccard vent fields, which are located within 20 km of one another, yet have extremely different thermal, geological, and depth regimes. Geochemical data indicates that both fields are highly enriched in volatiles, in particular hydrogen and methane, important energy sources for and by-products of microbial metabolism. At both sites, total microbial cell counts in the fluids ranged in concentration from 5 x 10 4 to 3 x 10 5 cells ml-1 , with background seawater concentrations of 1-2 x 10 4 cells ml-1 . In addition, distinct cell morphologies and clusters of cells not visible in background seawater were seen, including large filaments and mineral particles colonized by microbial cells. These results indicate local enrichments of microbial communities in the venting fluids, distinct from background populations, and are consistent with previous enumerations of microbial cells in venting fluids. Stable isotope tracing experiments were used to detect utilization of acetate, formate, and dissolve inorganic carbon and generation of methane at 70 °C under anaerobic conditions. At Von Damm, a putatively ultra-mafic hosted site located at ~2200 m with a maximum temperature of 226 °C, stable isotope tracing experiments indicate methanogenesis is occurring in most fluid samples. No activity was detected in Piccard vent fluids, a basalt-hosted black smoker site located at ~4950 m with a maximum temperature of 403 °C. However, hyperthermophilic and thermophilic heterotrophs of the genus Thermococcus were isolated from Piccard vent fluids, but not Von Damm. These obligate anaerobes, growing optimally at 55-90 °C, are ubiquitous at hydrothermal systems and serve as a readily cultivable indicator organism of subseafloor populations. Finally, molecular analysis of vent fluids is on-going and will define the microbial population structure in this novel ecosystem and allow for direct comparisons with other deep-sea and subsurface habitats as part of our continuing efforts to explore the deep microbial biosphere on Earth.

  11. A variety of Microbial Mats cover the Chimney Walls of the Loki's Castle Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahle, H.; Roalkvam, I.; Jørgensen, S. L.; Stokke, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Steen, I.

    2010-12-01

    Active vent chimneys of the Loki’s castle hydrothermal field at 73°N are the most northerly black smokers ever located. Vent fluids reach temperatures of >300°C, have a pH of around 5.5 and high concentrations of reduced compounds representing important energy sources for microbial life. Particularly they are extremely rich in methane (13.5 mM) and hydrogen (4.9 mM) while hydrogen sulphide concentrations are more typical for black smoker fluids (4.1 mM). Another characteristic of Loki’s castle is the unusually high abundance of microbial mats on the exterior of the chimneys. During a cruise in 2009 we used a ROV equipped with a hydraulic sampling cylinder (biosyringe) to collect samples of five mats varying in color and texture. Pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences yielded 9000 - 25000 reads per sample. Although all mats were dominated by a relatively low number of OTUs, we observed large differences in microbial composition, richness, and evenness of the mats. Also, the most dominating metabolic process occurring in each mat seemed to vary considerably. Two of the mats were largely dominated (60-90% of the reads) by relatives of mesophilic sulfur oxidizing ?-Proteobacteria (e.g. Sulfurovum) while another mat was dominated (48 % of the reads) by organisms affiliated with methanotrophic Methylococcales. In the last two mats we found a high abundance ( >20% - >40% of the reads) of organisms clustering among thermophilic organisms such as Thermodesulfobacteriales, Archaeoglobales, Thermococcales, Thermotogales, and Aquificales. The observed variation of the microbial composition between the different mats is possibly linked to variations in temperature and chemistry of fluids diffusely venting from the chimney. The study was supplemented by pyrosequencing of environmental cDNA from three of the samples (totally 1 100 000 reads). This dataset, which is currently being analyzed, will provide more information about the most active phylotypes in the microbial mats, and give further insight about the major in situ microbial processes occurring in these environments.

  12. Constraints On Fluid Evolution During Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Circulation From Anhydrite Sampled by ODP Hole 1256D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Duque, C.; Teagle, D. A.; Alt, J. C.; Cooper, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Anhydrite is potentially a useful mineral for recording the evolution of seawater-derived fluids during mid- ocean ridge hydrothermal circulation because it exhibits retrograde solubility, and hence may precipitate due to the heating of seawater or the sub-surface mixing of seawater with black smoker-like fluids. Here we provide new insights into the chemical and thermal evolution of seawater during hydrothermal circulation through analyses of anhydrite recovered from ODP Hole 1256D, the first complete penetration of intact upper oceanic crust down to gabbros. Previously, crustal anhydrite has been recovered only from Hole 504B. Measurements of 87Sr/86Sr, major element ratios, Rare Earth Elements and ?18O in anhydrite constrain the changing composition of fluids as they chemically interact with basalt. Anhydrite fills veins and pore-space in the lower lava sequences from ~530 to ~1000 meters sub- basement (msb), but is concentrated in the lava-dike transition (754 to 811 msb) and uppermost sheeted dikes. Although present in greater quantities than in Hole 504B, the amount of anhydrite recovered from the Site 1256 crust is low compared to that predicted by models of hydrothermal circulation (e.g., Sleep, 1991). Two distinct populations of anhydrite are indicated by measurements of 87Sr/86Sr suggesting different fluid evolution paths within Site 1256. One group of anhydrites have 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7070 to 0.7085, close to that of 15 Ma seawater (0.70878), suggesting that some fluids penetrate through the lavas and into the sheeted dikes with only minimal Sr-exchange with the host basalts. A second group, with low 87Sr/86Sr between 0.7048 and 0.7052, indicates precipitation from a fluid that has undergone far greater interaction with basalt. This range is close to that estimated from Sr-isotopic analyses of epidote for the Hole 1256D hydrothermal fluids (87Sr/86Sr ~0.705). Sr/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr indicate a similar relationship to that seen at ODP Hole 504B suggesting that Sr/Ca ratios reduce greatly during recharge before there is significant Sr exchange with the host basalts. ?18O measurements display an irregular trend with depth from +17‰ in the lower volcanics to +10‰ in the sheeted dikes suggesting an increase in precipitation temperatures from 105 to 211°C. One sample, from a chalcopyrite mineralized dike margin has a very light ?18O of +2.2‰ suggesting a temperature of ~408°, perhaps indicating that fluid was superheated following direct contact with the hot intrusive body. This sample also records low 87Sr/86Sr and high total REE.

  13. Heart Rate Variability and Wavelet-based Studies on ECG Signals from Smokers and Non-smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, K.; Goel, R.; Champaty, B.; Samantray, S.; Tibarewala, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    The current study deals with the heart rate variability (HRV) and wavelet-based ECG signal analysis of smokers and non-smokers. The results of HRV indicated dominance towards the sympathetic nervous system activity in smokers. The heart rate was found to be higher in case of smokers as compared to non-smokers ( p < 0.05). The frequency domain analysis showed an increase in the LF and LF/HF components with a subsequent decrease in the HF component. The HRV features were analyzed for classification of the smokers from the non-smokers. The results indicated that when RMSSD, SD1 and RR-mean features were used concurrently a classification efficiency of > 90 % was achieved. The wavelet decomposition of the ECG signal was done using the Daubechies (db 6) wavelet family. No difference was observed between the smokers and non-smokers which apparently suggested that smoking does not affect the conduction pathway of heart.

  14. The Minority Are the Majority: Today's Smoker.

    PubMed

    Clark, C Brendan; Leventhal, Adam M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cropsey, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    The smoking rate in America has decreased substantially over the past 50 years; however, this decrease is disproportionately accounted for by the high quit rates and lower initiation rates of middle class smokers with no medical or psychiatric comorbidities. The majority of modern smokers' cessations efforts are complicated by one or more forms of "disadvantage, " such as social, economic, legal, or psychiatric problems. The next step in reducing the national smoking prevalence is to reduce the prevalence in the most neglected portions of the population. In this paper, the characteristics of modern smokers are discussed in light of the 2014 Surgeon General's Report and the Affordable Care Act. Implications for current treatment and future research are suggested in an effort to take advantage of the progress that has been made and the new opportunities provided by healthcare reform. PMID:26046120

  15. New tobacco products: do smokers like them?

    PubMed Central

    Caraballo, R S; Pederson, L L; Gupta, N

    2006-01-01

    Background There is little information about smokers who tried potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs) (Eclipse®, Omni®, Advance Lights®, Accord®, or Ariva®), why they tried them, if they liked these products, and if they will continue to use them. Objectives The objectives of this qualitative study were to understand: (1) how smokers who tried PREPs learned about them, (2) reasons for first trying PREPs, (3) which PREP(s) they tried, (4) what they thought of the product at first trial, (5) reasons for continuing or discontinuing use, and (6) whether they would recommend PREPs to others. Design In October 2002, 16 focus group sessions were conducted with current cigarette smokers aged 30–50 years: eight groups in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and eight in Dallas, Texas. Specific focus groups were composed of white men, white women, African American men, African American women, Hispanic men, or Hispanic women. Results The majority of the participants learned about PREPs through advertising or promotion, family, friends, and co?workers; major reasons given for first trying PREPs were that the products were free or inexpensive, they wanted to stop smoking, they believed the product claims of fewer health risks, or they were curious; most of them tried Eclipse® probably because the focus groups were conducted in the same cities where Eclipse® was introduced; most participants did not like PREPs; most discontinued the use of PREPS, some who continued to use them did so infrequently and also kept smoking their regular brands of cigarettes; and most would not recommend PREPs, although a few might recommend them to specific groups (for example, new smokers, the young, women, curious or health conscious people). Conclusions Although most established smokers did not like the PREPs they tried and will not recommend them to anyone, a minority of established smokers believe that there may be a market for these products. PMID:16436404

  16. Current Major Depression Among Smokers Using a State Quitline

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Kiandra K.; Cummins, Sharon E.; Hernandez, Sandra; Tedeschi, Gary J.; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers seeking treatment to quit smoking are generally not assessed for current depression, yet depression among smokers may influence quitting outcome. Purpose This study aims to formally assess current major depression among smokers calling a state tobacco quitline. Methods A total of 844 smokers calling the California Smokers’ Helpline in 2007 were screened for depression by the mood module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) was also administered to these callers. Two months after the screening, follow-up evaluations were conducted to assess cessation outcome. Results In all, 24.2% of smokers met criteria for current major depression and 16.5% reported symptoms indicating mild depression. Callers with current major depression were more likely to be heavy smokers and on Medicaid. Moreover, 74.0% of smokers with current major depression had substantial social and occupational functioning deficits. Two months later, those with major depression at baseline were significantly less likely to have quit smoking (18.5% vs 28.4%). Conclusions Almost one in four smokers to the California Smokers’ Helpline met criteria for current major depression. Over 400,000 smokers call state quitlines in the U.S. for help with quitting each year, which means that as many as 100,000 smokers with serious depressive symptoms are using these services annually. The large number of depressed smokers who seek help suggests a need to develop appropriate interventions to help them quit successfully. PMID:21146767

  17. Social attitudes towards smoking in pregnancy in East Surrey: A qualitative study of smokers, former smokers and non-smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leona Bull; Ronan Burke; Siobhan Walsh; Emma Whitehead

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative study was undertaken to explore social attitudes towards smoking by pregnant women, mothers of preschool children and their partners based in Merstham and Horley, East Surrey. All respondents felt that smoking in pregnancy was associated with considerable social stigma and negative social attitudes. Non-smokers were particularly negative in their views on smoking in pregnancy feeling that it was

  18. Dispatch from the Deep: Hydrothermal Vent Formation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article discusses how hydrothermal vents are formed and why scientists monitor minute temperature changes around them. It details the writer's personal account of preparing temperature probes to be deployed for a year-long study, an explanation of deep sea vents and their hydrothermal nature, and why they seem to spew black smoke. The thermometers prepared by the writer help monitor the currents that pull the hot chimney water into the cold ocean to measure how fast it is cooled off and mixed. This information is used in the study of life at the vents and also to monitor changes in the effluent and to examine, over time, the chemistry of the mineral-rich waters that emerge from these vents.

  19. Perceptions of smokers influence nonsmoker attitudes and preferences for interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Amanda J.; Magnan, Renee E.; Köblitz, Amber R.; McCaul, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, we examined nonsmokers’ perceptions of smokers and consequences of the perceptions. In Study 1, smokers answered questions about their sense of self, dependence on smoking, and motivation to quit. Nonsmokers answered questions about their perceptions of these characteristics. Differences between smokers’ self-descriptions and nonsmokers’ perceptions were observed. Study 2 asked nonsmokers to judge two types of smokers for which the descriptions were based on Study 1 findings. Results showed that nonsmokers held a more negative attitude about and were less willing to engage in different close relationships with the smoker who was described in terms of nonsmokers’ perceptions rather than smokers’ reports. Attitude mediated the relationship between type of smoker and willingness to date a smoker. PMID:23734065

  20. Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Peroxide Concentrations in Asthmatic Smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ildikó Horváth; Louise E. Donnelly; András Kiss; Beata Balint; Sergei A. Kharitonov; Peter J. Barnes

    2004-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is associated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and increased oxidative stress in the airways. Exhaled NO levels are not higher in asthmatic smokers than in healthy non-smokers, and the value of exhaled NO for diagnosing asthma in smokers has been questioned. Objectives: To compare exhaled NO concentrations between healthy and steroid-naive and steroid-treated asthmatic smokers and

  1. Teens' images of smoking and smokers.

    PubMed

    Luke, D; Allen, P; Arian, G; Crawford, M; Headen, S; Spigner, A C; Tassler, P; Ureda, J

    2001-01-01

    The authors used qualitative and quantitative data to identify and interpret specific images teens have about smoking and smokers. Qualitative data were collected in 1996 from 793 teenagers participating in 125 focus groups at eight different sites across the United States. Most focus groups were homogeneous with respect to gender, ethnicity, and smoking status. Ages ranged from 12 to 18 years, and about half of the participants were female. The majority of participants (62%) were white and African American, the remainder (38%) were Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian/Pacific Islander. Groups were comprised of smoking and nonsmoking teens. Focus group activities were used to elicit image-related discussions about attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of smoking. Investigators identified seven consistent and distinctive image themes: Appearance (smoking is dirty and unattractive), Activity (nonsmokers have busy, active lives), Drugs and sex (smokers are substance abusers and are sexually active), Rebellion (smokers belong to rebellious groups), Affect (smokers are depressed, angry, and stressed-out), In control (nonsmokers have self-control and are independent), and Pride (nonsmokers are proud of themselves, their families, and their heritage). A large scale, multi-site qualitative research approach can increase understanding of teen smoking. The identification of distinctive images of smoking can help researchers develop more sophisticated models of the processes of teen smoking than currently exist. PMID:11889285

  2. Do Smokers Respond To Health Shocks?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kerry Smith; Donald H. Taylor; Frank A. Sloan; F. Reed Johnson; William H. Desvousges

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the first effort to use data to evaluate how new information, acquired through exogenous health shocks, affects people's longevity expectations. We find that smokers react differently to health shocks than do those who quit smoking or never smoked. These differences, together with insights from qualitative research conducted along with the statistical analysis, suggest specific changes in the

  3. Measurement of 210Po in Iranian smokers' and non-smokers' teeth.

    PubMed

    Gholizade Rad, S; Vahabi Moghaddam, M; Hosseini, T; Barati, H; Fattahi, E

    2010-03-01

    Thirty human tooth samples were collected from smoker and non-smoker groups with different ages and different sexes from north of Iran. The samples were analysed by a radiochemical procedure, and the prepared source by spontaneous electrolysis was measured by an alpha spectrometry to determine activity concentrations of (210)Po in teeth. The results indicated that the average (210)Po concentration in Iranian human teeth is 3.94 +/- 2.38 mBq g(-1.) The measured mean activity concentrations of (210)Po in smokers' and non-smokers' teeth were 5.89 +/- 3.59 and 2.55 +/- 1.00 mBq g(-1), respectively. The detailed analysis of 30 tooth samples of Iranian population revealed that smoking habits and age may have some influence on (210)Po content in teeth, although this is not the case of difference in sex. PMID:19951984

  4. Characteristics and prevalence of hardcore smokers attending UK general practitioners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannah MacIntosh; Tim Coleman

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking remains a public health problem and although unsolicited GPs' advice against smoking causes between one and three percent of smokers to stop, a significant proportion of smokers are particularly resistant to the notion of stopping smoking. These resistant smokers have been called \\

  5. The Compensating Behavior of Smokers: Taxes, Tar, and Nicotine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William N. Evans; Matthew C. Farrelly

    1998-01-01

    Using data from the 1979 and 1987 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we test whether smokers alter their smoking habits in the face of higher taxes. Smokers in high-tax states are more likely to smoke cigarettes higher in tar and nicotine. Although taxes reduce the number of cigarettes consumed per day among remaining smokers, total daily tar and nicotine intake

  6. A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

  7. Adolescents Discriminate between Types of Smokers and Related Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Mark L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Millstein, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Many studies concerning cigarette smoking and smoking-related outcomes among adolescents use categories such as "casual" or "regular" smoker to define different types of smokers. It is not clear whether adolescents themselves differentiate between different types of smokers. The present study sought to examine whether and how adolescents…

  8. Glucaric acid excretion. Analysis of the enzymatic assay and findings in smokers and non-smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Fiedler; E. Schröter; H. Cramer

    1980-01-01

    Glucaric acid (GA) excretion in urine from cigarette smokers and non-smoking control subjects was determined enzymatically. There was no difference between GA 41.0±3.2 µmol\\/g creatinine (Cn; mean ± SEM) in smokers and GA 43.1±3.4 µmol\\/g Cn in the controls. Gas chromatographic analysis of the GA-glucarolactone equilibrium was carried out in an attempt to elucidate the striking discrepancies in previous results.

  9. Cerebral effects of nicotine during cognition in smokers and non-smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Ghatan; M. Ingvar; L. Eriksson; S. Stone-Elander; M. Serrander; K. Ekberg; J. Wahren

    1998-01-01

    For the smoker, nicotine has a positive effect on attention, cognition and mood. Conversely, nicotine abstinence is characterized\\u000a by uncomfortable psychological effects such as impaired attention, but also irritability. We postulated that nicotine exerts\\u000a an effect on cerebral areas important for attention and mood. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), as an index for cerebral\\u000a activity, was measured in both smokers

  10. On the global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields: One decade later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Baker, E. T.; German, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Since the last global compilation one decade ago, the known number of active submarine hydrothermal vent fields has almost doubled. At the end of 2009, a total of 518 active vent fields was catalogued, with about half (245) visually confirmed and others (273) inferred active at the seafloor. About half (52%) of these vent fields are at mid-ocean ridges (MORs), 25% at volcanic arcs, 21% at back-arc spreading centers (BASCs), and 2% at intra-plate volcanoes and other settings. One third are in high seas, and the nations with the most known active vent fields within EEZs are Tonga, USA, Japan, and New Zealand. The increase in known vent fields reflects a number of factors, including increased national and commercial interests in seafloor hydrothermal deposits as mineral resources. Here, we have comprehensively documented the percentage of strike length at MORs and BASCs that has been systematically explored for hydrothermal activity. As of the end of 2009, almost 30% of the ~60,000 km of MORs had been surveyed at least with spaced vertical profiles to detect hydrothermal plumes. A majority of the vents discovered at MORs in the past decade occurred at segments with < 60 mm/yr full spreading rate. Discoveries at ultra-slow MORs in the past decade included the deepest known vent (Beebe at Mid-Cayman Rise) and high-temperature black smoker vents (e.g., Dragon at SWIR and Loki's Castle at Mohns Ridge), and the highest temperature vent was measured at the slow-spreading S MAR (Turtle Pits). Using a previously published equation for the linear relationship between the number of active vent fields per 100 km strike length (F_s) vs. weighted-average full spreading rate (u_s), we predicted 676 vent fields remaining to be discovered at MORs. Even accounting for the lower F_s at slower spreading rates, almost half of the vents that are predicted remaining to be discovered at MORs are at ultra-slow to slow spreading rates (< 40 mm/yr) and about 1/3 at intermediate rates (40-80 mm/yr). MOR regions that are little explored tend to be at high latitudes, such as the ultra-slow to slow spreading Arctic MORs (e.g., Kolbeinsey and Mohns Ridges), the ultra-slow American-Antarctic Ridge, and the intermediate spreading Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Although a greater percentage of the ~11,000 km of BASCs has been surveyed for hydrothermal activity, the discoveries at BASCs in the past decade were mainly at segments with intermediate to fast spreading rates. Using the same equation for F_s vs. u_s, we predicted 71 vent fields remaining to be discovered at BASCs, and most are likely to be found at ultra-slow and slow spreading segments (e.g., Andaman Basin, and central to northern Mariana Trough). With 2/3 of our overall predicted total vent fields at spreading ridges remaining to be discovered, we expect that the next decade of exploration will continue to yield new discoveries, leading to new insights into biogeography of vent fauna and the global impacts of fluxes of heat and materials from vents into our oceans.

  11. Characteristics and Smoking Patterns of Intermittent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Saul; Tindle, Hilary; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah; Dunbar, Michael; Mitchell-Miland, Chantele

    2013-01-01

    Current models of smoking and dependence assume a need to smoke at regular intervals to maintain nicotine levels, yet about 25% of adult smokers do not smoke daily. This subset of intermittent smokers (ITS) has gone largely unexamined. In this study, we describe the demographics, smoking history, and smoking behavior of ITS (n=282; 50.2% male) in comparison to daily smokers (DS; n=233; 60.7% male). Within ITS, we also compare “converted” ITS (CITS), who had previously smoked daily, with “native” ITS (NITS). On average, ITS were 34.66 years of age, and had smoked 42,850 cigarettes in the course of an average of 18 years of smoking. They smoked an average of 4.38 days per week, consuming 4.39 cigarettes a day on smoking days, and demonstrated considerable day-to-day variability in cigarette consumption. Almost half of ITS had Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence scores of 0, indicating no dependence. Compared to DS, ITS were more likely to cite alcohol drinking, socializing and being with other smokers as common contexts for smoking, and they also more often cited being angry or stressed. Data suggested that ITS’ behavior was not explained by use of other nicotine products or by economic constraints on smoking, nor by differences in psychological adjustment. Within ITS, CITS were heavier, more frequent, and more dependent smokers. In many respects, CITS were intermediate between NITS and DS. ITS show distinct patterns of smoking behavior that are not well explained by current models of nicotine dependence. PMID:22390208

  12. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis of lutetium disilicate nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Xiaoping [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (SIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 1295 Dingxi, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquanlu, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao Yanfeng, E-mail: yfgao@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (SIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 1295 Dingxi, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China); Chen Hongfei [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (SIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 1295 Dingxi, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquanlu, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo Hongjie [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (SIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 1295 Dingxi, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2012-04-15

    A simple, low-cost hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize irregular-and rod-shaped lutetium disilicate (Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}) powders with sizes ranging from 71 to 340 nm. The synthesis temperature was 260 Degree-Sign C, which is nearly 1300 Degree-Sign C lower than that required for the solid-state reaction. The results indicated that both the hydrothermal temperature and pH values had great influences on the composition, crystalline phase and morphology of the powders. The formation mechanism, basic thermophysical properties, stability and anticorrosion properties of the Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders were also investigated. The obtained powders possessed low thermal conductivity, a suitable thermal expansion coefficient (3.92-5.17 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} K{sup -1}) with the silicon-based substrate and excellent thermal and structural stability. During hot corrosion testing, the surfaces of the samples appeared to react with the water and molten salt vapors, but no serious failure occurred. - Graphical abstract: An image for the as-prepared Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders (left) and XRD pattern (right) (inset shows the SEM graph of powders). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders via a hydrothermal process at 260 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline phase and morphology of the powders changed with experimental parameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hot corrosion was determined in an airflow environment containing alkaline vapor.

  14. Heavy smokers have higher bcl-2 mutation frequency and risk for lymphoma than non-smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Cortopassi, G.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Bell, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    Early detection of cells carrying somatic mutations at oncogenic loci could prove useful for identifying individuals at high risk for cancer and permit intervention prior to the onset of clinically recognizable disease. We have determined the frequency of rare t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocations at the bcl-2 proto-oncogene locus in the peripheral blood of 85 smokers and 35 nonsmokers using a sensitive nested PCR assay. The identical translocation occurs in 85% of follicular lymphoma tumors, and about 50% of all non-Hodgkin`s Lymphoma. Smokers with the highest exposure had a 3.6-fold higher mutation frequency relative to the nonsmokers. Logistic regression analysis showed that of the variables tested (age, race, sex, current smoking, years of smoking, and pack-years), the cumulative smoking measure (pack-years) was the best predictor of t(14;18) frequency (p=0.004). These observations are consistent with two recent epidemiological studies showing 2.3-fold and 3.8-fold increased risk for Non-Hodgkins lymphoma among heavy smokers. The results support the hypothesis that smokers have an increased burden of lymphocytes bearing bcl-2 mutations which raises their individual risk for future lymphoid tumors. We speculate that the increased frequency of oncogenic translocations in smokers may result either from the mutagenic or antigenic activity of cigarette smoke.

  15. Smokers' beliefs about "Light" and "Ultra Light" cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, S.; Pillitteri, J.; Burton, S.; Rohay, J.; Gitchell, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess beliefs about the tar and nicotine delivery characteristics and health benefits of Light and Ultra Light cigarettes among cigarette smokers.?DESIGN—Random digit dialed telephone survey conducted in September 1999.?SUBJECTS—Daily smokers (n = 2120) of Regular (46%), Light (39%), and Ultra Light (15%) cigarettes in the USA. The sample was weighted to match the US smoker population on age, sex, and ethnicity.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Beliefs about Light and Ultra Light cigarettes were summarised on three dimensions: Safety (reduced health risk), Delivery (lowered tar and nicotine delivery), and Sensation (less harsh).?RESULTS—Most smokers believed Lights and Ultra Lights were less harsh and delivered less tar and nicotine. On average, smokers believed that Lights afforded a 25% reduction in risk, and Ultra Lights a 33% reduction in risk. Light and Ultra Light cigarette smokers evaluated the risks of their own cigarette types more favourably. Light smokers had greater interest in quitting than Ultra Light smokers. Quitting intention was modestly related to beliefs about these cigarettes. Believing that Lights and Ultra Lights delivered less tar and nicotine and that they were less harsh each independently contributed to the belief that these cigarettes were safer.?CONCLUSIONS—Many Light and Ultra Light smokers believe that smoking these cigarettes impart a substantial health benefit, due in part to their experience that these cigarettes are less harsh and the belief that these cigarettes deliver less tar.???Keywords: Light; Ultra Light; smokers' beliefs PMID:11740040

  16. Never smokers, triers and current smokers: three distinct target groups for school-based antismoking programs.

    PubMed

    Gordon, N P

    1986-01-01

    Previous research on adolescent smoking has shown that past smoking experience is the best predictor of smoking onset during the school year. The present study utilized a social learning framework to test the hypothesis that adolescents who have tried smoking in the past (Triers) differ from those who have never smoked on several factors that theoretically place them at higher risk for smoking re-onset. In October 1980, 2339 seventh- and eighth-grade students in Eastern Massachusetts and Northern California were surveyed in conjunction with a school-based smoking prevention program. Never Smokers comprised 69% of the sample, Triers 7.9%, and Smokers 23.1%. As hypothesized, relative to Never Smokers, Triers were significantly more likely to have a predominantly smoking peer referent group, a best friend who smoked, siblings and/or parents who smoked, were more likely to experience peer pressure to smoke, more likely to believe that smoking would make them more relaxed, and were more rebellious. Girl Triers were also more likely to report that cigarette ads made them want to smoke. Triers did not differ significantly from Never Smokers in the perception of the harmfulness of smoking. Triers were less likely than Current Smokers to report that the majority of their friends, the best friend, and siblings (girls) smoked, less likely to believe that smoking would help them relax, and more likely to believe that smoking was harmful and would make their parents angry. Triers and Current Smokers did not differ significantly in their normative expectations about smoking. Implications of these findings for the design of school-based smoking prevention programs are discussed. PMID:3721880

  17. [NO2 inhalation in two smokers and two non-smokers].

    PubMed

    Shimatsu, Y; Obata, H

    1996-10-01

    Four healthy men were exposed to an anti-rust substance in a stainless steel tank. Acute respiratory failure developed in two of them, both non-smokers. Their chest roentgenograms revealed marked infiltration, which suggested pulmonary edema due to the inhalation of NO2 and hydrogen fluoride. These two patients recovered from respiratory distress within several days. However, small airway disease was still evident one year later. The other two, who were smokers, had only mild respiratory symptoms. These cases indicate that smoking may reduce the sensitivity to NO2. Further study is needed to elucidate the relationship between smoking and the severity of responses to NO2 inhalation. PMID:8953912

  18. Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Allison

    This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

  19. Evolution of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, D.; Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Mothra Hydrothermal Field (MHF) is a 600 m long, high-temperature hydrothermal field. It is located 2.7 km south of the Main Endeavour Field at the southern end of the central Endeavour Segment. Mothra is the most areally extensive field along the Endeavour Segment, composed of six active sulfide clusters that are 40-200 m apart. Each cluster contains rare black smokers (venting up to 319°C), numerous diffusely venting chimneys, and abundant extinct chimneys and sulfide talus. From north to south, these clusters include Cauldron, Twin Peaks, Faulty Towers, Crab Basin, Cuchalainn, and Stonehenge. As part of the Endeavour Integrated Study Site (ISS), the MHF is a site of intensive interdisciplinary studies focused on linkages among geology, geochemistry, fluid chemistry, seismology, and microbiology. Axial valley geology at MHF is structurally complex, consisting of lightly fissured flows that abut the walls and surround a core of extensively fissured, collapsed terrain. Fissure abundance and distribution indicates that tectonism has been the dominant process controlling growth of the axial graben. Past magmatic activity is shown by the 200 m long chain of collapse basins between Crab Basin and Stonehenge, which may have held at least ~7500 m3 of lava. Assuming a flow thickness of 0.5 m, this amount of lava could cover over half the valley floor during a single volcanic event. At a local scale, MHF clusters vary in size, activity, and underlying geology. They range in size from 400-1600 m2 and consist of isolated chimneys and/or coalesced cockscomb arrays atop ramps of sulfide talus. In the northern part of the field, Cauldron, Twin Peaks, Faulty Towers, and Crab Basin are located near the western valley wall, bounded by basalt talus and a combination of collapsed sheet flows, intermixed lobate and sulfide, disrupted terrain, and isolated pillow ridges. The southern clusters, Cuchalainn and Stonehenge, are associated with collapse basins in the central valley and bounded by extensive lobate flows and disrupted terrain. At all clusters, active chimneys stand within meters of extinct chimneys, suggesting that flow in the shallow subsurface is both complex and transient. 1-2 m high mounds of sulfide talus and broken chimneys indicate that focused flow has been concentrated at the clusters for long periods, while extinct sulfide deposits between clusters and in collapse basins demonstrate that flow conduits have been rerouted and/or clogged by mineral precipitation. Two subsurface processes are responsible for hydrothermal venting at the clusters: tapping of magmatic heat near the lava drainbacks and tectonic movement along the steeply dipping, inward-facing normal faults at the western wall boundary. The interplay between these processes and fluid flow is synthesized in an evolutionary model of hydrothermal development at Mothra.

  20. Hydrothermal reactivity of saponite.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, G.

    1983-01-01

    The nature and extent of the reactions of synthetic Fe-free saponite have been investigated under experimental hydrothermal conditions as a first step towards understanding saponite reactivity under relatively simple conditions. Saponite crystallizes from amorphous gel of ideal saponite composition within 7 days at 300o-550oC under P = 1 kbar. Reactions subsequent to this initial crystallization depend on reaction T and interlayer cations. Saponite is found to react hydrothermally, over a period of 200 days, at T down to 400oC, at least 150oC lower than previously reported, but showed no signs of reaction below 400oC. At 450oC, a mixture of talc/saponite and saponite/phlogopite clays forms from K-saponite via intracrystalline layer transformations, while above 450oC the initial K-saponite dissolves, with talc and phlogopite forming as discrete phases. After 200 days reactions at 400-450oC were not complete, so that given sufficient time to reach equilibrium, a lower hydrothermal stability limit for saponite is possible. Further study of the Fe-bearing saponite system will be required before experimental results can be applied to natural systems.-D.F.B.

  1. Chemical processes in buoyant hydrothermal plumes on the East Pacific Rise near 21°N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottl, Michael J.; McConachy, Timothy F.

    1990-07-01

    Hydrothermal plume water containing suspended particles of precipitated black "smoke" has been sampled from three hydrothermal vent fields on the East Pacific Rise near 21°N. The samples were taken within the lower 22 m of the buoyant plumes, directly above 273-350°C black smoker vents, using Go-flo bottles mounted on the submersible Alvin. Based on Li as a conservative tracer of the high-temperature endmember solution, mixing ratios of 10 2 to 10 4 g seawater/g vent water are achieved within the lower 22 m of the plumes. The particle concentrations sampled in the lower 13 m of the plumes are much larger than predicted for these mixing ratios, suggesting that the particles are settling within the lower part of the plume. The major minerals in the smoke are pyrrhotite, Fe-rich sphalerite, pyrite, unidentified Fe - S ± Si and Fe - Si ± S phases, chalcopyrite, amorphous silica, sulfur, Fe-oxyhydroxides (including goethite) and anhydrite. Present in trace quantities are barite, isocubanite, wurtzite, covellite, marcasite(?), and unidentified silicates and Alsilicates. Organic matter is common. The composition of the plume solutions indicates that 35 ± 25% of the hydrothermally injected Fe remains in dissolved form (i.e., < 0.45 ?m) within the lower 22 m of the plume, in spite of a 3- to 9-fold excess of H 2S in the vent solutions. Nearly all of the Mn and Si and most of the Ba also remain in solution. H 2S, by contrast, has been largely (70-100%) removed - by precipitation as Sulfides and sulfur, but mainly by oxidation to dissolved species with intermediate oxidation states. Its early removal implies that 50 ± 30% of the injected Fe will eventually precipitate as primary oxides rather than as Sulfides and that Fe can be fractionated from the other chalcophile metals during sulfide precipitation. Compared with the vent water, the particles are enriched in Cu, Co, Ag, Cd, Al, Zn, Pb, and Ni by factors of 4 to 20 relative to Fe and depleted in Ba, S, Si, and Mn. Scavenging from seawater may play a role in Co and Cu enrichment at the NGS field, and for Ag, Cd, and Ni at all three fields, but is negligible for Pb and Zn. These results indicate that two distinct metalliferous components are delivered to the distal regions of a plume as a result of reactions in the lower part of the buoyant plume: 1) a dissolved component that includes about half the Fe and all of the Mn and will eventually precipitate as oxides, and 2) a particulate component consisting of fine-grained sulfide minerals that are enriched in ore metals by factors of 4 to 20.

  2. Provider Smoking Cessation Advice Among California Asian-American Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Elisa K.; Tang, Hao; Chen, Moon S.; McPhee, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine proportions of provider advice to quit smoking for Asian-American smokers and to describe factors that may affect the provision of such advice. Design Secondary data analysis of population-based survey. Setting California. Subjects Current smokers from the California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese-Americans (n = 2117, participation rate = 52%), Korean-Americans (n = 2545, participation rate 5 48%), and Vietnamese-Americans (n = 2179, participation rate = 63.5%). Measures Sociodemographics including insurance status, smoking frequency, provider visit in past year, and provider advice to quit. Analysis Multivariate logistic regression models examined dependent outcomes of (1) provider visit in past year and (2) provider advice to quit. Results Less than a third (30.5%) of smokers in our study reported both seeing a provider (50.8%) and then receiving advice to quit (60.1%). Factors associated with provider visits included being female, being 45 years or older, having health insurance, and being Vietnamese. Among smokers who saw a provider, factors associated with provider advice to quit included having health insurance and being a daily smoker. Conclusions Asian-American smokers reported low proportions of provider advice to quit in the past year, largely because only half of smokers saw a provider. Providers who see such smokers may need greater awareness that several effective cessation treatments do not require health insurance, and that intermittent smokers need advice to quit. PMID:21510790

  3. Cigarette Litter: Smokers’ Attitudes and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Jessica M.; Rubenstein, Rebecca A.; Curry, Laurel E.; Shank, Sarah E.; Cartwright, Julia C.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly. PMID:22829798

  4. Quantitative Assessment of Elemental Carbon In The Lungs of Never Smokers, Cigarette Smokers, and Coal Miners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajiv K. Saxena; Michael E. McClure; Michael D. Hays; Francis H. Y. Green; Laura J. McPhee; V. Vallyathan; M. Ian Gilmour

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, miners, and control subjects and explore the relationship between EC level, exposure history, and the extent

  5. Young Adult Former Ever Smokers: The Role of Type of Smoker, Quit Attempts, Quit Aids, Attitudes/Beliefs, and Demographics

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Laura A.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Lee, David J.; Sly, David F.; Dietz, Noella A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Young adults who smoke are often nondaily users who either quit or transition into dependent smokers. Further, this age group often has been considered an extension of the adult population. This study aims to examine young adult former ever smokers to understand factors associated with their stopping smoking. Method Telephone interviews were conducted in 2010 with 4,401 young adults in Florida. We examined the association between former ever smokers and sociodemographics, smoking behavior, quit attempts, quit aids, and attitudes/beliefs about smoking. Results Thirty-seven percent of young adults were former smokers, 20% were current smokers, and 43% were never smokers. Former smokers were more likely to be female, situational smokers (compared to occasional or established), more likely to have stopped smoking without acknowledging making a quit attempt, less likely to have used a quit aid, and less likely to display pro-tobacco attitudes/beliefs. Conclusion Young adult former and current smokers have unique patterns of smoking and stopping smoking. Young adults may require novel intervention techniques to promote prevention and cessation based on these unique smoking patterns. Future research is needed to understand motivations to quit smoking among young adults. PMID:24021991

  6. Cue Reactivity in Smokers: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Potts, Geoffrey F.; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Drugs-of-abuse may increase the salience of drug cues by sensitizing the dopaminergic (DA) system (Robinson & Berridge, 1993), leading to differential attention to smoking stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to assess attention to smoking cues but not using an ERP component associated with DA-mediated salience evaluation. In this study the DA-related P2a and the P3, were compared in smokers (N=21) and non-smokers (N=21) during an attention selection cue exposure task including both cigarette and neutral images. We predicted that both the P2a and P3 would be larger to targets than non-targets, but larger to non-target cigarette images than non-target neutral images only in the smokers, reflecting smokers’ evaluation of smoking stimuli as relevant even when they were not targets. Results indicated that smokers showed behavioral cue reactivity, with more false alarms to cigarette images (responding to cigarette images when they were not targets) than non-smokers; however, both smokers and non-smokers had a larger P2a and P3 to cigarette images. Thus, while smokers showed behavioral evidence of differential salience evaluation of the cigarette images, this group difference was not reflected in differential brain activity. These findings may reflect characteristics of the ERPs (both ERP components were smaller in the smokers), the smoking sample (they were not more impulsive, i.e. reward sensitive, than the non-smokers, in contrast to prior studies) and the design (all participants were aware that the aim of the study was related to smoking). PMID:23958866

  7. Does Hydrothermal Circulation Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, C. A.; Stein, S.; von Herzen, R. P.; Fisher, A. T.

    2006-05-01

    Determining Earth's energy budget and the sources and mechanisms for heat transfer within it depends largely on assumptions of the heat loss from the formation and cooling of oceanic lithosphere, which covers about 60% of Earth's surface. Recently Hofmeister and Criss (2005) have suggested that the total global heat flow is about 30 TW, about 25% less than previously estimated by Pollack et al. (1993). The main difference between the two estimates is whether the effects of heat transfer by hydrothermal circulation are included. Thermal models describe the evolution of the lithosphere by the conductive cooling of hot material as it moves away from spreading centers. The frequently used half-space (boundary layer) and "plate" models generally successfully represent heat flow, depth, and geoid values with age, and depth-dependent properties such as flexural thickness, maximum depth of intraplate earthquakes, and lithospheric thickness. However, such models overpredict the measured heat flow from ridge crest to about 65 Myr crust. This difference is generally assumed to reflect water flow in the crust transporting heat, as shown by the spectacular hot springs at midocean ridges. If so, the observed heat flow is lower than the model's predictions, which assume that all heat is transferred by conduction. Because hydrothermal heat transport is hard to quantify, heat flow is about 50% larger than directly measured. This estimate is consistent with observations of hydrothermal circulation which indicate that the discrepancy is largely a result of the water fluxing along the oceanic basement and upwelling at isolated basement highs and outcrops. Detailed studies at such areas often show high heat flow near these outcrops and low heat flow in the surrounding areas. Hence isolated measurements are biased towards lower values and underpredict the total heat flow.

  8. Life at Hydrothermal Vents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sohmer, Rachel.

    2002-01-01

    The first Web site is a NOVA Online Adventure from PBS (1). Into the Abyss decribes the "pitch darkness, poison gas, heavy metals, extreme acidity, and enormous pressure" found at hydrothermal vents, and offers a look at bizarre and fascinating creatures found in this environment. The next Web site from Exploring Earth, an online earth sciences text book, contains video clips taken during research expeditions along the Juan de Fuca Ridge (2). Ocean AdVENTure, a ThinkQuest Web site, offers a comprehensive and well-designed introduction to hydothermal vents from research tools to fauna to unsolved mysteries and more (3). Visitors can choose their own scientific adVENTure to explore hydrothermal vents in this interactive feature from the University of Washington School of Oceonagraphy Exploraquarium (4). Dive and Discover is "an interactive distance learning Web site designed to immerse you in the excitement of discovery and exploration of the deep seafloor." This Web site (5) extends a virtual invitation to join scientists aboard research cruises to the depth of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, providing daily logs, video, and other features for each expedition. The next Web site from the University of California-Berkeley offer a closer look at the "strange tube-dwelling worm" phylum found only near hydrothermal vents (6). Creature Features, provided by the University of Delaware Graduate College of Marine Science, contains descriptions and video clips of tubeworms, vent crabs, Pompeii crabs, and ancient bacteria found at deep sea vents (7). The last Web site (8) is a transcript of a June 1997 PBS NewsHour interview with science writer William Broad. Broad discusses his book The Universe Below: Discovering the Secrets of the Deep Sea, and relates the exciting opportunities for scientific exploration of the sea floor made possible by the end of the Cold War.

  9. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad Rodu; William T Godshall

    2006-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least

  10. Neural Correlates of Performance Monitoring in Daily and Intermittent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rass, Olga; Fridberg, Daniel J.; O'Donnell, Brian F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Despite efforts that have increased smoking regulation, cigarette taxation, and social stigma, cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death worldwide, and a significant personal and public economic burden. In the U.S., intermittent smokers comprise approximately 20% of all smokers and represent a stable, non-dependent group that may possess protective factors that prevent the transition to dependence. One possibility is that intermittent smokers have intact CNS frontal regulatory and control mechanisms that enable resistance to nicotine-induced changes. METHODS The present study measured inhibitory control using a flanker task and a go-nogo continuous performance tasks in daily dependent smokers, intermittent non-dependent smokers, and nonsmokers. Event-related potential (ERP) measures of were concurrently recorded to measure performance monitoring via event-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) components during error trials for each task. RESULTS In both tasks, behavioral and ERN measures did not differ between groups; however, amplitude of the Pe component was largest among intermittent smokers. CONCLUSIONS Thus, intermittent smokers differed from both daily smokers and nonsmokers on error processing, potentially revealing neuroprotective cognitive processes in nicotine dependence. SIGNIFICANCE A better understanding of factors that mediate behavioral regulation may provide novel treatment approaches that help individuals achieve controlled smoking or cessation. PMID:24380760

  11. Lung cancer in never smokers — a different disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Sun; Joan H. Schiller; Adi F. Gazdar

    2007-01-01

    Although most lung cancers are a result of smoking, approximately 25% of lung cancer cases worldwide are not attributable to tobacco use, accounting for over 300,000 deaths each year. Striking differences in the epidemiological, clinical and molecular characteristics of lung cancers arising in never smokers versus smokers have been identified, suggesting that they are separate entities. This Review summarizes our

  12. Faculty and Student Views of College Student Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Authier, Charlene; Hodges, Jilda; Srebro, Karen; Chambliss, Catherine

    Seventy-two nonsmoker and four smoker college faculty/staff members and 160 nonsmoker and 52 smoker college students from a small liberal arts college in a suburban area in the Northeast United States completed a 15-item survey concerning views of smoking. Participants were asked to rate "when you watch someone else smoke, how do they appear?" on…

  13. Smoking Cessation: Social Comparison Level Predicts Success for Adult Smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meg Gerrard; Frederick X. Gibbons; Michelle L. Stock

    2005-01-01

    The affiliation preferences of 151 adult heavy smokers who joined smoking cessation groups were assessed at the 1st group session and were then used to predict their smoking status 6 and 12 months later. Those who preferred to be in groups with other smokers who were having relatively little trouble quitting were more likely to be successful than were those

  14. Helping a Smoker Quit: Do's and Don'ts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tobacco smells – and don’t forget the car, too. Do help the quitter with a few chores, some child care, cooking – whatever will help lighten the stress of quitting. Do celebrate along the way. Quitting smoking is a BIG DEAL! Don’t doubt the smoker’s ability to ...

  15. Dental Health in Smokers with and without COPD

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Jan; Cederlund, Kerstin; Dahlén, Barbro; Lantz, Ann-Sofie; Skedinger, Maria; Palmberg, Lena; Sundblad, Britt-Marie; Larsson, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    The association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontal disease is sparsely studied. The aim was to describe the co-variation of periodontitis and lung function impairment in smokers. The hypothesis was that the destructive processes in the mouth and the lungs are interdependent due to a general individual susceptibility to detrimental effects of tobacco smoke. Smokers with COPD (n?=?28) stage II and III according to GOLD guidelines and smokers without COPD (n?=?29) and healthy non-smokers (n?=?23) participated in the study. The groups of smokers were matched for cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Radiographic, general and dental clinical examination, lung function measurements and quality of life (SF-36) assessment were conducted. The relationship between respiratory and dental outcomes was analyzed. Dental health, assessed by plaque, gingival bleeding, periodontal pocket depth and loss of teeth was impaired in the smokers compared with non-smokers with no major differences between smokers with and without COPD. There was, however, a weak correlation between periodontitis and emphysema/impaired diffusion capacity. Impaired quality of life was associated with smoking and impaired lung function but not influenced by dental status. In conclusion periodontitis was strongly associated with smoking, weakly associated with lung tissue destruction and very weakly or even not at all associated with chronic airflow limitation. The results indicate that, although there was a co-variation between periodontitis and pathologic lung processes in smokers, the risk of developing COPD, as defined by spirometric outcomes, is not associated with the risk of impaired dental health in smokers. PMID:23544074

  16. Perceived Arsenic-Related Mortality Risks for Smokers and Non-smokers [Forthcoming, Contemporary Economic Policy, May 2011

    E-print Network

    Shaw, W. Douglass

    Perceived Arsenic-Related Mortality Risks for Smokers and Non-smokers [Forthcoming, Contemporary and Mary Riddel University of Nevada, Las Vegas Abstract: Prolonged ingestion of arsenic in drinking water of arsenic hotspots in the United States, we elicited individuals' subjective mortality risks related

  17. Cigarette brand preference among middle and high school students who are established smokers - United States, 2004 and 2006.

    PubMed

    2009-02-13

    Studies have suggested a link between exposure to tobacco advertising and cigarette brand preference. Knowing the brand preferences of young established smokers can provide insight into what influences young smokers to start and continue to smoke. A report of 2005 data indicated that the three most heavily advertised brands, Marlboro, Newport, and Camel, were preferred by 81% of U.S. youths aged 12-17 years. To assess the cigarette brand preferences among middle school and high school students who were established smokers, CDC analyzed data from the 2004 and 2006 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that among established student smokers in middle and high school, Marlboro was the preferred brand (43.3% and 52.3%, respectively), followed by Newport (26.4% and 21.4%, respectively). The use of Newport was significantly higher among blacks in middle school (59.7%) and high school (78.6%) compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Information on brand preferences and tobacco marketing strategies that are attractive to students can be used by tobacco control programs and community initiatives in the design of tobacco countermarketing campaigns. These countermarketing campaigns have been shown to be effective as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program to decrease the initiation of tobacco use among youths and young adults. PMID:19214160

  18. Cue reactivity to appetitive and aversive cues among female smokers and non-smokers 

    E-print Network

    Susabda, Agnes

    2011-02-22

    negative affect and control weight (Cepeda-Benito & Reig-Ferrer, 2000); and have greater concerns about post-cessation weight gain (Pirie, Murray, & Luepker, 1991). Most smokers will gain less than 10 pounds after quitting cigarettes... in the past (e.g. smoking a cigarette). When drug use is unavailable, interrupted, or when negative affect is high, the addict becomes more conscious of the motivational processes behind his/her cravings. High levels of negative affect will lead to a...

