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1

Black Smokers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Black Smokers explains the phenomena of deep-sea hydrothermal vents that occur under oceans within mid-ocean ridge volcanoes. The site describes deep-sea hydrothermal vent life forms, the ocean floor, and the mid-ocean ridge system. Teacher resources include games and lesson plans about the human impact on black smoker environments, the debate on human versus robotic expeditions, tools and engineering for black smoker expeditions, and how oceanic crust forms and ages. There are reports from expeditions studying black smokers and information on the research vessels and other underwater tools of the expeditions.

2

Black Smokers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains a brief introduction to the discovery of hydrothermal systems and black smokers. Within the webpage are links to information on gigantic tube worms, polychaete worms, oceans, and extreme environments. This site also provides a list of hydrothermal systems, relevant links to organizations, laboratories and observatories, WebQuests, and other websites with further information on hydrothermal systems. As part of the Environmental Literacy Council site, this webpage also contains links to other resources with environmental content, including air climate, land, water, ecosystems, energy, food, and environment and society.

2009-07-01

3

Phase separation, brine formation, and salinity variation at Black Smoker hydrothermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first fully transient 2-D numerical simulations of black smoker hydrothermal systems using realistic fluid properties and allowing for all phase transitions possible in the system H2O-NaCl, including phase separation of convecting seawater into a low-salinity vapor and high-salinity brine. We investigate convection, multiphase flow, and phase segregation at pressures below, near, and above the critical point of seawater. Our simulations accurately predict the range in vent salinities, from 0.05 to 2.5 times seawater salinity measured at natural systems. In low-pressure systems at ˜1500 m water depth, phase separation occurs in boiling zones stretching from the bottom of the hydrothermal cell to the seafloor. Low-salinity vapors and high-salinity brines can vent simultaneously, and transient variations in vent fluid salinities can be rapid. In high-pressure systems at roughly ˜3500 m water depth, phase separation is limited to the region close to the underlying magma chamber, and vent fluids consist of a low-salinity vapor mixed with a seawater-like fluid. Therefore, vent salinities from these systems are much more uniform in time and always below seawater salinity as long as phase separation occurs in the subseafloor. Only by shutting down the heat source can, in the high-pressure case, the brine be mined, resulting in larger than seawater salinities. These numerical results are in good agreement with long-term observations from several natural black smoker systems.

Coumou, D.; Driesner, T.; Weis, P.; Heinrich, C. A.

2009-03-01

4

High-resolution surveys along the hot spot-affected Gálapagos Spreading Center: 3. Black smoker discoveries and the implications for geological controls on hydrothermal activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explore effects of hot spots on mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems, we conducted nested sonar, hydrothermal plume, and near-bottom photographic surveys along the portion of the Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC) influenced by the Galápagos hot spot, from longitude 95°-89.5°W. We report the first active high-temperature black smokers to be found on the GSC, at longitudes 94°4.5'W and 91°56.2'-54.3'W; describe two areas of recently inactive smokers, at longitudes 91°23.4'-23.7'W and 91°13.8'W; and document an older inactive site, at longitude 90°33.4'W. All imaged vents issue either from dike-induced fissures along linear axial volcanic ridges and collapses or from a caldera. Magmatic control of hydrothermal systems also is revealed by spatial clustering of plumes within the topographically elevated middles of volcanic ridge segments with inferred centralized melt supply. In searched areas, smokers are more typical than diffuse flow vents, but total GSC plume incidence is half of that expected from the spreading rate. Why? Dike-fed fissures provide permeable pathways for efficient hydrothermal extraction of magmatic heat, but cones without calderas do not. Among many point-source cones surveyed, only the two with calderas had detectable plumes. Possibly, dominance of point-source over linear-source melt delivery on the GSC decreases plume incidence. Also, similar maturities of observed vents and their host lava flows indicate that hydrothermally active volcanic segments along the western GSC are contemporaneously in a waning phase of volcanic-hydrothermal activity. Perhaps ridge/hot spot interaction produces melt pulses that drive near-synchronous volcanic-hydrothermal activity on the volcanic segments spanning the hot spot. During active periods, hydrothermally active dike-fed fissures and calderas may be more abundant than we currently observe.

Haymon, Rachel M.; White, Scott M.; Baker, Edward T.; Anderson, Peter G.; MacDonald, Ken C.; Resing, Joseph A.

2008-12-01

5

The influence of hydrothermal fluid composition and advection rates on black smoker chimney mineralogy: Insights from modeling transport and reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study of black smoker chimneys was carried out by drawing together mineralogical observations and measured fluid compositions. The modeling technique, which establishes a link between vent fluid chemistry and vent deposit mineralogy, is used to examine the influence of the physical environment on transport across short length scales (centimeters) which are subject to steep thermal ( ~350°C) and

Margaret Kingston Tivey

1995-01-01

6

The influence of hydrothermal fluid composition and advection rates on black smoker chimney mineralogy: Insights from modeling transport and reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study of black smoker chimneys was carried out by drawing together mineralogical observations and measured fluid compositions. The modeling technique, which establishes a link between vent fluid chemistry and vent deposit mineralogy, is used to examine the influence of the physical environment on transport across short length scales (centimeters) which are subject to steep thermal ( ?350°C) and

Margaret Kingston Tivey

1995-01-01

7

Black smokers and the Tree of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular biology revolution has turned the classification of life on its head. Is Whittaker's five-kingdom scheme for the classification of living things no longer relevant to life science education? Coupled with this is the discovery that most microscopic life cannot yet be brought into culture. One of the key organisms making this knowledge possible is Methanococcus jannishi a microorganism found in black smokers. This workshop presents the development of the Universal Tree of Life in a historical context and then links together major concepts in the New South Wales senior science programs of Earth and Environmental Science and Biology by examining the biological and geological aspects of changes to black smokers over geological time.

Linich, Michael

8

The Acute Tobacco Withdrawal Syndrome Among Black Smokers.  

PubMed

Black smokers have greater difficulty quitting tobacco than White smokers, but the mechanisms underlying between-race differences in smoking cessation are not clear. One possibility is that Black smokers experience greater acute withdrawal than Whites. We investigated whether Black (n = 104) and White smokers (n = 99) differed in abstinence-induced changes in self-report, physiological, and cognitive performance measures. Smokers not wishing to quit completed two counterbalanced experimental sessions. Before one session, they abstained from smoking for at least 12 hr. They smoked normally before the other session. Black smokers reported smaller abstinence-induced changes on a number of subjective measures including the total score of the 10-item Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (QSU) and the total score of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS). However, on most subjective measures, and on all objective measures, there were no between-race differences in abstinence-induced change scores. Moreover, Black participants did not report lower QSU and WSWS ratings at the abstinent session, but they did experience significantly higher QSU and WSWS ratings at the nonabstinent session. Abstinence-induced changes in subjective, physiological, and cognitive measures in White smokers were similar for smokers of nonflavored and menthol-flavored cigarettes. There was no evidence that Black smokers experienced greater acute tobacco withdrawal than Whites. To the contrary, Black participants experienced smaller abstinence-induced changes in self-reported craving and withdrawal on some measures. Racial differences in smoking cessation are unlikely to be explained by acute withdrawal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23528199

Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Waters, Andrew J

2013-03-25

9

Trace element distributions in the chalcopyrite wall of a black smoker chimney: insights from laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA–ICP–MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thin walls of young black smoker chimneys experience steep physico-chemical gradients during active venting of hydrothermal fluid, and these gradients control trace element precipitation within those walls. Here, we utilise a combination of high sensitivity ICPMS and UV laser ablation (resolution of better than 30 ?m) to demonstrate the existence of non-random V, Ag, In, Te, Ba, Au, Pb

I. B. Butler; R. W. Nesbitt

1999-01-01

10

Trace element distributions in the chalcopyrite wall of a black smoker chimney: insights from laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thin walls of young black smoker chimneys experience steep physico-chemical gradients during active venting of hydrothermal fluid, and these gradients control trace element precipitation within those walls. Here, we utilise a combination of high sensitivity ICPMS and UV laser ablation (resolution of better than 30 mum) to demonstrate the existence of non-random V, Ag, In, Te, Ba, Au, Pb

I. B. Butler; R. W. Nesbitt

1999-01-01

11

The role of black smokers in the Cu mass balance of the oceanic crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seafloor hydrothermal systems play an important role in the metal budgets of the oceans via hydrothermal plumes, accumulation of seafloor massive sulfide deposits, and alteration of the oceanic crust. These processes have resulted in large-scale metal anomalies on the Pacific plate, most notably at the Nazca–Pacific plate boundary. This plate-scale variability in metal deposition has important implications for the fluxes of metals to subduction zones and possibly the metal endowment of arc-related mineral deposits. However, the relative contributions to the metal budget from black smokers, deep-sea sediments, Mn nodules and altered crust remain unclear. The Cu contents of more than 10,000 samples of seafloor massive sulfide deposits, subseafloor stockwork mineralization, nodules and sediments reveal that most of the Cu metal originally mobilized by high-temperature hydrothermal convection at the ridges is retained in the crust as subseafloor alteration and mineralization, never reaching the seafloor. This metal accounts for at least 80% of the labile Cu that may be released to subduction fluids driven off a down-going slab. Copper deposited in deep-sea sediments, which account for 17% of the total budget, is derived in part from plume fallout associated with ridge-crest hydrothermal activity but also from pelagic deposition of marine organic matter enriched in Cu metal. Massive sulfide deposits, nodules and manganiferous crusts account for only ˜3% of the Cu metal of the subducting slab.

Hannington, Mark D.

2013-07-01

12

Smoking-Related Weight Concerns Among Underserved, Black Maternal Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objective To expand understanding of a smoking cessation barrier for women, weight concerns, in a medically underserved population. Methods Baseline weight concerns were examined among 235 low-income, black maternal smokers enrolled in a smoking trial. Logistic regression evaluated factors related to weight concerns. Results Higher BMI (OR 3.35, P<.001), intention to quit (OR 2.12, P=.02), more previous quit attempts (OR 1.14, P=.03), and less support for quitting (OR 0.81, P=.05) predicted weight concerns. Conclusions This is the first study to delineate factors predicting weight concerns in this population, thus expanding our understanding of a key cessation barrier and informing future cessation strategies in a population known to bear increased risk of tobacco-related disease.

Collins, Bradley N.; Nair, Uma; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

2013-01-01

13

Diversity of microbial communities of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present an organic geochemical study of Loki's Castle, a black smoker field recently discovered at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around 73.2°N. Located at the Mohn-Knipovich Ridge, which is one of the slowest spreading ridge segments on Earth, Loki's Castle is the most northerly major hydrothermal vent field known to date. The vent

A. Jaeschke; S. M. Bernasconi; I. H. Thorseth; R. Pedersen; G. Früh-Green

2010-01-01

14

Heat flux from black smokers on the Endeavour and Cleft segments, Juan de Fuca Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have estimated the heat flux from black smoker vents on the Juan de Fuca Ridge to evaluate their importance for heat transfer from young oceanic crust. The velocity and temperature of smoker effluent were measured from the manned submersible Alvin within a few centimeters of vent orifices, using a turbine flowmeter with an attached temperature probe. Exit velocity was

Ursula Ginster; Michael J. Mottl; Richard P. von Herzen

1994-01-01

15

Evaluation of the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges in Black Light Smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This study evaluated the factor structure of the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief) within a sample of Black light smokers (1–10 cigarettes per day). Methods: The QSU-Brief was administered to 540 (mean age = 46.5; 66.1% women) urban Black light smokers upon entering a smoking cessation clinical trial. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to evaluate the factor structure of this 10-item measure. Results: An EFA indicated that as in other samples, the construct of craving in a Black sample is defined by 2 factors; 1 factor emphasizing the positive reinforcement of smoking and the other factor emphasizing the negative reinforcement properties of smoking. Conclusions: Findings largely replicate a 2-factor structure of craving seen in smokers from other racial/ethnic groups, demonstrating the clinical utility of the QSU-Brief in measuring craving in Black light smokers.

Clausius, Rebecca L.; Krebill, Ron; Mayo, Matthew S.; Bronars, Carrie; Martin, Laura; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2012-01-01

16

Black smoker chimney fragments in Cyprus sulphide deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal vent fragments have been identified in the brecciated ore from the massive sulphide deposits of the Troodos complex, Cyprus. They display mineral associations, textures and zonations similar to those observed in recently discovered hydrothermal vents forming on the ocean floor near the East Pacific Rise1-3, the Galapagos ridge4,5, the Juan de Fuca ridge6 and the Guaymas basin (Gulf of

Elisabeth Oudin; Georges Constantinou

1984-01-01

17

First time ever retrieval of "black smokers" from ocean floor reveals one of Earth's strangest and most enigmatic ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article features a black smoker retrieved by an expedition team on the Juan De Fuca Ridge, at a depth of more than one mile below the surface of the ocean. The article discusses the expedition, the black smoker's complex ecosystem, and the black smoker environment and lifeform implications for the possibility of life on other planetary bodies. To learn more about the expedition through logs and photographs, the site provides links to the American Museum of Natural History, the University of Washington, and PBS television. Additional University of Washington News articles may be accessed on site as well.

Hines, Sandra; Information, University O.

18

First Time Ever Retrieval of "Black Smokers" from Ocean Floor Reveals One of Earth's Strangest and Most Enigmatic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article features a black smoker retrieved by an expedition team on the Juan De Fuca Ridge, at a depth of more than one mile below the surface of the ocean. The article discusses the expedition, the black smoker's complex ecosystem, and the black smoker environment and lifeform implications for the possibility of life on other planetary bodies. To learn more about the expedition through logs and photographs, the site provides links to the American Museum of Natural History, the University of Washington, and PBS television. Additional University of Washington News articles may be accessed on site as well.

Hines, Sandra

2010-03-08

19

Effects of Menthol on the Pharmacokinetics of Bupropion Among Black Smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Despite the widespread use of mentholated cigarettes, lower cessation rates, and disproportionately high smoking–related morbidity among Blacks, the possible role of menthol in smokers’ response to pharmacotherapy has not been well-studied. This study examined the effects of menthol on the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of bupropion and its principal metabolites, hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion, and erythrohydrobupropion among Black smokers. Methods: After a 7-day placebo run-in period, participants received 150 mg bid sustained-release bupropion for 20–25 days. Blood samples were drawn for PK analysis on 2 occasions, 10–15 days after the commencement of bupropion while participants were still smoking (smoking phase) and at days 20–25 when they were asked not to smoke (nonsmoking phase). Results: 18 smokers of nonmenthol cigarettes and 23 smokers of menthol cigarettes were enrolled in this study. No differences were found by menthol smoking status in the Cmax and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) of bupropion and its metabolites in the smoking or nonsmoking phases. However, among menthol smokers, the AUC ratios of metabolite/bupropion were lower in the nonsmoking phase compared with the smoking phase (hydro/bup = 31.49 ± 18.84 vs. 22.95 ± 13.27, p = .04; erythro/bup = 1.99 ± 1.02 vs. 1.76 ± 0.75, p = .016; threo/bup = 11.77 ± 8.90 vs. 10.44 ± 5.63, p = .034). No significant differences were found in the metabolite/bup ratios between smoking and nonsmoking conditions among nonmenthol smokers. Conclusions: We did not find a significant effect of menthol compared with nonmenthol cigarette smoking on the PKs of bupropion and metabolites at steady state. More research is needed to advance the understanding of mechanisms underlying disparities in smoking cessation outcomes related to smoking of menthol cigarettes.

Faseru, Babalola; Reed, Gregory A.; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Bronars, Carrie A.; Opole, Isaac; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Mayo, Matthew S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Benowitz, Neal L.

2012-01-01

20

A Pilot Clinical Trial of Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in Black Smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Varenicline, a first-line non-nicotine medication, has not been evaluated in Black smokers, and limited attention has been paid to pharmacotherapy adherence in smoking cessation trials. This pilot study estimated quit rates for Black smokers treated with varenicline and tested a behavioral intervention to aid varenicline adherence. Methods: Seventy-two Black smokers (>10 cigarettes per day; cpd) were randomly assigned to adherence support (AS; n = 36) or standard care (n = 36). All participants received 3 months of varenicline and a single counseling session focused on making a quit plan. AS participants received 5 additional counseling sessions to encourage medication use. Outcome measures included salivary cotinine, and carbon monoxide confirmed smoking abstinence, reductions in self-reported cpd, and pill counts of varenicline adherence at Months 1, 2, and 3. Results: Sixty-one participants (84.7%) completed follow-up at Month 3. Participants were female (62.5%), 46.8 years of age, and smoked 16.3 cpd. No treatment group differences were found on the smoking or adherence outcome measures (p > .05). Collapsing across treatment, varenicline adherence was adequate (86.1%), yet despite a reduction of 12.2 (6.5) cpd from baseline to Month 3 (p < 0.001), only 23.6% were confirmed quit at Month 3. Participants who were quit at Month 3 had higher varenicline adherence rates (95.8%) than those who continued to smoke (80.8%, p ? .05). Conclusions: Studies are needed to examine the efficacy of varenicline among Black smokers. Interventions to facilitate adherence to pharmacotherapy warrant further attention as adherence is linked to improved tobacco abstinence.

Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Nazir, Niaman; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Owen, Ashli; Pankey, Sydni; Thompson, Nia; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2011-01-01

21

Diversity of hydrothermal systems on slow spreading ocean ridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 3 decades, hydrothermal vents on the deep seafloor have captivated our imagination. The otherworldly vistas of vent ecosystems with chemosynthetic bacteria, animals new to science, billowing black smokers, and brightly colored polymetallic sulphide mineral deposits have changed our perception of the ocean's depths. In the new AGU monograph Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges,

Colin Schultz

2011-01-01

22

Differences among Black and White young adults on prior attempts and motivation to help a smoker quit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed differences between Black and White young adults on prior attempts and motivation to help a smoker quit. A total of 1,621 undergraduates (912 Black, 709 White; 63% female) ages 18–24 years completed a cross-sectional survey. Overall, 54% reported they had previously tried to help someone else stop smoking (52% among Blacks vs. 58% among Whites, p=0.016). Among nonsmokers

Christi A. Patten; Tabetha A. Brockman; Steven C. Ames; Jon O. Ebbert; Susanna R. Stevens; Janet L. Thomas; Chudley E. Werch; Gebre-Egziabher Kiros; Josephine M. Kershaw; Joan M. Carlson

2008-01-01

23

Sonar images hydrothermal vents in seafloor observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal plumes venting from black smokers and diffuse flow discharging from the surrounding area of the seafloor are important as agents of transfer of heat, chemicals, and biological material from the crust into the ocean in quantitatively significant amounts [Elderfield and Schultz, 1996]. An unprecedented time series of three-dimensional (3-D) volume images of plumes rising tens of meters from black smoker vents and of concurrent 2-D maps of diffuse flow discharging from surrounding areas of the seafloor illuminates the turbulent behavior of hydrothermal fluid transfer into the ocean (see Figure 1).

Rona, Peter; Light, Russ

2011-05-01

24

Rare earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal deposits from the active TAG Mound, 26°N Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of various phases from the active TAG hydrothermal mound has been examined and related to their mineralogy and fluid chemistry. The mound deposits range from black and white smoker chimneys, massive anhydrite\\/sulphide mixtures, oxides, and ochres. All phases, except black smoker chimney anhydrite, demonstrate a positive Eu anomaly when normalised to chondrite REE values.

Rachel A. Mills; Henry Elderfield

1995-01-01

25

Association of secondhand smoke exposure with nicotine dependence among Black smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is influenced by norms and regulations, socioeconomic status and immediate personal interactions. SHS exposure may occur in various settings, including the living space, workplace, and other social environments. This study examines the association between exposure to SHS and nicotine dependence among smokers. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 246 Black (60% male and 40% female) current smokers age 40 and older, from Baltimore, Maryland and Washington, D.C, responded to an interviewer-administered questionnaire. We examined nicotine dependence using clinical guidelines based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision (2000). We performed multivariate logistic regression to assess the association between SHS and nicotine dependence. Results SHS exposure in the current home environment and exposure in settings outside the home as well as difficulty to quit smoking and heaviness of smoking were associated with nicotine dependence. After adjustment for age, gender, education, income, employment status, current alcohol consumption, history of marijuana use, and number of cigarettes smoked per day; exposure to SHS at home only, and in both current home environments and other settings, continued to be associated with clinically-defined levels nicotine dependence (OR = 2.25; 95% CI 1.05, 4.86 vs. OR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.03, 5.18), respectively. Discussion These findings highlight the relative importance of examining SHS exposure in personal (residential and automobile) and public (workplace and outdoor) settings by current smokers. Promotion of smoke-free environments may reduce the prevalence of nicotine dependence among current smokers.

Wilson-Frederick, Shondelle M.; Williams, Carla D.; Garza, Mary A.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Emerson, Mark R.; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Ford, Jean G.

2013-01-01

26

Candy Chemosynthesis: Biochemistry of Hydrothermal Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will differentiate between requirements for life in extreme environments such as hydrothermal vents and other environments and will use soft candy as a model to create a visual image of chemicals involved in autotrophic nutrition. As they review the biochemistry of hydrothermal vents, they will discover what chemicals are used by autotrophs in extreme environments in the deep ocean and how these chemicals differ from those used by terrestrial autotrophs. They will also study a diagram showing how a hydrothermal vent (black smoker) acquires the elements and compounds that deep-sea autotrophs require.

27

A laboratory and theoretical study of the growth of ``black smoker'' chimneys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational evidence suggests that black smoker chimneys are formed by the precipitation of anhydrite from seawater producing a solid framework which is replaced successively by iron, zinc and copper sulfides. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this process using a laboratory model in which KNO 3 is first crystallized from a warm, nearly saturated solution round an inflowing plume of cold K 2CO 3. The chimney grows in length at a nearly constant rate and, at the same time, it thickens as heat conduction causes further crystallization. The dynamic replacement process has been modelled separately, with CuSO 4 passed through a previously formed chimney of KNO 3 and flowing out through the porous walls when the flow rate, and hence the pressure difference, is increased. The formation of chimneys at a line or slit source has also been investigated in the laboratory. It has been shown that, in this case, the slit is quickly blocked off by crystallization over most of its length and that the growth is concentrated at just a few points to form a small number of nearly axisymmetric chimneys. A theory has been developed which predicts both the diameter of the outlet vent and the sign of the pressure difference between the inside and the outside of an axisymmetric chimney of constant internal diameter for a specified flow rate and density difference. It suggests that changes in flow rate or in the internal diameter of the chimney can cause fluid to flow in or out through the porous wall, leading to changes in the position of mineral stability fields within the evolving chimney. The theory has been extended to describe the pressure distribution in tapering interior conduits and it leads to the conclusion that the direction of flow through a porous chimney can reverse along its length.

Turner, J. S.; Campbell, I. H.

1987-03-01

28

Hydrothermal Alteration in the PACMANUS Hydrothermal Field: Implications From Secondary Mineral Assemblages and Mineral Chemistry, OPD Leg 193  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leg 193 of the Ocean Drilling Program investigated the subsurface nature of the active PACMANUS hydrothermal field in the Manus backarc basin near Papua New Guinea. Drilling in different areas on the felsic neovolcanic Pual Ridge, including the high-temperature black smoker complex of Roman Ruins and the low-temperature Snowcap site with diffusive discharge yielded a complex alteration history with a

K. S. Lackschewitz; M. Kummetz; D. Ackermand; R. Botz; C. W. Devey; A. Singer; P. Stoffers

2001-01-01

29

Geomicrobiological exploration and characterization of novel deep-sea hydrothermal activities accompanying with extremely acidic white smokers and elemental sulfur chimneys at the TOTO caldera in the Mariana Volcanic Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel hydrothermal activities accompanying effluent white smokers and elemental sulfur chimney structures at the northeast lava dome of the TOTO caldera depression in the Mariana Volcanic Arc were explored by the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. The white smoker hydrothermal fluids were observed in the potential hydrothermal activity center of the field and represented a maximal temperature of 172 degree C and a lowest pH of 1.59, that was the lowest pH of the hydrothermal fluid ever recorded. The chimney structures consisting all of elemental sulfur (sulfur chimney) were also peculiar to the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field in the world. The geochemical characterization strongly suggested that the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field was a novel system driven by subseafloor mixing between the oxygenated seawater and the superheated volcanic gasses. Microbial community structures in a sulfur chimney structure and its formation hydrothermal fluid with a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (15 mM) were investigated by culture-dependent and _|independent analyses. Ribosomal rRNA gene clone analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that epsilon-Proteobacteria, specifically classified into Group G and Group B, dominated the microbial communities in the sulfur chimney structure and formed a dense microbial mat covering the sulfur chimney surface. Archaeal phylotypes were consistently minor components in the communities and related to the genera Thermococcus, Pyrodictium, Aeropyrum, and the uncultivated archaeal group of Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeotal Group. Cultivation analysis suggested that the microbial components inhabiting in the sulfur chimney structure might be entrained by hydrothermal fluids from the potential subsurface habitats

Takai, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Hirayama, H.; Kosaka, A.; Tsunogai, U.; Gamo, T.; Nealson, K. H.; Horikoshi, K.

2004-12-01

30

Visual Observations and Geologic Settings of the Newly-Discovered Black Smoker Vent Sites Across the Galapagos Ridge-Hotspot Intersection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly one-fifth of the global mid-ocean ridge is hotspot-affected, yet very little is known about how hotspots affect quantity and distribution of high-temperature hydrothermal vents along the ridge. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, acoustic and plume sensor surveys were conducted across the Galapagos ridge- hotspot intersection, lon. 94.5ºW- lon. 89.5ºW, to map fine scale geologic features and locate hydrothermal plumes emanating from the ridge crest. Where significant plumes were detected, the Medea fiber-optic camera sled was used successfully to find and image high-temperature vents on the seafloor. With Medea we discovered and imaged the first active and recently extinct black smokers known along the entire Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC), and documented the geologic setting of these vents. The Medea survey imaged numerous inactive vents as well as 3 active high-temperature vent fields along the ridge at 94º 04.5'W (Navidad Site), 91º56.2'W (Iguanas Site) and 91º54.3'W (Pinguinos Site). Two recently extinct vent fields also were identified at 91º23.4'-23.7'W and 91º13.8'W. All of the high-temperature vent sites that we identified along the GSC are found above relatively shallow AMC reflectors and are located in the middle 20% of ridge segments. Without exception the vent sites are located along fissures atop constructional axial volcanic ridges (AVR's) composed of relatively young pillow basalts. In some cases, the vents were associated with collapses adjacent to the fissures. The fissures appear to be eruptive sources of the pillow lavas comprising the AVR's. Video images of the chimneys show mature, cylindrical structures, up to 14m high; little diffuse flow; few animals; and some worm casts and dead clam shells, suggesting prior habitation. We conclude that distribution of the vents is controlled by magmatic processes, (i.e., by locations of shallow AMC magma reservoirs and eruptive fissures above dike intrusions), and that there is surprising similarity in the settings of the vents and the apparent ages of the chimneys and lavas along ~400 n.m of the GSC spanning the Galapagos mantle plume.

Anderson, P.; Haymon, R.; MacDonald, K.; White, S.

2006-12-01

31

Direct observation of the evolution of a seafloor 'black smoker' from vapor to brine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A single hydrothermal vent, 'F' vent, occurring on very young crust at 9??16.8???N, East Pacific Rise, was sampled in 1991 and 1994. In 1991, at the measured temperature of 388??C and seafloor pressure of 258 bar, the fluids from this vent were on the two-phase curve for seawater. These fluids were very low in chlorinity and other dissolved species, and high in gases compared to seawater and most sampled seafloor hydrothermal vent fluids. In 1994, when this vent was next sampled, it had cooled to 351??C and was venting fluids ???1.5 times seawater chlorinity. This is the first reported example of a single seafloor hydrothermal vent evolving from vapor to brine. The 1991 and 1994 fluids sampled from this vent are compositionally conjugate pairs to one another. These results support the hypothesis that vapor-phase fluids vent in the early period following a volcanic eruption, and that the liquid-phase brines are stored within the oceanic crust, and vent at a later time, in this case 3 years. These results demonstrate that the venting of brines can occur in the same location, in fact from the same sulfide edifice, where the vapor-phase fluids vented previously.

Von Damm, K. L.; Buttermore, L. G.; Oosting, S. E.; Bray, A. M.; Fornari, D. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Shanks, III, W. C.

1997-01-01

32

Discovery and Distribution of Black Smokers on the Western Galapagos Spreading Center: Implications for Spatial and Temporal Controls on High Temperature Venting at Ridge/Hotspot Intersections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though nearly one-fifth of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) lies on or near hotspots, it has been debated whether hotspots increase or decrease MOR hydrothermal flux, or affect vent biota. Despite hotspot enhancement of melt supply, high-temperature vent plumes are enigmatically sparse along two previously-surveyed ridge- hotspot intersections [Reykjanes Ridge (RR), Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR)]. This has been attributed to crustal thickening by excess volcanism. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, we conducted nested sonar, plume, and camera surveys along a 540 km-long portion of the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) where the ridge intersects the Galapagos hotspot at lon. 94.5 -89.5 deg. W. Although MOR hydrothermal springs were first found along the eastern GSC crest in 1977 near lon. 86 deg. W, the GalAPAGoS smokers are the first active high-temperature vents to be found anywhere along the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary. Active and/or recently-inactive smokers were located beneath plumes at 5 sites on the seafloor between lon. 91 deg. W and 94.5 deg. W (see Anderson et al., this session) during near-bottom, real-time fiber-optic Medea camera surveys. Smokers occur along eruptive seafloor fissures atop axial volcanic ridges near the middles of ridge segments, mainly in areas underlain by relatively shallow, continuous axial magma chamber (AMC) seismic reflectors. These findings (1) support magmatic, rather than tectonic, control of GSC smoker distribution; (2) demonstrate that thick crust at MOR-hotspot intersections does not prevent high-temperature hydrothermal vents from forming; and, (3) appear to be inconsistent with models suggesting that enhanced hydrothermal cooling causes abrupt deepening of the AMC and transition from non-rifted to rifted GSC morphology near lon. 92.7 deg. W. The widely-spaced smoker sites located on different GSC segments exhibit remarkably similar characteristics and seafloor settings. Most sites are mature or extinct, and are on lava flows of visually-similar ages (estimated to be tens-to-hundreds of years old). Possibly a volcanic pulse may have activated the hotspot- affected western GSC, and powered contemporaneous hydrothermal vents that now are waning. It may be that hotspots produce episodes of near-synchronous, extensive ridge volcanism and hydrothermal activity, followed by periods of quiescence. This idea is consistent with: the episodic eruption histories of Hawaii and Iceland; variably anomalous hydrothermal plume incidence (low on RR, SEIR, GSC; high on Mid-Atlantic Ridge near Azores hotspot); models of episodic melt extraction from mantle plumes; and evidence for magma propagation along hotspot-influenced ridges. Our hypothesis potentially can be tested by studies of gene flow between animal communities located on either side of the Galapagos hotspot, and by dating of GSC hydrothermal chimneys and the lava flows on which they are constructed.

Haymon, R. M.; Anderson, P. G.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; White, S. M.; MacDonald, K. C.

2006-12-01

33

Hyperthermophilic life at deep-sea hydrothermal vents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 considerably modified the views on deep-sea biology. For the first time, an ecosystem totally based on primary production achieved by chemosynthetic bacteria was discovered. Besides the warm vents where dense invertebrate communities and their symbiotic bacteria are located, the “black smokers” venting fluids at temperatures up to 350°C were also investigated by

Daniel Prieur; Gaël Erauso; Christian Jeanthon

1995-01-01

34

Chemical characteristics of hydrothermal fluids from the TAG Mound of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in August 1994: Implications for spatial and temporal variability of hydrothermal activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TAG hydrothermal mound on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (26°08?N, 44°50?W) was revisited in August 1994 with the submersible Shinkai 6500 in order to characterize time-series fluid chemistry prior to the ODP drilling. Fluid samples were taken from both black smokers and white smokers. Si, pH, alkalinity, H2S, major cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+), major anions (Cl-, SO42-), and minor elements (Li, Sr, B, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Br) as well as Sr isotope ratios were measured. We report the first Br/Cl ratios for the TAG hydrothermal fluids, showing no fractionation between Br and Cl during the fluid-rock interaction. This study shows small changes in composition of the black smoker fluids from the 1990 data (Edmond et al., 1995). Changes of pH, alkalinity, Fe, K, and 87Sr/86Sr values are suggestive of subsurface FeS precipitation and a decrease of water/rock ratio at a deeper reaction zone. Differences in chemical characteristics between the black and white smoker fluids were similarly observed as in 1990.

Gamo, Toshitaka; Chiba, Hitoshi; Masuda, Harue; Edmonds, Henrietta N.; Fujioka, Kantaro; Kodama, Yukio; Nanba, Hiromi; Sano, Yuji

35

Cruise explores hydrothermal vents of the Manus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A joint Japanese-French program (New STARMER) sampled active hydrothermal sites near the New Britain active subduction zone in the South Pacific from October 16 to November 13, 1995. Using the R/V Yokosuka and the submersible Shinkai 6500, researchers made a number of surprising findings about magmatic, tectonic, and hydrothermal activity at the central and northeastern ridges of the Manus Basin spreading system. Fifteen dives by the submersible revealed a spectrum of hydrothermal processes, ranging from shimmering waters to black smokers. For the first time, highly acidic fluids rich in H2S and low in temperature (87-118°C) were sampled in the eastern part of the Manus Basin.

Scientific Party; Auzende, Jean-Marie; Urabe, Tetsuro

36

Borders of life: lessons from Microbiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty years ago, the deep-sea was known as a low density biotope due to coldness, darkness and famine-like conditions. The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Eastern Pacific in 1977 and the associated black smokers in 1979 considerably changed our views about life on Earth. For the first time, an ecosystem almost independent (at least for tens of years)

D. Prieur

2004-01-01

37

High-resolution three-dimensional simulations of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution numerical simulations give clear insights into the three-dimensional structure of thermal convection associated with black-smoker hydrothermal systems. We present a series of simulations that show that, at heat fluxes expected at mid-ocean ridge spreading axes, upflow is focused in circular, pipe-like regions, with the bulk of the recharge taking place in the near-axial region. Recharging fluids have relatively warm

D. Coumou; T. Driesner; S. Geiger; A. Paluszny; C. A. Heinrich

2009-01-01

38

Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Fluxes and the Chemical Composition of the Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical estimates of mid-ocean ridge axial heat fluxes (2 to 4 times 10 and of the total hydrothermal flux 9 pm 2 times 10 are well established. Problems arise in calculation of water fluxes because of uncertainties in (a) values of off-axis fluxes and (b) the partition of axial heat flow between high-temperature black smoker and lower-temperature diffuse flow. Of

H. Elderfield; A. Schultz

1996-01-01

39

Controls on the physics and chemistry of seafloor hydrothermal circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low temperature diffuse hydrothermal circulation is a natural consequence of the cooling of the oceanic lithosphere. Diffuse flow is expected to be ubiquitous, and will be present both within mid-ocean ridge crest axial zones of young age (0-1 Ma), and also on the older ridge crest flanks and limbs. If underlying thermal models are correct, hydrothermal circulation should persist for oceanic lithosphere of age 0-65 Ma, and is present over half the total area of the ocean basins. By using numerical models of hydrothermal circulation in cracked permeable media, we show qualitatively how diffuse flow is an intrinsic feature of high temperature axial (0-1 Ma) hydrothermal systems, and is not restricted to older (more than 1 Ma) lithosphere. This is in agreement with our field observations which suggest that in such high temperature vent fields the greatest part of the heat and volume flux is due to lower temperature diffuse flow, rather than high temperature black smoker venting. By combining direct measurements of the physical properties of diffusely flowing effluent within axial hydrothermal systems with concurrent sampling of the chemical properties of that effluent, and by considering also the chemistry of unmixed black smoker endmember fluids from the same hydrothermal systems, the processes of mineral deposition and dissolution can be studied directly. By referring to the present-day lithology of such areas, it is possible to examine the balance between concurrent mineral deposition and dissolution processes, and the retention rate of specific mineral assemblages integrated over the history of the hydrothermal system. Thus details of the episodicity of hydrothermal venting within the system may be revealed. An example of this method of combining a variety of direct measurements of diffuse and high temperature effluent properties is given from the TAG hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Long time series observations of the physical properties of diffuse and high temperature effluent reveal the importance both of tidal variability and also the response to changes in the permeability structure of the system brought about by natural and anthropogenic processes. Several mechanisms are considered to explain the relationship between ocean tidal loading, solid Earth tidal deformations, and the observed changes in flow within axial hydrothermal systems.

Schultz, A.; Elderfield, H.

40

Smoker's lung  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physicians can easily tell if you are a smoker by how your lungs look. Normal lungs are red or pink and fluid-looking. Smokers have blackened lungs that are drier than normal lungs. Tumors may develop from continued tobacco use-these appear as white masses.

John Hayman (None;)

2007-07-02

41

Calcium Isotope Fractionation in Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present measurements of stable Ca isotopes (?44/40Ca) from hydrothermal fluids (Long Valley, California) and epidote from fossil hydrothermal systems (Troodos and Betts Cove ophiolites). Hydrothermal fluids in Long Valley show a progressive increase in the heavy isotopes of Ca (?44/40Ca +0.56‰ relative to the initial thermal fluid) with decreasing temperature, Ca concentration, Ca/Sr and CO2 concentration. The increase in the ?44/40Ca along the hydrothermal fluid flow path is potentially consistent with the precipitation of hydrothermal calcite (which would be isotopically lighter) or mixing between the thermal fluid and meteoric water. We favor the former explanation because non-linear relationships between CO2 concentrations and noble gasses suggest that decreasing CO2 concentrations are primarily due to reservoir degassing, which would likely drive calcite precipitation (e.g. Arnorsson cont. min. pet, 1978). Epidote mineral separates from the Betts Cove (Newfoundland, early Ordovician) and Troodos (Cyprus, Cretaceous) ophiolites are isotopically light relative to bulk silicate earth (?44/40Ca ranges from -0.7 to 0.0‰). The epidote ?44/40Ca is not correlated with calculated fluid temperatures or 87Sr/86Sr measured in the epidote but is negatively correlated with the epidote Sr/Ca. Black smoker fluids, which are thought to be related to epidote formation in ophiolites, have ?44/40Ca of about 0-0.2‰, meaning that epidote Ca is consistently lighter than the inferred fluids from which they precipitate (Amini et al, GCA, 2008). To explain the complimentary Long Valley hydrothermal fluid and fossil epidote data there must be a mechanism for fractionating Ca isotopes at hydrothermal temperatures. Equilibrium fractionation of Ca isotopes should be close to 0‰ at high temperatures (100-400°C), implying that any Ca isotopic fractionation between fluid and hydrothermal minerals is likely a kinetic effect. Experimental data suggest that, for example, epidote equilibrium dissolution rates are about 0.3um/y (Wood and Walther, Science, 1983) while observations of epidote growth rates in geothermal systems are 73 um/y (Browne et al, Am Min, 1989). DePaolo (2009 Goldschmidt abstract) calculated that kinetic isotope fractionation between fluids and minerals should occur if net precipitation rates are greater than the equilibrium dissolution rate. If the estimates for dissolution and net precipitation rates for epidote are representative of most hydrothermal systems then epidote Ca should commonly have ?44/40Ca lighter than the associated fluid. Ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids should be slightly enriched in the heavy isotopes of Ca compared to oceanic crust as recently observed (Amini et al, GCA, 2008).

Brown, S. T.; Depaolo, D. J.; Turchyn, A. V.; Kennedy, B. M.; Alt, J.; Bedard, J. H.; Skulski, T.

2009-12-01

42

Serpentinization and hydrothermal activity: new insights from Fe isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal activity along the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge is evidenced by high temperature hydrothermal systems, whose fluids release high metals concentrations. In addition, some of these black smoker systems (e.g., Rainbow, Logatchev) vent high concentrations in hydrogen and methane, whose formation is related to serpentinization of mantle peridotites that form, together with gabbroic rocks, the substratum of these hydrothermal systems. Serpentinization of mantle peridotites is a process leading to replacement and oxidation of primary ferromagnesian minerals, i.e. olivine and pyroxene, to serpentine ± brucite and magnetite. This hydration and redox process is known to play a significant role in chemical fluxes of some elements (e.g., S, B) at ridges and in subduction zones, but little is know on its role in iron speciation, iron isotope composition and chemical fluxes in black smoker hydrothermal systems. We present here the first measurements of Fe-isotope compositions for a set of variably serpentinized oceanic peridotites from four sites along Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Rainbow (30°N), Logatchev (15°N), and Ashadze (13°N), which host active high temperature hydrothermal systems, and the MARK area (23°N). These sites were chosen because they cover a wide range of serpentinization and oxidation degrees. Serpentinized peridotites show a narrow range of Fe-isotope compositions (?56Fe from -0.170 to +0.138%) falling within the range of values reported for bulk mantle peridotites. This indicates that bulk Fe-isotope composition is only slightly modified during serpentinization. However, our samples show a rough negative correlation between ?56Fe values and oxidation degree, suggesting that progressive serpentinization reactions do not produce an enrichment in heavy Fe isotopes, contrasting with expectation. A more complex multiple-stage process is needed to explain this relation.

Delacour, A.; Busigny, V.; Cannat, M.; Andreani, M.; Mevel, C.

2011-12-01

43

Methanotorris formicicus sp. nov., a novel extremely thermophilic, methane-producing archaeon isolated from a black smoker chimney in the Central Indian Ridge.  

PubMed

A novel extremely thermophilic, methane-producing archaeon was isolated from a black smoker chimney at the Kairei field in the Central Indian Ridge. Cells of this isolate were irregular cocci with several flagella; motility was not observed. Growth was observed between 55 and 83 degrees C (optimum of 75 degrees C; 30 min doubling time) and between pH 6.0 and 8.5 (optimum of pH 6.7). The isolate was a strictly anaerobic, methanogenic autotroph capable of using hydrogen and carbon dioxide as sole energy and carbon sources. Formate was utilized as an alternative energy source. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 33.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate was most closely related to Methanotorris igneus strain Kol 5T. The isolate, however, could be genetically differentiated from this species by DNA-DNA hybridization analysis and on the basis of its physiological properties. The name Methanotorris formicicus sp. nov. is proposed for this isolate; the type strain is Mc-S-70T (=JCM 11930T=ATCC BAA-687T). PMID:15280275

Takai, Ken; Nealson, Ken H; Horikoshi, Koki

2004-07-01

44

Hyperthermophilic life at deep-sea hydrothermal vents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 considerably modified the views on deep-sea biology. For the first time, an ecosystem totally based on primary production achieved by chemosynthetic bacteria was discovered. Besides the warm vents where dense invertebrate communities and their symbiotic bacteria are located, the "black smokers" venting fluids at temperatures up to 350°C were also investigated by microbiologists. Several strains of hyperthermophilic Archaea (methanogens, sulfate-reducers, sulfur-reducers) were isolated from smokers and surrounding materials. Deep-sea isolates that have been totally described, have been assigned to new species, within genera previously found in coastal geothermally heated environments. However, some species appear to exist in both deep and shallow ecosystems. Some deep-sea hyperthermophiles appear to be adapted to hydrostatic pressure and showed a barophilic response. The distribution of hyperthermophiles in the hot ecosystems of the planet, and their adaptation to pressure are presented and discussed.

Prieur, Daniel; Erauso, Gaël; Jeanthon, Christian

1995-02-01

45

Hydrothermal activity in the Lau back-arc basin: Sulfides and water chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The submersible Nautile completed 22 dives during the Nautilau cruise (R/V Nadir, April 17-May 10, 1989) for a detailed investigation of the southern Lau basin near Tonga. The objective of the scientific team from France, Germany, and Tonga was to understand the process of sea-floor ore formation associated with hydrothermal circulation along the Valu Fa back-arc ridge behind the Tonga-Kermadec trench. The four diving areas, between lat21{degree}25'S and 22{degree}40'S in water{approximately}2000 m deep, were selected on the basis of results from cruises of the R/V Jean Charcot and R/V Sonne. The Nadir cruise provided proof of hydrothermal activity-in all for areas, over more than 100 km-as indicated by the widespread occurence of hydrothermal deposits and by heat flow, conductivity, and temperature measurements near the sea bottom. The most spectacular findings were high-temperature white and black smokers and associated fauna and ore deposits. Hydrothermal water chemistry and sulfide composition data presented here indicate that this hydrothermal field is very different from the hydrothermal fields in oceanic ridges. This difference is seen in water chemistry of the hydrothermal fluid (pH=2 and high metal content) and the chemical composition of sulfides (enrichment in Ba, As, and Pb).

Fouquet, Y.; Charlou, J.L.; Donval, J.P.; Foucher, J.P. (Institut Francais de Recherche et d'Exploitation de la Mer, Plouzane (France)); von Stackelberg, U.; Wiedicke, M. (Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)); Erzinger, J. (Justus-Liebig-Universitat, Giessen (Germany)); Herzig, P. (Rheinish-Westfalische Technische Hochschule, Aachen (Germany)); Muhe, R. (Universitat Kiel (Germany)); Soakai, S. (Ministry of Lands Survey and Natural Resources, Nuku'Alofa (Tonga)); Whitechurch, H. (Ecole et Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (France))

1991-04-01

46

Acoustic imaging of hydrothermal plumes, East Pacific Rise, 21°N, 109°W  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first observations based on acoustic imaging of large-scale structure and time variability of buoyant plumes emanating from black smoker-type seafloor hot springs. Three-dimensional plume reconstructions were made from a digital data set of acoustic backscattering information recorded on a prototype submersible-mounted sonar system. The acoustic images of two adjacent black smokers depict volume and show zones of flow organization (meters to tens of meters) in the lower 40 m of the buoyant plumes. The two plumes coalesce, bend in the prevailing current, exhibit short-term (minutes) variation in cross section, and rapid (seconds) turbulent eddy variations at small scales (< 1 m). The plume imaging system is being developed for determination of plume dynamics, flux determinations when combined with chemical and thermal measurements, and long-term monitoring of the activity of seafloor hydrothermal fields.

Rona, P. A.; Palmer, D. R.; Jones, C.; Chayes, D. A.; Czarnecki, M.; Carey, E. W.; Guerrero, J. C.

1991-12-01

47

Visual Observations and Geologic Settings of the Newly-Discovered Black Smoker Vent Sites Across the Galapagos Ridge-Hotspot Intersection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly one-fifth of the global mid-ocean ridge is hotspot-affected, yet very little is known about how hotspots affect quantity and distribution of high-temperature hydrothermal vents along the ridge. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, acoustic and plume sensor surveys were conducted across the Galapagos ridge- hotspot intersection, lon. 94.5ºW- lon. 89.5ºW, to map fine scale geologic features and locate hydrothermal plumes

P. Anderson; R. Haymon; K. MacDonald; S. White

2006-01-01

48

Silica and germanium in Pacific Ocean hydrothermal vents and plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved silica (Si) and inorganic germanium (Ge) concentrations were measured in hydrothermal fluids from black smoker vents on the East Pacific Rise (21 deg N EPR) and the Southern Juan de Fuca Ridge (45 deg N SJdFR: North and South Cleft Sites, Axial Volcano). These typically display end-member concentrations ranging from 16 to 23 mM (Si) and 150 to 280 nM (Ge), and end-member Ge/Si ratios clustering between 8 and 14 x 10(exp -6), more than 10-fold greater than the ratio entering the ocean via rivers (0.54 x 10(exp -6)) and being recycled in seawater (0.7 x 10(exp -6)). `Excess' concentrations of dissolved Si and Ge above oceanic background are observed in mid-water hydrothermal plumes over mid-ocean ridge (MOR) spreading centers on the Southern EPR (SEPR) (10 deg - 20 deg S) and the SJdFR. The largest Si and Ge concentration anomalies occur over the North Cleft Segment of the SJdFR. These are a factor of three greater than anomalies over the SEPR (10 deg - 20 deg S). Excess Ge correlates with excess He-3 in plumes at a Ge/He-3 molar ratio of about 1 x 10(exp 4), approximately the same ratio as in black smokers. These observations, combined with low abundances of Ge in Fe-Mn-rich metalliferous sediments, suggest that Ge (and Si) behave conservatively in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal plumes. A simple ocean Si and Ge balance, constrained by the global river silica flux and Ge/Si ratios in hydrothermal vents, rivers and biogenic silica, suggests that the global hydrothermal silica flux is about 1 - 4 x 10(exp 11) mole/yr, much lower than that estimated from He-3. Either (1) 70 - 80% of the Ge flux to the ocean is removed in as-yet undiscovered sinks (not opal), or (2) only 10% of the mantle to ocean He-3 and heat fluxes is associated with MOR hydrothermal convection through the 350 C isotherm (90% is off-ridge), or (3) the oceanic Ge/Si, He-3 (and Sr-87/Sr-86) balances today are far from steady-state.

Mortlock, Richard A.; Froelich, Philip N.; Feely, Richard A.; Massoth, Gary J.; Butterfield, David A.; Lupton, John E.