  19. Understanding college students' salient attitudes and beliefs about smoking: distinctions between smokers, nonsmokers, and ex-smokers.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Kelly; Banas, John; Burke, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This research examines the salient attitudes and beliefs that college students hold about cigarette smoking. An exploratory survey was employed that contained a combination of semantic differential items and open-ended questions. The data indicated that smoking status (i.e., whether a student is a nonsmoker, smoker, or ex-smoker) was related to attitudes about the attractiveness, riskiness, and intelligence of cigarette smoking. Additionally, salient beliefs about smoking include that nonsmokers report never smoking due to health reasons, smokers and ex-smokers both report peer pressure as the primary reason for starting to smoke, and the main reason smokers continue to smoke is because they are addicted. The best thing reported about smoking was that it relieves stress, and the worst thing reported about smoking was the smell. Several suggestions are made for future interventions targeted toward college students. PMID:15255159

  20. Trends in serum cotinine concentrations among daily cigarette smokers: data from NHANES 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2014-02-15

    To the best of our knowledge, there have been no apparent studies of the trends in serum cotinine levels among smokers. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 1999-2010 were used to evaluate trends for serum cotinine levels; average number of cigarettes smoked per day; and Cambridge filter method (CFM) tar and CFM nicotine levels by gender, race/ethnicity, and cigarette mentholation status. Regression models were fitted to evaluate the factors associated with serum cotinine levels. Serum cotinine levels increased over time for both males and females, non-Hispanic whites and others. CFM nicotine levels also rose over time for cigarettes smoked by both males and females and by both non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks. Average number of cigarettes smoked per day decreased over time for females, non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks. CFM tar levels fell only for Mexican Americans. Exposure to second hand smoke at home was found to be associated with more than 1 ng/ml increase in serum cotinine levels. This large study on a nationally representative sample of daily smokers suggested that increasing concentrations of CFM nicotine in cigarettes over time led to elevated serum cotinine levels even though the number of cigarettes smoked daily remained relatively constant. PMID:24291557

  1. Hydrothermal calcite in the Elephant Moraine

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, G.; Taylor, K.S.; Jones, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    In the course of geologic mapping of the Elephant Moraine on the east antarctic ice sheet, Faure and Taylor (1985) collected several specimens of black botryoidal calcite, composed of radiating acicular crystals that resemble stromatolites. Calcite from this and other specimens is significantly enriched in strontium-87 (the strontium-87/strontium-86 ratio equals 0.71417 +/- 0.00002), carbon-12 (delta carbon-13 equals -22.9 parts per thousand, PDB standard) and oxygen-16 (delta oxygen-18 equals -21.1 parts per thousand, standard mean ocean water) compared with calcite of marine origin. The enrichment in carbon-12 is similar to that of calcite associated with coal in the Allan Hills. The enrichment in oxygen-16 indicates that the calcite from the Elephant Moraine could only have precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with glacial melt water. Therefore, the temperature at which the black calcite precipitated from water of that isotope composition was about 85/sup 0/C. A temperature of this magnitude implies that the black calcite formed as a result of volcanic activity under the east antarctic ice sheet. The enrichment of the black calcite in carbon-12 suggests that it formed in part from carbon dioxide derived from the coal seams of the Weller Formation in the Beacon Supergroup. The isotopic composition of strontium in the black calcite is similar to that of carbonate beds and concretions in the Beacon rocks of southern Victoria Land. A volcanic-hydrothermal origin is also consistent with the very low total organic carbon content of 0.15% in the calcite.

  2. Thermococcus sulfurophilus sp. nov., a New Hyperthermophilic, Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon Isolated from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Whitman, William B.; Marsic, Damien; Garriott, Owen; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P, was isolated from "black smoker" chimney material at the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site in the Atlantic Ocean (36.2 N; 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P have irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth occurs within pH range of 5.5-8.2 (optimal at pH 7.0-7.2), salinity range of 1-5% NaCl (optimal concentration 3% NaCl wt/vol), and temperature range of +55 C to +94 C (optimal growth at +83 C to +85 C). Strain OGL-20P is resistant to freezing (at -20 C). New isolate is strictly anaerobic with sulfur-type of respiration. A limited number of compounds are utilized as electron donors, including peptone, becto-tryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract but does not grow with separate amino acids. Sulfur and Iron can be used as electron acceptors; but not sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate or nitrate. Strain OGL-20P is resistant to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin. Growth of str. OGL20P is inhibited by tetracyclin but not by Na2MoO4. The G+C content of DNA is 57.2 mol%. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis allows one to classify strain OGL-20P as a representative of a now species of Thermococcus genus. The name Thermococcus sulfurophilus op. nov., was suggested for the new isolate, type strain OGL-20P (sup T) (= ATCC BAA_394 (sup T) = DSM...(supT)).

  3. Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov., a Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Itoh, Takashi; Bej, Asim K.; Tang, Jane; Whitman, William B.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P(sup T), was isolated from 'black smoker' chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2degN, 33.9degW). The cells of strain OGL-20P(T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed within a pH range of 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), an NaCl concentration range of 1-5%(w/v) (optimum 3%)and a temperature range of 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). The novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent upon elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, but it does not reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, Fe(III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products (peptone, bacto-tryptone, Casamino acids and yeast extract) are utilized as substrates during sulfur reduction. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloram phenicol, kanamycin and gentamicin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G + C content of the DNA is 52.9 mol% The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is closely related to Thermococcus coalescens and related species, but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, we conclude that strain OGL-20P(sup T) represents a new separate species within the genus Thermococcus, for which we propose the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (=JCM 12859(exp T) = DSM 14981(exp T)=ATCC BAA-394(exp T)).

  4. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: MOLECULAR PROFILES AND THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Rudin, Charles M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Harris, Curtis C.; Herman, James G.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Pao, William; Schwartz, Ann G.; Vahakangas, Kirsi H.; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of lung cancers are caused by long term exposure to the several classes of carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. While a significant fraction of lung cancers in never smokers may also be attributable to tobacco, many such cancers arise in the absence of detectable tobacco exposure, and may follow a very different cellular and molecular pathway of malignant transformation. Recent studies summarized here suggest that lung cancers arising in never smokers have a distinct natural history, profile of oncogenic mutations, and response to targeted therapy. The majority of molecular analyses of lung cancer have focused on genetic profiling of pathways responsible for metabolism of primary tobacco carcinogens. Limited research has been conducted evaluating familial aggregation and genetic linkage of lung cancer, particularly among never smokers in whom such associations might be expected to be strongest. Data emerging over the past several years demonstrates that lung cancers in never smokers are much more likely to carry activating mutations of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), a key oncogenic factor and direct therapeutic target of several newer anti-cancer drugs. EGFR mutant lung cancers may represent a distinct class of lung cancers, enriched in the never smoking population, and less clearly linked to direct tobacco carcinogenesis. These insights followed initial testing and demonstration of efficacy of EGFR-targeted drugs. Focused analysis of molecular carcinogenesis in lung cancers in never smokers is needed, and may provide additional biologic insight with therapeutic implications for lung cancers in both ever smokers and never smokers. PMID:19755392

  5. En Echelon Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, M. P.; Carr, P. M.; Daniels, D. L.; Sutphin, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    En echelon hydrothermal systems develop within the porous rocks that surround, in three-dimensions, their distinctive plan-form and cross-sectional basaltic intrusion geometry. Examples that span several (self-similar) spatial scales include the en echelon off-set area of the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii; the Northeast Rift Zone of Mauna Loa Volcano; the intrusive-eruptive fissures of the Krafla Central Volcano, Northeast Iceland; the ensemble of the three Icelandic central volcanoes Theistarekir-Krafla-Fremrinamur; major segments of the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; and several paleo-hydrothermal systems of the Mesozoic basins of eastern North America, including the Culpeper Basin. An en echelon hydrothermal system comprises two or more en echelon--arranged magma-filled fractures enclosed in a fluid-saturated porous matrix. Blocks of country rock between individual offset fracture segments are similarly porous and fluid-saturated. In 3-D, the system resembles the fan blades of a turbine rotor, with blades (dikes) emanating from a deep "master" fracture and turning smoothly in response to the local variations in the least compressive regional stress component. The primary geometric, hydrologic and thermal attributes of the system (on a horizontal plane) include dike thickness, dike-to-dike offset and overlap, the (initial) intrusion temperature, duration of magma flow, dike widths and lengths, the mean seepage velocity of regional subsurface aqueous fluid flow, and the mean flow azimuth in relationship to the plan-form geometry of the en echelon array. Finite element single phase models in horizontal cross-section have been developed for dike widths of 100 m, dike lengths of 1,500 m, overlaps of 500 m, dike-to-dike offsets of 500 m, intrusion temperatures of 1,200 C, horizontal seepage fluxes imposed at the sides of ~ 1,000 g cm-2 yr-1, and a matrix permeability of 10-14 m2. The regional flow field has been parameterized in dike-orthogonal, dike-parallel, and 45 degree angles of attack with respect to the major axes of the individual dikes within the en echelon array. Depending on the magnitudes and geometric arrangement of key system attributes, an en echelon hydrothermal system may either act as an efficient thermal radiator, effectively shedding heat to the surroundings, or may it act as an effective heater, thermally enhancing the environment between neighboring dikes in 3-D. Conditions that promote the efficient loss of heat include thin dikes of short length, large dike-to-dike offset, high matrix fluid velocities, and regional flow azimuths that are orthogonal to the individual dikes. Conditions that promote differential heating between the dikes include wide dikes with maximal overlap and minimal offset, low regional flow velocities and "angles of attack" of the regional flow field that provide for maximum hydrodynamic "shelter" for individual dikes within the interior of the en echelon array.

  6. The Role of Magmatic Volatile Input, Near-surface Seawater Entrainment and Sulfide Deposition in Regulating Metal Concentrations Within Manus Basin Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, P. R.; Tivey, M. K.; Seewald, J. S.; Rouxel, O.; Bach, W.

    2007-12-01

    Analyses of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag, Cd, Co and Sb in vent fluid samples from four hydrothermal systems in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, were carried out by ICP-MS. Vienna Woods is located on the well- defined, basalt-dominated Manus Spreading Center, while the other systems are hosted in felsic volcanics on the Pual Ridge (PACMANUS), within a caldera (DESMOS), and on volcanic cones (SuSu Knolls). Metal concentrations were coupled with other fluid data (pH, SO4, Ca, H2S) to discriminate effects of deep- seated water-rock reaction and magmatic volatile input from near surface seawater entrainment, mixing, and consequent mineral precipitation and metal remobilization. Both magmatic volatile input (e.g. SO2, HCl, HF) and sulfide precipitation can increase fluid acidity and thus affect the aqueous mobility of metals. At Vienna Woods, 280°C end-member (Mg = 0) fluids have high pH (>4.2) and low metal contents (Fe <160 uM, Cu <10 uM, Zn <40 uM) relative to most mid-ocean ridge (MOR) vent fluids. The high pH and lack of evidence for magmatic volatile input are consistent with fluid compositions regulated by subsurface seawater- basalt/andesite reactions. Despite low aqueous Zn concentrations, Zn-rich (wurtzite-lined) chimneys are common at Vienna Woods active vents, reflecting deposition from fluids characterized by low Fe and Cu and high pH. At PACMANUS, black smoker fluids (T >300°C, pH ~ 2.7) are enriched in sulfide-forming metals by an order of magnitude relative to Vienna Woods fluids. Enrichments at PACMANUS reflect efficient leaching of metals at low pH, with the lower pH likely a result of input of magmatic volatiles. In addition, some vents fluids show clear evidence for seawater entrainment, subsurface precipitation of Cu-Fe-sulfides and preferential remobilization of Zn-sulfides (lower T, non-zero Mg, lower Fe, Cu, H2S and pH (2.3-2.4), but higher Zn, Pb, Cd and Ag, compared to black smokers). The higher metal concentrations and lower pH of fluids from PACMANUS versus Vienna Woods are reflected in chimney deposit compositions with Zn-poor sulfide linings composed of Cu-Fe-sulfides and As-Sb-sulfosalts in high T and lower T vents, respectively. At DESMOS caldera, fluid data suggest extensive magmatic volatile input (e.g. pH <1.5, elevated F and SO4) but lesser reaction with the basement felsic rocks (low Li, Rb, Mn). Sampled "acid-sulfate" fluids are low temperature (T ~180°C) with Mg >46 mM, and very high concentrations of some metals for these Mg concentrations (Fe >5 mM, Zn >50 - 400 uM). At SuSu Knolls, vent fluid compositions similar to those at both PACMANUS and DESMOS are observed. Smoker fluids have high but variable metal concentrations of similar magnitude to PACMANUS. Acid-sulfate fluids from North Su have low pH (<2), non-zero Mg (>40 mM), and high Fe and Zn concentrations, similar to DESMOS fluids. At SuSu Knolls, fluid compositions reflect either high temperature water-rock reaction (smoker fluids) or magmatic volatile input (acid-sulfate fluids). As at PACMANUS, chimney deposits that correspond to venting fluids are Cu-Fe-As-Sb-rich and Zn-poor, likely reflecting deposition from low pH, high Cu and Fe fluids.

  7. Phylogenetic diversity of methanogenic, sulfate-reducing and methanotrophic prokaryotes from deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Andrew J.; Dorn, Ruth; Van Dover, Cindy L.; Lutz, Richard A.; Vetriani, Costantino

    2009-09-01

    Microbial communities of methanogenic, sulfate-reducing and methanotrophic prokaryotes from deep-sea environments were investigated by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the genes encoding for the methyl coenzyme M reductase ( mcrA), dissimilatory sulfite reductase ( dsrAB) and particulate methane monoxygenase ( pmoA), respectively. Clone libraries of PCR amplified genes were constructed using DNA extracted from deep-sea vent chimneys (Rainbow and Logatchev hydrothermal vent fields, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Atlantic Ocean; 9°N East Pacific Rise, Pacific Ocean) and from vertically subsampled sediment cores from cold-seep areas (Blake Ridge, western Atlantic Ocean; Florida Escarpment, Gulf of Mexico). Recombinant clones were screened by RFLP and representative dsrAB, mcrA and pmoA genes were sequenced. The dsrAB sequences grouped primarily within the orders Desulfobacterales, Syntrophobacterales and the Gram-positive order Clostridales. Cold-seep mcrA sequences were distributed among the ANME-2c, -2d and -2e groups, which were previously shown to be associated with the anaerobic oxidation of methane. This study also reports the first mcrA sequences from a high-temperature, black smoker chimney (Logatchev) to group within the ANME-2e subgroup. The majority of the remaining hydrothermal vent mcrA sequences were primarily related to thermophilic members of the anaerobic, methanogenic order Methanococcales. A shift in the dominant ANME-2 group with depth in the sediment for both Florida Escarpment and Blake Ridge mcrA libraries was detected. ANME-2d related clones were detected in the top zones of both cores, with the frequency of ANME-2e related clones increasing with depth. All pmoA sequences retrieved from the cold-seep sites were found to be related to Type I methanotrophic members of the ?-proteobacteria, and were primarily distributed among three major clusters of sequences. No Type II pmoA sequences related to methanotrophic members of the ?-proteobacteria were detected, suggesting that the methanotrophic communities in these cold-seep areas are dominated by Type I ?-proteobacteria.

  8. Why Don’t Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers’ Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting

    PubMed Central

    Morphett, Kylie; Partridge, Brad; Gartner, Coral; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker’s addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual’s situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers’ views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers’ attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences. PMID:26068089

  9. Expression of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in central airways of smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Miotto, D; Hollenberg, M; Bunnett, N; Papi, A; Braccioni, F; Boschetto, P; Rea, F; Zuin, A; Geppetti, P; Saetta, M; Maestrelli, P; Fabbri, L; Mapp, C

    2002-01-01

    Background: Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a transmembrane G protein coupled receptor preferentially activated by trypsin and tryptase. The protease activated receptors play an important role in most components of injury responses including cell proliferation, migration, matrix remodelling, and inflammation. Cigarette smoking causes an inflammatory process in the central airways, peripheral airways, lung parenchyma, and adventitia of pulmonary arteries. Methods: To quantify the expression of PAR-2 in the central airways of smokers and non-smokers, surgical specimens obtained from 30 subjects undergoing lung resection for localised pulmonary lesions (24 with a history of cigarette smoking and six non-smoking control subjects) were examined. Central airways were immunostained with an antiserum specific for PAR-2 and PAR-2 expression was quantified using light microscopy and image analysis. Results: PAR-2 expression was found in bronchial smooth muscle, epithelium, glands, and in the endothelium and smooth muscle of bronchial vessels. PAR-2 expression was similar in the central airways of smokers and non-smokers. When smokers were divided according to the presence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow limitation, PAR-2 expression was increased in smooth muscle (median 3.8 (interquartile range 2.9–5.8) and 1.4 (1.07–3.4) respectively); glands (33.3 (18.2–43.8) and 16.2 (11.5–22.2), respectively); and bronchial vessels (54.2 (48.7–56.8) and 40.0 (36–40.4), respectively) of smokers with symptoms of chronic bronchitis with normal lung function compared with smokers with chronic airflow limitation (COPD), but the increase was statistically significant (p<0.005) only for bronchial vessels. Conclusions: PAR-2 is present in bronchial smooth muscle, glands, and bronchial vessels of both smokers and non-smokers. An increased expression of PAR-2 was found in bronchial vessels of patients with bronchitis compared with those with COPD. PMID:11828045

  10. Plasma kinetics in man of epicatechin from black chocolate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Richelle; I Tavazzi; M Enslen; EA Offord

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the plasma kinetics in man of epicatechin from black chocolate.Design: An intervention study with 8 volunteers. Each served as his own control. Theobromine was used as control marker of the chocolate intake.Setting: Metabolic Unit, Nestlé Research Center, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, Switzerland.Subjects: Eight healthy male volunteers (4 smokers and 4 non-smokers) were enrolled in this study. They abstained from foods

  11. Adolescents Discriminate between Types of Smokers and Related RisksEvidence from Nonsmokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark L. Rubinstein; Bonnie L. Halpern-Felsher; Pamela J. Thompson; Susan G. Millstein

    2003-01-01

    Many studies concerning cigarette smoking and smoking-related outcomes among adolescents use categories such as “casual” or “regular” smoker to define different types of smokers. It is not clear whether adolescents themselves differentiate between different types of smokers. The present study sought to examine whether and how adolescents discriminate between categories of smokers and how these discriminations engender different perceptions of

  12. Who smokes in hollywood? characteristics of smokers in popular films from 1940 to 1989

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D McINTOSH; Doris G Bazzini; Stephen M Smith; Shanan M Wayne

    1998-01-01

    We examined how smokers were depicted in 100 popular films spanning 5 decades. Smokers were depicted as more romantically and sexually active than nonsmokers and as marginally more intelligent than nonsmokers. Smokers and nonsmokers did not differ in terms of attractiveness, goodness, socioeconomic status, aggression, friendliness, or outcome at film’s end. Thus, if anything, smokers are depicted a bit more

  13. Some Smokers May Be 'Hardwired' to Succeed At Quitting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152529.html Some Smokers May Be 'Hardwired' to Succeed at Quitting Finding could ... after 08/11/2015) By Robert Preidt Wednesday, May 13, 2015 WEDNESDAY, May 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  14. Population health and the hardcore smoker: Geoffrey Rose revisited.

    PubMed

    Chaiton, Michael O; Cohen, Joanna E; Frank, John

    2008-09-01

    The "hardening hypothesis" suggests that as smoking prevalence decreases, lighter smokers will quit first, leaving more "hardcore" smokers in the population. At a population level, however, the weight of evidence suggests that no hardening is occurring. By understanding the lessons from Geoffrey Rose's model of population-level risk factor change, we argue that the hardening of the smoking population is not inevitable. The Rose model predicts that the effect of policy interventions, and changes in social norms, can shift the population-level risk distribution for continuing to be a smoker, making it more likely that all smokers will quit. This analysis also suggests that further reductions in smoking prevalence will not come without further changes in the underlying--and largely cultural--root causes of smoking in a population. PMID:18701900

  15. Diet May Protect Against Gene Changes in Smokers

    Cancer.gov

    Leafy green vegetables, folate, and some multivitamins could serve as protective factors against lung cancer in current and former smokers, according to a study that is a first step in understanding a complex association.

  16. Millions of Smokers May Have Undiagnosed Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of-life tests can reveal early signs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). An incurable, progressive disease, COPD ... those smokers likely have the early stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease," study author Dr. Elizabeth Regan, an ...

  17. Plain Packaging Laws Might Spur Smokers to Quit

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151566.html Plain Packaging Laws Might Spur Smokers to Quit Legislation would also ... 2012 and 2013. During that time, an Australian law was implemented requiring that all tobacco packaging be ...

  18. Smokers and non?smokers talk about regulatory options in tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Objective Community members are occasionally polled about tobacco control policies, but are rarely given opportunities to elaborate on their views. We examined laypeople's conversations to understand how 11 regulatory options were supported or opposed in interactions. Design Qualitative design; purposive quota sampling; data collection via focus groups. Setting Three locations in Sydney, Australia. Participants 63 smokers and 75 non?smokers, men and women, from three age groups (18–24, 35–44, 55–64 years), recruited primarily via telephone. Measurements Semi?structured question route; data managed in NVivo; responses compared between groups. Results Laypeople rejected some regulatory proposals and certain arguments about taxation and the cost of cessation treatments. Protecting children and hypothecating tobacco excise for health education and care were highly acceptable. Plain packaging, banning retail displays and youth smoking prevention received qualified support. Bans on political donations from tobacco corporations were popular in principle but considered logistically fraught. Smokers asked for better cessation assistance and were curious about cigarette ingredients. Justice was an important evaluative principle. Support was often conditional and unresolved arguments frequent. We present both sides of these conflicts and the ways in which policies were legitimised or de?legitimised in conversation. Conclusions Simple measures of agreement used in polls may obscure the complexity of community responses to tobacco policy. Support was frequently present but contested; some arguments that seem self?evident to advocates were not so to participants. The detailed understanding of laypeople's responses provided through qualitative methods may help frame proposals and arguments to meet concerns about justice, effectiveness and feasibility. PMID:16998175

  19. Smokers’ Expectancies for Abstinence: Preliminary Results from Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Peter S.; Wood, Sabrina B.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2010-01-01

    Smokers’ expectancies regarding the effects of cigarette use are powerful predictors of smoking motivation and behavior. However, studies have not investigated the consequences that smokers expect when they attempt to quit smoking: abstinence-related expectancies. The primary goal of this qualitative study was to gain initial insight into smokers’ expectancies for abstinence. Eight focus groups were conducted with 30 smokers diverse with respect to age, gender, and ethnoracial background. Content analyses indicated that smokers anticipate a variety of outcomes from abstinence. The most frequently reported expectancies included pharmacologic withdrawal symptoms, behavioral withdrawal symptoms, decreased monetary expense, and immediate improvement of certain aspects of physical functioning and health. Additional expectancies concerned weight gain, improved attractiveness, enhanced social functioning/self-esteem, long-term health outcomes, and loss of relationships. Finally, a number of relatively unheralded expectancies were revealed. These involved NRT effectiveness, alcohol and other drug use, vigilance to cue reactivity, cessation-related social support, aversion to smoking, and “political process” implications. This study provides a preliminary step in understanding smokers’ expectancies for abstinence from cigarettes. PMID:19586157

  20. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, ?9 and ?8 in the skin, serum and saliva of smokers and non-smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anina Raitio; Hans Tuomas; Nina Kokkonen; Tuula Salo; Timo Sorsa; Roeland Hanemaaijer; Aarne Oikarinen

    2005-01-01

    Smoking induces skin ageing, affects wound healing and inflammatory responses in skin and mucous membranes but the mechanisms\\u000a behind these adverse effects of smoking are not clear. The objective was to elucidate the mechanisms of smoking-related tissue\\u000a damage, by comparing the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) ?2, ?9, and ?8 in the skin, serum and saliva of smokers\\u000a and non-smokers.

  1. Why Don't Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting.

    PubMed

    Morphett, Kylie; Partridge, Brad; Gartner, Coral; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker's addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual's situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers' views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers' attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences. PMID:26068089

  2. Mg/Ca and isotopic high resolution record of deep-sea hydrothermal barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, A.-V.; Bojar, H.-P.; Tufar, W.

    2012-04-01

    Barnacles are crustaceans adapted to a sessile existence and cemented to a substrate by a protein complex. Most of the known species inhabit shallow marine environment, less than 2% of the species are found at depths between 100 and 2500 m. The shell of barnacles has a great adaptive significance, the shell of some barnacle species have been already investigated for microstructure. In this study we investigated the shell microstructure as well as the Mg/Ca and stable isotope distribution of barnacles found at a depth of around 2500m at a black smoker from the Manus Spreading centre, north-east of Papua New Guinea. The shell consists of three substructures: an outer layer with pores and aragonite crystals, a massive interior mass and an inner layer with pores. The shell shows grown lines and the outer layer exhibits longitudinal striation from base to apex. The pores have a medium size of 0.8 microns. The size of the calcitic microcrystals are in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 microns, beside, larger aragonite crystals, with size of c. 10 microns are present. The massive interior mass has a compact structure, no pores or channels could be observed. Oxygen stable isotope data of barnacle shell were performed from the centre to the border of the calcitic shells, along profiles. Within one shell, the isotope values show variations of max. 0.6 ‰. The calculated temperatures from the stable isotope data consistently indicate that the barnacles populate sites with low temperature values, up to a few °C. The calculated temperatures from the isotope data are also in agreement with the reported habitat from the North Fiji and Lau Basins, where temperatures of max. 6°C were measured at sites populated by barnacles. Both calculated and measured temperatures of a few degrees indicate that at the sites where barnacles live, hydrothermal fluid input is present, as ambient temperature is around 1.5°C. Electron-microbeam analyses were done along the interior layer of the shell. The shell consists of a low-Mg calcite. The magnesium content varies between 0.1 and 0.85 wt.%.

  3. Simulating smokers' acceptance of modifications in a cessation program.

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, R

    1992-01-01

    Recent research has underscored the importance of assessing barriers to smokers' acceptance of cessation programs. This paper illustrates the use of computer simulations to gauge smokers' response to program modifications which may produce barriers to participation. It also highlights methodological issues encountered in conducting this work. Computer simulations were based on conjoint analysis, a consumer research method which enables measurement of smokers' relative preference for various modifications of cessation programs. Results from two studies are presented in this paper. The primary study used a randomly selected sample of 218 adult smokers who participated in a computer-assisted phone interview. Initially, the study assessed smokers' relative utility rating of 30 features of cessation programs. Utility data were used in computer-simulated comparisons of a low-cost, self-help oriented program under development and five other existing programs. A baseline version of the program under development and two modifications (for example, use of a support group with a higher level of cost) were simulated. Both the baseline version and modifications received a favorable response vis-à-vis comparison programs. Modifications requiring higher program costs were, however, associated with moderately reduced levels of favorable consumer response. The second study used a sample of 70 smokers who responded to an expanded set of smoking cessation program features focusing on program packaging. This secondary study incorporate in-person, computer-assisted interviews at a shopping mall, with smokers viewing an artist's mock-up of various program options on display. A similar pattern of responses to simulated program modifications emerged, with monetary cost apparently playing a key role. The significance of conjoint-based computer simulation as a tool in program development or dissemination, salient methodological issues, and implications for further research are discussed. PMID:1738813

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

  5. Why do smokers try to quit without medication or counselling? A qualitative study with ex-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Objective When tobacco smokers quit, between half and two-thirds quit unassisted: that is, they do not consult their general practitioner (GP), use pharmacotherapy (nicotine-replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline), or phone a quitline. We sought to understand why smokers quit unassisted. Design Qualitative grounded theory study (in-depth interviews, theoretical sampling, concurrent data collection and data analysis). Participants 21 Australian adult ex-smokers (aged 28–68?years; 9 males and 12 females) who quit unassisted within the past 6?months to 2?years. 12 participants had previous experience of using assistance to quit; 9 had never previously used assistance. Setting Community, Australia. Results Along with previously identified barriers to use of cessation assistance (cost, access, lack of awareness or knowledge of assistance, including misperceptions about effectiveness or safety), our study produced new explanations of why smokers quit unassisted: (1) they prioritise lay knowledge gained directly from personal experiences and indirectly from others over professional or theoretical knowledge; (2) their evaluation of the costs and benefits of quitting unassisted versus those of using assistance favours quitting unassisted; (3) they believe quitting is their personal responsibility; and (4) they perceive quitting unassisted to be the ‘right’ or ‘better’ choice in terms of how this relates to their own self-identity or self-image. Deep-rooted personal and societal values such as independence, strength, autonomy and self-control appear to be influencing smokers’ beliefs and decisions about quitting. Conclusions The reasons for smokers’ rejection of the conventional medical model for smoking cessation are complex and go beyond modifiable or correctable problems relating to misperceptions or treatment barriers. These findings suggest that GPs could recognise and respect smokers’ reasons for rejecting assistance, validate and approve their choices, and modify brief interventions to support their preference for quitting unassisted, where preferred. Further research and translation may assist in developing such strategies for use in practice. PMID:25933811

  6. E-Cigarette Use among Smokers with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Grana, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined electronic cigarette (EC) use, correlates of use, and associated changes in smoking behavior among smokers with serious mental illness in a clinical trial. Methods Adult smokers were recruited during acute psychiatric hospitalization (N?=?956, 73% enrollment among approached smokers) in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2009–2013. At baseline, participants averaged 17 (SD?=?10) cigarettes per day for 19 (SD?=?14) years; 24% intended to quit smoking in the next month. Analyses examined frequency and correlates of EC use reported over the 18-month trial and changes in smoking behavior by EC use status. Findings EC use was 11% overall, and by year of enrollment, increased from 0% in 2009 to 25% in 2013. In multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of EC use was significantly greater with each additional year of recruitment, for those aged 18–26, and for those in the preparation versus precontemplation stage of change, and unlikely among Hispanic participants. EC use was unrelated to gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and measures of tobacco dependence at baseline. Further, over the 18-month trial, EC use was not associated with changes in smoking status or, among continued smokers, with reductions in cigarettes per day. Interpretation Within a clinical trial with smokers with serious mental illness, EC use increased over time, particularly among younger adults and those intending to quit tobacco. EC use was unrelated to changes in smoking. The findings are of clinical interest and warrant further study. PMID:25419703

  7. Do anti-smoking media campaigns help smokers quit?

    PubMed

    Popham, W J; Potter, L D; Bal, D G; Johnson, M D; Duerr, J M; Quinn, V

    1993-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of the 1990-91 anti-tobacco media campaign carried out by the California Department of Health Services, a study was conducted among 417 regular smokers who had quit during the period of the media campaign. In brief telephone interviews, all respondents identified up to three events or experiences that had influenced them to quit. In response to uncued questions, 6.7 percent of those interviewed indicated that they had been influenced to quit by an advertisement they had seen or heard on radio, television, or billboards. In response to direct questions about the media campaign, 34.3 percent of the respondents indicated that the media campaign's advertisement had played a part in their decision to quit. Applying the 6.7 percentage to the number of Californians who quit smoking in 1990-91, it can be estimated that for 33,000 former smokers, the anti-tobacco media advertisements were an important stimulus in their quit decision. Multiplying the 34.3 percent by the number of former California smokers who quit in 1990-91, the estimate of former smokers for whom the media campaign's advertisements played at least some part in their decision to quit rises to 173,000 persons. While causal attributions from such investigations should be made with caution, the evidence suggests that the 1990-91 campaign did influence substantial number of smokers in California to quit. PMID:8341788

  8. Lipid and smoker's inclusions in sputum macrophages in patients with airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew M; Nair, Parameswaran; Hargreave, Frederick E; Efthimiadis, Ann E; Anvari, Mehran; Allen, Christopher J

    2011-11-01

    We studied the effect of tobacco smoking on macrophage lipid index and macrophage smokers inclusions in induced sputum in 256 patients (143 non-smokers, 81 ex-smokers and 32 current smokers). Lipid index was, using the Oil red O stain, the sum of the lipid staining droplet score (range 0-4) in 100 macrophages. Smokers inclusions were assessed using Wright's stain and graded as "none", "few", "moderate" or "many". Lipid index was significantly higher in current smokers (112.5, SD 58.5 units) than ex-smokers (29.2, SD 42.8 units) or non-smokers (13.4, SD 121.7). Smokers inclusions were present in all current smokers but only in 2 non-smokers. The mean smoking history of current smokers with few macrophage inclusions was 15.0 (SD 11.2), moderate 21.6 (SD 15.7), and many 30.0 (SD 21.9) pack years. There was a significant difference between the length of time ex-smokers had quit smoking if they had no or few smokers inclusions (mean 17.6 (SD 11.2) years) compared to those with moderate or many smokers inclusions (mean 2.8 (SD 5.8) years) (p = 0.01). Lipid index was significantly correlated with smokers inclusions (r = 0.72, p < 0.01). We conclude that smoker's inclusions within sputum macrophages is a reliable indicator of cigarette smoking and that the sputum lipid index cannot be used as an assessment of oropharyngeal reflux in cigarette smokers. PMID:21831624

  9. Severity of dependence modulates smokers' neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving elicited by tobacco advertisement.

    PubMed

    Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Fehr, Christoph; Mann, Karl; Smolka, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    Smoking-related cues elicit craving and mesocorticolimbic brain activation in smokers. Severity of nicotine dependence seems to moderate cue reactivity, but the direction and mechanisms of its influence remains unclear. Although tobacco control policies demand a ban on tobacco advertising, cue reactivity studies in smokers so far have not employed tobacco advertisement as experimental stimuli. We investigated whether tobacco advertisement elicits cue reactivity at a behavioral (subjective craving) and a neural level (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers. Moreover, we studied the influence of severity of dependence on cue reactivity. In smokers, tobacco advertisement elicited substantially more craving than control advertisement whereas never-smokers reported no cue induced craving. Surprisingly, neuronal cue reactivity did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. Moderately dependent smokers' craving increased over the course of the experiment, whereas highly dependent smokers' craving was unaffected. Moderately dependent smokers' brain activity elicited by tobacco advertisement was higher in the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus compared with highly dependent smokers. Furthermore, limbic brain activation predicted picture recognition rates after the scanning session, even in never-smokers. Our findings show that tobacco advertisement elicits cigarette craving and neuronal cue reactivity primarily in moderately dependent smokers, indicating that they might be particularly responsive towards external smoking-related cues. On the other hand, neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving in highly dependent smokers is more likely triggered by internal cues such as withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco advertisement seems to likewise appeal to smokers and non-smokers, clarifying the potential danger especially for young non-smokers. PMID:20331560

  10. Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette smokers: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Helmi Ben; Khemiss, Mehdi; Nhari, Saida; Essghaier, Mejda Ben; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of the lung function profiles of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Males aged 35–60 living in Sousse, Tunisia, who have been smoking narghile exclusively for more than 10 narghile-years (n=36) or cigarettes exclusively for more than 10 pack-years (n=106) were recruited to participate in this case–control study. The anthropometric and plethysmographic data were measured according to international recommendations using a body plethysmograph (ZAN 500 Body II, Me?greräte GmbH, Germany). Large-airway-obstructive-ventilatory-defect (LAOVD) was defined as: first second forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) below the lower-limit-of-normal (LLN). Restrictive-ventilatory-defect (RVD) was defined as total lung capacity < LLN. Lung hyperinflation was defined as residual volume > upper-limit-of-normal. Student t-test and ?2 test were used to compare plethysmographic data and profiles of the two groups. Results The subjects in the ENS and ECS groups are well matched in age (45±7 vs. 47±5 years) and height (1.73±0.06 vs. 1.72±0.06 m) and used similar quantities of tobacco (36±22 narghile-years vs. 35±19 pack-years). Compared to the ENS group, the ECS group had significantly lower FEV1 (84±12 vs. 60±21%), FVC (90±12 vs. 76±18%), and FEV1/FVC (99±7 vs. 83±17%). The two groups had similar percentages of RVD (31 vs. 36%), while the ECS group had a significantly higher percentage of LAOVD (8 vs. 58%) and lung hyperinflation (36 vs.57%). Conclusion Chronic exclusive narghile smoking has less adverse effects on pulmonary function tests than chronic exclusive cigarette smoking. PMID:24382307

  11. Sarcoidosis: a disorder commoner in non-smokers?

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, J G; Middleton, W G; Gaddie, J; Petrie, G R; Choo-Kang, Y F; Prescott, R J; Crompton, G K

    1986-01-01

    The smoking habits of 202 patients presenting with sarcoidosis, as recorded in the clinical case records, were compared with figures from the General Household Surveys (GHS) to determine whether there was any association between smoking habit and sarcoidosis. In 19 there was no record of smoking habit. Of the remaining 183 patients, 40 (21.9%) were smokers, which was significantly less than expected from the GHS figures (p less than 0.001). This association between non-smoking and sarcoidosis persisted despite further analysis by sex and age distribution and socioeconomic grouping. Statistical likelihood models showed that ex-smokers were similar to current smokers with respect to the association between smoking and sarcoidosis. This association was greatest in those patients with stage I sarcoidosis and less for those with other stages of the disease. PMID:3787509

  12. Quantitative Assessment of Calcium Profile in Whole Saliva From Smokers and Non-Smokers with Chronic Generalized Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Shashikanth; Kashyap, Rajesh; Maiya, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Measures of in vivo calcium status are important in understanding the mineralization capacity as it is an essential mineral component of both teeth and bone; and also play a vital role in the lipid profile and hormonal balance. Aim To evaluate the existence of any disturbances in calcium metabolism and absorption induced by smoking, by quantitatively assessing the variations in the salivary calcium level between smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis and relating to their periodontal status. Materials and Methods A total of 50 male patients were selected and categorized as Group I (smokers with chronic generalized periodontitis) and Group II (non-smoker/ non-tobacco users with chronic generalized periodontitis). Clinical parameters such as Calculus Index and Community Periodontal Index were assessed. Subsequently two ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected and subjected to biochemical analysis for the estimation of salivary calcium which was carried out in the next 20 min. Results Salivary calcium levels were significantly higher in Group I (2.2700) compared to Group II (1.7260). Higher calculus index and CPI index score were also seen in Group I when compared to Group II. Conclusion Elevated salivary calcium level among the Group I emphasize the decreased calcium absorption efficiency among the smokers. High salivary calcium content hardens plaque more rapidly, indirectly influencing the level of oral hygiene.

  13. Mesozoic hydrothermal alteration associated with gold mineralization in the Mercur district, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.N.; Parry, W.T. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (USA))

    1990-09-01

    K/Ar dates and chemical data show that a Mesozoic gold-bearing hydrothermal system altered black shales of the Mississippian Great Blue Limestone throughout an area encompassing the Mercur gold district, Utah. K/Ar dates of illite veins and illite-rich, clay-sized separates of altered shales that are enriched in Au, As, Hg, Sc, and other heavy metals indicate that hydrothermal activity occurred from 193 to 122 Ma. Several ages from within the Mercur district cluster near 160 Ma and may date the minimum age of gold mineralization.

  14. African-American smokers and cancers of the lung and of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. Is menthol part of the puzzle?

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, T L

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of cigarette smoking is higher among African Americans than among whites. African Americans have higher rates of lung cancer than whites, although they smoke fewer cigarettes. To explore this black-white difference in lung cancer rates, I examine various aspects of tobacco use in African-American smokers, including the age of initiation of smoking, quantity of cigarettes smoked, quit rates, level of nicotine dependence, biochemical differences, and brand preferences, specifically menthol brand cigarettes. I also review briefly the sequelae of patterns of tobacco use, including rates of lung and other tobacco-related cancers. A preference for mentholated cigarettes by African Americans is well documented and is one of the most striking differences between African-American and white smokers. Menthol brand preference has been investigated in an attempt to explain the black-white differences in rates of cancers of the lungs and the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. Also, studies have evaluated smoking behavior both with and without menthol and have explicitly examined the question of whether menthol use helps explain the black-white difference in lung cancer rates. The results of these studies are so far inconclusive with regard to the use of menthol and the risk of lung cancer developing. I provide practical suggestions for clinicians in counseling African-American smokers to quit smoking and to maintain a nonsmoking status. PMID:9143194

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of perovskite nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuanbing; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Wong, Stanislaus S

    2003-02-01

    A low-temperature hydrothermal reaction has been utilized to generate crystalline barium titanate and strontium titanate nanotubes, which have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. PMID:12613636

  16. Subjective Social Status Predicts Smoking Abstinence Among Light Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Davis, Julia T.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Guo, Hongfei; Thomas, Janet L.; Goldade, Kate R.; Okuyemi, Kola S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine if community subjective social status (SSS) predicted smoking abstinence through 26 weeks postrandomization among 755 African American light smokers of low SES (socioeconomic status). Methods Participants were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, which examined the efficacy of nicotine gum and counseling for smoking cessation. Results Results indicated that SSS predicted smoking abstinence over time [P=.046; odds ratio (OR) =1.075 (1.001–1.155)] after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions Further research is needed to understand the effects of community SSS on smoking cessation among heavy smokers and other ethnic groups. PMID:22584091

  17. Adolescent smokers' provision of tobacco to other adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, M; Forster, J L; Claxton, A J; Murray, D M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined adolescent smokers provision of tobacco to other adolescents. METHODS: Data from a survey of 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students in Minnesota were analyzed by using mixed-model logistic regression. RESULTS: More than two thirds (68.8%) of adolescent smokers had provided tobacco to another adolescent in the previous 30 days. Mother's smoking, number of friends who smoke, owning tobacco merchandise, number of cigarettes smoked in the past week, source of last cigarette (commercial), and recent attempt to buy cigarettes were associated with providing. CONCLUSIONS: The social availability of tobacco to youth needs further examination. PMID:9146446

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, W.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1994-05-01

    This study presents further evidence that amino acids can be synthesized rapidly in hydrothermal solutions from reactants that may have been present in primitive environments. Aqueous NH[sub 4]HCO[sub 3] solutions were reacted with C[sub 2]H[sub 2], H[sub 2], and O[sub 2] (formed in situ from CaC[sub 2], Ca, and H[sub 2]O[sub 2]) at 200-275[degrees]C over 0.2-2 h periods to synthesize several amino acids and abundant amines. These amino acid and amine producing reactions were not observed to occur below 150[degrees]C. Amino acids and amines also were synthesized at 210[degrees]C from solutions of NH[sub 4]OH, HCHO, NaCN, and H[sub 2]. When NH[sub 4]OH was replaced by NH[sub 4]HCO[sub 3], the syntheses predominantly confirmed the recent results of Hennet et al. (1992). Additionally, amino acids and amines were observed to form by reactions among NH[sub 4]OH, HCHO, and H[sub 2] at hydrothermal conditions, essentially confirming the results of Fox and Windsor (1970). Inclusion of both carbonate and O[sub 2] in these latter solutions greatly enhanced the production rate of amino acids. The amines synthesized hydrothermally could be significant if they are precursors in the amino acid syntheses either at hydrothermal or later at lower temperatures. These observations provide additional input to the current questions of synthesis, stability, and decomposition of amino acids at hydrothermal conditions, and their possible relevance to the origin of life.

  19. Plagioclase and epidote buffering of cation ratios in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids: Experimental results in and near the supercritical region

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, M.E.; Seyfried, W.E. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA)); Janecky, D.R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Experiments have been performed with Na-Ca-K-Cl fluids of seawater chlorinity and diabase, basalt, and plagioclase bearing mineral mixtures at 350-425{degree}C and 250-400 bars to help constrain hydrothermal alteration processes at mid-ocean ridges. Dissolved Ca, Na, and pH for all experiments responded systematically to differences in dissolved SiO{sub 2} concentrations and the compositions of plagioclase reactants. Diabase alteration at low fluid/rock mass ratios (0.5 to 1) produces fluids undersaturated with respect to quartz during hydration of primary olivine and orthopyroxene, whereas basalt alteration under similar conditions yields fluids slightly supersaturated with respect to quartz during breakdown of glass to smectite and amphibole. Fluid chemistry in all experiments appears to approach a partial equilibrium state with the albite and anorthite components in plagioclase and approaches a pH consistent with plagioclase alteration to epidote. Trace element data from vent fluids, specifically B and Sr, together with major element chemistry, provides evidence that the reaction zone for black-smoker fluids at mid-ocean ridges is composed of only slightly altered diabase and is characterized by small amounts of epidote, nearly fresh plagioclase and clinopyroxene, and partially to completely hydrated olivine and orthopyroxene. Using equilibrium between plagioclase, the dominant reactant, and epidote, the dominant reaction product in experiments, the authors estimate that temperatures in reaction zones are in excess of 375{degree}C for most vent systems. These temperatures are higher than measured vent temperatures, suggesting that hot spring fluids commonly loose heat during ascent to the sea floor.

  20. Lithium Isotopic Composition of Intra-Oceanic Arc Hydrothermal Fluids - Initial Results From the Tonga Kermadec Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoth, G. J.; Chan, L.; Butterfield, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Active hydrothermal venting has recently been discovered on submarine volcanoes along the Tonga-Kermadec Arc. Li isotopic compositions of high temperature fluids from mid-ocean ridge systems have been well studied as an indicator of seawater-basalt exchange. we present here initial Li isotope data for hydrothermal fluids collected from the volcanoes along the arc: Volcano 1 and Volcano 19 on the Tonga arc and Monowai, Giggenbach, Macauley, Brothers, and Healy along the Kermadec arc. The system features shallow venting depths, phase separation, magmatic degassing, and pervasive diffuse flows. Black smoker venting occurs on Volcano 19 (maximum fluid temperature 245°C) and Brothers NW vents (290°C). ?7Li (relative to L-SVEC) of high temperature end-member fluids at these two locations are 8.2 and 7.2‰ respectively. These isotopic values are in the typical range for mid-ocean ridge crest hot springs, which average 7± 1‰ globally (Bray, 2001). The similarity in fluid composition may reflect comparable Li isotopic compositions of arc volcanic substrates and mid-ocean ridge basalts. Most low temperature fluids (<70°C, e.g. at Brothers cones, Healy, and Giggenbach) are variably enriched in Li and have ?7Li between 15‰ and the seawater value (32‰). Only Monowai shows slight Li depletion and higher ?7Li (33.5‰) than seawater. The trends of Li versus Mg vary widely between sites, reflecting very different water/rock ratios. However, high and low temperature fluids converge to a general linear relationship between ?7Li and Mg/Li and Cl/Li suggesting that the diffuse flows are essentially the product of subsurface mixing of ambient seawater and high temperature vent fluids. The compositions of diffuse flows differ from that of Baby Bare, a 60°C warm spring water from a ridge flank hydrothermal system in that the latter has lost both Mg and Li as a result of low temperature reaction (Wheat and Mottl, 2000). High ?7Li (33‰) relative to Mg/Li and Cl/Li has been observed at Macauley and, together with high Mg and Si, is consistent with acid leaching of chemically weathered rocks. Several sites (Volcanoes 1 and 19, Monowai, Giggenbach and Brothers) provide evidence of phase separation, but Li isotopic fractionation associated with this process appears to be insignificant. Available data also do not indicate anomalous composition in samples containing magmatic volatiles. Our initial results thus suggest that high temperature vent fluids from the Tonga-Kermadec main arc have similar Li isotope compositions as those from mid-ocean ridge systems. Further work is in progress to investigate the nature of diffuse flows. References: Bray, A.M., 2001, PhD thesis, University of New Hampshire. Wheat, C.G., Mottl, M.J., 2000. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 629-642.

  1. Second-hand smoke in the home exceeds air safety limits for non-smokers.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    Non-smokers who live with smokers are exposed to three times the recommended safe levels of air pollution, equivalent to living in a heavily polluted city such as Beijing, reveals a Scottish study. PMID:25424083

  2. Expert Panel Unclear on Whether E-Cigarettes Help Smokers Quit

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_152349.html Expert Panel Unclear on Whether E-Cigarettes Help Smokers Quit More and better data is ... not enough data to decide whether or not e-cigarettes can help smokers quit. For now, the U.S. ...

  3. E-Cigarettes May Not Help Smokers Quit Tobacco, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152051.html E-Cigarettes May Not Help Smokers Quit Tobacco, Study Finds ... proponents of "vaping" claim that smokers who try e-cigarettes may use them as a bridge to quitting ...

  4. The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Methods Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Results All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they ‘ought’ to quit as opposed to ‘wanted’ to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be considerable in order to influence motivation. Highly motivated smokers expressed more willingness to visit Stop Smoking Services, although none had done so. Conclusion Continuing smokers’ attitudes towards smoking and quitting suggests that research and policy need to focus on increasing smokers’ implicit motivation to quit smoking, even for those who classified themselves as having high motivation to quit. Targeted information and further education about Stop Smoking Services is required to increase uptake. PMID:23641875

  5. Predictors of health functioning in two high-risk groups of smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith J. Prochaska; James L. Sorensen; Sharon M. Hall; Joseph S. Rossi; Colleen A. Redding; Amy B. Rosen; Stuart J. Eisendrath; Marc R. Meisner

    2005-01-01

    The relative and combined health effects of cigarette smoking, heroin use, and depression were examined in 322 clinically depressed smokers and 117 opioid-dependent smokers participating in two studies of the San Francisco Treatment Research Center. Opioid-dependent smokers averaged 16 years (S.D.=9) of heroin use; 3% of depressed smokers used opiates in the past 6 months. Cigarettes per day (M=15, S.D.=10)

  6. Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaura, Raymond; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

  7. Psychophysiological responses to smoking and chocolate cues among female smokers 

    E-print Network

    Susabda, Agnes

    2009-06-02

    underlying craving. Female cigarette smokers (N = 42) were recruited and randomly assigned to either a 10-hour smoking abstinence group or a control group. We examined both self-reported cravings and startle-eye blink responses to visual smoking and chocolate...

  8. Perceptions of self, self-esteem, and the adolescent smoker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl May

    1999-01-01

    Adolescent tobacco use remains a key problem in health education and health promotion. The continuing growth of youthful smoking and other substance use is often explained by appeal to global psychological variables such as self- esteem, where the young smoker is assumed to smoke, drink, or take drugs to compensate for low levels of self-esteem. This paper sets out a

  9. Psychophysiological responses to smoking and chocolate cues among female smokers

    E-print Network

    Susabda, Agnes

    2009-06-02

    underlying craving. Female cigarette smokers (N = 42) were recruited and randomly assigned to either a 10-hour smoking abstinence group or a control group. We examined both self-reported cravings and startle-eye blink responses to visual smoking and chocolate...

  10. Reduced Response to Reward in Smokers and Cannabis Users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chantal Martin-Soelch; Maja Kobel; Markus Stoecklin; Tanja Michael; Simone Weber; Bigna Krebs; Klaus Opwis

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs. Reduced neural and behavioral reactions to reward have been demonstrated in other forms of addiction, as expressed by reduced mood reactivity and lack of striatal activation to rewards, but this effect has not yet been investigated in cannabis users. Methods: We hypothesized that cannabis users and tobacco smokers would

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF COUGH FOR ENHANCING MUCUS CLEARANCE IN ASYMPTOMATIC SMOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using monodisperse aerosols radiolabeled with 99mTc, we studied the effectiveness of ough and rapid inhalations for clearing mucus in en asymptomatic smokers. On three eparate study days, each subject breathed 5 um (MMAD) 99mTc-iron oxide particles under ontrolled breathing condi...

  12. Behavioral Strategies for Nonsmokers: Avoiding and Confronting Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.

    Nonsmokers repeatedly breathe smoke-polluted air in various settings, despite the evidence demonstrating the deleterious consequences upon such passive smokers. The extent of exposure to environmental irritants during a 17-day baseline period was tested, and the efficacy of two simple behavioral strategies in reducing smoke were documented…

  13. Striatal hyposensitivity to delayed rewards among cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shan; Ainslie, George; Giragosian, Lisa; Monterosso, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Brain regions that track value (including the ventral striatum) respond more during the anticipation of immediate than delayed rewards, even when the delayed rewards are larger and equally preferred to the immediate. The anticipatory response to immediate vs. delayed rewards has not previously been examined in association with cigarette smoking. Methods Smokers (n=35) and nonsmokers (n=36) performed a modified monetary incentive functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) task (Knutson et al., 2000) that included opportunities to win either immediate or delayed rewards. The delayed rewards were larger and equally preferred to the immediate rewards. Results Across groups, greater activation was observed in regions previously shown to track value including bilateral ventral/dorsal striatum during anticipation of immediate relative to delayed rewards. This effect was significantly greater among smokers than nonsmokers within the right ventral striatum. This group difference was driven particularly by low striatal activation among smokers during delayed reward trials. Conclusions The general tendency for striatal reward anticipatory activity to be attenuated when rewards are delayed is exaggerated among smokers relative to comparison participants. Among possible explanations of this relationship are that 1) low anticipatory response to delayed rewards is a phenotypic risk factor for smoking, and 2) smoking-related neuroadaptations result in reduced recruitment during the anticipation of delayed rewards. PMID:21177048

  14. Recurrent hemoptysis in a 62-year-old smoker

    PubMed Central

    Gowrinath, Karanam; Ramakrishna, Baddukonda Appala; Shanthi, Vissa; Sujatha, Gogineni

    2013-01-01

    Tracheal papillary adenoma is a rare benign tumor. We report a case of papillary adenoma in a 62-year-old male smoker who presented with recurrent hemoptysis. The tumor was located in the upper third of trachea and forceps biopsy through flexible bronchoscopy was uncomplicated and diagnostic. PMID:23741099

  15. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  16. Do cigarette smokers have unrealistic perceptions of their heart attack, cancer, and stroke risks?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor J. Strecher; Matthew W. Kreuter; Sarah C. Kobrin

    1995-01-01

    This study examined whether perceived risks of heart attack, cancer, and stroke were higher among smokers than nonsmokers; whether smokers were more likely to underestimate these risks; and the demographic correlates of unrealistic risk estimation among smokers. Two thousand seven hundred eight-five patients from 12 North Carolina family practices completed a questionnaire including a health risk appraisal and questions concerning

  17. Acute Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure in Male Smokers With Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moo-Yong Rhee; Sang-Hoon Na; Young-Kwon Kim; Myoung-Mook Lee; Hae-Young Kim

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the acute increase of arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP) after cigarette smoking in healthy smokers is considered a possible mechanism of increased cardiovascular risk, the acute effect of smoking on arterial stiffness in hypertensive smokers is unknown. We investigated the acute effects of cigarette smoking on arterial stiffness and BP in hypertensive male smokers.Methods: Heart rate (HR),

  18. Factors associated with former smokers among female adolescents in rural Virginia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela J. Huebner; Lauren Shettler; Jennifer L. Matheson; Peggy S. Meszaros; Fred P. Piercy; Sean D. Davis

    2005-01-01

    We examined multiple ecological factors (individual, family, peer, school, and community) associated with female adolescent former smokers (FS), current smokers (CS), and never smokers (NS) in a sample of 2029 seventh to twelfth grade girls living in a rural area of Virginia. We were particularly interesting in examining variables related to FS. Compared to CS, FS reported lower levels of

  19. Short communication Factors associated with former smokers among female adolescents in rural Virginia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela J. Huebner; Lauren Shettler; Jennifer L. Matheson; Peggy S. Meszaros; Fred P. Piercy; Sean D. Davis

    We examined multiple ecological factors (individual, family, peer, school, and community) associated with female adolescent former smokers (FS), current smokers (CS), and never smokers (NS) in a sample of 2029 seventh to twelfth grade girls living in a rural area of Virginia. We were particularly interesting in examining variables related to FS. Compared to CS, FS reported lower levels of

  20. A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Responses to Messages Discouraging Dual Tobacco Product Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried…

  1. Psychosocial and Behavioral Characteristics Among Subgroups of Nondaily College Student Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Devan R; Pulvers, Kim; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-01-01

    Nondaily smoking is becoming common in young adults and there appear to be different characteristics associated with past month smoking frequency among nondaily smokers. The present study examines behavioral and psychosocial correlates of smoking among subgroups of nondaily college student smokers (N = 80; 18–25 years of age) attending a large, public university. Nondaily smokers were categorized based on the frequency of days smoked in the past month and were divided into two subgroups: 1–5 days and 6–29 days. A quarter of nondaily smokers considered themselves as a smoker and significantly more 6–29 nondaily smokers were identified as a smoker and smoked more cigarettes per day (CPD). Almost half (45%) of nondaily smokers have attempted to quit smoking completely and 71% of the 6–29 nondaily smokers reported significantly higher quit attempts. The 6–29 nondaily smokers had significantly higher perceived risk related to smoking. Self-efficacy to abstain from smoking was significantly higher for 1–5 nondaily smokers. These results suggest heterogeneity among subgroups of nondaily college student smokers exists in a number of behavioral and psychosocial factors. Prevention and cessation strategies may be improved by considering frequency of nondaily smoking and targeting subgroups differently. PMID:25741181

  2. CD8 1 T-Lymphocytes in Peripheral Airways of Smokers with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARINA SAETTA; ANTONINO D I STEFANO; GRAZIELLA TURATO; FABRIZIO M. FACCHINI; LAURA CORBINO; CRISTINA E. MAPP; PIERO MAESTRELLI; ADALBERTO CIACCIA; LEONARDO M. FABBRI

    1998-01-01

    To investigate whether the inflammatory process in peripheral airways is different in smokers who develop symptoms of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow limitation and in asymptomatic smokers who do not develop chronic airflow limitation, we examined surgical specimens obtained from 16 smokers undergoing lung resection for localized pulmonary lesions. Nine had symptoms of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow limitation and

  3. Young Adult Smoking: What factors differentiate ex-smokers, smoking cessation treatment seekers and nontreatment seekers?

    PubMed Central

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel; Epstein, Leonard H.; Rodgers, Kelli; Cuevas, Jocelyn; Wileyto, E. Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated demographic and psychosocial correlates of smoking status and predictors of smoking cessation among young adults, ages 18–30 years old. Young adults (n=294) completed a self-report survey regarding their health habits and smokers were offered the opportunity to enroll in a smoking cessation program. Substitute reinforcers were greater among ex-smokers compared to nontreatment seeking smokers, treatment seeking smokers who did participate in a smoking cessation program and treatment seeking smokers who did not subsequently participate in a smoking cessation program. Greater complementary reinforcers and delay discounting rates differentiated nontreatment seeking smokers from ex-smokers and treatment seeking smokers who subsequently attended a smoking cessation program. Nontreatment seekers were less likely to have higher depression symptoms than ex-smokers. Treatment seekers who did not attend a smoking cessation program tended to live in a household with another smoker, to not be college educated, and to be non-white. Young adult smokers who increased their substitute reinforcers across treatment were almost two times more likely to be quit at treatment end. These results highlight variables that may be important to consider in recruitment strategies and treatment components for smoking cessation interventions for young adult smokers. PMID:19619948

  4. Pathology of the coronary arteries in smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Bøttcher, M; Falk, E

    1999-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to be a strong risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, stroke, intermittent claudication and aortic aneurysm. Atherosclerosis, often with superimposed thrombosis, has been shown to be the underlying disease process in all of these diseases. This fact has led to the assumption that smoking accelerates the atherosclerotic process and thereby promotes premature cardiovascular disease. However, increased occurrence of smoking-mediated thrombosis might also play a causative role. This review therefore considers clinical and experimental evidence regarding the atherogenicity and thrombogenicity of cigarette smoking in the development and occurrence of cardiovascular disease. On the basis of the currently available literature, it is concluded that evidence for the atherogenetic effect of smoking is scarce, and that the effect on the athrosclerotic process in the coronary arteries is only moderate if present at all. On the other hand, both clinical and experimental data strongly support the notion that thrombogenetic factors are responsible for the increased occurrence of ischaemic heart disease, and particularly acute coronary syndromes, among chronic smokers. PMID:10534131

  5. Synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide by single-step soft hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar Bokinala, Kiran [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania) [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania); CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara (Romania); Pollet, M., E-mail: pollet@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Artemenko, A. [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France)] [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Miclau, M., E-mail: marinela.miclau@gmail.com [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania); Grozescu, I [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania) [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania); Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara (Romania)

    2013-02-15

    Lithium cobalt double oxide LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized at 220 Degree-Sign C by soft hydrothermal method using Co(OH){sub 2} and LiOH as precursors, LiOH/NaOH as mineralizers and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The soft hydrothermal synthesis method offers the dual advantage of a much lower synthesis time and a higher purity in comparison with other synthesis methods. The compound was identified by X-ray diffraction and its purity was checked by magnetic and electron magnetic resonance measurements. The grain morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and an exponential growth of particle size with synthesis time was observed. - Graphical abstract: Concave cuboctohedrons obtained after 60 h reaction time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimized soft hydrothermal method for a fast synthesis of high purity LiCoO{sub 2} compound is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both lamellar and cuboctahedral particles could be stabilized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary phases content is lower than 0.1%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close to surface defects were evidenced using EMR.

  6. A Comparison of Mortality Rates in a Large Population of Smokers and Non-smokers: based on the Presence or Absence of Coronary Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, John W; Blaha, Michael J; Rivera, Juan J; Budoff, Matthew J; Khan, Atif N; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Raggi, Paolo; Min, James K; Rumberger, John A; Callister, Tracy Q; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To further study the interplay between smoking status, Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) and all-cause mortality. Background Prior studies have not directly compared the relative prognostic impact of CAC in smokers versus non-smokers. In particular, while zero CAC is a known favorable prognostic-marker, whether smokers without CAC have as good a prognosis as non-smokers without CAC is unknown. Given computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer appears effective in smokers, the relative prognostic implications of visualizing any CAC versus no CAC on such screening also deserve study. Methods Our study cohort consisted of 44,042 asymptomatic individuals referred for non-contrast cardiac CT (age 54±11 years, 54% males). Subjects were followed for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results Approximately 14% (n=6020) of subjects were active smokers at enrollment. There were 901 deaths (2.05%) overall, with increased mortality in smokers vs. non-smokers (4.3% vs. 1.7%, p<0.0001). Smoking remained a risk factor for mortality across increasing strata of CAC scores (1-100, 101-400, and >400). In multivariable analysis within these strata, we found mortality hazard ratios (HRs) of 3.8 (95% CI, 2.8-5.2), 3.5 (2.6-4.9), and 2.7 (2.1-3.5), respectively, in smokers compared to nonsmokers. At each stratum of elevated CAC score, mortality in smokers was consistently higher than mortality in non-smokers from the CAC stratum above. However, among the 19,898 individuals with CAC=0, the mortality HR for smokers without CAC was 3.6 (95% CI, 2.3-5.7), compared to non-smokers without CAC. Conclusion Smoking is a risk factor for death across the entire spectrum of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Smokers with any coronary calcification are at significantly increased future mortality risk than smokers without CAC. However, the absence of CAC may not be as useful a “negative risk factor” in active smokers; as this group has mortality rates similar to non-smokers with mild to moderate atherosclerosis. PMID:23058072

  7. Boron isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids from submarine hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Hong, E.; Ishikawa, T.; Gamo, T.; Kawahata, H.

    2013-12-01

    Boron is highly mobile in submarine hydrothermal systems and useful to trace the process of water-rock reaction. In this study, we measured the boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids collected from arc-backarc hydrothermal systems in the western Pacific. In sediment-starved hydrothermal systems (Manus Basin, Suiyo Seamount, and Mariana Trough), the boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids are dependent on type of host rock. The end member fluids from MORB-like basalt-hosted Vienna Woods in the Manus Basin showed low boron content and high ?11B value (0.53 mM, 29.8‰), while dacite-hosted PACMANUS and the Suiyo Seamount showed high boron contents and low ?11B values (1.45 and 1.52 mM, 13.6 and 18.5‰, respectively). The Alice Springs and Forecast Vent field in the Mariana Trough showed values intermediate between them (0.72 and 0.63 mM, 19.9 and 24.0‰, respectively), reflecting reaction of seawater and basalt influenced by slab material. In phase separated hydrothermal systems (North Fiji Basin), boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids (0.44-0.56 mM, 34.5-35.9‰) were similar to those in the Vienna Woods. Considering little fractionation of boron and boron isotope during phase separation demonstrated by the previous experimental studies, it is suggested that the host rock in the North Fiji Basin is MORB-like basalt. In sediment-hosted hydrothermal system (Okinawa Trough), the reaction with boron-enriched sediment following seawater-rock reaction resulted in significantly high boron contents and low ?11B values of vent fluids (4.4-5.9 mM, 1.5-2.6‰). The water-sediment ratio was estimated to be ~2. In spite of the different geological settings, the end member fuids from all vent fields are enriched in B relative to seawater (0.41 mM, 39.6‰) and the ?11B values are inversely propotional to the boron concentrations. It suggests that boron isotopic composition of vent fluid predominantly depends on the amount of boron originated from solid-phase.

  8. Predictive Microbiology in Hydrothermal Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Shock; M. E. Holland; D. Meyer-Dombard; J. P. Amend

    2004-01-01

    Metabolisms of high-temperature microorganisms are not revealed by molecular phylogenies, but, if known, could connect microbial and geochemical processes in hydrothermal ecosystems. Disequilibria among oxidation-reduction reactions, established by kinetic barriers to electron-transfer reactions, provide energy, and life provides the catalyst. In more-or-less closed systems, such as slowly-accumulating detrital sediments, life taps as much energy as conversion efficiency will allow, and

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of zirconia nanomaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R Piticescu; C Monty; D Taloi; A Motoc; S Axinte

    2001-01-01

    Yttria-stabilised zirconia powders and films have been obtained from Zr(IV) peroxides by hydrothermal crystallisation at temperatures in the range 125–200°C. The thermodynamic evaluation evidenced that formation of Zr(OH)5? in H2O2 solutions increases solubility of Zr (IV) hydrated species and improves the kinetics of the new phase formation by the solubilisation-reprecipitation process. Powders with crystallite sizes in the range 6–22 nm

  10. Perceived Risks of Certain Types of Cancer and Heart Disease among Asian American Smokers and Non-Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Feeley, Rosemary M.; Thomas, Priya

    2002-01-01

    Assessed Asian Americans' knowledge levels regarding the health risks of tobacco use. Surveys of Korean, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Cambodian smokers and nonsmokers indicated that most respondents recognized the association between smoking and increased risk for lung, mouth, throat, and esophageal cancer and heart disease. There were significant…

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of lithium iron phosphate cathodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoufeng Yang; Peter Y. Zavalij; M. Stanley Whittingham

    2001-01-01

    Hydrothermal methods have been successfully applied to the synthesis of lithium iron phosphates. Li3Fe2(PO4)3 was synthesized by heating at 700°C LiFePO4(OH), formed hydrothermally in an oxidizing environment. Crystalline LiFePO4 was formed in a direct hydrothermal reaction in just a few hours, and no impurities were detected. This result leads to the possibility of an easy scale-up to a commercial process.

  12. Mystery of the Megaplume: Hydrothermal Vent Chemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students will investigate hydrothermal vents to see how the chemistry of the water they emit provides clues to the location of the vents. They should be able to describe hydrothermal vents and characterize vent plumes in terms of physical and chemical properties; describe data gathering operations in which a towed instrument package ("tow-yo") measures conductivity, temperature, and depth; and interpret temperature anomaly data to recognize a plume emanating from a hydrothermal vent.

  13. Respiratory symptoms relate to physiological changes and inflammatory markers reflecting central but not peripheral airways. A study in 60-year-old ‘healthy’ smokers and never-smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. EKBERG-JANSSON; B. BAKE; B. ERSSON; B. E. SKOOGH; C. G. LÖFDAHL

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between respiratory symptoms, lung function and inflammatory markers in ‘healthy’ smokers.The study population was recruited from an epidemiological study with subjects of the same age, 60 years. Only smokers who considered themselves healthy (n=58) and a random sample of never-smokers (n=34) were investigated. All subjects underwent lung function tests—spirometry, carbon

  14. Alterations of small-molecular-weight antioxidants in the blood of smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin San Liu; Huei Wen Chen; Chong Kuei Lii; Su Chiu Chen; Yau-Huei Wei

    1998-01-01

    Plasma ?-tocopherol, ascorbate, retinol, uric acid, and lipid peroxides were investigated in 39 male smokers and 64 male non-smokers. The average level of plasma ?-tocopherol of 35–45-year-old smokers (1.74±0.49 ?g\\/mg total lipid) was significantly lower than that of age-matched non-smokers (2.55±0.88 ?g\\/mg total lipid, P=0.032). Similarly, the plasma ?-tocopherol of smokers aged above 45 (1.66±0.29 ?g\\/mg total lipid) was lower

  15. Iron isotope fractionation in sulfides: constraints on mechanisms of sulfide formations in hydrothermal and magmatic systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, Veniamin; Soultanov, Dilshod

    2010-05-01

    Data on non-traditional stable isotope fractionations (e.g., Fe, Cu) provide further insight into mechanisms of sulfide mineralization. Correct interpretation of these data is impossible without knowledge on equilibrium isotopic fractionation factors of sulfides. We present data on iron isotope fractionation factors (?-factors) of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and mackinawite (FeS). Iron ?-factors for chalcopyrite were derived from synchrotron experimental data on inelastic nuclear resonant x-ray scattering (INRXS) [1] using the method described elsewhere [2,3]. The ?-factors for mackinawite were found from the Moessbauer second-order Doppler shift data [4] by the method presented in [5]. The temperature dependence of the iron ?-factors are fitted by following third-order polynomials: 103ln?cpy = 0.82560x - 0.01298x2 + 0.0005246x3 103ln?mcw = 0.2542x - 0.0001847x2 + 2.072×103x3 where x=106/T2 Using these data along with ?-factors for pyrite and troilite [3,6], we compared iron isotope fractionation between pyrite and chalcopyrite in hydrothermal and magmatic conditions. Rouxel et al. [7] studied iron isotope of seafloor of hydrothermal vents in detail. They found that pyrite is enriched in light iron isotope relative to chalcopyrite in the case of black smoker Bio 9. This result evidences absence of iron isotope equilibrium between pyrite and chalcopyrite, because in equilibrium pyrite is enriched in heavy iron isotope (?py > ?cpy). Quantitatively, iron isotope fractionation between chalcolpyrite and pyrite is very close to equilibrium iron isotope fractionation between chalcolpyrite and FeS phase (mackinawite or troilite). This agrees the mechanism of pyrite formation through intermidient FeS phase if to assume isotopic equilibrium between the FeS phase and dissolved iron and no isotopic effect in the final stage of conversion FeS to FeS2 (pyrite). Another iron isotope fractionation was observed between pyrite and chalcopyrite in the case of the Cu-Au porphyry deposit of Crasberg igneous complex (GIC) [8]. In this case, pyrite is enriched in heavy iron isotope relative to chalcopyrite that is in agreement with direction of iron isotope fractionation in equilibrium. Using these data [8] and appropriate iron ?-factors obtained from INRXS- and Moessbauer experiments, we estimated temperatures of pyrite and chalcopyrite formation. We obtained reasonable temperatures varying between 180 and 650oC for different intrusions of GIC, which are in agreement with other estimations [9,10] Conclusions: Iron ?-factors for chalcopyrite CuFeS2 were calculated from 57Fe PDOS obtained in INRXS synchrotron radiation experiments [1]. Iron ?-factors for mackinawite were calculated from the Moessbauer SOD shift based on experiments [4]. Using new value of chalcopyrite and mackinawite and/or troilite iron ?-factors, it was shown that isotope composition of pyrite in hydrothermal seafloor processes is controlled by equilibrium isotope fractionation between FeS phase (pyrite precursor) and hydrothermal fluid. Fe isotope equilibrium between pyrite and chalcopyrite may be attained in magmatic processes. References: Kobayashi H., Umemura J., Kazekami Y. and Sakai N. Phys. Rev. B. (2007) 76, 134108. Polyakov V. B., Mineev S. D., Clayton R. N., Hu G. and Mineev K. S. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2005) 69, 5531-5536. Polyakov V. B., Clayton R. N., Horita J. and Mineev S.D. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2007) 71, 3833-3846. Bertaut E. F., Burlet P. and Chappert J. Solid State Comm. (1965) 3, 335 - 338. Polyakov V. B. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (1997)61, 4213 - 4217. Polyakov V.B. and Mineev S. D. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2000) 64, 849 - 865 Rouxel O., Shanks III W. C., Bach W. and Edwards K. J. Chem. Geol. (2008) 252, 214 - 227 Graham S., Pearson N., Jackson S., Griffin W. and O'Reilly S. Y. Chem. Geol. (2004) 204, 147 - 169 Heinrich C. A. Mineralium Deposita (2005) 39, 864-889 Pollard P.J. and Taylor R.G. Mineralium Deposita (2004) 37, 117-136. .

  16. Recent population expansion and connectivity in the hydrothermal shrimp

    E-print Network

    Teixeira, Sara

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Recent population expansion and connectivity in the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris of the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata, which forms high-density local populations on hydrothermal vents along

  17. Change in Smoking, Diet, and Walking for Exercise in Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Thomas, Janet L.; An, Lawrence C.; Guo, Hongfei; Collins, Tracie; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Positive changes in one health behavior may be accompanied by other constructive health behavior changes. Thus, the authors investigated the association of smoking reduction and cessation to changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and engaging in walking for exercise. This study included 539 Black light smokers ([less than or equal to]10…

  18. Project IMPACT: A pharmacotherapy pilot trial investigating the abstinence and treatment adherence of Latino light smokers

    PubMed Central

    de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stanton, Cassandra; Audet, Daniel A.; Stein, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Light smoking is particularly prevalent among Latino smokers. Nicotine replacement (NRT) and varenicline are effective medications for smoking cessation for moderate-heavy smokers, but have not been tested in light smokers and thus there are no treatment guidelines for use with light smokers. This pilot trial tested the efficacy of NRT and varenicline in increasing smoking abstinence among Latino light smokers. A 3-group (NRT, varenicline, varenicline-placebo) randomized design was used and Latino light smokers (?10 cpd) received 12 weeks of treatment which included a culturally-informed behavioral health session and ongoing medication management visits. At follow-up, there were no abstinent participants in the placebo and NRT groups. However, 30% of participants in the varenicline group were abstinent at the 3, 4, and 6 month follow-up. This study represents the only investigation that specifically targets Latino light smokers using these treatments and characterizing their treatment adherence. PMID:22377389

  19. Multiple Analytical Approaches Reveal Distinct Gene-Environment Interactions in Smokers and Non Smokers in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ihsan, Rakhshan; Chauhan, Pradeep Singh; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Yadav, Dhirendra Singh; Kaushal, Mishi; Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Zomawia, Eric; Verma, Yogesh; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2011-01-01

    Complex disease such as cancer results from interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Studying these factors singularly cannot explain the underlying pathogenetic mechanism of the disease. Multi-analytical approach, including logistic regression (LR), classification and regression tree (CART) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), was applied in 188 lung cancer cases and 290 controls to explore high order interactions among xenobiotic metabolizing genes and environmental risk factors. Smoking was identified as the predominant risk factor by all three analytical approaches. Individually, CYP1A1*2A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR?=?1.69;95%CI?=?1.11–2.59,p?=?0.01), whereas EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His conferred reduced risk (OR?=?0.40;95%CI?=?0.25–0.65,p<0.001 and OR?=?0.51;95%CI?=?0.33–0.78,p?=?0.002 respectively). In smokers, EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphisms reduced the risk of lung cancer, whereas CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2C and GSTP1 Ile105Val imparted increased risk in non-smokers only. While exploring non-linear interactions through CART analysis, smokers carrying the combination of EPHX1 113TC (Tyr/His), SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg) or AA (His/His) and GSTM1 null genotypes showed the highest risk for lung cancer (OR?=?3.73;95%CI?=?1.33–10.55,p?=?0.006), whereas combined effect of CYP1A1*2A 6235CC or TC, SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg) and betel quid chewing showed maximum risk in non-smokers (OR?=?2.93;95%CI?=?1.15–7.51,p?=?0.01). MDR analysis identified two distinct predictor models for the risk of lung cancer in smokers (tobacco chewing, EPHX1 Tyr113His, and SULT1A1 Arg213His) and non-smokers (CYP1A1*2A, GSTP1 Ile105Val and SULT1A1 Arg213His) with testing balance accuracy (TBA) of 0.6436 and 0.6677 respectively. Interaction entropy interpretations of MDR results showed non-additive interactions of tobacco chewing with SULT1A1 Arg213His and EPHX1 Tyr113His in smokers and SULT1A1 Arg213His with GSTP1 Ile105Val and CYP1A1*2C in nonsmokers. These results identified distinct gene-gene and gene environment interactions in smokers and non-smokers, which confirms the importance of multifactorial interaction in risk assessment of lung cancer. PMID:22206016

  20. Up-regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in menthol cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Arthur L; Mukhin, Alexey G; La Charite, Jaime; Ta, Karen; Farahi, Judah; Sugar, Catherine A.; Mamoun, Michael S.; Vellios, Evan; Archie, Meena; Kozman, Maggie; Phuong, Jonathan; Arlorio, Franca; Mandelkern, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    One-third of smokers primarily use menthol cigarettes and usage of these cigarettes leads to elevated serum nicotine levels and more difficulty quitting in standard treatment programmes. Previous brain imaging studies demonstrate that smoking (without regard to cigarette type) leads to up-regulation of ?2*-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We sought to determine if menthol cigarette usage results in greater nAChR up-regulation than non-menthol cigarette usage. Altogether, 114 participants (22 menthol cigarette smokers, 41 non-menthol cigarette smokers and 51 non-smokers) underwent positron emission tomography scanning using the ?4?2* nAChR radioligand 2-[18F]fluoro-A-85380 (2-FA). In comparing menthol to non-menthol cigarette smokers, an overall test of 2-FA total volume of distribution values revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from menthol smokers having 9–28% higher ?4?2* nAChR densities than non-menthol smokers across regions. In comparing the entire group of smokers to non-smokers, an overall test revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from smokers having higher ?4?2* nAChR levels in all regions studied (36–42%) other than thalamus (3%). Study results demonstrate that menthol smokers have greater up-regulation of nAChRs than non-menthol smokers. This difference is presumably related to higher nicotine exposure in menthol smokers, although other mechanisms for menthol influencing receptor density are possible. These results provide additional information about the severity of menthol cigarette use and may help explain why these smokers have more trouble quitting in standard treatment programmes. PMID:23171716

  1. Beliefs, Experience, and Interest in Pharmacotherapy among Smokers with HIV

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, Amy; Shacham, Enbal; Sumner, Walton; Overton, E. Turner

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine beliefs, prior use, and interest in using pharmacotherapy among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods Cross-sectional survey of smokers in a midwestern HIV clinic. Results The sample (N = 146) included 69% men, 82% African American, 45% were in precontemplation for quitting, and 46% were interested in using pharmacotherapy. Primary reasons for non-use included cost and a belief that they would be able to quit on their own. Physician’s assistance was the strongest correlate of prior use. Perceived benefits and self-efficacy were the strongest correlates of willingness to use pharmacotherapy. Conclusions Future interventions should address misconceptions, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy for using cessation aids. Physicians should offer pharmacotherapy to all smokers. PMID:24629557

  2. Aesthetic Depigmentation of Gingival Smoker's Melanosis Using Carbon Dioxide Lasers

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Luis Silva; Costa, José Adriano; da Câmara, Marco Infante; Albuquerque, Rui; Martins, Marco; Pacheco, José Júlio; Salazar, Filomena; Figueira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Melanic pigmentation results from melanin produced by the melanocytes present in the basal layer of the oral epithelium. One of the most common causes of oral pigmentation is smoker melanosis, a condition associated with the melanocyte stimulation caused by cigarette smoke. This paper aims to illustrate the use of a carbon dioxide laser in the removal of the gingival melanic pigmentation for aesthetic reasons in a 27-year-old female patient with history of a smoking habit. The carbon dioxide laser vaporisation was performed on the gingival mucosa with effective and quick results and without any complications or significant symptoms after the treatment. We conclude that a carbon dioxide laser could be a useful, effective, and safe instrument to treat the aesthetic complications caused by oral smoker melanosis. PMID:25954535

  3. Smokers' decision making: more than mere risk taking.

    PubMed

    Ert, Eyal; Yechiam, Eldad; Arshavsky, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The fact that smoking is bad for people's health has become common knowledge, yet a substantial amount of people still smoke. Previous studies that sought to better understand this phenomenon have found that smoking is associated with the tendency to take risk in other areas of life as well. The current paper explores factors that may underlie this tendency. An experimental analysis shows that smokers are more easily tempted by immediate high rewards compared to nonsmokers. Thus the salience of risky alternatives that produce large rewards most of the time can direct smokers to make bad choices even in an abstract situation such as the Iowa Gambling Task. These findings suggest that the risk taking behavior associated with smoking is not related to the mere pursuit of rewards but rather reflects a tendency to yield to immediate temptation. PMID:23844156

  4. Aesthetic Depigmentation of Gingival Smoker's Melanosis Using Carbon Dioxide Lasers.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Luis Silva; Costa, José Adriano; da Câmara, Marco Infante; Albuquerque, Rui; Martins, Marco; Pacheco, José Júlio; Salazar, Filomena; Figueira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Melanic pigmentation results from melanin produced by the melanocytes present in the basal layer of the oral epithelium. One of the most common causes of oral pigmentation is smoker melanosis, a condition associated with the melanocyte stimulation caused by cigarette smoke. This paper aims to illustrate the use of a carbon dioxide laser in the removal of the gingival melanic pigmentation for aesthetic reasons in a 27-year-old female patient with history of a smoking habit. The carbon dioxide laser vaporisation was performed on the gingival mucosa with effective and quick results and without any complications or significant symptoms after the treatment. We conclude that a carbon dioxide laser could be a useful, effective, and safe instrument to treat the aesthetic complications caused by oral smoker melanosis. PMID:25954535

  5. Comparison of clinical features between non-smokers with COPD and smokers with COPD: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Lin, Xin-feng; Bai, Chun-xue

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, the similarities and differences in clinical presentation between smokers and nonsmokers are not fully described in patients with COPD. This study was designed to address this issue in a general teaching hospital in the People’s Republic of China. Methods The medical records of patients hospitalized with a lung mass for further evaluation at Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, from January 2006 to December 2010 were reviewed and the data of interest were collected. The definition of COPD was according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometric criteria. Participants who had a previous exacerbation within 4 weeks of admission, airflow limitation due to abnormalities in the large airways, or with other pulmonary diseases were excluded. Included subjects were divided into nonsmokers with COPD and smokers with COPD by a cutoff of a 5 pack-year smoking history. Results A total of 605 subjects were included in the final analysis. The average age was 64.8±8.5 years and 62.0% (375/605) were smokers. Eighty percent of the patients had mild to moderate disease (GOLD grade 1–2). Age and years with COPD were comparable between the two groups. Compared with smokers with COPD, nonsmokers with COPD were more likely to be female, reported less chronic cough and sputum, have less emphysema on radiologic examination, and higher measures of forced expiratory volume in the first second percent predicted (FEV1), forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC%) percent predicted, maximal voluntary ventilation percent predicted, diffusing capacity of lung (DLCO) percent predicted, and DLCO/alveolar volume percent predicted, with lower levels of residual volume percent predicted and residual volume/total lung capacity percent predicted. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to distribution of disease severity, vital capacity percent predicted, total lung capacity percent predicted, PaO2, PaCO2, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea score, wheezing, airway reversibility, and comorbidities. Smoking amount (pack-years) was correlated negatively with FEV1 percent predicted, FEV1/FVC% percent predicted, inspiratory capacity percent predicted, inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity percent predicted, and DLCO percent predicted, and correlated positively with GOLD grade and symptoms. Conclusion Non-smokers with COPD had less impairment in airflow limitation and gas exchange, and a lower prevalence of emphysema, chronic cough, and sputum compared with their smoking counterparts. Tobacco cessation is warranted in smokers with COPD. PMID:24426780

  6. Hydrothermal transformation of Chinese privet seed biomass to gas-phase and semi-volatile products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; W. James Catallo; Todd F. Shupe

    2010-01-01

    Hydrothermal (HT) treatment of seeds from Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense), a non-native and invasive species in the southeastern United States, was examined with respect to the generation of gas-phase and semi-volatile organic chemicals of industrial importance from a lipid-rich biomass resource. Aqueous seed slurries were transformed into biphasic liquid systems comprised of a milky aqueous phase overlain by a black

  7. Helping Hospitalized Smokers Quit: New Directions for Treatment and Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Tracy Orleans; Jean L. Kristeller; Ellen R. Gritz

    1993-01-01

    To date, relatively little work has been done to develop or evaluate effective inpatient quit-smoking treatment programs. However, there is growing interest in programs that motivate and assist the hospitalized smoker to quit smoking and remain abstinent. This article presents the rationale for hospital-based smoking treatment programs and introduces a practical minimal-contact treatment model based on extensive studies of primary-care-based

  8. Comparison of the Respiratory Microbiome in Healthy Nonsmokers and Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Beck, James M.; Schloss, Patrick D.; Campbell, Thomas B.; Crothers, Kristina; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Flores, Sonia C.; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Ghedin, Elodie; Huang, Laurence; Jablonski, Kathleen; Kleerup, Eric; Lynch, Susan V.; Sodergren, Erica; Twigg, Homer; Young, Vincent B.; Bassis, Christine M.; Venkataraman, Arvind; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Weinstock, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Results from 16S rDNA-encoding gene sequence–based, culture-independent techniques have led to conflicting conclusions about the composition of the lower respiratory tract microbiome. Objectives: To compare the microbiome of the upper and lower respiratory tract in healthy HIV-uninfected nonsmokers and smokers in a multicenter cohort. Methods: Participants were nonsmokers and smokers without significant comorbidities. Oral washes and bronchoscopic alveolar lavages were collected in a standardized manner. Sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding genes was performed, and the neutral model in community ecology was used to identify bacteria that were the most plausible members of a lung microbiome. Measurements and Main Results: Sixty-four participants were enrolled. Most bacteria identified in the lung were also in the mouth, but specific bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus, Methylobacterium, and Ralstonia species were disproportionally represented in the lungs compared with values predicted by the neutral model. Tropheryma was also in the lung, but not the mouth. Mouth communities differed between nonsmokers and smokers in species such as Porphyromonas, Neisseria, and Gemella, but lung bacterial populations did not. Conclusions: This study is the largest to examine composition of the lower respiratory tract microbiome in healthy individuals and the first to use the neutral model to compare the lung to the mouth. Specific bacteria appear in significantly higher abundance in the lungs than would be expected if they originated from the mouth, demonstrating that the lung microbiome does not derive entirely from the mouth. The mouth microbiome differs in nonsmokers and smokers, but lung communities were not significantly altered by smoking. PMID:23491408

  9. Augmented oxidative stress of platelets in chronic smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshinori Takajo; Hisao Ikeda; Nobuya Haramaki; Toyoaki Murohara; Tsutomu Imaizumi

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVESWe investigated whether impaired platelet-derived nitric oxide (PDNO) bioactivity and augmented platelet aggregability in chronic smokers are related to the imbalance of the intraplatelet redox state through increased oxidative stress.BACKGROUNDChronic smoking impairs PDNO release and augments platelet aggregability. However, their mechanisms are unknown.METHODSCollagen-induced PDNO release, platelet aggregation, plasma and intraplatelet vitamin C and reduced glutathione (GSH), intraplatelet cyclic guanosine 3?,5?-monophosphate

  10. Ventilatory function, height, and mortality among lifelong non-smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D P Strachan

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were to determine the relationship between spirometric indices and mortality among lifelong non-smokers, and to investigate whether the association of short stature with increased risk of death is explained by reduced levels of ventilatory function in shorter men. DESIGN--The study was a nested (within cohort) case-control analysis of an 18 year prospective study of mortality. SUBJECTS--Participants were

  11. Cognitive Deficits Specific to Depression-Prone Smokers During Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Ashare, Rebecca; Strasser, Andrew A.; Wileyto, E. Paul; Cuevas, Jocelyn; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms and individuals with elevated symptoms of depression have more difficulty quitting smoking. Depression is accompanied by cognitive deficits similar to those observed during nicotine withdrawal. Depressed smokers may smoke to alleviate these cognitive symptoms, which are exacerbated upon smoking abstinence. We hypothesized that following overnight abstinence, depression-prone smokers (DP+; past history and current depression symptoms; n = 34) would exhibit deficits in short-term and working memory, and experience greater attentional bias for affective stimuli, compared with smokers with no history or current symptoms of depression (DP?; n = 34). All participants underwent two laboratory sessions, once while smoking abstinent and once while smoking ad libitum (order counterbalanced, abstinence biochemically verified). Smokers completed measures of short-term memory (STM; word recognition task), working memory (N-back task), and attentional bias (Emotional Stroop task). The DP+ group showed declines in STM during abstinence compared with smoking, whereas the DP? group did not (interaction p = .02). There were small decrements in working memory accuracy during abstinence (p = .05), but this did not interact with depression status. During the Emotional Stroop task, the DP+ group showed an attentional bias toward positive versus neutral stimuli during abstinence compared with smoking (interaction p = .01). This study provides initial evidence that depressive symptoms may moderate abstinence-induced deficits in STM and shift attentional bias toward emotionally salient stimuli during abstinence. These cognitive changes may prompt relapse and may help identify novel targets for nicotine dependence treatment aimed at attenuating these deficits to improve cessation rates. PMID:24932895

  12. Recycling of hard-core smokers with nicotine nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Tønnesen, P; Mikkelsen, K; Nørregaard, J; Jørgensen, S

    1996-08-01

    The primary aim of this smoking cessation study was to evaluate the effect of long-term treatment with nicotine nasal spray in a group of hard-core smokers. A further aim was to compare the effect of ad libitum with fixed dosage of nasal nicotine spray. Eighty nine smokers, failures from two earlier studies with nicotine patches, were enrolled in an open smoking cessation study with nicotine nasal sprays, to be used ad libitum (n=45) or on a fixed schedule of 1 mg x h-1 during the day (n= 44). Carbon monoxide-verified continuous abstinence from smoking beyond Week 2, was 39% at 3 weeks, 12% at 3 months, 10% at 6 months and 6% after 1 yr, with no significant difference in success rate between ad libitum and fixed dosing. Mean daily nicotine dose was 15-16 mg during the first 3 months (range 2-65 mg). Tolerance to local irritating side-effects of nicotine developed during the first weeks of use. Although short-term outcome was promising, the long-term success rate in this group of hardcore smokers was low. Other recycling set-ups are warranted, which might include more aggressive nicotine dosing. PMID:8866582

  13. Masticatory Changes as a Result of Oral Disorders in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rech, Rafaela Soares; Santos, Karoline Weber dos; Maahs, Marcia Angelica Peters; Vidor, Deisi Cristina Gollo Marques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction?For chewing to occur properly, it is necessary that all oral structures are present and of normal standard. Objectives?The aim of this study is to verify the presence of oral changes in smokers and the impact of the changes on masticatory function compared with individuals who never smoked. Methods?Forty-eight subjects were evaluated, split into two study groups (24 subjects each) of current tobacco users and individuals who have never smoked. The variables halitosis, presence of lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems, number of teeth, classification of malocclusions according to angle, standard grinding food, chewing pattern, and speed of chewing were evaluated. Results?There was no statistically significant difference in tooth loss between the groups, but the smokers had more losses manifesting malocclusion. Most smokers had halitosis and lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems; the halitosis was associated with the latter variable. Masticatory speed was also reduced significantly in these individuals compared with the control group when associated with occlusal alterations, in addition to grinding food with the tongue. No difference was observed regarding the chewing pattern. The presence of halitosis and periodontal problems were more common in those who smoke more than 20 years. Conclusion?There is an association between smoking and dental changes, which cause increased masticatory changes. PMID:25992124

  14. Masticatory changes as a result of oral disorders in smokers.

    PubMed

    Rech, Rafaela Soares; Santos, Karoline Weber Dos; Maahs, Marcia Angelica Peters; Vidor, Deisi Cristina Gollo Marques

    2014-10-01

    Introduction?For chewing to occur properly, it is necessary that all oral structures are present and of normal standard. Objectives?The aim of this study is to verify the presence of oral changes in smokers and the impact of the changes on masticatory function compared with individuals who never smoked. Methods?Forty-eight subjects were evaluated, split into two study groups (24 subjects each) of current tobacco users and individuals who have never smoked. The variables halitosis, presence of lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems, number of teeth, classification of malocclusions according to angle, standard grinding food, chewing pattern, and speed of chewing were evaluated. Results?There was no statistically significant difference in tooth loss between the groups, but the smokers had more losses manifesting malocclusion. Most smokers had halitosis and lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems; the halitosis was associated with the latter variable. Masticatory speed was also reduced significantly in these individuals compared with the control group when associated with occlusal alterations, in addition to grinding food with the tongue. No difference was observed regarding the chewing pattern. The presence of halitosis and periodontal problems were more common in those who smoke more than 20 years. Conclusion?There is an association between smoking and dental changes, which cause increased masticatory changes. PMID:25992124

  15. Distress Tolerance Treatment for Early-Lapse Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard A.; Palm, Kathleen M.; Strong, David R.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Hayes, Steven C.; Wilson, Kelly G.; Gifford, Elizabeth V.

    2008-01-01

    A significant percentage of individuals attempting smoking cessation lapse within a matter of days, and very few are able to recover to achieve long-term abstinence. This observation suggests that many smokers may have quit-attempt histories characterized exclusively by early lapses to smoking following quit attempts. Recent negative-reinforcement conceptualizations of early lapse to smoking suggest that individuals' reactions to withdrawal and inability to tolerate the experience of these symptoms, rather than withdrawal severity itself, may represent an important treatment target in the development of new behavioral interventions for this subpopulation of smokers. This article presents the theoretical rationale and describes a novel, multicomponent distress-tolerance treatment for early-lapse smokers that incorporates behavioral and pharmacological elements of standard smoking-cessation treatment, whereas drawing distress-tolerance elements from exposure-based and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy–based treatment approaches. Preliminary data from a pilot study (N = 16) are presented, and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:18391050

  16. Smoking Patterns and Stimulus Control in Intermittent and Daily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Ferguson, Stuart G.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent smokers (ITS) – who smoke less than daily – comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4–27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5–30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n?=?21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n?=?26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or “indulgent” smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS. PMID:24599056

  17. PREP advertisement features affect smokers’ beliefs regarding potential harm

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A; Tang, Kathy Z; Tuller, Michael D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. Objective To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers’ beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. Methods A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a “red” condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a “no text” condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using “incorrect,” “unsure” and “correct” as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Results Participants randomised to the “no text” advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, healthier and make smoking safer. Conclusions Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising. PMID:18768457

  18. Hydrothermal reactions of fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions will be investigated. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, have been selected for study. These are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium silicosulfates, calcium aluminosulfates, and alkali aluminosilicates. The specific compounds fabricated will be determined and their stability regions assessed. As a part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered will be determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds will be established.

  19. Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In an attempt to minimize the pack design avenue of communication between tobacco producers and smokers and potential smokers, several jurisdictions, including Norway, have considered regulations on cigarette pack design. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how package design affects young people’s perceptions of typical smokers of some pre-chosen cigarette brands and brand varieties. Methods Based on data from a web survey among 1022 15–22 year-olds, possible effects of plain packaging of cigarettes on adolescents’ views about typical cigarette smokers were investigated. The data collection had a between-subjects design, in which participants were allocated to one of three groups, and asked to typify the smokers of selected cigarette packs either in branded, plain or plain with descriptor versions. The sample included boys and girls, and smokers and non-smokers. The smoker characteristics included in the investigation were: gender, glamour, stylishness, popularity, coolness, sophistication and slimness. Results After creating sum-scores within and across packs and pack versions, analyses indicated that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging would result in a reduction in positive user images related to smoking among adolescents and young adults. For girls, this effect held up after controlling for confounders. Conclusions To the extent that plain packaging contributes to making smoking images less positive, it can potentially be an efficient aid in reducing smoking uptake among adolescents. PMID:24156515

  20. Male smoker and non-smoker responses to television advertisements on the harms of secondhand smoke in China, India and Russia.