1993-09-01

49

Larval dispersal via entrainment into hydrothermal vent plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most intriguing ecological questions remaining unanswered about hydrothermal vents is how vent organisms disperse and persist. Because vent species are generally endemic and their habitat is patchy and ephemeral on time scales as short as decades, they must disperse frequently, presumably in a planktonic larval stage. We suggest that dispersal occurs not only in near-bottom currents but also several hundred meters above the seafloor at the level of the laterally spreading hydrothermal plumes. Using a standard buoyant plume model and observed larval abundances near hydrothermal vents at 9°50'N along the East Pacific Rise, we estimate a mean vertical flux of approximately 100 vent larvae/h at a single black smoker. Larval abundances were extremely variable near vents, resulting in a range in estimated fluxes of at least an order of magnitude. The suitability of the plume model for these calculations was determined by releasing dyes (fluorescein and rhodamine) as larval mimics into a black smoker plume. The plume model predicted dye fluxes in the plume adequately, given the short averaging times of our measurements and the difficulty of sampling the plume centerline. Our calculations of substantial numbers of vent larvae entrained into the plume support the idea that transport in the lateral plume is an important mechanism of dispersal. Because vertical shear in flows above vents can cause larval dispersal trajectories in the plume to deviate considerably from those along the seafloor, larvae in the plume may have access to habitats that are unreachable by larvae in near-bottom flows.

Kim, Stacy L.; Mullineaux, Lauren S.; Helfrich, Karl R.

1994-06-01

50

Hydrothermal Alteration in the PACMANUS Hydrothermal Field: Implications From Secondary Mineral Assemblages and Mineral Chemistry, OPD Leg 193  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leg 193 of the Ocean Drilling Program investigated the subsurface nature of the active PACMANUS hydrothermal field in the Manus backarc basin near Papua New Guinea. Drilling in different areas on the felsic neovolcanic Pual Ridge, including the high-temperature black smoker complex of Roman Ruins and the low-temperature Snowcap site with diffusive discharge yielded a complex alteration history with a regional primary alteration being overprinted by a secondary mineralogy. The intense hydrothermal alteration at both sites shows significant differences in the secondary mineralogy. At Roman Ruins, the upper 25 m of hydrothermally altered rocks are characterized by a rapid change from secondary cristobalite to quartz, implying a high temperature gradient. From 10 to 120 mbsf the clay mineralogy is dominated by illite and chlorite. The chlorite formation temperature calculated from oxygen isotope data lies at 250° C in 116 mbsf which is similar to the present fluid outflow temperatures of 240-250° C (Douville et al., 1999, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 627-643). Drilling in the Snowcap field recovered evidence for several stages of hydrothermal alteration. Between 50 and 150 mbsf, cristobalite and chlorite are the most abundant alteration minerals while hydrothermal pyrophyllite becomes abundant in some places At 67 mbsf, the isotopic composition of pyrophyllite gives a temperature for ist formation at 260° C whereas at 77 and 116 mbsf the pyrophyllite displays the highest temperatures of formation (>300° C). These temperatures are close to the maximum measured borehole temperatures of 313° C. The appearance of assemblages of chlorite, chlorite-vermiculite, chlorite-vermiculite-smectite and illite-smectite as well as the local development of corrensite below 150 mbsf suggests that the alteration at Snowcap may be more complex than that beneath Roman Ruins. Detailed geochemical studies of the authigenic clay mineral phases will provide further insights into the chemical changes due to hydrothermal alteration.

Lackschewitz, K. S.; Kummetz, M.; Kummetz, M.; Ackermand, D.; Botz, R.; Devey, C. W.; Singer, A.; Stoffers, P.

2001-12-01

51

Psychosocial differences between smokers and non-smokers during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Despite the well-established adverse birth and childhood health outcomes associated with maternal smoking, smoking rates among pregnant women remain high. Psychosocial health attributes, including anxiety, depression, perceived stress, self-efficacy, and personality characteristics, have especially important roles in smoking behavior. Understanding who smokes during pregnancy and what factors influence this behavior choice may be key to improving the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention programs. We use data from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women to understand the psychosocial health profiles of women who choose to smoke during pregnancy compared to the profiles of women who do not smoke or successfully quit smoking during pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression analyses on 1518 non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white women assessed the association between smoking status and psychosocial health while controlling for demographic characteristics. Higher levels of perceived stress, depression, neuroticism, negative paternal support, and perceived racism among non-Hispanic blacks were associated with higher odds of being a smoker than a non-smoker (p<0.05). Higher levels of self-efficacy, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, interpersonal support, positive paternal support, and perceived social standing were associated with lower odds of being a smoker than a non-smoker (p<0.05). Our analysis indicates that women who smoked during pregnancy experienced a more negative constellation of psychosocial adversities than women who did not smoke. Given the psychosocial needs and personality profiles experienced by smokers, more attention to the psychosocial strengths and weaknesses of these women may allow for more tailored smoking cessation programs, enhancing both the short- and long-term effectiveness of such interventions. PMID:22000409

Maxson, Pamela J; Edwards, Sharon E; Ingram, Amber; Miranda, Marie Lynn

2011-09-08

52

Rare earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal deposits from the active TAG Mound, 26{degrees}N mid-Atlantic ridge  

SciTech Connect

The rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of various phases from the active TAG hydrothermal mound has been examined and related to their mineralogy and fluid chemistry. The mound deposits range from black and white smoker chimneys, massive anhydrite/sulphide mixtures, oxides, and ochres. All phases, except black smoker chimney anhydrite, demonstrate a positive Eu anomaly when normalised to chondrite REE values. REE substitution into sulphide and sulphate phases appears to be strongly influenced by crystallographic control for all REE other than Eu. Precipitation of anhydrite within the TAG mound is the major mechanism for removal of REE during mound circulation and 0.15-0.35 g anhydrite is inferred to precipitate from every kg of fluid venting from the white smoker chimneys. Oxides from the mound fall into three different categories with distinct REE patterns: oxide rims on sulphides, atacamite-bearing oxides, and silica-rich Fe-oxides and ochres. The oxide rim phases contain sulphide and seawater derived REEs whereas the atacamite-bearing oxides and the ochreous material exhibit no seawater signature which suggests precipitation from, or alteration by, a modified hydrothermal fluid.

Mills, R.A. [Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom); Elderfield, H. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

1995-09-01

53

Conductive heat flow at the TAG Active Hydrothermal Mound: Results from 1993-1995 submersible surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report 70 measurements of conductive heat flow at the 50-m-high, 200-m-diameter TAG active hydrothermal mound, made during submersible surveys with Alvin in 1993 and 1995 and Shinkai 6500 in 1994. The stations were all measured with 5-thermistor, 0.6- or 1-m-long Alvin heat flow probes, which are capable of determining both gradient and thermal conductivity, and were transponder-navigated to an estimated accuracy of ±5-10 m relative to the 10-m-diameter central complex of black smokers. Within 20 m of this complex, conductive heat flow values are extremely variable (0.1- > 100 W/m²), which can only be due to local spatial and possible temporal variability in the immediate vicinity of the vigorous discharge sites. A similar local variability is suggested in the “Kremlin” area of white smokers to the southeast of the black smoker complex. On the south and southeast side of the mound, there is very high heat flow (3.7- > 25 W/m²) on the sedimented terraces that slope down from the Kremlin area. Heat flow is also high (0.3-3 W/m²) in the pelagic carbonate sediments on the surrounding seafloor within a few tens of meters of the southwest, northwest, and northeast sides of the mound. On the west side of the sulfide rubble plateau that surrounds the central black smoker peak, there is a coherent belt of very low heat flow (<20 mW/m²) 20-50 m west of the smokers, suggestive of local, shallow recharge of bottom water. The three submersible surveys spanned nearly two years, but showed no indication of any temporal variability in conductive heat flow over this time scale, whether natural or induced by ODP drilling in 1994.

Becker, K.; Von Herzen, R.; Kirklin, J.; Evans, R.; Kadko, D.; Kinoshita, M.; Matsubayashi, O.; Mills, R.; Schultz, A.; Rona, P.

54

Discovery and Distribution of Black Smokers on the Western Galapagos Spreading Center: Implications for Spatial and Temporal Controls on High Temperature Venting at Ridge\\/Hotspot Intersections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though nearly one-fifth of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) lies on or near hotspots, it has been debated whether hotspots increase or decrease MOR hydrothermal flux, or affect vent biota. Despite hotspot enhancement of melt supply, high-temperature vent plumes are enigmatically sparse along two previously-surveyed ridge- hotspot intersections [Reykjanes Ridge (RR), Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR)]. This has been attributed to crustal

R. M. Haymon; P. G. Anderson; E. T. Baker; J. A. Resing; S. M. White; K. C. MacDonald

2006-01-01

55

Reaction Permeability in Ocean Floor Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fracturing is normally assumed to be the only significant mechanism for generating the permeability required for black smoker hydrothermal circulation within oceanic sheeted dykes. We present evidence for reaction-enhanced permeability as an alternative mechanism using data from three diverse settings; epidosites from the Troodos ophiolite, diabase intrusions chilling against fault rocks and altered gabbros in the immediate footwall of a detachment fault at 30 °N in the Atlantic (IODP Site 1309), and the "type section" of Pacific ocean crust in ODP Hole 504b. In each case, freshly broken surfaces were examined in the SEM, revealing euhedral secondary minerals (amphibole or epidote) growing into porosity located in areas formerly occupied by igneous minerals such as pyroxene. Relict porosity is up to 20 ?m in size but may originally have been considerably larger. BSEM and CL imaging of polished surfaces reveals euhedral zoning and resorbtion surfaces in both amphibole and quartz. Amphiboles at IODP site 1309 have a wide range in composition with early zones being exceptionally rich in Ti and Al (temperatures using the Ernst and Liu geothermometer in excess of 800 °C), but later zones and porosity-filling amphibole needles being actinolitic. Key field relations in the Troodos ophiolite show that the most intense alteration is often in the undeformed cores of dykes, and that each successive dyke was epidotised before the next was intruded. Reaction permeability provides a mechanism for concentrating fluid flow into the site of alteration, and can create exceptionally large transient permeabilities before the porosity is occluded by secondary minerals. Mineral solubilities generally peak at P-T conditions close to the critical point for water, so in a diabase cooling from magmatic temperatures the local fluid is always likely to be undersaturated down to the temperature of black smoker venting. A moving fluid will remove material from the cooling diabase, creating porosity. The porosity-filling phases generally represent greenschist facies conditions, consistent with black smoker vent temperatures. Reaction porosity textures have been observed in 8 out of 10 specimens so far examined in broken surface from Atlantic and Pacific dyke rocks. This permeability-generating mechanism may therefore be widespread.

McCaig, A. M.; Cann, J. R.

2011-12-01

56

Hydrothermal Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is a contribution to a book on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass being edited by Prof. Robert Brown of Iowa State University. It describes both hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal gasification of biomass to fuels.

Douglas C

2011-01-01

57

Physical controls on the salinity of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vent fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in the salinity of black smoker effluents (0.1-˜ 8 wt.% NaCl) relative to seawater (3.2 wt.% NaCl) are attributed to phase separation and segregation of the resulting brines and vapors. However, models of phase separation predict brines with substantially higher salinities than observed at vents and such brines are commonly observed in fluid inclusions from fossil hydrothermal systems. It has been postulated that the range of observed salinities is controlled by the density of upwelling fluids. Here we present models of hydrothermal circulation that predict the observed maximum salinity when an upper layer of high-permeability is included, and also reproduce black smoker temperatures when the upflow zone is surrounded by a low-permeability shell. Pressure gradients across the permeability boundary act as a density filter impeding the passage of high-salinity fluids, while the shell provides sufficient insulation to tap hot fluids to the surface. Our models fit the observations when the permeabilities of the upper layer differ from the permeability of the lower layer by factors of ˜ 10 and ˜ 100 in upflow and downflow regions, respectively, and when the permeability of the shell is one tenth that of the lower layer. The permeability structure we propose is consistent with observations in oceanic crust and inferences from ophiolites. While a previous study argues that black smoker temperatures are a consequence of the thermodynamic properties of seawater, our work suggests that very specific permeability configurations are required to match both the temperature and maximum salinity.

Fontaine, Fabrice J.; Wilcock, William S. D.; Butterfield, David A.

2007-05-01

58

Smokers at Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses current information on the health consequences of smoking and two types of risks: those associated with all smokers and the higher risks associated with other characteristics, such as to pregnant women, teenagers, heavy smokers, those with cardiovascular disease, users of alcohol, and smokers in certain occupations. (SK)|

Wilner, Susan

1984-01-01

59

Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Fluids in South Mariana Backarc Spreading Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid samples were collected from active hydrothermal sites along the south Mariana backarc spreading center, during dive programs with SHINKAI6500 (JAMSTEC) / Yokosuka (YK03-09 cruise) in Oct. 2003, and with ROPOS (CSSF) / Thomas G. Thompson (TN167A cruise) in March 2004. Fluid geochemistry shows diversity among three sites, probably reflecting their geological settings. High temperature fluid (T=315° C) from black smokers at the top of an off-axis seamount (Pika site: 12° 55.1'N, 143° 38.9'E, depth=2830m) shows metal-rich signature and high Cl concentration (=600mM). Modest high temperature fluid (T=213° C) from giant sulfide structure of a few ten meters high (Archaean Site: 12° 56.3'N, 143° 38.0'E, depth=2990m) shows slight K-rich from ridge-type fluids and low Cl concentration (=470mM). On the other hand, along the spreading axis, only shimmering venting directly from basaltic seafloor was observed (Fryer site: 12° 57.2'N, 143° 37.2'E, depth=2880m). Although temperature of the venting fluid were reported as 240° C when this site was discovered at May 2003, it has decreased to 110° C at Oct. 2003, and to 70° C at March 2004. Based on fluid chemistry composition, the shimmering fluid is considered as formed by mixing between hydrothermal fluid endmember (Mg=0) with seawater, and hydrothermal contribution has diminished for this one year. We also successfully collected fluid samples venting from the casing pipes which had been drilled by BMS at January 2004. The fluid (T=30° C) from APM01 located in the vicinity of Fryer site showed chemistry well explained by mixing of the same hydrothermal fluid endmember with seawater. Under the framework of Achaean Park Project, samples for microbiological studies were collected simultaneously, and these geochemical data provides basic information for them.

Ishibashi, J.; Yamanaka, T.; Kimura, H.; Hirota, A.; Toki, T.; Tsunogai, U.; Gamo, T.; Utsumi, M.; Roe, K.; Miyabe, S.; Okamura, K.

2004-12-01

60

Discovery of a new hydrothermal vent based on an underwater, high-resolution geophysical survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new hydrothermal vent site in the Southern Mariana Trough has been discovered using acoustic and magnetic surveys conducted by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology's (JAMSTEC) autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), Urashima. The high-resolution magnetic survey, part of a near-bottom geophysical mapping around a previously known hydrothermal vent site, the Pika site, during the YK09-08 cruise in June-July 2009, found that a clear magnetization low extends ˜500 m north from the Pika site. Acoustic signals, suggesting hydrothermal plumes, and 10 m-scale chimney-like topographic highs were detected within this low magnetization zone by a 120 kHz side-scan sonar and a 400 kHz multibeam echo sounder. In order to confirm the seafloor sources of the geophysical signals, seafloor observations were carried out using the deep-sea manned submersible Shinkai 6500 during the YK 10-10 cruise in August 2010. This discovered a new hydrothermal vent site (12°55.30'N, 143°38.89'E; at a depth of 2922 m), which we have named the Urashima site. This hydrothermal vent site covers an area of approximately 300 m×300 m and consists of black and clear smoker chimneys, brownish-colored shimmering chimneys, and inactive chimneys. All of the fluids sampled from the Urashima and Pika sites have chlorinity greater than local ambient seawater, suggesting subseafloor phase separation or leaching from rocks in the hydrothermal reaction zone. End-member compositions of the Urashima and Pika fluids suggest that fluids from two different sources feed the two sites, even though they are located on the same knoll and separated by only ˜500 m. We demonstrate that investigations on hydrothermal vent sites located in close proximity to one another can provide important insights into subseafloor hydrothermal fluid flow, and also that, while such hydrothermal sites are difficult to detect by conventional plume survey methods, high-resolution underwater geophysical surveys provide an effective means.

Nakamura, Kentaro; Toki, Tomohiro; Mochizuki, Nobutatsu; Asada, Miho; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Nogi, Yoshifumi; Yoshikawa, Shuro; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Okino, Kyoko

2013-04-01

61

Estimate of heat flux and its temporal variation at the TAG hydrothermal mound, Mid-Atlantic Ridge 26°N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From August 1994 to March 1995, three 50-m-high vertical thermistor arrays designated "Giant Kelps" (GKs) were deployed around the central black smoker complex (CBC) at the TAG hydrothermal mound, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (26°08'N, 44°49'W). These were designed to monitor the temporal variability of the vertical temperature distribution in the hydrothermal plume. One small high-temperature probe "Hobo" was also deployed in one of the black smoker vents of CBC. Over the observation period, two typical characteristics are recognized in plume temperatures measured with GKs: (1) the amplitudes of temperature anomalies decrease with increasing height above the top of CBC; (2) maximum temperature anomalies on the upper thermistors occurred periodically and nearly simultaneously across the array about every 6 hours. Conversely, maximum temperature anomalies on the lower thermistors occurred periodically every 12 hours, indicating that the location of the plume discharged from CBC was forcibly moved by the change in direction of tidally modulated current flow. The heat flux from CBC was estimated from temperatures measured by GKs based on a model of buoyant hydrothermal fluid rising in a stable, stratified density environment. The estimated heat flux from CBC gradually decreases from about 86 to 55 MW over the ˜7 months of measurement, with a mean rate of decrease of 0.17 MW d-1. Since the black smoker effluent temperature measured with Hobo was almost stable over the measurement period, a plausible cause of the decrease is a reduction in the volume of hydrothermal fluid provided to the CBC (in which case the estimated mean rate of decrease in volume flux of CBC is 8.9 m3 d-1). Estimated heat flux, temperature anomalies observed by Hobo, and diffuse flow and subbottom temperature anomalies recorded by other long-term monitoring instruments before, during, and after ODP Leg 158 indicate that the drilling probably affected the fluid flow pattern within the mound but had little effect on the total heat flux from CBC.

Goto, Shusaku; Kinoshita, Masataka; Schultz, Adam; von Herzen, Richard P.

2003-09-01

62

Hydrothermal regime of the Iheya-North hydrothermal field inferred from surface heat flow data and, IODP Expedition 331 drilling results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Okinawa trough is a backarc basin, located between the Ryukyu arc-trench system and the Asian continent. It is considered to be in a rifting stage of the continental lithosphere. The trough contains both hemipelagic and volcanic sediments, and numerous hydrothermal sites have been discovered inside the trough. Iheya-North hydrothermal field is surrounded by the Iheya-North knolls in the middle Okinawa trough. Active chimneys as well as diffuse venting area has been located and studied in detail through various geological and geophysical surveys. To clarify the spatial scale of the hydrothermal circulation system, intensive heat flow measurements were carried out and 78 heat flow data were obtained from 2002 to 2008 in and around the knolls. In 2010, drilling study was carried out during the IODP Expedition 331, and new subbottom temperature data were obtained around the hydrothermal site. Three distinct zones are identified with different heat flow values which we termed the high-heat-flow zone (>1 W/m^2; HHZ), moderate-heat-flow zone (1-0.1 W/m^2; MHZ), and low-heat-flow zone (<0.1 W/m^2) within 3 km from the active hydrothermal field. In the HHZ located near the western edge of the basin, extremely high and widely scattered heat flow values were measured within ~500 m of the active hydrothermal mounds, venting black smoker fluid of maximum 311 °C. With increasing distance east of the HHZ, heat flow gradually decreases towards MHZ and LHZ. We suggest that such anomalously low heat flow can be explained by the recharge of seawater into the formation, and that hydrothermal vents or diffuse flow in the HHZ can dribe this kilometer-scale hydrothermal circulation. During IODP Expedition 331, we carried out coring and in-situ temperature measurements in the HHZ and LHZ. We could not obtain enough core (less than 1 % core recovery). In the HHZ, the temperature data showed over 55 °C only few meters below the seafloor. After drilling, the temperature in the bore hole at HHZ recorded around 300 °C, which is consistent with temperatures of black smokers. Hemipelagic sediment including pumiceous layer were found in the LHZ. The temperature at 37 m below seafloor (mbsf), was 6 °C. Between 70 and 90 mbsf, the coarser sediments were cored, and temperature increases from 25 °C to 40 °C. At the maximum drilled depth of 151 mbsf, the temperature was 90±5 °C, which was measured with thermoseal strips. Low thermal gradient in the upper 40 m supports the downward fluid flow. Seismic reflection data indicate a couple of horizontal layers continuously below MHZ. these layers could inhibit vertical fluid flux. Thus we assume that vertically-impermeable surface layers serve to generate kilometer scale hydrothermal circulation. In order to estimate permeability structure below HHZ through LHZ, we conducted a 2-dimensional numerical simulation, and the results will be shown.

Masaki, Y.; Takai, K.; Mottl, M. J.; Hartnett, H. E.; Kinoshita, M.; IODP Expedition 331 scientists

2011-12-01

63

The Smoker's Experience :  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... "It should make the smoker want to smoke when he smells the aroma of a ... everybody smelled . And I got to thinking, 'Did I smell like that?"' ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

64

Alteration at the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field: Constraints from trace element and Sr-O isotope data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serpentinized peridotite and gabbronorite represent the host rocks to the active, ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We use trace element,?18O and 87Sr/86Sr data from bulk rock samples and mineral separates in order to constrain the controls on the geochemical budget within the Logatchev hydrothermal system. The trace element data of serpentinized peridotite show strong compositional variations indicating a range of processes. Some peridotites experienced geochemical modifications associated with melt-rock interaction processes prior to serpentinization, which resulted in positive correlations of increasing high field strength element (HFSE) concentrations and light rare earth element (LREE) contents. Other serpentinites and lizardite mineral separates are enriched in LREE, lacking a correlation with HFSE due to interaction with high-temperature, black-smoker type fluids. The enrichment of serpentinites and lizardite separates in trace elements, as well as locally developed negative Ce-anomalies, indicate that interaction with low-T ambient seawater is another important process in the Logatchev hydrothermal system. Hence, mixing of high-T hydrothermal fluids during serpentinization and/or re-equilibration of O-isotope signatures during subsequent low-T alteration is required to explain the trace element and?18O temperature constraints. Highly radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr signatures of serpentinite and lizardite separates provide additional evidence for interaction with seawater-derived fluids. Sparse talc alteration at the Logatchev site are most likely caused by Si-metasomatism of serpentinite associated with the emplacement of shallow gabbro intrusion(s) generating localized hydrothermal circulation. In summary the geochemistry of serpentinites from the Logatchev site document subsurface processes and the evolution of a seafloor ultramafic hydrothermal system.

Augustin, N.; Paulick, H.; Lackschewitz, K. S.; Eisenhauer, A.; Garbe-SchöNberg, D.; Kuhn, T.; Botz, R.; Schmidt, M.

2012-03-01

65

Mineral Dissolution and Reaction permeability in ocean floor hydrothermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enhanced permeability required to allow black smoker hydrothermal circulation within oceanic sheeted dykes is generally assumed to be the result of fracturing caused by thermal contraction and/or tectonic faulting. Here we present evidence for reaction-enhanced permeability from diabase in three diverse settings; epidosites from the Troodos ophiolite, diabase intrusions which chill against fault rocks and altered gabbros in the immediate footwall of a detachment fault at 30 °N in the Atlantic (IODP Site 1309), and the "type section" of Pacific ocean crust in ODP Hole 504b. In each case, freshly broken surfaces were examined in the SEM, revealing euhedral secondary minerals (amphibole or epidote) growing into porosity located in areas formerly occupied by igneous minerals such as pyroxene. Relict porosity is up to 20 ?m in size but may originally have been considerably larger. BSEM and CL imaging of polished surfaces reveals euhedral zoning and resorbtion surfaces in both amphibole and quartz . Amphiboles at IODP site 1309 show a wide range in composition with early zones being exceptionally rich in Ti and Al (temperatures using the Ernst and Liu geothermometer in excess of 800 °C), but later zones and porosity-filling amphibole needles being actinolitic. Key field relations in the Troodos ophiolite show that the most intense alteration is often in the undeformed core of dykes, and that each successive dyke was epidotised before the next was intruded. Reaction permeability provides a mechanism for concentrating fluid flow into the site of alteration, and has the capacity to create exceptionally large transient permeabilities before the porosity is occluded by secondary minerals. Affinities have been calculated using EQ3/6 for clinopyroxene in contact with a black smoker fluid at 350 and 400 °C at 50 MPa, and are of the order 130 kJ/mol. This corresponds to "far from equilibrium" conditions in which dissolution could proceed at rates > 1 ?m/day. The limiting factor is the speed with which reactive fluid can be replenished at the reaction site, but a moving fluid will allow positive feedbacks between porosity creation, permeability and flow rates. The porosity-filling phases generally represent greenschist facies conditions, consistent with black smoker vent temperatures. Reaction porosity textures have been observed in 8 out of 10 specimens so far examined in broken surface from Atlantic and Pacific dyke rocks. This permeability-generating mechanism may therefore be widespread.

McCaig, A. M.; Cann, J. R.; Klein, F.; Teagle, D. A. H.

2012-04-01

66

Constraints on Ridge Flank Hydrothermal Fluid Fluxes From Tl Geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal circulation of seawater through the ocean crust is a fundamental process in the formation and aging of the ocean crust. It provides a major control on the compositions of the oceans, including the concentrations of many of the geochemical tracers used to decipher past climate variations e.g., 87Sr and 18O. The hydrothermal contribution to ocean chemical budgets depends on the composition and flux of hydrothermal fluids. Heat flow studies indicate that approximately two thirds of convective heat loss occurs at crustal ages greater than 1 Ma by seawater circulation through ridge flanks at significantly lower temperatures than axial black smoker venting. However, fluid fluxes through the ridge flanks are extremely difficult to estimate from heat flow anomalies because the variation in fluid temperature with crustal age is not known. It has previously been demonstrated that thallium (Tl) exhibits different behaviour on and off axis, using samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 504B. On axis Tl is leached from the sheeted dikes by high-temperature hydrothermal fluids, with no associated fractionation in Tl isotope composition (?205Tl). In contrast, isotopically light Tl is added to the upper crust from seawater during low- temperature off axis circulation. The resulting decrease in Tl concentration and extent of isotopic fractionation with depth can be accounted for using a simple Rayleigh fractionation model. This unique behaviour can be exploited to determine both the axial and off-axial hydrothermal fluid fluxes required to produce the observed shifts in Tl concentration and isotopic composition of the crust by simple mass balance calculations. We present new Multiple Collector-Induced Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) analyses of Tl concentrations and isotopic compositions of upper ocean crust produced at slow- (Macquarie Island), intermediate- (ODP Holes 504B and 896A and the Juan de Fuca Ridge), and fast- (ODP Hole 1256D) spreading rates. Whole rock samples that exhibit different styles of alteration are combined with analyses of vein mineral separates to determine which minerals are responsible for Tl-uptake from seawater. Uppermost basement from ODP Hole 504B has ?205Tl = -20, which given the Tl isotope composition of seawater (?205Tl = -6), indicates that this uptake is associated with a fractionation factor of 0.9986. We combine this fractionation factor with the simple Rayleigh fractionation model to determine the time-integrated fluid flux through the different crustal sections from their profiles of Tl concentration and isotopic composition, to assess the controls on ridge flank fluid fluxes.

Rehkamper, M.; Coggon, R. M.; Teagle, D. A.

2008-12-01

67

Hydrothermal flow at Main Endeavour Field imaged and measured with Cable Operated Vent Imaging Sonar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial acoustic monitoring of hydrothermal flow in the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) captures the spatial distribution of diffuse and focused discharge and shows potential for flux determinations. Our Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar (COVIS) was connected to the NEPTUNE Canada Endeavour Observatory in September 2010. Using a customized Reson 7125 multi-beam sonar, COVIS acquired a 29 day time series of black smoker plume and associated diffuse hydrothermal flow from Grotto, a 30 m diameter vent cluster in the MEF, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Detection of the spatial patterns of diffuse flow utilizes phase decorrelation of the acoustic signal (200kHz) by buoyancy-driven turbulence (acoustic scintillation) to produce a time series of maps. Substantial fluctuation in the detected diffuse flow area (0.1 - 18 m^2) was observed over the 29 days of observation, although position remained stable. Acoustic imaging of focused flow (400 kHz) utilizes high volume backscatter (attributed to particles and turbulent sound speed fluctuations) to image in 3D the initial tens of meters of rise of buoyant plumes. Spectral analysis of bending inclination of a strong plume from multiple fast smokers on the NW end of Grotto (north tower) indicates that the dominant modes correspond with the ambient mixed semi-diurnal tide (based on current meter data at a mooring 2.9 km to the north and on a tidal model), with at least one secondary mode attributable to sub-inertial flow related to inflow to the axial valley. A weaker plume from several slower smokers is present on the NE end of Grotto. On first analysis, the bending inclination of the weaker plume appears to be affected by the stronger plume. Quantification of flow velocity and volume flux of plumes begins with measuring the Doppler phase shift through plume cross-sections beginning at 5 m above source vents where discharge merges. The volume flux measurements enable calculation of entrainment coefficients, which prior work on the same strong plume indicated increase with degree of bending. The acoustic data in concert with in situ measurements support inversions to obtain fluxes to elucidate the role of hydrothermal flow in transfer of heat, chemicals and biological material from the crust to the ocean. We are exploring the feasibility of fitting plume models to Doppler velocity data in order to estimate heat flux. Ongoing analysis pursues quantification of fluid flux from diffuse and focused flow. In addition, the time series provide observations of hydrothermal flow response to tidal, tectonic and volcanic forcing on time scales from hours potentially to years. (Work supported by NSF Grants Nos. OCE-0824612 and OCE-0825088)

Rona, P. A.; Bemis, K. G.; Xu, G.; Jackson, D. R.; Jones, C. D.

2011-12-01

68

Adolescents' value images of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers.  

PubMed

Adolescents' value images of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers were investigated in a study of high school graduates. Overall, smokers were seen as being concerned with values related to personal enjoyment and autonomy. In contrast, nonsmokers were perceived as being more conventional, and more concerned with religious, interpersonal, and family values. Images of ex-smokers usually were intermediate, but resembled those of nonsmokers somewhat more than those of smokers. Interestingly, ex-smokers were perceived to place more importance on values relating to accomplishment and self-control than were either smokers or nonsmokers. In general, the value images were consistent among respondents who themselves were smokers, potential smokers, or nonsmokers. However, for a few values smokers and potential smokers had a more favorable image of smokers than did nonsmokers. Interestingly, males and females generally did not differ in their images of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers. Suggestions for prevention of adolescent smoking based on the value images are discussed. PMID:2316415

Grube, J W; Rokeach, M; Getzlaf, S B

1990-01-01

69

Diversity of Ultramafic Hosted Hydrothermal Deposits on the Mid Atlantic Ridge: First Submersible Studies on Ashadze, Logatchev 2 and Krasnov Vent Fields During the Serpentine Cruise.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Serpentine cruise (March 2007) we have explored and sampled, using the ROV Victor, new ultramafic hydrothermal fields between 13°N and 17°N on the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The Serpentine cruise was part of a 4 years cooperation agreement between France and Russia. Targets were Ashadze1 and 2 (12°58"N), Logatchev 1 (14°45"N) and 2 (14°43"N) and Krasnov (16°38"N) fields localized after several surface cruises of the R/V professor Logatchev. A significant portion of the dives was dedicated to detailed microbathymetry, 50 m and 20 m above the seafloor, and simultaneous physical and chemical plume studies and magnetic surveys. High resolution (30cm) maps were further used for geological, biological, microbiological and fluid sampling operations. The cruise identified three new very active black smoker fields (Ashadze 1 and 2, Logatchev 2) on serpentinized peridotites. One extensive low temperature inactive deposit (dominantly birnessite) was discovered 1 km east of the Logatchev 1 field. The basaltic hosted Krasnov field was inactive. The Ashadze 1 site at 4080m of water depth is the deepest active black smoker field so far known in the ocean. Inactive and basalt hosted sulfide chimneys (Ashadze 4) were found at the base of the rift valley at 4530 m. Extensive gravity sliding related to the emplacement of the ultramafic rocks is evident at all ultramafic sites (see abstract by Ondreas et al.). Fluids, enriched in H2 and hydrocarbon, confirm the originality of ultramafic environments (see abstract by Charlou et al.). Logatchev 2 is venting low salinity black smoker fluids indicating phase separation. In addition, its position 12 km off axis, moves from 8 (Logatchev 1) to 12 km the possibility to have off axis black smokers long the MAR. Basaltic hosted deposits are dominated by pyrite and silica at Krasnov (Fe:39%, Si:11%, Cu:2.2%, Zn:0.14%) and by sphalerite and pyrite at Ashadze 4 (Fe:24%, Si:1.5%, Cu:0.15%, isocubanite. Ashadze 1 (Fe:33%, Si:1.3%, Cu:14%, Zn:14%) and Logatchev 2 (Fe:20%, Si:3%, Cu:14%, Zn:23%) are enriched in sphalerite. New samples at Logatchev 1 confirm that copper is largely dominant at this site (Fe:29%, Si:3%, Cu:28%, Zn:4%). The Ashadze 2 field is unusual. A small active crater can be interpreted as a hydrothermal volcano built up with a mixture of carbonates and secondary copper sulfides and chlorides. Massive sulfide chimneys are associated with the active smokers at the center of the crater. Many inactive carbonates/sulfides mounds are also aligned along a N-S depression. Two types of hydrothermal deposits are observed: massive copper-rich sulfides associated with the black smokers and carbonate/sulfides chimneys. Average composition of hydrothermal deposits for the field is Fe:26%, Si:11%, Cu:11%, Zn:5%, Ca:8%. The dominant carbonate is aragonite, Mg-Calcite is rare, and talc is common. Comparisons with other ultramafic sites along the MAR will also bee presented.

Fouquet, Y.; Cherkashov, G.; Charlou, J.; Ondreas, H.; Cannat, M.; Bortnikov, N.; Silantiev, S.; Etoubleau, J.; Scientific Party Of The Serpentine Cruise

2007-12-01

70

Diffuse versus discrete venting at the Tour Eiffel vent site, Lucky Strike hydrothermal field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two styles of fluid flow at the seafloor are widely recognized: (1) localized outflows of high temperature (>300°C) fluids, often black or grey color in color (“black smokers”) and (2) diffuse, lower temperature (<100°C), fluids typically transparent and which escape through fractures, porous rock, and sediment. The partitioning of heat flux between these two types of hydrothermal venting is debated and estimates of the proportion of heat carried by diffuse flow at ridge axes range from 20% to 90% of the total axial heat flux. Here, we attempt to improve estimates of this partitioning by carefully characterizing the heat fluxes carried by diffuse and discrete flows at a single vent site, Tour Eiffel in the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Fluid temperature and video data were acquired during the recent Bathyluck’09 cruise to the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (September, 2009) by Victor aboard “Pourquoi Pas?” (IFREMER, France). Temperature measurements were made of fluid exiting discrete vents, of diffuse effluents immediately above the seafloor, and of vertical temperature gradients within discrete hydrothermal plumes. Video data allow us to calculate the fluid velocity field associated with these outflows: for diffuse fluids, Diffuse Flow Velocimetry tracks the displacement of refractive index anomalies through time; for individual hydrothermal plumes, Particle Image Velocimetry tracks eddies by cross-correlation of pixels intensities between subsequent images. Diffuse fluids exhibit temperatures of 8-60°C and fluid velocities of ~1-10 cm s-1. Discrete outflows at 204-300°C have velocities of ~1-2 m s-1. Combined fluid flow velocities, temperature measurements, and full image mosaics of the actively venting areas are used to estimate heat flux of both individual discrete vents and diffuse outflow. The total integrated heat flux and the partitioning between diffuse and discrete venting at Tour Eiffel, and its implications for the nature of hydrothermal activity across the Lucky Strike site are discussed along with the implications for crustal permeability, associated ecosystems, and mid-ocean ridge processes.

Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Escartin, J.; Gracias, N.; Olive, J. L.; Barreyre, T.; Davaille, A. B.; Cannat, M.

2010-12-01

71

Deep-sea smokers: Windows to a subsurface biosphere?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of hyperthermophilic microbial activity in hydrothermal fluids recovered from "smoker" vents on the East Pacific Rise, the widely accepted upper temperature limit for life (based on pure culture data) has risen from below the boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure to approximately 115°C. Many microbiologists seem willing to speculate that the maximum may be closer to 150°C. We have postulated not only higher temperatures than these (under deep-sea hydrostatic pressures), but also the existence of a biosphere subsurface to accessible seafloor vents. New geochemical information from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicative of subsurface organic material caused us to re-examine both the literature on hyperthermophilic microorganisms cultured from deep-sea smoker environments and recent results of microbial sampling efforts at actively discharging smokers on the Endeavour Segment. Here we offer the case for a subsurface biosphere based on an interdisciplinary view of microbial and geochemical analyses of Endeavour smoker fluids, a case in keeping with rapidly evolving geophysical understanding of organic stability under deep-sea hydrothermal conditions.

Deming, Jody W.; Baross, John A.

1993-07-01

72

Measures of impulsivity in cigarette smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Drug users are thought to be more ”impulsive” than non-users. Objectives: This study examined whether regular smokers are more impulsive than never smokers using personality and behavioral measures\\u000a of impulsivity. Methods: Twenty regular smokers (?15 cigarettes\\/day) and 20 never smokers were recruited. Participants completed five personality\\u000a questionnaires to assess impulsivity: Adjective Checklist, Barratt’s Impulsivity Scale, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire,

Suzanne H. Mitchell

1999-01-01

73

Are smokers more \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine (i) whether people advertising themselves on a dating website were more likely to be smokers than members of the general population; and (ii) whether attractive advertisers (those whose ads were viewed most often) were less likely to smoke than all advertisers. Design: Comparison of the number of advertisers who smoke with survey data on national smoking status.

CHRISTMAS OFFERINGS; Simon Chapman; Melanie A Wakefield; Sarah J Durkin

74

Geological context and vents morphology of the ultramafic-hosted Ashadze hydrothermal areas (Mid-Atlantic Ridge 13°N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent ROV dives and high-resolution bathymetric data acquired over the Ashadze fields on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (13°N) allow us to derive constraints on the regional and local geological setting of ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal fields. The active vent fields of Ashadze hydrothermal fields are located in the western axial valley wall, downslope from the termination of a prominent corrugated surface and in a transitional domain with respect to ridge segmentation. The study of the shipboard and ROV bathymetry shows that decameter (100 m by 60 m) to kilometer-scaled rockslides shape the axial valley wall slopes in this region. The Ashadze 1 vent field occurs on a coherent granular landslide rock mass that is elongated in an E-W direction. The Ashadze 1 vent field comprises hundreds of active and inactive sulfide chimneys. The Ashadze 2 vent field is located in a NNE-trending linear depression which separates outcrops of gabbros and serpentinized peridotites. Active black smokers in the Ashadze 2 field are located on ultramafic substratum in a 40-m diameter crater, 5-m deep. This crater recalls similar structures described at some vents of the Logatchev hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge 15°N). We discuss the mode of formation for these craters, as well as that for a breadcrust-like array of radial fissures identified at Ashadze 1. We propose that hydrothermalism at Ashadze can be an explosive phenomena associated with geyser-like explosions. Our study also constrains the geological and geophysical context of the ultramafic-hosted Ashadze hydrothermal system that may use the oceanic detachment fault as a preferred permeability conduit.

OndréAs, HéLèNe; Cannat, Mathilde; Fouquet, Yves; Normand, Alain

2012-11-01

75

A Personality typology of smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of smoker's personality has a long and controversial history. Smokers tend to be more extroverted, tense, and anxious and have more antisocial characteristics than nonsmokers. However, some of the data is contradictory, and the strength of the relationship between personality and smoking is weak, probably because smokers are not a homogeneous group. To test this possibility, we used

David Patton; Gordon E. Barnes; Robert P. Murray

1997-01-01

76

Modelling of hydrothermal fluid circulation in a heterogeneous medium: Application to the Rainbow Vent site (Mid-Atlantic-Ridge, 36°14N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal activity at the axis of mid-ocean ridges is a key driver for energy and matter transfer from the interior of the Earth to the ocean floor. At mid-ocean ridges, seawater penetrates through the permeable young crust, warms at depth and exchanges chemicals with the surrounding rocks. This hot fluid focuses and flows upwards, then is expelled from the crust at hydrothermal vent sites in the form of black or white smokers completed by diffusive emissions. We developed a new numerical tool in the Cast3M software framework to model such hydrothermal circulations. Thermodynamic properties of one-phase pure water were calculated from the IAPWS formulation. This new numerical tool was validated on several test cases of convection in closed-top and open-top boxes. Simulations of hydrothermal circulation in a homogeneous-permeability porous medium also gave results in good agreement with already published simulations. We used this new numerical tool to construct a geometric and physical model configuration of the Rainbow Vent site at 36°14'N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In this presentation, several configurations will be discussed, showing that high temperatures and high mass fluxes measured at the Rainbow site cannot be modelled with hydrothermal circulation in a homogeneous-permeability porous medium. We will show that these high values require the presence of a fault or a preferential pathway right below the venting site. We will propose and discuss a 2-D one-path model that allows us to simulate both high temperatures and high mass fluxes. This modelling of the hydrothermal circulation at the Rainbow site constitutes a first but necessary step to understand the origin of high concentrations of hydrogen issued from this ultramafic-hosted vent field.

Perez, F.; Mügler, C.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Charlou, J. L.

2012-04-01

77

Tracing the chemical evolution of fluids during hydrothermal recharge: Constraints from anhydrite recovered in ODP Hole 504B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique record of the chemical evolution of seawater during hydrothermal recharge into oceanic crust is preserved by anhydrite from the volcanic sequences and sheeted dike complex in ODP Hole 504B. Chemical and isotopic analyses (87Sr/86Sr, ?18O, ?34S) of anhydrite constrain the changing composition of fluids due to reaction with basalt. There is a general trend of decreasing 87Sr/86Sr of anhydrite, corresponding to the minor incorporation of basaltic strontium with depth in the volcanic rocks. 87Sr/86Sr ratios decrease rapidly with depth in the dikes to values identical to host basalt (0.7029). Sr/Ca ratios (<0.1 mmol/mol) suggest that recharge fluids have very low Sr concentrations and fluids evolve by first precipitating Sr-bearing phases before extensive exchange of Sr with the host basalt. There is a background trend of decreasing sulfate ?18O with depth from +12-13‰ in the lower volcanics to +7‰ in the lower sheeted dikes recording an increase in recharge fluid temperature from ~150° to ~250°C, and confirming the presence of sulfate in hydrothermal fluids at elevated temperatures. From the amount of anhydrite recovered from Hole 504B and the amount of seawater sulfur that has been reduced to sulfide, a minimum seawater recharge flux can be calculated. This value is ~4-25 times lower than estimates of high-temperature fluid fluxes based on either thermal constraints or global chemical budgets and suggests that there is significant deficit of seawater-derived sulfur in the oceanic crust. Only a minor proportion of the seawater that percolates into the crust near the axis is heated to high temperatures and exits as black smoker-type fluids. A significant proportion of the axial heat loss must be advected at 200-250°C by sulfate-bearing hydrothermal solutions that egress diffusely from the crust. These fluids penetrate into the dikes and exchange both heat and chemical tracers without the extensive clogging of porosity by anhydrite precipitation, which would halt hydrothermal circulation for any reasonable fluid flux. The heating of the major proportion of hydrothermal fluids to only moderate temperatures (~250°C) reconciles estimates of hydrothermal fluxes derived from thermal models and global geochemical budgets. The flux of hydrothermal sulfate would be of a magnitude similar to the riverine input, and oxygen-isotopic exchange at 200-250°C between dissolved sulfate and recharge fluids during hydrothermal circulation provides a mechanism to continuously buffer seawater sulfate oxygen to the light isotopic composition observed.

Halliday, A. N.; Alt, J. C.; Teagle, D. A. H.

1998-02-01

78

Tracing the chemical evolution of fluids during hydrothermal recharge: Constraints from anhydrite recovered in ODP Hole 504B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique record of the chemical evolution of seawater during hydrothermal recharge into oceanic crust is preserved by anhydrite from the volcanic sequences and sheeted dike complex in ODP Hole 504B. Chemical and isotopic analyses ( 87Sr/ 86Sr, ?18O, ?34S) of anhydrite constrain the changing composition of fluids due to reaction with basalt. There is a general trend of decreasing 87Sr/ 86Sr of anhydrite, corresponding to the minor incorporation of basaltic strontium with depth in the volcanic rocks. 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios decrease rapidly with depth in the dikes to values identical to host basalt (0.7029). Sr/Ca ratios (<0.1 mmol/mol) suggest that recharge fluids have very low Sr concentrations and fluids evolve by first precipitating Sr-bearing phases before extensive exchange of Sr with the host basalt. There is a background trend of decreasing sulfate ?18O with depth from +12-13‰ in the lower volcanics to +7‰ in the lower sheeted dikes recording an increase in recharge fluid temperature from ?150° to ?250°C, and confirming the presence of sulfate in hydrothermal fluids at elevated temperatures. From the amount of anhydrite recovered from Hole 504B and the amount of seawater sulfur that has been reduced to sulfide, a minimum seawater recharge flux can be calculated. This value is ?4-25 times lower than estimates of high-temperature fluid fluxes based on either thermal constraints or global chemical budgets and suggests that there is significant deficit of seawater-derived sulfur in the oceanic crust. Only a minor proportion of the seawater that percolates into the crust near the axis is heated to high temperatures and exits as black smoker-type fluids. A significant proportion of the axial heat loss must be advected at 200-250°C by sulfate-bearing hydrothermal solutions that egress diffusely from the crust. These fluids penetrate into the dikes and exchange both heat and chemical tracers without the extensive clogging of porosity by anhydrite precipitation, which would halt hydrothermal circulation for any reasonable fluid flux. The heating of the major proportion of hydrothermal fluids to only moderate temperatures (?250°C) reconciles estimates of hydrothermal fluxes derived from thermal models and global geochemical budgets. The flux of hydrothermal sulfate would be of a magnitude similar to the riverine input, and oxygen-isotopic exchange at 200-250°C between dissolved sulfate and recharge fluids during hydrothermal circulation provides a mechanism to continuously buffer seawater sulfate oxygen to the light isotopic composition observed.

Teagle, Damon A. H.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Halliday, Alex N.

1998-02-01

79

Continuing Evolution of the Hydrothermal System at the RIDGE2000 ISS, 9-10° N EPR: 1991-2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been studying the evolution of the chemical composition of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal system on the East Pacific Rise from 9° 46-51'N since it was impacted by volcanic eruptions in 1991/2. We have been using the chemical and temperature data to infer the processes that are occurring subseafloor in the upper oceanic crust. As of March 2004, the chemical compositions of the vent fluids from this site have not yet stabilized. This observation is helping us to better understand not only the impact of magmatic events on these systems, but also the time scales on which they occur. Centered at the RIDGE2000 ISS "bull's-eye" at 9° 50'N we have noted a striking increase in the number of hydrothermal vents as well as in their measured fluid temperatures beginning after ~2000. In November 2003 we first noted the formation of a black smoker vent at the Tica site (measured T=342° C). In March 2004 we identified another new area of robust flow near the Bio9 vents at 9° 50'N, the 'Alvinellid Mat,' that we anticipate will form an additional black smoker to the three currently active at this site. In March 2004 we measured temperatures of 388° C in fluids from both the Bio9 and Bio9' smokers, putting them essentially on the two phase curve for seawater at this depth. For all of the Bio9 vents, as well as Tica, the fluids contain less than 300 mmoles/kg of Cl, approximately half the local seawater concentration. These high temperature and low Cl concentrations are accompanied by unusually low Si concentrations, <9.5 mmoles/kg. These data suggest a relatively shallow depth of reaction for the fluids, within a few hundred meters of the seafloor. These are the hottest temperatures measured in the Bio9 vents since the eruption in 1992. In contrast, the temperatures at P vent, about 60m south have cooled by ˜15° C since 2002. About 400m south, the chlorinity of the fluids from Ty and Io vents have increased, and Tube Worm Pillar, about 400m further south has become inactive. Therefore the changes in the vent fluids vary widely and often in opposite senses, over ˜1.5km of very hydrothermally active ridge. A more complete discussion of the changes and our interpretation of their implications for processes occurring subseafloor will be presented.

von Damm, K. L.; Parker, C. M.; Beers, K. A.; Hyde, A. A.

2004-12-01

80

The sound field near hydrothermal vents on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-quality acoustic noise measurements were obtained by two hydrophones located 3 m and 40 m from an active hydrothermal vent on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an effort to determine the feasibility of monitoring hydrothermal vent activity through flow noise generation. Most of the measured noise field could be attributed to ambient ocean noise sources of microseisms, distant shipping, and weather, punctuated by local ships and biological sources. Long-period, low-velocity, water/rock interface waves were detected with high amplitudes which rapidly decayed with distance from the seafloor. Detection of vent signals was hampered by unexpected spatial nonstationarity due to the shadowing effects of the caldera wall. No continuous vent signals were deemed significant based on a criterion of 90% probability of detection and 5% probability of false alarm. However, a small signal near 40 Hz, with a power level of 10-4Pa2/Hz was noticed on two records taken within 3 m of the Inferno black smoker. Hie frequency of this signal is consistent with predictions, and the power level suggests the occurrence of jet noise amplification due to convected density inhomogeneities.