    PubMed

    Murukutla, Nandita; Bayly, Megan; Mullin, Sandra; Cotter, Trish; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-02-01

    Mass media campaigns can play an important role in strengthening support for smoke-free policies and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Identifying anti-SHS advertisements that are effective in diverse cultural contexts may allow for resource sharing in low- and middle-income countries. A convenience sample of 481 male cigarette smokers and non-smokers in three high tobacco burden and culturally dissimilar countries (India, China and Russia) viewed and rated five anti-SHS ads. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 'Message Acceptance', 'Negative Emotion', 'Perceived Effectiveness' and 'Behavioral Intentions'. Smokers and non-smokers in all countries consistently rated the strong graphic, health harm ads as the most effective, and the 'informational' ad as the least effective overall: the graphic ad 'Baby Alive' was at least 1.8 times more likely than the informational ad 'Smoke-free works' to receive positive ratings on all four outcomes (all P < 0.001). Graphic, health harm messages about SHS exposure have the greatest universal appeal and are the most effective in motivating changes in behavioral intentions. Similarity in reactions between smokers and non-smokers, and across countries, suggests that resource sharing and the use of a single graphic ad targeted at smokers and non-smokers would be cost-efficient strategies. PMID:25122618

  1. A further study of FTC yield and nicotine absorption in smokers.

    PubMed

    Byrd, G D; Davis, R A; Caldwell, W S; Robinson, J H; deBethizy, J D

    1998-10-01

    The relationship between nicotine yield as determined by the FTC method and nicotine absorption was examined in 72 smokers in a more rigorous repetition of a previous study of 33 smokers. For this study, 113 smokers evenly distributed across four FTC "tar" yield ranges were recruited, only 72 demonstrated reasonable compliance with the study criteria with regard to sample collections and cigarette brand style consistency. Subjects recorded the number of cigarettes smoked daily and collected a 24-h urine sample and a saliva sample on 3 consecutive days. Nicotine absorption was determined by monitoring urinary excretion of nicotine and its metabolites. In addition, saliva samples were monitored for cotinine using radioimmunoassay (RIA). The correlation of the relationship for nicotine absorbed per cigarette was positive and significant (r = 0.31, P = 0.008) but weaker than in the previous study. Only smokers in the highest yield range showed any statistical difference from smokers in the lower ranges. Our results suggest that FTC nicotine yield is weakly related to nicotine absorption and that smoker-controlled factors exert a great influence on the amount of nicotine absorbed by smokers. Compensation is substantial but incomplete for the minority (by market share) of smokers at the low end of the yield scale. It is uncertain how well any alternative set of machine parameters would predict nicotine absorption for the majority of smokers, even if it were more predictive for the small number of smokers at the lower yield part of the range. PMID:9809850

  2. Hydrothermal reactions of fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions will be investigated. This will be done for two primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form, to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this proposed study is that, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it may be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, have been selected for study. These are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium silicosulfates, calcium aluminosulfates, and alkali aluminosilicates. The specific compounds fabricated will be determined and their stability regions assessed. As a part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered seal be determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds will be established.

  3. Ongoing hydrothermal activities within Enceladus.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Postberg, Frank; Sekine, Yasuhito; Shibuya, Takazo; Kempf, Sascha; Horányi, Mihály; Juhász, Antal; Altobelli, Nicolas; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masaki, Yuka; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Tachibana, Shogo; Sirono, Sin-iti; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Srama, Ralf

    2015-03-12

    Detection of sodium-salt-rich ice grains emitted from the plume of the Saturnian moon Enceladus suggests that the grains formed as frozen droplets from a liquid water reservoir that is, or has been, in contact with rock. Gravitational field measurements suggest a regional south polar subsurface ocean of about 10 kilometres thickness located beneath an ice crust 30 to 40 kilometres thick. These findings imply rock-water interactions in regions surrounding the core of Enceladus. The resulting chemical 'footprints' are expected to be preserved in the liquid and subsequently transported upwards to the near-surface plume sources, where they eventually would be ejected and could be measured by a spacecraft. Here we report an analysis of silicon-rich, nanometre-sized dust particles (so-called stream particles) that stand out from the water-ice-dominated objects characteristic of Saturn. We interpret these grains as nanometre-sized SiO2 (silica) particles, initially embedded in icy grains emitted from Enceladus' subsurface waters and released by sputter erosion in Saturn's E ring. The composition and the limited size range (2 to 8 nanometres in radius) of stream particles indicate ongoing high-temperature (>90 °C) hydrothermal reactions associated with global-scale geothermal activity that quickly transports hydrothermal products from the ocean floor at a depth of at least 40 kilometres up to the plume of Enceladus. PMID:25762281

  4. Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2014-01-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

  5. An Evidence-based Cessation Strategy Using Rural Smokers’ Experiences with Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Karen M.; Hedgecock, Susan; Record, Rachael A.; Derifield, Stephanie; McGinn, Carolyn; Murray, Deborah; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Although tobacco use remains the single most preventable cause of death in the US, little is known about the most effective population-based strategies to reach rural smokers and motivate them to quit. The purpose of this study was to describe the personal narratives of current and former smokers living in an economically distressed, rural area of Appalachian Kentucky. Personal narratives were obtained from focus groups with smokers/former smokers (N=21). Data were analyzed using Atlas.ti 6 Three categories of nine themes emerged: personal motivators to quit smoking, external influences, pride of place. Capturing personal narratives represents an evidence-based, data-rich strategy for development of culturally sensitive, population-based interventions aimed at rural smokers. Such strategies may be effective in reaching rural smokers and motivating them to quit, thereby reducing tobacco-related disease and premature death in rural, economically distressed communities. PMID:22289396

  6. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  7. Catastrophic volcanic collapse: relation to hydrothermal processes.

    PubMed

    López, D L; Williams, S N

    1993-06-18

    Catastrophic volcanic collapse, without precursory magmatic activity, is characteristic of many volcanic disasters. The extent and locations of hydrothermal discharges at Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, suggest that at many volcanoes collapse may result from the interactions between hydrothermal fluids and the volcanic edifice. Rock dissolution and hydrothermal mineral alteration, combined with physical triggers such as earth-quakes, can produce volcanic collapse. Hot spring water compositions, residence times, and flow paths through faults were used to model potential collapse at Ruiz. Caldera dimensions, deposits, and alteration mineral volumes are consistent with parameters observed at other volcanoes. PMID:17793659

  8. Dive and Discover's Deeper Discovery: Hydrothermal Vents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dive and Discover is an interactive distance learning web site designed to immerse you in the excitement of discovery and exploration of the deep seafloor. On this particular website, Dive and Discover takes you on a deeper discovery of hydrothermal vents. This site features an introduction to hydrothermal vent systems, including vent basics, vents around the world, chemistry, boiling points, interactive diagrams, videos, a quiz, and links to selected Dive and Discover hydrothermal vent-related seafloor expeditions. This web page also provides links to other Deeper Discovery topics, Dive and Discover seafloor expeditions, a teacher's page, and further Dive and Discover information.

  9. Isolated and Skeptical: Social Engagement and Trust in Information Sources Among Smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lila J. Finney Rutten; Kelly Blake; Bradford W. Hesse; Leland K. Ackerson

    Our study compared indicators of social engagement and trust among current, former, and never smokers. Multinomial regression\\u000a analyses of data from the 2005 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (n?=?5586) were conducted to identify independent associations between social engagement, trust in health information sources,\\u000a and smoking status. Never smokers (odds ratio (OR)?=?2.08) and former smokers (OR?=?2.48) were significantly more likely

  10. Transitions in Smoking Status Over Time in a Population-Based Panel Study of Smokers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have examined the transitions of smokers in the general population through multiple periods of daily, occasional smoking, or abstinence over time. Transitions from daily to occasional smoking are particularly of interest as these may be steps toward cessation. Methods: The Ontario Tobacco Survey panel study followed 4,355 baseline smokers, semiannually for up to 3 years. Probabilities of all possible changes in smoking status more than 6 months were estimated using 13,000 repeated measures observations generated from sets of 3 consecutive interviews (n = 9,932 daily smokers, 1,245 occasion smokers, and 1,823 abstinent for at least 30 days, at Time 1). Results: For initial daily smokers, an estimated 83% remained daily smokers more than 2 follow-ups. The majority of those who had been abstinent for 30 days at 1 interview, were also former smokers at the following interview. In contrast, occasional smoking status was unstable and future smoking status was dependent upon smoking history and subjective dependence. Among daily smokers who became occasional smokers 6 months later, an estimated 20% became a former smoker, at the next interview, but 50% returned to daily smoking. Daily, turned occasional smokers who rebounded back to daily smoking were more likely to describe themselves as addicted at Time 1. Continuing occasional smokers were somewhat less likely to intend to quit, or have tried, despite considering themselves less addicted. Conclusions: Reducing to occasional smoking can be a stepping stone toward cessation but entails a greater risk of return to daily smoking, compared with complete abstinence. PMID:23231826

  11. Brand preference and advertising recall in adolescent smokers: some implications for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S; Fitzgerald, B

    1982-05-01

    A survey on brand preference and cigarette advertising recall in 1,195 school children was conducted in Sydney, Australia. Four of the 130 available brands accounted for the cigarettes smoked by 78.7 per cent of smokers. Smokers were nearly twice as likely to correctly identify edited cigarette advertisements and slogans than were non-smokers. Brand preference is considered an important descriptor of smoking profiles. PMID:7065340

  12. Increased Frequency of p53 Mutation in Sporadic Colorectal Cancer from Cigarette Smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michiko Miyaki; Takeru Iijima; Reiko Ishii; Yumi Kita; Morio Koike; Toshio Kuroki; Takeo Mori

    Background: Cigarette smoking has been shown to increase the risk of colorectal cancer. However, the relation between smoking and genetic alterations has not been clarified in this type of cancer. Methods: Mutations of p53, APC, -catenin and K-ras-2 genes were analyzed in colorectal carcinomas from 28 smokers and 33 non-smokers. Frequencies and types of mutations were compared between smokers and

  13. Predisposing genes and increased chromosome aberrations in lung cancer cigarette smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nivea Conforti-Froes; Randa El-Zein; Sherif Z Abdel-Rahman; Joseph B Zwischenberger; William W Au

    1997-01-01

    Genotoxic effects linking cigarette smoking with lung cancer have not been consistently demonstrated, therefore claims for the cause–effect relationships are vigorously contested. Using matched populations of 22 lung cancer patients who have been cigarette smokers (LCP), 22 non-cancerous cigarette smokers (SC) and 13 non-smokers (NSC), we have applied the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tandem probe assay to elucidate the

  14. Pulmonary function as a predictor of lung cancer mortality in continuing cigarette smokers and in quitters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn E. Eberly; Judith K. Ockene; Roger Sherwin; Lingfeng Yang; Lewis H. Kuller

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) may be useful for identifying smokers at higher risk of lung cancer. We examined the association of FEV(1) with lung cancer mortality (LCM) among cigarette smokers in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT).\\u000aMETHODS: In all, 6613 MRFIT baseline smokers alive at trial end in 1982 had acceptable FEV(1) measures and

  15. Lung disease with chronic obstruction in opium smokers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, J. L.; Tock, E. P. C.; Boey, H. K.

    1971-01-01

    Fifty-four opium smokers with chronic obstructive lung disease were studied for two-and-a-half years. Forty-eight patients had a cough for at least two years before the onset of inappropriate exertional dyspnoea. Fine, bubbling adventitious sounds suggesting small airway disease were heard on auscultation over the middle and lower lobes in 38 patients. The prevalence of inflammatory lung disease and chronic respiratory failure in this series is suggested as the main cause for the frequent finding of right ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. Physiological studies revealed moderate to severe airways obstruction with gross over-inflation and, in 32 patients, an additional restrictive defect probably due to peribronchiolar fibrosis. Radiological evidence of chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis was observed in 45 patients, `pure' chronic bronchiolitis in six patients, and `widespread' emphysema in 25 patients respectively. Necropsy examinations in nine patients, however, showed destructive emphysema of variable severity in all. Chronic bronchiolitis often associated with striking bronchiolectasis was present in six cases. More severe bronchiolar rather than bronchial inflammation was noted. The heavy opium smokers had characteristic nodular shadows on chest radiography, sometimes associated with a striking reticular pattern not seen in `pure' cigarette smokers. This was due to gross pigmented dust (presumably carbon) deposition in relation to blood vessels, lymphatics, and bronchioles, and also within the alveoli. It is speculated that the initial lesion is an acquired bronchiolitis. Opium smoking induces an irritative bronchopathy favouring repeated attacks of acute bronchiolitis and eventually resulting in obliterative bronchiolitis, peribronchiolar fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and destructive emphysema. Images PMID:5134057

  16. Increased Genetic Vulnerability to Smoking at CHRNA5 in Early-Onset Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, Sarah M.; Short, Susan E.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert; Chen, LiShiun; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Coon, Hilary; Han, Younghun; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sun, Juzhong; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef; Geller, Frank; Gu?bjartsson, Daniel; Hansel, Nadia N.; Jiang, Chenhui; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Liu, Zhen; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Michel, Martha; Rawal, Rajesh; Hum, Sc; Rosenberger, Albert; Scheet, Paul; Shaffer, John R.; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, John R.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Wheeler, William; Xiao, Xiangjun; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Aggen, Steven H.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Beaty, Terri; Bennett, Siiri; Bergen, Andrew W.; Boyd, Heather A.; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cichon, Sven; Couper, David; Cucca, Francesco; Dick, Danielle M.; Foroud, Tatiana; Furberg, Helena; Giegling, Ina; Gu, Fangyi; Hall, Alistair S.; Hällfors, Jenni; Han, Shizhong; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Lic, Phil; Hewitt, John K.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jensen, Majken K.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaakinen, Marika; Kittner, Steven J.; Konte, Bettina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Leppert, Mark; Levy, Steven M.; Mathias, Rasika A.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Muley, Thomas; Murray, Tanda; Nauck, Matthias; North, Kari; Pergadia, Michele; Polasek, Ozren; Ramos, Erin M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Risch, Angela; Ruczinski, Ingo; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Styrkársdóttir, Unnur; Terracciano, Antonio; Uda, Manuela; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wu, Xifeng; Abecasis, Goncalo; Barnes, Kathleen; Bickeböller, Heike; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caporaso, Neil; Duan, Jubao; Edenberg, Howard J.; Francks, Clyde; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gelernter, Joel; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Hops, Hyman; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F.; Marazita, Mary L.; Marchini, Jonathan; Melbye, Mads; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Raitakari, Olli; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sanders, Alan R.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shete, Sanjay; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret; Stefansson, Kari; Swan, Gary E.; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Völzke, Henry; Wei, Qingyi; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Amos, Christopher I.; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S.; Ehringer, Marissa; Grucza, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Heath, Andrew; Johnson, Eric O.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stitzel, Jerry A.; Weiss, Robert B.; Kraft, Peter; Bierut, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. Objective To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. Data Sources Primary data. Study Selection Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. Data Extraction Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94 050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ?10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33 348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ?16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. Data Synthesis Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR]=1.45; 95% CI, 1.36–1.55; n=13 843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21–1.33, n = 19 505) (P = .01). Conclusion These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers. PMID:22868939

  17. Baseline Stage, Severity, and Effort Effects Differentiate Stable Smokers from Maintainers and Relapsers

    PubMed Central

    Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Paiva, Andrea; Rossi, Joseph S.; Velicer, Wayne; Blissmer, Bryan J.; Greene, Geoffrey W.; Robbins, Mark L.; Sun, Xiaowu

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study (N = 4,144) compared three longitudinal dynatypes (Maintainers, Relapsers, and Stable Smokers) of smokers on baseline demographics, stage, addiction severity, and transtheoretical model effort effect variables. There were significant small-to-medium-sized differences between the Stable Smokers and the other two groups on stage, severity, and effort effect variables in both treatment and control groups. There were few significant, very small differences on baseline effort variables between Maintainers and Relapsers in the control, but not the treatment group. The ability to identify Stable Smokers at baseline could permit enhanced tailored treatments that could improve population cessation rates. PMID:21449711

  18. Prevalence of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers—a comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Kirchner; Esther Maria Kirchner; Jan Peter Goltz; Vivian-Wilma Lorenz; Ralph Kickuth

    2011-01-01

    Objective  To evaluate the frequency of enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers (more than 10 pack years) compared\\u000a with non- smokers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and methods  In a prospective study the CT findings of 88 consecutive patients (44 heavy smokers, 44 non- smokers) were analysed. Exclusion\\u000a criteria were history of thoracic malignancy, sarcoidosis, occupational dust exposure or clinical evidence of pneumonia.

  19. Glutathione and nitrite levels in induced sputum at COPD patients and healthy smokers

    PubMed Central

    ?lhan, Nevin; Deveci, Figen; Akpolat, Nusret; Erden, Ersin ?ükrü; Muz, M. Hamdi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The role of oxidative stress at the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is known. The aim of this study is to investigate the oxidative stress with sputum induction that is a simple method in COPD patients and healthy smokers. Methods Sputum induction was performed in 21 COPD patients (10 stable, 11 acute exacerbations), nine healthy smokers, and ten healthy non-smokers. Glutathione, NO2– levels, and cell counts at sputum, and plasma NO2– contents were evaluated in all subjects. Results Mean sputum glutathione and NO2– levels were significantly higher in acute exacerbations with COPD patients than healthy smokers (P=0.007 and P<0.001 respectively), and non-smokers (P<0.001 and P<0.001 respectively). On the other hand, sputum glutathione and NO2– levels did not show significant differences between stable and acute exacerbations with COPD patients. Although, sputum glutathione levels were higher in stable COPD patients than healthy smokers’, no statistically significant difference was established. In addition, sputum glutathione levels were significantly higher in healthy smokers than non-smokers (P<0.001). Conclusions As a result, we can say that oxidative stress increases not only in COPD patients but also in healthy smokers. In addition, sputum induction that is a simple method can be used to demonstrate to show oxidative stress. PMID:24977001

  20. Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

    2003-07-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  1. Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

    2002-01-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  2. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

    2006-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist consumers in distinguishing real health threats from spurious health claims. As this report documents, there is a strong scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction, and it shows great potential as a public health strategy to help millions of smokers. PMID:17184539

  3. Poor Smokers, Poor Quitters, and Cigarette Tax Regressivity

    PubMed Central

    Remler, Dahlia K.

    2004-01-01

    The traditional view that excise taxes are regressive has been challenged. I document the history of the term regressive tax, show that traditional definitions have always found cigarette taxes to be regressive, and illustrate the implications of the greater price responsiveness observed among the poor. I explain the different definitions of tax burden: accounting, welfare-based willingness to pay, and welfare-based time inconsistent. Progressivity (equity across income groups) is sensitive to the way in which tax burden is assessed. Analysis of horizontal equity (fairness within a given income group) shows that cigarette taxes heavily burden poor smokers who do not quit, no matter how tax burden is assessed. PMID:14759931

  4. Poor smokers, poor quitters, and cigarette tax regressivity.

    PubMed

    Remler, Dahlia K

    2004-02-01

    The traditional view that excise taxes are regressive has been challenged. I document the history of the term regressive tax, show that traditional definitions have always found cigarette taxes to be regressive, and illustrate the implications of the greater price responsiveness observed among the poor. I explain the different definitions of tax burden: accounting, welfare-based willingness to pay, and welfare-based time inconsistent. Progressivity (equity across income groups) is sensitive to the way in which tax burden is assessed. Analysis of horizontal equity (fairness within a given income group) shows that cigarette taxes heavily burden poor smokers who do not quit, no matter how tax burden is assessed. PMID:14759931

  5. Magmatic intrusions and hydrothermal systems on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V. C.

    1992-01-01

    We are continuing our investigation of Martian hydrothermal systems and the formation of fluvial valleys on Mars. Here we present our initial numerical modeling results of hydrothermal systems associated with magmatic intrusions on Mars. To model such hydrothermal systems, we consider single, cylindrical intrusions of 4 km height 2 km below the surface. Our preliminary results of modeling hydrothermal systems associated with magmatic intrusions in the Martian environment suggest that such systems, if associated with intrusions of several 10(exp 2) km(exp 3) or larger, in the presence of permeable, water-rich subsurface should be able to provide adequate discharges of water over the time periods needed to form fluvial valleys. However, it is important to note that the amount of water ultimately available for erosion also depends on the surface and subsurface lithology.

  6. Biomass reforming processes in hydrothermal media

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Andrew A

    2009-01-01

    While hydrothermal technologies offer distinct advantages in being able to process a wide variety of biomass feedstocks, the composition of the feedstock will have a large effect on the processing employed. This thesis ...

  7. Genes associated with MUC5AC expression in small airway epithelium of human smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mucus hypersecretion contributes to the morbidity and mortality of smoking-related lung diseases, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which starts in the small airways. Despite progress in animal studies, the genes and their expression pattern involved in mucus production and secretion in human airway epithelium are not well understood. We hypothesized that comparison of the transcriptomes of the small airway epithelium of individuals that express high vs low levels of MUC5AC, the major macromolecular component of airway mucus, could be used as a probe to identify the genes related to human small airway mucus production/secretion. Methods Flexible bronchoscopy and brushing were used to obtain small airway epithelium (10th to 12th order bronchi) from healthy nonsmokers (n=60) and healthy smokers (n=72). Affymetrix HG-U133 plus 2.0 microarrays were used to assess gene expression. Massive parallel sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to verify gene expression of small airway epithelium from 5 nonsmokers and 6 smokers. Results MUC5AC expression varied 31-fold among the healthy nonsmokers. Genome-wide comparison between healthy nonsmokers (n?=?60) grouped as “high MUC5AC expressors” vs “low MUC5AC expressors” identified 528 genes significantly up-regulated and 15 genes significantly down-regulated in the high vs low expressors. This strategy identified both mucus production and secretion related genes under control of a network composed of multiple transcription factors. Based on the literature, genes in the up-regulated list were used to identify a 73 “MUC5AC-associated core gene” list with 9 categories: mucus component; mucus-producing cell differentiation-related transcription factor; mucus-producing cell differentiation-related pathway or mediator; post-translational modification of mucin; vesicle transport; endoplasmic reticulum stress-related; secretory granule-associated; mucus secretion-related regulator and mucus hypersecretory-related ion channel. As a validation cohort, we assessed the MUC5AC-associated core gene list in the small airway epithelium of an independent set of healthy smokers (n?=?72). There was up-regulation of MUC5AC in the small airway epithelium of smokers (2.3-fold, p?smokers (p?smokers. Deep sequencing of small airway epithelium RNA confirmed these observations. This finding will be useful in identifying th

  8. Modeling methane production by iron-bearing carbonate minerals in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Norman, D.

    2005-12-01

    We measured methane and other major volatiles in fluid inclusions from gold deposits such as Lone Tree, Getchell, Twin Creeks, and Pipeline Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada by bulk analysis using quadrupole mass spectrometry. Ore-stage fluids are characterized by CO2/CH4 ratios that typically are < 10. Fluid inclusion methane concentrations generally are between 0.1 and 0.5 mol.%; other gaseous species show much wider ranges in composition. Also we commonly measure CO2/CH4 ratios of 10 or less in geothermal fluid inclusions. Similar ratios are reported in some black smokers. Few geothermal systems in production have CH4 in other than trace amounts. Giggenbach (1997) demonstrates that CO2/CH4 ratio in geothermal fluids in equilibrium with granite should vary positively with temperature, but we see no such variation and some fluid inclusion CO2/CH4 in granite-hosted inclusions ratios are an order of magnitude higher than calculated by Giggenbach (1997). This raises the question about the fluid inclusion gas measurements. We have looked at explanations for measurement of fluid inclusion methane that include preferential trapping of hydrocarbon compounds, concentration of methane by boiling, and contamination, but none can explain in all cases the methane concentrations measured. Hence we have modeled geothermal fluid rock reactions using Geochemists Workbench to demonstrate that methane can be a result of fluid-rock reactions. For gold ore wall rocks, we assume that wall rock includes iron-bearing carbonate minerals, epidote, and biotite. For geothermal systems, we assumed fluids with 1 mol.% CO2 and salinity of 1 %. We modeled the reaction of iron-bearing carbonate minerals, epidote, and biotite with the fluid between 100 and 300 °C. The reaction released ferrous iron, and the released ferrous iron is oxidized and precipitated as hematite or magnetite. The precipitation of hematite or magnetite produced acid and the acid dissolved calcite increasing CO2 concentration. The oxidation of ferrous iron produced hydrogen gas and the produced hydrogen reacted with CO2 producing methane. The equilibrium between magnetite and other ferrous-iron bearing minerals controlled the hydrogen fugacity and the hydrogen fugacity controlled the ratio of CO2 and methane. When the hydrogen fugacity was controlled by the equilibrium of magnetite and iron-bearing calcite, the modeled CO2/CH4 was about 10 and the ratio did not significantly vary between 100 and 300 °C. The reaction occurred over a wide range of pH conditions. At a low pH, the modeled ferrous iron concentration in the fluid was higher than that of higher pH. The modeled result suggests that the methane trapped in fluid inclusion can be produced by water-rock interaction in hydrothermal systems.

  9. Hydrothermal Manganese Mineralization Near the Samoan Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, J. R.; Staudigel, H.; Koppers, A.; Hart, S. R.; Dunham, R.

    2006-12-01

    The thickest beds of hydrothermal manganese oxides recovered to date from the global ocean were collected from a volcanic cone in the south Pacific. In April 2005, samples were dredged aboard the R.V. Kilo Moana from a volcanic cone on the lower flank of Tulaga seamount (about 2,700 m water depth; 14° 39.222' S; 170° 1.730' W), located 115 km SW of Vailulu'u, the volcanically and hydrothermally active center of the Samoan hotspot. Additional hydrothermal manganese samples were collected off Ofu Island (dredge Alia 107), 72 km to the WSW of Vailulu'u. Manganese-oxide beds up to 9 cm thick are composed of birnessite and 10 Å manganates. Some layers consist of Mn-oxide columnar structures 4 cm long and 1 cm wide, which have not been described previously. The mean Mn and Fe contents of 18 samples are 51 weight percent and 0.76 weight percent, respectively. Elevated concentrations of Li (mean 0.11 wt. percent) are indicators of a hydrothermal origin, and distinguishes these samples, along with the high Mn and low Fe contents, from hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts. Other enriched elements include Ba (mean 0.14 percent), Cu (249 ppm), Mo (451 ppm), Ni (400 ppm), Zn (394 ppm), V (214 ppm), and W (132 ppm). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns show large negative Ce anomalies and LREE enrichments, both characteristic of hydrothermal Mn deposits. Small negative Eu anomalies are not typical of hydrothermal deposits and can be explained either by the absence of leaching of plagioclase by the hydrothermal fluids or by the precipitation of Eu-rich minerals, such as barite and anhydrite, at depth. The high base-metal contents indicate that sulfides are not forming deeper in the hydrothermal system or that such deposits are being leached by the ascending fluids. Textures of the thickest Mn deposits indicate that the Mn oxides formed below the seabed from ascending fluids during multiple phases of waxing and waning hydrothermal pulses. The deposits were later exposed at the seafloor by erosional or mass wasting events; subsequently a thin layer of hydrogenetic Fe-Mn oxides accreted on the exposed surface. Mn-oxide filled veins may represent part of a feeder system. The thick sediment-free Mn-oxide layers locally grade into Mn-oxide cemented volcaniclastic beds. Our results indicate the extensive production of hydrothermal Mn on a regional basis, probably from multiple hydrothermal sources within the Samoan chain, and from the Tonga arc/back-arc system immediately to the west, as determined in previous studies.

  10. Rare earth element systematics in hydrothermal fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie Michard

    1989-01-01

    Rare earth element concentrations have been measured in hydrothermal solutions from geothermal fields in Italy, Dominica, Valles Caldera, Salton Sea and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The measured abundances show that hydrothermal activity is not expected to affect the REE balance of either continental or oceanic rocks. The REE enrichment of the solutions increases when the pH decreases. High-temperature solutions (>230°C) percolating

  11. Neural Responses to BEGIN- and END-Stimuli of the Smoking Ritual in Nonsmokers, Nondeprived Smokers, and Deprived Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Stippekohl, Bastian; Winkler, Markus; Mucha, Ronald F; Pauli, Paul; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Drug-associated stimuli (cues) have a prominent role in addiction research because they are able to provoke craving and relapses. Generally, drug cues are seen as conditioned excitatory stimuli, which elicit drug seeking and usage. However, newer data suggest differential effects for smoking stimuli depending on their stage in the smoking ritual. Specifically, stimuli associated with the terminal stage of smoke consumption (END-stimuli) may evoke reactivity opposite to the reactivity evoked by stimuli associated with the beginning of smoke consumption (BEGIN-stimuli). This fMRI study compared 20 nondeprived smokers with 20 nonsmokers to unravel the influence of smoking-related pictures displaying the beginning (BEGIN-stimuli) and termination (END-stimuli) of the smoking ritual on neural activity in the addiction network. In addition, 20 deprived smokers (12?h deprivation) were investigated to explore the effects of deprivation on the processing of these stimuli. In nondeprived smokers, BEGIN-stimuli reliably activated the addiction network (for example, the ventral striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)). In contrast, END-stimuli triggered a differential pattern of activations as well as deactivations; deactivations were found in the ventral striatum and the ACC. Deprivation had no clear effect on the responses triggered by BEGIN-stimuli, but affected the reactivity to END-stimuli. Our data clearly suggest that stimuli associated with different stages of the smoking ritual trigger differential neuronal responses. While BEGIN-stimuli generally seem to activate the addiction network, END-stimuli presumably have some inhibitory properties. This new finding might add to a more differentiated understanding of cue reactivity and addiction. PMID:20090671

  12. Gender and racial Differences in Smoking of Long/Ultra-long and King size Cigarettes among U.S. adult Smokers, NHANES 1999–2012

    PubMed Central

    Agaku, Israel T.; Vardavas, Constantine I.; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.; Alpert, Hillel R.; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette rod length as a design feature may play a specific role in harm perception and tobacco use. Internal tobacco industry documents have shown targeting of females with long/ultra-long cigarettes. This study assessed trends and differences in smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes among U.S. smokers aged ?20 years during 1999 through 2012. Methods Data were obtained from the 1999/2000 through 2011/2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The proportion of current smokers who reported using long/ultra-long cigarettes during each survey year was calculated and compared using ?2 statistics. Linear and quadratic trends during 1999 through 2012 were assessed using binary logistic regression (p<0.05). Multi-variable analyses were performed to assess current disparities in smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes. Results Despite overall declines in current smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes during the 1999 through 2012 period (p<0.001 for both linear and quadratic trends), the proportion of smokers of long/ultra-long brands increased in recent years, with over a third (38.7%) of current smokers reporting smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes during 2011/2012. Current smokers of long/ultra-long cigarettes were more likely to be female compared to males (aOR=3.09; 95%C.I:2.09–4.58), of black race compared to whites (aOR=2.07; 95%C.I:1.30–3.28), or aged 45–64, or ?65 years (aOR=2.39 and 5.27 respectively), compared to 18–24 year olds. Conclusions Specific gender, age and race/ethnic characteristics of smokers of long/ultra-long cigarettes were noted, hence potentially contributing to the widening of health disparities. Cigarette rod length should be considered an important aspect of cigarette engineering/design in regulatory efforts to reduce the burden of tobacco-related disease. PMID:24417962

  13. Cortisol levels decrease after acute tobacco abstinence in regular smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jordan A.; Pickworth, Wallace B.; Waters, Andrew J.; al’Absi, Mustafa; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effect of acute tobacco abstinence on cortisol levels in regular smokers, and whether abstinence-induced changes in cortisol levels are correlated with various signs and symptoms of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome. Methods Smokers (N = 77, ?15 cigarettes/day) attended two counterbalanced sessions (avg = 1 h), one following 12–20 h of abstinence and the other following ad lib smoking. At both sessions, salivary cortisol levels were measured at three time points. Additionally, a battery of self-report questionnaires, physiological assessments, and cognitive performance tasks were administered to measure signs and symptoms of tobacco withdrawal. Results Salivary cortisol levels were significantly lower during the abstinent session versus the non-abstinent session. No significant associations were found between abstinence-induced changes in cortisol and other tobacco withdrawal measures, although there was suggestive evidence that abstinence-induced changes in cortisol levels and hunger were inversely associated to a modest degree. Conclusion Acute tobacco abstinence was associated with decreased cortisol levels. Cortisol dampening during acute tobacco abstinence may reflect nicotine-mediated modulation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity, which may be relevant to the maintenance of tobacco dependence. Tobacco-withdrawal cortisol changes do not appear to be a cause or consequence of many manifestations of acute tobacco withdrawal with the possible exception of hunger. PMID:24399662

  14. Nicotine Dependence, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior among Adult Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Walker, Jerome F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has previously demonstrated an inverse association between smoking status and physical activity; however, few studies have examined the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity or sedentary behavior. Aim: This study examined the association between nicotine dependence and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Materials and Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used. A total of 851 adult (?20 years) smokers wore an accelerometer for ?4 days and completed the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scale. Regression models were used to examine the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity/sedentary behavior. Results: After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, hypertension, emphysema, bronchitis, body mass index (BMI), cotinine, and accelerometer wear time, smokers 50 + years of age with greater nicotine dependence engaged in more sedentary behavior (? = 11.4, P = 0.02) and less light-intensity physical activity (? = ?9.6, P = 0.03) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; ? = ?0.14, P = 0.003) than their less nicotine dependent counterparts. Conclusion: Older adults who are more nicotine dependent engage in less physical activity (both MVPA and light-intensity) and more sedentary behavior than their less nicotine dependent counterparts. PMID:25839000

  15. Olfactory cue reactivity in nicotine-dependent adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Bernadette M; Uhde, Thomas W; LaRowe, Steven D; Stein, Sarah V; Freeman, W Connor; McClernon, F Joseph; Brady, Kathleen T; Hartwell, Karen J

    2015-03-01

    Cue-elicited reactivity is a significant factor in relapse during smoking quit attempts. Previous research has focused primarily on visual smoking cues, with very limited research examining reactivity to olfactory triggers. Twenty-six adult non-treatment-seeking, nicotine-dependent smokers were exposed to 7 odorants during a cue-reactivity session measuring heart rate, skin conductance, and subjective craving. Cues included 2 cigarette odors (fresh tobacco and cigarette smoke), 2 odors previously identified as smoking-related (freshly mowed grass and coffee), 2 odors previously identified as unrelated to smoking (lavender and burned rubber), and 1 odorless control (propylene glycol). Pairwise comparisons demonstrated that subjective intensity of craving was significantly higher following exposure to the fresh tobacco odor compared with the odorless control (p < .01). A significant main effect for cue type on a physiological measure of arousal was also revealed, with a fresh tobacco odor-elicited significant increase in skin conductance level compared with the odorless control. However, no main effect of cue type on heart rate was found (p = .25). The results of the present study indicate that cigarette odor is an effective olfactory cue that heightens both subjective craving and increases skin conductance in smokers. Future research is needed to evaluate whether avoidance of these odors, or extinction of responses to them, can reduce relapse risk during smoking quit attempts. PMID:25180553

  16. Smoking's effects on respiratory sinus arrhythmia in adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Megan; Gorka, Stephanie M; Kassel, Jon

    2015-07-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has emerged as an indicator of how well the body maintains homeostasis and flexibly responds to environmental demands. Previous research has shown that smoking has both acute and chronic effects on RSA in adults. More recent work has focused on adolescent smokers because the natural decrease in RSA over the lifespan might be hastened by smoking at an early age. The goal of the current study, then, was to examine the acute effects of smoking on RSA and mean heart rate (HR) in a group of adolescent smokers. Participants completed two experimental sessions separated by 6-10weeks, during which resting electrocardiogram (EKG) data were collected before and after smoking or not smoking a single cigarette ad libitum. Results indicate that smoking significantly decreased resting RSA and increased mean HR. In addition, those who smoked their first cigarette earlier in life (i.e., before age 8 or 10) evidenced a greater decrease in RSA during their smoking session relative to those who tried smoking after age 10. Importantly, these findings are largely consistent with the adult literature and suggest that smoking has acute effects on both RSA and HR in adolescence. PMID:25957697

  17. The Relationship between Nicotine Dependence and Age among Current Smokers

    PubMed Central

    LI, Huijie; ZHOU, Yunping; LI, Suyun; WANG, Qiang; PAN, Lulu; YANG, Xiaorong; ZHANG, Nan; JIANG, Fan; HAN, Mingkui; JIA, Chongqi

    2015-01-01

    Background: A recent study indicates that the incidence of smoking cessation varies with age. Although nicotine dependence (ND) has been regarded as one of the most significant barriers of successful smoking cessation, few researches have focused on the relationship between nicotine dependence and age. Methods: A cross-sectional study (conducted in 2013) with 596 Chinese rural male current smokers was performed to study the relationship between ND and age. The ND level was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scale. The univariate two-degree fractional polynomials (FPs) regression was used to explore the relation of ND to age. Results: The mean of FTND scores in the middle-aged group (45–64 yr old) was higher than that in the younger (<45 yr old) and older groups (?65 yr old). The FPs regression showed an inverse U-shaped relationship between ND and age. Conclusion: The middle-aged current smokers had higher degree of ND than the younger and the older groups, which showed an inverse U-shaped relationship between ND and age. This finding needs to be confirmed by further researches.

  18. Study of hydrothermal channels based on near-bottom magnetic prospecting: Application to Longqi hydrothermal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, W.; Tao, C.; Li, H.; Zhaocai, W.; Jinhui, Z.; Qinzhu, C.; Shili, L.

    2014-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridges, largely present far from the continental plates, are characterized by complex geological structures and numerous hydrothermal systems with complex controlling factors. Exploring seafloor sulfide resources for industrial and scientific applications is a challenge. With the advent of geophysical surveys for seabed investigation, near-bottom magnetic prospecting, which yields shallow geological structure, is an efficient method for investigating active and inactive hydrothermal fields and for researching the structure of hydrothermal systems (Tivey et al., 1993, 1996?German et al., 2008). We collected near-bottom magnetic data in the Longqi hydrothermal area, located in the southwest Indian ridge (49.6° E; Zhu et al., 2010; Tao et al., 2014), using the autonomous benthic explorer, an autonomous underwater vehicle, during the second leg of the Chinese cruise DY115-19 on board R/V DaYangYiHao. Based on the results of the intensity of the spatial differential vector method (Seaman et al., 1993), we outline the hydrothermal alternation zone. By building models, we subsequently infer a fault along the discovered hydrothermal vents; this fault line may be connected to a detachment fault (Zhao et al., 2013). In addition, we discuss the channels of the hydrothermal circulation system (Figure 1), and presume that heat was conducted to the sea subsurface by the detachment fault; the aqueous fluid that infiltrated the fault is heated and conveyed to the seafloor, promoting the circulation of the hydrothermal system.

  19. Effects of nicotine chewing gum on a real-life motor task: a kinematic analysis of handwriting movements in smokers and non-smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Tucha; Klaus W. Lange

    2004-01-01

    Rationale In laboratory tasks nicotine has consistently been shown to improve psychomotor performance. Objectives The aim of the present experiment was to assess the effects of nicotine on a skilled task of everyday life in smoking and non-smoking healthy adults. Methods Assessment of handwriting movements of 38 non-deprived smokers and 38 non-smokers was performed following the chewing of gum containing

  20. Targeting African American Nonsmokers to Motivate Smokers to Quit: A Qualitative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Scherber, Robyn M.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2010-01-01

    African Americans bear a disproportionate health burden from smoking but are less likely than other populations to engage in cessation treatment. Intervening on adult nonsmokers residing with a smoker might represent an innovative approach to motivate smokers to engage in smoking behavior change. Twelve focus groups were conducted with African…

  1. Interest in self-help materials among a general population sample of smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Cunningham; Roberta Ferrence; Joanna Cohen; Edward M. Adlaf

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-help materials can be effective in helping people quit smoking. However, it is not known what proportion of smokers in the general population are interested in this method of cessation. A representative sample of 267 daily smokers participated in a random digit dialing telephone survey. Respondents were asked about their level of interest in self-help

  2. Use of Other Tobacco Products among U.S. Adult Cigarette Smokers: Prevalence, Trends and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Backinger, Cathy L.; Fagan, Pebbles; O’Connell, Mary E.; Grana, Rachel; Lawrence, Deirdre; Bishop, Jennifer Anne; Gibson, James Todd

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the trends in concurrent use of cigarettes and other tobacco and sociodemographic variables associated with concurrent use among adult cigarette smokers in the United States. Data from the 1995/96, 1998, 2000, and 2001/02 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey were used to estimate concurrent use of tobacco among cigarette smokers among adults ages 18 years and older (n for all 4 survey groups = 552,804). Concurrent use of tobacco fluctuated over the survey periods for current smokers and ranged from 3.7% in 1995/96 to 7.9% in 1998. Results from the multivariate logistic regression indicate that male current, daily, and intermittent smokers had substantially higher odds of concurrent use (OR = 12.9, 11.7, 17.2, respectively) than their female counterparts. Age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, income, and survey years were significantly associated with concurrent use among current and daily smokers; for intermittent smokers, these variables and occupation were significantly associated with concurrent use. The strongest correlates for multiple tobacco use among cigarettes smokers were being male and Non-Hispanic White. These factors should be considered when planning tobacco prevention and control efforts. In addition, surveillance efforts should continue to monitor changes in concurrent use and further investigate the increased risk of cancer among smokers who also use other forms of tobacco. PMID:18053653

  3. Does Precontemplation Represent a Homogeneous Stage Category? A Latent Class Analysis on German Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Gudrun; Ulbricht, Sabina; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Ruge, Jeannette; Schumann, Anja; Rumpf, Hans-Jurgen; John, Ulrich; Meyer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the subtype structure of smokers classified in the precontemplation stage of change within the transtheoretical model. From a general practice-based sample of 1,499 daily smoking patients from Germany (participation rate 80%), they used a subgroup of 929 smokers who were classified in the precontemplation stage and applied…

  4. Use of discount cigarettes by smokers in 20 communities in the United States, 1988-1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K M Cummings; A Hyland; E Lewit; D Shopland

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine characteristics of smokers associated with the use of discount and generic cigarettes. DESIGN: Data for this analysis come from two population-based cross-sectional telephone surveys (1988 survey n = 32952; 1993 survey n = 11783) and a cohort tracking survey (n = 11966) of smokers aged 25-64 years conducted in 20 communities in the United States between 1988

  5. Why So Impulsive? White Matter Alterations Are Associated With Impulsivity in Chronic Marijuana Smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Staci A. Gruber; Marisa M. Silveri; Mary Kathryn Dahlgren; Deborah Yurgelun-Todd

    2011-01-01

    Difficulty monitoring and inhibiting impulsive behaviors has been reported in marijuana (MJ) smokers; neuroimaging studies, which examined frontal systems in chronic MJ smokers, have reported alterations during inhibitory tasks. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides a quantitative estimate of white matter integrity at the microstructural level. We applied DTI, clinical ratings, and impulsivity measures to explore the hypotheses that chronic, heavy

  6. Young smokers' attitudes about methods for quitting smoking: Barriers and benefits to using assisted methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Hines

    1996-01-01

    There is currently little information about how smokers choose a particular method to stop smoking. Young adult smokers rated likelihood of success as the most important criteria for choosing a stop-smoking method but saw only a small difference in likelihood of success between common assisted and unassisted methods. They rated cost, convenience, and quitting on own as other important criteria.