Little, Sarah A.; Stolzenbach, Keith D.; Purdy, G. Michael

1990-08-01

81

Sound field near hydrothermal vents on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

High-quality acoustic noise measurements were obtained by two hydrophones located 3 m and 40 m from an active hydrothermal vent on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an effort to determine the feasibility of monitoring hydrothermal vent activity through flow noise generation. Most of the measured noise field could be attributed to ambient ocean noise sources of microseisms, distant shipping, and weather, punctuated by local ships and biological sources. Long-period, low-velocity, water/rock interface waves were detected with high amplitudes which rapidly decayed with distance from the seafloor. Detection of vent signals was hampered by unexpected spatial nonstationarity due to the shadowing effects of the calders wall. No continuous vent signals were deemed significant based on a criterion of 90% probability of detection and 5% probability of false alarm. However, a small signal near 40 Hz, with a power level of 0.0001 Pa sq/Hz was noticed on two records taken within 3 m of the Inferno black smoker. The frequency of this signal is consistent with predictions, and the power level suggests the occurrence of jet noise amplification due to convected density inhomogeneities. Keywords: Seamounts; Flow noise; Underwater acoustics; Acoustic measurement; Geothermy/noise; Ocean ridges; Underwater sound signals; Reprints; North Pacific Ocean. (EDC).

Little, S.A.; Stolzenbach, K.D.; Purdy, G.M.

1990-08-10

82

Metal-depleted root zones of the Troodos ore-forming hydrothermal systems, Cyprus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cupriferous pyrite deposits of Cyprus were precipitated from hydrothermal solutions derived by interaction of contemporaneous seawater with hot mafic rock at the ancient Troodos spreading centre. Here we identify the zones in which this interaction took place. The zones occur in the lower part of the sheeted dyke complex, and within them 30-50% of the rock is made up of epidosite, an epidote-quartz rock, replacing the dykes as sheets and pipes. The epidosites contain abundant fluid inclusions, which give trapping temperatures of 350-400°C or even higher, and contain water normally near seawater in salinity. Zones of epidosite are elongate parallel to the strike of the sheeted dykes, and are up to 1 km wide. The rocks throughout these zones are strongly depleted in Cu and Zn, and the metals removed are sufficient to supply the ore deposits. In fact several large ore deposits lie along strike from zones of epidosite. All of these features support the identification of the epidosites as the hydrothermal reaction zones. The location of the epidosite zones immediately above the gabbros of the plutonic complex supports the hypothesis that the heat to drive the ore-forming systems came from the underlying magma, as is also likely for modern black smoker springs.

Richardson, C. J.; Cann, J. R.; Richards, H. G.; Cowan, J. G.

1987-07-01

83

Serum alpha-1-antitrypsin in smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum alpha-1-antitrypsin assay was carried out in 21 smokers (mean age 44±8 yrs) and in 25 nonsmokers (mean age 44±7 yrs).\\u000a The levels of serum alpha-1-antitrypsin expressed in umol\\/mt\\/ml were 2.97±0.85 for smokers and 3.08±0.37 for non-smokers and\\u000a analysis of variance revealed no significant difference between these two groups. However in five smokers reduced levels (<80%\\u000a of the lower limit

G. L. Somayajulu; Rao D. Raja; P. P. Reddy

1996-01-01

84

Nicotine exposure among nondependent smokers.  

PubMed

Most theories of dependence imply that repeated exposure to an addictive drug leads inexorably to dependence. We examined nicotine exposure in "tobacco chippers," who smoke regularly without developing dependence. Blood samples were obtained before and after 10 chippers (smoking up to 5 cigarettes per day) and 12 dependent smokers (20 to 40 cigarettes per day) smoked a cigarette. Chippers' blood nicotine levels increased significantly, in amounts equaling those of dependent smokers. Assays of cotinine (a long-lasting nicotine metabolite) also suggested that chippers' per-cigarette nicotine absorption equaled that of dependent smokers. Chippers' cotinine levels were also compared with those of heavy smokers (38 cigarettes per day) whose consumption was reduced to 5 cigarettes per day in a previously published study. The heavy smokers compensated by tripling their per-cigarette nicotine intake. Chippers did not seem to be compensating; their cotinine values equaled those expected when regular smokers were not compensating for reduced cigarette availability. PMID:2322084

Shiffman, S; Fischer, L B; Zettler-Segal, M; Benowitz, N L

1990-04-01

85

Dual-scale hydrothermal circulation inferred from detailed heat flow measurements in the Suiyo Seamount Hydrothermal System, Izu-Bonin Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal activity within the caldera of Suiyo Seamount was investigated in detail using manned or remotely-operated submersibles, and by deep-tow imagery and seismic surveys. Hydrothermal regime in the Suiyo-seamount is characterized by a geochemically uniform fluid, shallow reservoir depth, very permeable seafloor, and venting without creating big chimneys. Detailed heat flow surveys were carried out through four research cruises conducted in 2001-2002. Geothermal probes, called SAHF (Stand-Alone Heat Flow) meter, are 1m in length, and five thermistors are installed at 11-12 cm intervals. Heat flow is highest (> 10 W/m2) within the active area. These values were obtained close to black smokers, thus are affected by the venting or very shallow reservoirs. To the east, heat flow is uniform around 4 W/m2. Since there were no indications of discharge, this area is dominated by thermal conduction, and its heat source would be a hydrothermal reservoir capped by some impermeable layer. To the west, we detected very low heat flow values of less than 0.3 W/m2, only several tens of meters away from the active area. A similar heat flow anomaly was detected in the TAG hyudrothermal mound of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Becker et al., 1996). We penetrated at 1-2 m away from two isolated active sulfide mounds. At both sites subbottom temperatures were about 40 degC at 10-20 cm depth, then they decreased to about 20 degC at 30-40cm. The temperature reversals suggest a meter-scale hydrothermal circulation, where a hot fluid discharges as a branch flow from the main vent to the mound. An impermeable structure of the mound and a permeable sediment surrounding the mound would make this very local circulation possible. We suggest a dual scale hydrothermal circulation system, one with several meters scale, and the other with few tens of meters scale. The former would be driven by a suction created by discrete venting of high temperature fluid, and the latter is a regional-scale circulation which can be described by DarcyOs law of flow in porous media. This research is funded by Ministry of Education, Science and Technology through Special Coordination Fund "Archaean Park" project.

Gomado, M.; Kinoshita, M.

2002-12-01

86

Retinal anatomy of Chorocaris chacei, a deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimp from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  

PubMed

Exploration of deep-sea hydrothermal vents over the past quarter century has revealed that they support unique and diverse biota. Despite the harsh nature of the environment, vents along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are dominated by large masses of highly motile Bresiliid shrimp. Until 1989, when it was discovered that the vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata possesses a hypertrophied dorsal eye, many believed that animals populating hydrothermal vents were blind. Chorocaris chacei (originally designated Rimicaris chacei) is a Bresiliid shrimp found at hydrothermal vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Like R. exoculata, C. chacei has a hypertrophied retina that appears to be specialized to detect the very small amount of light emitted from the orifices of black smoker hydrothermal vent chimneys. C. chacei lacks the sophisticated compound eyes common to other decapod crustaceans. Instead, it has a smooth cornea, with no dioptric apparatus, apposed by a tightly packed, massive array of photosensitive membrane. Photoreceptors in the C. chacei retina are segmented into a hypertrophied region that contains the photosensitive membrane and an atrophied cell body that is roughly ten times smaller in volume than the photosensitive segment. The microvillar photosensitive membrane is consistent in structure and ultrastructure with the rhabdoms of decapod and other invertebrate retinas. However, the volume density of photosensitive membrane (> or =60%) exceeds that typically observed in invertebrate retinas. The reflecting pigment cells commonly found in decapod retinas are represented in the form of a matrix of white diffusing cells that exhibit Tyndall scattering and form an axial sheath around the photoreceptors. All photoreceptor screening pigment granules and screening pigment cells are restricted to the region below the photoreceptor nuclei and are thereby removed from the path of incident light. No ultrastructural evidence of rhythmic cycling of photosensitive membrane was observed. The morphological adaptations observed in the C. chacei retina suggest that it is a high-sensitivity photodetector that is of functional significance to the animal. PMID:9302103

Lakin, R C; Jinks, R N; Battelle, B A; Herzog, E D; Kass, L; Renninger, G H; Chamberlain, S C

1997-09-01

87

Culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial and archaeal communities of three deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR;\\u000a Rainbow, Logatchev and Broken Spur) were investigated using an integrated culture-dependent and independent approach. Comparative\\u000a molecular phylogenetic analyses, using the 16S rRNA gene and the deduced amino acid sequences of the alpha and beta subunits\\u000a of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes were

James W. Voordeckers; My H. Do; Michael Hügler; Vivian Ko; Stefan M. Sievert; Costantino Vetriani

2008-01-01

88

A personality typology of smokers.  

PubMed

The study of smoker's personality has a long and controversial history. Smokers tend to be more extroverted, tense, and anxious and have more antisocial characteristics than nonsmokers. However, some of the data is contradictory, and the strength of the relationship between personality and smoking is weak, probably because smokers are not a homogeneous group. To test this possibility, we used cluster analysis to identify types of smokers in a general population sample. Using Ward's heirarchical clustering algorithm, two clusters were identified from the scores on 10 personality measures in 346 smokers. The smaller cluster (28.8% of the smokers) was higher on neuroticism-related characteristics. The clusters were not different on extroversion-related measures, but people in the smaller cluster were more likely to have symptoms of alcoholism and to have more drinking-related problems (although they didn't actually drink more). They were also younger, had lower income, and were antisocial. The pattern of results suggests that there is a subpopulation of smokers who are more anxious than other smokers and who have strong antisocial tendencies. PMID:9113221

Patton, D; Barnes, G E; Murray, R P

89

Smokers' expectations to quit smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effectiveness of different smoking policies on smokers' expectations to quit smoking using a choice experiment on a sample of smokers identified within the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA Project. Our results indicate that restricted availability, increased cigarette prices, cessation subsidies and regulations at restaurants, bars and cafés increase the expected probability of smoking cessation. Regulations at work

Henrik Hammar; Fredrik Carlsson

2005-01-01

90

[Clinical evaluation of smokers].  

PubMed

The number of patients who continue to smoke after a major cardiac event is high. More and more often the patients ask the cardiologist to help them quitting smoking. In the last few years the rapid developments in the neuropharmacological field set up the bases for a more effective and evidence based treatment of nicotine dependence. Thus a number of reviews, guidelines and original articles has been published in internal medicine, cardiology and pneumology journals and their main purpose was to increase as much as possible the number of physicians able to set up a "specialistic" nicotine dependence treatment. The aim of this article is instead to review the stages of the smoker clinical evaluation in a "specialistic" environment and to translate them in practical tips ready to be used in the cardiological daily practice. Three issues are specifically reviewed: motivation to quit, degree of nicotine dependence and the role of mood disturbances. PMID:12418433

Clavario, P

2002-09-01

91

Stereotyping the smoker: adolescents’ appraisals of smokers in film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the relation between demographic factors and film smoking stereotypes in adolescents and the potential influence of smoker stereotypes on smoking susceptibility.Design: A cross sectional questionnaire survey of school students (n = 3041) aged 12–13 and 16–17 years who were asked to describe the personal characteristics of female and male smokers in films.Setting: 15 primary or intermediate schools

J P McCool; L Cameron; K Petrie

2004-01-01

92

The structure, mass and interactions of the hydrothermal plumes at 26°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-column surveys by combined nephelometer/CTD (NCTD) tows contributed to the 1985 discovery of the first black smokers on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Subsequent regional water-column mapping has helped define the extent, mass and interactions of the suspended particulate matter phase (SPM) of the hydrothermal plumes emanating from the known and other nearby sources. The results of 29 NCTD cast/tows, covering 25-30 km2 of ridge segment, indicate the presence of as many as two additional sources based on SPM concentration gradients and plume-top doming over source areas. Plume doming, documented here for the first time from field observations, conforms strikingly with laboratory experiments and can serve as a marker for source field location. A comparison of the plumes' SPM with potential temperature and salinity distributions indicates close correlation in water-column anomaly patterns for each, confirming modification of the regional potential temperature and salinity structure by hydrothermal plumes, which is expressed by wide separation and sloping of isotherms and isohalines.

Nelsen, Terry A.; Forde, Evan B.

1991-09-01

93

[Helping the highly dependent smokers].  

PubMed

Many smokers have difficulty in stopping smoking, either motivated to stop or forced for health, economic or statutory reasons. They have in common a heavy tobacco dependence and a high level of cigarette consumption. Often they combined factors impairing success in the attempt to stop smoking : e. g. anxio-depressive disorders, use of psychoactive substances, socio-economic deprivation. Smoking cessation specialists must optimize their interventions in order to improve the care of these highly dependent smokers. PMID:23888574

Perriot, J; Mathern, G; André, E; Schmitt, A; Merson, F; Brousse, G; Underner, M

94

Serum Uric Acid in Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objectives To demonstrate the possible effect of smoking on serum uric acid. Methods Subjects enrolled in study were divided into two groups; nonsmokers and smokers, each with 60 male volunteers of the same social class and dietary habit without history of alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia and gout, renal, joint, lung or heart diseases. Fasting blood and random urine samples were obtained from both groups for measurement of uric acid and creatinine. Calculation of both urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio and fraction excretion of uric acid were done. The results were statistically evaluated by standard statistical methods. Results No significant differences in the age, serum creatinine, spot urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio and fraction excretion of uric acid between the two groups, serum uric acid was significantly lower in smokers. In smokers there was significant negative correlation of smoking status (average number of cigarette smoked/day, duration of smoking and cumulative amount of smoking) with serum uric acid. Conclusion After exclusion of other factors affecting uric acid level, the significant low serum uric acid level in smokers was attributed to reduce endogenous production as a result of chronic exposure to cigarette smoke that is a significant source of oxidative stress. As this reduction is proportionate with smoking status and predisposes to cardiovascular disease, it is, therefore, recommended for smokers to stop or reduce smoking and introduce serum uric acid estimation as routine test since its cheap and simple to reflect their antioxidant level. Keywords Smokers; Uric acid; CVD.

Hanna, Bassam E.; Hamed, Jamal M.; Touhala, Luma M.

2008-01-01

95

Increased endogenous nitrosation in smokers.  

PubMed

Endogenous nitrosation of proline was investigated in smokers and nonsmokers. Volunteers consumed a volume of beetroot juice equivalent to 325 mg nitrate and, 1 h later, 500 mg proline. In separate experiments, volunteers ingested proline alone. Twenty-four-hour urines were collected and analysed for N-nitrosoproline. When proline was ingested alone, there was no significant difference in urinary N-nitrosoproline excretion between smokers and nonsmokers. When beetroot juice and proline were consumed, however, smokers produced approximately 2.5 times as much N-nitrosoproline as nonsmokers. Salivary nitrite levels of smokers and nonsmokers, both before and after consumption of beetroot juice, were not significantly different. Salivary thiocyanate levels were approximately 3.2. times higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. Our results suggest that the higher level of salivary thiocynate in smokers is responsible for the increased rate of endogenous nitrosation of proline in that group when compared with nonsmokers. Oxides of nitrogen in cigarette smoke do not appear to play a significant role. PMID:6533068

Ladd, K F; Archer, M C; Newmark, H L

1984-01-01

96

Olfactory bulb volume in smokers.  

PubMed

The study aimed to investigate the volume of the olfactory bulb in smokers. Specifically, we wanted to see whether environmental influences may exert a negative influence on OB structure. Twenty-one smokers and 59 non-smokers, matched for age and sex, underwent olfactory testing by means of the Sniffin' Sticks testing device (measurement of odor threshold and identification abilities). In addition, they underwent an MR scan with 2-mm-thick T2-weighted fast spin-echo images without interslice gap in the coronal plane covering the anterior and middle segments of the base of the skull. Olfactory function was not different between the 2 groups; however, olfactory bulb volumes were smaller in smokers than in non-smokers (p = 0.006). The deficit seen at the level of the OB did not correlate with the duration of smoking. The current data indicate that smoking may have a negative effect on the olfactory system before this becomes obvious in terms of a decreased olfactory function. PMID:23212471

Schriever, Valentin A; Reither, Nicole; Gerber, Johannes; Iannilli, Emilia; Hummel, Thomas

2012-12-02

97

Implications of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project for improving understanding of hydrothermal processes at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is investigating producing geothermal energy from magma-hydrothermal systems at supercritical conditions. This requires drilling to depths of 4 to 5 km where temperatures should be in the range of 450-600°C or higher. Modeling studies suggest producing superheated steam from supercritical temperatures >450°C could increase power output tenfold relative to steam produced from a 300°C reservoir. The first IDDP well was drilled at Krafla within a volcanic caldera in the active rift zone of NE Iceland. At the end of June 2009, drilling was terminated at only 2100 m depth when a >900°C rhyolitic magma flowed into the drill hole. The well was completed with a casing cemented a few meters above the magma. Depending on the result of a planned flow test, there is the possibility of creating the world's hottest "Engineered Geothermal System" by injecting water in a nearby well to produce superheated steam from the magma. An advantage of such a strategy would be that the acidic gases likely to be given off by the magma could be neutralized by injecting suitably treated water. Two new wells, ˜4 km deep, are planned to be drilled during 2010-2012 at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields in SW Iceland to explore for supercritical zones. The Reykjanes geothermal system produces hydrothermally modified seawater. This presents an ideal situation to study a high-temperature magma-hydrothermal system at depth analogous to those responsible for the black smokers at submarine divergent plate margins.

Elders, Wilfred A.; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur Ómar

98

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (III) Hydrothermal Fluid Geobarometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IDDP wells will penetrate high pressure geothermal reservoirs where an understanding of the pressure effects on mineral equilibria is essential. The chemical compositions of fluids from active hydrothermal systems have long been applied to estimating reservoir temperature in subaerial geothermal systems at temperatures less than 300 °C and pressures along the H2O liquid/vapor P-T curve, where the pressures are low and the pressure effects on mineral equilibria are small. At pressures of hundreds of bars beneath mid-ocean ridge black smoker springs, the effect of pressure on mineral solubilities is substantial, and can be exploited to estimate pressure and temperature from fluid composition. In practice we compute mineral saturation indices, log(Q/K), for a given fluid for a wide range of P-T combinations, then plot log(Q/K) for alteration minerals against pressure at a series of temperatures so as to identify a possible "knot" in P-T-log(Q/K) space where a group of probable alteration minerals equilibrated with the fluid. We find that saturation index surfaces distinctly converge to zero in a narrow range of pressure and temperature. As an example, we estimate that for an East Pacific Rise 21 °N NGS fluid with a vent T=273 °C and vent P=260 bar, the reservoir conditions are likely T=370-420 °C and P=480-530 bar. To explore what aspect of the fluid chemistry causes the strong pressure effect on mineral solubilities, we computed the effect of pressure change on the activities of aqueous H+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and other significant species in the 21 °N NGS fluid. At 420 °C, pH changes from 8 to 5 as pressure changes from 200 to 700 bar, an effect resulting from dissociation of HCl with increasing pressure. Similarly, chloride complex dissociations yield approximately 10-fold increases in Ca2+, Na+, and K+ concentrations with a 200 to 700 bar pressure increase. In another series of calculations, we synthesized a seawater-like fluid that was equilibrated at 400 °C and 500 bar with clinopyroxene, chlorite, epidote, feldspars, and quartz, then treated the fluid as an "unknown" for estimating P-T. Even for small departures from equilibrium P-T (e.g. +/- 25 °C), the mineral saturation surfaces change markedly, thereby supporting the conclusion that pressure effects on fluid composition are large enough to enable meaningful pressure and temperature estimations in deep hydrothermal systems.

Reed, M. H.; Palandri, J. L.; Elders, W.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2007-12-01

99

Permeability-Porosity Relationships in Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To map out the thermal and chemical regimes within vent deposits where micro-and macro-organisms reside requires accurate modeling of mixing and reaction between hydrothermal fluid and seawater within the vent structures. However, a critical piece of information, quantitative knowledge of the permeability of vent deposits, and how it relates to porosity and pore geometry, is still missing. To address this, systematic laboratory measurements of permeability and porosity were conducted on 3 large vent structures from the Mothra Hydrothermal vent field on the Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Twenty-five cylindrical cores with diameters of 2.54 cm and various lengths were taken from Phang (a tall sulfide-dominated spire that was not actively venting when sampled), Roane (a lower temperature spire with dense macrofaunal communities growing on its sides that was venting diffuse fluid of < 300° C) and Finn (an active black smoker with a well-defined inner conduit that was venting 302° C fluids prior to recovery (Delaney et al., 2000; Kelley et al, 2000)). Measurements were made to obtain porosity and permeability of these drill cores using a helium porosimeter (UltraPoreTM300) and a nitrogen permeameter (UltrapermTM400) from Core Laboratories Instruments. The porosimeter uses Boyle's law to determine pore volume from the expansion of a know mass of helium into a calibrated sample holder, whereas the permeameter uses Darcy's law to determine permeability by measuring the steady-state flow rate through the sample under a given pressure gradient. A moderate confining pressure of 1.38 MPa was applied during the measurements to prevent leakage between the sample surface and the sample holder. The permeability and porosity relationship is best described by two different power law relationships with exponents of ˜9 (group I) and ˜3 (group II), respectively. Microstructural observations suggest that the difference in the two permeability-porosity relationships reflects different evolution processes as pores are sealed within different parts of the vent structures. Our data suggest that correctly identifying the processes of pore space evolution in seafloor vent deposits is the key to successfully relating permeability to porosity.

Zhu, W.; Gittings, H.; Tivey, M. K.

2003-12-01

100

Evidence for deep sea hydrothermal fluid-mineral equilibrium from multiple S isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multiple sulfur isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids and associated sulfide mineral deposits collected in 2006 in the eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea, provide an opportunity to better understand the processes of mineral precipitation, pore fluid composition, chemosynthetic energy sources, and metal-rich ore deposition in a felsic-hosted back arc hydrothermal system. Recent advances in multiple-stable isotope analytical techniques now enable the precise determination of all four stable isotopes of sulfur in hydrothermal vent fluids and co-precipitated sulfide mineral deposits, which may be used as a tracer to distinguish between sulfide derived from igneous rock, microbial sulfate reduction, and thermochemical reduction of seawater sulfate [1]. Multiple-stable isotopes of sulfur may also help constrain the relative contribution of sulfur derived by degassing of magmatic SO2 and sedimentary sulfide mineral inputs, as either process could generate the isotopically light ?34S (< 0‰) observed in some vent fluids, chalcopyrite chimney linings, and native sulfur collected at Manus Basin. We have analyzed the sulfur isotopic composition of high temperature black smoker vent fluid and associated chalcopyrite lining the inner walls of active conduits from two vent fields within the Manus Basin, including PACMANUS, located on the neovolcanic Pual ridge, and vents on discrete volcanic domes at SuSu Knolls. Preliminary results yield vent fluid ?34SH2S values ranging from -4.89 ± 0.02 to 5.41 ± 0.01, which closely match coexisting inner wall ?34Schalcopyrite values, ranging from -4.43 ± 0.01 to 5.64 ± 0.01. These results contrast with previous studies that report systematic differences in vent fluid ?34SH2S and sulfide minerals from the inner conduits of chimney structures [1, 2, 3]. The ?33SH2S values of vent fluids range from -0.031 ± 0.027 to 0.011 ± 0.016, and those of chalcopyrite range from -0.042 ± 0.012 to 0.012 ± 0.010. Preliminary results in 7 out of 8 fluid-mineral pairs show <1‰ difference between fluid and chalcopyrite, with most chalcopyrite showing slightly enriched ?34S, consistent with equilibrium fluid-mineral sulfur isotope exchange at 300-400°C during precipitation [4]. Negative ?34S in fluid-mineral pairs from SuSu Knolls may be a consequence of both magmatic volatile and sedimentary sulfide mineral input, an assertion supported by observations of very high CH4 concentrations in the black smoker fluids and low temperature acid sulfate fluids emanating from the dome flanks. Additional analyses are being conducted on more SuSu Knolls vents, as well as fluid-mineral pairs from Lau Basin vent fields. [1] Ono et al. (2007) GCA 71, 1170-1182. [2] Shanks (2001) Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 43, 469-525. [3] Woodruff and Shanks (1988) J. Geophy. Res. 93, 4562-4572. [4] Ohmoto and Goldhaber (1997) Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits, Third Edition, pp. 517-611.

McDermott, J. M.; Ono, S.; Tivey, M. K.; Seewald, J.

2010-12-01

101

First hydrothermal active vent discovered on the Galapagos Microplate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galapagos Microplate (GM) lies on the western Gaplapagos Spreading Center (GSC), representing one of the classic Ridge-Ridge-Ridge (R-R-R) plate boundaries of the Nazca, Cocos, and Pacific plates. The presence of the 'black smoke' and hydrothermal vent community were firstly confirmed on the GSC. Lots of hydrothermal fields were discovered on the center and eastern GSC, while the western GSC has not been well investigated. During 17th Oct. to 9th Nov. 2009, the 3rd leg of Chinese DY115-21 cruise with R/V Dayangyihao has been launched along 2°N-5°S near equatorial East Pacific Rise (EPR). Two new hydrothermal fields were confirmed. One is named 'Precious Stone Mountain', which is the first hydrothermal field on the GM. The other is found at 101.47°W, 0.84°S EPR. The 'Precious Stone Mountain' hydrothermal field (at 101.49°W, 1.22°N) is located at an off-axial seamount on the southern GM boundary, with a depth from 1,450 to 1,700m. Hydrothermal fluids emitting from the fissures and hydrothermal fauna were captured by deep-tow video. Few mineral clasts of pyrite and chalcopyrite were separated from one sediment sample, but no sulfide chimney was found yet. Hydrothermal fauna such as alive mussels, crabs, shrimps, tubeworms, giant clams, as well as rock samples were collected by TV-Grab. The study of the seafloor classification with Simrad EM120 multi-beam echosounder has been conducted on the 'Precious Stone Mountain' hydrothermal field. The result indicates that seafloor materials around the hydrothermal field can be characterized into three types, such as the fresh lava, hydrothermal sediment, and altered rock.

Tao, C.; Li, H.; Wu, G.; Su, X.; Zhang, G.; Chinese DY115-21 Leg 3 Scientific Party

2011-12-01

102

Some Lessons Learned From Observations and Modeling of Mid-ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of critical observations at mid-ocean ridge and continental hydrothermal systems has taught us a good deal about how these systems operate. Aspects will be reviewed from the large to small scale focusing on physical processes. At the largest scale the shape of the axial mid-ocean ridge magma chamber is clearly controlled by seawater convection. If the crust is impermeable, the 400°C isotherm of the magma chamber extends ~15 km from the ridge. As the crust becomes permeable, the width of the magma chamber collapses. A narrow axial magma chamber requires a crust whose permeability decreases exponentially from few 10's of millidarcies to a few tenths of millidarcy at moho depths (or the equivalent). Venting of ~350°C seawater at black smokers requires flow not significantly penetrate hotter rock. Variations in black smoker salinity from half to twice seawater, transit times of ~10 yrs, and megaplume discharge at ~250 times the normal black smoker rates (proceeded and succeeded by normal discharge), suggest a ~3.4 m wide, 350°C flow zone separated by ~180 m from 1200°C magma. With this geometry, periodic thermal contraction cracking in the 180 m wide thermal boundary layer can draw in sufficient flow-zone waters (which flash, leave behind salt, and return and salt-free condensed vapor) to lower the flow zone salinity by a factor of two. Halo-less veins with salt-rich amphiboles and minerals precipitated at >600°C record boundary layer cracking events. Migration of the flow zone toward the axis recovers the salt and doubles flow zone salinity. Increases in flow zone permeability by faulting or magma deflation produces megaplume discharges preceded and succeeded by normal black smoker venting. The routine (discharge salinities almost never equal seawater) interaction of convecting seawater with basalt at temperatures of >600°C makes it difficult to distinguish true magmatic waters (e.g., waters exsolved from magma) from seawater from thermal contraction cracks. Buoyant forces in the flow zone (5 km vertical extent) can equal lithostatic at a depth of several hundred meters, and repeatedly fracture shallow areas if they are plugged by mineral deposition, producing funnel-shaped breccia-vein feeder pipes similar to observed. Magma bodies establish upwelling at their edges whose effects propagate and ultimately control the broad pattern of convection. The axial upwelling at ridges, for example, draws in cold seawater, cools the adjacent crust, and creates horizontal temperature gradients that drive upwelling ~12 km from the axis. This upwelling spawns the next set of cells, etc. The cells interact as they migrate toward the ridge as seafloor spreading occurs. Pulses of more intense off-ridge discharge (e.g., times when the venting is >200°C) occur when interaction is constructive. The Mn lenses observed in ophiolites could form at these times. Similarly, convection developed first at the edges of crustal sills, spawns rings of satellite convection over the top of the sill. Tilts or undulations in the sill can affect the pattern but it is not significantly affected by faults and fractures. The spacing of discharge zones is similar to deposit spacing in massive sulfide districts, as is the variation in size. Deep model sills produce a single, large vent/deposit; shallow sills many small and a few large deposits. Model deposits require enhanced permeability in upwelling zones, however. The mechanism by which this occurs in nature could involve initial selection of permeable pathways with their subsequent isolation by anhydrite selvaging.

Cathles, L. M.

2004-05-01

103

Comparative metagenomics of microbial communities inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys with contrasting chemistries  

PubMed Central

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys harbor a high diversity of largely unknown microorganisms. Although the phylogenetic diversity of these microorganisms has been described previously, the adaptation and metabolic potential of the microbial communities is only beginning to be revealed. A pyrosequencing approach was used to directly obtain sequences from a fosmid library constructed from a black smoker chimney 4143-1 in the Mothra hydrothermal vent field at the Juan de Fuca Ridge. A total of 308?034 reads with an average sequence length of 227?bp were generated. Comparative genomic analyses of metagenomes from a variety of environments by two-way clustering of samples and functional gene categories demonstrated that the 4143-1 metagenome clustered most closely with that from a carbonate chimney from Lost City. Both are highly enriched in genes for mismatch repair and homologous recombination, suggesting that the microbial communities have evolved extensive DNA repair systems to cope with the extreme conditions that have potential deleterious effects on the genomes. As previously reported for the Lost City microbiome, the metagenome of chimney 4143-1 exhibited a high proportion of transposases, implying that horizontal gene transfer may be a common occurrence in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In addition, genes for chemotaxis and flagellar assembly were highly enriched in the chimney metagenomes, reflecting the adaptation of the organisms to the highly dynamic conditions present within the chimney walls. Reconstruction of the metabolic pathways revealed that the microbial community in the wall of chimney 4143-1 was mainly fueled by sulfur oxidation, putatively coupled to nitrate reduction to perform inorganic carbon fixation through the Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle. On the basis of the genomic organization of the key genes of the carbon fixation and sulfur oxidation pathways contained in the large genomic fragments, both obligate and facultative autotrophs appear to be present and contribute to biomass production.

Xie, Wei; Wang, Fengping; Guo, Lei; Chen, Zeling; Sievert, Stefan M; Meng, Jun; Huang, Guangrui; Li, Yuxin; Yan, Qingyu; Wu, Shan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Shangwu; He, Guangyuan; Xiao, Xiang; Xu, Anlong

2011-01-01

104

SMOKERS' DECISIONS TO QUIT SMOKING  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effectiveness of different smoking policies on the decision to quit smoking using a choice experiment on a sample of habitual smokers. Our results indicate that restricted availability, increased cigarette prices, cessation subsidies and regulations at restaurants, bars and cafés increase the probability of smoking cessation. Regulations at work places do not seem to have any effect. The

Henrik Hammar; Fredrik Carlsson

2001-01-01

105

Plasma leucocyte elastase concentrations in smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations between cigarette smoking, plasma leucocyte elastase concentration, peripheral leucocyte count and FEV1 were examined in 148 men, 72 of whom were current cigarette smokers, 40 of whom were ex-smokers, and 36 who had never smoked. All men were part of a long-term survey. Smokers had significantly higher plasma leucocyte elastase concentrations than ex-smokers or those who had never

C R Hind; H Joyce; G A Tennent; M B Pepys; N B Pride

1991-01-01

106

Complications of postmastectomy breast reconstructions in smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers.  

PubMed

Smoking results in impaired wound healing and poor surgical results. In this retrospective study, we compared outcomes in 155 smokers, 76 ex-smokers, and 517 nonsmokers who received postmastectomy breast reconstructions during a 10-year period. Ex-smokers were defined as those who had quit smoking at least 3 weeks before surgery. Transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap surgery was performed significantly less often in smokers (24.5 percent) than in ex-smokers (30.3 percent) or nonsmokers (39.1 percent) (p < 0.001). Tissue expansion followed by implant was performed in 112 smokers (72.3 percent), 50 (65.8 percent) ex-smokers, and 304 nonsmokers (58.8 percent) (p = 0.002). The overall complication rate in smokers was 39.4 percent, compared with 25 percent in ex-smokers and 25.9 percent in nonsmokers, which is statistically significant (p = 0.002). Mastectomy flap necrosis developed in 12 smokers (7.7 percent), 2 ex-smokers (2.6 percent), and 8 nonsmokers (1.5 percent) (p < 0.001). Among patients receiving TR4AM flaps, fat necrosis developed in 10 smokers (26.3 percent), 2 ex-smokers (8.7 percent), and 17 nonsmokers (8.4 percent). Abdominal wall necrosis was more common in smokers (7.9 percent) than in ex-smokers (4.3 percent) or nonsmokers (1.0 percent). In this large series, tissue expansion was performed more often in smokers than was autogenous reconstruction. Complications were significantly more frequent in smokers. Mastectomy flap necrosis was significantly more frequent in smokers, regardless of the type of reconstruction. Breast reconstruction should be done with caution in smokers. Ex-smokers had complication rates similar to those of nonsmokers. Smokers undergoing reconstruction should be strongly urged to stop smoking at least 3 weeks before their surgery. PMID:11214048

Padubidri, A N; Yetman, R; Browne, E; Lucas, A; Papay, F; Larive, B; Zins, J

2001-02-01

107

Attitudes toward nicotine replacement therapy in smokers and ex-smokers in the general public  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) doubles the chances that a smoker will quit smoking, but most smokers who attempt to quit do not use it at all or only use it inconsistently. We aimed to identify attitudes of smokers and ex-smokers toward NRT and to develop and assess the validity of a brief scale used to measure these attitudes.Methods: We

Jean-François Etter; Thomas V. Perneger

2001-01-01

108

Body image evaluations in women smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

While body image has been found to be an important predictor for several health behaviors (abnormal dieting, weight regain, exercise), only one study to date has examined body image attitudes in women smokers (Australian sample) with results suggesting that women smokers feel less attractive than nonsmokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare body image in women smokers

Teresa K King; Mala Matacin; Bess H Marcus; Beth C Bock; Janice Tripolone

2000-01-01

109

Offering telephone counseling to smokers using pharmacotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas telephone-based counseling has been found to be effective in supporting smokers interested in quitting smoking, it is not known whether proactive efforts to reach smokers receiving cessation medications will enhance their likelihood of successful quitting. We had an opportunity to test, in a health plan setting, an offer of telephone- based counseling with smokers identified from health plan records

Raymond G. Boyle; Leif I. Solberg; Stephen E. Asche; Jackie L. Boucher; Nicolaas P. Pronk; Catharine J. Jensen

2005-01-01

110

The measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide in healthy smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) level may provide an immediate, non-invasive method of assessing smoking status. The aims of this study were to use a portable CO monitor to compare the exhaled CO levels in established smokers and non-smokers.The exhaled CO levels were measured in 322 subjects (243 healthy smokers, 55 healthy non-smokers, 24 passive smokers) who applied

S. Erhan Deveci; Figen Deveci; Yasemin Açik; A. Tevfik Ozan

2004-01-01

111

[Patterns of behaviour of juvenile smokers and non-smokers].  

PubMed

Preventing habitual smoking by young people forms an important goal of health promotion in schools. In achieving this target, information is needed about the age at which smoking becomes a temptation for young people as well as knowledge about the attitudes that are associated with smoking. At two elementary schools and at one grammar school in a community of a former coalmining area, 985 German pupils aged 11-18 years were interviewed with the Youth Self Report (YSR) together with a questionnaire concerning their smoking habits. The rate of smoking among the pupils rose from the age group 11-15 years to the age group 16-18 years (in this age access to cigarettes is no longer restricted by law) from 12% to 63%; between the sexes there is no difference in smoking habits. According to the scales of the YSR in both types of school, smokers scored significantly higher on scales of "antisocial" and ,,aggressive behaviour". On the other hand non-smokers scored significantly higher on the scale "social problems". The significantly higher rate of smokers in both elementary schools compared with the corresponding rate in the grammar school will be interpreted by two interrelated explanations: the influence of lower social class as well as the lack of the deferred gratification pattern as an ingredient of the culture in elementary schools. The difference between smoking and non-smoking juveniles according to the scales of the YSR can be explained by the association of smoking behaviour with the juvenile culture of deviant groups on the one hand and by the attitudes of the non-smokers, who are more reluctant in joining peer groups. The results support a strategy for effectively preventing habitual smoking habits of juveniles in schools by combining youth activities inside and outside the schools. PMID:15216962

Prüss, Ulrike; Brandenburg, Alexander; von Ferber, Christian; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

112

Hydrothermal synthesis map of bismuth titanates  

SciTech Connect

The hydrothermal synthesis of four bismuth titanate materials from common bismuth and titanium precursors under hydrothermal conditions is described. Reaction of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and anatase TiO{sub 2} in concentrated NaOH solution at 240 Degree-Sign C is shown to produce perovskite and sillenite phases Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20}, depending on the ratio of metal precursors used. When KOH solution is used and a 1:1 ratio of the same precursors, a pyrochlore Bi{sub 1.43}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 0.29}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.66} is formed. The use of a mixture of HNO{sub 3} and NaOH is shown to facilitate the formation of the Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}. The phases have been isolated separately as phase-pure powders and profile refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data allows comparisons with comparable materials reported in the literature. Analysis of Bi L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the materials shows the oxidation state of bismuth is +3 in all of the hydrothermally derived products. - Graphical abstract: Use of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} as reagents under hydrothermal conditions allows the phase-pure preparation of four crystalline bismuth titanate materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NaBiO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} under hydrothermal conditions allow formation of bismuth titanates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of four distint phases has been mapped. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi LIII-edge XANES shows Bi is reduced to oxidation state +3 in all materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new hydrated bismuth titanate pyrochlore has been isolated.

Sardar, Kripasindhu [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Walton, Richard I., E-mail: r.i.walton@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2012-05-15

113

Cigarette advertising and black-white differences in brand preference.  

PubMed Central

Anecdotal evidence indicates that the cigarette industry is targeting the sale of specific brands, notably menthol cigarettes, to black consumers. This paper presents data on the types of cigarettes smoked by white and black smokers. The cigarette brand preferences of two populations of smokers were examined. The first comprised 70 white and 365 black adult smokers seen at the Deaconness Family Medicine Center located in Buffalo, NY. The second population included 1,070 white and 92 black smokers who called a Stop Smoking Hotline in Buffalo. The results showed that, in both populations, blacks were twice as likely to smoke mentholated cigarettes compared with whites. In an attempt to evaluate the targeting of cigarette ads to black smokers as a possible explanation for black-white differences in brand preferences, cigarette ads appearing in magazines targeted to predominantly white or black readers were compared. Cigarette ads appearing in seven magazines were reviewed, four directed to predominantly white readers (Newsweek, Time, People, Mademoiselle) and three with wide circulation among black audiences (Jet, Ebony, Essence). The results showed that the magazines targeted to black readers contained significantly more cigarette ads and more ads for menthol brand cigarettes than magazines similar in content but targeted to white readers. The observation that a higher percentage of blacks smoke menthol cigarettes than do whites is consistent with the findings regarding differences in the type of cigarette ads appearing in magazines intended for black or white readers. However, it is not possible to determine from this study whether cigarette advertising is the cause of the differences in preference of cigarette brands between white and black smokers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Cummings, K M; Giovino, G; Mendicino, A J

1987-01-01

114

Rock Magnetic Investigation of Felsic Hydrothermal Vent System: Results from ODP Leg 193 to Eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November-December, 2000, an active hydrothermal vent field in the Eastern Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, known as the PACMANUS vent field, was drilled during ODP Leg 193. This vent field has been considered as a modern-day analog of massive volcanogenic sulfide deposits within felsic volcanic sequence. The recovery was generally low due to fragility of rocks. Detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses were performed on rock samples recovered from three major sites (Sites 1188, 1189 and 1191). Site 1188, a low-temperature diffused venting region, was drilled to 370 mbsf utilizing a combination of RCB, Hammer Drill, ADCB and casing, and Site 1189, a black smoker region, was drilled to a depth of 200 mbsf using RCB. Paleomagnetic analysis shows that recovered rock samples have inclination close to the present-day Earth field. The top 35 m of PACMANUS vent field consists of fresh to moderately altered dacite-rhyodacite and exhibits moderately high natural remanent magnetization (< 6 A/m). Although there are small intervals of markedly less intensive alteration, the region below this extrusive layer is largely comprised of pervasively altered rocks with little evidence of sulfide deposit and exhibits as a whole a low magnetization intensity. However, two intervals with high remanent magnetization (> 6 A/m) were recognized below the upper extrusive layer at Site 1188 (135-211 mbsf and 280-370 mbsf) and one interval at Site 1189 (137-190 mbsf). In particular, the samples between 135-211-mbsf interval at Site 1188 have extremely high remanence with intensities ranging up to 300-500 A/m. Although pockets of magnetite are not uncommon in the ancient hydrothermal ore bodies, they have seldom been documented in modern-day system, and little is known about the physical and chemical condition that allows the magnetite to form in hydrothermal systems. Two possibilities of magnetite formation and its apparent alignment with the Earth field are explored: one that these magnetites precipitated from magnetite-rich fluid as it cooled from above the Curie temperature (TRM) and the other that magnetization was acquired by the growth of magnetite grains below the Curie temperature (CRM). Understanding the origin and behavior of these magnetic mineral assemblages may in turn provide a valuable constraint on the physical and chemical conditions of subseafloor hydrothermal systems, which are very poorly known at the moment.

Lee, S.

2003-12-01

115

Constraints On Fluid Evolution During Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Circulation From Anhydrite Sampled by ODP Hole 1256D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anhydrite is potentially a useful mineral for recording the evolution of seawater-derived fluids during mid- ocean ridge hydrothermal circulation because it exhibits retrograde solubility, and hence may precipitate due to the heating of seawater or the sub-surface mixing of seawater with black smoker-like fluids. Here we provide new insights into the chemical and thermal evolution of seawater during hydrothermal circulation through analyses of anhydrite recovered from ODP Hole 1256D, the first complete penetration of intact upper oceanic crust down to gabbros. Previously, crustal anhydrite has been recovered only from Hole 504B. Measurements of 87Sr/86Sr, major element ratios, Rare Earth Elements and ?18O in anhydrite constrain the changing composition of fluids as they chemically interact with basalt. Anhydrite fills veins and pore-space in the lower lava sequences from ~530 to ~1000 meters sub- basement (msb), but is concentrated in the lava-dike transition (754 to 811 msb) and uppermost sheeted dikes. Although present in greater quantities than in Hole 504B, the amount of anhydrite recovered from the Site 1256 crust is low compared to that predicted by models of hydrothermal circulation (e.g., Sleep, 1991). Two distinct populations of anhydrite are indicated by measurements of 87Sr/86Sr suggesting different fluid evolution paths within Site 1256. One group of anhydrites have 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7070 to 0.7085, close to that of 15 Ma seawater (0.70878), suggesting that some fluids penetrate through the lavas and into the sheeted dikes with only minimal Sr-exchange with the host basalts. A second group, with low 87Sr/86Sr between 0.7048 and 0.7052, indicates precipitation from a fluid that has undergone far greater interaction with basalt. This range is close to that estimated from Sr-isotopic analyses of epidote for the Hole 1256D hydrothermal fluids (87Sr/86Sr ~0.705). Sr/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr indicate a similar relationship to that seen at ODP Hole 504B suggesting that Sr/Ca ratios reduce greatly during recharge before there is significant Sr exchange with the host basalts. ?18O measurements display an irregular trend with depth from +17‰ in the lower volcanics to +10‰ in the sheeted dikes suggesting an increase in precipitation temperatures from 105 to 211°C. One sample, from a chalcopyrite mineralized dike margin has a very light ?18O of +2.2‰ suggesting a temperature of ~408°, perhaps indicating that fluid was superheated following direct contact with the hot intrusive body. This sample also records low 87Sr/86Sr and high total REE.

Smith-Duque, C.; Teagle, D. A.; Alt, J. C.; Cooper, M. J.

2008-12-01

116

Modeling the Growth of Hyperthermophiles in Deep-sea Hydrothermal Diffuse Fluids and Sulfide Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2008 and 2009, 534 hydrothermal fluid samples and 5 actively-venting black smoker chimneys were collected using Alvin for correlative microbiological and chemical analyses as part of the Endeavour Segment and Axial Volcano Geochemistry and Ecology Research (EAGER) program. Hyperthermophilic, autotrophic Fe(III) oxide reducers, methanogens, and sulfur-reducing heterotrophs were enriched for at 85 and 95°C using most-probable-number estimates from 28 diffuse fluid and 8 chimney samples. Heterotrophs were the most abundant of the three groups in both diffuse fluids and black-smoker chimneys. Iron reducers were more abundant than methanogens, and more abundant in sulfide-hosted vents than in basalt-hosted vents. Fluid chemistry suggests that there is net biogenic methanogenesis at the Marker 113/62 diffuse vent at Axial Volcano but nowhere else sampled. The growth of hyperthermophilic methanogens and heterotrophs was modeled in the lab using pure cultures. Methanocaldococcus jannaschii grew at 82°C in a 2-liter reactor with continuous gas flow at H2 concentrations between 20 and 225 µM with a H2 km of 100 µM. Correlating H2 end-member mixing curves from vent fluids and seawater with our laboratory modeling study suggests that H2 concentrations are limiting for Methanocaldococcus growth at most Mothra, Main Field, and High Rise vent sites at Endeavour but sufficient to support growth at some Axial Volcano vents. Therefore, hyperthermophilic methanogens may depend on H2 syntrophy at low H2 sites. Twenty-one pure hyperthermophilic heterotroph strains each grew on ?-1,4 and ?-1,4 linked sugars and polypeptides with concomitant H2 production. The H2 production rate (cell-1 doubling-1) for Pyrococcus furiosus at 95°C without sulfur was 29 fmol, 36 fmol, and 53 fmol for growth on ?-1,4 sugars, ?-1,4 sugars, and peptides, respectively. The CH4 production rate for M. jannaschii was 390 fmol cell-1 doubling-1; therefore, we estimate that it would take approximately 40 heterotroph cells to provide all of the H2 necessary to support the growth of a single methanogen. In contrast to methanogens, autotrophic Fe(III) oxide reducers consume far less H2 during growth and reach cell concentrations similar to methanogens in pure culture. Thermodynamic predictions suggest that they would grow at H2 concentrations lower than those needed by methanogens.

Ver Eecke, H. C.; Oslowski, D. M.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Holden, J. F.

2009-12-01

117

Contrasting sulfur isotope compositions of sulfide minerals between on-ridge and off-ridge hydrothermal fields in the southern Mariana back-arc region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New submarine hydrothermal fields were discovered in the southern Mariana back-arc spreading region during the Yokosuka-Shinkai 6500 cruise (October, 2003). One is located on the ridge of spreading center and the other is located on the off-rige site: A low-temperature hydrothermal activity and 10 m-high sulfide chimneys were found on the ridge site and the black-smoker activity with various sulfide chimneys was found on the top of the off-ridge seamount. Both hydrothermal fields were directly drilled by the benthic-multiple coring system during the Hakurei 2 cruise (February, 2004), in order to examine the subsurface hydrothermal processes. Elemental maps of drilled core samples and surface chimneys were constructed using X-ray scanning microscope, and an alteration pattern and types of sulfide minerals were examined. Forming steps of Fe-rich clays near the seafloor were traced and vesicle-filling process by clays and sulfides were found in the examined samples. Sulfur isotope analyses were performed using EA-IRMS on the separated sulfide and sulfate minerals. Sulfur isotope compositions of sulfate minerals are the identical to the seawater sulfate value. Sulfur isotope compositions of sulfides range from +2.9 to +8.7?n at the on-ridge site and _|3.2 to +3.6 ?n at the off-ridge site, respectively. Such regional difference in sulfur isotope compositions of sulfides is probably reflecting the difference in crustal processes: either (1) involvement of sulfate reduction near the discharge zone or (2) isotope exchange among several sulfide and sulfate phases in the deep reaction zone. Chronological change of sulfur isotope compositions was also found in each region: lighter sulfur isotope compositions were found in the younger generation of sulfides. This suggests the style of sulfur cycle in the basaltic crusts (e.g., depth and temperature change for sulfate reduction, potential biological process, etc.) are varying through the development and/or decay of each hydrothermal field.

Kakegawa, T.