  7. Pituitary and adrenal hormone responses to pharmacological, physical, and psychological stimulation in habitual smokers and nonsmokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Kirschbaum; G. Scherer; C. J. Strasburger

    1994-01-01

    Hormone responses to injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone following bicycle ergometry and psychological stress were studied in ten habitual smokers and ten nonsmokers. Compared to injection of saline, significant increases were found in adrenocorticotropin, prolactin, growth hormone, total serum cortisol, and salivary cortisol under all three stimulations except for salivary cortisol under ergometry. Furthermore, the smokers showed significant elevations of all

  8. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

  9. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Samet, Jonathan M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Boffetta, Paolo; Hannan, Lindsay M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Thun, Michael J.; Rudin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the U.S. in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10–15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000–24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U.S. if considered to be a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accompanying article, lung cancers that occur in never smokers differ from those that occur in smokers in their molecular profile and response to targeted therapy. These recent laboratory and clinical observations highlight the importance of defining the genetic and environmental factors responsible for the development of lung cancer in never-smokers. This article summarizes available data on the clinical epidemiology of lung cancer in never smokers, and the several environmental risk factors that population-based research has implicated in the etiology of these cancers. Primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in never smokers include exposure to known and suspected carcinogens including radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, and other indoor air pollutants. Several other exposures have been implicated. However, a large fraction of lung cancers occurring in never-smokers cannot be definitively associated with established environmental risk factors, highlighting the need for additional epidemiologic research in this area. PMID:19755391

  10. High plasma thiocyanate levels in smokers are a key determinant of thiol oxidation induced by myeloperoxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip E. Morgan; David I. Pattison; Jihan Talib; Fiona A. Summers; Jason A. Harmer; David S. Celermajer; Clare L. Hawkins; Michael J. Davies

    2011-01-01

    Smokers have an elevated risk of atherosclerosis but the origins of this elevated risk are incompletely defined, though evidence supports an accumulation of the oxidant-generating enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the inflamed artery wall. We hypothesized that smokers would have a high level of thiocyanate (SCN?), a preferred substrate for MPO, which in turn would predispose to thiol oxidation, an established

  11. Tobacco Use by College Students: A Comparison of Daily and Nondaily Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Berg, Carla J.; Champion, Heather; Helme, Donald W.; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore demographics, contextual factors, and health risk behaviors associated with nondaily smoking by college students. Methods: In fall 2005, a random sample of 4100 students completed an online survey. Results: Of those surveyed, 29% reported current smoking; of that 29%, 70% were nondaily smokers. Compared to daily smokers,…

  12. Use of and Interest in Smoking Cessation Strategies among Daily and Nondaily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mendel, Jennifer; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine use of and interest in cessation strategies among nondaily and daily college student smokers. Participants: 800 undergraduate student smokers aged 18 to 25. Methods: The authors examined nondaily versus daily smoking in relation to use of and interest in cessation strategies using an online survey. Results: Nondaily (65.8%)…

  13. Lymphocyte population and apoptosis in the lungs of smokers and their relation to emphysema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Majo; H. Ghezzo; M. G. Cosio

    2001-01-01

    Lymphocyte population and apoptosis in the lungs of smokers and their relation to emphysema. J. Majo, H. Ghezzo, M.G. Cosio. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Previously, it had been shown that T-lymphocytes are the predominant inflammatory cells found in the alveolar wall of smokers and their numbers correlated with the extent of emphysema. However, the phenotype of these cells was

  14. Attentional bias in smokers: exposure to dynamic smoking cues in contemporary movies.

    PubMed

    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Voogd, Hubert; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-04-01

    Research has shown that smokers have an attentional bias for pictorial smoking cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether smokers also have an attentional bias for dynamic smoking cues in contemporary movies and therefore fixate more quickly, more often and for longer periods of time on dynamic smoking cues than non-smokers. By drawing upon established methods for assessing attentional biases for pictorial cues, we aimed to develop a new method for assessing attentional biases for dynamic smoking cues. We examined smokers' and non-smokers' eye movements while watching a movie clip by using eye-tracking technology. The sample consisted of 16 smoking and 17 non-smoking university students. Our results confirm the results of traditional pictorial attentional bias research. Smokers initially directed their gaze more quickly towards smoking-related cues (p?=?0.01), focusing on them more often (p?=?0.05) and for a longer duration (p?=?0.01) compared with non-smokers. Thus, smoking cues in movies directly affect the attention of smokers. These findings indicate that the effects of dynamic smoking cues, in addition to other environmental smoking cues, need to be taken into account in smoking cessation therapies in order to increase successful smoking cessation and to prevent relapses. PMID:21098549

  15. Marijuana Use Among Daily Tobacco Smokers: Relationship to Anxiety-Related Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel O. Bonn-Miller; Michael J. Zvolensky; Ellen W. Leen-Feldner; Matthew T. Feldner; Andrew R. Yartz

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the incremental validity of regular marijuana use and frequency of such use in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and perceived health among young adult tobacco smokers (n = 202). Approximately 72% of the sample were current marijuana smokers, using this drug on an average of 7.6 (SD = 9.2) times per week. As expected, after

  16. Adverse Reaction to Nicotine Gum in Malay Female Smoker: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorzurani, Md Haris Robson; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are prescribed in smoking cessation programmes to help smokers stop smoking. The ideal dosage of NRT should control cravings and withdrawal symptoms but avoid adverse reactions. This report describes a case of adverse reaction to nicotine gum in a female Malay smoker. Assays taken 2 h after the gum, showed that…

  17. Single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide in an asymptomatic population of never smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Gulsvik; P Bakke; S Humerfelt; E Omenaas; T Tosteson; S T Weiss; F E Speizer

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on reference values of transfer factor variables in general populations of asymptomatic never smokers are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between test variables and age, height, haemoglobin concentration and carboxyhaemoglobin concentration. METHODS: Measurements of single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO) were obtained for a randomly selected sample of never smokers

  18. Nonsmokers' Perceptions of Cigarette Smokers' Credibility, Likeability, Attractiveness, Considerateness, Cleanliness, and Healthiness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Seiter; Harry Weger Jr; Mandy L. Merrill; R. Mark McKenna; Matthew L. Sanders

    2010-01-01

    This study examined perceptions of male and female models depicted smoking or not smoking cigarettes. Undergraduate students viewed photographs of smoking or nonsmoking models and then rated the models' credibility, homophily, attractiveness, likeability, considerateness, cleanliness, and healthiness. Analysis indicated that being viewed as a cigarette smoker damaged people's images. With the exception of two dimensions of credibility, smokers, compared to

  19. A longitudinal study of smokers' exposure to cigarette smoke and the effects of spontaneous product switching.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony; Sommarström, Johan; Camacho, Oscar M; Sisodiya, Ajit S; Prasad, Krishna

    2015-06-01

    A challenge in investigating the effect of public health policies on cigarette consumption and exposure arises from variation in a smoker's exposure from cigarette to cigarette and the considerable differences between smokers. In addition, limited data are available on the effects of spontaneous product switching on a smoker's cigarette consumption and exposure to smoke constituents. Over 1000 adult smokers of the same commercial 10mg International Organization for Standardization (ISO) tar yield cigarette were recruited into the non-residential, longitudinal study across 10 cities in Germany. Cigarette consumption, mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine and biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone were measured every 6months over a 3 and a half year period. Cigarette consumption remained stable through the study period and did not vary significantly when smokers spontaneously switched products. Mouth level exposure decreased for smokers (n=111) who switched to cigarettes of 7mg ISO tar yield or lower. In addition, downward trends in mouth level exposure estimates were observed for smokers who did not switch cigarettes. Data from this study illustrate some of the challenges in measuring smokers' long-term exposure to smoke constituents in their everyday environment. PMID:25777840

  20. Retracing the steps of marco polo: From clinical trials to diffusion of interventions for smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robyn L. Richmond

    1996-01-01

    We report the results from a series of four controlled trials which evaluate efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation of interventions for smokers, and then discuss diffusion of our program in feasibility studies both nationally in Australia and internationally. In our first study we reported that when general practitioners delivered moderately brief advice to smokers, they have a 36% abstinence rate at

  1. Policy Compliance of Smokers on a Tobacco-Free University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russette, Helen C.; Harris, Kari Jo; Schuldberg, David; Green, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors influencing compliance with campus tobacco policies and strategies to increase compliance. Participants: Sixty tobacco smokers (April 2012). Methods: A 22-item intercept-interview with closed-and open-ended questions was conducted with smokers in adjacent compliant and noncompliant areas at 1 university with a 100%…

  2. The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) in the Middle East region and worldwide is increasing. There is evidence to indicate both short term and long term health effects of WTS, resulting in the issuance of an advisory note by the World Health Organization. Methods This research aimed at gaining an in-depth understanding of the factors contributing to the rise in WTS in Lebanon. Qualitative focus groups (25) and in-depth interviews (9) were conducted with adults in Lebanon in 2007. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, gender, age groups and urban/rural residence. The interviews and focus groups were thematically analyzed, and recurrent themes noted and summarized. Results The main themes identified were availability, affordability, innovation, influence of media, lack of a policy framework, and the sensory characteristics evoked from WTS. Men and women, smokers and non-smokers, and younger and older participants differed in their emphases on the above themes. These themes, though specific to waterpipe, are similar to themes manipulated by the cigarette industry, and eventually controlled through tobacco control policies. Conclusions Understanding reasons behind the rise in waterpipe tobacco use is important if appropriate prevention, cessation, and policy interventions are to be formulated. Strict adherence to the FCTC is warranted, with careful and vigilant attention that all tobacco products are covered by laws in both high as well as middle to lower income countries. PMID:21569577

  3. Do the nonsmoking daughters of smokers tend to marry smokers? Implications for epidemiological research on environmental tobacco smoke: the IARC collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Riboli, E; Haley, N J; Trédaniel, J; Saracci, R; Preston-Martin, S; Trichopoulos, D; Becher, H; Burch, J D; Fontham, E T; Gao, Y T

    1995-12-01

    The IARC collaborative study on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) involved collecting interview data and biochemical indicators of exposure from 1369 nonsmoking women in 13 centers in 10 countries. Information on childhood and adulthood exposure to other people's smoke and duration of this exposure from both parents and spouse was gathered at the interview. Of the 900 women whose husbands smoked (current or exsmokers), 71.3% had one or both parents who smoked (predominantly the father), whereas among the 277 women married to never-smokers, only 60.3% had at least one parent who smoked. The odds ratio for the daughter of a smoker to marry a smoker was, therefore, 1.64 (95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.17; P > 0.001), and there was an exposure-response relation between the number of years of childhood exposure to ETS from the parents and the likelihood of being married to a smoker. These results show that nonsmoking women married to smokers are more likely to have been exposed to tobacco pollution during their whole life. Because the duration of exposure is known to be important in the genesis of lung cancer, some of the excess risk of lung cancer in nonsmoking women married to smokers may be due exposure to ETS from parents during childhood. PMID:8634651

  4. Risk Perception and Moralization among Smokers in the U.S. and Denmark: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Helweg-Larsen, Marie; Tobias, Margaret R.; Cerban, Bettina M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The present research explored the role that culture plays in smokers’ description of their risk perceptions and experiences as targets of moralization. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 15 smokers each from Denmark (a smoking-lenient culture) and the U.S. (a smoking-prohibitive culture). Results Smokers said they were well aware of the risks of smoking yet minimized the risks of active and passive smoking; Danes were particularly likely to minimize these risks. Smokers also described many experiences as targets of moralization and accepted some elements of moralized attitudes although overall Danes more strongly rejected moralized opinions. Smokers described adjusting to moralization by changing when and where but not how much they smoked. Conclusion It is important to consider cultural influences on moralization and risk perception of smoking. PMID:20181322

  5. Reduced expression IRF7 in nasal epithelial cells from smokers as a potential mechanism mediating enhanced susceptibility to influenza

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Smokers are more susceptible to viral infections, including influenza virus, yet the mechanisms mediating this effect are not known. Methods: We have established an in vitro model of differentiated nasal epithelial cells from smokers, which maintain enhanced levels...

  6. Mineralogical and geochemical evidence for hydrothermal activity at the west wall of 12°50?N core complex (Mid-Atlantic ridge): a new ultramafic-hosted seafloor hydrothermal deposit?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dekov, Vesselin; Boycheva, Tanya; Halenius, Ulf; Billstrom, Kjell; Kamenov, George D.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Stummeyer, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Dredging along the west wall of the core complex at 12°50?N Mid-Atlantic Ridge sampled a number of black oxyhydroxide crusts and breccias cemented by black and dark brown oxyhydroxide matrix. Black crusts found on top of basalt clasts (rubble) are mainly composed of Mn-oxides (birnessite, 10-Å manganates) with thin films of nontronite and X-ray amorphous FeOOH on their surfaces. Their chemical composition (low trace- and rare earth-element contents, high Li and Ag concentrations, rare earth element distribution patterns with negative both Ce and Eu anomalies), Sr–Nd–Pb-isotope systematic and O-isotope data suggest low-temperature (~ 20 °C) hydrothermal deposition from a diffuse vent area on the seafloor. Mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical investigations of the breccias showed the rock clasts were hydrothermally altered fragments of MORBs. Despite the substantial mineralogical changes caused by the alteration the Sr–Nd–Pb-isotope ratios have not been significantly affected by this process. The basalt clasts are cemented by dark brown and black matrix. Dark brown cement exhibits geochemical features (very low trace- and rare earth- element contents, high U concentration, rare earth element distribution pattern with high positive Eu anomaly) and Nd–Pb-isotope systematics (similar to that of MORB) suggesting that the precursor was a primary, high-temperature Fe-sulfide, which was eventually altered to goethite at ambient seawater conditions. The data presented in this work points towards the possible existence of high- and low-temperature hydrothermal activity at the west wall of the core complex at 12°50?N Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Tectonic setting at the site implies that the proposed hydrothermal field is possibly ultramafic-hosted.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of Extended Cessation Treatment for Older Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Paul G.; Wong, Wynnie; Jeffers, Abra; Munoz, Ricardo; Humfleet, Gary; Hall, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the cost-effectiveness of extended smoking cessation treatment in older smokers. Design Participants who completed a 12 week smoking cessation program were factorial randomized to extended cognitive behavioral treatment and extended nicotine replacement therapy. Setting A free-standing smoking cessation clinic in the United States. Participants 402 smokers aged 50 years and older were recruited from the community. Measurements The trial measured biochemically-verified abstinence from cigarettes after 24 months and the quantity of smoking cessation services used. Trial findings were combined with literature on changes in smoking status and the age and gender adjusted effect of smoking on health care cost, mortality, and qualify of life over the long-term in a Markov model of cost-effectiveness over a lifetime horizon. Findings The addition of extended cognitive behavioral therapy added $83 in smoking cessation services cost (p =.012, CI $21-$212). At the end of follow-up, cigarette abstinence rates were 50.0% with extended cognitive behavioral therapy and 37.2% without this therapy (p <.05, odds ratio 1.69, CI 1.18-2.54). The model-based incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $6,324 per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis found that the additional $947 in lifetime cost of the intervention had a 95% confidence interval of –$331 – $2,081; the 0.150 additional QALYs had a confidence interval of 0.035- 0.280, and that the intervention was cost-effective against a $50,000/QALY acceptance criterion in 99.6% of the replicates. Extended nicotine replacement therapy was not cost-effective. Conclusions Adding extended cognitive behavior therapy to standard smoking cessation treatment can be cost-effective. PMID:24329972

  8. Lung Cancer Chemoprevention with Celecoxib in Former Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jenny T.; Roth, Michael D.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Aberle, Denise; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Rao, Jian Yu; Tashkin, Donald P.; Goodglick, Lee.; Holmes, E. Carmack; Cameron, Robert B.; Dubinett, Steven M.; Elashoff, Robert; Szabo, Eva; Elashoff, David

    2011-01-01

    Ample studies suggest that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis and that COX-2 inhibition may help prevent lung cancer. Therefore, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib (400 mg bid for 6 months) in former-smokers (age ?45, ?30 pack-years of smoking, ?1 year of sustained abstinence from smoking). We assessed the impact of celecoxib on cellular and molecular events associated with lung cancer pathogenesis; the primary endpoint was bronchial Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI). Of 137 randomized subjects, 101 completed both baseline and 6-month bronchoscopies and were evaluable for the primary endpoint analysis. The beneficial effect on Ki-67 LI was greater in the celecoxib arm (versus placebo) in a mixed-effects analysis (P = 0.0006), and celecoxib significantly decreased Ki-67 LI by an average of 34%, whereas placebo increased Ki-67 LI by an average of 3.8% (P = 0.04; t-test). Participants crossed over to the other study arm at 6 months. Therefore, at 12 months all remaining participants had received 6 months of celecoxib, and their decreases in Ki-67 LI correlated with a reduction and/or resolution of lung nodules on computed tomography. Celecoxib significantly reduced plasma c-reactive protein and interleukin-6 mRNA and protein and increased 15(S)-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid levels in BAL samples. The baseline ratio of COX-2 to 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase mRNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells was a significant predictive marker of Ki-67 response to celecoxib (P = 0.002). Our collective findings support the continued investigation of celecoxib for lung cancer chemoprevention in former smokers at a low risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:21733822

  9. Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

  10. Peptide synthesis in early Earth hydrothermal systems.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Kono H; Rosenbauer, Robert J; Bird, Dennis K

    2009-03-01

    We report here results from experiments and thermodynamic calculations that demonstrate a rapid, temperature-enhanced synthesis of oligopeptides from the condensation of aqueous glycine. Experiments were conducted in custom-made hydrothermal reactors, and organic compounds were characterized with ultraviolet-visible procedures. A comparison of peptide yields at 260 degrees C with those obtained at more moderate temperatures (160 degrees C) gives evidence of a significant (13 kJ . mol(-1)) exergonic shift. In contrast to previous hydrothermal studies, we demonstrate that peptide synthesis is favored in hydrothermal fluids and that rates of peptide hydrolysis are controlled by the stability of the parent amino acid, with a critical dependence on reactor surface composition. From our study, we predict that rapid recycling of product peptides from cool into near-supercritical fluids in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems will enhance peptide chain elongation. It is anticipated that the abundant hydrothermal systems on early Earth could have provided a substantial source of biomolecules required for the origin of life. PMID:19371157

  11. Sample Return from Ancient Hydrothermal Springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal spring deposits on Mars would make excellent candidates for sample return. Molecular phylogeny suggests that that life on Earth may have arisen in hydrothermal settings [1-3], and on Mars, such settings not only would have supplied energy-rich waters in which martian life may have evolved [4-7] but also would have provided warm, liquid water to martian life forms as the climate became colder and drier [8]. Since silica, sulfates, and clays associated with hydrothermal settings are known to preserve geochemical and morphological remains of ancient terrestrial life [9-11], such settings on Mars might similarly preserve evidence of martian life. Finally, because formation of hydrothermal springs includes surface and subsurface processes, martian spring deposits would offer the potential to assess astrobiological potential and hydrological history in a variety of settings, including surface mineralized terraces, associated stream deposits, and subsurface environments where organic remains may have been well protected from oxidation. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data [12-14]. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel, and based on these new data, we have interpreted several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra as ancient hydrothermal springs [15, 16].

  12. Gender Differences among Hardcore Smokers: An Analysis of the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik M. Augustson; Dilyara Barzani; Lila J. Finney Rutten; Stephen Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Background: Despite significant declines in smoking rates in the United States, a substantial percentage of adults continue to smoke. Improved understanding of current smokers and their contact with sources of cessation support future tobacco control efforts. Recent evidence suggests that hardcore smokers, established smokers without a history of quit attempts, have less contact with cessation support. Although gender is among

  13. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  14. Black Saturn

    E-print Network

    Henriette Elvang; Pau Figueras

    2007-04-03

    Using the inverse scattering method we construct an exact stationary asymptotically flat 4+1-dimensional vacuum solution describing Black Saturn: a spherical black hole surrounded by a black ring. Angular momentum keeps the configuration in equilibrium. Black saturn reveals a number of interesting gravitational phenomena: (1) The balanced solution exhibits 2-fold continuous non-uniqueness for fixed mass and angular momentum; (2) Remarkably, the 4+1d Schwarzschild black hole is not unique, since the black ring and black hole of black saturn can counter-rotate to give zero total angular momentum at infinity, while maintaining balance; (3) The system cleanly demonstrates rotational frame-dragging when a black hole with vanishing Komar angular momentum is rotating as the black ring drags the surrounding spacetime. Possible generalizations include multiple rings of saturn as well as doubly spinning black saturn configurations.

  15. Interactive Omics: Black raspberry metabolites and the oral microbiome in smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  16. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  17. Hydrothermal Ni Prospectivity Analysis of Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Alvalez, I.; Porwal, A.; McCuaig, T. C.

    2009-04-01

    Tasmania contains the largest hydrothermal Ni deposit in Australia: Avebury (118,000 Ni metal tonnes). This Devonian deposit was discovered in 1998 in the Dundas geological region, and represents an outstanding example of hydrothermal Nickel sulphide mineralization type. Avebury Ni deposit is a system of hydrothermal Ni ore bodies. It is hosted by an intensely altered and serpentinized Cambrian ultramafic suite in close proximity to major structural features. The mineralization is considered to be the result of hydrothermal scavenging and remobilization of the original nickel content of the mafic/ultramafic rocks in the area, and subsequent re-deposition in favourable structural traps. The mineralization is spatially and temporally related to a large granitic intrusion, the Heemskirk Granite, which is considered to be the source of the hydrothermal fluids as well as the necessary thermal gradients for the circulation of the fluids. Tasmania is largely covered by the Jurassic Ferrar Continental Flood basalt Province in the East and presents early Cambrian ultramafic-mafic complexes in the West. The Ferrar large igneous province (LIP) extends over to Antarctica and is related to the Karoo Province in southern Africa that comprises tholeiitic lava flows, sills, and dyke swarms. The Ferrar and Karoo provinces were associated with the same thermal anomaly that was involved in the break up of Gondwana. The presence of mafic/ultramafic rocks in favourable lithological packages and/or structural traps along the margins of the province, as well as several prospective reduced or reactive sedimentary packages within and around the Ferrar indicate that this LIP could represent a novel promising ground for Ni hydrothermal exploration. Based on this prospective geological background, a prospectivity analysis for hydrothermal Ni deposits was carried out on regional scale for the entire state of Tasmania. A conceptual model of hydrothermal nickel mineral system was used to identify the following as the most important exploration criteria for hydrothermal nickel deposits: (i) potential nickel sources, (ii) heat and fluid sources, (iii) permeable transportation channels for circulating hydrothermal fluids, and (iv) prospective lithological and structural traps conducive for sulphur saturation and deposition of nickel sulphides. Available public domain exploration datasets were processed using GIS functionalities to derive a series of derivative GIS layers that could be used as proxies for each of the above exploration criteria. These included komatiites/picrites/mafic-ultramafic rocks formed from magma with >7% MgO, large igneous province; major faults; crustal contamination, older sulphur bearing rock suites, redox gradients and/or reduced fluids highly concentrated in chloride etc.. A two-pronged approach involving GIS-assisted manual prospectivity analysis and GIS-based (automated) prospectivity analysis was used for identifying the most prospective ground for hydrothermal nickel deposits in Tasmania. The manual analysis involved a conceptual review of all geological regions of the state, while the GIS-based automated approach used a spatial fuzzy model. The results of the two analyses were subsequently integrated and, after a detailed geological follow-up study, were used to generate a hydrothermal nickel prospectivity map of the state. The methodology developed in this study could be potentially applied to frontier exploration grounds with similar geological setting, such as Papua New Guinea.

  18. Hydrothermal Ni Prospectivity Analysis of Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Alvarez, I.; Porwal, A.; McCuaig, T. C.; Maier, W.

    2009-04-01

    Tasmania contains the largest hydrothermal Ni deposit in Australia: Avebury (118,000 Ni metal tonnes). This Devonian deposit was discovered in 1998 in the Dundas geological region, and consists of a system of hydrothermal Ni ore bodies. They are hosted by an intensely altered and serpentinized Cambrian ultramafic suite in close proximity to major structural features. The mineralization is considered to be the result of hydrothermal scavenging and remobilization of the original nickel content of mafic/ultramafic rocks in the area, and subsequent re-deposition in favourable structural traps. This is based on the low sulphur, low Cu and Platinum element content of the mineralization. The mineralization is spatially (at the edge) and temporally related to a large granitic intrusion, the Heemskirk Granite, which is considered to be the source of the hydrothermal fluids as well as the necessary thermal gradients for the circulation of the fluids. Tasmania is largely covered by the Jurassic Ferrar continental flood basalt province in the East and constrains a number of early Cambrian ultramafic-mafic complexes in the West. The Ferrar large igneous province (LIP) extends over to Antarctica and is temporally and genetically related to the Karoo igneous province in southern Africa that comprises tholeiitic lava flows, sills, and dyke swarms. The Ferrar and Karoo igneous provinces were associated with the same thermal anomaly that was responsible for the break up of eastern Gondwana at ca 180 Ma. Despite of timeframe differences between the Avebury Ni deposits and the Ferrar LIP emplacement, similar geological settings to the Avebury could be duplicated along the Ferrar LIP. The presence of mafic/ultramafic rocks in favourable lithological packages and/or structural traps along the margins of the province indicate that this LIP could represent a possible exploration target for Ni hydrothermal deposits. Based on this background, a prospectivity analysis for hydrothermal Ni deposits was carried out on a regional scale for the entire state of Tasmania to explore the prospectivity of for hydrothermal Ni deposits of this part of the Ferrar LIP for. A conceptual model of hydrothermal nickel mineral systems was used to identify the following as the most important exploration criteria for hydrothermal nickel deposits: (i) presence of potential nickel sources, (ii) heat and fluid sources, (iii) permeable transportation channels for circulating hydrothermal fluids, and (iv) prospective lithological and structural traps conducive for sulphur saturation and deposition of nickel sulphides. Available public domain exploration datasets were processed using GIS functionalities to derive a series of derivative GIS layers that could be used as proxies for each of the above exploration criteria. These included mafic-ultramafic rocks formed from magma with >7% MgO, large igneous province; major faults, and mineral alteration assemblages that could indicate redox gradients and/or reduced fluids highly concentrated in chloride etc. A two-pronged approach involving GIS-assisted manual prospectivity analysis and GIS-based (automated) prospectivity analysis was used for identifying the most prospective ground for hydrothermal nickel deposits in Tasmania. The manual analysis involved a conceptual review of all geological regions of the state, while the GIS-based automated approach used a spatial fuzzy model. The results of the two analyses were subsequently integrated and, after a detailed geological follow-up study, were used to generate a hydrothermal nickel prospectivity map of the state. The methodology developed in this study could be potentially applied to frontier exploration grounds with similar geological setting, such as Papua New Guinea.

  19. Hydrothermal plumes along segments of contrasting magmatic influence, 158888200

    E-print Network

    Langmuir, Charles H.

    ridges have emphasized a positive correlation between local magmatic budget and hydrothermal activity the segment-scale incongruity between hydrothermal activity and magmatic budget, the fraction of total ridge to predictions based on data from other Pacific ridges, hydrothermal plumes over the inflated 168N segment were

  20. Calcium Isotope Fractionation in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sharma; C. Holmden

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate Ca isotope fractionation during hydrothermal alteration of mid- ocean ridge basalts. Both high and low temperature hydrothermal fluids are enriched in calcium relative to seawater reflecting its derivation from the ocean crust. Indeed, hydrothermal alteration at ridge-crests and at ridge-flanks provides significant amounts of Ca and affects the Ca isotopic composition of

  1. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide and study of their optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Moulahi, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee IPEIT, Universite de Tunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008, B.P. 229 Montfleury, Tunis (Tunisia)] [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee IPEIT, Universite de Tunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008, B.P. 229 Montfleury, Tunis (Tunisia); Sediri, F., E-mail: faouzi.sediri@ipeit.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee IPEIT, Universite de Tunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008, B.P. 229 Montfleury, Tunis (Tunisia); Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Universite Tunis El Manar, 2092 El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia); Gharbi, N., E-mail: neji.gharbi@ipeit.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee IPEIT, Universite de Tunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008, B.P. 229 Montfleury, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructured ZnO were successfully obtained by a hydrothermal route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inorganic precursor and molar ratio are key factors for morphology and particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical properties were also studied. -- Abstract: Nanostructured ZnO (nanorods, nanoshuttles) have been synthesized by hydrothermal approach using ZnCl{sub 2} or Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O as zinc sources and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as structure-directing agent. Techniques X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the nanostructured zinc oxide. The optical properties of the as-obtained materials were also studied and showing that it is possible to apply the ZnO nanoshuttles and nanorods on the UV filter, photocatalysis, and special optical devices.

  3. Regulation and activity of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) is altered in smokers.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Megan; Bauer, Rebecca N; Letang, Blanche D; Brighton, Luisa; Thompson, Elizabeth; Simmen, Rosalia C M; Bonner, James; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-02-01

    A hallmark of cigarette smoking is a shift in the protease/antiprotease balance, in favor of protease activity. However, it has recently been shown that smokers have increased expression of a key antiprotease, secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), yet the mechanisms involved in SLPI transcriptional regulation and functional activity of SLPI remain unclear. We examined SLPI mRNA and protein secretion in differentiated nasal epithelial cells (NECs) and nasal lavage fluid (NLF) from nonsmokers and smokers and demonstrated that SLPI expression is increased in NECs and NLF from smokers. Transcriptional regulation of SLPI expression was confirmed using SLPI promoter reporter assays followed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. The role of STAT1 in regulating SLPI expression was further elucidated using WT and stat1(-/-) mice. Our data demonstrate that STAT1 regulates SLPI transcription in epithelial cells and slpi protein in the lungs of mice. Additionally, we reveal that NECs from smokers have increased STAT1 mRNA/protein expression. Finally, we demonstrate that SLPI contained in the nasal mucosa of smokers is proteolytically cleaved but retains functional activity against neutrophil elastase. These results demonstrate that smoking enhances expression of SLPI in NECs in vitro and in vivo, and that this response is regulated by STAT1. In addition, despite posttranslational cleavage of SLPI, antiprotease activity against neutrophil elastase is enhanced in smokers. Together, our findings show that SLPI regulation and activity is altered in the nasal mucosa of smokers, which could have broad implications in the context of respiratory inflammation and infection. PMID:24285265

  4. Regulation and activity of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) is altered in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Megan; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Letang, Blanche D.; Brighton, Luisa; Thompson, Elizabeth; Simmen, Rosalia C. M.; Bonner, James

    2013-01-01

    A hallmark of cigarette smoking is a shift in the protease/antiprotease balance, in favor of protease activity. However, it has recently been shown that smokers have increased expression of a key antiprotease, secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), yet the mechanisms involved in SLPI transcriptional regulation and functional activity of SLPI remain unclear. We examined SLPI mRNA and protein secretion in differentiated nasal epithelial cells (NECs) and nasal lavage fluid (NLF) from nonsmokers and smokers and demonstrated that SLPI expression is increased in NECs and NLF from smokers. Transcriptional regulation of SLPI expression was confirmed using SLPI promoter reporter assays followed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. The role of STAT1 in regulating SLPI expression was further elucidated using WT and stat1?/? mice. Our data demonstrate that STAT1 regulates SLPI transcription in epithelial cells and slpi protein in the lungs of mice. Additionally, we reveal that NECs from smokers have increased STAT1 mRNA/protein expression. Finally, we demonstrate that SLPI contained in the nasal mucosa of smokers is proteolytically cleaved but retains functional activity against neutrophil elastase. These results demonstrate that smoking enhances expression of SLPI in NECs in vitro and in vivo, and that this response is regulated by STAT1. In addition, despite posttranslational cleavage of SLPI, antiprotease activity against neutrophil elastase is enhanced in smokers. Together, our findings show that SLPI regulation and activity is altered in the nasal mucosa of smokers, which could have broad implications in the context of respiratory inflammation and infection. PMID:24285265

  5. In Vivo Autofluorescence Spectroscopic Study and Evaluation of DNA Damage By Comet Assay in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rajmohan, M; Thamaraiselvi, D; M, Deepasree

    2015-01-01

    Context Tobacco is known environmental factor to alter the chemical composition of cells and the structure of DNA. Cellular level changes of smoker’s mucosa are assessed by autofluorescence spectroscopy and the DNA damage can be evaluated by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Aim To substantiate the changes in the autofluorescence due to smoking with that of early DNA damage without any clinical change. Materials and Methods Group I consists of 20 individuals with normal mucosa and Group II consists of 40 individuals with smoking habit. Only males were included in this study and their age ranging from 25 to 35 years. In vivo fluorescence spectra from both groups were obtained by using hand held fiber optic probe attached to Varian Cary Eclipse fluorescence spectrophotometer and comet assay was carried out for normal and smokers by their peripheral blood. Statistical Analysis Used Independent-Samples t-test was used for statistical analysis. P-value was obtained to discriminate the statistical differences between the two groups. Results The averaged excitation and emission spectra of normal and smoker’s mucosa showed significant differences statistically. In comet assay, the mean tail length of smoker group was higher than the normal group. The results showed statistically significant differences (p ? 0.05). Conclusion These techniques will be very useful for monitoring of very early changes of mucosa before clinical manifestation of the lesion in high risk smokers and thus prevents the occurrence of premalignant disorders and early invasive carcinoma.

  6. Reward Anticipation Is Differentially Modulated by Varenicline and Nicotine in Smokers.

    PubMed

    Fedota, John R; Sutherland, Matthew T; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Ross, Thomas J; Hong, L Elliot; Stein, Elliot A

    2015-07-01

    Recidivism rates for cigarette smokers following treatment often exceed 80%. Varenicline is the most efficacious pharmacotherapy currently available with cessation rates of 25-35% following a year of treatment. Although the in vivo binding properties are well known, varenicline's neurobiological mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. Varenicline acts as a nicotinic receptor partial agonist or antagonist depending on the presence or absence of nicotine and has been implicated in the reduction of reward signaling more broadly. The current study probed anticipatory reward processing using a revised monetary incentive delay task during fMRI in cohorts of smokers and non-smokers who completed a two-drug, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study. All participants underwent ~17 days of order-balanced varenicline and placebo pill administration and were scanned under each condition wearing a transdermal nicotine or placebo patch. Consistent with nicotine's ability to enhance the rewarding properties of nondrug stimuli, acute nicotine administration enhanced activation in response to reward-predicting monetary cues in both smokers and non-smokers. In contrast, varenicline reduced gain magnitude processing, but did so only in smokers. These results suggest that varenicline's downregulation of anticipatory reward processing in smokers, in addition to its previously demonstrated reduction in the negative affect associated with withdrawal, independently and additively alter distinct brain circuits. These effects likely contribute to varenicline's efficacy as a pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. PMID:25742873

  7. Regular and occasional smoking by college students: personality attributions of smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Hines, D; Fretz, A C; Nollen, N L

    1998-12-01

    Recent reports show an increase in smoking among college students and suggest that occasional smoking is now initiated by previously nonsmoking students. This study evaluated whether this apparent increase in smoking by students is associated with positive self-images associated with smoking. Regular and occasional smokers rated how smoking "changes the way you feel about yourself" on 18 self-attributes that may be associated with smoking, e.g., from cigarette advertisements. Nonsmokers also rated smokers on the same 18 attributes. All three groups rated three attributes in the negative direction with at least a moderate effect size: that being a smoker was less healthy, that smokers were less desirable as a date and that smokers were less attractive while smoking. On only one other attribute regular smokers differed from neutral with at least a moderate effect size: that smoking made them feel less feminine. As hypothesized, the occasional smokers also rated some attributions positively with at least a moderate effect size: that smoking made them feel more daring and more adventurous and did not make them feel like an outcast. The nonsmokers rated a number of additional attributes about smokers negatively with at least a moderate effect size: that smokers are less sexy, less feminine, less sophisticated, less masculine, and less mature. Thus, the results suggest that smoking shows at best mixed associations with self-attributions of college students who smoke and is viewed negatively by those who do not smoke. Other results suggest that the recent increase in occasional smoking may be related to smoking with friends who smoke and smoking while drinking alcohol. PMID:10079727

  8. The effects of cognitive and physical stress on cardiovascular reactivity among smokers and oral contraceptive users.

    PubMed

    Emmons, K M; Weidner, G

    1988-03-01

    4 groups of women participated in this study designed to investigate the interaction of oral contraceptive (OC) use and smoking on cardiovascular reactivity to 2 stressors -- cognitive and physical. The 4 groups were: smokers/non OC users; nonsmokers/OC users; smokers/OC users; and nonsmokers/non OC users (control). The role of Type A behavior and parental history of heart disease as moderator variables in the stress-reactivity relationship also was examined. The subjects, 69 female psychology students, ranged in age from 17-31 years. It was hypothesized that women characterized by smoking and/or OC use would show greater stress reactivity. All subjects responded in the same manner to the cold pressor test, but OC use among smokers was associated with greater increase in systolic blood pressure responses to mental arithmetic when compared to smokers/non OC users. For mental arithmetic, a marginally significant main effect suggested that OC users tended to respond with larger increases in systolic blood pressure than nonOC users. A significant 2-way interaction between OC use and smoking indicated that smokers/OC users responded with greater increases in systolic blood pressure to mental arithmetic than smokers/nonOC users. The means of the remaining groups did not differ. No significant findings emerged for diastolic blood pressure and heart rate changes to mental arithmetic. The mean increase across all 4 groups to the mental arithmetic task was 13.81 for systolic blood pressure, 12.06 for for diastolic blood pressure, and 11.96 for heart rate. In sum, the study findings fail to indicate any differences in cardiovascular reactivity among smokers and OC users to the cold pressor test. The findings do suggest OC use among smokers is associated with increased systolic blood pressure responses to mental arithmetic when compared to smokers/non OC users. PMID:3399603

  9. Blood haemoglobin concentrations are higher in smokers and heavy alcohol consumers than in non-smokers and abstainers: should we adjust the reference range?

    PubMed

    Milman, Nils; Pedersen, Agnes N

    2009-07-01

    The blood haemoglobin concentration is one of the most frequently used laboratory parameters in clinical practice. There is evidence that haemoglobin levels are influenced by tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on haemoglobin concentrations in apparently healthy subjects living at sea level. A retrospective, epidemiological cohort study was performed in 1984. Participants were 1,503 men and 1,437 non-pregnant women evenly distributed in age cohorts of 30, 40, 50, and 60 years. Information of smoking habits and alcohol consumption were obtained by a questionnaire. Haemoglobin was measured in the fasting state on Coulter-S. Men displayed no difference in mean haemoglobin levels in the four age groups. In women, mean haemoglobin increased gradually with age (p = 0.001). Fifty-nine percent of men and 50% of women were daily smokers. Female smokers displayed a significant positive correlation between number of cigarettes/day and haemoglobin concentrations (r = 0.12, p = 0.002). Heavy smokers (more than ten cigarettes/day) had significantly higher mean haemoglobin (1.4% higher in men, on average 3.5% higher in women) than non-smokers (p < 0.01). Smokers demonstrated a significant correlation between cigarettes/day and drinks/week in men (r = 0.24, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.16, p < 0.001). Non-smokers displayed a significant positive correlation between drinks/week and haemoglobin concentrations in men (r = 0.14, p = 0.001) and women (r = 0.08, p = 0.05). In non-smokers, alcohol consumption >14 drinks/week and more than seven drinks/week for men and women, respectively, increased mean haemoglobin by 1.3% in men and by average 1.9% in women compared with those consuming < or =14 and less than or equal to seven drinks/week. Smokers displayed similar results. Body mass index per se had no direct influence on haemoglobin levels but had indirect positive influence in men through its correlation with tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking has an increasing effect on haemoglobin concentrations in both genders, which is proportional to the amount of tobacco smoked. The effect appears to be more pronounced in women. Likewise, high alcohol consumption has an increasing effect on haemoglobin in both genders, being most pronounced in women. However, in clinical biochemistry, the relatively small changes in haemoglobin do not justify the use of separate reference ranges in smokers and alcohol consumers. PMID:19039534

  10. Variability in the microbial communities and hydrothermal fluid chemistry at the newly discovered Mariner hydrothermal field, southern Lau Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Takai; Takuro Nunoura; Jun-ichiro Ishibashi; John Lupton; Ryohei Suzuki; Hiroshi Hamasaki; Yuichiro Ueno; Shinsuke Kawagucci; Toshitaka Gamo; Yohey Suzuki; Hisako Hirayama; Koki Horikoshi

    2008-01-01

    A newly discovered hydrothermal field called the Mariner field on the Valu Fa Ridge in the southern Lau Basin was explored and characterized with geochemical and microbiological analyses. The hydrothermal fluid discharging from the most vigorous vent (Snow Chimney, maximum discharge temperature 365°C) was boiling at the seafloor at a depth of 1908 m, and two distinct end-member hydrothermal fluids

  11. Emotional disorders and smoking: relations to quit attempts and cessation strategies among treatment-seeking smokers.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Farris, Samantha G; Leventhal, Adam M; Ditre, Joseph W; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-01-01

    The cross-sectional associations between lifetime emotional disorder status (anxiety/depressive disorders) among smokers in relation to historical quit processes were examined. Adult treatment-seeking daily cigarette smokers (n=472) received structured psychiatric interviews and completed a survey that included in-depth questions on cessation history. Having a lifetime emotional disorder was significantly associated with a greater number of prior quit attempts and cessation strategies used, including increased use of both non-pharmacological and pharmacological quit methods. These smokers may still require complimentary specialty care to address their specific affective vulnerabilities given that their use of commonly-applied strategies did not result in lifetime abstinence. PMID:25260199

  12. The chemistry of hydrothermal magnetite: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, Patrick; Angerer, Thomas; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; French, David; Walshe, John

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a well-recognized petrogenetic indicator and is a common accessory mineral in many ore deposits and their host rocks. Recent years have seen an increased interest in the use of hydrothermal magnetite for provenance studies and as a pathfinder for mineral exploration. A number of studies have investigated how specific formation conditions are reflected in the composition of the respective magnetite. Two fundamental questions underlie these efforts — (i) How can the composition of igneous and, more importantly, hydrothermal magnetite be used to discriminate mineralized areas from barren host rocks, and (ii) how can this assist exploration geologists to target ore deposits at greater and greater distances from the main mineralization? Similar to igneous magnetite, the most important factors that govern compositional variations in hydrothermal magnetite are (A) temperature, (B) fluid composition — element availability, (C) oxygen and sulfur fugacity, (D) silicate and sulfide activity, (E) host rock buffering, (F) re-equilibration processes, and (G) intrinsic crystallographic controls such as ionic radius and charge balance. We discuss how specific formation conditions are reflected in the composition of magnetite and review studies that investigate the chemistry of hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from various mineral deposits and their host rocks. Furthermore, we discuss the redox-related alteration of magnetite (martitization and mushketovitization) and mineral inclusions in magnetite and their effect on chemical analyses. Our database includes published and previously unpublished magnetite minor and trace element data for magnetite from (1) banded iron formations (BIF) and related high-grade iron ore deposits in Western Australia, India, and Brazil, (2) Ag–Pb–Zn veins of the Coeur d'Alene district, United States, (3) porphyry Cu–(Au)–(Mo) deposits and associated (4) calcic and magnesian skarn deposits in the southwestern United States and Indonesia, and (5) plutonic igneous rocks from the Henderson Climax-type Mo deposit, United States, and the un-mineralized Inner Zone Batholith granodiorite, Japan. These five settings represent a diverse suite of geological settings and cover a wide range of formation conditions. The main discriminator elements for magnetite are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, and Ga. These elements are commonly present at detectable levels (10 to > 1000 ppm) and display systematic variations. We propose a combination of Ni/(Cr + Mn) vs. Ti + V, Al + Mn vs. Ti + V, Ti/V and Sn/Ga discriminant plots and upper threshold concentrations to discriminate hydrothermal from igneous magnetite and to fingerprint different hydrothermal ore deposits. The overall trends in upper threshold values for the different settings can be summarized as follows: (I) BIF (hydrothermal) — low Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga and Sn; (II) Ag–Pb–Zn veins (hydrothermal) — high Mn and low Ga and Sn; (III) Mg-skarn (hydrothermal) — high Mg and Mn and low Al, Ti, Cr, Co, Ni and Ga; (IV) skarn (hydrothermal) — high Mg, Al, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn and low Sn; (V) porphyry (hydrothermal) — high Ti and V and low Sn; (VI) porphyry (igneous) — high Ti, V and Cr and low Mg; and (VII) Climax-Mo (igneous) — high Al, Ga and Sn and low Mg and Cr.

  13. Smoking cessation, obesity and weight concerns in black women: a call to action for culturally competent interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A. P.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 20.8% of black women and 23.1% of white women smoke, and significantly more blacks (37.4%) than whites (22.4%) are obese. Although the average amount of weight gain after quitting smoking is 6-8 lbs for women, blacks tend to gain substantially more weight. This large increase in postcessation weight gain in blacks may further augment the health risks that blacks face in conjunction with obesity. Interventions that promote smoking cessation, while simultaneously reducing weight concerns or weight gain has been proposed as a strategy to help weight-concerned women quit smoking. However, these studies have included primarily white samples and no studies have examined the feasibility or effectiveness of smoking-cessation and weight-control interventions for black women smokers. This review describes the literature on smoking, obesity/weight control and weight concerns in smokers, with a particular attention to black women smokers. A call to action to develop comprehensive and culturally competent smoking-cessation and obesity/weight-control interventions for black women is emphasized due to their high rates of smoking, obesity and postcessation weight gain. PMID:16396055

  14. Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2011-02-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Anton Koekemoer; 1. Black holes, entropy, and information G. T. Horowitz; 2. Gravitational waves from black-hole mergers J. G. Baker, W. D. Boggs, J. M. Centrella, B. J. Kelley, S. T. McWilliams and J. R. van Meter; 3. Out-of-this-world physics: black holes at future colliders G. Landsberg; 4. Black holes in globular clusters S. L. W. McMillan; 5. Evolution of massive black holes M. Volonteri; 6. Supermassive black holes in deep multiwavelength surveys C. M. Urry and E. Treister; 7. Black-hole masses from reverberation mapping B. M. Peterson and M. C. Bentz; 8. Black-hole masses from gas dynamics F. D. Macchetto; 9. Evolution of supermassive black holes A. Müller and G. Hasinger; 10. Black-hole masses of distant quasars M. Vestergaard; 11. The accretion history of supermassive black holes K. Brand and the NDWFS Boötes Survey Teams; 12. Strong field gravity and spin of black holes from broad iron lines A. C. Fabian; 13. Birth of massive black-hole binaries M. Colpi, M. Dotti, L. Mayer and S. Kazantzidis; 14. Dynamics around supermassive black holes A. Gualandris and D. Merritt; 15. Black-hole formation and growth: simulations in general relativity S. L. Shapiro; 16. Estimating the spins of stellar-mass black holes J. E. McClintock, R. Narayan and R. Shafee; 17. Stellar relaxation processes near the Galactic massive black hole T. Alexander; 18. Tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes S. Gezari; 19. Where to look for radiatively inefficient accretion flows in low-luminosity AGN M. Chiaberge; 20. Making black holes visible: accretion, radiation, and jets J. H. Krolik.

  15. Weight gain in smokers after quitting cigarettes: meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe weight gain and its variation in smokers who achieve prolonged abstinence for up to 12 months and who quit without treatment or use drugs to assist cessation. Design Meta-analysis. Data sources We searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and trials listed in Cochrane reviews of smoking cessation interventions (nicotine replacement therapy, nicotinic partial agonists, antidepressants, and exercise) for randomised trials of first line treatments (nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline) and exercise that reported weight change. We also searched CENTRAL for trials of interventions for weight gain after cessation. Review methods Trials were included if they recorded weight change from baseline to follow-up in abstinent smokers. We used a random effects inverse variance model to calculate the mean and 95% confidence intervals and the mean of the standard deviation for weight change from baseline to one, two, three, six, and 12 months after quitting. We explored subgroup differences using random effects meta-regression. Results 62 studies were included. In untreated quitters, mean weight gain was 1.12 kg (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.47), 2.26 kg (1.98 to 2.54), 2.85 kg (2.42 to 3.28), 4.23 kg (3.69 to 4.77), and 4.67 kg (3.96 to 5.38) at one, two, three, six, and 12 months after quitting, respectively. Using the means and weighted standard deviations, we calculated that at 12 months after cessation, 16%, 37%, 34%, and 13% of untreated quitters lost weight, and gained less than 5 kg, gained 5-10 kg, and gained more than 10 kg, respectively. Estimates of weight gain were similar for people using different pharmacotherapies to support cessation. Estimates were also similar between people especially concerned about weight gain and those not concerned. Conclusion Smoking cessation is associated with a mean increase of 4-5 kg in body weight after 12 months of abstinence, and most weight gain occurs within three months of quitting. Variation in weight change is large, with about 16% of quitters losing weight and 13% gaining more than 10 kg. PMID:22782848

  16. Relict hydrothermal zones in the TAG hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge 26°N, 45°W

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Rona; Yury A. Bogdanov; Evengy G. Gurvich; Nick A. Rimski-Korsakov; Anatoly M. Sagalevitch; Mark D. Hannington; Geoffrey Thompson

    1993-01-01

    Two relict hydrothermal zones were delineated between water depths of 3400 and 3500 m at the lower part of the east wall of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the TAG hydrothermal field using a deep-towed side scan sonar tow and a camera-temperature tow along the northern 3 km of the wall, and a submersible transect. Named the

  17. Does non-smoker identity following quitting predict long-term abstinence? Evidence from a population survey in England

    PubMed Central

    Tombor, Ildiko; Shahab, Lion; Brown, Jamie; Notley, Caitlin; West, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Aims ‘Categorical self-labels’ (e.g. thinking of oneself as a smoker or non-smoker) are important aspects of identity that can have a fundamental influence on behaviour. To explore the role identity aspects relating to smoking can play in smoking cessation and relapse, this study assessed the prospective associations between taking on a non-smoker identity following quitting and long-term abstinence. Methods A representative sample of 574 ex-smokers in England who quit smoking in the past year was followed-up at three (N = 179) and six months (N = 163). Post-quit identity relating to smoking (‘I still think of myself as a smoker’ or ‘I think of myself as a non-smoker’), and demographic and smoking-related characteristics were assessed at baseline. Self-reported smoking abstinence was assessed at follow-ups. Results Non-smoker identity was reported by 80.3% (95%CI 76.8–83.4) of recent ex-smokers. Younger age (p = 0.017) and longer abstinence (p < 0.001) were independently associated with a post-quit non-smoker identity. After adjusting for covariates, non-smoker identity (p = 0.032) and length of abstinence at baseline (p < 0.001) were associated with continued abstinence at three month follow-up, and baseline length of abstinence (p = 0.003) predicted continued abstinence at six months. Conclusions The majority of people who quit smoking recently consider themselves as non-smokers. Younger people and those who have been abstinent for longer are more likely to take on a non-smoker identity. Ex-smokers who make this mental transition following a quit attempt appear more likely to remain abstinent in the medium term than those who still think of themselves as smokers. PMID:25658770

  18. Sister chromatid exchange, (SCE), High-Frequency Cells (HFCs) and SCE distribution patterns in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Spanish adult smokers compared to non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Sebastià, Natividad; Hervás, David; Almonacid, Miguel; Villaescusa, Juan Ignacio; Soriano, José Miguel; Sahuquillo, Vicenta; Esteban, Valentín; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Verdú, Gumersindo; Cervera, José; Such, Esperanza; Montoro, Alegría

    2014-04-01

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, smoking tobacco is a major cause of cancer in humans. It causes about half of all male cancer deaths and an ever increasing number of cancer deaths in females. The aim of this study was to establish whether cigarette smoking increases sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in peripheral blood lymphocytes in two Spanish population groups; light and heavy smokers. The mean number of High-Frequency Cells (HFCs) was determined and, the SCE distribution pattern among the chromosomes was analysed represented by a ratio described below. A local sample of 101 adult smokers (n=48) and non-smokers (n=53), aged from 18 to 49 years, was studied using SCE levels in peripheral lymphocytes. Heavy smoking (? 10 cigarettes per day) increased significantly the SCE frequency and the HFC parameters. Neither age nor sex significantly influenced the frequencies in the groups studied. PMID:24444548

  19. Fungal colonization of an Ordovician impact-induced hydrothermal system

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Sturkell, Erik; Ormö, Jens; Siljeström, Sandra; van Zuilen, Mark; Bengtson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Impacts are common geologic features on the terrestrial planets throughout the solar system, and on at least Earth and Mars impacts have induced hydrothermal convection. Impact-generated hydrothermal systems have been suggested to possess the same life supporting capability as hydrothermal systems associated with volcanic activity. However, evidence of fossil microbial colonization in impact-generated hydrothermal systems is scarce in the literature. Here we report of fossilized microorganisms in association with cavity-grown hydrothermal minerals from the 458?Ma Lockne impact structure, Sweden. Based on morphological characteristics the fossilized microorganisms are interpreted as fungi. We further infer the kerogenization of the microfossils, and thus the life span of the fungi, to be contemporaneous with the hydrothermal activity and migration of hydrocarbons in the system. Our results from the Lockne impact structure show that hydrothermal systems associated with impact structures can support colonization by microbial life. PMID:24336641

  20. Efficiencies of Power Plants Using Hydrothermal Oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuma Hirosaka; Korakot Yuvamitra; Akira Ishikawa; Tatsuya Hasegawa

    2008-01-01

    Wet biomass is hard to handle as a fuel for power plants because it contains high moisture and its drying process needs more energy input than it produces. Hydrothermal oxidation could be one of the promising technologies to overcome this problem because this process does not need drying process at all. We focus on recovery of thermal energy produced by

  1. DRILLED HYDROTHERMAL ENERGY Drilling for seawater

    E-print Network

    Water Desalination Fuel Production Waste Water Treatment Increased CO2 Absorbtion Agriculture & Mari) of cold water pipe WAS LOST 3 TIMES before demonstrating power generation #12;DRILLED HYDROTHERMAL ENERGY BACKGROUND After a 2006 earthquake on the Big Island The NELHA cold water pipe cracked allowing warm water

  2. The Discovery of Marine Hydrothermal Vents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    OceanLink

    As part of OceanLink, a website dedicated to ocean education, this site gives an overview of the discovery, geology and ecology of marine hydrothermal vents. The site also provides a menu of links to access other OceanLink pages for further ocean-related information.