2004-12-01

118

Retinal anatomy of a new species of bresiliid shrimp from a hydrothermal vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  

PubMed

A new species of shrimp (Rimicaris sp.) was recently collected from the Snake Pit hydrothermal vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Until the discovery in 1989 that the deep-sea, hydrothermal vent species, Rimicaris exoculata, possessed a hypertrophied dorsal eye, everyone believed that animals recovered from vent environments were blind. Like R. exoculata, Rimicaris sp., a small orange bresiliid shrimp, has an enlarged dorsal eye specialized for detecting light in a very dim environment instead of the expected compound eye. The individual lenses characteristic of a compound eye adapted for imaging have been replaced in Rimicaris sp. by a smooth cornea underlain by a massive array of photosensitive membrane. The number of ommatidia in this species is about the same as in shrimp species that live at the surface; however, the photoreceptors are larger in the deep-sea species and the shape of the photoreceptors is markedly different. The light-sensitive region of the photoreceptor is much larger than those of other shrimp and the rest of the receptor is much smaller than normal. All screening pigment has moved out of the path of incident light to a position below the retina, and the reflecting pigment cells have adapted to form a bright white diffusing screen between and behind the photoreceptors. The ultrastructure of the microvillar array comprising the rhabdom is typical for decapod crustaceans; however, there is a much greater volume density of rhabdom (80% to 85%) than normal. There is no ultrastructural evidence for cyclic rhabdom shedding or renewal. Rimicaris sp. has apparently adapted its visual system to detect the very dim light emitted from the throats of the black smoker chimneys around which it lives. PMID:8852633

Nuckley, D J; Jinks, R N; Battelle, B A; Herzog, E D; Kass, L; Renninger, G H; Chamberlain, S C

1996-02-01

119

Geological setting of hydrothermal activity at 12°50'N on the East Pacific Rise: A submersible study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed submersible investigation of a 20-km segment of the East Pacific Rise near 12°50'N between the Orozco and Clipperton fracture zones has resulted in the localization of 24 active hydrothermal vent fields and over 80 sites of sulfide accumulations. The active vents range from low-temperature vents characterized by exotic benthic communities to high-temperature "black smokers" and the deposition of polymetallic sulfides. The study is based upon a combination of fine scale topography obtained using the SEABEAM sonar system on N/O "Jean Charcot", camera lowerings along the axis using the RAIE vehicle, and 32 dives by the submersible "Cyana" operating from N/O "Le Suroit". The observations made between the Orozco and Clipperton fracture zones show topographic highs situated along the strike of the accreting plate segment separated by a small ridge offset at 11°49'N. This offset divides this portion of the ridge into two separate spreading segments each of which has a primary topographic high along strike. Secondary highs are associated with each segment of the ridge separated by either small offsets (or relay zones) or in some cases, zones where spreading centers overlap. Dives made on the tops of both primary highs (12°50'N and 11°30'N) confirm the presence inferred from previous surface work of high-temperature vent fields while one reconnaissance dive (14°20'N) near the Orozco fracture zone/ridge axis intersection reveals the absence of any hydrothermal activity in the present or recent past. The vast majority of vent fields investigated were found at the topographic high near 12°50'N, are associated with the most recent period of volcanism, and are confined to lava ponds situated within the axial graben.

Ballard, R. D.; Hekinian, Roger; Francheteau, Jean

1984-07-01

120

Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India  

PubMed Central

Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned). Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9) with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6%) reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions) for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker). Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go beyond providing knowledge on harmful effects of smoking to interventions that influence adolescents' social construct of smoking/smoker.

2011-01-01

121

Zinc, copper, and lead in mid-ocean ridge basalts and the source rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The contents of Zn, Cu, and Pb in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and the MORB source-rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits are examined. The values of Zn, Cu, and Pb for submarine mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are, respectively (in ppm): average MORB-75, 75, and 0.7; West Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR)-87, 64, and 0.5; southern JFR-120 and 0.5; and 21??N, East Pacific Rise (EPR)-73, 78, and 0.5. Values of Zn/Pb range from about 100-240 and Cu/ Pb from 100-156. In this study, Zn is found to correlate positively with TiO2 + FeO (mean square of weighted deviates, MSWD, of 1.6 for JFR basalt), and inversely with Mg number (MSWD of 3.5). Therefore, contrary to statements in the literature that Zn should be compatible in MORB, Zn is a mildly incompatible element and must be enriched in the glass phase relative to olivine as Zn does not fit into the other major phenocryst phase, plagioclase. In the source of MORB, Zn likely is most enriched in oxides: spinel, magnetite, and titanomagnetite. Copper generally does not correlate well with other elements in most MORB data examined. When differentiation is dominated by olivine, Cu has a tendency to behave incompatibly (e.g., at Mg numbers > 70), but, overall, Cu shows some tendency towards being a compatible element, particularly along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a behavior presumably due to separation of sulfides in which Cu (but not Zn) is markedly enriched. Copper thus may be in dispersed sulfides in the source of MORB. Ocean ridges provide important data on source-rock controls for sulfide deposits because, in sediment-starved ridges, much is known about the possible source rocks and mineralization is presently occurring. In contrast to Zn/Pb ~5 in continental hot Cl-rich brines, Zn/Pb in the hottest sediment-starved ridge black smoker hydrothermal fluids at 21 ??N, EPR is about 110, similar to local MORB (145), but Cu/Pb is closer to 30, possibly due to subsurface deposition of Cu. At the JFR, the best value of Zn/Pb in the hydrothermal fluids is about 175, again similar to local MORB (240), but Cu is very low in the fluids that are at temperatures less than 300??C. The large MORB-like Zn/Pb in the hottest black-smoker fluids suggests a source-rock control for the metals that prohibits significant galena in the black-smoker deposits of sediment-starved ridges. In contrast, exhalative deposits on sediment-swamped ridges have significant galena; its presence is suggestive of Pb derivation from sediments, an origin supported by Pb isotope studies of LeHuray and colleagues in 1988. ?? 1994.

Doe, B. R.

1994-01-01

122

Do Cigarette Taxes Make Smokers Happier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some policy makers justify cigarette taxes by arguing that they actually make smokers better off. This argument has been hard to evaluate because behavioral data, such as that showing reduced cigarette consumption following a tax hike, cannot resolve the issue of whether smokers are made better off by the reduction or not. In this paper, we directly assess the effect

Jonathan H. Gruber; Sendhil Mullainathan

2005-01-01

123

Characterization of the oral fungal microbiota in smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the effect of smoking on the biodiversity of the oral fungal microbiota of healthy young subjects, using an improved culture method that assesses both total and pathogenic viable fungi. Forty individuals (20 smokers and 20 non-smokers) were selected. All individuals presented fungal growth (100% for molds and 92.5% for yeasts), a prevalence higher than previously reported. The most commonly occurring molds were Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Cladosporium sp. Smokers presented significantly higher levels of yeasts and pathogenic molds than did non-smokers. No differences in fungal prevalence and diversity were observed in smokers and non-smokers following a 30-wk observation period. In conclusion, tobacco smoking may alter the oral mycobiota and facilitate colonization of the oral cavity with yeasts and pathogenic molds. The effect of chronic fungal colonization on the oral health of tobacco smokers cannot be neglected. PMID:23489903

Monteiro-da-Silva, Filipa; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Pereira, Maria de Lurdes; Araujo, Ricardo

2013-03-04

124

Bacteria at Hydrothermal Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information on thermophiles living in deep-sea vents, including their importance in biotechnology and extraterrestrial life research. The site also contains images of thermophiles at varying scales and a link to the "Hot Topics" main page including numerous links to further information on hydrothermal vents and research conducted in deep-sea environments.

Discover, Expeditions T.; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, National S.

125

Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal  

SciTech Connect

We are examining the effects on composition and behavior of Argonne-supplied Wyodak coal under both thermal (no added water/N{sub 2}) and hydrothermal (liquid water/N{sub 2}) conditions at 350{degree}C for periods of 30 min and 5 hr, with emphasis during this period on the longer treatment. Field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) of the untreated, thermally treated, and hydrothermally treated coals is conducted at conditions where the samples are heated from ambient to 500{degree}C at 2.5{degree}/min. In the 5 hr work the volatilities of the coals are 24%, 16%, and 25% respectively. Solvent swelling studies with the recovered coals do not demonstrate the expected lower degree of crosslinking in the hydrothermal case. Both the thermal and hydrothermal treatments yield products with a decreased swelling ratio, but the ratio for the product from the aqueous treatment is slightly lower than that from thermal treatment. At present we cannot reconcile this result with our other data. 4 refs., 6 figs.

Loo, Bock; Ross, D.S.

1990-08-14

126

Hydrothermal carbonization of microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal carbonization is a process in which biomass is heated in water under pressure to create a char product. With higher plants, the chemistry of the process derives primarily from lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose components. In contrast, green and blue-green microalgae are not lignocellulosic in composition, and the chemistry is entirely different, involving proteins, lipids and carbohydrates (generally not cellulose).

Steven M. Heilmann; H. Ted Davis; Lindsey R. Jader; Paul A. Lefebvre; Michael J. Sadowsky; Frederick J. Schendel; Marc G. von Keitz; Kenneth J. Valentas

2010-01-01

127

Distribution of Archaea in a Black Smoker Chimney Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Guinea, and subsamples were obtained from vertical and horizontal sections. The elemental composition of the chimney was analyzed in different subsamples by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, indicating that zinc and sulfur were major components while an increased amount of elemental oxygen in exterior materials represented the presence of oxidized materials on the outer surface of the

KEN TAKAI; TETSUSHI KOMATSU; FUMIO INAGAKI; KOKI HORIKOSHI

2001-01-01

128

Manganese scavenging and oxidation at hydrothermal vents and in vent plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal vents provide a major source of dissolved Mn(II) to the oceans, where concentrations range from 5 mM within the 350°C hot smokers to just above ambient seawater concentration in far field vent plumes. The Mn(II)-rich environments within warm vents and vent plumes provide a suitable habitat for Mn(II) oxidizing bacteria. In order to compare rates of scavenging and oxidation

Kevin W. Mandernack; Bradley M. Tebo

1993-01-01

129

HIV symptom distress and smoking outcome expectancies among HIV+ smokers: a pilot test.  

PubMed

Smoking occurs at high rates among people with HIV/AIDS, but little attention has been paid to understanding the nature of tobacco use among HIV+ smokers, especially the role that HIV symptoms may play in cognitive smoking processes. Accordingly, the present investigation examined the relation between HIV symptom distress (i.e., the degree to which HIV symptoms are bothersome) and smoking outcome expectancies. Fifty-seven HIV+ adult smokers (82.50% male; M(age)=47.18; 45.6% White, 28.1% Black, 17.5% Hispanic) were recruited from AIDS service organizations and hospital-based clinics. On average, participants reported knowing their HIV+ status for 16 years and the majority of participants reported that they acquired HIV through unprotected sex (66.6%). Participants completed measures pertaining to HIV symptoms, smoking behavior, and smoking outcome expectancies. HIV symptom distress was positively related to negative reinforcement, negative consequences, and positive reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies after accounting for relevant covariates. The present research suggests that HIV symptom distress may play an important role in understanding smoking outcome expectancies for smokers with HIV/AIDS. Clinical implications for HIV+ smokers are discussed, including the importance of developing effective smoking cessation treatments that meet the unique needs of this group of smokers. PMID:23305258

Grover, Kristin W; Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J

2013-01-01

130

Magnetic and Electron Microscopic Investigation on Rock Samples from the PACMANUS Hydrothermal Vent Field in Papua New Guinea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PACMANUS hydrothermal vent field in the Eastern Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, is considered as a modern-day analog of massive volcanogenic sulfide deposits within felsic volcanic sequence. This active vent field was drilling in November-December 2003 by Ocean Drilling Program Leg 193. The recovery was generally low with less than 15% due to fragility of rocks. Paleomagnetic measurements and scanning electron microscope observations were performed on samples from three major sites (Sites 1188, 1189 and 1191). Site 1188, a low-temperature diffused venting region, was drilled to 370 mbsf. Site 1189, a black smoker region, was drilled to a depth of 200 mbsf using RCB. The recovered rock samples have inclination close to the present-day Earth field (-7° ), but those near the seafloor have much steeper inclination of up to -25° . The upper 35 m of the sites consists of fresh to moderately altered dacite-rhyodacite, which exhibits moderately high natural remanent magnetization (< 6 A/m). The region below this extrusive layer largely comprises of pervasively altered rocks with little evidence of sulfide deposit and as a whole exhibits a low magnetization intensity. However, two intervals with extremely high remanent magnetization were discovered below the upper extrusive layer at Site 1188 (135-211 mbsf and 280-370 mbsf) and one interval at Site 1189 (137-190 mbsf). In particular, the samples between 135-211-mbsf interval at Site 1188 have extremely high remanence with intensities ranging up to 300-500 A/m. Although pockets of magnetite are not uncommon in the ancient hydrothermal ore bodies, they have seldom been documented in modern-day system, and little is known about the physical and chemical condition that allows the magnetite to form in hydrothermal vent systems. Two possibilities of magnetite formation are explored: one that these magnetites precipitated from magnetite-rich fluid as it cooled from above the Curie temperature (TRM) and the other that magnetization was acquired by the growth of magnetite grains below the Curie temperature (CRM).

Lee, S.; Doh, S.; Kim, Y.

2004-12-01

131

Subjective and cardiovascular effects of intravenous nicotine in smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assessed the subjective and cardiovascular effects of intravenous nicotine in smokers and nonsmokers. Nonsmokers\\u000a (n?=?5) and smokers (n?=?5) were administered a single dose of nicotine (0.75 or 1.5?mg) or saline on each of 3 days. The nicotine doses were given\\u000a in ascending order in a double-blind fashion. Although smokers and nonsmokers manifested significant increases in systolic\\u000a and

Rebeca Soria; June M. Stapleton; Stephen F. Gilson; Angela Sampson-Cone; Jack E. Henningfield; Edythe D. London

1996-01-01

132

Distribution of polonium-210 in the human lung. [Comparison between smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polonium-210 has been measured in the tracheobronchial tree and parenchyma of cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in order to determine whether this ..cap alpha.. emitter is retained in smokers. The ratio of ²¹°Po concentration in the tracheobronchial tree (T) to that in the lung parenchyma (P) in nonsmokers is T\\/P = 2.7 +- 0.5. The ratio in smokers is T\\/P =

B. S. Cohen; M. Eisenbud; M. E. Wrenn; N. H. Harley

1979-01-01

133

[Functional and health conditions of elderly smokers].  

PubMed

Research conducted for many years, on smoking harm has revealed a connection between using nicotine and numerous disorders affecting human beings. Nowadays 33% of Poles smoke, 11-25% of the elderly smoke. There are plentiful anti-smoking campaigns aimed at the young and those in their reproductive years. Such campaigns addressed to the elderly are a seldom occurrence. The aim of this work was to analyze the actual functioning and health of smokers aged 65 and more living in various surroundings. The research involved a group of 300 individuals aged more than 65: older people home residents--100 individuals, veteran home residents--100 individuals and the University of the Third Age students--100 individuals. The tool utilized in the course of the research was a questionnaire concerning smoking, diseases affecting the subjects, medication taken and personal information. Assessment of a functional state, physical activity, mental state and health was carried out with the help of General Geriatric Assessment questionnaires. In the researched group, the frequency of smoking was 11.3%, 18.1% among men, 9.2% among women. The average age of the smokers was 70.6 +/- 5.6, the average age of the non-smokers was 75.5 +/- 7.0 .The average number of cigarettes smoked was 11.3 +/- 7.3 a day. The older the subjects of the research, the smaller percentage of the smokers among them as well as the fewer cigarettes smoked. The smokers indicated a substantially higher MMSE result, Tinetti, lower BMI, lower percentage of fat, lower frequency of being affected by cataract or urinary incontinence and a larger number of lung conditions. In the researched groups both in the older people home and veteran home residents, the smokers are younger, better educated, more fit, better nourished, possessing a larger mental capacity and hand strength as compared to the other members of a given community. Among the University of the Third Age students no significant differences between the smokers and non-smokers were observed. The smallest percentage of the smokers is among the University of the Third Age students (9%), the largest among the older people home residents (14%). The most cigarettes are smoked by the University of the Third Age students, the fewest by the older people home and the veteran home residents. Women smokers constitute majority among the University of the Third Age students whereas there are more men smokers among the older people home and the veteran home residents. There is a distinct need of organizing anti-smoking campaigns aimed at the elderly taking into account the area of their functioning. PMID:20301887

Jachimowicz, Violetta; Kostka, Tomasz

2009-01-01

134

volcanic architecture of an active felsic-hosted hydrothermal system reconstructed using rab-images and wireline logging data (odp hole 1189c)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 193 drilled an active black smoker field (Roman Ruins) of the PACMANUS hydrothermal system (Papua New Guinea), a hydrothermal system associated with felsic magmatism at a convergent plate margin. Leg 193 drilled three holes at this hydrothermal site but only two holes were cored and variably altered dacites were recovered. Hole 1189C was drilled 166 m deep without coring using Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) technique and employing the Resistivity-at-the-Bit (RAB) technique for the first time in ODP. Therefore, LWD data and additional wireline measurements, including Formation Microscanner (FMS) images recorded over a 40 m long interval, are of prime importance for reconstructing the different volcanic facies. The RAB provides electrical images of the borehole wall with lower spatial resolution than the images from the FMS tool but yields a full 360° coverage of the borehole wall. Volcanic facies were reconstructed by calibrating logs with the RAB and FMS images. Information on the volcanic facies as well as their petrophysical properties were taken from the cores in the neighboring holes. Using the combination of LWD and wireline measurements defined individual log response patterns for each facies could be defined. Massive units cause high electrical resistivity values and low total gamma-ray values The massive dacites belong to the coherent facies representing the interior part of lava flows where the erupted melt cools slowly. Brecciated and fractured material from the outer part of lava flows, the so-called volcaniclastic facies show low electrical resistivity and high gamma-ray counts. Sulfide disseminations developing in connection with hydrothermal fluids are characterized by high density and photoelectrical factor. In the RAB images fresh massive rocks of the coherent facies can be distinguished by the strongly altered material of the volcaniclastic facies. Besides in the FMS images it is possible to separate breccia from fractured units within the volcaniclastic facies. The reconstructed lithology of Hole 1189C consists of a complex facies association. The equal portions of coherent and volcaniclastic facies indicate a medial facies situated at the flanks of the subaqueous, lava-dominated felsic volcano.

Arnold, J.; Bartetzko, A.; Clauser, C.

2003-04-01

135

Effects of Exercise on Hemorheological Parameters of Young Nigerian Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Regular physical exercise is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the hypothesis that acute submaximal exercise has similar effects on rheological parameters of smokers and non- smokers was tested. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three male university undergraduates comprised of 18 smokers and 15 non- smokers were studied. All the subjects underwent submaximal exercise on cycloergometer for

Omolade Augustina AWODU; Ademola Adekunle FAMODU

136

Smokers’ Expectancies for Abstinence: Preliminary Results From Focus Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smokers’ expectancies regarding the effects of cigarette use are powerful predictors of smoking motivation and behavior. However, studies have not investigated the consequences that smokers expect when they attempt to quit smoking: abstinence-related expectancies. The primary goal of this qualitative study was to gain initial insight into smokers’ expectancies for abstinence. Eight focus groups were conducted with 30 smokers diverse

Peter S. Hendricks; Sabrina B. Wood; Sharon M. Hall

2009-01-01

137

Impaired somatosensation in tongue mucosa of smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking has been indicated as a risk factor for oral diseases and can lead to altered sense of taste. So far, the effects\\u000a of sensory changes on the tongue are not investigated. In this study, quantitative sensory testing was used to evaluate somatosensory\\u000a function in the lingual region. Eighty healthy volunteers were investigated (20 smokers, 20 non-smokers). Subjects were bilaterally

Sareh Said Yekta; Andreas Lückhoff; Dejan Risti?; Friedrich Lampert; Jens Ellrich

138

Beliefs and attitudes about lung cancer screening among smokers.  

PubMed

The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) recently reported that annual computed tomography (CT) screening is associated with decreased lung cancer mortality in high-risk smokers. Beliefs about lung cancer and screening, particularly across race and ethnicity, and their influence on CT screening utilization are largely unexamined. Our study recruited asymptomatic, high-risk smokers, 55-74 years of age from primary care clinics in an academic urban hospital. Guided by the self-regulation theory, we evaluated cognitive and affective beliefs about lung cancer. Intention to screen for lung cancer with a CT scan was assessed by self-report. We used univariate and logistic regression analyses to compare beliefs about screening and intention to screen among minority (Blacks and Hispanics) and non-minority participants. Overall, we enrolled 108 participants, of which 40% were Black and 34% were Hispanic; the mean age was 62.3 years, and median pack-years of smoking was 26. We found that intention to screen was similar among minorities and non-minorities (p=0.19); however, Hispanics were less likely to report intention to screen if they had to pay for the test (p=0.02). Fatalistic beliefs, fear of radiation exposure, and anxiety related to CT scans were significantly associated with decreased intention to screen (p<0.05). Several differences were observed in minority versus non-minority participants' beliefs toward lung cancer and screening. In conclusion, we found that concerns about cost, which were particularly prominent among Hispanics, as well as fatalism and radiation exposure fears may constitute barriers to lung cancer screening. Lung cancer screening programs should address these factors to ensure broad participation, particularly among minorities. PMID:22681870

Jonnalagadda, Sirisha; Bergamo, Cara; Lin, Jenny J; Lurslurchachai, Linda; Diefenbach, Michael; Smith, Cardinale; Nelson, Judith E; Wisnivesky, Juan P

2012-06-06

139

Ocean crustal fault rocks and the chemo-mechanical record of hydrothermal fluid flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal systems in the oceanic crust appear to require fluid-flow conduits such as faults and fracture-networks. Laboratory and borehole experiments reinforce the need for fracturing to increase the otherwise intrinsically low basalt permeability to allow high-flux fluid flow. Additionally, microseismicity and surface displacements along mid-ocean ridges have been modeled as resulting from fluid flow along localized conduits during fluid-pressure modulated faulting events. Near-bottom images and samples of fault zones from in situ, basaltic East-Pacific Rise (EPR)-spread oceanic crust provide an opportunity to further establish linkages between faulting, fracturing, and hydrothermal fluid flow. Human Occupied Vehicle (HOV) Alvin investigations along the north wall of the Hess Deep rift found faults in lavas and dikes that display a core-damage zone structure. The damage zones can be quite extensive, with intensely fractured materials spanning tens-of-meters. In places the damage zones can be linked to the volcanic constructional history of the axial region, with undeformed dikes cross-cutting damaged materials and relatively undamaged lavas overlying more damaged ones. Faults are less-than meter-wide planar structures that in many instances accommodated relative rotations and displacements of dikes and lavas. Though fault displacements cannot be quantitatively determined, they are a maximum of 100-m based on local depth-variations in the base of the lavas, and this is probably an overestimate given variations in the depositional thickness of the lavas. Microstructurally, the damage-zone and fault-core materials exhibit increasing amounts of chlorite-filled fractures, culminating with a cataclastic (deformational) foliation comprising anomalously high concentrations of chlorite (and bulk-rock MgO). Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Jason II and HOV Alvin work along the EPR-spread crust exposed in the Pito Deep rift found similar fault and damage zone structures. However, the Pito Deep rift also exposes distinctive quartz-rich hydrothermal breccias in the fault cores. As shown by isotopic, geochemical, and structural analyses, the fault breccias developed through multiple increments of fluid flow and faulting, likely at the base of axial black-smoker vents. Lastly, both Pito and Hess Deep rifts expose a distinctive fault gouge that is relatively unaltered. In the Pito Deep rift this unit can be clearly related to off-axis rift-related faulting, whereas in the Hess Deep rift certain gouge units are clearly part of the fault structure that developed predominantly in the axial region. Some of the fault-rock units therefore may have sealed faults to fluid flow whereas others, such as the chlorite-rich fracture systems, cataclasites, and quartz-rich breccias, were conduits. Given the well-understood spreading history of the EPR, and recent observations of axial deformation and hydrothermal fluid flow, these geological observations can be of great utility in placing bounds on the mechanical processes of faulting and fluid flow, particularly through ongoing quantitative microstructural analysis, rock-mechanics experiments, and comparisons with other spreading-rate environments.

Hayman, N. W.; Karson, J. A.

2010-12-01

140

Evolution of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mothra Hydrothermal Field (MHF) is a 600 m long, high-temperature hydrothermal field. It is located 2.7 km south of the Main Endeavour Field at the southern end of the central Endeavour Segment. Mothra is the most areally extensive field along the Endeavour Segment, composed of six active sulfide clusters that are 40-200 m apart. Each cluster contains rare black smokers (venting up to 319°C), numerous diffusely venting chimneys, and abundant extinct chimneys and sulfide talus. From north to south, these clusters include Cauldron, Twin Peaks, Faulty Towers, Crab Basin, Cuchalainn, and Stonehenge. As part of the Endeavour Integrated Study Site (ISS), the MHF is a site of intensive interdisciplinary studies focused on linkages among geology, geochemistry, fluid chemistry, seismology, and microbiology. Axial valley geology at MHF is structurally complex, consisting of lightly fissured flows that abut the walls and surround a core of extensively fissured, collapsed terrain. Fissure abundance and distribution indicates that tectonism has been the dominant process controlling growth of the axial graben. Past magmatic activity is shown by the 200 m long chain of collapse basins between Crab Basin and Stonehenge, which may have held at least ~7500 m3 of lava. Assuming a flow thickness of 0.5 m, this amount of lava could cover over half the valley floor during a single volcanic event. At a local scale, MHF clusters vary in size, activity, and underlying geology. They range in size from 400-1600 m2 and consist of isolated chimneys and/or coalesced cockscomb arrays atop ramps of sulfide talus. In the northern part of the field, Cauldron, Twin Peaks, Faulty Towers, and Crab Basin are located near the western valley wall, bounded by basalt talus and a combination of collapsed sheet flows, intermixed lobate and sulfide, disrupted terrain, and isolated pillow ridges. The southern clusters, Cuchalainn and Stonehenge, are associated with collapse basins in the central valley and bounded by extensive lobate flows and disrupted terrain. At all clusters, active chimneys stand within meters of extinct chimneys, suggesting that flow in the shallow subsurface is both complex and transient. 1-2 m high mounds of sulfide talus and broken chimneys indicate that focused flow has been concentrated at the clusters for long periods, while extinct sulfide deposits between clusters and in collapse basins demonstrate that flow conduits have been rerouted and/or clogged by mineral precipitation. Two subsurface processes are responsible for hydrothermal venting at the clusters: tapping of magmatic heat near the lava drainbacks and tectonic movement along the steeply dipping, inward-facing normal faults at the western wall boundary. The interplay between these processes and fluid flow is synthesized in an evolutionary model of hydrothermal development at Mothra.

Glickson, D.; Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J.

2005-12-01

141

Excess injury mortality among smokers: a neglected tobacco hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the mortality risks from injuries for smokers and ex-smokers and to quantify the mortality burden of smoking from injury in Taiwan.Methods: Smokers’ (and ex-smokers’) mortality risks from injuries were compared with that of non-smokers in a merged cohort from Taiwan. A total of 64 319 male subjects were followed up for 12–18 years. Relative risks (RR) (adjusted

C P Wen; S P Tsai; T Y Cheng; H T Chan; W S I Chung; C J Chen

2005-01-01

142

Excess injury mortality among smokers: a neglected tobacco hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the mortality risks from injuries for smokers and ex-smokers and to quantify the mortality burden of smoking from injury in Taiwan. Methods: Smokers' (and ex-smokers') mortality risks from injuries were compared with that of non- smokers in a merged cohort from Taiwan. A total of 64 319 male subjects were followed up for 12-18 years. Relative risks

C P Wen; S P Tsai; T Y Cheng; H T Chan; W S I Chung; C J Chen

2010-01-01

143

Hydrothermal calcite in the Elephant Moraine  

SciTech Connect

In the course of geologic mapping of the Elephant Moraine on the east antarctic ice sheet, Faure and Taylor (1985) collected several specimens of black botryoidal calcite, composed of radiating acicular crystals that resemble stromatolites. Calcite from this and other specimens is significantly enriched in strontium-87 (the strontium-87/strontium-86 ratio equals 0.71417 +/- 0.00002), carbon-12 (delta carbon-13 equals -22.9 parts per thousand, PDB standard) and oxygen-16 (delta oxygen-18 equals -21.1 parts per thousand, standard mean ocean water) compared with calcite of marine origin. The enrichment in carbon-12 is similar to that of calcite associated with coal in the Allan Hills. The enrichment in oxygen-16 indicates that the calcite from the Elephant Moraine could only have precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with glacial melt water. Therefore, the temperature at which the black calcite precipitated from water of that isotope composition was about 85/sup 0/C. A temperature of this magnitude implies that the black calcite formed as a result of volcanic activity under the east antarctic ice sheet. The enrichment of the black calcite in carbon-12 suggests that it formed in part from carbon dioxide derived from the coal seams of the Weller Formation in the Beacon Supergroup. The isotopic composition of strontium in the black calcite is similar to that of carbonate beds and concretions in the Beacon rocks of southern Victoria Land. A volcanic-hydrothermal origin is also consistent with the very low total organic carbon content of 0.15% in the calcite.

Faure, G.; Taylor, K.S.; Jones, L.M.

1986-01-01

144

Comparison of exhaled endogenous particles from smokers and non-smokers using multivariate analysis.  

PubMed

Background: Smoking, along with many respiratory diseases, has been shown to induce airway inflammation and alter the composition of the respiratory tract lining fluid (RTLF). We have previously shown that the phospholipid and protein composition of particles in exhaled air (PEx) reflects that of RTLF. In this study, we hypothesized that the composition of PEx differs between smokers and non-smokers, reflecting inflammation in the airways. Objective: It was the aim of this study to identify differences in the phospholipid composition of PEx from smokers and non-smokers. Methods: PEx from 12 smokers and 13 non-smokers was collected using a system developed in-house. PEx was analysed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and the mass spectral data were evaluated using multivariate analysis. Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) was used to relate smoking status, lung function and pack years to the chemical composition of RTLF. The discriminating ions identified by OPLS were then used as explanatory variables in traditional regression analysis. Results: There was a clear discrimination between smokers and non-smokers according to the chemical composition, where phospholipids from smokers were protonated and sodiated to a larger extent. Poor lung function showed a strong association with higher response from all molecular phosphatidylcholine species in the samples. Furthermore, the accumulated amount of tobacco consumed was associated with variations in mass spectra, indicating a dose-response relationship. Conclusion: The chemical composition of PEx differs between smokers and non-smokers, reflecting differences in the RTLF. The results from this study may suggest that the composition of RTLF is affected by smoking and may be of importance for lung function. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:23816544

Bredberg, Anna; Josefson, Mats; Almstrand, Ann-Charlotte; Lausmaa, Jukka; Sjövall, Peter; Levinsson, Anna; Larsson, Per; Olin, Anna-Carin

2013-06-28

145

Smokers' reactions to reduced ignition propensity cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Background On 28 June 2004, New York State (NY) became the first jurisdiction to require cigarettes to meet a reduced ignition propensity (RIP) standard. This law resulted in cigarette manufacturers modifying nearly all of their brands sold in NY. However, the same cigarette brands sold in other states were not modified to meet the RIP standard. Objectives This paper examines relationships between the RIP law and smokers' awareness of changes in the performance of their cigarettes (that is, going out more frequently, change in taste), and smoking behaviour. Methods Data for this analysis come from a nationwide survey of 2088 adult smokers (>?18 years of age) conducted in the USA between July and December 2004. 143 of the smokers included in the survey were residents of NY while the remainder were from other states (n??=??1945). Survey participants were asked whether their cigarettes “ever go out between puffs” and whether they had noticed any change in the taste of their cigarettes in the past 12 months. Results NY smokers were three times more likely than smokers in other states to report that their cigarettes often went out between puffs (17.3% v 5.6%). However, NY smokers appeared no more likely to report noticing differences in cigarette taste, an intention to quit smoking, or to have made quit attempts. Conclusions A significant minority of smokers in NY reported noticing changes in the performance of their cigarettes following the RIP law, as would be expected. However, the RIP law appears to have had no impact on the smoking habits of New Yorkers, countering arguments made by cigarette manufacturers that the law would impact consumer acceptability.

O'Connor, R J; Giovino, G A; Fix, B V; Hyland, A; Hammond, D; Fong, G T; Bauer, U; Cummings, K M

2006-01-01

146

Semen parameters of non-infertile smoker and non-smoker men  

PubMed Central

Introduction: According to the world Health organization, approximately one third of the world` population older than 15 years are smokers. Evidences indicate that both in men and in women, cigarette smoking affects reproductive health more than the consumption of caffeine or alcohol in comparable doses. The mechanisms according to which tobacco affects spermatozoa are poorly understood. Some of the studies focused on the relation between cigarette smoking and the principal semen analysis, variable such as concentration, Morphology and Motility. In this study, we compared the sperm parameters between smokers and non-smokers. Material and Methods: This case control study was done on men from infertile couples who were referred to Yazd research and clinical center for infertility but the cause of infertility was not the male factor. The semen analysis was compared between the smokers and non-smokers. Results: 151 infertile men were enrolled in the present study. 98 non-smokers and 53 smokers the mean age of patients was not significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences among groups according to sperm concentration (P-Value 0.108), Morphology (P-Value 0.138) and Motility (P-Value 0.082). Also there were no significant relationship between sperm parameters and the amount of cigarettes people had used (based on Pack/year scale). Conclusion: Semen parameters (Morphology, Motility and concentration) were lower in smokers but there were no significant differences between groups.

Davar, R; Sekhavat, L; Naserzadeh, N

2012-01-01

147

Cigarette Smokers, Never-Smokers, and Transitions: Implications for Successful Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the social identities held by people is defined by whether or not they smoke cigarettes. Although this identity can and does change for many people over the course of their lives, most research has not examined the effects of transitioning from a smoker to a non-smoker. Using a life span perspective, our analyses contrasted the extent to…

Pruchno, Rachel; Hahn, Sarah; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen

2012-01-01

148

Does Hydrothermal Circulation Matter?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining Earth's energy budget and the sources and mechanisms for heat transfer within it depends largely on assumptions of the heat loss from the formation and cooling of oceanic lithosphere, which covers about 60% of Earth's surface. Recently Hofmeister and Criss (2005) have suggested that the total global heat flow is about 30 TW, about 25% less than previously estimated by Pollack et al. (1993). The main difference between the two estimates is whether the effects of heat transfer by hydrothermal circulation are included. Thermal models describe the evolution of the lithosphere by the conductive cooling of hot material as it moves away from spreading centers. The frequently used half-space (boundary layer) and "plate" models generally successfully represent heat flow, depth, and geoid values with age, and depth-dependent properties such as flexural thickness, maximum depth of intraplate earthquakes, and lithospheric thickness. However, such models overpredict the measured heat flow from ridge crest to about 65 Myr crust. This difference is generally assumed to reflect water flow in the crust transporting heat, as shown by the spectacular hot springs at midocean ridges. If so, the observed heat flow is lower than the model's predictions, which assume that all heat is transferred by conduction. Because hydrothermal heat transport is hard to quantify, heat flow is about 50% larger than directly measured. This estimate is consistent with observations of hydrothermal circulation which indicate that the discrepancy is largely a result of the water fluxing along the oceanic basement and upwelling at isolated basement highs and outcrops. Detailed studies at such areas often show high heat flow near these outcrops and low heat flow in the surrounding areas. Hence isolated measurements are biased towards lower values and underpredict the total heat flow.

Stein, C. A.; Stein, S.; von Herzen, R. P.; Fisher, A. T.

2006-05-01

149

Biocatalytic transformations of hydrothermal fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of copious animal populations at deep-sea vents indicates an effective microbial chemosynthetic biocatalysis of hydrothermal fluids on their emission into oxygenated ambient seawater. The large metabolic and physiological diversity of microbes found at these sites, including anaerobic and aerobic hyperthermophiles, reflects an even higher variety of biocatalytic or enzymatic reactions that greatly influence deep-sea hydrothermal geochemistry.

Jannasch, H. W.

150

Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the carbohydrate structures as they have been further reacted to phenolic Aldol condensation products. The bio-oil

Elliott, Douglas C.

2010-12-10

151

Cody hydrothermal system  

SciTech Connect

The hot springs of Colter's Hell are the surface manifestations of a much larger hydothermal system. That system has been studied to define its extent, maximum temperature, and mechanism of operation. The study area covers 2700 km/sup 2/ (1040 mi/sup 2/) in northwest Wyoming. Research and field work included locating and sampling the hot springs, geologic mapping, thermal logging of available wells, measuring thermal conductivities, analyzing over 200 oil and gas well bottom-hole temperatures, and compiling and analyzing hydrologic data. These data were used to generate a model for the hydrothermal system.

Heasler, H.P.

1982-01-01

152

Detection and phylogenetic analysis of the membrane-bound nitrate reductase (Nar) in pure cultures and microbial communities from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.  

PubMed

Over the past few years the relevance of nitrate respiration in microorganisms from deep-sea hydrothermal vents has become evident. In this study, we surveyed the membrane-bound nitrate reductase (Nar) encoding gene in three different deep-sea vent microbial communities from the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Additionally, we tested pure cultures of vent strains for their ability to reduce nitrate and for the presence of the NarG-encoding gene in their genomes. By using the narG gene as a diagnostic marker for nitrate-reducing bacteria, we showed that nitrate reductases related to Gammaproteobacteria of the genus Marinobacter were numerically prevalent in the clone libraries derived from a black smoker and a diffuse flow vent. In contrast, NarG sequences retrieved from a community of filamentous bacteria located about 50 cm above a diffuse flow vent revealed the presence of a yet to be identified group of enzymes. 16S rRNA gene-inferred community compositions, in accordance with previous studies, showed a shift from Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria to Epsilonproteobacteria as the vent fluids become warmer and more reducing. Based on these findings, we argue that Nar-catalyzed nitrate reduction is likely relevant in temperate and less reducing environments where Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria are more abundant and where nitrate concentrations reflect that of background deep seawater. PMID:23889124

Pérez-Rodríguez, Ileana; Bohnert, Kenneth A; Cuebas, Mariola; Keddis, Ramaydalis; Vetriani, Costantino

2013-07-25

153

Self-control and support for anti-smoking policies among smokers, ex smokers, and never smokers.  

PubMed

In this paper, we sustain that non-smokers who might be at risk of starting to smoke or relapsing can benefit from anti-smoking policies such as tax hikes and smoking bans because these are mechanisms that enhance their self-control with regard to tobacco consumption. We formalize this conjecture by proposing a model where starting/relapsing might result from time inconsistent preferences in a way that mirrors the inability of some smokers to carry out the decision to quit. Subsequently, we specify econometric models that allow us to test the implications of such conjecture using information on smoking behavior at the individual level from the Catalan Health Survey of 2006. The empirical results support our conjecture and suggest that the welfare gains derived from the reinforcement of self-control caused by tax hikes and smoking bans will accrue not only to smokers but also to the rest of the population. PMID:22015809

Badillo Amador, Lourdes; López Nicolás, Angel

2011-10-21

154

Life expectancies of cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research employs the National Health Interview and the National Mortality Followback Surveys to calculate life expectancies by age and sex for white nonsmokers,former smokers, and current smokers in the United States in 1986. In general, life expectancies are higher for never smokers than for former smokers, and higher for former smokers than for current smokers. Heavy smokers have lower

Richard G. Rogers; Eve Powell-Griner

1991-01-01

155

Comparative study of pulmonary functions and oxidative stress in smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) is projected to rank third leading cause of deaths by 2030 as per WHO. COPD is a multi-etiological disease. The airflow dysfunction is usually progressive, associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gasses. As the lung is exposed to high levels of oxygen, it is more susceptible to oxidants mediated injury. Gender based differences are identifiable risk factors. Smoking is found to be a major risk factor in the causation of COPD resulting in oxidative stress . The aim of the present study is to evaluate the oxidant antioxidant imbalance in healthy non smoker controls and smokers with COPD. A total of 60 control (healthy non smokers) and 121 smokers having COPD were studied. The mean age is more in smoker group as compared to healthy controls, which identifies advancing age as a risk factor for COPD. The mean BMI and weight of smoker group is reduced as compared to control group. GOLD 2008 criteria was used to assess lung functions. Lung functions namely FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEV1% Predicted showed significant reduction in smoker group as compared to healthy non smoker controls. MDA in control and smoker group (1.09 +/- 0.09 and 1.41 +/- 0.23 nmol/ml respectively) showed significant changes (P < 0.001). Our results also demonstrate significant reduction in anti oxidant enzymes namely SOD (units/mg of serum protein), Catalase (units/mg of serum protein) and GPX (nmol of NADPH oxidized/ min/mg of serum protein) in smoker group as compared to healthy controls. On the basis of study it is concluded that smoking, gender and oxidant antioxidant imbalance are identifiable risk factors in COPD. PMID:23781654

Waseem, Shah Mohammad Abbas; Mobarak, Mohd Hossain; Islam, Najmul; Ahmad, Zuber

156

Plasma kinetics in man of epicatechin from black chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the plasma kinetics in man of epicatechin from black chocolate.Design: An intervention study with 8 volunteers. Each served as his own control. Theobromine was used as control marker of the chocolate intake.Setting: Metabolic Unit, Nestlé Research Center, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, Switzerland.Subjects: Eight healthy male volunteers (4 smokers and 4 non-smokers) were enrolled in this study. They abstained from foods

M Richelle; I Tavazzi; M Enslen; EA Offord

1999-01-01

157

Hydrothermal liquefaction of plantation biomass with two kinds of wastewater from paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two kinds of wastewater (black liquor and paper regeneration wastewater) from paper industry as solvent on\\u000a the hydrothermal liquefaction of plantation biomass were discussed in this study. For the solvent of eucalyptus, black liquor\\u000a was not suitable because the oil yield was very low and the yield of water-soluble constituent was very high. There was little\\u000a difference

Motoyuki Sugano; Hirokazu Takagi; Katsumi Hirano; Kiyoshi Mashimo

2008-01-01

158

A modeling approach of the influence of local hydrodynamic conditions on larval dispersal at hydrothermal vents.  

PubMed

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent animal communities along oceanic ridges are both patchy and transient. Larval dispersal is a key factor in understanding how these communities function and are maintained over generations. To date, numerical approaches simulating larval dispersal considered the effect of oceanic currents on larval transportation over hundreds of kilometers but very seldom looked at the effect of local conditions within meters around chimneys. However, small scale significant variations in the hydrodynamics may influence larval fate in its early stages after release, and hence have a knock-on effect on both dispersal and colonization processes. Here we present a new numerical approach to the study of larval dispersal, considering small scales within the range of the biological communities, called "bio-hydrodynamical" scale, and ranging from a few centimeters to a few meters around hydrothermal sources. We use a physical model for the vent based on jet theory and compute the turbulent velocity field around the smoker. Larvae are considered as passive particles whose trajectories are affected by hydrodynamics, topography of the vent chimney and larval biological properties. Our model predicts that bottom currents often dominate all other factors either by entraining all larvae away from the vent or enforcing strong colonization rates. When bottom currents are very slow (<1 mms(-1)), general larvae motion is upwards due to entrainment by the main smoker jet. In this context, smokers with vertical slopes favor retention of larvae because larval initial trajectory is nearly parallel to the smoker wall, which increases the chances to settle. This retention phenomenon is intensified with increasing velocity of the main smoker jet because entrainment in the high velocity plume is preceded by a phase when larvae are attracted towards the smoker wall, which occurs earlier with higher velocity of the main jet. Finally, the buoyancy rate of the larvae, measured to be in the range of 0.01 mms(-1), is generally irrelevant unless hydrodynamic conditions are balanced, i.e. if the buoyancy rate is comparable to both the bottom current speed and the local water velocity due to entrainment by close smokers. Overall, our model evidences the strong effect of the release point of larvae on their future entrainment within local fluxes. Larvae released from smoker walls might have an entirely different fate than those released further away in the water column. The latter are not, or less, affected by near-chimney hydrodynamics. PMID:18834891

Bailly-Bechet, Marc; Kerszberg, Michel; Gaill, Françoise; Pradillon, Florence

2008-08-27

159

Hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers,  

SciTech Connect

This chapter discusses the initial entry of hydrothermal seawater into deep levels of the oceanic crust, the effectiveness of hydrothermal circulation in cooling the crust, the geometry of hydrothermal circulation, the relationship between the hydrothermal circulation and the magma chamber, the reaction of the oceanic crust with the seawater, and the identification of the hydrothermal fluid which alters a rock sample. Topics considered include the crack front, observation relevant to the crack front, the limitations of the crack front hypothesis, the observed pattern of hydrothermal alteration, the nature of the hydrothermal fluid, the physics of large scale convection, and convection through crack zones. Knowledge of hydrothermal circulation at the ridge axis is based on sampling of the hydrothermal fluid, indirect geophysical measurements of the oceanic crust, and studies of rocks which are believed to have undergone hydrothermal alteration at the ridge axis. Includes 2 drawings.

Sleep, N.H.

1983-01-01

160

Microbial Diversity at a Hot, Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Vent in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial community thriving at shallow hydrothermal vent named Black Point, close to the Island of Panarea in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy), was studied by microscopic, cultural and molecular methods. New strains of Bacillus and Geobacillus were isolated. Members of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria, belonging to the genera Halothiobacillus and Thiomicrospira were demonstrated by both culture-dependent and -independent methods. Genetic diversity of

Teresa L. Maugeri; Valeria Lentini; Concetta Gugliandolo; Sylvie Cousin; Erko Stackebrandt

2010-01-01

161

Similar DNA methylation pattern in lung tumours from smokers and never-smokers with second-hand tobacco smoke exposure.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoke causes lung cancer in smokers and in never-smokers exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). Nonetheless, molecular mechanisms of lung cancer in SHS-exposed never-smokers are still elusive. We studied lung cancers from current smokers (n = 109), former smokers (n = 56) and never-smokers (n = 47) for promoter hypermethylation of five tumour suppressor genes--p16, RARB, RASSF1, MGMT and DAPK1--using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Lung tumours from ever-smokers suggested an increased risk of p16 hypermethylation as compared to never-smokers (P = 0.073), with former smokers having the highest frequency of p16 hypermethylation (P = 0.044 versus current smokers and P = 0.009 versus never-smokers). In the never-smoking group, p16 hypermethylation was seen in lung tumours from SHS-exposed individuals (4/33; 12%) but in none of the non-exposed individuals (0/9). The overall occurrence of hypermethylation (measured both as methylation index and as number of genes affected) was similar in those ever exposed to tobacco smoke (smokers, SHS-exposed never-smokers) and differed from non-exposed never-smokers. In multivariate analysis, p16 hypermethylation was more prevalent in lung tumours from male than female patients (P = 0.018) and in squamous cell carcinomas than in adenocarcinomas (P = 0.025). Occurrence of TP53 mutation in the tumour was associated with hypermethylation of at least one gene (P = 0.027). In all, our data suggest that promoter hypermethylation pattern in SHS-exposed never-smokers resembles that observed in smokers. Association between TP53 mutation, a hallmark of smokers' lung cancer, and methylation of one or more of the lung cancer-related genes studied, provides further evidence for common tobacco smoke-related origin for both types of molecular alterations. PMID:22217548

Scesnaite, Asta; Jarmalaite, Sonata; Mutanen, Pertti; Anttila, Sisko; Nyberg, Fredrik; Benhamou, Simone; Boffetta, Paolo; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

2012-01-04

162

Breath-holding in a marijuana smoker  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is vital to ask about illicit drug smoking in the respiratory history as marijuana smoking augments the detrimental effects of tobacco. We describe the case of a 28 year old marijuana smoker who developed a pneumothorax during a breath-holding competition. Pneumothorax is a common clinical entity that every physician should be aware of how to manage and lifetime risk

Avinash Aujayeb; Calum Donald; Simon Doe

163

Teens' images of smoking and smokers.  

PubMed Central

The authors used qualitative and quantitative data to identify and interpret specific images teens have about smoking and smokers. Qualitative data were collected in 1996 from 793 teenagers participating in 125 focus groups at eight different sites across the United States. Most focus groups were homogeneous with respect to gender, ethnicity, and smoking status. Ages ranged from 12 to 18 years, and about half of the participants were female. The majority of participants (62%) were white and African American, the remainder (38%) were Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian/Pacific Islander. Groups were comprised of smoking and nonsmoking teens. Focus group activities were used to elicit image-related discussions about attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of smoking. Investigators identified seven consistent and distinctive image themes: Appearance (smoking is dirty and unattractive), Activity (nonsmokers have busy, active lives), Drugs and sex (smokers are substance abusers and are sexually active), Rebellion (smokers belong to rebellious groups), Affect (smokers are depressed, angry, and stressed-out), In control (nonsmokers have self-control and are independent), and Pride (nonsmokers are proud of themselves, their families, and their heritage). A large scale, multi-site qualitative research approach can increase understanding of teen smoking. The identification of distinctive images of smoking can help researchers develop more sophisticated models of the processes of teen smoking than currently exist.

Luke, D.; Allen, P.; Arian, G.; Crawford, M.; Headen, S.; Spigner, A. C.; Tassler, P.; Ureda, J.

2001-01-01

164

Modeling Hydrothermal Vents on Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of potential hydrothermal vents at Europa's ocean floor are presented. The effects of differing initial rock composition and temperature are explored with respect to mineral formation and vent fluid composition.

Gavin, P.; Vance, S.

2012-03-01

165

Effects of nicotine gum on psychomotor performance in smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of nicotine on human performance. In the first study six smokers, who had been allowed to smoke normally prior to testing, completed a battery of psychometric tests (choice reaction time, memory scanning, tracking and flicker fusion threshold) at set points over 4 h after chewing 0, 2, or 4 mg nicotine polacrilex gum. A second study followed a similar design, but used five non-smoker volunteers who were required to chew only the 0 or 2 mg nicotine gum. Blood nicotine levels following the gum were measured in all subjects. The results indicate that additional nicotine improved both the speed and accuracy of motor activity among the smokers, but did not enhance central cognitive processes. No drug effects were found in the non-smoker study. PMID:2320715

Hindmarch, I; Kerr, J S; Sherwood, N

1990-01-01

166

GENOMIC LANDSCAPE OF NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER IN SMOKERS AND NEVER SMOKERS  

PubMed Central

Summary We report the results of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples from 17 patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We identified 3,726 point mutations and over 90 indels in the coding sequence, with an average mutation frequency more than 10-fold higher in smokers than in never-smokers. Novel alterations in genes involved in chromatic modification and DNA repair pathways were identified along with DACH1, CFTR, RELN, ABCB5, and HGF. Deep digital sequencing revealed diverse clonality patterns in both never smokers and smokers. All validated EFGR and KRAS mutations were present in the founder clones, suggesting possible roles in cancer initiation. Analysis revealed 14 fusions including ROS1 and ALK as well as novel metabolic enzymes. Cell cycle and JAK-STAT pathways are significantly altered in lung cancer along with perturbations in 54 genes that are potentially targetable with currently available drugs.

Govindan, Ramaswamy; Ding, Li; Griffith, Malachi; Subramanian, Janakiraman; Dees, Nathan D.; Kanchi, Krishna L.; Maher, Christopher A.; Fulton, Robert; Fulton, Lucinda; Wallis, John; Chen, Ken; Walker, Jason; McDonald, Sandra; Bose, Ron; Ornitz, David; Xiong, Donghai; You, Ming; Dooling, David J.; Watson, Mark; Mardis, Elaine R.

2013-01-01

167

Measurement of 210Po in Iranian smokers' and non-smokers' teeth.  

PubMed

Thirty human tooth samples were collected from smoker and non-smoker groups with different ages and different sexes from north of Iran. The samples were analysed by a radiochemical procedure, and the prepared source by spontaneous electrolysis was measured by an alpha spectrometry to determine activity concentrations of (210)Po in teeth. The results indicated that the average (210)Po concentration in Iranian human teeth is 3.94 +/- 2.38 mBq g(-1.) The measured mean activity concentrations of (210)Po in smokers' and non-smokers' teeth were 5.89 +/- 3.59 and 2.55 +/- 1.00 mBq g(-1), respectively. The detailed analysis of 30 tooth samples of Iranian population revealed that smoking habits and age may have some influence on (210)Po content in teeth, although this is not the case of difference in sex. PMID:19951984

Gholizade Rad, S; Vahabi Moghaddam, M; Hosseini, T; Barati, H; Fattahi, E

2009-12-01

168

Characteristics and smoking patterns of intermittent smokers.  

PubMed

Current models of smoking and dependence assume a need to smoke at regular intervals to maintain nicotine levels, yet about 25% of adult smokers do not smoke daily. This subset of intermittent smokers (ITS) has gone largely unexamined. In this study, we describe the demographics, smoking history, and smoking behavior of ITS (n = 282; 50.2% male) in comparison to daily smokers (DS; n = 233; 60.7% male). Within ITS, we also compare "converted" ITS (CITS), who had previously smoked daily, with "native" ITS (NITS). On average, ITS were 34.66 years of age, and had smoked 42,850 cigarettes in the course of an average of 18 years of smoking. They smoked an average of 4.38 days per week, consuming 4.39 cigarettes a day on smoking days, and demonstrated considerable day-to-day variability in cigarette consumption. Almost half of ITS had Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence scores of 0, indicating no dependence. Compared to DS, ITS were more likely to cite alcohol drinking, socializing, and being with other smokers as common contexts for smoking, and they also more often cited being angry or stressed. Data suggested that ITS' behavior was not explained by use of other nicotine products nor by economic constraints on smoking, nor by differences in psychological adjustment. Within ITS, CITS were heavier, more frequent, and more dependent smokers. In many respects, CITS were intermediate between NITS and DS. ITS show distinct patterns of smoking behavior that are not well explained by current models of nicotine dependence. PMID:22390208

Shiffman, Saul; Tindle, Hilary; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah; Dunbar, Michael; Mitchell-Miland, Chantele

2012-03-05

169

Characteristics and Smoking Patterns of Intermittent Smokers  

PubMed Central

Current models of smoking and dependence assume a need to smoke at regular intervals to maintain nicotine levels, yet about 25% of adult smokers do not smoke daily. This subset of intermittent smokers (ITS) has gone largely unexamined. In this study, we describe the demographics, smoking history, and smoking behavior of ITS (n=282; 50.2% male) in comparison to daily smokers (DS; n=233; 60.7% male). Within ITS, we also compare “converted” ITS (CITS), who had previously smoked daily, with “native” ITS (NITS). On average, ITS were 34.66 years of age, and had smoked 42,850 cigarettes in the course of an average of 18 years of smoking. They smoked an average of 4.38 days per week, consuming 4.39 cigarettes a day on smoking days, and demonstrated considerable day-to-day variability in cigarette consumption. Almost half of ITS had Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence scores of 0, indicating no dependence. Compared to DS, ITS were more likely to cite alcohol drinking, socializing and being with other smokers as common contexts for smoking, and they also more often cited being angry or stressed. Data suggested that ITS’ behavior was not explained by use of other nicotine products or by economic constraints on smoking, nor by differences in psychological adjustment. Within ITS, CITS were heavier, more frequent, and more dependent smokers. In many respects, CITS were intermediate between NITS and DS. ITS show distinct patterns of smoking behavior that are not well explained by current models of nicotine dependence.

Shiffman, Saul; Tindle, Hilary; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah; Dunbar, Michael; Mitchell-Miland, Chantele

2013-01-01

170

Cerebral effects of nicotine during cognition in smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the smoker, nicotine has a positive effect on attention, cognition and mood. Conversely, nicotine abstinence is characterized\\u000a by uncomfortable psychological effects such as impaired attention, but also irritability. We postulated that nicotine exerts\\u000a an effect on cerebral areas important for attention and mood. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), as an index for cerebral\\u000a activity, was measured in both smokers

P. H. Ghatan; M. Ingvar; L. Eriksson; S. Stone-Elander; M. Serrander; K. Ekberg; J. Wahren

1998-01-01

171

Changes in the Electroencephalographic Spectrum in Response to Smoking Cues in Smokers and Ex-Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To investigate the changes in the electroencephalographic (EEG) spectrum in smokers during exposure to a neutral and a smoking-related cue to determine whether these EEG changes are still present in ex-smokers after prolonged abstinence and to examine the relationship between the power in each spectral bandwidth and subjective craving. Methods: EEG frequencies in response to a smoking-related and a

Marianne Littel; Ingmar H. A. Franken; Jan W. Van Strien

2009-01-01

172

A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

Patten, Christi A.

2000-01-01

173

Adolescents Discriminate between Types of Smokers and Related Risks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many studies concerning cigarette smoking and smoking-related outcomes among adolescents use categories such as "casual" or "regular" smoker to define different types of smokers. It is not clear whether adolescents themselves differentiate between different types of smokers. The present study sought to examine whether and how adolescents…

Rubinstein, Mark L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Millstein, Susan G.

2003-01-01

174

A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

Patten, Christi A.

2000-01-01

175

Smokers' beliefs about the inability to stop smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recruited 367 current daily smokers via the Internet and randomized them to rate the causes of an inability to stop smoking, inability to stop problem alcohol use, or inability to lose excess weight in a fictional scenarios. Most smokers attributed inability to stop smoking to addiction (88%), habit (88%) and stress (62%). Surprisingly, equal numbers of smokers agreed and

John R. Hughes

2009-01-01

176

Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov., a novel hyperthermophilic, obligately sulfur-reducing archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.  

PubMed

A hyperthermophilic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P(T), was isolated from 'black smoker' chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2 degrees N, 33.9 degrees W). The cells of strain OGL-20P(T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed within a pH range of 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), an NaCl concentration range of 1-5 % (w/v) (optimum 3 %) and a temperature range of 55-94 degrees C (optimum 83-85 degrees C). The novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent upon elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, but it does not reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, Fe(III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products (peptone, bacto-tryptone, Casamino acids and yeast extract) are utilized as substrates during sulfur reduction. Strain OGL-20P(T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and gentamicin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G+C content of the DNA is 52.9 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(T) is closely related to Thermococcus coalescens and related species, but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, we conclude that strain OGL-20P(T) represents a new separate species within the genus Thermococcus, for which we propose the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov. The type strain is OGL-20P(T) (=JCM 12859(T)=DSM 14981(T)=ATCC BAA-394(T)). PMID:17625204

Pikuta, Elena V; Marsic, Damien; Itoh, Takashi; Bej, Asim K; Tang, Jane; Whitman, William B; Ng, Joseph D; Garriott, Owen K; Hoover, Richard B

2007-07-01

177

Comparative study of serum MDA and vitamin C levels in non-smokers, chronic smokers and chronic smokers with acute myocardial infarction in men  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: It is a well-known fact that there is increased oxidative stress and decreased serum antioxidant levels in smokers than in non-smokers. In this study, the aim was to compare the serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation product and vitamin C, an antioxidant, between non- smokers (Group A) and chronic smokers (Group B) and also between chronic smokers (Group B) and chronic smokers with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (Group C). METHODS: Thirty six non-smokers and 36 chronic smokers appropriately matched with AMI patients were selected. Thirty six smokers with AMI were selected from Hanagal Kumareshwara hospital, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India. Fasting blood sample was collected in group A and group B. In AMI patients, blood sample was collected before any intervention. Serum levels of MDA and vitamin C were estimated. Statistical analysis was done by t test using SPSS version 11. The p< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. All the results were expressed as mean ± SD. RESULTS: The MDA and vitamin C were compared between Group A and Group B and also between Group B and Group C. There was a significant rise in MDA (p<0.0001) and significant decrease in vitamin C (p<0.01) in Group B compared to Group A. There was a significant rise in MDA (p<0.0001) and significant decrease in vitamin C (p<0.001) in Group C compared to Group B. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in serum MDA level and decrease in vitamin C was found in chronic smokers compared to non-smokers. It was also found that there is increase in serum MDA and decrease in vitamin C in smokers with AMI compared with smokers without AMI, and the reason for this inter-subject variability of MDA and vitamin C levels may be due to gene-environmental factors.

Kashinakunti, Sanaappa Virupaxappa; Kollur, Pampareddy; Kallaganada, Gurupadappa Shantappa; Rangappa, Manjula; Ingin, Jagadish Basavaraj

2011-01-01

178

Lower Task Persistence In Smokers with Schizophrenia as Compared to Non-Psychiatric Control Smokers  

PubMed Central

One contributing factor to difficulty in quitting smoking may be task persistence, which can be viewed as a behavioral manifestation of distress tolerance, and describes the act of persisting in a difficult or effortful task. Task persistence was assessed in smokers with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SA; N=71) and non-psychiatric controls (N=78) before a quit attempt. These data support the hypothesis that smokers with SZ/SA display less task persistence than do non-psychiatric controls when persistence is measured via mirror tracing and a 2-item persistence measure. Lower persistence may partially explain the reduced smoking cessation successes of smokers with SZ/SA as compared to the general population. These data also replicate findings regarding relationships between histories of ability to quit smoking and task persistence and expand them to a new population of smokers. The absence of a diagnostic status by length of previous abstinence interaction suggests that the contribution of task persistence to smoking cessation is similar for smokers with and without schizophrenia. Future studies should evaluate the ability of task persistence to predict abstinence from cigarettes prospectively among smokers with schizophrenia.

Steinberg, Marc L.; Williams, Jill M.; Gandhi, Kunal K.; Foulds, Jonathan; Brandon, Thomas H.

2010-01-01

179

Distribution of gamma delta T-cells in the bronchial tree of smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS--To assess the distribution of gamma delta T-cells in the human bronchial tree; and to compare quantitatively the differences between gamma delta T-cell numbers in different parts of the airway wall in smokers and non-smokers. METHODS--Full thickness bronchial wall sections were taken from 10 whole lung specimens from both smokers and non-smokers. Serial cryostat sections stained with the monoclonal antibodies

I Richmond; G E Pritchard; T Ashcroft; P A Corris; E H Walters

1993-01-01

180

Phylogenetic diversity of methanogenic, sulfate-reducing and methanotrophic prokaryotes from deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial communities of methanogenic, sulfate-reducing and methanotrophic prokaryotes from deep-sea environments were investigated by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the genes encoding for the methyl coenzyme M reductase ( mcrA), dissimilatory sulfite reductase ( dsrAB) and particulate methane monoxygenase ( pmoA), respectively. Clone libraries of PCR amplified genes were constructed using DNA extracted from deep-sea vent chimneys (Rainbow and Logatchev hydrothermal vent fields, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Atlantic Ocean; 9°N East Pacific Rise, Pacific Ocean) and from vertically subsampled sediment cores from cold-seep areas (Blake Ridge, western Atlantic Ocean; Florida Escarpment, Gulf of Mexico). Recombinant clones were screened by RFLP and representative dsrAB, mcrA and pmoA genes were sequenced. The dsrAB sequences grouped primarily within the orders Desulfobacterales, Syntrophobacterales and the Gram-positive order Clostridales. Cold-seep mcrA sequences were distributed among the ANME-2c, -2d and -2e groups, which were previously shown to be associated with the anaerobic oxidation of methane. This study also reports the first mcrA sequences from a high-temperature, black smoker chimney (Logatchev) to group within the ANME-2e subgroup. The majority of the remaining hydrothermal vent mcrA sequences were primarily related to thermophilic members of the anaerobic, methanogenic order Methanococcales. A shift in the dominant ANME-2 group with depth in the sediment for both Florida Escarpment and Blake Ridge mcrA libraries was detected. ANME-2d related clones were detected in the top zones of both cores, with the frequency of ANME-2e related clones increasing with depth. All pmoA sequences retrieved from the cold-seep sites were found to be related to Type I methanotrophic members of the ?-proteobacteria, and were primarily distributed among three major clusters of sequences. No Type II pmoA sequences related to methanotrophic members of the ?-proteobacteria were detected, suggesting that the methanotrophic communities in these cold-seep areas are dominated by Type I ?-proteobacteria.

Reed, Andrew J.; Dorn, Ruth; Van Dover, Cindy L.; Lutz, Richard A.; Vetriani, Costantino

2009-09-01

181

Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

2013-01-01

182

Reduction of the Nailfold Capillary Blood Velocity in Cigarette Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette smoking causes cardiovascular disease and activates markers of endothelial dysfunction or injury. We investigated the nailfold capillary blood velocity (NCV) in cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers. Methods Forty-eight men (eighteen non-smokers and thirty smokers) were recruited. We measured NCV using nailfold capillary microscopy and exhaled carbon monoxide (ECO) concentration three times (before smoking; NCV0min and ECO0min, and after smoking; NCV5min, ECO5min, NCV30min, and ECO30min), in a condition of fasting in the case of smokers. In non-smokers, the same measurements were taken without smoking. Additionally, personal cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking history were acquired by a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Mean age, waist circumference, ECO0min, ECO5min, and ECO30min was higher and NCV5min and NCV30min were significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Total smoking years were negatively correlated with NCV5min. Average pack of the daily smoking, total pack-years, as well as total smoking years were also negatively correlated with NCV30min by regression analysis. After adjustment of significantly different variables, NCV30min was significantly lower in smokers. In the subgroup analysis, the interleukin-6 level was significantly increased in subjects with a long period of cigarette smoking compared with non-smokers. Conclusion Reduction of NCV in smokers is associated with personal smoking history, not with body composition or certain oxidative stress markers.

Kim, Kwang-Min; Lee, Duck-Joo

2012-01-01

183

Higher Rates of Clostridium difficile Infection among Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objectives Cigarette smoking has been shown to be related to inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated whether smoking affected the probability of developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Methods We conducted a longitudinal study of 16,781 older individuals from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study. Data were linked to files from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Results Overall, the rate of CDI in older individuals was 220.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 193.3, 248.0). Rates of CDI were 281.6/100,000 person-years in current smokers, 229.0/100,000 in former smokers and 189.1/100,000 person-years in never smokers. The odds of CDI were 33% greater in former smokers (95% CI: 8%, 65%) and 80% greater in current smokers (95% CI: 33%, 145%) when compared to never smokers. When the number of CDI-related visits was evaluated, current smokers had a 75% increased rate of CDI compared to never smokers (95% CI: 15%, 167%). Conclusions Smoking is associated with developing a Clostridium difficile infection. Current smokers have the highest risk, followed by former smokers, when compared to rates of infection in never smokers.

Rogers, Mary A. M.; Greene, M. Todd; Saint, Sanjay; Chenoweth, Carol E.; Malani, Preeti N.; Trivedi, Itishree; Aronoff, David M.

2012-01-01

184

'We will speak as the smoker': the tobacco industry's smokers' rights groups  

PubMed Central

Introduction The tobacco industry usually keeps its commercial and political communications separate. However, the images of the smoker developed by the two types of communication may contradict one another. This study assesses industry attempts to organize ‘smokers’ rights groups,’ (SRGs) and the image of the smoker that underlay these efforts. Methods Searches of the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, the British American Tobacco documents database, and Tobacco Documents Online. Results 1100 documents pertaining to SRGs were found, including groups from across Europe and in Australia, New Zealand, and Hong Kong. From the late 1970s through the late 1990s they were active in numerous policy arenas, particularly the defeat of smoke-free laws. Their strategies included asserting their right to smoke and positioning themselves as courteous victims of tobacco control advocates. However, most SRGs were short-lived and apparently failed to inspire smokers to join in any significant numbers. Conclusion SRGs conflated the legality of smoking with a right to smoke. SRGs succeeded by focusing debates about smoke-free policies on smokers rather than on smoke. However, SRGs’ inability to attract members highlights the conflict between the image of the smoker in cigarette ads and that of the smokers’ rights advocate. The changing social climate for smoking both compelled the industry’s creation of SRGs, and created the contradictions that led to their failure. As tobacco control becomes stronger, the industry may revive this strategy in other countries. Advocates should be prepared to counter SRGs by exposing their origins and exploiting these contradictions.

Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

2009-01-01

185

Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in male smokers and nonsmokers.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions such as leukoplakia and hairy tongue. Controversy exists in the literature, however, about the prevalence of oral lesions in smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral lesions in male smokers compared with nonsmokers in Hamadan. A total of 516 male participants were assessed, 258 of whom were smokers and 258 of whom were healthy nonsmokers. The prevalence of lesions was evaluated by clinical observation and biopsy. We found that the most prevalent lesions among smokers were gingival problems and coated tongue; smokers had significantly more lesions than did nonsmokers. Malignant and premalignant lesions were found in a higher age range. Among all participants in our study, we found a large number of oral mucosal lesions in smokers that had a strong correlation with smoking. Dental services need to implement care and health education for smokers to promote health. PMID:24010068

Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Hayati, Zahra; Rezaei, Farzad; Poorolajal, Jalal

2013-08-22

186

Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions such as leukoplakia and hairy tongue. Controversy exists in the literature, however, about the prevalence of oral lesions in smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral lesions in male smokers compared with nonsmokers in Hamadan. A total of 516 male participants were assessed, 258 of whom were smokers and 258 of whom were healthy nonsmokers. The prevalence of lesions was evaluated by clinical observation and biopsy. We found that the most prevalent lesions among smokers were gingival problems and coated tongue; smokers had significantly more lesions than did nonsmokers. Malignant and premalignant lesions were found in a higher age range. Among all participants in our study, we found a large number of oral mucosal lesions in smokers that had a strong correlation with smoking. Dental services need to implement care and health education for smokers to promote health.

Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Hayati, Zahra; Rezaei, Farzad

2013-01-01

187

Motivating and Helping Smokers to Stop Smoking  

PubMed Central

Smokers try to quit only once every 2 to 3 years and most do not use proven treatments. Repeated, brief, diplomatic advice increases quit rates. Such advice should include a clear request to quit, reinforcing personal risks of smoking and their reversibility, offering solutions to barriers to quitting, and offering treatment. All smokers should be encouraged to use both medications and counseling. Scientifically proven, first-line medications are nicotine gum, inhaler, lozenge, and patch plus the nonnicotine medication bupropion. Proven second-line medications are clonidine, nicotine nasal spray, and nortriptyline. These medications are equally effective and safe and the incidence of dependence is very small. The proven psychosocial therapies are behavioral and supportive therapies. These are as effective as medications and are effective via individual counseling, group, and telephone formats. The writing of this article was supported in part by Senior Scientist Award DA-00450 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Hughes, John R

2003-01-01

188

Genetics might determine which smokers get hooked  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have identified genetic risk factors that may accelerate a teen's progression to becoming a lifelong heavy smoker. The team of scientists from the U.S., the U.K., and New Zealand examined earlier studies by other research teams to develop a genetic risk profile for heavy smoking. Then they looked at their own long-term study of 1,000 New Zealanders from birth to age 38 to identify whether individuals at high genetic risk got hooked on cigarettes more quickly as teens and whether, as adults, they had a harder time quitting. Duke University researchers developed a new "genetic risk score" for the study by examining prior genome-wide associations (GWAS) of adult smokers. Duke is home to the Duke Cancer Institute.

189

Nicotine discrimination in male and female smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine were evaluated in humans using formal behavioral drug discrimination procedures. Male and female smokers (n=9 each) were trained on day 1 to reliably discriminate 0 versus 12 µg\\/kg nicotine administered by measured-dose nasal spray. All subjects were able to reach criterion performance (at least 80% correct). Generalization of responding across nicotine doses of 0, 2,

Kenneth A. Perkins; Amy DiMarco; James E. Grobe; Annette Scierka; Richard L. Stiller

1994-01-01

190

Stress and Quitting Among African American Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between stress and the likelihood of quitting among 300 urban African American smokers\\u000a enrolled in the placebo arm of a controlled randomized trial assessing the efficacy of bupropion for smoking cessation. Participants\\u000a were predominantly female, middle-aged, and of lower income. Participants received 7 weeks of placebo treatment and counseling\\u000a as well as a self-help guide.

Brian K. Manning; Delwyn Catley; Kari Jo Harris; Matthew S. Mayo; Jasjit S. Ahluwalia

2005-01-01

191

Diffuse lung diseases in cigarette smokers.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is a recognized causative agent or precipitant of specific diffuse lung diseases characterized by bronchiolar and interstitial lung inflammation. Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis are now considered smoking-induced diffuse lung diseases. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is also recognized as a smoking-induced interstitial pneumonia in most cases. These disorders affect relatively young adult smokers and may be progressive. Although distinguishable by histopathological and radiographic features, significant overlap occurs in many cases with chest radiography and lung histology showing overlapping features of smoking-related bronchiolar and interstitial lung injury. Cigarette smoking is also recognized as an important precipitant of many acute eosinophilic pneumonia cases. Smokers are at higher risk of developing fibrotic interstitial lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease. Certain smokers also develop combined emphysema and lung fibrosis. The avoidance of primary and second-hand cigarette smoke is a critical component of management for patients afflicted with these smoking-induced diffuse lung diseases. The role of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive treatments in the management of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases remains poorly defined and should be reserved for individuals with progressive disease despite smoking cessation. Understanding mechanisms by which tobacco induces diffuse lung pathology is critical in the pursuit of novel therapeutic approaches for these diseases. PMID:23001806

Vassallo, Robert

2012-09-21

192

ECG Changes in Smokers and Non Smokers-A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Tobacco consumption is the single most cause of the preventable deaths globally. Tobacco is consumed in the form of cigarettes. It contains nicotine which causes physical and psychological dependencies. Cigarette smoking increases the blood coagulability. Nicotine facilitates conduction block, re-entry and it increases the vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation. Hence, Nicotine and other components of cigarette can produce profound changes in the heart, which can be assessed by doing an ECG, which is the, cheapest and the most reliable method for assessing cardiovascular abnormalities. Aim: To compare the ECG changes between smokers and non- smokers. Materials: Eighty eight healthy male volunteers who were in the age group of 18-30 years, who attended the outpatients department of SBMCH were recruited for the study. Among the volunteers, 44 were smokers as per the ICD-10 criteria for substance abuse and the rest of the 44 were non-smoker subjects without any systemic illnesses and a drug and alcohol intake. Methods: After a thorough examination, all the subjects were asked to abstain from smoking and caffeine beverages, 2 hours prior to the taking of the ECG recording. The ECG was recorded in the lab of the Department of Physiology of SBMCH. The following parameters were assessed, namely, the heart rate, the p- wave, the PR interval and the QRS complex. The QTc (corrected QT interval) was calculated by using Bazet’s formula. The QT interval, the ST segment and the T wave duration were evaluated in seconds. The results which were obtained were statistically analyzed by using the Students ‘t’ test. Results: The analysis showed that QTc interval was shortened and that the QRS complex duration was widened in the smokers, although the values did not show any statistical significance. The heart rate was increased in the smokers, which was statistically significant. The RR interval, the QT interval and the ST segment were shortened in the smokers as compared to those in the non smokers, which was highly significant statistically. Conclusion: All the above changes in our study were either a result of the acute effects or the chronic effects of smoking, which led to cardiovascular disorders which could be easily identified by the wave duration in electrocardiography. This may be used by physicians as a tool for counselling the smokers to stop smoking as early as possible. Smoking even a sin

Devi, M.R. Renuka; Arvind, T.; Kumar, P. Sai

2013-01-01

193

Serum vascular adhesion protein-1 level is higher in smokers than non-smokers.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO)/vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is involved in the pathogenesis of both atherosclerosis and cancer. Because chemical components and metabolites of cigarettes are deaminated by SSAO, the relationship between smoking and serum SSAO/VAP-1 was studied in humans. Methods: A total of 451 non-diabetic and normoalbuminuric Han Chinese subjects were recruited to participate in this study. Smoking history was obtained by using a questionnaire and those who smoked more than 100 cigarettes during a 6-month period were considered smokers. Serum VAP-1 concentration was measured by time-resolved immunofluorometric assay. Age, gender, waist circumference and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were adjusted in different statistical models. Results: Smokers were mainly male (85.7% versus 26.3%) and were more obese than non-smokers (p?smokers than in non-smokers (p?

Wang, Yi-Chia; Li, Hung-Yuan; Wei, Jung-Nan; Lin, Mao-Shin; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Hua, Cyue-Huei; Smith, David J; Vanio, Jani; Chuang, Lee-Ming

2013-06-27

194

Determination of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in urine of smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed

Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA) include 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB) and N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) and are found in tobacco and tobacco smoke. TSNA are of interest for biomonitoring of tobacco-smoke exposure as they are associated with carcinogenesis. Both NNK and NNN are classified by IARC as Group 1 carcinogens. Samples of 24 h urine collections (n = 108) were analysed from smokers and non-smokers, using a newly developed and validated LC-MS/MS method for determining total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL, the major metabolite of NNK), and total NNN, NAB and NAT. TSNA levels in smokers' urine were significantly higher than in non-smokers. In smokers, urinary excretion of total TSNA correlated significantly (r > 0.5) with markers of smoking dose, such as daily cigarette consumption, salivary cotinine and urinary nicotine equivalents and increased with the ISO tar yield of cigarettes smoked. The correlation between urinary total NNN and the smoking dose was weaker (r = 0.4-0.5). In conclusion, this new method is suitable for assessing tobacco use-related exposure to NNK, NNN, NAB and NAT. PMID:19747086

Kavvadias, Dominique; Scherer, Gerhard; Cheung, Francis; Errington, Graham; Shepperd, Jim; McEwan, Mike

2009-12-01

195

Deaths from all causes in non-smokers who lived with smokers.  

PubMed Central

Mortality associated with passive smoking was evaluated in a 12-year study of 27,891 White adult smokers and 19,035 never smokers identified in 1963. Death rates were calculated using an estimate of the person-years at risk. Adjusted for age, marital status, education, and quality of housing, the estimated relative risks of death from all causes were 1.17 (approximate 95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.36) for men and 1.15 (1.06, 1.24) for women with passive exposure. These relative risks were similar to those for ex-smokers and for pipe or cigar smokers. Risks increased slightly with level of exposure. The relative risk from passive smoking was greatest for men under age 50 (RR = 2.09, 1.31-3.34). Risks from passive smoking were slightly elevated for several causes among men and women, and may be broader than those previously reported. On the other hand, these small nonspecific increases in death rates may reflect other characteristics of passive smokers that increase mortality.

Sandler, D P; Comstock, G W; Helsing, K J; Shore, D L

1989-01-01

196

Structure of central airways in current smokers and ex-smokers with and without mucus hypersecretion: relationship to lung function.  

PubMed Central

Forty-five patients who underwent thoracotomy and lung resection for tumour were studied to compare the structure of the central airways in current smokers and ex-smokers. The patients were divided into four groups: current smokers with mucus hypersecretion (n = 15), current smokers without mucus hypersecretion (n = 14), ex-smokers with mucus hypersecretion (n = 5), and ex-smokers without mucus hypersecretion (n = 11). Quantitative histological studies of the airway wall showed no difference in gland size, smooth muscle, connective tissue, or Reid index between the groups. The central airways of patients with mucus hypersecretion showed increased mucosal inflammation. The five ex-smokers in whom mucus hypersecretion persisted after they had stopped smoking had both central and peripheral airways affected by the inflammatory response, and these patients also had an abnormal result in the nitrogen washout test.

Mullen, J B; Wright, J L; Wiggs, B R; Pare, P D; Hogg, J C

1987-01-01

197

Mesozoic hydrothermal alteration associated with gold, mineralization in the Mercur district, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

K/Ar dates and chemical data show that a Mesozoic gold-bearing hydrothermal system altered black shales of the Mississippian Great Blue Limestone throughout an area encompassing the Mercur gold district, Utah. K/Ar dates of illite veins and illite-rich, clay-sized separates of altered shales that are enriched in Au, As, Hg, Sc, and other heavy metals indicate that hydrothermal activity occurred from 193 to 122 Ma. Several ages from within the Mercur district cluster near 160 Ma and may date the minimum age of gold mineralization.

Wilson, Paula N.; Parry, W. T.

1990-09-01

198

A new hydrothermal blackening technology for Fe 3O 4 coatings of carbon steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new blackening technology for growing magnetite (Fe 3O 4) coating on surface of carbon steel. Dense black coating composed of Fe 3O 4 ultrafine particles could be successfully prepared by hydrothermal treatment of the carbon steel substrate in the N 2H 4·H 2O-FeSO 4-NaOH solution at 150 °C. Electrochemical analysis, including Tafel and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, indicated that the anodic dissolution reaction was effectively limited and the corrosion resistance increased by the Fe 3O 4 coating. The key factors and growth mechanism for the hydrothermal formation of the Fe 3O 4 coating are also discussed.

Zhu, Hongliang; Cao, Fahe; Zuo, Diantai; Zhu, Luming; Jin, Dalai; Yao, Kuihong

2008-07-01

199

Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal  

SciTech Connect

We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

Ross, D.S.

1989-12-21

200

Hydrothermal dealumination of faujasites  

SciTech Connect

Two faujasites (USY and REY) were hydrothermally treated at temperatures between 400 and 850/sup 0/C in 100% steam and up to 65 h to induce dealumination. The Al expulsion from the zeolite lattice was followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by /sup 29/Si and /sup 27/Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both techniques showed large changes in crystal structure in less than 30 min while crystallinity losses were kept below 15% at temperatures up to 500/sup 0/C. The Al expulsion from the zeolite lattice is accompanied by Al diffusion through the channel network to the zeolite particle surface. The surface enrichment by Al was quantitatively measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA). The diffusion of Al to the particle surface takes place only in the presence of steam and the migrating species is speculated to be a hydroxylated Al ion. These studies were complemented by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). SIMS analysis demonstrated a very large enrichment of Al in the top 30 A of steamed zeolites. STEM measurements of Si/Al profiles on 800 A-thick microtomed sections confirmed the SIMS data, but indicated broader, less steep changes in the Si/Al ratio across zeolite particles. Because dealumination causes both structural changes (shrinkage of unit cell) and chemical changes (decrease in acidity) in a zeolite, it has profound implications on catalyst performance and on catalyst deactivation. For instance, dealuminated faujasites exhibit drastically reduced coking rates in the cumene cracking test reaction which is discussed in some detail.

Fleisch, T.H.; Meyers, B.L.; Ray, G.J.; Hall, J.B.; Marshall, C.L.

1986-05-01

201

Black Holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Anton Koekemoer; 1. Black holes, entropy, and information G. T. Horowitz; 2. Gravitational waves from black-hole mergers J. G. Baker, W. D. Boggs, J. M. Centrella, B. J. Kelley, S. T. McWilliams and J. R. van Meter; 3. Out-of-this-world physics: black holes at future colliders G. Landsberg; 4. Black holes in globular clusters S. L. W. McMillan; 5. Evolution of massive black holes M. Volonteri; 6. Supermassive black holes in deep multiwavelength surveys C. M. Urry and E. Treister; 7. Black-hole masses from reverberation mapping B. M. Peterson and M. C. Bentz; 8. Black-hole masses from gas dynamics F. D. Macchetto; 9. Evolution of supermassive black holes A. Müller and G. Hasinger; 10. Black-hole masses of distant quasars M. Vestergaard; 11. The accretion history of supermassive black holes K. Brand and the NDWFS Boötes Survey Teams; 12. Strong field gravity and spin of black holes from broad iron lines A. C. Fabian; 13. Birth of massive black-hole binaries M. Colpi, M. Dotti, L. Mayer and S. Kazantzidis; 14. Dynamics around supermassive black holes A. Gualandris and D. Merritt; 15. Black-hole formation and growth: simulations in general relativity S. L. Shapiro; 16. Estimating the spins of stellar-mass black holes J. E. McClintock, R. Narayan and R. Shafee; 17. Stellar relaxation processes near the Galactic massive black hole T. Alexander; 18. Tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes S. Gezari; 19. Where to look for radiatively inefficient accretion flows in low-luminosity AGN M. Chiaberge; 20. Making black holes visible: accretion, radiation, and jets J. H. Krolik.

Livio, Mario; Koekemoer, Anton M.

2011-02-01

202

Hydrothermal oxidation of radioactive combustible waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrothermal processing system was designed, built and tested for treatment of transuranic combustible material. The operation is performed in a plutonium glovebox. Presented in this paper are results from the study of the hydrothermal oxidation of plutonium and americium contaminated organic wastes. The use of thermal liquefaction, via pyrolysis, to prepare solid materials for hydrothermal processing was tested and

L. A Worl; S. J Buelow; D. M Harradine; R Lanning; D. D Padilla; J. H Roberts; X Shao

2000-01-01

203

Characteristics of Physically Active Smokers and Implications for Harm Reduction  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to establish the prevalence of physical activity among smokers, whether or not physically active smokers were more likely to attempt cessation, and who these physically active smokers were. Methods. We used logistic regression to contrast physically active and inactive smokers in a secondary data analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1. Results. Physically active smokers represented almost one quarter of the smoking population. Compared with physically inactive smokers, physically active smokers were more likely to have attempted cessation in the past year. Physically active smokers were more likely to be young, single, and men compared with their inactive counterparts. Income had no influence in distinguishing physically active and inactive smokers. Conclusions. Skepticism persists regarding the practicality and potential risks of promoting physical activity as a harm-reduction strategy for tobacco use. We found that a modest proportion of the daily smoking population was physically active and that engagement in this behavior was related to greater cessation attempts. Interventions could be developed that target smokers who are likely to adopt physical activity.

deRuiter, Wayne K.; Faulkner, Guy; Cairney, John; Veldhuizen, Scott

2008-01-01

204

Could a scheme for licensing smokers work in Australia?  

PubMed

In this article, we evaluate the possible advantages and disadvantages of a licensing scheme that would require adult smokers to verify their right to purchase tobacco products at point of sale using a smart-card licence. A survey of Australian secondary school students conducted in 2011 found that half of 17-2013-old smokers and one-fifth of 12-2013-old smokers believed it was "easy" or "very easy" to purchase cigarettes themselves. Reducing tobacco use by adolescents now is central to the future course of the current epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, since most current adult smokers began to smoke as adolescents--at a time when they were unable to purchase tobacco lawfully. The requirement for cigarette retailers to reconcile all stock purchased from wholesalers against a digital record of retail sales to licensed smokers would create a robust incentive for retailers to comply with laws that prohibit tobacco sales to children. Foreseeable objections to introducing a smokers licence need to be taken into account, but once we move beyond the "shock of the new", it is difficult to identify anything about a smokers licence that is particularly offensive or demeaning. A smoker licensing scheme deserves serious consideration for its potential to dramatically curtail retailers' violation of the law against selling tobacco to minors, to impose stricter accountability for sale of a uniquely harmful drug and to allow intelligent use of information about smokers' purchases to help smokers quit. PMID:23909540

Magnusson, Roger S; Currow, David C

2013-08-01

205

Barriers to quitting smoking among medically ill smokers.  

PubMed

Few studies examine predictors of smoking cessation among medically ill smokers, despite their high smoking prevalence. We prospectively examined barriers to smoking cessation in medically ill smokers, with age as a hypothesized moderator. Participants were smokers (N = 237, M (age) = 56.1, 53.6% females) receiving home-based nursing care. Baseline self-report questionnaires assessed barriers to cessation (demographics, smoking history, psychosocial, and medical factors). Smoking status was biochemically verified at 2- and 6-months post-intervention. Compared with younger smokers, older smokers had significantly lower levels of nicotine dependence, stress, and depressed mood and a greater prevalence of smoking-related diseases. Older smokers were more likely to achieve biochemically verified abstinence at 6-month follow-up (7.8%) than younger smokers (3.1%) though this difference was not significant. Higher levels of depressed mood and lower levels of perceived stress were associated with a greater likelihood of cessation at both follow-up points, but only for younger smokers. For younger smokers, higher self-efficacy to quit and the presence of a smoking-related disease increased the odds of abstinence. These findings could help guide treatment development for this high-risk group of smokers. PMID:21850514

Gregor, Kristin; Borrelli, Belinda

2011-08-18

206

ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION AND SOLUBLE ENDOGLIN IN SMOKERS WITH HEART FAILURE  

PubMed Central

Objectives Although cigarette smoking is a risk factor for heart failure (HF), smokers with HF have lower mortality rates during/following hospitalization compared to nonsmokers. We examined vascular endothelial function in chronic smokers and nonsmokers with HF as it relates to this smoker’s paradox. Methods Brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD), a measure of conduit vessel endothelial function, was measured in 33 smoking and nonsmoking patients with HF versus controls. In addition, soluble endoglin (sEng), a circulating mediator of endothelial function, was measured in a separate group of 36 smoking and non-smoking patients with HF versus controls. Results FMD was significantly lower in smokers without HF compared the nonsmokers without HF (p<0.05). FMD was significantly higher in smokers with HF vs. non-smokers with HF (p<0.05) and did not differ from values seen in nonsmokers without HF (p>0.05). There were no differences in sEng between smokers and nonsmokers without HF (p>0.05). sEng was lower in smokers with HF vs. non-smokers with HF (p < 0.05) and did not differ from values seen in nonsmokers without HF (p>0.05). Conclusion Smokers with HF had higher brachial FMD and lower sEng than nonsmokers with HF and values were comparable to nonsmokers without HF. These findings offer novel insight into the smoker’s paradox and suggest that improved short-term outcome in patients hospitalized with HF may in part be mediated by preservation of vascular endothelial function in this setting.

Heffernan, Kevin S.; Kapur, Navin K.; Patel, Ayan R.; Karas, Richard H.; Kuvin, Jeffrey T.

2012-01-01

207

Hydrothermal Vents: Thar She Blows!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will discover how the proximity of hot magma to cold ocean water creates new rocky structures around hydrothermal vents. During this activity, students will demonstrate an understanding of how the processes that result in the formation of hydrothermal vents create new ocean floor and how the transfer of energy effects solids and liquids. This hands-on activity uses online data resources and includes: focus questions, learning objectives, teaching time, audio/visual materials needed, background information, learning procedures, evaluations, extensions, as well as resources and student handouts.

208

Hydrothermal deoxygenation of graphene oxide: chemical and structural evolution.  

PubMed

A green and facile approach for the partial deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO) at moderate temperature (100?°C) and under atmospheric pressure, catalyzed by acidic conditions in water is reported. The chemical and structural changes in GO as a function of hydrothermal time were probed to understand the deoxygenation events. The brown GO dispersion in water was found to gradually turn black over the hydrothermal-treatment time on account of the increasing graphitic content. FTIR, thermogravimetric (TG), Raman, and XRD analyses revealed that the labile oxygen functionalities are progressively eliminated, thereby partially restoring the ?-conjugated network. This was further corroborated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies based on quantitative analysis of each carbon component associated with the different chemical functionalities. Carbonyl, carboxyl, ether, and phenolic groups were found to be thermally stable, which hinders complete deoxygenation of GO and makes their dispersion in water stable, as monitored by the ? potential. It is worth noting that deoxygenation events are expedited under acid-catalyzed hydrothermal treatment relative to thermal deoxygenation in air. PMID:23821395

Choudhary, Shivani; Mungse, Harshal P; Khatri, Om P

2013-07-02

209

Relation of resistin levels with C-reactve protein, homocysteine and uric acid in smokers and non-smokers  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The association between C-reactive protein, homocysteine, uric acid levels and cardiovascular risk have been debated for decades. Resistin is a newly discovered adipocyte derived cytokine. Smoking besides its effect on atherosclerosis, is shown to alter adipocytokine levels. Bearing in mind, these complex relationship of resistin with smoking, C-reactive protein, homocysteine and uric acid, we planned to investigate the association of resistin and these cardiovascular risk factors in smoker and non-smoker subjects. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional randomized study including 52 smoking and 33 non-smoking men. After making comparisons of C-reactive protein, homocysteine, uric acid and resistin between the two groups, we classified the subjects according to their insulin resistance and body mass and made again the comparisons.. RESULTS: Resistin levels were higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p<0.001) and also in insulin resistant than in non-insulin resistant smokers (p<0.05). Resistin levels were indifferent in non-smokers as insulin resistance was concerned and in smoker or non-smokers as body mass index was concerned. As all subjects were grouped based on homeostasis model assesment index and body mass index, neither C-reactive protein nor homocysteine and uric acid levels differred. CONCLUSIONS: We found that smoking may have influence on resistin levels and in smokers, insulin resistance is related to resistin levels, but in smoker and non-smokers body mass may not have any association with resistin. Resistin also may not have a role in C-reactive protein, homocysteine and uric acid levels both in smokers and non-smokers.

Esbah, Onur; Gursoy, Gul; Kirnap, Nazli Gulsoy; Cetiner, Hacer; Demirbas, Berrin; Acar, Yasar; Bayram, Murat

2011-01-01

210

Ocean ridge magmatic and hydrothermal geochemical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean ridge system as an interaction site linking the interior of the earth with the lithosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Sections are devoted to magmatic and hydrothermal processes, with particular attention to the chemical variability of MORB, studies of magmatic segmentation in the East Pacific Rise, plans for sampling the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge, regional differences in the extent and pressure of melting, the diversity of oceanic plutonic rocks, observations of active hydrothermal venting, the composition of hydrothermal fluids, models of hydrothermal circulation, and the mineralogy and geochemistry of hydrothermal deposits. A comprehensive bibliography is provided.

Klein, Emily M.

211

Change in Smoking, Diet, and Walking for Exercise in Blacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive changes in one health behavior may be accompanied by other constructive health behavior changes. Thus, the authors investigated the association of smoking reduction and cessation to changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and engaging in walking for exercise. This study included 539 Black light smokers ([less than or equal to]10…

Berg, Carla J.; Thomas, Janet L.; An, Lawrence C.; Guo, Hongfei; Collins, Tracie; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2012-01-01

212

Mentholated cigarettes and smoking habits in whites and blacks  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine if cigarette mentholation is associated with the frequency of smoking and with quitting, and whether mentholation explains racial differences in these two smoking behaviours. Design: Cross sectional analysis of case–control data on smoking and lung cancer. Subjects: Limited to 19 545 current and former cigarette smokers. Main outcome measures: Smoking > 20 cigarettes per day (cpd) versus ? 20 cpd, and continued smoking versus quit smoking. Results: Among blacks, the prevalence odds ratio (POR) of heavy smoking (? 21 cpd) associated with mentholated cigarettes versus non-mentholated cigarettes was 0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5 to 0.9) in current smokers and 0.6 (95% CI 0.4 to 0.9) in former smokers. Among whites, the corresponding POR were 0.9 (95% CI 0.8 to 1.0) and 0.9 (95% CI 0.8 to 1.0). Blacks were less likely to have been heavy smokers than whites, but the difference was unrelated to cigarette mentholation. The POR of continued smoking versus quitting, associated with mentholated cigarettes was 1.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.2) for both blacks and whites. Conclusion: Smoking > 20 cpd was independently associated with white race. Among blacks, smoking ? 20 cpd was independently associated with mentholated cigarettes. The risk of quitting was not associated with cigarette menthol flavour.

Muscat, J; Richie, J; Stellman, S

2002-01-01

213

Black Holes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This work discusses the fundamental ideas about black holes. There is information about black holes, creative activities to use in a classroom, and ideas about how to relate this material to popular science fiction novels.

Pacific, Astronomical S.

2004-07-17

214

Magmatic intrusions and hydrothermal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation investigates the possible role of hydrothermally driven ground-water outflow in the formation of fluvial valleys on Mars. Although these landforms have often been cited as evidence for a past warmer climate and denser atmosphere, recent theoretical modeling precludes such climatic conditions on early Mars when most fluvial valleys formed. Because fluvial valleys continued to form throughout Mars' geological

Virginia Claire Gulick

1993-01-01

215

Factors underlying prefrontal and insula structural alterations in smokers  

PubMed Central

Based upon previous reports of alterations in white matter integrity and gray matter density in smokers, we examined these markers in a large, well-matched sample of smokers and non-smokers. We further investigated the effect of heavy cigarette exposure by using pack-years and the effects of two relatively stable, highly heritable traits in smokers (Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), a measure of severity of nicotine dependence so and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), measuring a stable personality trait related to smoking. Forty-eight nicotine-dependent subjects and 48 matched controls were included in the analyses, with smokers also subdivided into high/low dependence and high/low pack-years smokers. White matter integrity (fractional anisotropy (FA)) and gray matter density (voxel-based morphometry (VBM)) were measured and compared across groups. Gray matter density was lower in left prefrontal cortex (PFC) in high pack-years smokers and was inversely related to pack-years. In contrast, left insular cortex gray matter density was higher in smokers and associated with TAS-20 total score and with difficulty-identifying-feelings factor. Further, the most highly dependent smokers showed lower prefrontal FA, which was negatively correlated with FTND. There was no correlation between pack-years and FTND in our smoker population. These data suggest chronic tobacco use is correlated with prefrontal gray matter damage , while differences in insula gray matter and PFC white matter appear to reflect stable and heritable differences between smokers and non-smokers.

Zhang, Xiaochu; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Ross, Thomas J; Geng, Xiujuan; Yang, Yihong; Stein, Elliot A

2010-01-01

216

Hormonal, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to acute stress in smokers  

PubMed Central

Rationale There are complex relationships between stress and smoking; smoking may reduce the emotional discomfort of stress, yet nicotine activates stress systems and may alter responses to acute stress. It is important to understand how smoking affects physiological and psychological outcomes after stress and how these may interact to motivate smoking. Objectives This study aimed to examine the magnitude and time course of hormonal, cardiovascular, and psychological responses to acute psychosocial stress in smokers and non-smokers to investigate whether responses to acute stress are altered in smokers. Materials and methods Healthy male non-smokers (n=20) and smokers (n=15) participated in two experimental sessions involving a standardized public speaking stress procedure and a control non-stressful task. The outcome measures included self-reported mood, cardiovascular measures (heart rate and blood pressure), and plasma hormone levels (noradrenaline, cortisol, progesterone, and allopregnanolone). Results Smokers exhibited blunted increases in cortisol after the Trier Social Stress Test, and they reported greater and more prolonged subjective agitation than non-smokers. Stress-induced changes in progesterone were similar between smokers and non-smokers, although responses overall were smaller among smokers. Stress did not significantly alter levels of allopregnanolone, but smokers exhibited lower plasma concentrations of this neurosteroid. Conclusions These findings suggest that smoking dampens hormonal responses to stress and prolongs subjective discomfort. Dysregulated stress responses may represent a breakdown in the body’s ability to cope efficiently and effectively with stress and may contribute to smokers’ susceptibility to acute stress, especially during abstinence.

de Wit, Harriet

2009-01-01

217

Plasma copper and lipid peroxidation in cigarette smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma levels of copper and lipid peroxidation were evaluated in 14 smokers as compared to 14 nonsmokers. Plasma copper concentrations were higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (122.5 ± 19.15 vs. 101.5 ± 16.2 ?g\\/dl, P < .01). Plasma lipoperoxidation, evaluated as fluorescent damage products of lipid peroxidation (FDPL), also was higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (20.35 ± 2.6

Domenico Lapenna; Andrea Mezzetti; Sergio De Gioia; Sante D. Pierdomenico; Franca Daniele; Franco Cuccurullo

1995-01-01

218

Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco\\u000a use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications\\u000a on tobacco control.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government\\u000a or private owned). Data was

Upendra M Bhojani; Maya A Elias; Devadasan N

2011-01-01

219

Cigarette Litter: Smokers' Attitudes and Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly.

Rath, Jessica M.; Rubenstein, Rebecca A.; Curry, Laurel E.; Shank, Sarah E.; Cartwright, Julia C.