  3. Hydrothermal gasification of biomass and organic wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Schmieder; J. Abeln; N. Boukis; E. Dinjus; A. Kruse; M. Kluth; G. Petrich; E. Sadri; M. Schacht

    2000-01-01

    Wet biomass and organic wastes can be efficiently gasified under hydrothermal conditions to produce a hydrogen rich fuel gas. New experiments in two tubular flow reactors and in two batch autoclaves with carbohydrates, with aromatic compounds, with glycine as a model compound for proteins and with real biomass are reported for different residence times, temperatures and pressures. It was found

  4. Hydrothermal carbonization of municipal waste streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that can be used to convert municipal waste streams into sterilized, value-added hydrochar. HTC has been mostly applied and studied on a limited number of feedstocks, ranging from pure substances to slightly more complex biomass ...

  5. As U.S. Smoking Rate Drops, Smokers More Likely to Quit

    MedlinePLUS

    As U.S. Smoking Rate Drops, Smokers More Likely to Quit: Study Efforts to discourage the unhealthy habit have made it less ... theory of "hardening," which has held that as smoking rates decline those who still smoke will be ...

  6. COMPARATIVE YIELDS OF MUTAGENS FROM CIGARETTE SMOKERS' URINE OBTAINED BY USING SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urine from cigarette smokers was prepared for mutagenicity testing by extracting mutagens with solid phase extraction columns. ommercially available prepacked bonded silicas (cotadecyl, cyclohexyl, cyanopropyl) were compared for their efficiency and specificity in concentration o...

  7. Two groups of occasional smokers : different pathways with the same outcome

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Quyen B.

    2010-01-01

    in the social network may exert some influence on smokers onMechanisms for social influence could involve network “normssocial network (Christakis & Fowler, 2008). Possible mechanisms for social influence

  8. Plasma Antioxidants Are Associated with Impaired Lung Function and COPD Exacerbations in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Nicks, Michael E.; O’Brien, Maureen M.; Bowler, Russell P.

    2015-01-01

    Low molecule weight antioxidants such as uric acid (UA), glutathione (GSH), and ascorbate (ASC) counter the effects of oxidants produced by cigarette smoke. Although dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidants has been associated with a reduced risk of smokers developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the association between plasma antioxidants and COPD is less clear. In this cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship among plasma antioxidants and COPD phenotypes (severity of airflow obstruction on spirometry and history of exacerbations) in 136 smokers with normal lung function and 367 smokers with COPD. In the multivariate analysis, a lower plasma UA was associated with more severe COPD (P <0.002) and a lower GSH was associated with a history of COPD exacerbations (P =0.03); ASC was not associated with any COPD phenotypes. This suggests that antioxidant balance is impaired in smokers with obstruction on spirometry or a history of COPD exacerbations. PMID:21627570

  9. Do different styles of antismoking ads influence the types of smokers who call quitlines?

    PubMed

    Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C; Kamyab, Kian; MacMonegle, Anna J

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between television antismoking advertisements and the proportion of smokers who call a smokers' quitline who are ready to quit or have high confidence in quitting. The primary data of interest came from completed intake interviews of smokers. Using a generalized linear model, we modeled the proportion of Quitline callers who are ready to quit and/or have high confidence in quitting. The primary explanatory variable was monthly target audience rating points (TARPs) for antismoking advertisements, a measure of broadcast media exposure, obtained from the state's media buyer. The proportions of callers ready to quit and with high confidence in quitting were negatively associated with total TARPs. This result, over all ad types, was driven by why to quit-graphic ads. These results suggest that why to quit-graphic ads influence smokers who are less ready to quit or have lower confidence they can quit, likely new quitters, to call the Quitline. PMID:22843327

  10. Epithelial cells from smokers modify dendritic cell responses in the context of influenza infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for infection with influenza, but the mechanisms underlying this susceptibility remain unknown. To ascertain if airway epithelial cells from smokers demonstrate a decreased ability to orchestrate an influenza...

  11. The risk of losing 10 years of life put in perspective: views of college student smokers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Hui; Huang, Song-Lih

    2015-03-01

    Health messages have limited effects on young smokers. The health effects typically have long latent periods, and the appreciation of risk depends on the meaning given to longevity. This study aims to understand how college student smokers interpreted the risks of losing 10 years of life because of smoking. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 23 male smokers from a relatively low-achieving college in southern Taiwan. The participants had vague ideas about the future; were not expecting a successful life, thought life was stressful and boring; and expressed that there was no need to live too long. Many believed that removing the stress and having a composed lifestyle was the way to becoming healthy, which could be achieved only by people with economic success. They would quit had they been rich. Empowerment to help young smokers gain control over their life events may be the key to tobacco control. PMID:23695539

  12. Cognitive Functions, Personality Traits, and Social Values in Heavy Marihuana Smokers and Nonsmoker Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckowicz, Thaddeus E.; Janssen, Doug V.

    1973-01-01

    To determine the effect of chronic marihuana smoking on cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values, a group of heavy marihuana smokers was compared with a matched control group. (Author)

  13. Effects of Online Comments on Smokers’ Perception of Anti-Smoking Public Service Announcements

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Rui; Messaris, Paul; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2014-01-01

    On YouTube anti-smoking PSAs are widely viewed and uploaded; they also receive extensive commentary by viewers. This study examined whether such evaluative comments with or without uncivil expressions influence evaluations by subsequent viewers. Results showed PSAs with positive (i.e. anti-smoking) comments were perceived by smokers as more effective than PSAs with negative (pro smoking) comments. Smokers in the no comment condition gave the highest perceived effectiveness score to PSAs. Smokers’ readiness to quit smoking moderated the effect of comments on PSA evaluation. Smokers reading negative uncivil comments reported more negative attitude toward quitting and a lower level of perceived risk of smoking than those reading negative civil comments but positive civil and positive uncivil comments didn't elicit different responses. PMID:25561825

  14. Experimental constraints on hydrothermal activities in Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Y.; Shibuya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Kuwatani, T.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most remarkable findings by the Cassini-Huygens mission is perhaps water-rich plumes erupting from the south-pole region of Enceladus [1]. Given such geological activity and the detection of sodium salts in the plume, the interior of Enceladus is highly likely to contain an interior ocean interacting with the rock core [2]. A primary question regarding astrobiology and planetary science is whether Enceladus has (or had) hydrothermal activities in the interior ocean. Because N2 might be formed by thermal dissociation of primordial NH3 [3], the presence of N2 in the plume may be a possible indicator for the presence of hydrothermal activities in Enceladus. However, the Cassini UVIS revealed that the plumes do not contain large amounts of N2 [4]. Although these observations may not support the presence of hydrothermal activities, whether NH3 dissociation proceeds strongly depends on the kinetics of hydrothermal reactions and interactions with the rock components, which remain largely unknown. Furthermore, the Cassini CDA recently showed that small amounts of SiO2 might have been included in the plume dusts [5]. Formation of amorphous SiO2 usually occurs when high-temperature and/or high-pH solution with high concentrations of dissolved SiO2 cools and/or is neutralized. Thus, the presence of SiO2 in the plume dusts may suggest the presence of a temperature and/or pH gradient in the ocean. However, no laboratory experiments have investigated what processes control pH and SiO2 concentrations in hydrothermal fluids possibly existing in Enceladus. Here, we show the results of laboratory experiments simulating hydrothermal systems on Enceladus. As the initial conditions, we used both aqueous solution of high concentrations (0.01-2%) of NH3 and NaHCO3 and powdered olivine as an analog for the rock components. Our experimental results show that formation of N2 from NH3 is kinetically and thermodynamically inhibited even under high temperature conditions (< 400°C). This is because NH3 decomposition proceeds inefficiently due to efficient H2 production via serpentinization. Our experimental results also suggest that SiO2 concentration dissolved in hydrothermal fluids simulating Enceladus' condition would be buffered by the serpentine-brucite system. The presence of NH3 in the hydrothermal conditions keeps pH of the solution high (pH 9-11). We suggest that under such conditions, SiO2 concentrations in the fluids would be 0.1 mmol/L or less for temperature < 350°C. Given the SiO2 solubility of 1-10 mmol/L at 0°C and pH 9-11, direct formation of amorphous SiO2 would not occur in Enceladus' hydrothermal systems. To produce amorphous SiO2, large-scale hydrothermal activities and subsequent concentration of dissolved SiO2 in the ocean (due to freezing and/or evaporation of liquid water) would be required, which is consistent with high concentrations of radiogenic Ar and sodium salts in the plume [2, 6]. [1] Porco et al., Science 311, 1393 (2006). [2] Postberg et al., Nature 459, 1098 (2009). [3] Matson et al., Icarus 187, 569 (2007). [4] Hansen t al., Geophs. Res. Lett. 38, L11202 (2011). [5] Hsu et al., EOS Trans. AGU, (2010). [6] Waite et al., Nature 460, 487 (2009).

  15. Making smokers different with nicotine: NRT and quitting.

    PubMed

    Keane, Helen

    2013-05-01

    This article applies the insights of Actor Network Theory to analyse some of the actions performed by Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT), a technology which separates nicotine physically and conceptually from the harms of tobacco and enhances its capacities to act against rather than for smoking. The article argues that NRT puts into action a medicalised logic of substitution in which dependence on nicotine becomes a route to health as well as a disorder to be treated. NRT thereby enables different performances of the substance nicotine, the identity smoker and the practice of quitting. The article draws on a range of smoking cessation and tobacco control literature, including medical and public health research, government-sponsored stop smoking websites and clinical guidelines to trace the changes produced by the shifting status of most forms of NRT from prescription medication to consumer health product. It also examines less conventional uses of NRT which produce varied practices of quitting and thus support the possibility of tobacco harm reduction based on the circulation of 'good nicotine'. PMID:23465645

  16. Increased expression of hepatic DNA methyltransferase in smokers.

    PubMed

    Hammons, G J; Yan, Y; Lopatina, N G; Jin, B; Wise, C; Blann, E B; Poirier, L A; Kadlubar, F F; Lyn-Cook, B D

    1999-01-01

    The DNA methyltransferase enzyme (DNA MTase) catalyzes DNA methylation at cytosines in CpG dinucleotides. 5-Methylcytosine modification of DNA is important in gene regulation, DNA replication, chromatin organization and disease. Increased levels of DNA MTase have been associated with the initiation and promotion of cancer. This study was conducted to assess whether cigarette smoking and other factors, such as age and gender, influence DNA MTase expression in nontumorous tissue. DNA MTase was significantly (p<0.05) higher in samples from cigarette smokers; the mean level of DNA MTase mRNA was almost 2-fold higher in these samples than in those from nonsmokers. Levels of DNA MTase mRNA were higher in samples from females than in those from males, but the difference was not statistically significant. Age was not associated with DNA MTase levels. Increased levels of DNA MTase in individuals who smoke may indicate a greater susceptibility to the risk of cancer since increased levels of this enzyme are found in cancer cell lines and human tumors. The results of this study suggest that further investigations of increased expression of this enzyme as a predisposing factor for cancer susceptibility are needed. PMID:10811534

  17. Cue-Elicited Negative Affect in Impulsive Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Doran, Neal; Cook, Jessica; McChargue, Dennis; Myers, Mark; Spring, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Impulsivity is associated with cigarette smoking, but the nature of this relationship and the mechanisms that maintain it are relatively unknown. The relationship has often been thought to reflect appetitive processes, but research suggests that an affective pathway exists as well. The present study tested the effect of impulsivity on affective responses to an environmental smoking cue. Adult smokers (N = 62) were exposed to a neutral cue and a smoking cue in separate experimental sessions in a repeated-measures design. Mixed-effects regression analyses showed that larger postexposure increases in negative affect were associated with high scores on 2 facets of impulsivity: urgency, t(179) = 6.16, p < .001, and sensation seeking, t(179) = 4.75, p < .001. Heightened impulsivity was associated with lower levels of positive affect generally but not with positive affective responses to cue exposure. Findings provide support for the existence of a negative affective pathway linking impulsivity and cigarette smoking, and they suggest that this pathway may be specific to the urgency and sensation-seeking components of impulsivity. PMID:18540722

  18. Hydrothermal systems in small ocean planets.

    PubMed

    Vance, Steve; Harnmeijer, Jelte; Kimura, Jun; Hussmann, Hauke; Demartin, Brian; Brown, J Michael

    2007-12-01

    We examine means for driving hydrothermal activity in extraterrestrial oceans on planets and satellites of less than one Earth mass, with implications for sustaining a low level of biological activity over geological timescales. Assuming ocean planets have olivine-dominated lithospheres, a model for cooling-induced thermal cracking shows how variation in planet size and internal thermal energy may drive variation in the dominant type of hydrothermal system-for example, high or low temperature system or chemically driven system. As radiogenic heating diminishes over time, progressive exposure of new rock continues to the current epoch. Where fluid-rock interactions propagate slowly into a deep brittle layer, thermal energy from serpentinization may be the primary cause of hydrothermal activity in small ocean planets. We show that the time-varying hydrostatic head of a tidally forced ice shell may drive hydrothermal fluid flow through the seafloor, which can generate moderate but potentially important heat through viscous interaction with the matrix of porous seafloor rock. Considering all presently known potential ocean planets-Mars, a number of icy satellites, Pluto, and other trans-neptunian objects-and applying Earth-like material properties and cooling rates, we find depths of circulation are more than an order of magnitude greater than in Earth. In Europa and Enceladus, tidal flexing may drive hydrothermal circulation and, in Europa, may generate heat on the same order as present-day radiogenic heat flux at Earth's surface. In all objects, progressive serpentinization generates heat on a globally averaged basis at a fraction of a percent of present-day radiogenic heating and hydrogen is produced at rates between 10(9) and 10(10) molecules cm(2) s(1). PMID:18163874

  19. Reactions to Framing of Cessation Messages: Insights From Dual-Smoker Couples

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Couples in which both members smoke (dual-smoker couples) have not been the explicit target of cessation interventions. Quit rates are lower and relapse rates are higher among individuals in dual-smoker couples. A potentially effective strategy to motivate dual-smoker couples to quit is to convey messages that highlight how the positive outcomes of quitting (gain frame) or the negative outcomes of continued smoking (loss frame) affect the couple rather than the individual smoker. We explored whether dual-smoker couples’ smoking behaviors (e.g., amount smoked) and desire to quit would differ as a function of message frame (gain vs. loss) or outcome focus (individual vs. couple). Methods: Dual-smoker couples (N = 40) completed a baseline survey and were then randomized to review gain- or loss-framed messages that varied whether the outcomes influenced the individual or the couple. Main outcomes were desire to quit after reading messages and smoking behaviors at a 1-month follow-up. Results: Couple-focused messages produced the strongest desire to quit and decreased amount of cigarettes smoked at follow-up. The latter effect was mediated by desire to quit. Loss-framed messages produced inconsistent effects on desire to quit. There were no significant interactions between outcome focus and message framing. Conclusions: Findings suggest that messages emphasizing how smoking affects both partners can motivate cessation among dual-smoker couples. Contrary to findings showing that gain-framed messages motivate cessation targeting individual smokers, results suggest that loss-framed messages may be more persuasive than gain-framed messages when the target of the outcome involves significant others. PMID:23943846

  20. Determining Smoker Status using Supervised and Unsupervised Learning with Lexical Features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted Pedersen

    This paper describes three University of Min- nesota, Duluth systems that participated in the I2B2 NLP smoker-status challenge. The task was to identify if a patient was a smoker based the content of their medical record. We took both supervised and unsupervised learning approaches. The one supervised system learned a decision tree from 398 manually annotated training records pro- vided

  1. What is behind smoker support for new smokefree areas? National survey data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some countries have started to extend indoor smokefree laws to cover cars and various outdoor settings. However, policy-modifiable factors around smoker support for these new laws are not well described. Methods The New Zealand (NZ) arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project) derives its sample from the NZ Health Survey (a national sample). From this sample we surveyed adult smokers (n = 1376). Results For the six settings considered, 59% of smokers supported at least three new completely smokefree areas. Only 2% favoured smoking being allowed in all the six new settings. Support among Maori, Pacific and Asian smokers relative to European smokers was elevated in multivariate analyses, but confidence intervals often included 1.0. Also in the multivariate analyses, "strong support" by smokers for new smokefree area laws was associated with greater knowledge of the second-hand smoke (SHS) hazard, and with behaviours to reduce SHS exposure towards others. Strong support was also associated with reporting having smokefree cars (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.21 - 2.34); and support for tobacco control regulatory measures by government (aOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.32 - 2.01). There was also stronger support by smokers with a form of financial stress (not spending on household essentials). Conclusions Smokers from a range of population groups can show majority support for new outdoor and smokefree car laws. Some of these findings are consistent with the use of public health strategies to support new smokefree laws, such as enhancing public knowledge of the second-hand smoke hazard. PMID:20718985

  2. Changes over time in weight concerns among women smokers engaged in the cessation process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colleen M. McBride; Simone A. French; Phyllis L. Pirie; Robert W. Jeffery

    1996-01-01

    Weight concerns have been reported by women smokers to be barriers to initial cessation and to sustained abstinence. This\\u000a article examines the temporal patterns of weight concerns and self-efficacy for cessation among three groups of women smokers:\\u000a non-quitters, short-term quitters, and long-term quitters. Subjects were 417 women aged 20–64 who had participated in a randomized\\u000a smoking cessation intervention trial. Over

  3. Relation of nicotine yield of cigarettes to blood nicotine concentrations in smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M A Russell; M Jarvis; R Iyer; C Feyerabend

    1980-01-01

    Blood nicotine and carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) concentrations were studied in 330 smokers (206 women and 124 men). Blood nicotine concentrations in individual smokers varied from 25 to 444 nmol\\/l (4 to 72 ng\\/ml). The average concentration, 203 nmol\\/l (33 ng\\/ml), was the same in the men and the women, although cigarette consumption was higher in the men. Despite large differences in

  4. Chemoprevention and screening for lung cancer: changing our focus to former smokers.

    PubMed

    Clamon, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials of chemoprevention for lung cancer have yielded negative results, with suggested worsening of cancer incidence in those who continue to smoke. Continued smoking over age 55 is associated with decreased longevity and multiple comorbidities. It is possible that clinical trials focusing on former smokers in both prevention and screening trials will yield significant benefit, now masked by the population of continued smokers. PMID:25454006

  5. Winning and losing: differences in reward and punishment sensitivity between smokers and nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Laura E; Cox, Lisa S; Brooks, William M; Savage, Cary R

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokers show increased brain activation in reward processing regions in response to smoking-related cues, yet few studies have examined secondary rewards not associated with smoking (i.e., money). Inconsistencies exist in the studies that do examine secondary rewards with some studies showing increased brain activation in reward processing brain regions, while others show decreased activation or no difference in activation between smokers and nonsmokers. Aims The goal of the current study is to see if smokers process the evaluation and delivery of equally salient real world rewards similarly or differently than nonsmokers. Methods The current study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain responses in smokers and nonsmokers during the evaluation and delivery of monetary gains and losses. Results In comparison to nonsmokers, smokers showed increased activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex to the evaluation of anticipated monetary losses and the brain response. Moreover, smokers compared to nonsmokers showed decreased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus to the delivery of expected monetary gains. Brain activations to both the evaluation of anticipated monetary losses and the delivery of expected monetary gains correlated with increased self-reported smoking craving to relieve negative withdrawal symptoms and craving related to positive aspects of smoking, respectively. Discussion Together these results indicate that smokers are hyperresponsive to the evaluation of anticipated punishment and hyporesponsive to the delivery of expected rewards. Although further research is needed, this hypersensitivity to punishments coupled with increased craving may negatively impact quit attempts as smokers anticipate the negative withdrawal symptoms associated with quitting. PMID:25365800

  6. “You're made to feel like a dirty filthy smoker when you're not, cigar smoking is another thing all together.” Responses of Australian cigar and cigarillo smokers to plain packaging

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Caroline L; Ettridge, Kerry A; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore experiences of cigar and cigarillo smokers under Australian laws requiring plain packaging (PP) and strengthened graphic health warnings (GHWs). Methods In February/March 2014, we conducted: in-depth interviews with 10 regular premium cigar smokers; two focus groups with occasional premium cigar and premium cigarillo smokers (n=14); four focus groups with non-premium cigarillo smokers (n=28); and a national online survey of cigar and/or cigarillo smokers (n=268). Results Premium cigar smokers had limited exposure to PP, with many purchasing fully branded cigars in boxes duty free or online and singles in non-compliant packaging. Those who were exposed noticed and were concerned by the warnings, tried to avoid them and felt more like ‘dirty smokers’. Changes in perceived taste, harm and value were minimal for experienced premium cigar smokers. Occasional premium cigar and premium cigarillo smokers with higher PP exposure (gained by purchasing boxes rather than singles) perceived cigar/package appeal and value had declined and noticed the GHWs. Non-premium cigarillo smokers reported high PP exposure, reduced perceived appeal, quality, taste, enjoyment and value, somewhat increased perceived harm, greater noticeability of GHWs and concealment of packs and more contemplation of quitting. Online survey participants reported increased noticeability of GHWs (33%), decreased appeal of packaging (53%) and reduced consumption of cigars (42%) and cigarillos (44%) since PP implementation. Conclusions Non-premium cigarillo smokers appear to have been most exposed and influenced by PP, with cigar smokers less so, especially regular premium cigar smokers who have maintained access to fully branded products.

  7. Hydrothermal Activity on ultraslow Spreading Ridge: new hydrothermal fields found on the Southwest Indian ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, C.; Li, H.; Deng, X.; Lei, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, K.; Zhou, J.; Liu, W.

    2014-12-01

    Ultraslow spreading ridge makes up about 25% of global mid-ocean ridge length. Previous studies believed that hydrothermal activity is not widespread on the ultraslow spreading ridge owing to lower magma supply. Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) with the spreading rate between 1.2cm/a to 1.4cm/a, represents the ultraslow spreading ridge. In 2007, Chinese Cruise (CC) 19th discovered the Dragon Flag deposit (DFD) on the SWIR, which is the first active hydrothermal field found on the ultraslow spreading ridge. In recent years, over 10 hydrothermal fields have been found on the SWIR between Indomed and Gallieni transform faults by the Chinese team. Tao et al. (2012) implied that the segment sections with excess heat from enhanced magmatism and suitable crustal permeability along slow and ultraslow ridges might be the most promising areas for searching for hydrothermal activities. In 2014, CC 30thdiscovered five hydrothermal fields and several hydrothermal anomalies on the SWIR. Dragon Horn Area (DHA). The DHA is located on the southern of segment 27 SWIR, with an area of about 400 km2. The geophysical studies indicated that the DHA belongs to the oceanic core complex (OCC), which is widespread on the slow spreading ridges (Zhao et al., 2013). The rocks, such as gabbro, serpentinized peridotite, and consolidated carbonate were collected in the DHA, which provide the direct evidence with the existence of the OCC. However, all rock samples gathered by three TV-grab stations are basalts on the top of the OCC. A hydrothermal anomaly area, centered at 49.66°E?37.80° S with a range of several kms, is detected in the DHA. It is probably comprised of several hydrothermal fields and controlled by a NW fault. New discovery of hydrothermal fields. From January to April 2014, five hydrothermal fields were discovered on the SWIR between 48°E to 50°E during the leg 2&3 of the CC 30th, which are the Su Causeway field (48.6°E, 38.1°S), Bai Causeway field (48.8°E, 37.9 °S), Dragon Well West field (49.6°E, 37.8°S), Dragon Well East field (49.8°E, 37.8°S), and Landing Stage field (51.0°E, 37.5°S), respectively.

  8. Relict hydrothermal zones in the TAG Hydrothermal Field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge 26°N, 45°W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, Peter A.; Bogdanov, Yury A.; Gurvich, Evengy G.; Rimski-Korsakov, Nick A.; Sagalevitch, Anatoly M.; Hannington, Mark D.; Thompson, Geoffrey

    1993-06-01

    Two relict hydrothermal zones were delineated between water depths of 3400 and 3500 m at the lower part of the east wall of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the TAG hydrothermal field using a deep-towed side scan sonar tow and a camera-temperature tow along the northern 3 km of the wall, and a submersible transect. Named the North and MIR relict zones, they are located about 4 km and 2 km northeast, respectively, of the known active high-temperature sulfide mound between water depths of 3625 and 3670 m on the rift valley floor near the base of the east wall. The North zone extends about 2 km along the northern end of the lower east wall. The zone includes two moundlike features up to 30 m high by 200 m in diameter imaged by side scan sonar within a 2-km-long line of discontinuous hydrothermal deposits comprising inactive toppled and standing chimneys, layered material, and patchy dark stains on sediment photographed by the camera-temperature tow. Several other moundlike features were imaged with the side scan sonar outside of the photographic coverage. The MIR relict hydrothermal zone 2 km south of the North zone, named after the MIR submersible used to investigate it, consists of three subzones: (1) a 200-m-wide area of diverse types of hydrothermal materials exposed by normal faulting at its western margin; (2) a 400-m-wide by 700-m-long central area of discrete groups of toppled and standing inactive sulfide chimneys up to 25 m high on a substrate of red metalliferous sediment and carbonate lutite; spires sampled on the highest chimneys are composed of coarse-grained, recrystallized sulfides dominated by pyrite and chalcopyrite which contain the first primary, free gold grains (2-3 ?m diameter) found at a hydrothermal site on a mid-ocean ridge; and (3) a 150-m-wide hummocky area of layered hydrothermal material with the appearance of low temperature precipitates and carbonate lutite with patchy dark stains at its eastern margin. The active sulfide mound, the North zone, and the MIR zone are each located on the fractured western margins of gentle, dome-shaped areas of pillow flows typically 500 m in diameter interpreted as summits of volcanic centers that may have supplied heat to drive adjacent hydrothermal activity. The distribution and size of the active and inactive hydrothermal zones of the TAG field, the chronology, and the characteristics of relict samples recovered indicate a history of at least 100 ×103 years of high-temperature hydrothermal episodes with multiple overprinting stages of mineralization accompanied by alteration.

  9. Predictors of smoking cessation medication use among nonobese and obese smokers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mo; Mehta, Hemalkumar B; Bhowmik, Debajyoti; Essien, Ekere James; Abughosh, Susan M

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and compare the predictors of smoking cessation medication use among obese and nonobese adult smokers. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data (2008-2009). The study participants included smokers aged 18 years and older who self-reported their smoking status as smoker. The outcome variable was utilization of any Food and Drug Administration approved smoking cessation medication (varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapy). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. A total of 82.20 million (weighted sample size for two years) adult smokers were included; of which nearly 30% were obese-smokers. The use of smoking cessation medication was 2.66% and 5.17% among nonobese and obese smokers, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression results showed that race/ethnicity, health insurance coverage, prescription insurance coverage, usual source of health care, urban residence, region, Charlson comorbidity index, and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), were significant predictors of using smoking cessation medications. The overall smoking cessation medication use rate was low implying limited compliance to guideline. Predictors identified in this study should be taken into consideration in health promotion programs that are designed to optimize the utilization of these smoking cessation medications. PMID:24494623

  10. Use of flavored cigarettes among older adolescent and adult smokers: United States, 2004--2005.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sarah M; Giovino, Gary A; Barker, Dianne C; Tworek, Cindy; Cummings, K Michael; O'Connor, Richard J

    2008-07-01

    Cigarettes with candy, fruit and alcohol flavors have been introduced in recent years as extensions to popular cigarette brands, raising concerns in the public health community that the enticing names, creative packaging, and intense flavorings of these products may be especially appealing to youth. This study used two national surveys to examine the prevalence of use of Camel Exotic Blends, Kool Smooth Fusion, and Salem Silver Label brands during 2004--2005 among older adolescents and young adult smokers aged 17-26 years and adult smokers aged > or =25 years. Overall use of any of these flavored brands in the past 30 days was 11.9% among smokers aged 17-26 years and 6.7% among smokers aged > or =25 years. A significant gradient in use was seen across age, with the highest rates of utilization among 17-year-old (22.8%) and 18-19-year-old smokers (21.7%) (p<.001). Uniquely flavored cigarette brands seem to be most attractive to the youngest smokers and should be prohibited. PMID:18629731

  11. How does increasingly plainer cigarette packaging influence adult smokers’ perceptions about brand image? An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, M A; Germain, D; Durkin, S J

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cigarette packaging is a key marketing strategy for promoting brand image. Plain packaging has been proposed to limit brand image, but tobacco companies would resist removal of branding design elements. Method: A 3 (brand types) × 4 (degree of plain packaging) between-subject experimental design was used, using an internet online method, to expose 813 adult Australian smokers to one randomly selected cigarette pack, after which respondents completed ratings of the pack. Results: Compared with current cigarette packs with full branding, cigarette packs that displayed progressively fewer branding design elements were perceived increasingly unfavourably in terms of smokers’ appraisals of the packs, the smokers who might smoke such packs, and the inferred experience of smoking a cigarette from these packs. For example, cardboard brown packs with the number of enclosed cigarettes displayed on the front of the pack and featuring only the brand name in small standard font at the bottom of the pack face were rated as significantly less attractive and popular than original branded packs. Smokers of these plain packs were rated as significantly less trendy/stylish, less sociable/outgoing and less mature than smokers of the original pack. Compared with original packs, smokers inferred that cigarettes from these plain packs would be less rich in tobacco, less satisfying and of lower quality tobacco. Conclusion: Plain packaging policies that remove most brand design elements are likely to be most successful in removing cigarette brand image associations. PMID:18827035

  12. Depressive Symptoms Among Heavy Cigarette Smokers: The Influence of Daily Rate, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cigarette smokers experience higher levels of depressive symptoms and are more likely to be diagnosed with depressive disorders than nonsmokers. To date, the nature of the smoking–depression relationship has not been adequately studied among heavy smokers, a group at elevated risk for poor health outcomes. In this study, we examined depressive symptom expression among heavy smokers while considering the moderating roles of smoking status, gender, and race. We also explored whether amount of tobacco usually consumed had an impact. Methods: We extracted data from a large, highly nicotine-dependent, nontreatment cigarette smoking study sample (N = 6,158). Participants who consented were screened for major exclusions, and they completed questionnaires. Results: Smokers reported a higher, clinically meaningful level of depressive symptoms relative to nonsmokers (27.3% of smokers vs. 12.5% of nonsmokers) scored above the clinical cutoff on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale (p < .001), which differed among race × gender subgroups. Further, amount of daily intake was inversely associated with self-report of depressive symptoms. For every 10-cigarette increment, the likelihood of scoring above the CES-D clinical cutoff decreased by 62% (p < .0001). Conclusions: These findings improve our understanding of tobacco’s influence on depressive symptom expression among heavy smokers, with implications for tailoring evidence-based tobacco treatments. PMID:23569006

  13. A Population Based Study on the Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking and Smokers’ Characteristics at Osogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adepoju, Ebenezer G; Olowookere, Samuel A; Adeleke, Najemdeen A; Afolabi, Olusegun T; Olajide, Folakemi O; Aluko, Olufemi O

    2013-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking has been linked to several cancers worldwide. The characteristics of smokers have not been well documented among Nigerians. Objective This study assessed the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smokers among the residents of Osogbo, in southwestern Nigeria. Method The study, a population based cross-sectional study of randomly selected consenting adult residents of Osogbo, was conducted in September of 2011. Data was collected using a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire on cigarette smoking. Results A total of 759 respondents were interviewed. Mean age was 42.1 ± 12.5 years. There were 364 (48%) males and 395 (52%) females. About 22% had ever smoked while 8.7% were current smokers, smoking an average of 22.9 ± 10.1 cigarettes per day. Males constituted the majority of current smokers. Most smokers (71%) were introduced to smoking by friends and ill health was the most often reported reason for quitting. Conclusion Cigarette smoking is commonly practiced among males in the studied population and awareness creation and advocacy should be conducted throughout the city in order to inform current smokers about the hazards and cumulative effects inherent in smoking. PMID:25774084

  14. Protective effects of Haematococcus astaxanthin on oxidative stress in healthy smokers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hae; Chang, Min Jung; Choi, Hye Duck; Youn, Yeo-Kyu; Kim, Jung Tae; Oh, Jung Mi; Shin, Wan Gyoon

    2011-11-01

    Free radicals induced by cigarette smoking have been strongly linked to increased oxidative stress in vivo, contributing to the pathobiology of various diseases. This study was performed to investigate the effects of Haematococcus astaxanthin (ASX), which has been known to be a potent antioxidant, on oxidative stress in smokers. Thirty-nine heavy smokers (?20 cigarettes/day) and 39 non-smokers were enrolled in this study. Smokers were randomly divided into three dosage groups to receive ASX at doses of 5, 20, or 40 mg (n=13, each) once daily for 3 weeks. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as malondialdehyde, isoprostane, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity, and ASX levels in plasma were measured at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of treatment. Compared with baseline, the plasma malondialdehyde and isoprostane levels decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase level and total antioxidant capacity increased in all ASX intervention groups over the 3-week period. In particular, isoprostane levels showed a significant dose-dependent decrease after ASX intake. The results suggest that ASX supplementation might prevent oxidative damage in smokers by suppressing lipid peroxidation and stimulating the activity of the antioxidant system in smokers. PMID:21883001

  15. Trends in alternative tobacco use among light, moderate, and heavy smokers in adolescence, 1999–2009?

    PubMed Central

    Nasim, Aashir; Khader, Yousef; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine trends in alternative tobacco product (ATP) use (smokeless tobacco, cigars, and bidis/cloves) among a national sample of adolescent cigarette smokers (light, moderate, and heavy) during 1999–2009. Method A secondary analysis of data from the 1999–2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey was performed to investigate the tobacco behaviors of 6th through 12th graders enrolled in public and private schools in the United States. Long-term trends in ATP use were analyzed using logistic regression – controlling for sex, grade, and race/ethnicity – and simultaneously assessing linear and higher order time effects and their interaction with cigarette smoking status. Results During 1999–2009, increases in smokeless tobacco use and decreases in bidis/cloves use were observed across all smoking groups. For cigars, declines were observed for heavy and moderate smokers, but levels returned to baseline levels in 2009. Cigar use among light smokers was less variable. Rates of any ATP were highest among heavy smokers and lowest among light smokers. Conclusion Trends in cigarette and SLT use increased dramatically in the past decade, and this increase is evident across all cigarette smoker types. Implications for tobacco surveillance, prevention and cessation programs, and tobacco control policies are discussed. PMID:22464872

  16. Progesterone improves cognitive performance and attenuates smoking urges in abstinent smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Mouratidis, Maria; Mooney, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Progesterone, a steroid hormone, has been implicated in many CNS functions including reward, cognition, and neuroprotection. The goal of this study was to examine the dose-dependent effects of progesterone on cognitive performance, smoking urges, and smoking behavior in smokers. Methods Thirty female and thirty-four male smokers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Female smokers were in the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle during study participation. Smokers were randomly assigned to either 200 or 400 mg/day of progesterone or placebo, given in two separate doses, during clinic visit. The first 3 days of the treatment period, smokers abstained from smoking, which was verified with breath CO levels. Smokers attended an experimental session on day 4 where the number of cigarettes smoked were recorded starting two hours after the medication treatment. Results Progesterone treatment, 200 mg/day, significantly improved cognitive performance in the Stroop and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Progesterone at 400 mg/day was associated with reduced urges for smoking but did not change ad lib smoking behavior. Conclusions These findings suggest a potential therapeutic value of progesterone for smoking cessation. PMID:20675057

  17. Not all smokers die young: a model for hidden heterogeneity within the human population.

    PubMed

    Levine, Morgan; Crimmins, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    The ability of some individuals to reach extreme old age in the presence of clearly high exposure to damaging factors may signal an innate biological advantage. For this study we used data on 4,655 current and never smokers, ages 50 and above, from NHANES III to examine whether long-lived smokers represent a biologically resilient phenotype that could facilitate our understanding of heterogeneity in the aging process. Using a proportional hazards model, our results showed that while smoking significantly increased mortality in most age groups, it did not increase the mortality risk for those who were age 80 and over at baseline. Additionally when comparing the adjusted means of biomarkers between never and current smokers, we found that long-lived smokers (80+) had similar inflammation, HDL, and lung function levels to never smokers. Given that factors which allow some individuals to withstand smoking may also enable others to cope with everyday biological stressors, the investigation of long-lived smokers may eventually allow us to identify molecular and genetic mechanisms which enable longevity extension. PMID:24520332

  18. Black Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraka, Amiri

    1987-01-01

    Discusses black art as not only an expression of black life but as revolutionary art. It must be collective, functional, and committing. It must also be anti-racist, anti-capitalist, and anti-imperialist. (LHW)

  19. Black Cohosh

    MedlinePLUS

    ... review of the black cohosh case reports of hepatotoxicity. Menopause . 2008;15(4 Pt 1):628–638. ... links Related Topics Black Cohosh Products and Liver Toxicity: Update (Health Canada) Find Active Medical Research Studies ...

  20. Talking Black.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Roger D.

    This book contains essays which focus on the systems of communication that operate within and between various social segments of Afro-American communities in the United States. The essays are presented under the following headings: (1) "Getting Into It: Black Talk, Black Life and the Academic," (2) "'Talking My Talk': Black Talk Varieties and…

  1. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of black historian Ed Cabbell by Pat…

  2. Evidence for Hydrothermal Vents as "Biogeobatteries" (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, M. E.; Girguis, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrothermal vents are unique systems that play an important role in oceanic biogeochemical cycles. As chemically reduced hydrothermal fluid mixes with cold oxic seawater, minerals precipitate out of solution resulting in chimney structures composed largely of metal sulfides and anhydrite. Pyrite, which is a natural semi-conductor, is the primary sulfide mineral, but other minerals within chimneys are also conductive (e.g. chalcopyrite, wurtzite, and some iron oxides). Sulfide chimneys are also known to host an extensive endolithic microbial community. Accordingly, submarine hydrothermal systems appear to be examples of biogeobatteries, wherein conductive mineral assemblages span naturally occuring redox gradients and enable anaerobic microbes to access oxygen as an oxidant via extracellular electron transfer (or EET). To test this hypothesis, we ran a series of electrochemical laboratory experiments in which pyrite was used as an anode (in a vessel flushed with hydrothermal-like fluid). When placed in continuity with a carbon fiber cathode, pyrite was found to accept and conduct electrons from both abiotic and biological processes (microbial EET). Specifically, electrical current increased 4-fold (5 nA/m2 to 20 nA/m2) in response to inoculation with a slurry prepared from a hydrothermal vent sample. Inspection of the pyrite anode with SEM revealed ubiquitous coverage by microbes. DNA was extracted from the anodes and the inoculum, and was subjected to pyrosequencing to examine prokaryotic diversity. These data suggest that key microbial phylotypes were enriched upon the pyrite, implicating them in EET. In addition, we deployed an in situ experiment based on microbial fuel cell architecture with a graphite anode inserted into a vent wall coupled to a carbon fiber cathode outside the vent. We observed current production over the course of one year, implying microbial EET in situ. Via pyrosequencing, we observed that the microbial community on the anode was significantly enriched in gammaproteobacteria (with respect to the community on an inert substrate deployed in the same vent, which was dominated by epsilonproteobacteria). The observation of electrical current and the enrichment of distinct microbial communities in both laboratory and in situ experiments provide evidence that hydrothermal vents enable microbes capable of EET to access molecular oxygen in the surrounding seawater as an oxidant. This geochemical and microbial phenomenon may influence the chemistry and mineralogy of vent systems, resulting in localized variations in pH that can influence metal mobilization on a global scale.

  3. Exposure and Kinetics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    St. Helen, Gideon; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Dempsey, Delia; Wilson, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

    2012-01-01

    Study objectives were (1) to investigate the selectivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites for tobacco smoke exposure, and (2) to determine half-lives of PAH metabolites in smokers. There were 622 participants from the United States (US) and Poland, and of these 70% were smokers. All subjects provided spot urine samples and 125 smokers provided blood samples. Urinary PAH metabolite half-lives were determined in 8 smokers. In controlled hospital studies of 18 smokers, the associations between various measures of nicotine intake and urinary excretion of PAH metabolites were investigated. Plasma nicotine was measured by GC. LC-MS/MS was used to measure the plasma levels of cotinine and trans-3?-hydroxycotinine, and urine levels of nicotine and its metabolites, total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and PAH metabolites (2-naphthol, 1-, 2- and 3-hydroxyfluorenes, 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes, and 1-hydroxypyrene). Regardless of smoking status, PAH metabolite excretion was higher in Polish subjects than in US subjects (p-values<0.001). 1-Hydroxyfluorene exhibited the greatest difference between smokers and non-smokers, with a 5-fold difference in Polish subjects and a 25-fold difference in US subjects, followed by 3- and 2-hydroxyfluorenes, 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene. The differences for hydroxyphenanthrenes were small or non-significant. 1-Hydroxyfluorene had the highest correlation with urine nicotine equivalents (r=0.77) and urine NNAL (r=0.64). While the half-lives of PAH metabolites were <10 h in smokers, 1-hydroxyfluorene had the largest ratio of initial to terminal urine concentration (58.4±38.6, mean±SD) after smoking. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis of PAHs among Polish and US subjects further showed that hydroxyfluorenes are most highly discriminative of smokers from nonsmokers followed by 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene. In conclusion, hydroxyfluorenes, particularly 1-hydroxyfluorene, and 2-naphthol are more selective of tobacco smoke than 1-hydroxypyrene and hydroxyphenanthrenes. Characterization of hydroxyfluorene and 2-naphthol metabolites in urine may improve the characterization of PAHs from tobacco smoke and related disease risks among smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:22428611

  4. Marijuana's dose-dependent effects in daily marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D

    2013-08-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose-response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (?5.5% ??-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana "strength," "high," "liking," "good effect," and "take again" were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana's cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose. PMID:23937597

  5. Super eruption environments make for "super" hydrothermal explosions: Extreme hydrothermal explosions in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L. A.; Shanks, W. P.; Pierce, K. L.

    2006-12-01

    Hydrothermal explosions are violent events resulting in the rapid ejection of boiling water, steam, mud, and rock fragments over areas that range from a few meters in diameter up to several kilometers in diameter. Hydrothermal explosions occur where shallow interconnected reservoirs of steam-saturated fluids underlie thermal fields. Sudden reduction in pressure causes the fluids to flash to steam resulting in significant expansion, rock fragmentation, and debris ejection. In Yellowstone, at least 20 large (>100 meters in diameter) hydrothermal explosions have been identified, and the scale of the individual events dwarfs similar features in other hydrothermal and geothermal areas of the world. Large explosions in Yellowstone have occurred over the past 16 ka at an interval of ~1 per every 700 yrs and similar events are likely to occur in the future. Our studies of hydrothermal explosive events indicate: 1) none are associated with magmatic or volcanic events; 2) several have been triggered by seismic events coupled with other processes; 3) lithic clasts and matrix from explosion deposits are extensively altered, indicating long-term, extensive hydrothermal mineralization in areas that were incorporated into the explosion deposit; 4) many lithic clasts in explosion breccia deposits contain evidence of repeated fracturing and cementation; and 4) dimensions of many documented large hydrothermal explosion craters in Yellowstone are similar to the dimensions of currently active geyser basins or thermal areas in Yellowstone. The vast majority of active thermal areas in Yellowstone are characterized by 1) high-temperature hot-water systems in areas of high heat-flow, 2) extensive systems of hot springs, fumaroles, geysers, sinter terraces, mud pots, and, in places, small hydrothermal explosion craters, 3) widespread alteration of host rocks, 4) large areal dimensions (>several 100 m) and 5) intermittent but long-lived activity (40,000 to 300,000 years). Critical requirements for large hydrothermal explosions are an interconnected system of well-developed joints and fractures along which hydrothermal fluids flow and a water-saturated system close to or at boiling temperatures. Important factors are the active deformation of the Yellowstone caldera, active faults and moderate seismicity, high heat flow, climate changes, and regional stresses. Ascending fluids flow along fractures that develop in response to active deformation of the Yellowstone caldera and along edges of impermeable rhyolitic lava flows. Alteration, self sealing, and dissolution further constrain the distribution and development of hydrothermal fields. A partial impermeable cap can contribute to the final over-pressurization. An abrupt drop in pressure initiates steam-flashing and is instantly transmitted through interconnected fractures, resulting in a series of multiple large-scale explosions and excavation of an explosion crater. Strong similarities between large hydrothermal explosion craters and thermal fields in Yellowstone may indicate that catastrophic failures leading to large hydrothermal explosions represent a unique phase in the life cycle of a geyser basin.

  6. Removal of trace elements in hydrothermal plume at submarine volcanic arc hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitashima, K.

    2007-12-01

    On the study of geochemical fluxes of trace elements from the hydrothermal system, it is necessary to collect not only samples by the hydro-cast from surface ship and fluid samples using a submersible but also temporally and spatially continuous samples ranging from a fluid to a hydrothermal plume. For that purpose, the sampling method along the diluting and rising plume just after erupting from a hydrothermal vent is effective. The mini CTDT-RMS was installed onto the submersible. The hydrothermal plume samples were collected with monitoring the anomalies of temperature and turbidity by taking the distance from the hydrothermal vent gradually. Unfiltered sample for total (particulate + dissolved) trace element concentration and filtered sample for dissolved trace element concentration were analyzed on land. In V, Ni, Cu, Mo, Cd, Pb and Zn, particulate form was predominant in the fluid. The elements that are easy to form a sulfide such as Cu, Cd and Pb were removed as a sulfide precipitate from the fluid before erupting to the deep ocean. Therefore, the concentration of these trace elements in the hydrothermal plume showed superiority of a dissolved form, and was slightly high or same concentration in the deep ocean. The concentration of Fe in the fluid was extremely higher (500 - 100,000 times) than that in the deep ocean, and showed a fifty-fifty partition between dissolved form and particulate form. In the hydrothermal plume, Fe formed hydroxide mainly and was removed gradually from the plume as a particulate form in dilution and diffusion process of the plume. These hydroxides may play a role of the precipitant that coprecipitate with absorbing the other trace elements. Because Mn is hard to deposit as a sulfide, dissolved form was predominant in the fluid and Mn showed extreme high concentration same as Fe. Mn was discharged to the deep ocean as a dissolved form and removed from the plume as an oxide with increasing the particulate form gradually in dilution and diffusion process of the plume. In addition, existence of an organic trace element as one of a chemical species of dissolved form was confirmed in the hydrothermal plume, and the relationship between the hydrothermal ecosystem and the organic trace elements is very interesting.

  7. Synthesis of high intrinsic loss power aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticles by citric acid-assisted hydrothermal-reduction route

    SciTech Connect

    Behdadfar, Behshid, E-mail: bbehdadfar@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, Ahmad [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat [School of Pharmacy, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Morales, Maria del Puerto [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); Mozaffari, Morteza [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticle were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The results showed that certain concentrations of citric acid (CA) are required to obtain only magnetic iron oxides with mean particle sizes around 8 nm. CA acts as a modulator and reducing agent in iron oxide formation which controls nanoparticle size. The XRD, magnetic and heating measurements showed that the temperature and time of hydrothermal reaction can affect the magnetic properties of obtained ferrofluids. The synthesized ferrofluids were stable at pH 7. Their mean hydrodynamic size was around 80 nm with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.158. The calculated intrinsic loss power (ILP) was 9.4 nHm{sup 2}/kg. So this clean and cheap route is an efficient way to synthesize high ILP aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia. - Graphical abstract: Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction method with citric acid as reductant which is an efficient way to synthesize aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aqueous iron oxide ferrofluids were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Citric acid acted as reducing agent and surfactant in the route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a facile, low energy and environmental friendly route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aqueous iron oxide ferrofluids were monodispersed and stable at pH of 7. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated intrinsic loss power of the synthesized ferrofluids was very high.