2012-01-01

220

Investigations of ambient light emission at deep-sea hydrothermal vents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ambient Light Imaging and Spectral System (ALISS) was used to image ambient light from black smokers, flange pools, and a beehive on the East Pacific Rise and the Juan de Fuca Ridge. ALISS is a low-light digital camera with custom-designed optics. A set of nine lenses, each covered by an individual band-pass filter, allows an identical scene to be

Sheri N. White; Alan D. Chave; George T. Reynolds

2002-01-01

221

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Change in Cigarette Smokers, Marijuana Smokers, and Cocaine Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified versions of the Reasons for Quitting (RFQ) Scale designed for use with smokers were included in 2 randomized trials testing treatment programs for marijuana and cocaine users. Three of the 4 motivation dimensions from the Tobacco RFQ were confirmed for marijuana and cocaine. These results provide preliminary support for the application of the motivation framework and RFQ to other

Colleen M. McBride; Susan J. Curry; Robert S. Stephens; Elizabeth A. Wells; Roger A. Roffman; J. David Hawkins

1994-01-01

222

Effects of nicotine gum on psychomotor performance in smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of nicotine on human performance. In the first study six smokers, who had been allowed to smoke normally prior to testing, completed a battery of psychometric tests (choice reaction time, memory scanning, tracking and flicker fusion threshold) at set points over 4 h after chewing 0, 2, or 4 mg nicotine polacrilex

Ian Hindmarch; John S. Kerr; Neil Sherwood

1990-01-01

223

Light and intermittent cigarette smokers: a review (1989–2009)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Growing proportions of smokers in the USA do not smoke everyday and can be referred to as light and intermittent smokers (LITS).\\u000a Despite a current prevalence of LITS in the USA estimated at 25–33% of all smokers, a systematic review of the literature\\u000a on this group of smokers has yet to be written.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The aim of this paper is to

Chris R. E. Coggins; E. Lenn Murrelle; Richard A. Carchman; Christian Heidbreder

2009-01-01

224

Patterns of alternative tobacco use among adolescent cigarette smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction Alternative tobacco use among adolescents who smoke cigarettes is a growing public health concern, and evidence suggests that patterns of alternative tobacco use varies with respect to cigarette consumption and frequency of cigarette use. This study aimed to examine (a) whether variations in adolescent cigarette smoking and alternative tobacco use can be explained by underlying subtypes and (b) if these subtypes differ in their demographic and psychosocial characteristics. Methods Using data from the 2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey, latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify patterns of cigarette smoking and alternative tobacco use among 2746 current (past 30-day) smokers. After identification, classes were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression to examine differences based on demographics and smoking-related characteristics. Results Four of the six latent classes identified (non-daily light smokers, chippers, chippers-Indulgent, intermittent smokers) reflected consumption, frequency, and history of cigarette use characteristics commonly attributed to light and intermittent smokers, and the remaining two classes (daily smokers, daily smokers-Indulgent) presented cigarette use behaviors commonly attributed to daily smokers. There were clear class differences in levels of alternative tobacco product use, demographics, and psychosocial characteristics. Conclusions Study findings are consistent with previous work demonstrating demographic and psychosocial differences between cigarette smokers based on their alternative tobacco use. The six latent classes identified highlight the importance of including measures of alternative tobacco use when characterizing adolescent cigarette smokers as well as recognizing and tailoring interventions toward these different groups of tobacco users.

Nasim, Aashir; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

2013-01-01

225

Nitrogen in biogenic and abiogenic minerals from Paleozoic black shales: an NRA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear reaction analyses were performed on feldspars, quartz, abiogenic and biogenic sulfides and phosphates in organic matter-rich black shales. The goal was to study N-fractionation in black shales during diagenesis and contemporaneous hydrothermalism. Light elements (N, C) together with heavier ones (K, Ca, Ni, Fe, Zn) were analyzed by PIXE. Due to the heterogeneous sample composition, a scanning mode was

J.-P. Gallien; B. Orberger; L. Daudin; D. L. Pinti; J. Pasava

2004-01-01

226

Black Magic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most non-permanent markers use inks that are made of mixtures of colored pigments and water. How does Black Magic work? Why do some black inks separate into many colors on a wet coffee filter? Why does mixing many colors of ink make black?

2010-01-01

227

Black Holes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a list of Frequently Asked Questions about Black Holes. The goal is to answer the common, and not so common, doubts about Black Holes, such as their origin, properties, and fate. It also deals with gravitational effects of Black Holes, and the concepts of White Holes and Wormholes.

Bunn, Ted

2007-06-05

228

Black Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

229

Hydrothermal synthesis of amino acids  

SciTech Connect

This study presents further evidence that amino acids can be synthesized rapidly in hydrothermal solutions from reactants that may have been present in primitive environments. Aqueous NH[sub 4]HCO[sub 3] solutions were reacted with C[sub 2]H[sub 2], H[sub 2], and O[sub 2] (formed in situ from CaC[sub 2], Ca, and H[sub 2]O[sub 2]) at 200-275[degrees]C over 0.2-2 h periods to synthesize several amino acids and abundant amines. These amino acid and amine producing reactions were not observed to occur below 150[degrees]C. Amino acids and amines also were synthesized at 210[degrees]C from solutions of NH[sub 4]OH, HCHO, NaCN, and H[sub 2]. When NH[sub 4]OH was replaced by NH[sub 4]HCO[sub 3], the syntheses predominantly confirmed the recent results of Hennet et al. (1992). Additionally, amino acids and amines were observed to form by reactions among NH[sub 4]OH, HCHO, and H[sub 2] at hydrothermal conditions, essentially confirming the results of Fox and Windsor (1970). Inclusion of both carbonate and O[sub 2] in these latter solutions greatly enhanced the production rate of amino acids. The amines synthesized hydrothermally could be significant if they are precursors in the amino acid syntheses either at hydrothermal or later at lower temperatures. These observations provide additional input to the current questions of synthesis, stability, and decomposition of amino acids at hydrothermal conditions, and their possible relevance to the origin of life.

Marshall, W.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1994-05-01

230

p53 mutations and protein expression in primary cultures of normal oral mucosa in smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed

The normal oral mucosa from 77 individuals of known smoking and alcohol-intake history was cultured. After 14-21 days in culture, epithelial cells were stained for p53 expression using immunohistochemistry. PCR-SSCP analysis of the p53 gene was also performed on a random sub-set of these samples (20 non-smokers and 21 smokers). Expression of the stable, non-functional form of p53 protein as detected by the p53-240 antibody was found to be significantly elevated in the cultured oral mucosa of smokers. (P < 0.01). PCR-SSCP analyses indicated a higher level of base changes in smokers than in non-smokers. These observations are consistent with other findings of significantly increased p53 protein expression in the oral mucosa and other tissues of smokers and suggests that p53 mutations may be an early event in smoking-induced oral cancers. PMID:9307713

Colucci, S; el-Gehani, R; Flint, S; Mothersill, C

1997-07-01

231

Archean hydrothermal oceanic floor sedimentary environments: DXCL drilling project of the 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation, Pilbara, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many place in Archean greenstone belts have been reported of the black chert to Iron rich sediments above volcanic sequence. The chemical sedimentary sequence has been recognized to form by as hydrothermal siliceous sequence. These sediments contain the hint to understand the Archean ocean and earth surface environments. Here, we will focus the Dixon Island and Cleaverville formations, which are

S. Kiyokawa; T. Ito; M. Ikehara; K. E. Yamaguchi; H. Naraoka; R. Sakamoto; Y. Suganuma

2009-01-01

232

Bronchial reactivity to inhaled histamine and annual rate of decline in FEV1 in male smokers and ex-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relations between bronchial reactivity, baseline FEV1, and annual decline of height corrected FEV1 (delta FEV1\\/ht3) over 7.5 years in 227 men (117 smokers, 71 ex-smokers, and 39 non-smokers). Men with a clinical diagnosis of asthma or receiving bronchodilator treatment were excluded. Bronchial reactivity was determined as the provocation concentration (PC20) of inhaled histamine sufficient to reduce FEV1

R G Taylor; H Joyce; E Gross; F Holland; N B Pride

1985-01-01

233

Manipulating Regulatory Focus in Cigarette Smokers  

PubMed Central

Regulatory focus theory (RFT; Higgins, 1997) may help to address the issue of motivation in cigarette smoking cessation. RFT suggests that individuals may be motivated to approach desired end-states (e.g., improved lung capacity) and/or avoid undesired end-states (e.g., illness). These motivations are referred to as promotion focus, in which people attempt to achieve their aspirations, and prevention focus, in which people are motivated to live up to responsibilities. According to RFT, smoking-related messages framed to match an individual's regulatory focus should be more effective than those that do not match. The current study attempted to prime promotion and prevention focus in a sample of cigarette smokers, to determine if priming impacts memory for smoking-related narratives. We expected that participants in the promotion-focus condition would outperform those in the prevention-focus condition on recall of materials reflecting approach strategies, whereas those in the prevention-focus condition would score better on recall of vignettes depicting avoidance. This hypothesis was not supported. There was, however, a significant interaction between participants' recall of vignettes depicting smoking vs. abstaining and approach vs. avoidance strategies, such that participants recalled smoking vignettes better when the described-person's goal was smoking to avoid an undesired state and recalled abstaining vignettes better when the target's goal was to approach a desired state. Further research into how regulatory focus theory may apply to adult cigarette smokers is warranted.

Friedman-Wheeler, Dara G.; Rizzo-Busack, Hilda; McIntosh, Elizabeth; Ahrens, Anthony H.; Haaga, David A. F.

2010-01-01

234

Cigarette brand preference among middle and high school students who are established smokers - United States, 2004 and 2006.  

PubMed

Studies have suggested a link between exposure to tobacco advertising and cigarette brand preference. Knowing the brand preferences of young established smokers can provide insight into what influences young smokers to start and continue to smoke. A report of 2005 data indicated that the three most heavily advertised brands, Marlboro, Newport, and Camel, were preferred by 81% of U.S. youths aged 12-17 years. To assess the cigarette brand preferences among middle school and high school students who were established smokers, CDC analyzed data from the 2004 and 2006 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that among established student smokers in middle and high school, Marlboro was the preferred brand (43.3% and 52.3%, respectively), followed by Newport (26.4% and 21.4%, respectively). The use of Newport was significantly higher among blacks in middle school (59.7%) and high school (78.6%) compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Information on brand preferences and tobacco marketing strategies that are attractive to students can be used by tobacco control programs and community initiatives in the design of tobacco countermarketing campaigns. These countermarketing campaigns have been shown to be effective as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program to decrease the initiation of tobacco use among youths and young adults. PMID:19214160

2009-02-13

235

Plagioclase and epidote buffering of cation ratios in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids: Experimental results in and near the supercritical region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have been performed with Na-Ca-K-Cl fluids of seawater chlorinity and diabase, basalt, and plagioclase bearing mineral mixtures at 350-425 °C and 250-400 bars to help constrain hydrothermal alteration processes at mid-ocean ridges. Dissolved Ca, Na, and pH for all experiments responded systematically to differences in dissolved SiO 2 concentrations and the compositions of plagioclase reactants. Diabase alteration at low fluid/rock mass ratios (0.5 to 1) produces fluids undersaturated with respect to quartz during hydration of primary olivine and orthopyroxene, whereas basalt alteration under similar conditions yields fluids slightly supersaturated with respect to quartz during breakdown of glass to smectite and amphibole. Fluid chemistry in all experiments appears to approach a partial equilibrium state with the albite and anorthite components in plagioclase and approaches a pH consistent with plagioclase alteration to epidote. Trace element data from vent fluids, specifically B and Sr, together with major element chemistry (Ca, Na, SiO 2, pH), provides evidence that the reaction zone for "black-smoker" fluids at mid-ocean ridges is composed of only slightly altered diabase and is characterized by small amounts of epidote, nearly fresh plagioclase and clinopyroxene, and partially to completely hydrated olivine and orthopyroxene. Fluids reacting with this rock may be undersaturated with respect to quartz so pressure estimates based on the quartz geobarometer should be regarded as minimums. Using equilibrium between plagioclase, the dominant reactant, and epidote, the dominant reaction product in experiments, we estimate that temperatures in reaction zones are in excess of 375°C for most vent systems. These temperatures are higher than measured vent temperatures, suggesting that hotspring fluids commonly loose heat during ascent to the seafloor.

Berndt, Michael E.; Seyfried, William E., Jr.; Janecky, David R.

1989-09-01

236

Internet and Mobile Phone Text Messaging Intervention for College Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors developed a smoking cessation program using mobile phone text messaging to provide tailored and stage-specific messages to college smokers. Participants and Methods: The authors recruited 31 daily smokers who desired to quit from a college campus and asked them to use an Internet and mobile phone text messaging program to…

Riley, William; Obermayer, Jami; Jean-Mary, Jersino

2008-01-01

237

A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to evaluate the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. In this paper, available forms of NRT, the theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Although there is a need to better understand the addiction process in adolescents, it

Christi A. Patten

2000-01-01

238

Nicotine replacement therapy for smokers admitted to intensive care  

Microsoft Academic Search

People who smoke are addicted to nicotine. When smokers are admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) they have to cope with the effects of enforced nicotine withdrawal, as well as the fact that they are critically ill. The effects of nicotine withdrawal in smokers admitted to ICU are not well understood. Does nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) have a place in

Tom D. Honisett

2001-01-01

239

Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…

Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

2013-01-01

240

Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…

Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

2013-01-01

241

Optimistic Bias and Perceived Control among Cigarette Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies have shown that cigarette smokers are generally aware of increased health risks associated with smoking, but that smokers tend to underestimate their own susceptibility to disease. In general, optimistic bias has been shown to increase with greater perceived control over an event or behavior; however, this phenomenon has not been examined…

Waltenbaugh, Adam W.; Zagummy, Matthew J.

2004-01-01

242

Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

2003-01-01

243

Understanding Smoking Cessation: The Role of Smokers' Quit History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have found smokers' quit history to correlate with quitting smoking, but little is known about the psychological processes explaining this relationship. This study uses the integrative model of behavioral prediction to examine how quit history affects quit intention. Data from 3,428 Dutch smokers demonstrate that quit history affects (a) beliefs about quitting and (b) the degree to which

Marco C. Yzer; Bas van den Putte

2006-01-01

244

Smokers' Beliefs and Attitudes about Purchasing Cigarettes on the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

b SYNOPSIS Objectives. Our objectives were to explore qualitatively how smokers find out about Internet cigarette sales and what factors motivate them to purchase cigarettes on-line, and to quantitatively describe the Internet cigarette purchas- ing behaviors and attitudes of Internet cigarette buyers. Methods. Qualitative in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with 21 adult smokers who had purchased or contemplated purchasing cigarettes

Kurt M. Ribisl; Cristine D. Delnevo; Mary Hrywna

2006-01-01

245

Health professionals' views of overweight people and smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To examine health professionals' views of overweight people, to compare these to their views of smokers, and to explore the role of level of severity on these perceptions.DESIGN: A postal survey of health professionals employing a two by two, independent factorial design. The health category (overweight or smoker) was divided by level of severity (moderate or extreme), so that

EL Harvey; AJ Hill

2001-01-01

246

Exercise interventions for smokers with a history of alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the adherence rates and the effect of depression on adherence in two studies conducted among smokers with a past history of alcoholism. In both studies, subjects participated in a 12-session group-based exercise intervention for smoking cessation. The target quit date (TQD) was Session 8. Participants in Study 1 were 73 smokers (43% female). Exercise instructions began at

Christi A Patten; Kristin S Vickers; John E Martin; Carl D Williams

2003-01-01

247

Educating Smokers about Their Cigarettes and Nicotine Medications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers' Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group…

Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Brown, Anthony; Celestino, Paula

2010-01-01

248

Impact of supragingival therapy on subgingival microbial profile in smokers versus non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to assess subgingival microbiological changes in smokers versus non-smokers presenting severe chronic periodontitis after supragingival periodontal therapy (ST). Methods Non-smokers (n=10) and smokers (n=10) presenting at least nine teeth with probing pocket depth (PPD) (?5 mm), bleeding on probing (BoP), and no history of periodontal treatment in the last 6 months were selected. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index (PI), BoP, PPD, relative gingival margin position (rGMP) and relative clinical attachment level (rCAL). Subgingival biofilm was collected before and 21 days after ST. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the universal primer pair, 27F and 1492R. Amplified genes were cloned, sequenced, and identified by comparison with known 16S rRNA sequences. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t and Chi-Square tests (?=5%). Results Clinically, ST promoted a significant reduction in PI and PPD, and gain of rCAL for both groups, with no significant intergroup difference. Microbiologically, at baseline, data analysis demonstrated that smokers harbored a higher proportion of Porphyromonas endodontalis, Bacteroidetes sp., Fusobacterium sp. and Tannerella forsythia and a lower number of cultivated phylotypes (p<0.05). Furthermore, non-smokers featured significant reductions in key phylotypes associated with periodontitis, whereas smokers presented more modest changes. Conclusion Within the limits of the present study, ST promoted comparable clinical improvements in smokers and non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis. However, in smokers, ST only slightly affected the subgingival biofilm biodiversity, as compared with non-smokers.

Meulman, Tatiana; Casarin, Renato C. V.; Peruzzo, Daiane C.; Giorgetti, Ana Paula; Barbagallo, Andre; Casati, Marcio Z.; Sallum, Enilson A.; Goncalves, Reginaldo B.; Nociti Jr, Francisco H.

2012-01-01

249

Gold-bearing reefs of the Witwatersrand Basin: A model of synsedimentation hydrothermal formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current concepts concerning the genesis of the unique ore-bearing reefs of the Witwatersrand Basin and its gold resource\\u000a potential are considered. The results of microscopic examination of ore from the Black, Ventersdorp Contact, Carbon Leader,\\u000a and Vaal reefs, as well as of thermobarometric study of quartz, are presented. A model of synsedimentation hydrothermal origin\\u000a of the reefs in the

Yu. G. Safonov; V. Yu. Prokof’ev

2006-01-01

250

Identification of an Autophagy Defect in Smokers' Alveolar Macrophages1  

PubMed Central

Alveolar macrophages are essential for clearing bacteria from the alveolar surface and preventing microbial-induced infections. It is well documented that smokers have an increased incidence of infections, in particular lung infections. Alveolar macrophages accumulate in smokers’ lungs but they have a functional immune deficit. In this study, we identify for the first time an autophagy defect in smokers’ alveolar macrophages. Smokers’ alveolar macrophages accumulate both autophagosomes and p62, a marker of autophagic flux. The decrease in the process of autophagy leads to impaired protein aggregate clearance, dysfunctional mitochondria and defective delivery of bacteria to lysosomes. This study identifies the autophagy pathway as a potential target for interventions designed to decrease infection rates in smokers and possibly in individuals with high environmental particulate exposure.

Monick, Martha M.; Powers, Linda S.; Walters, Katherine; Lovan, Nina; Zhang, Michael; Gerke, Alicia; Hansdottir, Sif; Hunninghake, Gary W.

2011-01-01

251

Lung cancer in never smokers Epidemiology and risk prediction models  

PubMed Central

In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model.

McCarthy, William J.; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh

2012-01-01

252

The compensating behavior of smokers: taxes, tar, and nicotine.  

PubMed

Using data from the 1979 and 1987 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we test whether smokers alter their smoking habits in the face of higher taxes. Smokers in high-tax states are more likely to smoke cigarettes higher in tar and nicotine. Although taxes reduce the number of cigarettes consumed per day among remaining smokers, total daily tar and nicotine intake is unaffected. Young smokers, aged 18-24, are much more responsive to changes in taxes than are older smokers, and their total daily tar and nicotine intake actually increases after a tax hike. We illustrate that tax-induced compensating behavior may eliminate some health benefits generated by reduced smoking participation. A more appropriate tax might be based on the tar and nicotine content of cigarettes. PMID:11794360

Evans, W N; Farrelly, M C

1998-01-01

253

Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal hydrothermal vents  

SciTech Connect

The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.

Stein, J.L.

1984-02-17

254

Hair cadmium level of smoker and non-smoker human volunteers in and around Calcutta City  

SciTech Connect

In recent years considerable interest has arisen concerning cadmium accumulation in man. In general, the body burden of cadmium of an urban population is due to occupational exposure, as well as non-occupational contamination. Several reports indicate that cadmium body burden of cigarette smokers or tobacco users is more than of non-smokers. Measurement of cadmium in human hair has been suggested as an indicator of body burden. Most industrialized countries have regular monitoring programs for measuring cadmium accumulation in humans. There has been little or no work done thus far in India regarding the level of cadmium in humans. The objective of this investigation was to survey the levels of cadmium in hair of random samples of human volunteers. The influences of smoking habits, urban or rural life and age of the volunteers on the level of cadmium in hair were examined.

Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Samaddar, K.R. (Kalyani Univ., West Bengal (India)); Joshi, H.C. (Central Inland Capture Fisheries Research Institute, West Bengal (India))

1990-08-01

255

Dental health in smokers with and without COPD.  

PubMed

The association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontal disease is sparsely studied. The aim was to describe the co-variation of periodontitis and lung function impairment in smokers. The hypothesis was that the destructive processes in the mouth and the lungs are interdependent due to a general individual susceptibility to detrimental effects of tobacco smoke. Smokers with COPD (n?=?28) stage II and III according to GOLD guidelines and smokers without COPD (n?=?29) and healthy non-smokers (n?=?23) participated in the study. The groups of smokers were matched for cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Radiographic, general and dental clinical examination, lung function measurements and quality of life (SF-36) assessment were conducted. The relationship between respiratory and dental outcomes was analyzed. Dental health, assessed by plaque, gingival bleeding, periodontal pocket depth and loss of teeth was impaired in the smokers compared with non-smokers with no major differences between smokers with and without COPD. There was, however, a weak correlation between periodontitis and emphysema/impaired diffusion capacity. Impaired quality of life was associated with smoking and impaired lung function but not influenced by dental status. In conclusion periodontitis was strongly associated with smoking, weakly associated with lung tissue destruction and very weakly or even not at all associated with chronic airflow limitation. The results indicate that, although there was a co-variation between periodontitis and pathologic lung processes in smokers, the risk of developing COPD, as defined by spirometric outcomes, is not associated with the risk of impaired dental health in smokers. PMID:23544074

Bergström, Jan; Cederlund, Kerstin; Dahlén, Barbro; Lantz, Ann-Sofie; Skedinger, Maria; Palmberg, Lena; Sundblad, Britt-Marie; Larsson, Kjell

2013-03-27

256

Compounds enhanced in a mass spectrometric profile of smokers' exhaled breath versus non-smokers as determined in a pilot study using PTR-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study has been carried out to define typical characteristics of the trace gas compounds in exhaled breath of non-smokers and smokers to assist interpretation of breath analysis data from patients who smoke with respiratory diseases and lung cancer. Exhaled breath was analyzed using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for 370 volunteers (81 smokers, 210 non-smokers, 79 ex-smokers). Volatile

Ievgeniia Kushch; Konrad Schwarz; Lukas Schwentner; Bettina Baumann; Alexander Dzien; Alex Schmid; Karl Unterkofler; Günter Gastl; Patrik Spanel; David Smith; Anton Amann

2008-01-01

257

Mystery of the Megaplume: Hydrothermal Vent Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will investigate hydrothermal vents to see how the chemistry of the water they emit provides clues to the location of the vents. They should be able to describe hydrothermal vents and characterize vent plumes in terms of physical and chemical properties; describe data gathering operations in which a towed instrument package ("tow-yo") measures conductivity, temperature, and depth; and interpret temperature anomaly data to recognize a plume emanating from a hydrothermal vent.

258

"I Smoke but I Am Not a Smoker": Phantom Smokers and the Discrepancy between Self-Identity and Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This article presents the development of a new smoking status, the "phantom smokers," who do not view themselves as smokers but report smoking cigarettes. Participants: Students from 2 universities in Michigan (N = 899; October 2005) and Florida (N = 1,517; May 2006) participated in surveys. Methods: Respondents in Michigan completed…

Choi, Youjin; Choi, Sejung Marina; Rifon, Nora

2010-01-01

259

Dimensions of impulsivity among heavy drinkers, smokers, and heavy drinking smokers: singular and combined effects.  

PubMed

Alcohol use and cigarette smoking commonly co-occur. The role impulsivity may play as a common underlying mechanism in alcohol use and cigarette smoking is of particular interest due to emerging evidence of it being a critical component across multiple forms of addiction. Impulsivity can be examined through several constructs including, risky decision-making, response inhibition, and delay reward discounting. Impulsivity and each of these specific constructs play significant roles in the initiation of drug use, continued use despite negative consequences, and potential to relapse. This study used three behavioral tasks to measure risky decision-making (balloon analog risk test; BART), response inhibition (stop signal task; SST), and delay reward discounting (delay discounting task; DDT). This study advances research on impulsivity and substance use by parsing out the various components of impulsivity and examining them across three groups, heavy drinkers only (HD) (N=107), smokers only (S) (N=67), and heavy drinking smokers (HDS) (N=213). Participants completed questionnaires, interviews, and neurocognitive tasks including the SST, BART, and DDT. Analyses supported an additive effect of alcohol and nicotine use in delay reward discounting. Heavy drinking smokers displayed steeper delay discounting of small rewards than did smokers only (p<.05) and heavy drinkers only (p<.05). This additive effect of smoking and drinking was not observed for risky decision-making and response inhibition, suggesting specificity of the effects for delay reward discounting. These findings indicate that those who both drink heavily and smoke cigarettes daily have increased delay reward discounting, than those in the S and HD groups. Future studies should examine these constructs longitudinally, as well as incorporate genetic and/or a neuroimaging component to these group comparisons in order to ascertain the biological bases of these behavioral findings. PMID:22445419

Moallem, Nathasha R; Ray, Lara A

2012-03-14

260

Ethylation and methylation of hemoglobin in smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two previous studies demonstrated elevated levels of 3-ethyladenine in smokers' urine, suggesting that cigarette smoke may contain a DNA ethylating agent. We hypo- thesized that such an agent would also lead to elevated levels of N-terminal N-ethylvaline in hemoglobin. N-terminal N-alkylated valines in hemoglobin can be measured using a modified Edman degradation, which employs penta- fluorophenyl isothiocyanate to produce a

Steven G. Carmella; Menglan Chen; Peter W. Villalta; James G. Gurney; Dorothy K. Hatsukami; Stephen S. Hecht

261

Opioid Antagonism of Cannabinoid Effects: Differences between Marijuana Smokers and Nonmarijuana Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In non-human animals, opioid antagonists block the reinforcing and discriminative-stimulus effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), while in human marijuana smokers, naltrexone (50 mg) enhances the reinforcing and subjective effects of THC. The objective of this study was to test a lower, more opioid-selective dose of naltrexone (12 mg) in combination with THC. The influence of marijuana-use history and sex was also

Margaret Haney

2007-01-01

262

Comparison of cyanide exposure markers in the biofluids of smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed

Cyanide is highly toxic and is present in many foods, combustion products (e.g. cigarette smoke), industrial processes, and has been used as a terrorist weapon. In this study, cyanide and its major metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), were analyzed from various human biofluids of smokers (low-level chronic cyanide exposure group) and non-smokers to gain insight into the relationship of these biomarkers to cyanide exposure. The concentrations of each biomarker tested were elevated for smokers in each biofluid. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found for thiocyanate in plasma and urine, and ATCA showed significant differences in plasma and saliva. Additionally, biomarker concentration ratios, correlations between markers of cyanide exposure, and other statistical methods were performed to better understand the relationship between cyanide and its metabolites. Of the markers studied, the results indicate plasma ATCA, in particular, showed excellent promise as a biomarker for chronic low-level cyanide exposure. PMID:22889346

Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Peetha, Naga S; Perrizo, Mitch G; Ferris, David G; Oda, Robert P; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

2012-08-13

263

Discovery and drilling of on- and off-axis hydrothermal sites in backarc spreading center of southern Mariana Trough, Western Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mariana Trough is an actively spreading backarc basin that is located along the eastern margin of Philippine Sea Plate. GPS monitoring indicates that the rate of spreading is about 45 mm/yr in the southern section (Kato et al., 2003). No transform fault offsets exist despite significant changes in the trend of the spreading center. Fryer et al. (1998) pointed out the close proximity of submarine arc volcanoes to the spreading center and tectonic fabric that is at a high angle to the trend of the spreading center on the eastern flank. Three hydrothermal sites were discovered along such tectonic lineament in southern Mariana Trough (12o55-57'N, 143o37-39'E). On-axis site (so-called Fryer site, depth: 2,850 m) consists of a hydrothermal mound about 20 m in diameter that develops on pillow lava of a segment center of the spreading axis. The segment is characterized by highly variable rock composition (up to 68% SiO2). Repeated temperature measurements revealed rapid cooling of the hydrothermal system from 240oC in April 2003, through 112oC in October 2003 to 69oC in March 2004. On the other hand, two off-axis sites seem to have longevity of life: The Archaean site which locates about 2 km off-axis on the eastern (arc side) skirt is characterized by its huge sulfide spire; 50 m in height and 20 m in diameter. It is composed of pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite, and is emanating hydrothermal fluids up to 220oC. In the third site (Pika site), active black smokers (max. temp. = 330oC), numerous dead chimneys and sulfide mounds were found on a basaltic seamount about 5 km off-axis. These lines of evidence support the idea of Fryer et al. (1998) that the backarc magma is replenished by arc/off-axis magma along the tectonic lineation. The first and third sites been drilled and cased using a tethered, submarine rock-drill system BMS (Benthic Multi-coring System) on-board the R/V Hakurei-Maru # 2 as a part of Archaean Park Project*. Rocks from two holes (7.5 m and 4.1 m) in the Fryer site are porous basaltic lava with frequent fractures. Fluid 76oC was discharged from one of the holes. The Pika site has two holes; one hole (5.61 m) is entirely composed of massive sulfides (pyrite-sphalerite) beneath thin manganese oxide cover. The other (4.61 m) shares common features with those of Fryer site. No venting was witnessed during the drilling but the latter hole was found venting fluid (10.1oC) month later during the ROPOS/ Thompson cruise when extensive sampling and monitoring were done on these holes. * Funded by MEXT through the Special Coordination Fund.

Urabe, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Maruyama, A.; Marumo, K.; Seama, N.; Utsumi, M.

2004-12-01

264

Smokers' Beliefs About The Inability to Stop Smoking  

PubMed Central

We recruited 367 current daily smokers via the Internet and randomized them to rate the causes of an inability to stop smoking, inability to stop problem alcohol use, or inability to lose excess weight in a fictional scenario. Most smokers attributed inability to stop smoking to addiction (88%), habit (88%) and stress (62%). Surprisingly, equal numbers of smokers agreed and disagreed that inability to stop smoking was due to lack of willpower or motivation. Most disagreed that it was due to biological factors, denial, family/upbringing, genetics, mental disease, personality problem, psychological problems, or weakness of character. Many expected correlations among perceived causes were not found; e.g. endorsement of addiction was not inversely related to endorsement of willpower. Most smokers endorsed treatment. Higher ratings of addiction were related to endorsing treatment, and higher ratings of motivation were related to endorsing no need for treatment; however, these relationships were of small magnitude. Ratings of almost all the causes varied across the three problems; e.g. ratings of addiction were greater for smoking than for problem alcohol use. In summary, smokers appear to view the inability to stop smoking as multicausal; however, their views of causes are only weakly related to attitudes towards treatment. Given the several unexpected findings, qualitative research into smokers' conceptualizations about smokers' inability to stop smoking is indicated.

Hughes, John R.

2009-01-01

265

LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: MOLECULAR PROFILES AND THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS  

PubMed Central

The majority of lung cancers are caused by long term exposure to the several classes of carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. While a significant fraction of lung cancers in never smokers may also be attributable to tobacco, many such cancers arise in the absence of detectable tobacco exposure, and may follow a very different cellular and molecular pathway of malignant transformation. Recent studies summarized here suggest that lung cancers arising in never smokers have a distinct natural history, profile of oncogenic mutations, and response to targeted therapy. The majority of molecular analyses of lung cancer have focused on genetic profiling of pathways responsible for metabolism of primary tobacco carcinogens. Limited research has been conducted evaluating familial aggregation and genetic linkage of lung cancer, particularly among never smokers in whom such associations might be expected to be strongest. Data emerging over the past several years demonstrates that lung cancers in never smokers are much more likely to carry activating mutations of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), a key oncogenic factor and direct therapeutic target of several newer anti-cancer drugs. EGFR mutant lung cancers may represent a distinct class of lung cancers, enriched in the never smoking population, and less clearly linked to direct tobacco carcinogenesis. These insights followed initial testing and demonstration of efficacy of EGFR-targeted drugs. Focused analysis of molecular carcinogenesis in lung cancers in never smokers is needed, and may provide additional biologic insight with therapeutic implications for lung cancers in both ever smokers and never smokers.

Rudin, Charles M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Harris, Curtis C.; Herman, James G.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Pao, William; Schwartz, Ann G.; Vahakangas, Kirsi H.; Samet, Jonathan M.

2010-01-01

266

Characteristics of cigarette smokers seeking treatment for cessation versus reduction.  

PubMed

Comparisons were made between cigarette smokers seeking treatment to quit smoking and cigarette smokers seeking treatment to reduce the number of cigarettes they smoke. Potential subjects were recruited from the local metropolitan area by advertisement in the local media. A total of 665 cigarette smokers telephoned our clinic to seek treatment for smoking cessation and 565 cigarette smokers telephoned to seek treatment to gradually reduce the number of cigarettes they smoke but not quit smoking. Potential subjects were instructed to call the clinic to find out additional information about the studies, and while on the telephone they were asked questions pertaining to tobacco use and health status. The results show that the two populations are similar in many respects with the following exceptions: smokers seeking treatment to reduce cigarette use tend to smoke more cigarettes per day, are less motivated to quit, make fewer quit attempts, drink more alcoholic beverages per day, and have more health problems (Ps<.05). These results indicate that cigarette smokers seeking treatment for smoking reduction but not cessation may be more dependent smokers who experience more medical disorders. PMID:14732424

Lemmonds, Charlotte A; Mooney, Marc; Reich, Brian; Hatsukami, Dorothy

2004-02-01

267

Psychomotor Function in Chronic Daily Cannabis Smokers during Sustained Abstinence  

PubMed Central

Background The present study assessed psychomotor function in chronic, daily cannabis smokers during 3 weeks continuously monitored abstinence on a secure research unit. We hypothesized that psychomotor performance would improve during abstinence of chronic, daily cannabis smokers. Methodology/Principal Findings Performance on the critical tracking (CTT) and divided attention (DAT) tasks was assessed in 19 male chronic, daily cannabis smokers at baseline and after 8, 14–16 and 21–23 days of continuously monitored abstinence. Psychomotor performance was compared to a control group of non-intoxicated occasional drug users. Critical frequency (?c) of the CTT and tracking error and control losses of the DAT were the primary outcome measures. Results showed that chronic cannabis smokers’ performance on the CTT (p<0.001) and the DAT (p<0.001) was impaired during baseline relative to the comparison group. Psychomotor performance in the chronic cannabis smokers improved over 3 weeks of abstinence, but did not recover to equivalent control group performance. Conclusions/Significance Sustained cannabis abstinence moderately improved critical tracking and divided attention performance in chronic, daily cannabis smokers, but impairment was still observable compared to controls after 3 weeks of abstinence. Between group differences, however, need to be interpreted with caution as chronic smokers and controls were not matched for education, social economic status, life style and race.

Bosker, Wendy M.; Karschner, Erin L.; Lee, Dayong; Goodwin, Robert S.; Hirvonen, Jussi; Innis, Robert B.; Theunissen, Eef L.; Kuypers, Kim P. C.

2013-01-01

268

Smokers' beliefs about the inability to stop smoking.  

PubMed

We recruited 367 current daily smokers via the Internet and randomized them to rate the causes of an inability to stop smoking, inability to stop problem alcohol use, or inability to lose excess weight in a fictional scenarios. Most smokers attributed inability to stop smoking to addiction (88%), habit (88%) and stress (62%). Surprisingly, equal numbers of smokers agreed and disagreed that inability to stop smoking was due to lack of willpower or motivation. Most disagreed that it was due to biological factors, denial, family/upbringing, genetics, mental disease, personality problem, psychological problems, or weakness of character. Many expected correlations among perceived causes were not found; e.g. endorsement of addiction was not inversely related to endorsement of willpower. Most smokers endorsed treatment. Higher ratings of addiction were related to endorsing treatment, and higher ratings of motivation were related to endorsing no need for treatment; however, these relationships were of small magnitude. Ratings of almost all the causes varied across the three problems; e.g. ratings of addiction were greater for smoking than for problem alcohol use. In summary, smokers appear to view the inability to stop smoking as multicausal; however, their views of causes are only weakly related to attitudes towards treatment. Given the several unexpected findings, qualitative research into smokers' conceptualizations about smokers' inability to stop smoking is indicated. PMID:19635648

Hughes, John R

2009-07-05

269

Cyclooxygenase-1 Mediated Platelet Reactivity in Young Male Smokers.  

PubMed

Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the acute and chronic effects of cigarette smoking on cyclooxygenase- 1(COX-1)-mediated platelet reactivity among cigarette smokers. Methods: The levels of collagen-induced platelet aggregation, platelet COX-1 activity, and expressions were compared between smokers and age-matched nonsmokers. In smokers, the acute effects of cigarette smoking were assessed by repeating these measurements an hour after smoking. Results: Twenty-five smokers and age-matched nonsmokers (all men; mean age, 29 years) were studied. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and plasma/urinary thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) and 11-dehydroxythromboxane B(2) levels were higher in cigarette smokers compared to nonsmokers. Greater expression of platelet COX-1 was observed in smokers than in nonsmokers. Among smokers, collagen-induced platelet aggregation correlated positively with platelet volume and circulating nicotine and cotinine concentrations. The levels of plasma/urinary TXB(2) were significantly increased an hour after cigarette smoking. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking aggravates COX-1-mediated platelet reactivity in young, otherwise healthy, smoking men. PMID:23242413

Loke, Wai Mun; Lam Mok Sing, Karen; Lee, Chung-Yung J; Chong, Wan Ling; Chew, Soh Eng; Huang, Huiwen; Looi, Woan Foon; Quek, Amy M L; Lim, Erle C H; Seet, Raymond Chee Seong

2012-12-14

270

Dopaminergic activity in depressed smokers: a positron emission tomography study.  

PubMed

Tobacco dependence is highly prevalent in depressed patients. We assessed changes in [(11)C]-raclopride binding potential (BP) using positron emission tomography (PET) before and after the oral administration of d-amphetamine in healthy controls and unmedicated patients with current depression with and without current tobacco dependence. Over a single study day 2 [(11)C]-raclopride positron emission tomography scans were taken in 38 subjects: at baseline and 2 h following oral d-amphetamine 30 mg. Twenty controls (9 smokers, 11 nonsmokers) and 18 subjects with current major depressive episode (8 smokers, 10 non-smokers). Striatal [(11)C]-raclopride binding potential was measured before and after d-amphetamine administration. Depressed smokers had a lower baseline [(11)C]-raclopride binding potential compared with both control non-smokers (P < 0.007) and depressed non-smokers (P < 0.001). There was a main effect of smoking status on amphetamine-induced change in [(11)C]-raclopride binding potential (P < 0.02), but no main effect of depression. This may be due to a floor effect because of the low BP at baseline. Depressed subjects reported significant increase of positive mood after d-amphetamine administration compared with controls (depressed smokers vs. control smokers: P < 0.05; depressed non-smokers vs. controls: P < 0.055). Tobacco dependence appears to decrease d-amphetamine-induced changes in [(11)C]-raclopride binding potential as measured by positron emission tomography. Comorbid major depression and tobacco dependence exacerbates this effect, suggesting an altered dopamine system in comorbid patients. PMID:19360907

Busto, Usoa E; Redden, Laura; Mayberg, Helen; Kapur, Shitij; Houle, Sylvain; Zawertailo, Laurie A

2009-08-01

271

Microbial Geochemistry in Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are far more ubiquitous than generally recognized. Approximately 50-60 systems are currently known, occurring world-wide in areas of high heat flow, such as, volcanic island arcs, near-surface mid-ocean ridges, and intraplate oceanic volcanoes. In contrast to deep-sea systems, shallow- sea vent fluids generally include a meteoric component, they experience phase separation near the sediment- water interface, and they discharge into the photic zone (<200 m). They also are characterized by wide ranges in chemical composition, hundreds of redox disequilibria that translate to potential metabolisms, and broad phylogenetic diversity among the thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Perhaps because deep-sea smokers and continental hot springs are visually more stunning, shallow-sea systems are often overlooked study sites. We will discuss their particular features that afford unique opportunities in microbial geochemistry. Two of the better studied examples are at Vulcano Island (Italy) and Ambitle Island (Papua New Guinea). The vents and sediment seeps at Vulcano are the "type locality" for numerous cultured hyperthermophiles, including the bacteria Aquifex and Thermotoga, the crenarchaeon Pyrodictium, and the Euryarchaeota Archaeoglobus and Pyrococcus. Isotope-labeled incubation experiments of heated sediments and an array of culturing studies have shown that simple organic compounds are predominantly fermented or anaerobically respired with sulfate. 16S rRNA gene surveys, together with fluorescent in situ hybridization studies, demonstrated the dominance of key thermophilic bacteria and archaea (e.g., Aquificales, Thermotogales, Thermococcales, Archaeoglobales) in the sediments and the presence of a broad spectrum of mostly uncultured crenarchaeota in several vent waters, sediment samples, and geothermal wells. Thermodynamic modeling quantified potential energy yields from aerobic and anaerobic respiration reactions and fermentation reactions. In contrast to their deep-sea counterparts, shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are often characterized by high arsenic concentrations of more than 500-times seawater levels. The arsenic, generally present as arsenite (As^{III}) in the vent fluid, feeds local biogeochemical arsenic cycles. Thus, shallow sites are excellent hunting grounds for novel extremophiles that may gain metabolic energy by catalyzing arsenic redox reactions. Particularly the Ambitle site, where hydrothermal fluids contain up to 1,000 ?g/L arsenite, has proven to be exceptional. There, the arsenic has a wide-ranging impact on micro-, meio-, and macro-fauna.

Amend, J. P.; Pichler, T.

2006-12-01

272

What smoking cessation approaches will young smokers use?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of youth smokers toward nine common smoking cessation approaches. Attitudes were examined among 3660 youth smokers who intended to quit smoking. The majority of youth smokers report that they would never use the smoking cessation approaches that are commonly recommended for youth populations. The approaches that were appealing to youth are quitting on their own and using the advice of friends. Future initiatives need to more effectively communicate to youth the benefits of existing cessation approaches, make existing interventions more appealing, or develop new approaches that address youth needs. PMID:16122623

Leatherdale, Scott T; McDonald, Paul W

2005-09-01

273

Barriers to quitting smoking among medically ill smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies examine predictors of smoking cessation among medically ill smokers, despite their high smoking prevalence. We\\u000a prospectively examined barriers to smoking cessation in medically ill smokers, with age as a hypothesized moderator. Participants\\u000a were smokers (N = 237, M\\u000a age = 56.1, 53.6% females) receiving home-based nursing care. Baseline self-report questionnaires assessed barriers to cessation\\u000a (demographics, smoking history, psychosocial, and medical factors). Smoking

Kristin Gregor; Belinda Borrelli

274

Influence of nicotine on positive affect in anhedonic smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The possibility that individuals administer nicotine to self-regulate persistent negative affect has received interest as\\u000a a possible explanation for the high prevalence of affectively vulnerable smokers. Relatively overlooked, however, is the possibility\\u000a that smokers might also self-administer nicotine to elevate low positive affect.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  This study examined whether nicotine administration augmented anhedonic smokers’ positive affective response to a positive\\u000a mood induction.

Jessica Werth Cook; Bonnie Spring; Dennis McChargue

2007-01-01

275

Black Holes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first website (1), created by the Department of Physics at Syracuse University, provides an educational, easily understandable explanation of the characteristics of a black hole. Students can learn the consequences a spacecraft would face if it traveled near or through the horizon of a black hole. The next website (2 ), created by the Amazing Space education group of the Space Telescope Science Institute's Office of Public Outreach, provides an online interactive exploration of black holes. Through this large, vibrant website, students can learn about stellar, supermassive, and miniature black holes. Teachers can find many amazing images, lesson plans, and other scientific background information. NASA created the next website (3) as a directory to many websites discussing black holes. Visitors can listen to the sound of a black hole, ask a NASA scientist questions, take a journey into a Black Hole, and much more. Wikipedia (4) investigates the questions related to how classical theories of thermodynamics are upheld within black holes. Students and educators will find links for many of the physical terms used within the descriptions to obtain further information. Robert M. Wald at the University of Chicago discusses Hawking radiation, the generalized second law, the thermodynamics of black holes, and entropy (5). This more advanced description provides numerous references and equations, as well as a discussion on issues the author feels are unresolved. J.E. Avron at the Israel Institute of Technology provides a straightforward discussion of the thermodynamics and entropy of black holes for those not familiar with the theory of general relativity (6). Through this pdf document, students can learn about the Planck scale, the temperature of black holes, and the LaPlace argument. The last two websites are online news articles describing the latest developments of black holes. After a fifty-three hour observation, NASA scientists have concluded that the central region of the Perseus galaxy cluster is producing sound waves with a frequency over a million billion times lower than the limits of human hearing (7). After learning how these sound waves are thought to have been created, visitors can view an animation of the waves generated in the Perseus Cluster. The last website (8), provided by space.com, investigates the question "If I had the opportunity to look at a black hole, would it look like a hole all the way around or just a hole above and below a funnel?" Visitors can also learn the about the spinning of black holes.

276

Lung adenocarcinoma of never smokers and smokers harbor differential regions of genetic alteration and exhibit different levels of genomic instability.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that the observed clinical distinctions between lung tumors in smokers and never smokers (NS) extend beyond specific gene mutations, such as EGFR, EML4-ALK, and KRAS, some of which have been translated into targeted therapies. However, the molecular alterations identified thus far cannot explain all of the clinical and biological disparities observed in lung tumors of NS and smokers. To this end, we performed an unbiased genome-wide, comparative study to identify novel genomic aberrations that differ between smokers and NS. High resolution whole genome DNA copy number profiling of 69 lung adenocarcinomas from smokers (n?=?39) and NS (n?=?30) revealed both global and regional disparities in the tumor genomes of these two groups. We found that NS lung tumors had a greater proportion of their genomes altered than those of smokers. Moreover, copy number gains on chromosomes 5q, 7p, and 16p occurred more frequently in NS. We validated our findings in two independently generated public datasets. Our findings provide a novel line of evidence distinguishing genetic differences between smoker and NS lung tumors, namely, that the extent of segmental genomic alterations is greater in NS tumors. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that these lung tumors are globally and genetically different, which implies they are likely driven by distinct molecular mechanisms. PMID:22412972

Thu, Kelsie L; Vucic, Emily A; Chari, Raj; Zhang, Wei; Lockwood, William W; English, John C; Fu, Rong; Wang, Pei; Feng, Ziding; MacAulay, Calum E; Gazdar, Adi F; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L

2012-03-07

277

Hydrothermal clinopyroxenes of the Skaergaard intrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magmatic augites reacted with high temperature aqueous solutions to form secondary calcic pyroxenes during the subsolidus cooling of the Skaergaard intrusion. Secondary, hydrothermal clinopyroxenes replace wall rock igneous augites at the margins of veins filled with calcic amphibole. These veins are up to several millimeters wide and tens of meters in length. Hydrothermal clinopyroxenes are a ubiquitous and characteristic phase

Craig E. Manning; Dennis K. Bird

1986-01-01

278

Frictional slip of granite at hydrothermal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sliding on faults in much of the continental crust likely occurs at hydrothermal conditions, i.e., at elevated temperature and elevated pressure of aqueous pore fluids, yet there have been few relevant laboratory studies. To measure the strength, sliding behavior, and friction constitutive properties of faults at hydrothermal conditions, we slid laboratory granite faults containing a layer of granite powder (simulated

Michael L. Blanpied; David A. Lockner; James D. Byerlee

1995-01-01

279

Hydrothermal conversion of carbohydrates and related compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research described in this thesis was aimed at the (partial) elucidation of the chemistry of the major decarboxylation pathways occurring in the hydrothermal conversion of carbohydrates. Knowledge of the chemical background of this hydrothermal decarboxylation might enable more effective processing of biomass with respect to minimizing the oxygen content of hydrothermolysis products.

Luijkx, Gerardus Christianus Antonius

280

Hydrothermal metamorphism in the Larderello Geothermal Field  

SciTech Connect

The various tectonic units underlying the Larderello-Travale geothermal region have undergone hydrothermal metamorphism. The hydrothermal mineral assemblages are generally consistent with the temperatures now measured in the wells, leading to the hypothesis that solid phases deposited from a liquid medium during a hot-water stage that preceded the vapor-dominated one. 61 refs.

Cavarretta, G.; Gianelli, G.; Puxeddu, M.

1980-01-01

281

EFFECTS OF EXTRATERRESTRIAL HYDROTHERMAL PROCESSES IN CHONDRITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal reactions in terrestrial geological processes may be defined in a simplified form as those that cause numerous alterations of earlier formed rocks and minerals due to the action of hot aqueous solutions, usually in a postmagmatic stage. Under extraterrestrial conditions hydrothermal processes should occur probably less often because of the lack of the environments rich in such solutions. Only

Andrzej MANECK

282

Hydrothermal decomposition of esters under high pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrothermal decomposition of two esters (methyl formate and ethyl formate) was studied in the absence of oxygen over the temperature range of 373 – 673 K at pressures from 15 to 35MPa for residence times between 72 and 600s. At hydrothermal conditions, the esters were hydrolyzed to formic acid and the corresponding alcohols in equilibrium yields of more than

Takashi Moriyoshi; Keisuke Sam; Yasuhiro Uosaki

2001-01-01

283

The female smoker: from addiction to recovery.  

PubMed

Millions of American girls and women have been drawn to smoking by an industry that has been clearly and systematically targeting women of all ages and life circumstances. Big tobacco's well-timed marketing strategies skillfully link cigarette use to typical female values: independence, self-reliance, weight control, stress management, social progress and popularity, personal attractiveness, autonomy, self-fulfillment, youth, happiness, personal success, health, and active, vigorous, and strenuous lifestyles. Biologically speaking, women are especially vulnerable to the legion of health problems of tobacco use. Smoking is a critical hazard for women in their reproductive years, particularly when they are pregnant. The US Public Health Service 2000 Clinical Practice Guideline provides helpful guidance and sound general recommendations for the treatment of women of all ages for tobacco use and dependence. Women and girls who smoke represent diverse subgroups of the population with unique issues and needs. The 2001 Surgeon General's Report on Women and Smoking stresses the importance of multistrategy programs for treating female smokers. This approach includes antitobacco media campaigns, increases in tobacco prices, promotion of nonsmoking in public places, curbs on tobacco advertising and promotion, enforcement of legislation to reduce youth access to tobacco products, and effective tobacco use treatment programs. PMID:14557740

Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

2003-10-01

284

Implicit Attitudes toward Smoking: How the Smell of Cigarettes Influences College-Age Smokers and Non-Smokers.  

PubMed

The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance. PMID:23479305

Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie; Unz, Dagmar

2013-03-11

285

Smokers and non-smokers talk about regulatory options in tobacco control  

PubMed Central

Objective Community members are occasionally polled about tobacco control policies, but are rarely given opportunities to elaborate on their views. We examined laypeople's conversations to understand how 11 regulatory options were supported or opposed in interactions. Design Qualitative design; purposive quota sampling; data collection via focus groups. Setting Three locations in Sydney, Australia. Participants 63 smokers and 75 non?smokers, men and women, from three age groups (18–24, 35–44, 55–64 years), recruited primarily via telephone. Measurements Semi?structured question route; data managed in NVivo; responses compared between groups. Results Laypeople rejected some regulatory proposals and certain arguments about taxation and the cost of cessation treatments. Protecting children and hypothecating tobacco excise for health education and care were highly acceptable. Plain packaging, banning retail displays and youth smoking prevention received qualified support. Bans on political donations from tobacco corporations were popular in principle but considered logistically fraught. Smokers asked for better cessation assistance and were curious about cigarette ingredients. Justice was an important evaluative principle. Support was often conditional and unresolved arguments frequent. We present both sides of these conflicts and the ways in which policies were legitimised or de?legitimised in conversation. Conclusions Simple measures of agreement used in polls may obscure the complexity of community responses to tobacco policy. Support was frequently present but contested; some arguments that seem self?evident to advocates were not so to participants. The detailed understanding of laypeople's responses provided through qualitative methods may help frame proposals and arguments to meet concerns about justice, effectiveness and feasibility.

Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon

2006-01-01

286

Diet May Protect Against Gene Changes in Smokers  

Cancer.gov

Leafy green vegetables, folate, and some multivitamins could serve as protective factors against lung cancer in current and former smokers, according to a study that is a first step in understanding a complex association.

287

Stroke Risk Similar among Men and Women Smokers Worldwide  

MedlinePLUS

Stroke risk similar among men and women smokers worldwide August 22, 2013 Study Highlights: Stroke risk among ... Download file. Media playback is not available Ischemic Stroke Animation Download (20.3 MB) AHA/ASA Events & ...

288

Smoking cessation: social comparison level predicts success for adult smokers.  

PubMed

The affiliation preferences of 151 adult heavy smokers who joined smoking cessation groups were assessed at the 1st group session and were then used to predict their smoking status 6 and 12 months later. Those who preferred to be in groups with other smokers who were having relatively little trouble quitting were more likely to be successful than were those who preferred others who were having more difficulty quitting. This prospective effect was mediated by psychological distancing from the image of the typical smoker: Preference for others who were doing well was associated with a decrease in perceived similarity to the typical smoker, which, in turn, was associated with successful cessation. Implications of these findings for cessation groups and social comparison theory are discussed. PMID:16287409

Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Lane, David J; Stock, Michelle L

2005-11-01

289

Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite rods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxyapatite (HAP) rods were synthesized from dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (CaHPO4, DCPA) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) by the hydrothermal method from 120 to 180 °C. Both cuttlebone (aragonite polymorph of CaCO3) and CaCO3 chemical (calcite polymorph of CaCO3) were used as CaCO3 sources. The nucleation and growth of HAP rods mainly occurred on DCPA particles, while some HAP rods also grew from aragonite particles. The nucleation and growth of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) particles on the surface of calcite particles were observed at the beginning of the reaction of DCPA and calcite, and some HAP rods were also found to grow out of ?-TCP particles. After the hydrothermal reaction at 140 °C for 24 h, most products are HAP with a small amount of ?-TCP synthesized as a byproduct. The HAP rods synthesized were ˜200 nm in width and several microns in length. The reaction mechanism and growth process of HAP rods are discussed.

Zhang, Xing; Vecchio, Kenneth S.

2007-10-01

290

Smokers' responses to advertisements for regular and light cigarettes and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines smokers' responses to advertisements for potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (PREP), light cigarettes, and regular cigarettes. A convenience sample of 600 adult smokers reviewed one actual advertisement for each type of product. Smokers ranked the products on health risk, amount of tar, and carcinogenicity, and identified the messages they perceived the advertisements to convey. Smokers perceived PREP

William L. Hamilton; Giulia diStefano Norton; Tammy Ouellette; Wiliam Rhodes; Ryan Kling; Gregory Connolly

2004-01-01

291

Effects of dissuasive packaging on young adult smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTobacco industry documents illustrate how packaging promotes smoking experimentation and reinforces existing smokers' behaviour. Plain packaging reduces the perceived attractiveness of smoking and creates an opportunity to introduce larger pictorial warnings that could promote cessation-linked behaviours. However, little is known about the effects such a combined policy measure would have on smokers' behaviour.MethodsA 3 (warning size) *4 (branding level) plus

Janet Hoek; Christiane Wong; Philip Gendall; Jordan Louviere; Karen Cong

2010-01-01

292

Smoking-Cue Induced Brain Activation In Adolescent Light Smokers  

PubMed Central

Purpose Using fMRI, we examined whether or not adolescents with low levels of nicotine exposure (light smokers) display neural activation in areas shown to be involved with addiction in response to smoking-related stimuli. Design/Setting/Participants Twelve adolescent light smokers (aged 13 to17, smoked 1 to 5 cigarettes per day) and 12 non-smokers (ages 13 to 17, never smoked a cigarette) from the San Francisco Bay Area underwent fMRI scanning. During scanning they viewed blocks of photographic smoking and control cues. Smoking cues consisted of pictures of people smoking cigarettes and smoking-related objects such as lighters and ashtrays. Neutral cues consisted of everyday objects and people engaged in everyday activities. Findings For smokers, smoking cues elicited greater activation than neutral cues in the mesolimbic reward circuit (left anterior cingulate (T=7.88, p<.001), right hippocampus (T=6.62, p<.001) and right parahippocampal gyrus (T=4.70, p<.001)). We found activation from smoking cues versus neutral cues within both the left and right frontal medial orbital regions (T=5.09, p<.001 and T=3.94, p=.001 respectively), which may be unique to adolescents. Non-smokers showed no significant difference in activation between smoking-related cues and neutral cues. Conclusions Our finding that smoking cues produced activation in adolescent light smokers in brain regions seen in adult and heavy teen smokers suggests that even at low levels of smoking, adolescents exhibit heightened reactivity to smoking cues. This paper adds to the existing literature suggesting that nicotine dependence may begin with exposure to low levels of nicotine, underscoring the need for early intervention among adolescent smokers.

Rubinstein, Mark L.; Luks, Tracy L.; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Dryden, Wendy; Rait, Michelle A.; Simpson, Gregory V.

2010-01-01

293

Altered Affective Response in Marijuana Smokers: An FMRI Study  

PubMed Central

More than 94 million Americans have tried marijuana, and it remains the most widely used illicit drug in the nation. Investigations of the cognitive effects of marijuana report alterations in brain function during tasks requiring executive control, including inhibition and decision-making. Endogenous cannabinoids regulate a variety of emotional responses, including anxiety, mood control, and aggression; nevertheless, little is known about smokers’ responses to affective stimuli. The anterior cingulate and amygdala play key roles in the inhibition of impulsive behavior and affective regulation, and studies using PET and fMRI have demonstrated changes within these regions in marijuana smokers. Given alterations in mood and perception often observed in smokers, we hypothesized altered fMRI patterns of response in 15 chronic heavy marijuana smokers relative to 15 non-marijuana smoking control subjects during the viewing of masked happy and fearful faces. Despite no between-group differences on clinical or demographic measures, smokers demonstrated a relative decrease in both anterior cingulate and amygdalar activity during masked affective stimuli compared to controls, who showed relative increases in activation within these regions during the viewing of masked faces. Findings indicate that chronic heavy marijuana smokers demonstrate altered activation of frontal and limbic systems while viewing masked faces, consistent with autoradiographic studies reporting high CB-1 receptor density in these regions. These data suggest differences in affective processing in chronic smokers, even when stimuli are presented below the level of conscious processing, and underscore the likelihood that marijuana smokers process emotional information differently from those who do not smoke, which may result in negative consequences.

Gruber, Staci A.; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.

2009-01-01

294

Acute autonomic effects of vitamins and fats in male smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Vitamins can help improve cardiovascular control. In contrast, smoking works in the opposite fashion, reducing the baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) possibly via oxidative stress. High-fat challenges also impair cardiovascular regulation. Whether vitamins have acute beneficial effects on the baroreflex control of HR in smokers is unclear.Subjects\\/Methods:A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study in 30 male smokers (34.2±6.9 years). Interventions were:

C I Wright; H Ruediger; C I Kroner; B J A Janssen; R Draijer

2009-01-01

295

Nicotine intake and smoking topography in smokers with bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Objectives Cigarette smoking behavior in bipolar disorder (BPD), including the effects of mood-stabilizing medications, has not been well characterized. Methods We compared serum nicotine, nicotine metabolite levels, and smoking topography in 75 smokers with BPD to 86 control smokers (CON). For some comparisons, an additional control group of 75 smokers with schizophrenia (SCZ) were included. Results There were no differences between the BPD and CON groups in baseline smoking characteristics or serum nicotine or cotinine levels. Fifty-one smokers with BPD (68.9%) were taking one of the following mood stabilizers: valproic acid, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, lithium, or topiramate. The 3-hydroxycotinine-to-cotinine ratio, a marker of cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) metabolic activity, was significantly higher in BPD versus CON and versus SCZ (0.68 versus 0.49 versus 0.54; p = 0.002). The difference between groups, however, was no longer significant when the analysis was repeated with those taking hepatic enzyme-inducing drugs (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate) included as a covariate. The time between puffs, or interpuff interval (IPI), was shorter in BPD versus CON by an average of 3.0 sec (p < 0.05), although this was no longer significant when we removed smokers from the analysis of those taking hepatic enzyme inducers. Conclusions Smokers with BPD are not different from CON on most measures of nicotine intake and smoking topography. We found an increased rate of nicotine metabolism in smokers taking mood stabilizers that are hepatic enzyme inducers, including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate. Smokers with rapid nicotine metabolism might be expected to smoke more intensely to compensate for the more rapid disappearance of nicotine from the blood and brain, and may have more difficulty in quitting smoking, although this requires further study.

Williams, Jill M; Gandhi, Kunal K; Lu, Shou-En; Steinberg, Marc L; Benowitz, Neal L

2013-01-01

296

Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker's saliva  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPH-Spectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers’ instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37°C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher’s protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker’s or nonsmoker’s saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group.

Oguri, Makoto; O'Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M.; Marshall, Grayson W.

2010-01-01

297

A fluorescein tracer release experiment in the hydrothermally active crater of Vailulu'u volcano, Samoa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 3 April 2001, a 20 kg point source of fluorescein dye was released 30 m above the bottom of the active summit caldera of Vailulu'u submarine volcano, Samoa. Vailulu'u crater is 2000 m wide and at water depths of 600-1000 m, with the bottom 200 m completely enclosed; it thus provides an ideal site to study the hydrodynamics of an active hydrothermal system. The magmatically driven hydrothermal system in the crater is currently exporting massive amounts of particulates, manganese, and helium. The dispersal of the dye was tracked for 4 days with a fluorimeter in tow-yo mode from the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Polar Sea. Lateral dispersion of the dye ranged from 80 to 500 m d-1; vertical dispersion had two components: a diapycnal diffusivity component averaging 21 cm2 s-1, and an advective component averaging 0.025 cm s-1. These measurements constrain the mass export of water from the crater during this period to be 8-1.3+4.6 × 107 m3 d-1, which leads to a "turnover" time for water in the crater of ˜3.2 days. Coupled with temperature data from CTD profiles and Mn analyses of water samples, the power output from the crater is 610-100+350 MW, and the manganese export flux is ˜240 kg d-1. The Mn/Heat ratio of 4.7 ng J-1 is significantly lower than ratios characteristic of hot smokers and diffuse hydrothermal flows on mid-ocean ridges and points to phase separation processes in this relatively shallow hydrothermal system.

Hart, S. R.; Staudigel, H.; Workman, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Girard, A. P.

2003-08-01

298

Nicotine vaccines: Will smokers take a shot at quitting?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A vaccine against nicotine may soon be available to smokers who want to quit. The vaccine stimulates the production of antibodies that bind to nicotine, thereby impeding nicotine from crossing the blood-brain barrier and exerting psychoactive effects. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate intentions to try a nicotine vaccine if one were to become available among a nationally representative sample of smokers. The secondary purpose was to assess whether information about genetic susceptibility to nicotine addiction had an effect on smokers’ interest in receiving the vaccine. Methods: Four hundred and twenty-seven adults were randomized to read one of two versions of a short description about the vaccine. One version framed addiction as genetically influenced, while the other framed it as environmentally influenced. Smokers were then asked about their intentions to use a nicotine vaccine if one were to become available in the future. Results: Across both groups, 53% indicated that they would be likely or very likely to try the vaccine. Using multivariate linear regression, the strongest predictors of vaccination intention were having a favorable attitude toward a nicotine vaccine (? = .41) and having a favorable attitude toward vaccination in general (? = .22). There were no significant effects of the framing conditions on intention to receive the vaccine. Discussion: Intentions to try a nicotine vaccine as a cessation method are relatively high among smokers. If the vaccine becomes available, specific groups of smokers may be more interested than others; education and recruitment efforts could be targeted appropriately.

Lerman, Caryn; Cappella, Joseph N.

2010-01-01

299

Geochemistry of hydrothermal plume in the Suiyo Seamount Caldera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical compounds of the hot basalt origin are discharged into the deep ocean via hydrothermal plume by the deep-sea hydrothermal activity. The hydrothermal plume is widely diffused to the ocean by mixing with ambient seawater. Chemical reactions and interactions with microorganisms in the diffusion process of the hydrothermal plume are important to comprehend the oceanic geochemical cycles. Recently, it has

K. Shitashima; Y. Maeda

2002-01-01

300

School Absenteeism Among Children Living With Smokers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Involuntary tobacco smoke exposure causes substantial morbidity in children. We hypothesized that children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home would have increased school absenteeism with associated costs due to lost caregiver wages/time. METHODS: We analyzed data on health and absenteeism among schoolchildren aged 6 to 11 years identified in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). We used multivariate models to assess the relationships between adult-reported household smoking and child health and school absenteeism. Analyses were adjusted for children's and parents' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The value of lost caregiver time was estimated by using self-reported employment and earnings data in the NHIS and publicly available time-use data. RESULTS: Children living with 1 or ?2 adults who smoked in the home had 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54–1.55) and 1.54 (95% CI: 0.95–2.12) more days absent from school per year, respectively, than children living with 0 smokers in the home. Living with ?2 adults who smoked in the home was associated with increased reports of having ?3 ear infections in the previous 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.65 [95% CI: 1.36–5.16]) and having a chest cold in the 2 weeks before interview (aOR: 1.77 [95% CI: 1.03–3.03]) but not with having vomiting/diarrhea in the previous 2 weeks (aOR: 0.93 [95% CI: 0.45–1.89]). Caregivers' time tending children absent from school was valued at $227 million per year. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoke exposure has significant consequences for children and families above and beyond child morbidity, including academic disadvantage and financial burden.

Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

2011-01-01

301

Black Holes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation describes the problems associated with Newton's theory of gravity and then briefly outlines the key features of Einstein's theory of general relativity. The remainder of the notes focus on black holes: their definition, properties, and most importantly how they are observed in nature. Finally it describes why black holes are so important to theoretical physicists, and in what sense they are posing riddles whose resolution will point the way to a viable theory of quantum gravity.

Kunstatter, G.

2005-06-07

302

Arctic Ocean: hydrothermal activity on Gakkel Ridge.  

PubMed

In the hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges, sea water penetrates the fractured crust, becomes heated by its proximity to the hot magma, and returns to the sea floor as hot fluids enriched in various chemical elements. In contradiction to earlier results that predict diminishing hydrothermal activity with decreasing spreading rate, a survey of the ultra-slowly spreading Gakkel Ridge (Arctic Ocean) by Edmonds et al. and Michael et al. suggests that, instead of being rare, the hydrothermal activity is abundant--exceeding by at least a factor of two to three what would be expected by extrapolation from observation on faster spreading ridges. Here we use helium-3 (3He), a hydrothermal tracer, to show that this abundance of venting sites does not translate, as would be expected, into an anomalous hydrothermal 3He output from the ridge. Because of the wide implications of the submarine hydrothermal processes for mantle heat and mass fluxes to the ocean, these conflicting results call for clarification of the link between hydrothermal activity and crustal production at mid-ocean ridges. PMID:14999274

Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Fourré, Elise

2004-03-01

303

Intent to quit among daily and non-daily college student smokers.  

PubMed

Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking category as it relates to readiness to quit among current smokers. Of the 4438 students at six Southeast colleges who completed an online survey, 69.7% (n = 3094) were non-smokers, 6.6% (n = 293) were quitters, 7.1% (n = 317) were native non-daily smokers, 6.4% (n = 283) were converted non-daily smokers and 10.2% (n = 451) were daily smokers. There were differences in sociodemographics, substance use (alcohol, marijuana, other tobacco products) in the past 30 days and psychosocial factors among these subgroups of students (P < 0.001). Among current smokers, there were differences in cigarettes smoked per day, recent quit attempts, self-identification as a smoker, self-efficacy and motivation to quit (P < 0.001). After controlling for important factors, converted non-daily smokers were more likely to be ready to quit in the next month versus native non-daily smokers (OR = 2.15, CI 1.32-3.49, P = 0.002). Understanding differences among young adults with different smoking patterns and histories is critical in developing interventions targeting psychosocial factors impacting cessation among this population. PMID:23197630

Pinsker, E A; Berg, C J; Nehl, E J; Prokhorov, A V; Buchanan, T S; Ahluwalia, J S

2012-11-28

304

Dive and Discover's Deeper Discovery: Hydrothermal Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dive and Discover is an interactive distance learning web site designed to immerse you in the excitement of discovery and exploration of the deep seafloor. On this particular website, Dive and Discover takes you on a deeper discovery of hydrothermal vents. This site features an introduction to hydrothermal vent systems, including vent basics, vents around the world, chemistry, boiling points, interactive diagrams, videos, a quiz, and links to selected Dive and Discover hydrothermal vent-related seafloor expeditions. This web page also provides links to other Deeper Discovery topics, Dive and Discover seafloor expeditions, a teacher's page, and further Dive and Discover information.

2010-04-12

305

Dissolved Organic Metals in the Hydrothermal Plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the hydrothermal plume, there are the unique microbiological communities and the microorganism utilizes various chemical substances. The interactions between heavy metals and microorganisms in the hydrothermal plume are important to comprehend the oceanic geochemical cycles of heavy metals. It is considered that the heavy metals in hydrothermal plume are organically bound with dissolved organic matter derived from the hydrothermal microorganism. This study funded by the O`Archaean ParkO_L project of MEXT is a first attempt to observe the bioavailability of heavy metals in hydrothermal plume. The hydrothermal plume samples were taken from two different kinds of hydrothermal sites, the Suiyo Seamount caldera and the Central Indian Ridge. The mini CTDT-RMS mounted twelve 1.2L Niskin bottles was installed on the manned submersible, and the hydrothermal plume samples were collected by taking the distance from the hydrothermal vents gradually. The solid phase extraction technique in C18 Sep-Pak cartridge (Millipore Waters) was used to extract the dissolved organic matter from the hydrothermal plume samples. Dissolved heavy metals (Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, As, Mo, Cd and Pb) bound with C18 Sep-Pak extractable organic matter, dissolved organic metals, were analyzed by GFAAS. In all measured heavy metals, the dissolved organic metals existed in the hydrothermal plume samples collected from two sites. The concentration of the dissolved organic metals ranged from 0.5nM to 30nM and was about 1/1000~1/100 of the total dissolved heavy metals concentration. It suggests that these heavy metals were bound with organic matter originated in the hydrothermal microorganism. Though the abundance of the organism in the Central Indian Ridge is larger than that in the Suiyo Seamount caldera, the concentration of the dissolved organic metals in the plume samples at the Suiyo Seamount caldera was higher than that at the Central Indian Ridge. These results indicate that the bioavailability of heavy metals is different in two sites.

Shitashima, K.

2003-12-01

306

Black Holes in Higher Dimensions (black Strings and Black Rings)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher dimensional black holes received much interest in recent years, in particular in the context of string theory, and with the advent of brane-world theories, raising the possibility of direct observation in future high energy colliders. This session on black holes in higher dimensions features predominantly contributions on black holes, on black rings, on caged black holes, and on uniform and non-uniform black strings. Further topics are solitons in higher dimensions, gravitational collapse, etc.

Kunz, Jutta

2008-09-01

307

Body image, body satisfaction, and eating patterns in normal-weight and overweight\\/obese women current smokers and never-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore differences between women smokers and never-smokers in body image and eating patterns, we analyzed data obtained from 587 women (18–55 years old) recruited to participate in laboratory investigations not focused on weight concerns. The sample consisted of 420 current smokers and 167 never-smokers; 44% of each group were overweight or obese (BMI?25). Questionnaires included measures of body image, body

Cynthia S. Pomerleau; Karen Saules

2007-01-01

308

U and Th Concentration and Isotopic Composition of Hydrothermal Fluids at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium and Th concentration and isotopic composition of hydrothermal fluids at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) were determined using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP- MS). The LCHF is an off-axis, serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal system located at 30°N near the Mid- Atlantic Ridge. Carbonate chimneys reaching 60 m in height vent alkaline (pH~10), calcium-rich fluids at 40- 91°C and

K. A. Ludwig; C. Shen; H. Cheng; R. Edwards; D. S. Kelley; D. A. Butterfield

2006-01-01

309

Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope  

DOEpatents

A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

2002-01-01

310

Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope  

DOEpatents

A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

2003-07-01

311

Hydrothermal carbonization of lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermochemical conversion process to convert lignocellulosic biomass into value-added products. HTC processes were studied using two different biomass feedstocks: corn stalk and Tamarix ramosissima. The treatment brought an increase of the higher heating values up to 29.2 and 28.4 MJ/kg for corn stalk and T. ramosissima, respectively, corresponding to an increase of 66.8% and 58.3% as compared to those for the raw materials. The resulting lignite-like solid products contained mainly lignin with a high degree of aromatization and a large amount of oxygen-containing groups. Liquid products extracted with ethyl acetate were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified degradation products were phenolic compounds and furan derivatives, which may be desirable feedstocks for biodiesel and chemical production. Based on these results, HTC is considered to be a potential treatment in a lignocellulosic biomass refinery. PMID:22698445

Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

2012-05-22

312

Insular and anterior cingulate circuits in smokers with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with high rates of smoking. We previously found that resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) and striatum is independently associated with nicotine addiction and psychiatric illness. Since the insula is implicated in nicotine dependence, we hypothesized that SZ smokers will have greater dysfunction in smoking-related insular and dACC circuits than normal control smokers (NC) independent of smoking severity, consistent with an inherent disease-related weakening of smoking-related circuits. Nicotine challenge was used to demonstrate that decreased rsFC in identified circuits reflects addiction trait and is not affected by pharmacological state. Twenty-four NC smokers and 20 smokers with SZ matched on nicotine addiction severity participated in a resting state fMRI study and were scanned during two separate sessions while receiving a placebo or nicotine patch, in a randomized, cross-over design. Using individualized, anatomically defined anterior and posterior insula and dACC as regions of interest (ROI), whole brain rsFC was performed using each ROI as a seed. Significant negative correlations between smoking severity and rsFC between insula, dACC and striatum were found for both groups. Furthermore, smokers with SZ demonstrated additive reductions in circuit strength between the dACC and insula compared to NC smokers independent of smoking severity. Nicotine challenge did not significantly alter rsFC in insula-dACC-striatal circuits. Reduced rsFC strength between the insula, dACC and striatum is associated with nicotine addiction severity in both non-psychiatrically ill and in SZ smokers. Decreased insula-dACC rsFC may index overlapping circuitry associated with smoking and SZ. PMID:23021898

Moran, Lauren V; Sampath, Hemalatha; Stein, Elliot A; Hong, L Elliot

2012-09-27

313

Simulating smokers' acceptance of modifications in a cessation program.  

PubMed

Recent research has underscored the importance of assessing barriers to smokers' acceptance of cessation programs. This paper illustrates the use of computer simulations to gauge smokers' response to program modifications which may produce barriers to participation. It also highlights methodological issues encountered in conducting this work. Computer simulations were based on conjoint analysis, a consumer research method which enables measurement of smokers' relative preference for various modifications of cessation programs. Results from two studies are presented in this paper. The primary study used a randomly selected sample of 218 adult smokers who participated in a computer-assisted phone interview. Initially, the study assessed smokers' relative utility rating of 30 features of cessation programs. Utility data were used in computer-simulated comparisons of a low-cost, self-help oriented program under development and five other existing programs. A baseline version of the program under development and two modifications (for example, use of a support group with a higher level of cost) were simulated. Both the baseline version and modifications received a favorable response vis-à-vis comparison programs. Modifications requiring higher program costs were, however, associated with moderately reduced levels of favorable consumer response. The second study used a sample of 70 smokers who responded to an expanded set of smoking cessation program features focusing on program packaging. This secondary study incorporate in-person, computer-assisted interviews at a shopping mall, with smokers viewing an artist's mock-up of various program options on display. A similar pattern of responses to simulated program modifications emerged, with monetary cost apparently playing a key role. The significance of conjoint-based computer simulation as a tool in program development or dissemination, salient methodological issues, and implications for further research are discussed. PMID:1738813

Spoth, R

314

Do smokers in Europe think all cigarettes are equally harmful?  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the ban on misleading descriptors such as light or mild cigarettes in Europe, there are still widespread misperceptions of the relative harmfulness of different brands of cigarettes among smokers. This study examined the extent to which smokers in three European countries believed that some cigarette brands are less harmful and why, using data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe surveys. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were completed among nationally representative samples of 4,956 current smokers (aged ? 18) from Germany (n = 1,515), France (n = 1,735) and the United Kingdom (n = 1,706) conducted between September 2006 and November 2007. Logistic regression models examined whether outcomes, including beliefs that some cigarettes could be less harmful than others, varied by socio-demographic and country of residence. Findings: Around a quarter of smokers in the UK and France, and a third in Germany believed some cigarettes are less harmful than others. Overall, of smokers who falsely believed that some cigarettes are less harmful, 86.3% thought that tar/nicotine yields, 48.7% taste, and 40.4% terms on packs such as ‘smooth’ or ‘ultra’ indicated less harmful brands. About a fifth of smokers across all countries chose their brand based on health reasons, and a similar proportion gave tar yields as a reason for choosing brands. Conclusions: Our research suggests that the current European Tobacco Products Directive is inadequate in eliminating misperceptions about the relative risk of brand descriptors on cigarettes. There is therefore an urgent need to protect smokers in Europe from these misperceptions via stronger measures such as plain packaging regulations.

McNeill, Ann; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain

2012-01-01

315

Body image, body satisfaction, and eating patterns in normal-weight and overweight/obese women current smokers and never-smokers  

PubMed Central

In order to explore differences between women smokers and never-smokers in body image and eating patterns, we analyzed data obtained from 587 women (18?55 years old) recruited to participate in laboratory investigations not focused on weight concerns. The sample consisted of 420 current smokers and 167 never-smokers; 44% of each group were overweight or obese (BMI ?25). Questionnaires included measures of body image, body dissatisfaction, and restrained and disinhibited eating. Smokers did not differ from never-smokers on perceived body shape but endorsed a thinner preferred body shape and scored lower on body satisfaction than never-smokers. Smokers also scored higher on measures of disinhibited eating. Among smokers, those who were overweight/obese scored higher than normal-weight smokers on concerns about post-cessation weight gain and lower on self-efficacy to avoid relapse if weight increased. Our findings suggest that women smokers may require help in attaining a more realistic body image and attention to dysfunctional eating patterns if they are to achieve and maintain a healthful weight and/or to quit smoking successfully. They also indicate that overweight smokers may be at elevated risk of relapse in the face of post-cessation weight gain.

Pomerleau, Cynthia S.; Saules, Karen

2007-01-01

316

Hydrothermal Syntheses of Some Derivatives of Tetraazatriphenylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some derivatives of tetraazatriphenylene can be synthesized readily by a hydrothermal synthetic method. Compared with the traditional technique, this method is effective and simple process, and much high yields of products with higher purity can be harvested.

Guangbo Che; Wenlian Li; Zhiguo Kong; Zisheng Su; Bei Chu; Bin Li; Zhiqiang Zhang; Zhizhi Hu; Haijun Chi

2006-01-01

317

Smoking cessation, obesity and weight concerns in black women: a call to action for culturally competent interventions.  

PubMed Central

Approximately 20.8% of black women and 23.1% of white women smoke, and significantly more blacks (37.4%) than whites (22.4%) are obese. Although the average amount of weight gain after quitting smoking is 6-8 lbs for women, blacks tend to gain substantially more weight. This large increase in postcessation weight gain in blacks may further augment the health risks that blacks face in conjunction with obesity. Interventions that promote smoking cessation, while simultaneously reducing weight concerns or weight gain has been proposed as a strategy to help weight-concerned women quit smoking. However, these studies have included primarily white samples and no studies have examined the feasibility or effectiveness of smoking-cessation and weight-control interventions for black women smokers. This review describes the literature on smoking, obesity/weight control and weight concerns in smokers, with a particular attention to black women smokers. A call to action to develop comprehensive and culturally competent smoking-cessation and obesity/weight-control interventions for black women is emphasized due to their high rates of smoking, obesity and postcessation weight gain.

Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa A. P.

2005-01-01

318

Hydrothermal Manganese Mineralization Near the Samoan Hotspot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thickest beds of hydrothermal manganese oxides recovered to date from the global ocean were collected from a volcanic cone in the south Pacific. In April 2005, samples were dredged aboard the R.V. Kilo Moana from a volcanic cone on the lower flank of Tulaga seamount (about 2,700 m water depth; 14° 39.222' S; 170° 1.730' W), located 115 km SW of Vailulu'u, the volcanically and hydrothermally active center of the Samoan hotspot. Additional hydrothermal manganese samples were collected off Ofu Island (dredge Alia 107), 72 km to the WSW of Vailulu'u. Manganese-oxide beds up to 9 cm thick are composed of birnessite and 10 Å manganates. Some layers consist of Mn-oxide columnar structures 4 cm long and 1 cm wide, which have not been described previously. The mean Mn and Fe contents of 18 samples are 51 weight percent and 0.76 weight percent, respectively. Elevated concentrations of Li (mean 0.11 wt. percent) are indicators of a hydrothermal origin, and distinguishes these samples, along with the high Mn and low Fe contents, from hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts. Other enriched elements include Ba (mean 0.14 percent), Cu (249 ppm), Mo (451 ppm), Ni (400 ppm), Zn (394 ppm), V (214 ppm), and W (132 ppm). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns show large negative Ce anomalies and LREE enrichments, both characteristic of hydrothermal Mn deposits. Small negative Eu anomalies are not typical of hydrothermal deposits and can be explained either by the absence of leaching of plagioclase by the hydrothermal fluids or by the precipitation of Eu-rich minerals, such as barite and anhydrite, at depth. The high base-metal contents indicate that sulfides are not forming deeper in the hydrothermal system or that such deposits are being leached by the ascending fluids. Textures of the thickest Mn deposits indicate that the Mn oxides formed below the seabed from ascending fluids during multiple phases of waxing and waning hydrothermal pulses. The deposits were later exposed at the seafloor by erosional or mass wasting events; subsequently a thin layer of hydrogenetic Fe-Mn oxides accreted on the exposed surface. Mn-oxide filled veins may represent part of a feeder system. The thick sediment-free Mn-oxide layers locally grade into Mn-oxide cemented volcaniclastic beds. Our results indicate the extensive production of hydrothermal Mn on a regional basis, probably from multiple hydrothermal sources within the Samoan chain, and from the Tonga arc/back-arc system immediately to the west, as determined in previous studies.

Hein, J. R.; Staudigel, H.; Koppers, A.; Hart, S. R.; Dunham, R.

2006-12-01

319

The influence of smokers' degree of dependence on the effectiveness of message framing for capturing smokers for a Quitline.  

PubMed

Smoking is a worldwide public health problem, and various communication strategies aimed at its cessation have been used. The objective of this paper was to explore differences over time of two communication strategies (gain-framed versus loss-framed) in encouraging calls to a Quitline, according to smoker's degree of dependence. A study was conducted for four weeks among passengers of two selected subway stations in the city of Rio de Janeiro-Brazil (N(average) = 12,500 passengers a day per station). The interventions - large posters with images and text based on central theme "shortness-of-breath" - also contained the Quitline number. Call rate differences between the strategies, overall and specific per study week, were calculated. Light smokers exposed to the positive-content message called on average 2.2 times more often than those exposed to the negative-content message (p < 0.001). The absolute difference in call rates decreased after the first week of the study (p for the additive interaction between intervention and study week, 0.02). For heavy smokers, no differences between the two stations were observed. Additive interaction was found between type of smoker - light or heavy - and intervention (p = 0.02). The results suggest that short-term positive-content campaigns based on issues pertaining to individuals' daily routine could be effective in capturing light smokers. These results may have considerable public health impact, as the prevalence of less dependent smokers is much higher than that of heavier smokers. PMID:20163919

Szklo, André Salem; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

2010-02-01

320

Proactive recruitment of health plan smokers into telephone counseling.  

PubMed

We tested whether a 3-month beneficial effect of telephone counseling as an adjunct to the use of medications for smoking cessation was maintained through 12 months. Health plan members filling a prescription for cessation medications were randomized either to a no-contact control group or to proactive recruitment into telephone counseling. An increased point-prevalence quit rate at 3 months (33.1% vs. 27.4%, p<.05) among smokers randomized to proactive recruitment for telephone counseling was not maintained. Although at 12 months smokers in the proactive recruitment arm were more likely to report a 24-hr quit attempt, compared with control group smokers (86.7% vs. 80.8%, p = .027), we found no differences between the groups in repeated (3-month and 12-month) 7-day point-prevalence quit rates. In an analysis of predictors of quitting, age, marital status, making a lifestyle change, and the presence of household smokers were associated with repeated 3-month and 12-month point-prevalence abstinence. Offering telephone counseling to insured smokers who have filled prescriptions for cessation medications did not increase long-term quit rates. Although other variations of this approach might be tested, we suspect that it might be more useful to test innovative ways to influence the factors we identified as being most strongly predictive of lack of successful quitting. PMID:17454714

Boyle, Raymond G; Solberg, Leif I; Asche, Stephen E; Maciosek, Michael V; Boucher, Jackie L; Pronk, Nicolaas P

2007-05-01

321

Assessment of tobacco dependence in waterpipe smokers in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Summary Setting Waterpipe smoking is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, little is known about nicotine dependence in tobacco smokers who use waterpipes. Objective To assess evidence of dependence among non-cigarette smoking waterpipe smokers in Egypt. Methods A total of 154 male exclusive current waterpipe smokers were enrolled for the present study. We adapted the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence and the Reasons for Smoking (RFS) scales and related these to smoking behavior. Results The mean age of the subjects was 47 ± 14 years, the mean age at smoking initiation was 22 ± 9 years, and average daily consumption was 4 ± 8 hagars (tobacco units). The time to the first smoke of the day (P < 0.001), smoking even when ill (P = 0.003), time to tobacco craving (P < 0.001), and hating to give up the first smoke of the day (P = 0.033) were each significantly associated with the number of hagars smoked per day. The RFS subscales of addictive smoking, smoking to relieve negative affect, and smoking for stimulation were also associated with these variables. Conclusion The overall findings suggest that waterpipe smokers exhibit many of the same features of nicotine dependency attributed to cigarette smokers.

Auf, R. A.; Radwan, G. N.; Loffredo, C. A.; El Setouhy, M.; Israel, E.; Mohamed, M. K.

2013-01-01

322

Do anti-smoking media campaigns help smokers quit?  

PubMed Central

As part of an evaluation of the 1990-91 anti-tobacco media campaign carried out by the California Department of Health Services, a study was conducted among 417 regular smokers who had quit during the period of the media campaign. In brief telephone interviews, all respondents identified up to three events or experiences that had influenced them to quit. In response to uncued questions, 6.7 percent of those interviewed indicated that they had been influenced to quit by an advertisement they had seen or heard on radio, television, or billboards. In response to direct questions about the media campaign, 34.3 percent of the respondents indicated that the media campaign's advertisement had played a part in their decision to quit. Applying the 6.7 percentage to the number of Californians who quit smoking in 1990-91, it can be estimated that for 33,000 former smokers, the anti-tobacco media advertisements were an important stimulus in their quit decision. Multiplying the 34.3 percent by the number of former California smokers who quit in 1990-91, the estimate of former smokers for whom the media campaign's advertisements played at least some part in their decision to quit rises to 173,000 persons. While causal attributions from such investigations should be made with caution, the evidence suggests that the 1990-91 campaign did influence substantial number of smokers in California to quit.

Popham, W J; Potter, L D; Bal, D G; Johnson, M D; Duerr, J M; Quinn, V

1993-01-01

323

Strategies to help a smoker who is struggling to quit.  

PubMed

Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Stopping tobacco use benefits virtually every smoker. Most of the 19% of US residents who smoke want to quit and have tried to do so. Most individual quit attempts fail, but two-thirds of smokers use no treatment when trying to quit. Treating tobacco dependence is one of the most cost-effective actions in health care. With a brief intervention, physicians can prompt smokers to attempt to quit and connect them to evidence-based treatment that includes pharmacotherapy and behavioral support (ie, counseling). Physicians can link smokers to effective counseling support offered by a free national network of telephone quit lines. Smokers who use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, or varenicline when trying to quit double their odds of success. The most effective way to use NRT is to combine the long-acting nicotine patch with a shorter-acting product (lozenge, gum, inhaler, or nasal spray) and extend treatment beyond 12 weeks. Observational studies have not confirmed case reports of behavior changes associated with varenicline and bupropion, and these drugs' benefits outweigh potential risks. A chronic disease management model is effective for treating tobacco dependence, which deserves as high a priority in health care systems as treating other chronic diseases like diabetes and hypertension. PMID:23073954

Rigotti, Nancy A

2012-10-17

324

Rare earth element systematics in hydrothermal fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare earth element concentrations have been measured in hydrothermal solutions from geothermal fields in Italy, Dominica, Valles Caldera, Salton Sea and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The measured abundances show that hydrothermal activity is not expected to affect the REE balance of either continental or oceanic rocks. The REE enrichment of the solutions increases when the pH decreases. High-temperature solutions (>230°C) percolating through different rock types may show similar REE patterns.

Michard, Annie

1989-03-01

325

Rare earth element systematics in hydrothermal fluids  

SciTech Connect

Rare earth element concentrations have been measured in hydrothermal solutions from geothermal fields in Italy, Dominica, Valles Caldera, Salton Sea and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The measured abundances show that hydrothermal activity is not expected to affect the REE balance of either continental or oceanic rocks. The REE enrichment of the solutions increases when the pH decreases. High-temperature solutions (> 230{degree}C) percolating through different rock types may show similar REE patterns.

Michard, A. (Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France))

1989-03-01

326

Rare earth element systematics in hydrothermal fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earth element concentrations have been measured in hydrothermal solutions from geothermal fields in Italy, Dominica, Valles Caldera, Salton Sea and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The measured abundances show that hydrothermal activity is not expected to affect the REE balance of either continental or oceanic rocks. The REE enrichment of the solutions increases when the pH decreases. High-temperature solutions (>230°C) percolating

Annie Michard

1989-01-01

327

Phosphorylation of Nucleotide Molecules in Hydrothermal Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorylation of AMP into ADP and ATP, that can outrun their hydrolysis, was made possible in a simulated hydrothermal environment when trimetaphosphate was used as the phosphate source. The best yields of phosphorylated products were obtained when the reaction fluids whose temperature was set at about 100 degrees centigrade was injected into the cold environment maintained at 0 degree in a recycling manner. Hydrothermal environments in the primitive ocean could also have served as prebiotic sites for phosphorylation, among others.

Ozawa, Keita; Nemoto, Atsushi; Imai, Ei-ichi; Honda, Hajime; Hatori, Kuniyuki; Matsuno, Koichiro

2004-10-01

328

Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

Not Available

1982-05-01

329

Severity of dependence modulates smokers' neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving elicited by tobacco advertisement.  

PubMed

Smoking-related cues elicit craving and mesocorticolimbic brain activation in smokers. Severity of nicotine dependence seems to moderate cue reactivity, but the direction and mechanisms of its influence remains unclear. Although tobacco control policies demand a ban on tobacco advertising, cue reactivity studies in smokers so far have not employed tobacco advertisement as experimental stimuli. We investigated whether tobacco advertisement elicits cue reactivity at a behavioral (subjective craving) and a neural level (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers. Moreover, we studied the influence of severity of dependence on cue reactivity. In smokers, tobacco advertisement elicited substantially more craving than control advertisement whereas never-smokers reported no cue induced craving. Surprisingly, neuronal cue reactivity did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. Moderately dependent smokers' craving increased over the course of the experiment, whereas highly dependent smokers' craving was unaffected. Moderately dependent smokers' brain activity elicited by tobacco advertisement was higher in the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus compared with highly dependent smokers. Furthermore, limbic brain activation predicted picture recognition rates after the scanning session, even in never-smokers. Our findings show that tobacco advertisement elicits cigarette craving and neuronal cue reactivity primarily in moderately dependent smokers, indicating that they might be particularly responsive towards external smoking-related cues. On the other hand, neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving in highly dependent smokers is more likely triggered by internal cues such as withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco advertisement seems to likewise appeal to smokers and non-smokers, clarifying the potential danger especially for young non-smokers. PMID:20331560

Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Fehr, Christoph; Mann, Karl; Smolka, Michael N

2011-01-01

330

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (I) Drilling for Supercritical Hydrothermal Fluids is Underway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IDDP is being carried out by an international industry-government consortium in Iceland (consisting of three leading Icelandic power companies, together with the National Energy Authority), Alcoa Inc. and StatoilHydro) with the objective of investigating the economic feasibility of producing electricity from supercritical geothermal fluids. This will require drilling to temperatures of 400-600°C and depths of 4 to 5 km. Modeling suggests that supercritical water could yield an order of magnitude greater power output than that produced by conventional geothermal wells. The consortium plans to test this concept in three different geothermal fields in Iceland. If successful, major improvements in the development of high-temperature geothermal resources could result worldwide. In June 2008 preparation of the first deep IDDP well commenced in the Krafla volcanic caldera in the active rift zone of NE Iceland. Selection of the first drill site for this well was based on geological, geophysical and geochemical data, and on the results of extensive geothermal drilling since 1971. During 1975-1984, a rifting episode occurred in the caldera, involving 9 volcanic eruptions. In parts of the geothermal field acid volcanic gases made steam from some of the existing wells unsuitable for power generation for the following decade. A large magma chamber at 3-7 km depth was detected by S-wave attenuation beneath the center of the caldera, believed to be the heat source of the geothermal system. A recent MT-survey has confirmed the existence of low resistivity bodies at shallow depths within the volcano. The IDDP well will be drilled and cased to 800m depth in September, before the winter snows, and in spring 2009 it will be drilled and cased to 3.5km depth and then deepened to 4.5 km in July. Several spot cores for scientific studies will be collected between 2400m and the total depth. After the well heats, it will be flow tested and, if successful, a pilot plant for power production should follow in 2010. During 2009-19 two new wells, ~4 km deep, will be drilled at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields in southern Iceland, and subsequently deepened into the supercritical zone. In contrast to the fresh water systems at Krafla and Hengill, the Reykjanes geothermal system produces hydrothermally modified seawater on the Reykjanes peninsula, where the Mid-Atlantic Ridge comes on land. Processes at depth at Reykjanes should be more similar to those responsible for black smokers on oceanic rift systems. Because of the considerable international scientific opportunities afforded by the IDDP, the US National Science Foundation and the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program will jointly fund the coring and sampling for scientific studies. Research is underway on samples from existing wells in the targeted geothermal fields, and on active mid-ocean ridge systems that have conditions believed to be similar to those that will be encountered in deep drilling by the IDDP. Some of these initial scientific studies by US investigators are reported in the accompanying papers.

Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.

2008-12-01

331

Using numerical models and volume rendering to interpret acoustic imaging of hydrothermal flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our acoustic imaging system will be installed onto the Neptune Canada observatory at the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge, which is a Ridge 2000 Integrated Study Site. Thereafter, 16-30 Gb of acoustic imaging data will be collected daily. We are developing a numerical model of merging plumes that will be used to guide expectations and volume rendering software that transforms volumetric acoustic data into photo-like images. Hydrothermal flow is modeled as a combination of merged point sources which can be configured in any geometry. The model stipulates the dissipation or dilution of the flow and uses potential fields and complex analysis to combine the entrainment fields produced by each source. The strengths of this model are (a) the ability to handle a variety of scales especially the small scale as the potential fields can be specified with an effectively infinite boundary condition, (b) the ability to handle line, circle and areal source configurations, and (c) the ability to handle both high temperature focused flow and low temperature diffuse flow. This model predicts the vertical and horizontal velocities and the spatial distribution of effluent from combined sources of variable strength in a steady ambient velocity field. To verify the accuracy of the model’s results, we compare the model predictions of plume centerlines for the merging of two relatively strong point sources with the acoustic imaging data collected at Clam Acres, Southwest Vent Field, EPR 21°N in 1990. The two chimneys are 3.5 m apart and the plumes emanating from their tops merge approximately 18 mab. The model is able to predict the height of merging and the bending of the centerlines. Merging is implicitly observed at Grotto Vent, Main Endeavour Field, in our VIP 2000 data from July 2000: although there are at least 5 vigorous black smokers only a single plume is discernable in the acoustic imaging data. Furthermore, the observed Doppler velocity data increases with height, consistent with multiple merging plumes. The numerical model assumes 5 sources in a circle and predicts that the plumes merge between 10 m and 15 m above the vents resulting in a 3-fold increase in velocity. The predictions of the numerical model are sensitive to the interplay between vent velocity, ambient velocity and entrainment rates. To better illustrate variations in expansion with ambient velocity, we have developed a two-phase volume rendering technique which substantially improves the illustration of expansion rates. The numerical model is also able to make predictions about the areal distribution of effluent from diffuse flow by modeling it as multiple weak sources. Comparisons with diffuse flow maps, particularly those based on July 2000 data from our acoustic imaging, suggest that interpretation of diffuse flow maps (and in situ temperature measurements) requires knowledge of the ambient currents in order to gauge how far the effluent may have shifted from its source, as merging may result in an increase in rise rate.

Bemis, K. G.; Bennett, K.; Takle, J.; Rona, P. A.; Silver, D.

2009-12-01

332

Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings.  

PubMed

The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. We conducted a pilot, randomised double blind placebo controlled study set out to assess the impact of the ad-hoc use of cannabidiol (CBD) in smokers who wished to stop smoking. 24 smokers were randomised to receive an inhaler of CBD (n=12) or placebo (n=12) for one week, they were instructed to use the inhaler when they felt the urge to smoke. Over the treatment week, placebo treated smokers showed no differences in number of cigarettes smoked. In contrast, those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by ~40% during treatment. Results also indicated some maintenance of this effect at follow-up. These preliminary data, combined with the strong preclinical rationale for use of this compound, suggest CBD to be a potential treatment for nicotine addiction that warrants further exploration. PMID:23685330

Morgan, Celia J A; Das, Ravi K; Joye, Alyssa; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

2013-04-01

333

Smoking patterns and dependence: contrasting chippers and heavy smokers.  

PubMed

The authors used ecological momentary assessment to contrast smoking patterns among chippers (CHs; n = 26)--smokers who smoke despite an apparent absence of tobacco dependence--with those seen in heavy smokers (HSs; n = 28). Smoking and nonsmoking settings (activity, mood, etc.) were assessed by means of electronic diary. CHs were not social smokers; like HSs, they smoked half their cigarettes while alone. When smoking, CHs' urge levels equaled those of HSs; between cigarettes, CHs had few urges, whereas HSs reported moderate urges. CHs' smoking was particularly associated with indulgent activities: relaxation, socializing, eating, and drinking alcohol. Outside of these indulgent settings, CHs' (but not HSs') smoking was associated with negative affect. In idiographic analyses, CHs' smoking was under much stronger stimulus control than was that of HSs. The authors propose that the disappearance of stimulus control over use is a characteristic of dependence. PMID:16866591

Shiffman, Saul; Paty, Jean

2006-08-01

334

Can divergent plasmin-antiplasmin-carbon monoxide interactions in young, healthy tobacco smokers explain the 'smoker's paradox'?  