  8. Conversion of kraft lignin under hydrothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-Fei

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to explore hydrothermal conversion of kraft lignin for value-added products. With ranging between 5.4% and 10.6%, total oil yield decreased with the increase of temperature (130, 180, and 230°C), the longer reaction time (15-60min) led to increased total oil yield. Main compound of oils characterized by GC-MS was guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol) in the range of 19-78% of oil depending on different reaction conditions. Residual kraft lignins were characterized by GPC and FTIR with respect to the conversion mechanism of kraft lignin by this process. The conversion of kraft lignin under hydrothermal conditions had something to do with the degradation of ?-O-4 linkages, hydroxyl groups, carbonyl groups, aromatic rings resulting in the increased amount of phenolic OH groups in kraft lignin. PMID:25176169

  9. Hydrothermal phase transformation of hematite to magnetite

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Different phases of iron oxide were obtained by hydrothermal treatment of ferric solution at 200°C with the addition of either KOH, ethylenediamine (EDA), or KOH and EDA into the reaction system. As usually observed, the ?-Fe2O3 hexagonal plates and hexagonal bipyramids were obtained for reaction with KOH and EDA, respectively. When both KOH and EDA were added into the reaction system, we observed an interesting phase transformation from ?-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 at low-temperature hydrothermal conditions. The phase transformation involves the formation of ?-Fe2O3 hexagonal plates, the dissolution of the ?-Fe2O3 hexagonal plates, the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+, and the nucleation and growth of new Fe3O4 polyhedral particles. PMID:24940172

  10. Resistivity methods in exploration for hydrothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Jiracek, G.R.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1981-05-01

    The practical aspects of using dc resistivity in the exploration for hydrothermal resources are discussed. There are several reasons why low electrical resistivity is expected in hydrothermal aquifers but the association is not without pit falls. Besides outlining the reasons why resistivity has proven a successful geothermal exploration tool, a section on how resistivity is practiced is included. Here, the common electrode arrays are considered with their major advantages and disadvantages pointed out. The current status in resistivity interpretation schemes is touched upon with emphasis on computer modeling. Finally, a successful resistivity case history of a low-temperature resource at Las Alturas Estates, New Mexico is included to illustrate a specific resistivity exploration philosophy. The case history concludes with drilling results which are, of course, the ultimate test.

  11. Iridium material for hydrothermal oxidation environments

    DOEpatents

    Hong, Glenn T. (Tewksbury, MA); Zilberstein, Vladimir A. (Brookline, MA)

    1996-01-01

    A process for hydrothermal oxidation of combustible materials in which, during at least a part of the oxidation, corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises iridium, iridium oxide, an iridium alloy, or a base metal overlaid with an iridium coating. Iridium has been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of hydrothermal oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 800.degree. C.

  12. Hydrothermal applications of hot dry rock technology

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Within the past year, the US hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy research and development program has been redirected to encourage closer cooperation with the domestic hydrothermal Industry. The Geothermal Energy Association has in turn recommended that one facet of a restructured HDR program should be the integration of HDR technology into the geothermal mainstream. This paper discusses a number of HDR developments in reservoir engineering, seismic science, tracer analyses, and reservoir modeling, and indicates how they might be applied to address hydrothermal issues. It is suggested that the integration of these and other HDR technologies into the geothermal mainstream might significantly contribute to enlarging the potential role of geothermal resources in the energy market of the 21st century.

  13. Did hardening occur among smokers in England from 2000 to 2010?

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, Graeme; McNeill, Ann; Gartner, Coral; Szatkowski, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Aims To assess trends in the prevalence of ‘hardcore’ smoking in England between 2000 and 2010, and to examine associations between hardcore smoking and socio-demographic variables. Design Secondary analysis of data from the United Kingdom's General Lifestyle Survey (GLF) and the Health Survey for England (HSE). Setting Households in England. Participants Self-reported adult current smokers resident in England aged 26?years and over. Measurements Hardcore smokers were defined in three ways: smokers who do not want to quit (D1), those who ‘usually’ smoke their first cigarette of the day within 30 minutes of waking (D2) and a combination of D1 and D2, termed D3. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore associations between these variables and calendar year, age, sex and socio-economic status, and P-values for trends in odds were calculated. Findings The odds of smokers being defined as hardcore according to D3 increased over time in both the GLF (P?smokers in lower occupational groups (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: (1.97–2.26). Lack of motivation to quit (D1) increased with age and was more likely in men. Conclusions The proportion of smokers in England with both low motivation to quit and high dependence appears to have increased between 2000 and 2010, independently of risk factors, suggesting that ‘hardening’ may be occurring in this smoker population. PMID:24103060

  14. Reinforcement sensitivity underlying treatment-seeking smokers' affect, smoking reinforcement motives, and affective responses.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Lam, Cho Y; Minnix, Jennifer A; Karam-Hage, Maher; Wetter, David W; Dani, John A; Kosten, Thomas R; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine dependence has been suggested to be related to reinforcement sensitivity, which encompasses behavioral predispositions either to avoid aversive (behavioral inhibition) or to approach appetitive (behavioral activation) stimuli. Reinforcement sensitivity may shape motives for nicotine use and offer potential targets for personalized smoking cessation therapy. However, little is known regarding how reinforcement sensitivity is related to motivational processes implicated in the maintenance of smoking. Additionally, women and men differ in reinforcement sensitivity, and such difference may cause distinct relationships between reinforcement sensitivity and motivational processes for female and male smokers. In this study, the authors characterized reinforcement sensitivity in relation to affect, smoking-related reinforcement motives, and affective responses, using self-report and psychophysiological measures, in over 200 smokers before treating them. The Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Scales (BIS/BAS; Carver & White, 1994) was used to measure reinforcement sensitivity. In female and male smokers, BIS was similarly associated with negative affect and negative reinforcement of smoking. However, positive affect was positively associated with BAS Drive scores in male smokers, and this association was reversed in female smokers. BIS was positively associated with corrugator electromyographic reactivity toward negative stimuli and left frontal electroencephalogram alpha asymmetry. Female and male smokers showed similar relationships for these physiological measures. These findings suggest that reinforcement sensitivity underpins important motivational processes (e.g., affect), and gender is a moderating factor for these relationships. Future personalized smoking intervention, particularly among more dependent treatment-seeking smokers, may experiment to target individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25621416

  15. Perturbation of cellular immune functions in cigarette smokers and protection by palm oil vitamin E supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoke contains free radicals and an have adverse effect to the immune system. Supplementation of palm oil vitamin E (palmvitee), is known has antioxidant properties is thought to be beneficial for system immune protection against free radicals activity. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of palmvitee supplementation on immune response in smokers. Methods This study involved a group of smokers and nonsmokers who received 200?mg/day palmvitee and placebo for the control group. Blood samples were taken at 0, 12 and 24?weeks of supplementation. Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol were determined by HPLC, lymphocyte proliferation by lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) and enumeration of lymphocytes T and B cells by flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann–Whitney U-test for non-parametric data distribution and correlation among the variables was examined by Spearman. Results Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol were increased in vitamin E supplemented group as compared to placebo group. Urine cotinine levels and serum ?1-antitrypsin were significantly higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers. Lymphocyte proliferation induced by PHA showed an increasing trend with palmvitee supplementation in both smokers and nonsmokers. Natural killer cells were decreased; CD4+ cells and B cells were increased in smokers compared to nonsmokers but were unaffected with vitamin E supplementation except in the percentage of B cells which were increased in nonsmokers supplemented palmvitee compared to placebo. CD4+/CD8+ ratio was increased in smokers compared to nonsmokers. The high TWBC count observed in smokers correlated with the increased CD4+ and B cells. Conclusions Smoking caused alterations in certain immune parameters and palmvitee supplementation tended to cause an increase in lymphocytes transformation test but had no effect on CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, NK cells and B cells except B cells percentage in nonsmokers. PMID:23286246

  16. Factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes among treatment-seeking African American light smokers

    PubMed Central

    Faseru, Babalola; Choi, Won S.; Krebill, Ron; Mayo, Matthew S.; Nollen, Nicole L.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cox, Lisa Sanderson

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking menthol cigarettes is more prevalent among African Americans (AA) compared to Whites. Menthol has been found to be inversely related to smoking cessation among AA, yet little is known about the factors associated with menthol smoking among AA light smokers. This study examines baseline demographic, psychological, and smoking factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes among AA light smokers (?10 cigarettes per day). Methods Participants (n=540) were enrolled in a double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of bupropion in combination with health education counseling for smoking cessation. Bivariate differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers were explored and baseline factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes were identified. Results Participants averaged 46.5 years in age, predominantly female (66.1%), and smoked an average of 8.0 cpd (SD=2.5). The majority (83.7%) smoked menthol cigarettes. In bivariate analysis, menthol cigarette smokers were younger (mean age: 45 vs. 52 years p<0.0001), were more likely to be female (68% vs. 52% p=0.003) and had smoked for shorter duration (28 vs. 34 years p<0.0001) compared to non-menthol smokers. While depression and withdrawal scores were slightly higher and exhaled carbon monoxide values were lower among menthol smokers, the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among AA light smokers, younger individuals and females were more likely to smoke menthol cigarettes and may be more susceptible to the health effects of smoking. Appropriately targeted health education campaigns are needed to prevent smoking uptake in this high-risk population. PMID:21816543

  17. New Type of Hydrothermal Vents Found

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Walker, Alex

    This CNN news article discusses the discovery of a new class of hydrothermal vents in the mid-Atlantic Ocean, called the Lost City, formed by heat generated when seawater reacts with mantle rocks rather than by volcanic activity. The article also notes the importance of the discovery to microbiologists, as some of these new vents were inhabited by single-cell organisms called thermophiles. Links to other CNN.com articles and resources are provided as well.

  18. Evolving lipid vesicles in prebiotic hydrothermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuuchi, Ryo; Imai, Ei-Ichi; Honda, Hajime; Hatori, Kuniyuki; Matsuno, Koichiro

    2005-08-01

    We compared three different kinds of lipid vesicles made of saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, and phospholipids for their evolutionary capabilities in a simulated hydrothermal environment.Encapsulation of the glycine monomers enhanced the oligomerization of peptides in all cases. Fatty acid vesicles remained stable at higher temperatures and efficiently utilized heat energy for this synthetic reaction. Phospholipid vesicles were destabilized by higher temperatures, and thus were found to be better suited to enhance synthetic reactions at lower temperatures

  19. Low-temperature hydrothermal resource evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, D.

    1980-05-05

    The objectives of testing low-temperature hydrothermal wells are to characterize well response to production (injection), determine resource characteristics and project reservoir longevity. Testing procedures and analysis techniques differ in some respects from proven procedures in the oil and gas and ground water fields. Some basic definitions and standard techniques necessary for the evaluation of a fluid resource in an intergranular permeable reservoir are presented. Problems particular to a non-ideal thermal resource are outlined and some analytical techniques are discussed.

  20. Numerical simulation of magmatic hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingebritsen, S. E.; Geiger, S.; Hurwitz, S.; Driesner, T.

    2010-03-01

    The dynamic behavior of magmatic hydrothermal systems entails coupled and nonlinear multiphase flow, heat and solute transport, and deformation in highly heterogeneous media. Thus, quantitative analysis of these systems depends mainly on numerical solution of coupled partial differential equations and complementary equations of state (EOS). The past 2 decades have seen steady growth of computational power and the development of numerical models that have eliminated or minimized the need for various simplifying assumptions. Considerable heuristic insight has been gained from process-oriented numerical modeling. Recent modeling efforts employing relatively complete EOS and accurate transport calculations have revealed dynamic behavior that was damped by linearized, less accurate models, including fluid property control of hydrothermal plume temperatures and three-dimensional geometries. Other recent modeling results have further elucidated the controlling role of permeability structure and revealed the potential for significant hydrothermally driven deformation. Key areas for future research include incorporation of accurate EOS for the complete H2O-NaCl-CO2 system, more realistic treatment of material heterogeneity in space and time, realistic description of large-scale relative permeability behavior, and intercode benchmarking comparisons.

  1. [Study on hydrothermal stability of the collagen].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajuan; Chen, Hui; Shan, Zhihua

    2009-02-01

    The low hydrothermal stability of the raw collagen restricts its usage. To improve the hydrothermal stability of collagen, two kinds of materials with weak astringency were used by experts. The research proved that the synergistic effect was formed during the process. In this study, by using UV, FT-IR, 13CNMR spectra and elemental analysis on the salicylic acid and metal-salicylic complexes, we could get the structural formula of every compound. And then, the hide powder was treated with the compounds. At last, the treated hide powder was tested by DSC. It could be presumed that the Rigid Matrix formed between the collagen doses can increase the hydrothermal stability of raw collagen, The result indicated that salicylic-chrome with large stable constant was better than others in improving the heat resistance of raw collagen, and the denaturalization temperature of hide powder treated with salicylic-chrome was 146.7 degrees C. Salicylic-aluminum was in the second place, the relevant temperature being 145.7 degrees C. PMID:19334569

  2. Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

  3. Fabrication of fine lead metaniobate powder using hydrothermal processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Hsin Lu; Ning Chyi

    1996-01-01

    Fine submicron PbNb2O6 powder was successfully prepared from hydrothermally derived precursors. Through using lead nitrate and niobium hydrogenoxalate solutions as starting materials and heating the 200 °C-hydrothermally treated precursors at 800 °C resulted in the complete formation of PbNb2O6. The particles exhibited a spherical shape. On the other hand, adding an ammonia solution in the hydrothermal process led to the

  4. Mapping hydrothermal alteration in Yellowstone National Park using magnetic methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bouligand; J. M. Glen

    2010-01-01

    Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hosts a very large hydrothermal system with over 10,000 thermal features. Hydrothermal alteration in YNP has been mapped with field observations and remote-sensing imagery, but these methods can only detect alteration at the ground surface. Magnetic surveys are useful for detecting buried hydrothermal alteration as demonstrated by a recent high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in YNP (Finn and

  5. Influence of surfactants on the morphology of SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals prepared via a hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Mi [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (SIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Gao Yanfeng, E-mail: yfgao@mail.sic.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (SIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Dai Lei; Cao Chuanxiang [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (SIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Guo Xuhong, E-mail: guoxuhong@ecust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2012-05-15

    Nanoscaled SnO{sub 2} with different morphologies has been synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process at 180 Degree-Sign C using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) or tetrapropyl ammonium bromide (TPAB) as surfactant. All the prepared SnO{sub 2} are of a tetragonal crystal structure. Nanocubes, nanorods, nanosheets, nanobelts and nanoparticles were prepared when changing the type and dosage of organic surfactants. It is shown that anionic surfactant (SDS) and cationic surfactant (CTAB or TPAB) at their suitable addition amounts can largely influence the morphologies of SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals. The effect is significantly dependent on the solvent types: water or ethanol. The non-ionic surfactant (PVP) can also change the morphologies like SDS but the impacts are less obvious. The effect of surfactants on the shape and size of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was discussed in detail. The particle growth mechanism is described based on the electrostatic interactions and Van der Waals' forces. - Graphical abstract: SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals with controllable morphologies were prepared via a hydrothermal method with surfactants. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals were prepared via a hydrothermal method with surfactants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SnO{sub 2} morphologies changed with the type and the dosage of surfactants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of surfactants on the growth of crystal planes was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The controlling mechanisms of surfactants on SnO{sub 2} morphologies were discussed.

  6. Pioglitazone administration decreases cardiovascular disease risk factors in insulin-resistant smokers.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Fahim; Farin, Helke M F; Lamendola, Cindy; McGraw, Leigh; McLaughlin, Tracey; Reaven, Gerald M

    2008-08-01

    Insulin sensitivity varies in cigarette smokers, and there is evidence that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is greatest in those smokers who are also insulin resistant. To extend these observations, we sought to (1) compare CVD risk factors in smokers who do not plan to stop smoking, divided into insulin-resistant (IR) and insulin-sensitive (IS) subgroups, and (2) evaluate the ability of drug-induced changes in insulin sensitivity to decrease CVD risk. Thirty-six cigarette smokers were divided into IR (n = 19) and IS (n = 17) subgroups by determining their steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the insulin suppression test (the higher the SSPG, the more insulin resistant the individual). In addition, baseline measurements were made of fasting lipid and lipoprotein concentrations; inflammatory markers; and daylong glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid responses to test meals. All subjects were treated with pioglitazone for 12 weeks, after which all baseline measurements were repeated. Baseline triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were significantly different in IR as compared with IS smokers (P < .05) both before and after adjustment for differences in sex and body mass index. After pioglitazone treatment, SSPG concentration significantly fell in the IR smokers (P < .001), associated with a significant improvement in the atherogenic lipoprotein profile seen at baseline (P < or = .03) and a decrease in soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and C-reactive protein concentrations (P = .01 and .02, respectively), whereas the IS smokers only had a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .004) and a decrease in soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (P = .02) and CRP (P = .07) levels. In conclusion, cigarette smokers have profound differences in CVD risk factors related to their degree of insulin sensitivity. It is suggested that, in addition to smoking cessation efforts, attention should be given to identifying the subgroup of smokers most at risk for CVD, but unwilling or unable to stop smoking, and to initiating appropriate therapeutic interventions to decrease CVD in this high-risk group. PMID:18640389

  7. Introduction effects of the Australian plain packaging policy on adult smokers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Hayes, Linda; Durkin, Sarah; Borland, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether smokers smoking from packs required under Australia's plain packaging law had different smoking beliefs and quitting thoughts, compared with those still smoking from branded packs. Design Cross-sectional survey during the roll-out phase of the law, analysed by timing of survey. Setting Australian state of Victoria, November 2012. Participants 536 cigarette smokers with a usual brand, of whom 72.3% were smoking from a plain pack and 27.7% were smoking from a branded pack. Primary outcome measures Perceived quality and satisfaction of cigarettes compared with 1?year ago, frequency of thoughts of smoking harm, perceived exaggeration of harms, frequency of thoughts of quitting, quitting priority in life, intention to quit, approval of large graphic health warnings and plain packaging. Results Compared with branded pack smokers, those smoking from plain packs perceived their cigarettes to be lower in quality (adjusted OR (AdjOR)=1.66, p=0.045), tended to perceive their cigarettes as less satisfying than a year ago (AdjOR=1.70, p=0.052), were more likely to have thought about quitting at least once a day in the past week (AdjOR=1.81, p=0.013) and to rate quitting as a higher priority in their lives (F=13.11, df=1, p<0.001). Plain pack smokers were more likely to support the policy than branded pack smokers (AdjOR=1.51, p=0.049). Branded and plain pack smokers did not differ on measures of less immediate smoking intentions, frequency of thoughts about harms or perceived exaggeration of harms. Appeal outcomes, but not other outcomes, were sensitive to the extent of roll-out, with responses from branded pack smokers approaching those of plain pack smokers, once 80% of survey respondents were smoking from plain packs 1–2?weeks before the December implementation date. Conclusions The early indication is that plain packaging is associated with lower smoking appeal, more support for the policy and more urgency to quit among adult smokers. PMID:23878174

  8. Modelling magmatic gas scrubbing in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Napoli, Rossella; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Valenza, Mariano; Bergsson, Baldur; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Pfeffer, Melissa Anne; Rakel Guðjónsdóttir, Sylvía

    2015-04-01

    In volcano-hosted hydrothermal systems, the chemistry of deeply rising magmatic gases is extensively modified by gas-water-rock interactions taking place within the hydrothermal reservoir, and/or at shallow groundwaters conditions. These reactions can scrub reactive, water-soluble species (S, halogens) from the magmatic gas phase, so that their quantitative assessment is central to understanding the chemistry of surface gas manifestations, and brings profound implications to the interpretation of volcanic-hydrothermal unrests. Here, we present the results of numerical simulations of magmatic gas scrubbing, in which the reaction path modelling approach (Helgeson, 1968) is used to reproduce hydrothermal gas-water-rock interactions at both shallow (temperature up to 109°C; low-T model runs) and deep reservoir (temperature range: 150-250 °C; high-T model runs) conditions. The model was built based upon the EQ3/6 software package (Wolery and Daveler, 1992), and consisted into a step by step addition of a high-temperature magmatic gas to an initial meteoric water, in the presence of a dissolving aquifer rock. The model outputted, at each step of gas addition, the chemical composition of a new aqueous solution formed after gas-water-rock interactions; which, upon reaching gas over-pressuring (PgasTOT > Psat(H2O) at run T), is degassed (by single-step degassing) to separate a scrubbed gas phase. As an application of the model results, the model compositions of the separated gases are finally compared with compositions of natural gas emissions from Hekla volcano (T< 100°C) and from Krisuvik geothermal system (T> 100°C), resulting into an excellent agreement. The compositions of the model solutions are also in fair agreement with compositions of natural thermal water samples. We conclude that our EQ3/6-based reaction path simulations offer a realistic representation of gas-water-rock interaction processes occurring underneath active magmatic-hydrothermal systems. Helgeson, H.C. (1968), "Evaluation of irreversible reactions in geochemical processes involving minerals and aqueous solutions-I. Thermodynamic relations". Geochem. Comochem. Acta, vol. 39, 853-877. Wolery T. J. and Daveler S. A. (1992), "EQ6, a computer program for reaction path modeling of aqueous geochemical systems: theoretical manual, user's guide and related documentation (version 7.0)". Report UCRl-MA-110662 PT IV. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California.

  9. Short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit smoking in a sample of smokers in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Kawamoto, Crissy T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite its potential for usefulness in informing the development of smoking cessation interventions, short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit is a relatively understudied topic. Objectives To assess the prevalence of smokers’ day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit, and to assess associations of day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit with several established cessation-related variables. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to smokers in Hawaii (N=1,567). To assess short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit smoking, participants were asked to respond “True” or “False” to the statement: “My motivation to quit smoking changes from one day to the next.” Other items measured desire to quit smoking, intention to quit, confidence in quitting, cigarette dependence, and other cessation-related variables. Results “My motivation to quit smoking changes from one day to the next” was endorsed as true by 64.7% of smokers, and false by 35.3%. Analyses revealed that smokers who indicated fluctuating motivation were significantly more interested in quitting as compared to smokers without fluctuations. Fluctuations in motivation to quit also were associated with greater confidence in quitting, lesser cigarette dependence, and more recent quitting activity (all ps<0.01). Conclusions Day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit are common. Day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit are strongly associated with higher motivation to quit, greater confidence in future quitting, and other positive cessation-relevant trends. PMID:25338289

  10. Acute effects of nicotine on processing of complex stimuli in smokers and nonsmokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkrider, Ashley; Hedrick, Mark

    2001-05-01

    Effects of nicotine in the auditory system of normal-hearing smokers and nonsmokers were investigated both behaviorally and physiologically. Discrimination of consonant-vowel speech in quiet and noise was assessed in the presence and absence of a transdermal nicotine patch by measuring categorical boundaries and mismatch negativity (MMN). Data indicate that the effects of nicotine on both behavioral and physiological measures increased with an increase in severity of nicotine-induced symptoms. Smokers showed improved CV discrimination in quiet and noise with nicotine. Additionally, smokers exhibited more measurable and significantly sharper boundaries as well as larger MMN areas than nonsmokers in quiet and noise for both placebo and nicotine sessions. MMN data acquired for both quiet and noise, and behavioral data acquired in quiet, indicate that smokers show the greatest improvements in discrimination during nicotine exposure, followed by symptomatic nonsmokers. Asymptomatic nonsmokers show little improvement with nicotine and, on occasion, show decrements in performance. These data may contribute to our understanding of the role of nAChRs in the auditory system, the neural mechanisms that underlie the recognition of sound in quiet and noise, and mechanisms mediating improved information processing and enhanced cognitive performance that serve as reinforcement for continued tobacco use by smokers.

  11. A qualitative study of smokers' responses to messages discouraging dual tobacco product use.

    PubMed

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-04-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried smokeless tobacco were unaware of health risks of novel smokeless tobacco products, perceived scary messages as effective and acknowledged the addictive nature of nicotine. Smokers who had tried smokeless tobacco shared their personal (mainly negative) experiences with smokeless tobacco, were aware of health risks of novel smokeless tobacco products, but denied personal addiction, and misinterpreted or disregarded more threatening messages. Portraying women as smokeless tobacco users was perceived as unbelievable, and emphasizing the lack of appeal of novel smokeless tobacco products was perceived as encouraging continued smoking. Future ads should educate smokers about risks of novel smokeless tobacco products, but past users and never users may require different message strategies. PMID:24441592

  12. High plasma thiocyanate levels in smokers are a key determinant of thiol oxidation induced by myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Philip E; Pattison, David I; Talib, Jihan; Summers, Fiona A; Harmer, Jason A; Celermajer, David S; Hawkins, Clare L; Davies, Michael J

    2011-11-01

    Smokers have an elevated risk of atherosclerosis but the origins of this elevated risk are incompletely defined, though evidence supports an accumulation of the oxidant-generating enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the inflamed artery wall. We hypothesized that smokers would have a high level of thiocyanate (SCN(-)), a preferred substrate for MPO, which in turn would predispose to thiol oxidation, an established independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. In this study it is shown that on exposure to MPO/H(2)O(2), thiols on plasma proteins from nonsmokers were increasingly oxidized with increasing added SCN(-) concentrations. Plasma from smokers contained significantly higher endogenous levels of SCN(-) than that from nonsmokers (131±31 vs 40±24 ?M, P<0.0001). When plasma from smokers and nonsmokers was exposed to MPO/H(2)O(2)-stimulated oxidation, a strong positive correlation (r=0.8139, P<0.0001) between the extent of thiol oxidation and the plasma SCN(-) concentrations was observed. Computational calculations indicate a changeover from HOCl to HOSCN as the major MPO-generated oxidant in plasma, with increasing SCN(-) levels. These data indicate that plasma SCN(-) levels are a key determinant of the extent of thiol oxidation on plasma proteins induced by MPO, and implicate HOSCN as an important mediator of inflammation-induced oxidative damage to proteins in smokers. PMID:21884783

  13. Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between experienced consumers (vapers) and naïve users (smokers)

    PubMed Central

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.; Spyrou, Alketa; Stefopoulos, Christos; Tsimopoulou, Kalliroi; Kourkoveli, Panagiota; Tsiapras, Dimitris; Kyrzopoulos, Stamatis; Poulas, Konstantinos; Voudris, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are nicotine delivery devices that are proposed as tobacco harm reduction products to smokers. Nicotine delivery from ECs is potentially important in their efficacy as smoking substitutes. Herein, nicotine delivery from using a new-generation EC device (variable-wattage, set at 9?W) was evaluated, comparing experienced (vapers) with naïve users (smokers). Twenty-four vapers and 23 smokers participated to the study. They were asked to obtain 10 puffs in 5?minutes and then use the EC ad lib for 60 more minutes (total duration of use: 65?minutes). An 18?mg/mL nicotine-containing liquid was used. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, 5-minutes and every 15?minutes thereafter, while number of puffs and average puff duration were recorded. Although at baseline both groups had similar plasma nicotine levels, smokers consistently exhibited lower levels at all time-periods; at 5-minutes the levels were lower by 46%, while during the subsequent period they were lower by 43% (at 65-minutes) to 54% (at 20-minutes). Both groups took similar number of puffs, but smokers had average puff duration of 2.3?s compared to 3.5?s in vapers. Even in vapers, plasma nicotine levels at 5?minutes were lower than those observed after smoking 1 tobacco cigarette. PMID:26082330

  14. Young smokers' views of genetic susceptibility testing for lung cancer risk: minding unintended consequences.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Sharron L; McBride, Colleen M; Sanderson, Saskia C; O'Neill, Suzanne C; Shepperd, James A; Lipkus, Isaac M

    2011-09-01

    Assessment of smokers' responses to individualized feedback of genetic susceptibility has shown little or no influence on smoking cessation outcomes. One explanation is that smokers may be having unintended responses that undermine the feedback's motivational impact (e.g., fatalism or downplaying risk). In preparation for a large randomized trial with college smokers, we conducted a qualitative pilot study to explore smokers' motives for genetic testing and how these motives might influence interpretation of genetic risk feedback.Prior to reviewing informational materials describing a test for the glutathione S-transferase M1 gene, 33 college smokers (18 to 21 years) participated in a 30 minute, semi-structured, open-ended interview regarding their attitudes on health risks, genetic testing in general, genetic testing for lung cancer risk, and informational needs regarding genetics and genetic testing for lung cancer risk.Two central themes emerged from analysis of the interviews: general impressions of genetic testing and perceived value of genetic testing. Prominent in the second theme was the finding that genetic risk feedback may be unsuccessful in motivating quitting a) due to skepticism about genetic tests, b) participants dismissing genetic feedback as personally irrelevant, and c) participants receiving low risk results justifying continued smoking in light of public health messages that "it's never too late to quit". These findings require careful consideration among health professionals looking to genetic risk feedback as a vehicle to motivate disease prevention or behavior change. PMID:21860660

  15. Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between experienced consumers (vapers) and naïve users (smokers).

    PubMed

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Spyrou, Alketa; Stefopoulos, Christos; Tsimopoulou, Kalliroi; Kourkoveli, Panagiota; Tsiapras, Dimitris; Kyrzopoulos, Stamatis; Poulas, Konstantinos; Voudris, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are nicotine delivery devices that are proposed as tobacco harm reduction products to smokers. Nicotine delivery from ECs is potentially important in their efficacy as smoking substitutes. Herein, nicotine delivery from using a new-generation EC device (variable-wattage, set at 9?W) was evaluated, comparing experienced (vapers) with naïve users (smokers). Twenty-four vapers and 23 smokers participated to the study. They were asked to obtain 10 puffs in 5?minutes and then use the EC ad lib for 60 more minutes (total duration of use: 65?minutes). An 18?mg/mL nicotine-containing liquid was used. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, 5-minutes and every 15?minutes thereafter, while number of puffs and average puff duration were recorded. Although at baseline both groups had similar plasma nicotine levels, smokers consistently exhibited lower levels at all time-periods; at 5-minutes the levels were lower by 46%, while during the subsequent period they were lower by 43% (at 65-minutes) to 54% (at 20-minutes). Both groups took similar number of puffs, but smokers had average puff duration of 2.3?s compared to 3.5?s in vapers. Even in vapers, plasma nicotine levels at 5?minutes were lower than those observed after smoking 1 tobacco cigarette. PMID:26082330

  16. Constraints on the genesis of gold mineralization at the Homestake Gold Deposit, Black Hills, South Dakota from rhenium-osmium sulfide geochronology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan M. Morelli; Chris C. Bell; Robert A. Creaser; Antonio Simonetti

    2010-01-01

    The Homestake gold deposit, located in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA, is one of the largest known hydrothermal gold deposits globally, with total mining production exceeding 40 Moz Au. Rhenium-osmium geochronology of ore-associated arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite was performed in an effort to delineate the timing of gold mineralization in relation to known tectonothermal events in the northern Black Hills.

  17. Peripheral Blood T-Cell Populations in COPD, Asymptomatic Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers in Indian subpopulation- A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mathai, Rashmi Teresa K.; Bhat, Smitha

    2013-01-01

    Background: COPD is a major global health problem affecting 4-10% of Indian adult male population. Immunological processes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD. As compared to healthy smokers, COPD patients have airway inflammation indicated by the presence of CD8+ T cells in the lung. This predominant increase in CD8+ T cells in the lung may be reflected in the peripheral blood. In an attempt to understand why only some smokers develop COPD, we compared the peripheral T-cell markers in COPD patients with that of asymptomatic smokers, and healthy nonsmokers. Methods: Twenty healthy non-smokers (HNS), 19 asymptomatic smokers (AS) and 21 COPD male patients (age and pack year-matched) were identified after clinical evaluation and spirometry. Blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T-cell populations were measured. Results: Smokers with COPD had severe airflow limitation (FVC, 69.8+16.7%; FEV1, 47.47+16.9%; FEV1/FVC, 53.1+13.3%). The BMI was found to be significantly lower among patients with COPD (19.1+4.8kg/m2) as compared to AS (23+4.3kg/m2) and HNS (23.7+4.0kg/m2) (p value = 0.003 HS). The mean CD3+T-cell absolute count in COPD patients (1154.3+582.2), showed a marked decline as compared to that of AS (1251.9+491.6) and HNS (1424.9+352.2). The mean CD4+T-cell counts in COPD patients (652.7+340.5) were also lower when compared to AS (745.7+313.8) and HNS (832.5+220.7). The mean CD8+T-cell counts among COPD patients (424.7+264.3) were, similar to the counts observed among AS (426.9+193.2) and HNS (500.4+191). Though not statistically significant, the absolute counts of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes among COPD patients tended to be lower. No significant difference in the CD4+/CD8+ lymphocyte ratio between the patient groups was observed. Conclusion: Our study indicates that BMI is related to the severity of COPD, hence proving a systemic component to its pathogenesis. However, we found similar percentages of CD8+Tcells in all the study groups suggesting that predominant CD8+ T cells in the airways may be due to its de novo origin rather than recruitment from blood. However, larger studies are needed to clarify the effect of disease severity, beedi smoking and ethnicity. PMID:23905115

  18. Affective Synchrony in Dual- and Single-Smoker Couples: Further Evidence of “Symptom-System Fit”?

    PubMed Central

    ROHRBAUGH, MICHAEL J.; SHOHAM, VARDA; BUTLER, EMILYA.; HASLER, BRANT P.; BERMAN, JEFFREY S.

    2009-01-01

    Couples in which one or both partners smoked despite one of them having a heart or lung problem discussed a health-related disagreement before and during a period of laboratory smoking. Immediately afterwards, the partners in these 25 couples used independent joysticks to recall their continuous emotional experience during the interaction while watching themselves on video. A couple-level index of affective synchrony, reflecting correlated moment-to-moment change in the two partners’ joystick ratings, tended to increase from baseline to smoking for 9 dual-smoker couples but decrease for 16 single-smoker couples. Results suggest that coregulation of shared emotional experience could be a factor in smoking persistence, particularly when both partners in a couple smoke. Relationship-focused interventions addressing this fit between symptom and system may help smokers achieve stable cessation. PMID:19378645

  19. Expectancies for Smoking Cessation among Drug-involved Smokers: Implications for Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Peter S.; Peters, Erica N.; Thorne, Christopher B.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Drug-involved smokers may be less motivated to quit smoking because they expect smoking cessation to occasion adverse outcomes (e.g., exacerbation of drug use). Non-treatment-seeking adult smokers from the community (N = 507) reported drug involvement, expectancies for smoking abstinence via the Smoking Abstinence Questionnaire (SAQ), and motivation to quit smoking (desire to quit and abstinence goal). Mediation analyses evaluated the indirect effects of binge drinking, marijuana, cocaine, other stimulant, opiate, and barbiturate/other sedative involvement on motivation to quit smoking through the SAQ Adverse Outcomes scale. Adverse outcomes expectancies accounted for a reduced desire to quit smoking and a lower likelihood of endorsing a goal of complete smoking abstinence among those involved with binge drinking, marijuana, cocaine, other stimulants, opiates, and barbiturates/other sedatives. Drug-involved smokers’ greater expectancies for adverse outcomes upon quitting smoking may deter smoking quit attempts. Interventions are encouraged to counteract the notion that smoking cessation jeopardizes sobriety. PMID:24314605

  20. Tobacco Smoke Biomarkers and Cancer Risk Among Male Smokers in the Shanghai Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.; Murphy, Sharon E.; Stepanov, Irina; Nelson, Heather H.; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of tobacco smoke constituents can be quantified in urine and other body fluids providing a realistic measure of carcinogen and toxicant dose in a smoker. Many previous studies have demonstrated that these metabolites – referred to as biomarkers in this paper – are related to tobacco smoke exposure. The studies reviewed here were designed to answer another question: are these substances also biomarkers of cancer risk? Using a prospective study design comparing biomarker levels in cancer cases and controls, all of whom were smokers, the results demonstrate that several of these biomarkers – total cotinine, total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), r-1-,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (PheT), and total N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) - are biomarkers of cancer risk. Therefore, these biomarkers have the potential to become part of a cancer risk prediction algorithm for smokers. PMID:22824243

  1. Low-level smoking among Spanish-speaking Latino smokers: Relationships with demographics, tobacco dependence, withdrawal, and cessation

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Tracy J.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Businelle, Michael S.; Kendzor, Darla E.; Li, Yisheng; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Wetter, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Although recent research indicates that many Latino smokers are nondaily smokers or daily smokers who smoke at a low level (?5 cigarettes/day), almost no research has investigated the characteristics of low-level smokers because such individuals are typically excluded from clinical trial research. Methods: The present study examined the associations of daily smoking level and demographics, tobacco dependence, withdrawal, and abstinence during a specific quit attempt among 280 Spanish-speaking Latino smokers (54% male) who participated in a clinical trial of a telephone counseling intervention. Daily smokers were classified as low-level (1–5 cigarettes/day; n?=?81), light (6–10 cigarettes/day; n?=?99), or moderate/heavy smokers (?11 cigarettes/day; n?=?100). Data were collected prior to the quit attempt and at 5 and 12 weeks postquit. Results: Results yielded three key findings. First, smoking level was positively associated with the total score and 12 of 13 subscale scores on a comprehensive, multidimensional measure of tobacco dependence. Low-level smokers consistently reported the least dependence, and moderate/heavy smokers reported the most dependence on tobacco. Second, low-level smokers reported the least craving in pre- to postcessation longitudinal analyses. Third, despite significant differences on dependence and craving, low-level smoking was not associated with abstinence. Smoking level was not associated with demographic variables. Discussion: This is a preliminary step in understanding factors influencing tobacco dependence and smoking cessation among low-level Spanish-speaking Latino smokers, a subgroup with high prevalence in the Latino population. PMID:19246627

  2. Multistage analysis of variants in the Inflammation pathway and lung cancer risk in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Spitz, Margaret R.; Gorlov, Ivan P.; Dong, Qiong; Wu, Xifeng; Chen, Wei; Chang, David W.; Etzel, Carol J.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Zhao, Yang; Christiani, David C.; Brennan, Paul; Albanes, Demetrius; Shi, Jianxin; Thun, Michael; Landi, Maria Teresa; Amos, Christopher I.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tobacco-induced lung cancer is characterized by a deregulated inflammatory microenvironment. Variants in multiple genes in inflammation pathways may contribute to risk of lung cancer. METHODS We therefore conducted a three-stage comprehensive pathway analysis (discovery, replication and meta-analysis) of inflammation gene variants in ever smoking lung cancer cases and controls. A discovery set (1096 cases; 727 controls) and an independent and non-overlapping internal replication set (1154 cases; 1137 controls) were derived from an ongoing case-control study. For discovery, we used an iSelect BeadChip to interrogate a comprehensive panel of 11737 inflammation pathway SNPs and selected nominally significant (p<0.05) SNPs for internal replication. RESULTS There were 6 SNPs that achieved statistical significance (p<0.05) in the internal replication dataset with concordant risk estimates for former smokers and 5 concordant and replicated SNPs in current smokers. Replicated hits were further tested in a subsequent meta-analysis using external data derived from two published GWAS and a case-control study. Two of these variants (a BCL2L14 SNP in former smokers and a SNP in IL2RB in current smokers) were further validated. In risk score analyses, there was a 26% increase in risk with each additional adverse allele when we combined the genotyped SNP and the most significant imputed SNP in IL2RB in current smokers and a 36% similar increase in risk for former smokers associated with genotyped and imputed BCL2L14 SNPs. CONCLUSIONS/IMPACT Before they can be applied for risk prediction efforts, these SNPs should be subject to further external replication and more extensive fine mapping studies. PMID:22573796

  3. Smokers who try e-cigarettes to quit smoking: Findings from a multiethnic study in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Little, Melissa A.; Kawamoto, Crissy T.; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize smokers who are likely to use electronic- or "e-"cigarettes to quit smoking. Methods Cross-sectional data were obtained from 1567 adult daily smokers in Hawaii using paper-and-pencil survey. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression. Results Thirteen percent of the participants reported having ever-used e-cigarettes to quit smoking. Smokers who had used e-cigarettes to quit smoking reported higher motivation to quit, higher quitting self-efficacy, and longer recent quit duration compared to other smokers. Age (OR= 0.98, 95% CI [0.97, 0.99]) and Native Hawaiian ethnicity (compared to Whites) (OR= 0.68, 95% CI [0.45, 0.99]) were inversely associated with increased likelihood of e-cigarette ever-use for cessation. Other significant correlates of e-cigarette ever-use for cessation were: higher motivation to quit (OR= 1.14, 95% CI [1.08, 1.21]), quitting self-efficacy (OR= 1.18, 95% CI [1.06, 1.36]) and ever-use of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved cessation aids such as nicotine gum (OR= 3.72, 95% CI [2.67, 5.19]). Conclusions Smokers who try e-cigarettes to quit smoking seem serious about wanting to quit. Despite lack of evidence regarding efficacy, smokers seem to treat e-cigarettes as valid alternatives to FDA-approved cessation aids. Research is needed to test the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes as cessation aids. PMID:23865700

  4. Oral fluid cannabinoid concentrations following controlled smoked cannabis in chronic frequent and occasional smokers.

    PubMed

    Anizan, Sebastien; Milman, Garry; Desrosiers, Nathalie; Barnes, Allan J; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-10-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is an alternative biological matrix for monitoring cannabis intake in drug testing, and drugged driving (DUID) programs, but OF cannabinoid test interpretation is challenging. Controlled cannabinoid administration studies provide a scientific database for interpreting cannabinoid OF tests. We compared differences in OF cannabinoid concentrations from 19 h before to 30 h after smoking a 6.8% THC cigarette in chronic frequent and occasional cannabis smokers. OF was collected with the Statsure Saliva Sampler™ OF device. 2D-GC-MS was used to quantify cannabinoids in 357 OF specimens; 65 had inadequate OF volume within 3 h after smoking. All OF specimens were THC-positive for up to 13.5 h after smoking, without significant differences between frequent and occasional smokers over 30 h. Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) had short median last detection times (2.5-4 h for CBD and 6-8 h for CBN) in both groups. THCCOOH was detected in 25 and 212 occasional and frequent smokers' OF samples, respectively. THCCOOH provided longer detection windows than THC in all frequent smokers. As THCCOOH is not present in cannabis smoke, its presence in OF minimizes the potential for false positive results from passive environmental smoke exposure, and can identify oral THC ingestion, while OF THC cannot. THC ? 1 ?g/L, in addition to CBD ? 1 ?g/L or CBN ? 1 ?g/L suggested recent cannabis intake (?13.5 h), important for DUID cases, whereas THC ? 1 ?g/L or THC ? 2 ?g/L cutoffs had longer detection windows (?30 h), important for workplace testing. THCCOOH windows of detection for chronic, frequent cannabis smokers extended beyond 30 h, while they were shorter (0-24 h) for occasional cannabis smokers. PMID:23954944

  5. Biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of silver bismuth sulfide with nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kaowphong, Sulawan, E-mail: sulawank@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2012-05-15

    Silver bismuth sulfide (AgBiS{sub 2}) nanostructures were successfully prepared via a simple biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal synthesis at 200 Degree-Sign C for 12-72 h. Silver nitrate, bismuth nitrate and L-cysteine were used as starting materials. Here, the biomolecule, L-cysteine, was served as the sulfide source and a complexing agent. The products, characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), were cubic AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles with a diameter range of about 20-75 nm. It was found that their crystallinity and particle size increased with increasing reaction time. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometry (ICP-OES) analyses were used to confirm the stoichiometry of AgBiS{sub 2}. The optical band gap of the AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles, calculated from UV-vis spectra, was 3.0 eV which indicated a strong blue shift because of the quantum confinement effect. A possible formation mechanism of the AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles was also discussed. - Graphical abstract: The optical band gap of the as-prepared AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles displays a strong blue shift comparing to the 2.46 eV of bulk AgBiS{sub 2} caused by the quantum confinement effects. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal method is developed to prepare AgBiS{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Cysteine is served as the sulfide source and a complexing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in band gap of the AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles attributes to the quantum confinement effects.

  6. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on the Permeability and IL1 b and sICAM-1 Release from Cultured Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells of Never-Smokers, Smokers, and Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Csaba Rusznak; Peter R. Mills; Jagdish L. Devalia; Raymond J. Sapsford; Robert J. Davies; Stefan Lozewicz

    Although cigarette smoking is of paramount importance in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), only a small proportion of smokers develop the dis- ease. We tested the hypothesis that the response of the bron- chial epithelium to cigarette smoke (CS) differs in patients with COPD. Such a difference might explain in part why only some cigarette smokers develop

  7. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer among Finnish male smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hirvonen; J. Kontto; M. Jestoi; L. Valsta; K. Peltonen; P. Pietinen; S. M. Virtanen; H. Sinkko; C. Kronberg-Kippilä; D. Albanes; J. Virtamo

    2010-01-01

    Objective  To assess the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer among male smokers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study consisted of 27,111 male smokers, aged 50–69 years, without history of cancer. They were participants of the Alpha-Tocopherol,\\u000a Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study in Finland. The men completed a validated dietary questionnaire and a questionnaire\\u000a on general background characteristics (including smoking habits) at

  8. Environmental nicotine contamination in latent fingermarks from smoker contacts and passive smoking.

    PubMed

    Benton, M; Chua, M J; Gu, F; Rowell, F; Ma, J

    2010-07-15

    Hydrophobic silica nanopowder has been used as an effective latent fingermark development agent and subsequently as an enhancement agent in the surface-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight (SALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for analysis of fingermark components. The technique has been used in the detection of nicotine and cotinine in the fingermarks of smokers. In order to have confidence in concluding that the nicotine in such samples is indicative of cigarette usage, it is necessary to establish that contamination by environmental contact or from hand to hand contact with smokers or from passive smoking does not lead to false identification of non-smokers as smokers. To investigate this possibility, the background level of nicotine in fingermark material from a number of commonly used places was determined. In addition, a series of experiments was carried out to assess the extent to which nicotine can be transferred through handshakes and finger transfer as well as touching of door handles. The rate of loss of nicotine from latent fingermarks was also assessed over a 24-h period under ambient laboratory conditions. Finally, a laboratory-based model system was evaluated to ascertain the possible transport of nicotine in cigarette smoke from a source to adjacent areas to simulate cross-contamination of a non-smoker by passive exposure. It was observed that person-to-person transfer from a smoker to a non-smoker can occur following handshakes but at low levels and that passive cross-contamination from contact with surfaces is possible under simulated conditions. However, levels of nicotine in the wider environment were found to be too low for detection using this technique which may reflect the half-life of nicotine in latent fingermarks which was about 11h. Likewise, transfer via smoke is possible to objects within about 0.1m of the cigarette but it is unlikely that significant secondary nicotine contamination will occur on the faces and hands of adjacent non-smokers. PMID:20395083

  9. Residential radon and lung cancer in never smokers. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Torres-Durán, María; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    Radon exposure is considered the second cause of lung cancer and the first in never smokers. We aim to assess the effect of residential radon exposure on the risk of lung cancer in never smokers through a systematic review applying predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. 14 Studies were included. Some of them point to a relationship between residential radon and lung cancer while others show no association. Further studies are necessary to test this association and to assess if other risk factors such as environmental tobacco smoke could modify the effect of residential radon exposure on lung cancer. PMID:24333737

  10. A randomised controlled trial of proactive telephone counselling on cold-called smokers' cessation rates

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Christine L; Wiggers, John; Walsh, Raoul A; Knight, Jenny; Duncan, Sarah L; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Girgis, Afaf; Daly, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Active telephone recruitment (‘cold calling’) can enrol almost 45 times more smokers to cessation services than media. However, the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling with cold-called smokers from the broader community is unknown. This study examined whether proactive telephone counselling improved abstinence, quit attempts and reduced cigarette consumption among cold-called smokers. Methods From 48?014 randomly selected electronic telephone directory numbers, 3008 eligible smokers were identified and 1562 (51.9%) smokers recruited into the randomised controlled trial. Of these, 769 smokers were randomly allocated to proactive telephone counselling and 793 to the control (ie, mailed self-help) conditions. Six counselling calls were offered to intervention smokers willing to quit within a month and four to those not ready to quit. The 4-month, 7-month and 13-month follow-up interviews were completed by 1369 (87.6%), 1278 (81.8%) and 1245 (79.9%) participants, respectively. Results Proactive telephone counselling participants were significantly more likely than controls to achieve 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 4 months (13.8% vs 9.6%, p=0.005) and 7 months (14.3% vs 11.0%, p=0.02) but not at 13 months. There was a significant impact of telephone counselling on prolonged abstinence at 4 months (3.4% vs 1.8%, p=0.02) and at 7 months (2.2% vs 0.9%, p=0.02). At 4 months post recruitment, telephone counselling participants were significantly more likely than controls to have made a quit attempt (48.6% vs 42.9%, p=0.01) and reduced cigarette consumption (16.9% vs 9.0%, p=0.0002). Conclusions Proactive telephone counselling initially increased abstinence and quitting behaviours among cold-called smokers. Given its superior reach, quitlines should consider active telephone recruitment, provided relapse can be reduced. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry; ACTRN012606000221550. PMID:21030529

  11. Acute effects of nicotine on visual search tasks in young adult smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Rycroft; Jennifer M. Rusted; Samuel B. Hutton

    2005-01-01

    Rationale  Nicotine is known to improve performance on tests involving sustained attention and recent research suggests that nicotine\\u000a may also improve performance on tests involving the strategic allocation of attention and working memory.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  We used measures of accuracy and response latency combined with eye-tracking techniques to examine the effects of nicotine\\u000a on visual search tasks.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In experiment 1 smokers and non-smokers

  12. Delay discounting and the behavioural economics of cigarette purchases in smokers: the effects of nicotine deprivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matt Field; Mary Santarcangelo; Harry Sumnall; Andrew Goudie; Jon Cole

    2006-01-01

    Rationale  In smokers, nicotine deprivation may increase impulsive decision-making and the demand for cigarettes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To investigate the effects of acute nicotine deprivation on (a) the delay discounting of monetary and cigarette rewards, and\\u000a (b) the behavioural economics of hypothetical cigarette purchases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  A repeated measures design was employed, with participants (daily cigarette smokers, N=30) repeating experimental tasks in two different

  13. Never-smokers with a positive family smoking history are more likely to be overweight or obese than never-smokers with a negative family smoking history.

    PubMed

    Pomerleau, Cynthia S; Snedecor, Sandy M; Pomerleau, Ovide F

    2009-01-01

    To shed light on the complex relationship between smoking and body weight, we used never-smokers stratified on family smoking history to model the effects of a diathesis for smoking on body weight without the potential confound of metabolic changes or decreased physical activity caused by chronic tobacco smoke exposure. Participants were 100 family history negative never-smokers (FH-; 2 never-smoking parents) and 71 family history positive never-smokers (FH+; 2 ever-smoking parents). Controlling for significant group differences in race and age, BMI was significantly higher in FH+ (26.7+/-.6) than in FH- (24.5+/-.4; F=10.351 p<.01). Further analysis using logistic regression showed that FH+ were 2.7 times as likely to be overweight/obese (BMI > or = 25; 95% C.I. 1.398-5.351; p<.01). FH+ scored significantly higher on the Dieting and Bingeing Severity Scale than FH- and were significantly more likely to score in the severe or at-risk range. FH+ drank significantly more alcohol than FH-; they scored significantly higher on the CAGE and on the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test. Our analyses provide support for the role of inherited and/or environmentally-driven tendencies towards disinhibited eating and/or risky behaviors in general in the observed differences in BMI. No group differences in BMI or likelihood of being overweight/obese emerged based on prenatal exposure to nicotine in FH+ smokers, although our sample was too small to rule out an association. Further research in larger samples, using more complex statistical models, will be needed to disentangle these issues and identify causal pathways. PMID:19171318

  14. A porous media-based transport model for hydrothermal growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. S. Chen; V. Prasad; A. Chatterjee; J. Larkin

    1999-01-01

    A hydrothermal crystal growth system usually consists of a porous bed of polycrystalline charge, predetermined volume of a solvent, suitably oriented seeds, etc. For preliminary study of flow and heat transfer, the convective system for hydrothermal growth can be considered as a composite fluid and porous layer and the flow in the nutrient bed can be modeled using the Darcy–Brinkman–Forchheimer

  15. Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jillian M. Petersen; Frank U. Zielinski; Thomas Pape; Richard Seifert; Cristina Moraru; Rudolf Amann; Stephane Hourdez; Peter R. Girguis; Scott D. Wankel; Valerie Barbe; Eric Pelletier; Dennis Fink; Christian Borowski; Wolfgang Bach; Nicole Dubilier

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 revolutionized our understanding of the energy sources that fuel primary productivity on Earth. Hydrothermal vent ecosystems are dominated by animals that live in symbiosis with chemosynthetic bacteria. So far, only two energy sources have been shown to power chemosynthetic symbioses: reduced sulphur compounds and methane. Using metagenome sequencing, single-gene fluorescence in situ

  16. Dispersal at hydrothermal vents: a summary of recent progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Tyler; Craig M. Young

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of hydrothermal vents along the Galapagos Rift in 1977 opened up one of the most dynamic and productive research themes in marine biology. In the intervening 25 years, hydrothermal vent faunas have been described from the eastern, northeastern and western Pacific, the mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Indian Ocean in the region of the Rodriguez Triple Junction. In addition,

  17. Revelation of stepped dislocations in amethyst crystals by hydrothermal etching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Josut; M. A. IrryncHrN

    Triangular etch pits on rhombohedral surfaces due to hydrothermal etching are reported. Our experiments show that the hydrothermal etch pits on rhombohedral surfaces of amethyst have the same dislocation origin they have for quartz. We demonstrate that for a good number of cases successive etching results in the development of another pit away from the geometrical center of the original

  18. Hydrothermal processing of inorganic components of Hanford tank sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Oldenborg; S. J. Buelow; R. B. Dyer; G. Anderson; K. Funk; E. Wilmanns; K. Knutsen

    1994-01-01

    Hydrothermal Processing (HTP) is an attractive approach for the treatment of Hanford tank sludge. Hydrothermal Processing refers to a waste treatment technique in which an aqueous waste stream is fed through a chemical reactor at elevated temperatures and pressures to effect desired chemical transformations and separations. Transformations such as organic and nitrate destruction and sludge reformulation have been demonstrated at

  19. USING GEODETIC DATA TO UNDERSTAND HYDROTHERMAL FLUID FLOW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Battaglia

    Fluid flow in hydrothermal and magmatic systems frequently induces observable surface deformation. Such deformation can be used to better understand the factors controlling flow, for example, the role of faults as conduits or barriers to flow. In this paper we describe how surface deformation data can be used to obtain qualitative and quantitative information about subsurface flow associated with hydrothermal

  20. Hydrothermal vents in Lake Tanganyika, East African, Rift system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Jacques Tiercelin; Catherine Pflumio; Maryse Castrec; Jacques Boulégue; Pascal Gente; Joël Rolet; Christophe Coussement; Karl O. Stetter; Robert Huber; Sony Buku; Wafula Mifundu

    1993-01-01

    Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth

  1. Controls on the physics and chemistry of seafloor hydrothermal circulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Schultz; Henry Elderfield

    1997-01-01

    Low temperature diffuse hydrothermal circulation is a natural consequence of the cooling of the oceanic lithosphere. Diffuse flow is expected to be ubiquitous, and will be present both within mid-ocean ridge crest axial zones of young age (0-1 Ma), and also on the older ridge crest flanks and limbs. If underlying thermal models are correct, hydrothermal circulation should persist for

  2. Hydrothermal vents is Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Tiercelin; C. Pflumio; M. Castrec

    1993-01-01

    Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth

  3. Hydrothermal decomposition of PCDDs\\/PCDFs in MSWI fly ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yamaguchi; E. Shibuya; Y. Kanamaru; K. Uyama; M. Nishioka; N. Yamasaki

    1996-01-01

    In order to reduce the toxicity of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator fly ash containing PCDDs and PCDFs, fly ash was hydrothermally treated. Under hydrothermal conditions, concentration of PCDDs and PCDFs decreased due to dechlorination reaction. This reaction occurred more effectively with high temperature and alkaline ingredients with\\/without methanol in solvent. PCDDs\\/PCDFs decomposed almost completely and the toxicity of treated ash

  4. Porosity evolution in Icelandic hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thien, B.; Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced hydrothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems, grant number CRSII2_141843/1) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. These are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. These shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. Field observations suggest that active and fossil Icelandic hydrothermal systems are built from a superposition of completely altered and completely unaltered layers. With help of 1D and 2D reactive transport models (OpenGeoSys-GEM code), we investigate the reasons for this finding, by studying the mineralogical evolution of protoliths with different initial porosities at different temperatures and pressures, different leaching water composition and gas content, and different porosity geometries (i.e. porous medium versus fractured medium). From this study, we believe that the initial porosity of protoliths and volume changes due to their transformation into secondary minerals are key factors to explain the different alteration extents observed in field studies. We also discuss how precipitation and dissolution kinetics can influence the alteration time scales.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of hexagonal magnesium hydroxide nanoflakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qwchem@gmail.com [Laboratory for Micro-sized Functional Materials and College of Elementary Education, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Li, Chunhong [National Laboratory for Superconductivity, Institute of Physics and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guo, Ming [Laboratory for Micro-sized Functional Materials and College of Elementary Education, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Sun, Lingna [ShenZhen Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Hu, Changwen [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science of Ministry of Education of China, The Institute for Chemical Physics and Department of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of PEG-20,000. Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflake yielded different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes is discussed. - Highlights: • Hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method. • PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of hexagonal nanostructure. • Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes show different crystalline structures at different positions. • The probable formation mechanism of hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes was reported. - Abstract: Hexagonal magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of the surfactant polyethylene glycol 20,000 (PEG-20,000). Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The composition, morphologies and structure of the Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflake show different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes is discussed. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis were performed to investigate the porous structure and surface area of the as-obtained nanoflakes.

  6. Mixing from below in hydrothermal ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, Paul D.; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Markl, Gregor; Walter, Bejamin

    2014-05-01

    Unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits typically show indications of mixing of two end-member fluids: (a) hot, deep, rock-buffered basement brines and (b) colder fluids derived from the surface or overlying sediments. The hydromechanics of bringing these fluids together from above and below remain unclear. Classical percolative Darcy-flow models are inconsistent with (1) fluid overpressure indicated by fracturing and brecciation, (2) fast fluid flow indicated by thermal disequilibrium, and (3) strong fluid composition variations on the mm-scale, indicated by fluid inclusion analyses (Bons et al. 2012; Fusswinkel et al. 2013). We propose that fluids first descend, sucked down by desiccation reactions in exhumed basement. Oldest fluids reach greatest depths, where long residence times and elevated temperatures allow them the extensively equilibrate with their host rock, reach high salinity and scavenge metals, if present. Youngest fluids can only penetrate to shallower depths and can (partially) retain signatures from their origin, for example high Cl/Br ratios from the dissolution of evaporitic halite horizons. When fluids are released from all levels of the crustal column, these fluids mix during rapid ascent to form hydrothermal ore deposits. Mixing from below provides a viable hydromechanical mechanism to explain the common phenomenon of mixed shallow and deep fluids in hydrothermal ore deposits. Bons, P.D., Elburg, M.A., Gomez-Rivas, E. 2012. A review of the formation of tectonic veins and their microstructures. J. Struct. Geol. doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2012.07.005 Fusswinkel, T., Wagner, T., Wälle, M., Wenzel, T., Heinrich, C.A., Markl, M. 2013. Fluid mixing forms basement-hosted Pb-Zn deposits: Insight from metal and halogen geochemistry of individual fluid inclusions. Geology. doi:10.1130/G34092.1

  7. Are black holes totally black?

    E-print Network

    A. A. Grib; Yu. V. Pavlov

    2014-10-21

    Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.

  8. Hydrothermal convection in moderately thin spherical shells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhifeng; Zhang, Keke; Liao, Xinhao; Schubert, Gerald

    2008-07-11

    Hydrothermal convection of pore water with a temperature-dependent viscosity within a permeable, internally heated, moderately thin spherical shell is investigated by both a perturbation analysis and a direct numerical simulation. The analysis and simulation are mainly focused on a thin spherical shell in that convective instabilities are characterized by the spherical harmonic degree l=6 with a 13-fold mathematical degeneracy. Four different three-dimensional analytical solutions of convection are derived by removing the degeneracy through the nonlinear effect. A direct numerical simulation of the nonlinear problem is also carried out, showing satisfactory agreement between the analytical solutions and the numerical simulations. PMID:18764233

  9. Sulfur speciation in natural hydrothermal waters, Iceland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanna Kaasalainen; Andri Stefánsson

    2011-01-01

    The speciation of aqueous dissolved sulfur was determined in hydrothermal waters in Iceland. The waters sampled included hot springs, acid-sulfate pools and mud pots, sub-boiling well discharges and two-phase wells. The water temperatures ranged from 4 to 210°C, the pHT was between 2.20 and 9.30 at the discharge temperature and the SO4 and Cl concentrations were 0.020–52.7 and <0.01–10.0mmolkg?1, respectively.

  10. Hydrothermal mineralising systems as critical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Hydrothermal mineralising systems as critical systems. Bruce E Hobbs1,2, Alison Ord1 and Mark A. Munro1. 1. Centre for Exploration Targeting, The University of Western Australia, M006, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia. 2. CSIRO Earth and Resource Engineering, Bentley, WA, Australia Hydrothermal mineralising systems are presented as large, open chemical reactors held far from equilibrium during their life-time by the influx of heat, fluid and dissolved chemical species. As such they are nonlinear dynamical systems and need to be analysed using the tools that have been developed for such systems. Hydrothermal systems undergo a number of transitions during their evolution and this paper focuses on methods for characterising these transitions in a quantitative manner and establishing whether they resemble first or second (critical) phase transitions or whether they have some other kind of nature. Critical phase transitions are characterised by long range correlations for some parameter characteristic of the system, power-law probability distributions so that there is no characteristic length scale and a high sensitivity to perturbations; as one approaches criticality, characteristic parameters for the system scale in a power law manner with distance from the critical point. The transitions undergone in mineralised hydrothermal systems are: (i) widespread, non-localised mineral alteration involving exothermic mineral reactions that produce hydrous silicate phases, carbonates and iron-oxides, (ii) strongly localised veining, brecciation and/or stock-work formation, (iii) a series of endothermic mineral reactions involving the formation of non-hydrous silicates, sulphides and metals such as gold, (iv) multiple repetitions of transitions (ii) and (iii). We have quantified aspects of these transitions in gold deposits from the Yilgarn craton of Western Australia using wavelet transforms. This technique is convenient and fast. It enables one to establish if the transition is multifractal (and if so, quantify the multifractal spectrum) and determine the scale dependence of long range correlations or anti-correlations. The availability of long drill holes with detailed chemical analyses and mineral abundances derived from hyperspectral data enables individual ore bodies to be characterised in a quantitative manner and constraints placed on whether the various transition are possibly critical or of some other form. We also present some simple nonlinear models that produce the multifractal character and correlation scaling relations observed in these data sets,

  11. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques. We have carried out two field surveys in FY2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, the VCS will become a practical exploration tool for the exploration of seafloor hydrothermal deposits.

  12. Nickel-cobalt alloy nanosheets obtained from reductive hydrothermal-treatment of nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh, E-mail: yeganehghotbi@gmail.com [Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Program, Ceramic Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, Malayer (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jolagah, Ali; Afrasiabi, Hasan-ali [Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Program, Ceramic Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, Malayer (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Program, Ceramic Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, Malayer (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An anionic layered material, nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reductive hydrothermal-treatment of the layered precursor produced an alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloy is a bimetallic nanostructured nickel-cobalt and a soft magnet material. -- Abstract: Nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate, a layered material was synthesized by the co-precipitation method using urea as precipitant agent. This anionic layered material with hexagonal structure is constructed from nickel and cobalt ions within the layers and carbonate anions between the layers. Nickel-cobalt alloy with pure cubic phase was obtained by a reductive hydrothermal-treatment of the layered precursor. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the initial layered material and its metallic alloy product. That is, the nickel-cobalt alloy has really produced via a wet chemical route for the first time. Magnetic measurement revealed that the alloy sample is a soft magnet material.

  13. Syntheses and structure of hydrothermally prepared CsNiX{sub 3} (X=Cl, Br, I)

    SciTech Connect

    Raw, Adam D.; Ibers, James A. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R., E-mail: krp@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    During reinvestigation of the hydrothermal synthesis reported earlier of the compound cesium nickel phosphide, 'CsNiP', we arrived at a new route to the synthesis of the cesium nickel halide compounds CsNiX{sub 3} (X=Cl, Br, I). The method has also been shown to extend to cobalt and iron compounds. Single crystals of these compounds were synthesized in phosphoric acid in sealed autoclaves. Their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The compounds crystallize in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}/mmc in the BaNiO{sub 3} structure type. The synthetic method and the resultant crystallographic details for CsNiCl{sub 3} are essentially identical with those reported earlier for the synthesis and structure of 'CsNiP'. - Graphical abstract: The CsNiX{sub 3} (X=Cl, Br, I) structure. Cesium is blue, nickel is in dark green polyhedra, halide is brown. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A hydrothermal approach to single crystal growth of cesium transition-metal halides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reexamination of 'CsNiP' to determine its composition as CsNiCl{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray single-crystal structures of CsNiBr{sub 3} and CsNiI{sub 3}.

  14. Authigenic sericite record of a fossil geothermal system: the Offenburg trough, central Black Forest, Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Brockamp; Norbert Clauer; Michael Zuther

    2003-01-01

    A fossil geothermal area is hosted by the Carboniferous, Permian and Bunter sandstones of the Offenburg intramontane trough in the central Black Forest. The hydrothermal alteration is identified on the basis of newly formed sericites, which appear as pseudomorphs after feldspar and filling of pore spaces. According to K–Ar dating of sericite, serititization occurred about 145 Ma ago (Jurassic). On the

  15. Effects of Culturally Specific Cessation Messages on Theoretical Antecedents of Behavior Among Low-Income African American Smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica S. Webb; Elizabeth A. Baker; Denise Rodríguez de Ybarra

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has highlighted the importance of cultural relevance in health risk communications, including tobacco interventions. However, few studies have examined the active components of smoking cessation messages targeting low-income African American smokers. This study tested the influence of message content and culturally specific framing in a sample of adult smokers. In a 2 × 2 factorial experiment, 243 African

  16. Effect of buspirone on cigarette withdrawal symptoms and short-term abstinence rates in a smokers clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert West; Peter Hajek; Ann McNeill

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a double blind trial of the effect of buspirone, 15 mg per day, on cigarette withdrawal symptoms and ability of smokers to maintain abstinence during treatment. A total of 61 smokers were randomly assigned to active or placebo conditions. They were maintained on their drug for 2 weeks prior to attempting abstinence and then for a

  17. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  18. Intermittent or Continuous Acetylsalicylic Acid and Gene Expression in the Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II clinical trial studies the safety and effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) taken continuously or intermittently on gene expression in the nasal tissue of current smokers. Smokers are at increased risk of developing lung cancer. Acetylsalicylic acid may be useful in preventing lung cancer.

  19. The Use of Significant Reduction Rates to Evaluate Health Education Methods for Pregnant Smokers: A New Harm Reduction Behavioral Indicator?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Windsor; Chang Qing Li; Neal Richard Boyd; Katherine E. Hartmann

    1999-01-01

    This article evaluates the evidence to support the use of biochemical measurement of significant reduction (SR) rates among pregnant smokers as a new behavioral indicator of “harm reduction” (HR). The results of four studies—three randomized patient education clinical trials of pregnant smokers (Trials I, II, and III) and an epidemiological study (Study IV)—are presented. Among Trial I, II, and III

  20. Both Smoking Reduction With Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Motivational Advice Increase Future Cessation Among Smokers Unmotivated to Quit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Matthew J.; Hughes, John R.; Solomon, Laura J.; Callas, Peter W.

    2004-01-01

    Smokers not currently interested in quitting (N=616) were randomized to receive telephone-based (a) reduction counseling plus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) plus brief advice to quit, (b) motivational advice plus brief advice, or (c) no treatment. More smokers in the reduction (43%) and motivational (51%) conditions made a 24-hr quit attempt…

  1. BLACK BUTTE AND ELK CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlin, Henry N.; Spear, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral investigation in the nearly contiguous Black Butte and Elk Creek Roadless Areas of northern California, indicates that small parts of both roadless areas have a probable mineral-resource potential for small manganese-copper- or chromite-type deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the areas. Investigation of geothermal resource potential and of the potential for other hydrothermal base- and precious-metal mineralization should be initiated.

  2. Black Cohosh

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed abstract ] Gruenwald J: Standardized black cohosh (Cimicifuga) extract clinical monograph. Quarterly Review of Natural Medicine Summer: 117-125, 1998. Whiting PW, Clouston A, Kerlin P: Black cohosh and other herbal remedies associated with acute hepatitis. Medical Journal of ...

  3. Useful Ingredients Recovery from Sewage Sludge by using Hydrothermal Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Moriyama, Mika; Yamasaki, Yuki; Takahashi, Yui; Inoue, Chihiro

    2006-05-01

    Hydrothermal treatment of sludge from a sewage treatment plant was conducted to obtain useful ingredients for culture of specific microbes which can reduce polysulfide ion into sulfide ion and/or hydrogen sulfide. Several additives such as acid, base, and oxidizer were added to the hydrothermal reaction of excess sludge to promote the production of useful materials. After hydrothermal treatment, reaction solution and precipitation were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and estimated the availability as nutrition in cultural medium. From the results of product analysis, most of organic solid in sewage was basically decomposed by hydrothermal hydrolysis and transformed into oily or water-soluble compounds. Bacterial culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) showed the good results in multiplication with medium which was obtained from hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge with magnesium or calcium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

  4. Kinetics of the pyrolytic and hydrothermal decomposition of water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guang'en; Strong, P James; Wang, Hailong; Ni, Wuzhong; Shi, Weiyong

    2011-07-01

    The kinetics of water hyacinth decomposition using pyrolysis and hydrothermal treatment was compared. With pyrolysis, initial vaporization occurred at 453 K as determined by thermogravimetric analysis, while initial solubilisation occurred at 433 K with subcritical hydrothermal treatment. The "kinetic triplet" was determined for the ranges of 423-483 K (range I) and 473-553 K (range II) using the Coats-Redfern method for both treatments. The calculated activation energies for ranges I and II were 110 and 116 kJ/mol for conventional pyrolysis and 145 and 90 kJ/mol for hydrothermal treatment. The similar activation energies for the two temperature ranges observed for pyrolysis implied that only hemicellulose decomposition occurred. For hydrothermal treatment, both hemicellulose and cellulose decomposition occurred in temperature range II, in which a notable lower activation energy was observed. This implied hydrothermal treatment was more suitable for conversion lignocellulosic biomass under these conditions. PMID:21558054

  5. Hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction of grape pomace: a comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pala, Mehmet; Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Buyukisik, Hasan Baha; Yanik, Jale

    2014-06-01

    Grape pomace was treated by hydrothermal carbonization (sub-critical water, 175-275°C) and torrefaction (nitrogen atmosphere, 250 and 300°C), with mass yield of solid product (char) ranging between 47% and 78%, and energy densification ratio to 1.42-1.15 of the original feedstock. The chars were characterised with respect to their fuel properties, morphological and structural properties and combustion characteristics. The hydrothermal carbonization produced the char with greater energy density than torrefaction. The chars from torrefaction were found to be more aromatic in nature than that from hydrothermal carbonization. Hydrothermal carbonization process produced the char having high combustion reactivity. Most interesting was the finding that aqueous phase from hydrothermal carbonization had antioxidant activity. The results obtained in this study showed that HTC appears to be promising process for a winery waste having high moisture content. PMID:24709539

  6. The Black Family and Black Community Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Johnson

    1981-01-01

    Black family life is discussed in the context of Black community development. The author contends that mutual, interactive actions by Black families and Black community institutions could benefit both. The familial functions of socialization (including racial conscious ness) and economic functioning are reviewed, and the ways that Black families can assist in the development of the Black community through efficient

  7. Hydrothermal reactions of fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.W.

    1995-12-31

    The emphasis of the work done has been to determine the reactivities of two ashes believed to be representative of those generated. A bituminous ash and a lignitic ash have been investigated. The reactions of these ashes undergo when subjected to mild hydrothermal conditions were explored. The nature of the reactions which the ashes undergo when alkaline activators, calcium hydroxide and calcium sulfate are present was also investigated. It was determined that calcium silicate hydrate, calcium aluminate hydrate, and the calcium sulfoaluminate hydrate ettringite form under these conditions. It appears 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}3CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}32H{sub 2}O (ettringite) formation needs to be considered in ashes which contain significant amounts of sulfate. Therefore the stability region for ettringite was established. It was also determined that calcium silicate hydrate, exhibiting a high internal surface area, will readily form with hydrothermal treatment between 50{degrees} and 100{degrees}C. This phase is likely to have a significant capacity to take up heavy metals and oxyanions and this ability is being explored.

  8. The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass benefits from lignin removal, relocation, and/or modification during hydrothermal pretreatment. Phase transition, depolymerization/repolymerization, and solubility effects may all influence these lignin changes. To better understand how lignin is altered, Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides wood samples and cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) isolated from P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides were subjected to batch and flowthrough pretreatments. The residual solids and liquid hydrolysate were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR, compositional analysis, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Changes in the structure of the solids recovered after the pretreatment of CEL and the production of aromatic monomers point strongly to depolymerization and condensation being primary mechanisms for lignin extraction and redeposition. The differences in lignin removal and phenolic compound production from native P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides and CEL suggested that lignin-carbohydrate interactions increased lignin extraction and the extractability of syringyl groups relative to guaiacyl groups. Conclusions These insights into delignification during hydrothermal pretreatment point to desirable pretreatment strategies and plant modifications. Because depolymerization followed by repolymerization appears to be the dominant mode of lignin modification, limiting the residence time of depolymerized lignin moieties in the bulk liquid phase should reduce lignin content in pretreated biomass. In addition, the increase in lignin removal in the presence of polysaccharides suggests that increasing lignin-carbohydrate cross-links in biomass would increase delignification during pretreatment. PMID:23902789

  9. Whole-genome sequencing of asian lung cancers: second-hand smoke unlikely to be responsible for higher incidence of lung cancer among Asian never-smokers.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vidhya G; Ebert, Philip J; Ting, Jason C; Lim, Elaine; Wong, Swee-Seong; Teo, Audrey S M; Yue, Yong G; Chua, Hui-Hoon; Ma, Xiwen; Loh, Gary S L; Lin, Yuhao; Tan, Joanna H J; Yu, Kun; Zhang, Shenli; Reinhard, Christoph; Tan, Daniel S W; Peters, Brock A; Lincoln, Stephen E; Ballinger, Dennis G; Laramie, Jason M; Nilsen, Geoffrey B; Barber, Thomas D; Tan, Patrick; Hillmer, Axel M; Ng, Pauline C

    2014-11-01

    Asian nonsmoking populations have a higher incidence of lung cancer compared with their European counterparts. There is a long-standing hypothesis that the increase of lung cancer in Asian never-smokers is due to environmental factors such as second-hand smoke. We analyzed whole-genome sequencing of 30 Asian lung cancers. Unsupervised clustering of mutational signatures separated the patients into two categories of either all the never-smokers or all the smokers or ex-smokers. In addition, nearly one third of the ex-smokers and smokers classified with the never-smoker-like cluster. The somatic variant profiles of Asian lung cancers were similar to that of European origin with G.C>T.A being predominant in smokers. We found EGFR and TP53 to be the most frequently mutated genes with mutations in 50% and 27% of individuals, respectively. Among the 16 never-smokers, 69% had an EGFR mutation compared with 29% of 14 smokers/ex-smokers. Asian never-smokers had lung cancer signatures distinct from the smoker signature and their mutation profiles were similar to European never-smokers. The profiles of Asian and European smokers are also similar. Taken together, these results suggested that the same mutational mechanisms underlie the etiology for both ethnic groups. Thus, the high incidence of lung cancer in Asian never-smokers seems unlikely to be due to second-hand smoke or other carcinogens that cause oxidative DNA damage, implying that routine EGFR testing is warranted in the Asian population regardless of smoking status. PMID:25189529

  10. Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Berge, Nicole D., E-mail: berge@cec.sc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from HTC will be dependent on hydrochar use/the purpose for HTC (e.g., energy generation or carbon storage).

  11. Molecular analysis of human papillomavirus in never-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    ISA, SHUN-ICHI; KURAHARA, YU; YAMAMOTO, SATOMI; TAMIYA, AKIHIRO; OMACHI, NAOKI; ASAMI, KAZUHIRO; OKISHIO, KYOICHI; UTSUMI, TOMOKI; ITO, NORIMASA; YOON, HYUNG-EUN; MATSUMURA, AKIHIDE; ATAGI, SHINJI; KAWAGUCHI, TOMOYA

    2015-01-01

    The causes of lung cancer in never-smokers remain unclear. The potential contribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) to the carcinogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been reported. In 2008, a prospective registry of never-smokers with NSCLC was established at the Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, Sakai, Osaka, Japan. Never-smokers with NSCLC were consecutively enrolled onto the registry. Of these patients, 114 with large tumor specimens, the majority of which were surgical tissues, were selected. In total, 23 of the most clinically relevant HPV types were assayed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the viral genome. Following exclusion of samples with suboptimal quality, DNA was extracted from 96 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. These 96 cases consisted of 82 females (85.4%) and 14 males (14.6%), with a median age of 67 years (range, 29–83). Almost all cases (93.8%) were of the adenocarcinoma histological subtype. Despite confirmation of the quality and amount of DNA, HPV type 6 was detected in only one case (1.1%). Furthermore, no other samples examined were positive for any other HPV types. The results therefore suggest that HPV does not play a major role as the driving oncogenic event in never-smokers with NSCLC. PMID:25621070

  12. Design, recruitment, and retention of African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babalola Faseru; Lisa S Cox; Carrie A Bronars; Isaac Opole; Gregory A Reed; Matthew S Mayo; Jasjit S Ahluwalia; Kolawole S Okuyemi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: African-Americans remain underrepresented in clinical research despite experiencing a higher burden of disease compared to all other ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of this article is to describe the study design and discuss strategies used to recruit and retain African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study. METHODS: The parent study was designed to evaluate the differences in

  13. Harm reduction--a treatment approach for resistant smokers with tobacco-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Solano, Segismundo; Viteri, Soledad Alonso; Ferrero, Miguel Barrueco; Torrecilla, Miguel; Mezquita, Miguel Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) appear to represent a hard-core group, and this presents a dilemma for chest physicians. A reduction in cigarette smoking benefits health, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can aid smoking reduction. Hence we studied the efficacy of nicotine gum in helping hard-core smokers with severe COPD to quit. Seventeen smokers with severe COPD (FEV(1) 38-47% of predicted normal) who smoked >30 cigarettes/day but were unable to quit were encouraged to reduce their smoking as much as possible by using 4-mg nicotine gum. Five gradually reduced their daily tobacco consumption and, 18 months after starting NRT, were smoking an average of 6 cigarettes/day while still using nicotine gum. Compared to baseline, their respiratory symptoms had improved, and both FEV(1) and FVC had increased. There was no improvement in pulmonary function in the group of smokers who did not reduce their cigarette consumption. No adverse events relating to nicotine occurred among the patients who used NRT to reduce their smoking. We propose that this reduction approach should be considered for patients with respiratory disease who are unable or unwilling to stop smoking. PMID:12232455

  14. Nasal lavage natural killer cell function is suppressed in smokers after live attenuated influenza virus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Modified function of immune cells in nasal secretions may playa role in the enhanced susceptibility to resp iratory viruses that is seen in smokers. Innate immune cells in nasal secretions have largely been characterized by cellular differentials using morphologic c...

  15. Emotional and behavioral problems among adolescent smokers and their help-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Muthupalaniappen, Leelavathi; Omar, Juslina; Omar, Khairani; Iryani, Tuti; Hamid, Siti Norain

    2012-09-01

    We carried out a cross sectional study to detect emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents who smoke and their help-seeking behavior. This study was conducted in Sarawak, East Malaysia, between July and September 2006. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR/11-18) questionnaire; help seeking behavior was assessed using a help-seeking questionnaire. Three hundred ninety-nine students participated in the study; the smoking prevalence was 32.8%. The mean scores for emotional and behavioral problems were higher among smokers than non-smokers in all domains (internalizing, p = 0.028; externalizing, p = 0.001; other behavior, p = 0.001). The majority of students who smoked (94.7%) did not seek help from a primary health care provider for their emotional or behavioral problems. Common barriers to help-seeking were: the perception their problems were trivial (60.3%) and the preference to solve problems on their own (45.8%). Our findings suggest adolescent smokers in Sarawak, East Malaysia were more likely to break rules, exhibit aggressive behavior and have somatic complaints than non-smoking adolescents. Adolescent smokers preferred to seek help for their problems from informal sources. Physicians treating adolescents should inquire about smoking habits, emotional and behavioral problems and offer counseling if required. PMID:23431837

  16. Relationship of Type A Behavior Pattern in Smokers to Carbon Monoxide Exposure and Smoking Topography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Lombardo; Lilliam Carreno

    1987-01-01

    Stress-related physiological factors have been proposed to mediate the Type A behavior pattern (TABP) and coronary heart disease (CHD). However, collateral behavioral factors, such as the exaggerated consummatory response patterns of Type As, may also be involved. Study 1 examined this hypothesis by comparing exposure to cigarette smoke in 42 graduate and undergraduate student smokers assessed for the TABP. After

  17. Effects of short-term treatment with atorvastatin in smokers with asthma - a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The immune modulating properties of statins may benefit smokers with asthma. We tested the hypothesis that short-term treatment with atorvastatin improves lung function or indices of asthma control in smokers with asthma. Methods Seventy one smokers with mild to moderate asthma were recruited to a randomized double-blind parallel group trial comparing treatment with atorvastatin (40 mg per day) versus placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks treatment inhaled beclometasone (400 ?g per day) was added to both treatment arms for a further 4 weeks. The primary outcome was morning peak expiratory flow after 4 weeks treatment. Secondary outcome measures included indices of asthma control and airway inflammation. Results At 4 weeks, there was no improvement in the atorvastatin group compared to the placebo group in morning peak expiratory flow [-10.67 L/min, 95% CI -38.70 to 17.37, p = 0.449], but there was an improvement with atorvastatin in asthma quality of life score [0.52, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.87 p = 0.005]. There was no significant improvement with atorvastatin and inhaled beclometasone compared to inhaled beclometasone alone in outcome measures at 8 weeks. Conclusions Short-term treatment with atorvastatin does not alter lung function but may improve asthma quality of life in smokers with mild to moderate asthma. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00463827 PMID:21473764

  18. Development of a Culturally Targeted Smoking Cessation Intervention for African American Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa; King, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development a culturally targeted (CT) smoking cessation intervention for low-to-middle income African–American smokers. Based on theoretically based guidelines, modifications were made to a standard treatment manual for group-based smoking cessation counseling that incorporates cognitive-behavioral, motivational, and twelve step skills. Approximately 41% of the standard treatment materials were modified, and four new modules were developed. A pilot study was conducted to compare acceptability, feasibility and early outcome indicates in African American smokers randomized to the CT intervention compared with existing data from African American smokers treated using a non-targeted standard approach (ST). Outcomes from the CT pilot study were promising: results showed high levels of feasibility, acceptability and better adherence to nicotine replacement therapy, higher quit rates, and better retention and follow-up compared with the ST. Findings suggest that a culturally targeted and intensive group based smoking cessation treatment is plausibly effective in improving smoking cessation outcomes in African American smokers, warranting a larger randomized trial. PMID:19728056

  19. Awareness of FDA-Mandated Cigarette Packaging Changes among Smokers of "Light" Cigarettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcone, M.; Bansal-Travers, M.; Sanborn, P. M.; Tang, K. Z.; Strasser, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as "light", "ultra-light" and "low tar" with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and…

  20. Neural Effects of Nicotine during Auditory Selective Attention in Smokers: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Verner Knott; Crystal Blais; Carole Scherling; Jordan Camarda; Anne Millar; Derek Fisher; Judy McIntosh

    2006-01-01

    Acute nicotine has been found to improve task performance in smokers after smoking abstinence, but the attentional processes mediating these improvements are unclear. Since scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) have been shown to be sensitive indicators of selective attention, the effects of acutely administered nicotine were examined on ERPs and concomitant behavioural performance measures in an auditory selective attention task. Ten

  1. Managing Hard-Core Smokers: Oral Health Team Challenges and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecklenburg, Robert Ellis

    1994-01-01

    Focusing dental efforts on hard-core and high-risk smokers can decrease smoking prevalence. Challenges to the dental profession include professional legitimacy, dental professional education, defining special populations, and overcoming barriers to access. Opportunities include strategic placement, strategic relations with those serving high-risk…

  2. A process evaluation model for patient education programs for pregnant smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A Windsor; H Pennington Whiteside; Laura J Solomon; Susan L Prows; Rebecca J Donatelle; Paul M Cinciripini; Helen E McIlvain

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo describe and apply a process evaluation model (PEM) for patient education programs for pregnant smokers.METHODSThe preparation of a process evaluation plan required each program to define its essential “new” patient assessment and intervention procedures for each episode (visit) of patient–staff contact. Following specification of these core implementation procedures (p) by each patient education program, the PEM, developed by the

  3. The Consequences of High Cigarette Excise Taxes for Low-Income Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Nonnemaker, James M.; Watson, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Background To illustrate the burden of high cigarette excise taxes on low-income smokers. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from the New York and national Adult Tobacco Surveys from 2010–2011, we estimated how smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, and share of annual income spent on cigarettes vary by annual income (less than $30,000; $30,000–$59,999; and more than $60,000). The 2010–2011 sample includes 7,536 adults and 1,294 smokers from New York and 3,777 adults and 748 smokers nationally. Overall, smoking prevalence is lower in New York (16.1%) than nationally (22.2%) and is strongly associated with income in New York and nationally (P<.001). Smoking prevalence ranges from 12.2% to 33.7% nationally and from 10.1% to 24.3% from the highest to lowest income group. In 2010–2011, the lowest income group spent 23.6% of annual household income on cigarettes in New York (up from 11.6% in 2003–2004) and 14.2% nationally. Daily cigarette consumption is not related to income. Conclusions/Significance Although high cigarette taxes are an effective method for reducing cigarette smoking, they can impose a significant financial burden on low-income smokers. PMID:22984447

  4. Are Pharmacotherapies Ineffective in Opioid-Dependent Smokers? Reflections on the Scientific Literature and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mollie E; Sigmon, Stacey C

    2015-08-01

    While rates of smoking in the general population have decreased in recent years, dramatic disparities remain among disadvantaged subgroups of smokers, particularly those with concurrent substance abuse. Prevalence rates of smoking among opioid-dependent patients, for example, are fourfold those of the general population. While pharmacotherapies are recommended as a first-line treatment for nicotine dependence, the few studies that have investigated their effectiveness in this population have shown dramatically poorer outcomes compared to the general population. Indeed, these findings have led some researchers to suggest that pharmacotherapies may simply be ineffective in opioid-maintained smokers. In this commentary, we briefly summarize the extant literature on pharmacotherapies in opioid-maintained smokers and contribute new data investigating the contribution of bupropion on smoking outcomes in 81 methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained participants from two randomized trials of financial incentives for smoking cessation. We also discuss several important parameters (ie, timing of the quit attempt, medication adherence, nicotine withdrawal) that may be leveraged to strengthen smoking pharmacotherapy outcomes in opioid-dependent patients. Taken together, an improved understanding of these issues will aid efforts to reduce tobacco-related health disparities in this group of challenging smokers. PMID:26180219

  5. Reverse smokers's and changes in oral mucosa. Department of Sucre, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria J. Alvarez Gómez; Efraín Alvarez Martínez; Raúl Jiménez Gómez; Yolanda Mosquera Silva; Angela María; Gaviria Núñez; Adriana Garcés Agudelo; Alexander Alonso Duque; Alexander Zabala Castaño; Elizabeth Echeverri González; Melissa Isaac Millán; Diana Ramírez Ossa

    Objectives: This work is intended to establish the prevalence of reverse smokers at the villages of Hato Nuevo, San Francisco and Cayo de Palma, Department of Sucre, Colombia, characterizing their socio-culture conditions, clinical and histological changes in the oral mucosa. Design of study: A descriptive study was done through a home to home inquiry to select the people with inclusion

  6. A profile of teen smokers who volunteered to participate in school-based smoking intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Horn; Geri Dino; Steven A Branstetter; Jianjun Zhang; George Kelley; N Noerachmanto; Cindy Tworek

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although a number of population-based studies have examined the characteristics of teens who attempt to quit smoking, few have identified the characteristics of youth who participate in structured cessation interventions, particularly those with demonstrated effectiveness. The purpose of the present study is to describe the sociodemographic and smoking-related characteristics of teen smokers who participated in the American Lung Association's

  7. Disordered Microbial Communities in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Cigarette Smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily S. Charlson; Jun Chen; Rebecca Custers-Allen; Kyle Bittinger; Hongzhe Li; Rohini Sinha; Jennifer Hwang; Frederic D. Bushman; Ronald G. Collman; Markus M. Heimesaat

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smokers have an increased risk of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract. Some effects of smoking on specific respiratory tract bacteria have been described, but the consequences for global airway microbial community composition have not been determined. Here, we used culture-independent high-density sequencing to analyze the microbiota from the right and left nasopharynx and oropharynx of 29 smoking and

  8. Treatment of tobacco use disorders in smokers with serious mental illness: toward clinical best practices.

    PubMed

    Evins, A Eden; Cather, Corinne; Laffer, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Addiction to tobacco-derived nicotine remains highly prevalent in the United States, with 18% using daily, and 53% of those with serious mental illness using daily. While smokers with serious mental illness have been excluded from most large nicotine-dependence treatment studies, a growing evidence base is available to guide clinicians in assisting their patients with psychiatric illness to quit smoking. The aim of this review is to present the evidence on safety and efficacy of smoking cessation interventions for those with serious mental illness. Smokers with schizophrenia spectrum disorders should receive varenicline or bupropion with or without nicotine replacement therapy in combination with behavioral treatment. Although more research is needed, preliminary evidence suggests that varenicline in combination with behavioral support is efficacious and well tolerated for smoking cessation for those with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. Controlled trials have found no evidence that in patients with serious mental illness, the use of pharmacotherapeutic cessation aids worsens psychiatric symptoms or increases the rate of psychiatric adverse events. Converging evidence indicates that a majority of smokers with serious mental illness want to quit smoking and that available pharmacotherapeutic cessation aids combined with behavioral support are both effective for, and well tolerated by, these smokers. PMID:25747922

  9. Are adolescent smokers dependent on nicotine? A review of the evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne M. Colby; Stephen T. Tiffany; Saul Shiffman; Raymond S. Niaura

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on adolescent nicotine dependence, withdrawal, and their associated features. Data documenting nicotine dependence scores, diagnoses, and individual features among adolescents are reviewed in detail and compared to observations based on adult smokers. These data are derived from a broad variety of sources, including national surveys, school-based surveys, and smoking cessation studies. Overall, results indicate

  10. NonSmoker Lung Cancer Deaths Attributable to Exposure to Spouse's Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN TREDANIEL; PAOLO BOFFETTA; RODOLFO SARACCI; ALBERT HIRSCH

    Background . The causal relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and lung cancer is established ; however, the magnitude of the dsk is not known . Therefore, it is conceivable that ETS is responsible for a number of lung cancer deaths because of the large number of smokers and the widespread presence of ETS . We estimated the number of

  11. Computed Tomographic Measurements of Airway Dimensions and Emphysema in Smokers Correlation with Lung Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YASUTAKA NAKANO; SHIGEO MURO; HIROAKI SAKAI; TOYOHIRO HIRAI; KAZUO CHIN; MITSUHIRO TSUKINO; KOICHI NISHIMURA; HARUMI ITOH; PETER D. PARÉ; JAMES C. HOGG; MICHIAKI MISHIMA

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by the presence of airflow obstruction caused by emphysema or air- way narrowing, or both. Low attenuation areas (LAA) on com- puted tomography (CT) have been shown to represent macro- scopic or microscopic emphysema, or both. However CT has not been used to quantify the airway abnormalities in smokers with or without airflow

  12. How Different are Smokers? An analysis based on personal finances Scott Adams*

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    1 How Different are Smokers? An analysis based on personal finances Scott Adams* Department between smoking status and individual decisions, focusing on outcomes in the domain of personal finance status and decisions and outcomes in the domain of personal finance. Our goal here is not to establish

  13. Response perseveration and ventral prefrontal sensitivity to reward and punishment in male problem gamblers and smokers.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Michiel B; Veltman, Dick J; Goudriaan, Anna E; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; van den Brink, Wim

    2009-03-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is associated with maladaptive perseverative behavior, but the underlying mechanism and neural circuitry is not completely clear. Here, the hypothesis was tested that PG is characterized by response perseveration and abnormalities in reward and/or punishment sensitivity in the ventral frontostriatal circuit. Executive functioning was assessed to verify if these effects are independent of the dorsal frontostriatal circuit. A group of smokers was also included to examine whether impairments in PG generalize to substance use disorders. Response perseveration and reward/punishment sensitivity were measured with a probabilistic reversal-learning task, in which subjects could win and lose money. Executive functioning was measured with a planning task, the Tower of London. Performance and fMRI data were acquired in 19 problem gamblers, 19 smokers, and 19 healthy controls. Problem gamblers showed severe response perseveration, associated with reduced activation of right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in response to both monetary gain and loss. Results did not fully generalize to smokers. Planning performance and related activation of the dorsal frontostriatal circuit were intact in both problem gamblers and smokers. PG is related to response perseveration and diminished reward and punishment sensitivity as indicated by hypoactivation of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex when money is gained and lost. Moreover, intact planning abilities and normal dorsal frontostriatal responsiveness indicate that this deficit is not due to impaired executive functioning. Response perseveration and ventral prefrontal hyporesponsiveness to monetary loss may be markers for maladaptive behavior seen in chemical and nonchemical addictions. PMID:18830241

  14. Puffing Topography and Interpersonal Bonding Behavior Observed Among Recovering Drug Addicts Versus General Smokers

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Puffing Topography and Interpersonal Bonding Behavior Observed Among Recovering Drug Addicts Versus Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry; 2 Fairbanks Addiction Hospital and interpersonal bonding behaviors of recovering drug addicts to that of general smokers in a natural setting

  15. What is behind smoker support for new smokefree areas? National survey data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Wilson; Deepa Weerasekera; Tony Blakely; Richard Edwards; George Thomson; Heather Gifford

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some countries have started to extend indoor smokefree laws to cover cars and various outdoor settings. However, policy-modifiable factors around smoker support for these new laws are not well described. METHODS: The New Zealand (NZ) arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project) derives its sample from the NZ Health Survey (a national sample). From this

  16. Marijuana Abstinence Effects in Marijuana Smokers Maintained in Their Home Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan J. Budney; John R. Hughes; Brent A. Moore; Pam L. Novy

    2001-01-01

    Background: Although withdrawal symptoms are com- monly reported by persons seeking treatment for mari- juana dependence, the validity and clinical significance of a marijuana withdrawal syndrome has not been es- tablished. This controlled outpatient study examined the reliability and specificity of the abstinence effects that oc- cur when daily marijuana users abruptly stop smoking marijuana. Methods: Twelve daily marijuana smokers

  17. Assigned versus Perceived Placebo Effects in Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Smoking Reduction in Swiss Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dar, Reuven; Stronguin, Florencia; Etter, Jean-Francois

    2005-01-01

    In this report, the authors explore the relationships of perceived treatment to outcome in a large, placebo-controlled trial of nicotine replacement treatment for smoking reduction. In the original study (J. F. Etter, E. Laszlo, J. P. Zellweger, C. Perrot, & T. V. Perneger, 2002), which was conducted in French-speaking Switzerland, smokers were…

  18. Candida albicans: Frequency and characterization in oral cancer (Stage I) from smokers and drinkers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther Goldenberg Birman; Sergio Kignel; Fernando Ricardo; Xavier Da

    The frequency and the biotype of Candida albicans, from patients with epider- moid carcinoma of the oral mucosa (stage I) were evaluated. The patients cho- sen were habitual drinkers and smokers, aged 34 to 81 years who had not submitted previously to any treatment. They exhibited ulcero-vegetative lesions, mainly on the floor of the mouth, palate and tongue and were

  19. Smoking patterns, beliefs, and the practice of healthy behaviors in abstinent, relapsed, and recalcitrant smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine A. Wynd

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a secondary analysis of smoking patterns and beliefs related to healthy behaviors in adult smokers (N = 71). Data for the secondary analysis were obtained from an original study that examined guided health imagery as a smoking cessation intervention. The imagery intervention resulted in significantly higher 2-year smoking abstinence rates for the

  20. The social context of smoking: A qualitative study comparing smokers of high versus low socioeconomic position

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine L Paul; Samantha Ross; Jamie Bryant; Wesley Hill; Billie Bonevski; Nichola Keevy

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reductions in smoking prevalence in a number of industrialised countries are accompanied by a strong social gap and associated health inequality. Groups such as the World Health Organisation emphasise the importance of exploring potential causal factors for smoking such as socio-economic context & position. There has been little effort to compare the social context of smoking for smokers