PubMed

In the setting of acute myocardial infarction, decreases in early/late mortality, reocclusion after thrombolysis, and restenosis rate after percutaneous intervention are lower in smokers - this phenomenon has been designated as the 'smoker's paradox'. These benefits of smoking, however, are abrogated by stent placement. We hypothesized that fibrinolytic vulnerability would change in response to smoking, and that inhaled carbon monoxide may play a role. Smoking patients (n = 20, two cigarettes consumed within 90 min, average carboxyhemoglobin concentration of 5%) had plasma collected and normal individual (n = 20) plasma was also obtained. Thrombelastographic analyses conducted with addition of tissue-type plasminogen activator revealed that with the exception of the rate of thrombus generation, there was little difference in fibrinolytic kinetics between normal and smoking individuals. Addition of exogenous carbon monoxide resulted in diminished fibrinolytic response to the same extent in both groups. Subanalyses demonstrated that the smoking cohort had both hyperfibrinolytic and hypofibrinolytic patients as defined by confidence interval (5-95%) values generated from normal individuals. Addition of carbon monoxide reduced hyperfibrinolytic parameter values by 80% in smokers, whereas only a 17% decrease in hypofibrinolytic values changed. Our investigation suggests that 'smoker's paradox' involves a marked change in the character of the plasmin-antiplasmin-carbon monoxide interaction. Further investigation will be required to further define the molecular mechanism responsible for the 'smoker's paradox'. PMID:23429256

Nielsen, Vance G; Hafner, David T; Steinbrenner, Evangelina B

2013-06-01

335

The Black President Hokum  

Microsoft Academic Search

By offering a black feminist critique of fictional black presidencies, this essay highlights what the trope of black presidency, articulated via competing narratives of time and historical progress, is meant to manage in contemporary U.S. public culture: a heterogeneous black freedom struggle that is both conjured and contained by the trope of the black president, the objections of black women

Erica R. Edwards

2011-01-01

336

The Black President Hokum  

Microsoft Academic Search

:By offering a black feminist critique of fictional black presidencies, this essay highlights what the trope of black presidency, articulated via competing narratives of time and historical progress, is meant to manage in contemporary U.S. public culture: a heterogeneous black freedom struggle that is both conjured and contained by the trope of the black president, the objections of black women

Erica R. Edwards

2011-01-01

337

A study of carboxyhaemoglobin levels of cigarette and sheesha smokers in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed Central

A single carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) estimation of late evening blood sample among non-smokers, cigarette smokers, and sheesha smokers was evaluated among Saudis. The COHb level in smokers of 15 to 40 cigarettes a day ranged between 0.7 and 10.3 with a mean value of 6.1 +/- 2.58 COHb. Values among sheesha smokers ranged between 6.5 and 13.9 with a mean value of 8.8 +/- 1.83, significantly higher than those of cigarette smokers (P less than 0.001) for a given degree of exposure to tobacco smoke.

Zahran, F; Yousef, A A; Baig, M H

1982-01-01

338

Reproducibility of the Nicotine Metabolite Ratio in Cigarette Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR or 3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine) has been used to phenotype CYP2A6-mediated nicotine metabolism. Our objectives were to analyze (a) the stability of NMR in plasma, saliva, and blood in various storage conditions, (b) the relationship between NMRs derived from blood, plasma, saliva, and urine, and (c) the reproducibility of plasma NMR in ad libitum cigarette smokers. Methods We analyzed data from four clinical studies. In studies 1 and 2, we assessed NMR stability in saliva and plasma samples at room temperature (~22°C) over 14 days and in blood at 4°C for up to 72 hours. In studies 2 and 3, we used Bland-Altman analysis to assess agreement between blood, plasma, saliva, and urine NMRs. In study 4, plasma NMR was measured on 6 occasions over 44 weeks in 43 ad libitum smokers. Results Reliability coefficients for stability tests of NMR in plasma and saliva at room temperature were 0.97 and 0.98, respectively, and 0.92 for blood at 4°C. Blood NMR agreed consistently with saliva and plasma NMRs but showed more variability in relation to urine NMR. The reliability coefficient for repeated plasma NMR measurements in smokers was 0.85. Conclusion The NMR is stable in blood, plasma, and saliva at the conditions tested. Blood, plasma, and saliva NMRs are similar while urine NMR is a good proxy for these NMR measures. Plasma NMR was reproducible over time in smokers. Impact One measurement may reliably estimate a smoker’s NMR for use as an estimate of the rate of nicotine metabolism.

St.Helen, Gideon; Novalen, Maria; Heitjan, Daniel F.; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton; Aziziyeh, Adel; Wing, Victoria C.; George, Tony P.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Benowitz, Neal L.

2012-01-01

339

Altered innate immune response in farmers and smokers.  

PubMed

Pig farmers and cigarette smokers are continuously exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) have an increased prevalence of respiratory disorders, such as chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary decease (COPD). We hypothesized that markers of innate immunity, T-helper (Th) cell cytokine profile and acute responses to pro-inflammatory stimuli differ between smokers and farmers, who are exposed to organic material on a daily basis and healthy non-exposed subjects. Eleven non-smoking pig farmers, 12 non-farming smokers and 12 controls underwent bronchial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and exposure in a pig barn during 3 h on separate days. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4 and CD14 on blood monocytes and neutrophils and intracellular cytokine profile of Th cells were assessed before and 7 h after exposures. The same outcomes were analysed on peripheral blood and purified neutrophils from farmers and controls after stimulation ex vivo with dust from a pig barn and LPS. Circulating neutrophils and IL-13 and IL-4 producing Th cells were increased in smokers and farmers and TLR2 expression on blood monocytes was decreased in farmers compared with controls and smokers. After in vivo exposure, altered TLR expression was only observed in controls and the ex vivo stimulations showed an attenuated response in farmers compared to the control group. The inflammatory systemic response to pro-inflammatory stimuli is altered in farmers and smokers probably because of adaptive mechanisms arising from chronic exposure to organic material. This increased proportion of Th2 cells and reduced TLR2 expression may have health-related implications and may be related to the increased prevalence of respiratory disorders observed in these groups. PMID:19675120

Sahlander, Karin; Larsson, Kjell; Palmberg, Lena

2009-08-12

340

Methylated Genes in Sputum Among Older Smokers With Asthma  

PubMed Central

Objective: The epigenetic basis for human asthma is not well studied, particularly among older adults. This study investigated the methylation profiles in sputum DNA among older adults with asthma, using a population of smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using the Lovelace Smokers Cohort, a population of former and current smokers aged ? 40 years in New Mexico. One hundred eighty-four smokers with asthma were compared with 511 smoker control subjects with a similar smoking history, after carefully excluding those with COPD. Environmental exposures were assessed by a standard questionnaire. Postbronchodilator spirometry was performed. Induced sputum was analyzed for the methylation prevalence of 12 selected asthma-related genes using nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: Asthma was associated with a greater number of methylated genes and, specifically, with methylated protocadherin-20 gene in sputum DNA compared with control subjects with a similar smoking history. These associations remained significant after adjustment for covariates as well as Bonferroni correction. A synergistic interaction was noted between two methylated genes (protocadherin-20 and paired box protein transcription factor-5?) in sputum DNA on the odds for asthma (P = .009). Interestingly, the epigenetic-asthma associations were not explained by the environmental factors studied. Further, methylated genes in sputum DNA, including the protocadherin-20 gene, identified a symptomatically more severe asthma phenotype in a subgroup analysis. Conclusions: Asthma is associated with methylation of selected genes, such as protocadherin-20 gene, in sputum DNA. If future studies establish causality, novel demethylating interventions to prevent and treat asthma among older smokers may be possible.

Sood, Akshay; Petersen, Hans; Blanchette, Christopher M.; Meek, Paula; Picchi, Maria A.; Belinsky, Steven A.

2012-01-01

341

Characteristics of smokers accessing the Puerto Rico Quitline  

PubMed Central

Background: In 2004, the Puerto Rico Department of Health implemented the Puerto Rico Quitline (PRQ), a proactive, telephone-based smoking cessation counseling program. This study examines the demographic and smoking-related characteristics of the individuals served by the PRQ. Methods: Analyses included PRQ participants registered from December 2004-December 2005. PRQ call rates and rate ratios (RR) were calculated overall, among smokers, and stratified by relevant covariates. Associations between sex and relevant characteristics of PRQ participants were compared using regression models. Results: Call rates per 100,000 smokers in PR were lower among men than women (RR=0.50, 95% CI=0.44-0.56), and higher among all age groups ? 25 years of age as compared to those aged 15-24 years (RRs=4.34-8.14) and among smokers living in the San Juan metropolitan area relative to smokers residing outside the metropolitan area (RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.29-1.63). Mass media was the most common way in which participants learned about the PRQ (>70%), with only 2-3% of callers reporting a physician's referral as the source of their information about the PRQ. With respect to reasons for quitting, men were less likely than women to report concern about a child's health (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.46-0.84) and cigarette odor (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.41-0.99). Meanwhile, men were more likely (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.01-1.91) to report the influence of other smokers as a barrier during quitting. Conclusions: PRQ promotion and outreach efforts should target populations underserved by the PRQ including male, young adult, and non-metropolitan area smokers. Initiatives that link the PRQ with primary care providers in promoting smoking cessation should be encouraged.

ORTIZ, ANA PATRICIA; DAAZ-TORO, ELBA C.; CALO, WILLIAM A.; CORREA-FERNANDEZ, VIRMARIE; CASES, ANTONIO; SANTOS-ORTIZ, MARIA C.; MAZAS, CARLOS; MEJIA, LUZ; WETTER, DAVID W.

2009-01-01

342

Hydrothermal Circulation in Europa's Mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Features on the surface of Europa may reflect non-uniform heating in an underlying ocean due to variations in heat flux at the top of the mantle. Pore water convection can generate a spatially heterogeneous heat flux in a fractured, permeable mantle. Continual stressing of mantle material by gravitational tides, as well as occasional large-scale freezing and thawing that might be associated with changes in tidal resonance, and long-term hydration/dehydration processes, may allow significant permeability to exist despite the approximately 1 kbar confining overburden pressure at the mantle surface. We use a computational model of Europa to determine the impact of hydrothermal convection on overall heat transport, ice shell thickness, and heat flux heterogeneity and magnitude at the mantle/ocean and ocean/ice shell interfaces. Our model of Europa includes a core, a silicate mantle, an ocean layer, and an ice shell. Hydrothermal convection in the mantle, thermal diffusion, parameterized ocean flow and melting/freezing are the heat transport mechanisms included. Surface temperatures range sinusoidally from 52K at the poles to 110K at the equator. Total heating in the body consists of tidal dissipation in the mantle and core, radiogenic heating in the mantle, and tidal dissipation in the ice shell. Tidal heating is a function of ice viscosity and pressure-dependent melt temperature. Literature values for the total heating range from about 1 to 10 TW. Mantle and core heating are estimated to be equivalent to about 10 mW/m2 at the mantle surface. We assume that the outer few hundred kilometers of the mantle are permeable, and use an average value of 10 millidarcys, typical of the Earth at equivalent overburden depths. In 2-D and 3-D simulations, the ice shell thickness ranges from 20 km or less at the equator to about 40 km at the poles, with a slushy ice/water mixture below the ice cap in the polar regions. Transient, well-defined plumes are seen in the equatorial region (roughly +/- 30o) of the ocean layer, leading to enhanced heat flux below the ice cap there. Vigorous convection occurs in the mantle as a mix of plumes and linear features roughly 25-100 km wide and lengths up to several hundred kilometers. Changes in dynamics as a function of mantle permeability and heating rates are being explored. This work was supported by a grant from the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at Los Alamos National Laboratory and by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program.

Travis, B.; Schubert, G.; Palguta, J.

2005-12-01

343

Removal of trace elements in hydrothermal plume at submarine volcanic arc hydrothermal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the study of geochemical fluxes of trace elements from the hydrothermal system, it is necessary to collect not only samples by the hydro-cast from surface ship and fluid samples using a submersible but also temporally and spatially continuous samples ranging from a fluid to a hydrothermal plume. For that purpose, the sampling method along the diluting and rising plume

K. Shitashima

2007-01-01

344

Prenatal Hair Nicotine Analysis in Homes with Multiple Smokers  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Prenatal exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is responsible for adverse perinatal outcomes, including preterm birth. Smoking in the home is the primary source of exposure to women during pregnancy. Hair nicotine analysis of mothers and infants was used to describe the relationship between prenatal SHS exposure and number of household smokers. Maternal hair nicotine was strongly correlated with number of household smokers, and a more sensitive measure of household smoking than infant hair. Home smoking bans and focused public media campaigns on the harmful effects of SHS exposure are necessary prevention strategies to avoid adverse perinatal outcomes.

Ashford, Kristin

2011-01-01

345

Neuroimaging of marijuana smokers during inhibitory processing: a pilot investigation.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological investigations of substance abusers have reported impairments on tasks mediated by the frontal executive system, including functions associated with behavioral inhibition and decision making. The higher order or executive components which are involved in decision making include selective attention and short term storage of information, inhibition of response to irrelevant information, initiation of response to relevant information, self-monitoring of performance, and changing internal and external contingencies in order to "stay the course" towards the ultimate goal. Given the hypothesized role of frontal systems in decision making and the previous evidence that executive dysfunctions and structural brain changes exist in subjects who use illicit drugs, we applied fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques in a pilot investigation of heavy cannabis smokers and matched control subjects while performing a modification of the classic Stroop task. Marijuana smokers demonstrated significantly lower anterior cingulate activity in focal areas of the anterior cingulate cortex and higher midcingulate activity relative to controls, although both groups were able to perform the task within normal limits. Normal controls also demonstrated increased activity within the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the interference condition, while marijuana smokers demonstrated a more diffuse, bilateral pattern of DLPFC activation. Similarly, although both groups performed the task well, marijuana smokers made more errors of commission than controls during the interference condition, which were associated with different brain regions than control subjects. These findings suggest that marijuana smokers exhibit different patterns of BOLD response and error response during the Stroop interference condition compared to normal controls despite similar task performance. Furthermore, DTI measures in frontal regions, which include the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and bilateral anterior cingulate white matter regions, showed no between group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of directional coherence within white matter fiber tracts, but a notable increase in trace, a measure of overall isotropic diffusivity in marijuana smokers compared to controls. Overall, results from the present study indicate significant differences in the magnitude and pattern of signal intensity change within the anterior cingulate and the DLPFC during the Stroop interference subtest in chronic marijuana smokers compared to normal controls. Furthermore, although chronic marijuana smokers were able to perform the task reasonably well, the functional activation findings suggest they utilize different cortical processes from the control subjects in order to do so. Findings from this study are consistent with the notion that substance abusers demonstrate evidence of altered frontal neural function during the performance of tasks that involve inhibition and performance monitoring, which may affect the ability to make decisions. PMID:15795138

Gruber, Staci A; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

2005-04-01

346

Use of contraband cigarettes among adolescent daily smokers in Canada.  

PubMed

Current tobacco-control strategies seek to inhibit and reduce smoking among adolescents. However, such strategies are probably undermined by the contraband tobacco market. Using data from Canada's 2006/2007 Youth Smoking Survey, we found that 13.1% of respondents who were daily smokers reported that contraband cigarettes were their usual brand. They consumed significantly more cigarettes than respondents who smoked other brands. Contraband cigarettes accounted for about 17.5% of all cigarettes smoked by adolescent daily smokers in Canada overall, and for more than 25% in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. PMID:19737829

Callaghan, Russell C; Veldhuizen, Scott; Leatherdale, Scott; Murnaghan, Donna; Manske, Steve

2009-09-08

347

Use of contraband cigarettes among adolescent daily smokers in Canada  

PubMed Central

Current tobacco-control strategies seek to inhibit and reduce smoking among adolescents. However, such strategies are probably undermined by the contraband tobacco market. Using data from Canada’s 2006/2007 Youth Smoking Survey, we found that 13.1% of respondents who were daily smokers reported that contraband cigarettes were their usual brand. They consumed significantly more cigarettes than respondents who smoked other brands. Contraband cigarettes accounted for about 17.5% of all cigarettes smoked by adolescent daily smokers in Canada overall, and for more than 25% in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec.

Callaghan, Russell C.; Veldhuizen, Scott; Leatherdale, Scott; Murnaghan, Donna; Manske, Steve

2009-01-01

348

Attentional bias toward cigarette cues in active smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  While it is well documented that substance users exhibit attentional bias toward addiction-related stimuli, the exact mechanism\\u000a remains unclear.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To differentiate between distinct aspects of attentional allocation in the smoking-cue attentional bias observed in smokers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Active smokers (AS) and non-smoking controls completed spatial cueing tasks with pairs of smoking and neutral pictorial cues\\u000a to measure attentional capture, and an attentional

Vicki W. Chanon; Chandler R. Sours; Charlotte A. Boettiger

2010-01-01

349

African American Smokers' Intention to Use Pharmacotherapy for Cessation  

PubMed Central

Objectives To use the theory of planned behavior to identify predictors of intentions to use cessation aids when quitting smoking. Methods African American smokers completed a survey to assess intentions, attitudes, and normative and control beliefs regarding the use of smoking cessation aids. Results Participants held mildly positive attitudes regarding the use of cessation aids. Beliefs related to the utility of aids, support of referents, and accessibility of a doctor were most strongly associated with intention to use cessation aids. Conclusions African American smokers may be amenable to the use of cessation aids, and specific beliefs may be targets for intervention.

Lynam, Ian; Catley, Delwyn; Harris, Kari Jo; Goggin, Kathy; Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Thomas, Janet

2012-01-01

350

Nicotine effects on affective response in depression-prone smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Comorbidity between cigarette smoking and depression is thought to arise because depression-prone smokers self-administer\\u000a nicotine to improve mood. Yet little evidence supports this view, and nicotine’s effect on positive affect deficiency in depression\\u000a remains largely unstudied.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  We hypothesized that (1) nicotine would dispel negative affect and enhance positive affect and (2) effects would be stronger\\u000a for smokers vulnerable to depression,

Bonnie Spring; Jessica Werth Cook; Bradley Appelhans; Anne Maloney; Malia Richmond; Jocelyn Vaughn; Joseph Vanderveen; Donald Hedeker

2008-01-01

351

Black Carbon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Black carbon, composed of tiny particles of soot, is produced whenever organic substances like fossil fuels, firewood or coal is incompletely burned. These particles are polluting the air and causing serious health and environmental concerns for people around the world. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

352

Black Flies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information about the common annoyance pest the Black Fly. The flies life cycle and control strategy are covered. While the information is specific to Los Angeles California, the same strategies are effective elsewhere. Personal protection information is also offered and is universally effective.

0002-11-30

353

A comparison of diabetic smokers and non-smokers who undergo lower extremity amputation: a retrospective review of 112 patients  

PubMed Central

Background A diabetic foot or lower extremity amputation may be exacerbated by or related to the smoking habits and history of the patient. Patients and methods Of the 112 diabetic patients in this retrospective study, 46 were non-smokers and 66 were smokers. The smokers were further categorized into patients who: 1) did not cease smoking; 2) ceased in the immediate post-operative period but resumed within 3 months; and 3) ceased up to and at the 3-month post-operative period. The patients were also divided by their amputation level of forefoot, midfoot/rearfoot, and proximal leg. Results Smoking diabetic patients underwent more amputations, as well as more proximal amputations than those who did not smoke. The higher amount of smoking in pack years followed an increasing trend of more proximal amputations as well. Conclusion Neither the amputation level nor the amputation itself was enough motivation for the patients to participate in smoking cessation.

Anderson, J. Joseph; Boone, Joshua; Hansen, Myron; Spencer, Loren; Fowler, Zflan

2012-01-01

354

Two types of hydrothermal fields in Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two principal types of the hydrothermal fields in Atlantic - central and flanked - could be established based on their structural setting in the rift zone of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The first (central) type is represented by Snake Pit, Broken Spur, Lucky Strike and Menez Gwen hydrothermal sites. All of these fields are connected with young axial effusive volcanism and related to large linear volcanic ridges or central volcanoes at the inner floor of the rift valley. The hydrothermal activity here is controlled by the intersection between longitudinal magma feeding faults and transversed weakened zones characterized by high permeability. The hydrothermal sites of the second (flanked) type (such as Logatchev, Reinbow, 24 grad. 30 min. N and possibly 13 grad. N and 16 grad. 45 min. N sites discovered recently) are related to large tectonic dislocations forming marginal scarps of the rift valley. The hydrothermal deposits of the first type are hosted by basalts meanwhile the flanked massive sulfides are represented mostly by ultramafic hosted deposits. There is no evident association of second type deposits with recent volcanics; the forming control by the transverse faults is dominated. Massive sulfides of the flanked type are characterized by the following features: § enrichment by Cu, heavy sulfur isotopes and radiogenic isotopes of Pb and depletion by Fe and S § presence of noble metal mineralization with native gold and platinum § presence of minerals of Co, Ni, As, Ag, Hg, U as well as intermetallides Hydrothermal fluides of the flanked type fields specified by high concentration of Cl, H2, CH4 and low content of H2S. We propose that all these features are determined by two genetically different types of hydrothermal systems, shallow- and deep-seated system.

Cherkashev, G.; Poroshina, I.; Stepanova, T.

2003-04-01

355

Down-Regulation of the Canonical Wnt ?-Catenin Pathway in the Airway Epithelium of Healthy Smokers and Smokers with COPD  

PubMed Central

Background The Wnt pathway mediates differentiation of epithelial tissues; depending on the tissue types, Wnt can either drive or inhibit the differentiation process. We hypothesized that key genes in the Wnt pathway are suppressed in the human airway epithelium under the stress of cigarette smoking, a stress associated with dysregulation of the epithelial differentiated state. Methodology/Principal Findings Microarrays were used to assess the expression of Wnt-related genes in the small airway epithelium (SAE) obtained via bronchoscopy and brushing of healthy nonsmokers, healthy smokers, and smokers with COPD. Thirty-three of 56 known Wnt-related genes were expressed in the SAE. Wnt pathway downstream mediators ?-catenin and the transcription factor 7-like 1 were down-regulated in healthy smokers and smokers with COPD, as were many Wnt target genes. Among the extracellular regulators that suppress the Wnt pathway, secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), was up-regulated 4.3-fold in healthy smokers and 4.9-fold in COPD smokers, an observation confirmed by TaqMan Real-time PCR, Western analysis and immunohistochemistry. Finally, cigarette smoke extract mediated up-regulation of SFRP2 and down-regulation of Wnt target genes in airway epithelial cells in vitro. Conclusions/Significance Smoking down-regulates the Wnt pathway in the human airway epithelium. In the context that Wnt pathway plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial tissues, the down-regulation of Wnt pathway may contribute to the dysregulation of airway epithelium differentiation observed in smoking-related airway disorders.

Wang, Rui; Ahmed, Joumana; Wang, Guoqing; Hassan, Ibrahim; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Hackett, Neil R.; Crystal, Ronald G.

2011-01-01

356

Support for smoke-free policies among smokers and non-smokers in six cities in China: ITC China Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine levels of support for comprehensive smoke-free policies in six large Chinese cities. Methods Data from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey (April–August 2006) were analysed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan (none of which has comprehensive smoke-free policies in place). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 4815 smokers and 1270 non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with support for comprehensive smoke-free policies. Results About one in two Chinese urban smokers and four in five non-smokers believed that secondhand smoke (SHS) causes lung cancer. The majority of respondents supported comprehensive smoke-free policies in hospitals, schools and public transport vehicles while support for smoke-free workplaces, restaurants and bars was lower. Levels of support were generally comparable between smokers and non-smokers. Support for comprehensive smoke-free policies was positively associated with knowledge about the harm of SHS. Respondents who worked in a smoke-free worksite or who frequented smoke-free indoor entertainment places were more likely to support comprehensive smoking restriction in bars and restaurants. Conclusion Considerable support for smoke-free policies exists in these six large cities in China. Greater public education about the dangers of SHS may further increase support. Experiencing the benefits of smoke-free indoor entertainment places and/or workplaces increases support for these policies and suggests that some initial smoke-free policy implementation may hasten the diffusion of these public health policies.

Hyland, A; O'Connor, R; Zhao, G; Du, L; Li, X; Fong, G T

2009-01-01

357

Hydrothermal chimneys and Sulphide mineralised breccias from the Kolbeinsey and the Mohns Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inactive hydrothermal ventsite was discovered at the Kolbeinsey Ridge, (68^o56'N,17^o12'W) during the SUBMAR-99 cruise. The field is located in the neovolcanic sone at the flat top of a circular volcano at 900 m water depth. Two major fields contain about 30 chimneys. The top of one chimney was collected for further research. The mineralogy of the chimney is dominated by sphalerite, silica and barite, with minor amounts of galena and pyrrhotite, an assemblage which suggest a formation temperature < 250^oC, alike white smokers [1]. The outer part of the chimney is enriched in LREE and shows a large positive Eu-anomaly compared to the inner parts of the chimney. Variation in Ce-anomaly reflects varying degrees of seawater infiltration during mineral precipitation. The first formed minerals in the lower part, and the outer part of the chimney appears to contain the most seawater-affected minerals. The Ag content of sphalerite may be as high as 1 wt%, but is restricted to small domains especially around fluid channels. A zonation in the Fe/Zn ratio of sphalerite is observed across fluid channels, suggesting variations in the fluid composition with time. The Pb-content of the chimney is extremely high, with up to 10 wt% in some sphalerite grains, and the bulk values are as high as 10 000 ppm. These high values suggest that sediments may have been present in the reaction zone of this hydrothermal system. Sulphide mineralised breccias were recovered by dredging the northern fault wall of the Mohns Ridge at 72^o39,33'N, 02^o40,87'E, during the SUBMAR-2000 cruise. The breccias exhibit several progressive stages of hydrothermal alteration: 1) the least altered parts are composed of partly altered basalt clasts and some chlorite, 2) more strongly altered samples mainly consist of quarts in a chlorite matrix, 3) and the most heavily mineralised parts contain secondary quarts and chalcopyrite. The final hydrothermal stage recorded by the breccias involved oxidation of chalcopyrite and formation of malachite. This final stage appears to have altered the Sr-isotope composition to that of seawater, and may reflect that the fault zone changed from being a channel for fluid up-flow, to a zone of seawater down-flow. [1] Hannington, M. D., I. R. Jonasson, et al. (1995). "Physical and Chemical Processes of Seafloor Mineralization at Mid-Ocean Ridges." Geophysical Monograph 91; Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems; Physical, Chemical, Biological and Geological Interactions: 115-157.

Nygård, T. E.; Bjerkgård, T.; Kelly, D.; Thorseth, I.; Pedersen, R. B.

2003-04-01

358

Macrofauna of shallow hydrothermal vents on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge at 71N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna and since their discovery in 1977, more than 400 species of animals have been described. Specialized vent fauna includes various animal phyla, but the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. We have investigated the fauna collected around newly discovered hydrothermal vents on the Mohns Ridge north of Jan Mayen. The venting fields are located at 71°N and the venting takes place within two main areas separated by 5 km. The shallowest vent area is at 500-550 m water depth and is located at the base of a normal fault. This vent field stretches approximately 1 km along the strike of the fault, and it is composed of 10-20 major vent sites each with multiple chimney constructions discharging up to 260°C hot fluids. A large area of diffuse, low- temperature venting occurs in the area surrounding the high-temperature field. Here, partly microbial mediated iron-oxide-hydroxide deposits are abundant. The hydrothermal vent sites do not show any high abundance of specialized hydrothermal vent fauna. Single groups (i.e. Porifera and Mollusca) have a few representatives but groups otherwise common in hydrothermal vent areas (e.g. vestimentifera, Alvinellid worms, mussels, clams, galathaeid and brachyuran crabs) are absent. Up until now slightly more than 200 species have been identified from the vent area. The macrofauna found in the vent area is, with few exceptions, an assortment of bathyal species known in the area. One endemic, yet undescribed, species of mollusc has been found so far, an gastropod related to Alvania incognita Warén, 1996 and A. angularis Warén, 1996 (Rissoidae), two species originally described from pieces of sunken wood north and south of Iceland. It is by far the most numerous mollusc species at the vents and was found on smokers, in the bacterial mats, and on the ferric deposits. A single specimen of an undescribed tanaidacean has also ben found. The crinoid Heliometra glacialis is dominating large areas surrounding the vent fields. Calcareous sponges were common in the area. Calcareous sponges normally represent only a minor fraction of the sponge fauna and it was therefore a big surprise that eight out of a total of 13 species reported here are calcareans. Annelids were the most speciose group with more than 80 identified species, followed by crustaceans. Possible explanations for the lack of typical vent fauna is discussed.

Schander, C.; Rapp, H. T.; Pedersen, R. B.

2007-12-01

359

The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Methods Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Results All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they ‘ought’ to quit as opposed to ‘wanted’ to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be considerable in order to influence motivation. Highly motivated smokers expressed more willingness to visit Stop Smoking Services, although none had done so. Conclusion Continuing smokers’ attitudes towards smoking and quitting suggests that research and policy need to focus on increasing smokers’ implicit motivation to quit smoking, even for those who classified themselves as having high motivation to quit. Targeted information and further education about Stop Smoking Services is required to increase uptake.

2013-01-01

360

One-Step Hydrothermal-Electrochemical Route to Carbon-Stabilized Anatase Powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon-stabilized anatase particles were prepared by a simple one-step hydrothermal-electrochemical method using glucose and titanium citrate as the carbon and titanium source, respectively. Morphological, chemical, structural, and electrochemical characterizations of these powders were carried out by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. It was revealed that 200-nm carbon/anatase TiO2 was homogeneously dispersed, and the powders exhibited excellent cyclic performance at high current rates of 0.05 V/s. The powders are interesting potential materials that could be used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

Tao, Ying; Yi, Danqing; Zhu, Baojun

2013-04-01

361

Nicotine Addiction Level May Predict Weight Gain in Ex-Smokers  

MedlinePLUS

... August 21, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Body Weight Quitting Smoking WEDNESDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Smokers with a ... The results suggest that heavily addicted smokers undergoing smoking cessation therapy might need additional behavioral therapy to help ...

362

Peptide synthesis in early earth hydrothermal systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report here results from experiments and thermodynamic calculations that demonstrate a rapid, temperature-enhanced synthesis of oligopeptides from the condensation of aqueous glycine. Experiments were conducted in custom-made hydrothermal reactors, and organic compounds were characterized with ultraviolet-visible procedures. A comparison of peptide yields at 260??C with those obtained at more moderate temperatures (160??C) gives evidence of a significant (13 kJ ?? mol-1) exergonic shift. In contrast to previous hydrothermal studies, we demonstrate that peptide synthesis is favored in hydrothermal fluids and that rates of peptide hydrolysis are controlled by the stability of the parent amino acid, with a critical dependence on reactor surface composition. From our study, we predict that rapid recycling of product peptides from cool into near-supercritical fluids in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems will enhance peptide chain elongation. It is anticipated that the abundant hydrothermal systems on early Earth could have provided a substantial source of biomolecules required for the origin of life. Astrobiology 9, 141-146. ?? 2009 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2009.

Lemke, K. H.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Bird, D. K.

2009-01-01

363

Factors in Nonadherence to Quitline Services: Smoker Characteristics Explain Little  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Quitlines offer evidence-based, multisession coaching support for smoking cessation in the 50 U.S. states, Canada, and several other countries. Smokers who enroll in quitline services have, "ipso facto," shown readiness to attempt to quit, but noncompletion of coaching services appears widespread and has not been widely investigated.…

Burns, Emily K.; Levinson, Arnold H.; Deaton, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

364

PLAUR polymorphisms and lung function in UK smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We have previously identified Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (PLAUR) as an asthma susceptibility gene. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that PLAUR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determine baseline lung function and contribute to the development of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in smokers. METHODS: 25 PLAUR SNPs were genotyped in COPD subjects and individuals with smoking history

Ceri E Stewart; Ian P Hall; Stuart G Parker; Miriam F Moffat; Andrew J Wardlaw; Martin J Connolly; Charlotte Ruse; Ian Sayers

2009-01-01

365

Ambivalence Amplifies College Smokers' Negative Emotional Responses to Antismoking Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many smoking college students hold ambivalent attitudes toward smoking. Although ambivalence is widely believed to evoke negative affect, little research attention has been paid to how ambivalence may influence emotional responses to persuasive information. Participants in this study (N = 133 college smokers) completed a survey that included a presentation of novel and credible antismoking information. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that

Xiaoquan Zhao; Xiaomei Cai

2009-01-01

366

Factors in Nonadherence to Quitline Services: Smoker Characteristics Explain Little  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Quitlines offer evidence-based, multisession coaching support for smoking cessation in the 50 U.S. states, Canada, and several other countries. Smokers who enroll in quitline services have, "ipso facto," shown readiness to attempt to quit, but noncompletion of coaching services appears widespread and has not been widely investigated.…

Burns, Emily K.; Levinson, Arnold H.; Deaton, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

367

The relevance of the health belief model to Australian smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Health Belief Model is one of the few models predicting health behavior which explicitly evaluates the role of cues to action from the doctor or others. Rarely have such cues to action been examined formally by the comparison of groups receiving different interventions. Initial and follow-up data covering a wide range of sociopsychological variables were gathered from typical smokers

Rosemary A. Knight; David A. Hay

1989-01-01

368

Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

Niaura, Raymond; And Others

1992-01-01

369

Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers During Rapid Weight Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effect of smoking cessation on weight gain is well-documented, little is known about the effect of weight loss on smoking. We examined the association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in a group of 9 obese female smokers during participation in a protein-sparing modified fast (Optifast). For the first 3 months of treatment, subjects consumed only the

Raymond Niaura; Matthew M. Clark; Michael A. Raciti; Vincent Pera; David B. Abrams

1992-01-01

370

What motivates adolescent smokers to make a quit attempt?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 120 adolescent smokers (80 males, 40 females), most of whom were referred by school personnel after being caught with cigarettes at school (n=113), reported motivations for making a quit attempt during a smoking cessation project. Most students (n=76) were randomly assigned to a four session cessation program that included discussion of a number of motivational topics, and

Brant W. Riedel; Leslie A. Robinson; Robert C. Klesges; Bonnie McLain-Allen

2002-01-01

371

Reduced Response to Reward in Smokers and Cannabis Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs. Reduced neural and behavioral reactions to reward have been demonstrated in other forms of addiction, as expressed by reduced mood reactivity and lack of striatal activation to rewards, but this effect has not yet been investigated in cannabis users. Methods: We hypothesized that cannabis users and tobacco smokers would

Chantal Martin-Soelch; Maja Kobel; Markus Stoecklin; Tanja Michael; Simone Weber; Bigna Krebs; Klaus Opwis

2009-01-01

372

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in habitual smokers.  

PubMed

Nicotine is a strong activator of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Smoking of only two cigarettes consistently activates the HPA axis of habitual smokers. However, while being a habitual smoker only induces small changes of basal HPA axis activity, smoking induces an attenuated responsiveness of the HPA axis to psychological stress, but not to injection of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) or physiological load. The latter points to alterations at hypothalamic or other central structures. The further consequences of decreased HPA axis responsiveness are discussed. Chronic inflammation of the airways is a common consequence of habitual smoking, and smokers often present with low-grade systemic inflammation, which may be mediated by HPA axis alterations. However, habitual smokers' monocytes are reported to show an increased sensitivity towards the inflammation suppressing effects of cortisol, while on the one hand, inflammation of the airways appears to be relatively resistant towards glucocorticoid treatment. In conclusion, this pattern of attenuated cortisol responses and decreased glucocorticoid sensitivity may be causally related to disinhibition of inflammatory processes and thereby further stimulate adverse health outcomes, such as airway inflammation or atherosclerosis. PMID:16325948

Rohleder, Nicolas; Kirschbaum, Clemens

2005-12-02

373

Women Smokers Face Increased Risk of Lethal Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Women Smokers Face Increased Risk of Lethal Stroke: Review Hemorrhagic, or bleeding, stroke odds 17 percent higher than for men who ... Thursday, August 22, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Smoking Stroke Women's Health THURSDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Men ...

374

Weight concerns in women smokers during pregnancy and postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

When women smokers become pregnant, they are asked to control weight gain and at the same time to relinquish an addictive drug with weight suppressing effects. For women with serious body image concerns or a history of unhealthful eating patterns, smoking cessation may be particularly problematic. To investigate the relationship of weight concerns with smoking and weight gain during pregnancy

Cynthia S Pomerleau; Rebecca J. Namenek Brouwer; Lori T Jones

2000-01-01

375

Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

2007-01-01

376

Is a telephone helpline of value to the workplace smoker?  

PubMed

This paper reports the findings of the evaluation of a national smokers' helpline which was set up by British Telecom (BT) for its employees. The helpline formed part of a new comprehensive smoking policy for all BT staff. Over 1000 employees, more than 3.0% of all smokers, phoned the helpline during the first three months of its operation. Two-thirds of callers tried to quit smoking after calling the helpline, and a quarter were still successful three months later. One in six callers reduced the number of cigarettes that they smoked on working days. While the helpline and other cessation support services were evaluated positively by callers, it appears that helplines only appeal to a small minority of smokers. However, they do seem to be an effective mechanism for a nationwide company to identify those smokers who want support, and a useful means of centralizing the administration of support services. They are potentially a cost-effective option for larger employers. PMID:7579297

Amos, A; White, D A; Elton, R A

1995-10-01

377

Measuring nicotine dependence among high-risk adolescent smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we tested our hypothesis that because of the higher prevalence and greater intensity of cigarette smoking among vocational-technical students (N = 110; 51.8% males; mean age 17 years), adolescents might demonstrate the nicotine dependence patterns comparable to those measured in a similar fashion in a group of adult smokers (N = 173; 50% males; mean age

Raymond Niaura

1996-01-01

378

Cardiovascular effects of transdermal nicotine in mildly hypertensive smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking potentiates the enhanced cardiovascular risk of hypertensive patients. Although nicotine replacement therapy is safe when used by healthy individuals to quit smoking, there is no evidence that nicotine replacement therapy is safe in hypertensive smokers. In this crossover, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we compared for 4 h the acute effects of transdermal nicotine on the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and

José Eduardo Tanus-Santos; Juan Carlos Yugar Toledo; Máira Cittadino; Maricene Sabha; João Carlos Rocha; Heitor Moreno

2001-01-01

379

A displacement and reconditioning technique for compulsive smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for reducing total anxiety in chronic smokers while ostensibly directed toward permissive alteration of the smoking pattern is presented. In light trance the motivated patient is taught: (a) elementary respiratory relaxation (natural sigh), (b) displacement of emphasis from inhaling smoke to exhaling clean fresh air, (c) enhancement of satisfaction from other pleasurable factors-touch, shape, color, aroma, flame, smoke

Calvert Stein

1964-01-01

380

Recurrent hemoptysis in a 62-year-old smoker  

PubMed Central

Tracheal papillary adenoma is a rare benign tumor. We report a case of papillary adenoma in a 62-year-old male smoker who presented with recurrent hemoptysis. The tumor was located in the upper third of trachea and forceps biopsy through flexible bronchoscopy was uncomplicated and diagnostic.

Gowrinath, Karanam; Ramakrishna, Baddukonda Appala; Shanthi, Vissa; Sujatha, Gogineni

2013-01-01

381

Nicotine Withdrawal and Psychiatric Symptoms in Cigarette Smokers with Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of smoking is markedly elevated in schizophrenia. Low smoking cessation rates and reports that some smokers with schizophrenia experience an acute increase in symptoms during attempts to quit smoking, suggest a self-medication model. Alternatively, smoking may modulate medication side effects. The effects of treated and untreated smoking abstinence on psychotic symptoms and medication side effects were examined in

Gregory W Dalack; Lisa Becks; Elizabeth Hill; Ovide F Pomerleau; James H Meador-Woodruff

1999-01-01

382

Inhibition of Cellular Mediated Immunity in Marihuana Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular mediated immunity of 51 young chronic marihuana smokers, as evaluated by the lymphocyte response in vitro to allogenetic cells and to phytohemagglutinin, was significantly decreased and similar to that of patients in whom impairment of T (thymus derived) cell immunity is known to occur. This inhibition of blastogenesis might be related to an impairment of DNA synthesis.

Gabriel G. Nahas; Nicole Suciu-Foca; Jean-Pierre Armand; Akira Morishima

1974-01-01

383

Willingness Among College Students to Help a Smoker Quit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Between February and March 2003, the authors examined college students' willingness to help a smoker quit and assessed demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with willingness to help. Participants: Survey respondents were 701 college students (474 women, 227 men) aged 18 to 24 years who indicated there was someone close to them whom they thought should quit smoking. Methods: Respondents

Janet L. Thomas; Tracy A. Gerber; Tabetha A. Brockman; Christi A. Patten; Darrell R. Schroeder; Kenneth P. Offord

2008-01-01

384

Putting It on the Line: Telephone Counseling for Adolescent Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors present an adolescent counseling intervention used by the California Smokers' Helpline and test in the largest randomized trials to date. In this study, more than 1,400 teen clients were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received telephone counseling…

Tedeschi, Gary J.; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Anderson, Christopher M.; Cummins, Sharon; Ribner, Neil G.

2005-01-01

385

The ‘moral career’ of cigarette smokers: A French survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to illustrate the relevance of Howard S. Becker's sociological model of deviance for a better understanding of contemporary adult smoking. From this perspective, one crucial aspect of smoking is smokers' ability to develop and entertain convincing rationalizations that help them to deny smoking hazards and challenge anti-tobacco messages. Several hypotheses are derived from this model and most

Patrick Peretti-Watel; Sandrine Halfen; Isabelle Grémy

2007-01-01

386

Nicotine and drug interaction expectancies among methadone maintained cigarette smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking rates among persons being treated with methadone for opiate dependence are exceptionally high. Nevertheless, there is debate about whether smoking cessation has a negative effect on substance abuse treatment outcomes. To understand patient perceptions of the interaction between smoking and illicit drug use, we administered the Nicotine and Other Substances Interaction Expectancies questionnaire (NOSIE) to 168 smokers—79% Caucasian and

Michael D. Stein; Bradley J. Anderson

2003-01-01

387

Fluid Flow and Sound Generation at Hydrothermal Vent Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several experiments in this thesis examine methods to measure and monitor fluid flow from hydrothermal vent fields. Simultaneous velocity temperature, and conductivity data were collected in the convective flow emanating from a hydrothermal vent field loc...

S. A. Little

1988-01-01

388

The Third Dimension of an Active Back-arc Hydrothermal System: ODP Leg 193 at PACMANUS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This first sub-seafloor examination of an active hydrothermal system hosted by felsic volcanics, at a convergent margin, obtained drill core from a high-T "smoker" site (penetrated to sim200 mbsf) and a low-T site of diffuse venting (~400mbsf). We aimed to delineate the lateral and vertical variability in mineralisation and alteration patterns, so as to understand links between volcanological, structural and hydrothermal phenomena and the sources of fluids, and to establish the nature and extent of microbial activity within the system. Technological breakthroughs included deployment of a new hard-rock re-entry system, and direct comparison in a hardrock environment of structural images obtained by wireline methods and logging-while-drilling. The PACMANUS hydrothermal site, at the 1700m-deep crest of a 500m-high layered sequence of dacitic lavas, is notable for baritic massive sulfide chimneys rich in Cu, Zn, Au and Ag. Below an extensive cap 5-40m thick of fresh dacite-rhyodacite, we found unexpectedly pervasive hydrothermal alteration of vesicular and flow-banded precursors, accompanied by variably intense fracturing and anhydrite-pyrite veining. Within what appears one major hydrothermal event affecting the entire drilled sequence, there is much overprinting and repetition of distinctly allochemical argillaceous (illite-chlorite), acid-sulfate (pyrophyllite-anhydrite) and siliceous assemblages. The alteration profiles include a transition from metastable cristobalite to quartz at depth, and are similar under low-T and high-T vent sites but are vertically condensed in a manner suggesting higher thermal gradients beneath the latter. The altered rocks are surprisingly porous (average 25%). Retention of intergranular pore spaces and open vesicles at depth implies elevated hydrothermal pressures, whereas evidence from fluid inclusions and hydrothermal brecciation denotes local or sporadic phase separation. A maximum measured temperature of 313 degC measured 8 days after drilling (360 mbsf at the diffuse venting site), if indicative of thermal gradient, suggests the presence of a very shallow ( ~1.5 km below seafloor) magmatic heat source. While isotopic characteristics of anhydrite suggest an irregularly varying component of magmatic fluid, the abundance of this mineral implies a substantial role for circulating seawater within the subsurface hydrothermal system. Other than the near-ubiquitous, fine grained disseminated pyrite in altered rocks, we found little sulfide mineralisation. Pyritic vein networks and breccias are extensive in the rapidly penetrated, but poorly recovered, interval down to 120 mbsf within our "high-T end-member" hole spudded on a mound surmounted by active (280 degC) chimneys. Anhydrite and open cavities possibly dominate this interval, from which a possible example of subhalative semi-massive sulfide containing chalcopyrite and some sphalerite was recovered near 30 mbsf. At the low-T and high-T vent sites respectively, anaerobic microbes were recorded by direct counting at depths down to 99 and 78 mbsf, and in 90 degC cultivation experiments at 69-107 and 99-129 mbsf. >http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/prelim/193

Binns, R.; Barriga, F.; Miller, D.

2001-12-01

389

Young adult smoking: What factors differentiate ex-smokers, smoking cessation treatment seekers and nontreatment seekers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated demographic and psychosocial correlates of smoking status and predictors of smoking cessation among young adults, ages 18–30years old. Young adults (n=294) completed a self-report survey regarding their health habits and smokers were offered the opportunity to enroll in a smoking cessation program. Substitute reinforcers were greater among ex-smokers compared to nontreatment-seeking smokers, treatment-seeking smokers who did

Janet Audrain-McGovern; Daniel Rodriguez; Leonard H. Epstein; Kelli Rodgers; Jocelyn Cuevas; E. Paul Wileyto

2009-01-01

390

Formation of a hydrothermal reservoir due to anhydrite precipitation in an arc volcano hydrothermal system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anhydrite precipitation strongly affects the circulation of hydrothermal systems by changing the permeability structure of the oceanic crust. For example, a hydrothermal reservoir capped by anhydrite precipitates was found beneath the caldera floor of Suiyo Seamount of the Izu-Bonin Arc. We interpret the precipitation to be due to alternating layers of lavas and tephras, typical of arc volcanos, because the layering gives rise to the mixing of high-temperature hydrothermal fluids with low-temperature seawater at layer boundaries. We thus perform two-dimensional numerical simulations of subseafloor fluid flow in a two-layer porous medium to model the shallowest part of the discharge zone near the summit of an arc volcano. The upper layer is set to be more permeable than the lower one. High-temperature Ca2+-rich hydrothermal fluid flows in from the bottom, and low-temperature SO42--rich seawater flows in from the seafloor. The two fluids meet at the layer boundary, precipitating anhydrite, which serves as the ceiling of a hydrothermal reservoir. Anhydrite precipitates form also in the upper layer, serving as conduit walls for upwelling hydrothermal fluid. When the permeability of the upper layer is in the range 10-10-10-12 m2, which is typical for unconsolidated volcanic pumice, the pattern of the circulation stabilizes in about 0.5-40 years. The circulation structure and the timescale of its formation are similar to those of the hydrothermal system on Suiyo Seamount.

Kawada, Yoshifumi; Yoshida, Shigeo

2010-11-01

391

Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers.  

PubMed

The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9% were males. The average age was 30.02 +/- 9.48 years and the average number of years of smoking was 8.09 +/- 6.45 years. Three subjects had dysphonia at the time of examination. The incidence of benign lesions of the vocal folds in the hubble-bubble group was 21.5%, with edema being the most common at 16.7% followed by cyst at 4.8%. The incidence of laryngeal findings was significantly higher in the hubble-bubble group compared to controls. In the cigarette-smoking group, the most common finding was vocal fold cyst in 14.8% followed by polyps in 7.4%, and edema, sulcus vocalis and granuloma. These findings were not significantly different from the hubble-bubble group except for the thick mucus, which was significantly higher in the latter. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between hubble-bubble smokers and controls except for the VTI and MPT, which were significantly lower in the hubble-bubble group. In comparison with the cigarette-smoking group, hubble-bubble smokers had significantly higher Fundamental frequency and habitual pitch (p value 0.042 and 0.008, respectively). The laryngeal findings in hubble-bubble smokers are comparable to cigarette smokers. These laryngeal findings are not translated acoustically, as all the acoustic parameters are within normal range compared to controls. PMID:20480370

Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Sibai, Abla; Oubari, Dima; Ashkar, Jihad; Fuleihan, Nabil

2010-05-18

392

Illicit Drug Use in Heavy Smokers With and Without Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective The prevalence of cigarette smoking among people with schizophrenia is greater than that of the general population. Because smoking and use of other drugs covary, we examined illicit drug use in current smokers not trying to quit or reduce their tobacco use. We recruited outpatient participants who had a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (schizophrenia, n=70) and a control group who had no Axis I psychiatric disorders (control, n=97). During a 2-3 hour session, participants completed demographic and research questionnaires, including the Drug Use Survey (DUS). Results Participants with schizophrenia were older than controls (p<0.001) and smoked more cigarettes per day (p=0.01), but did not differ in degree of nicotine dependence. Ever using a drug was similar between the groups, except that significantly more participants with schizophrenia reported ever using hallucinogens (p<0.001) and inhalants (p=0.001). For alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana, fewer participants with schizophrenia were current users, but more participants with schizophrenia were past users (p’s<0.0001). Heavy smokers from the general population continued to use illicit drugs throughout their lives, while schizophrenia participants had the highest period of illicit drug use in their 20’s. Conclusions These data suggest that illicit drug use tends to be high in heavy cigarette smokers, regardless of a schizophrenia diagnosis. However, while illicit drug use is high across the lifespan of heavy smokers in the general population, heavy smokers with schizophrenia use illicit drugs mostly in the first decade of their illness.

Mackowick, Kristen M.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Wehring, Heidi J.; Liu, Fang; McMahon, Robert P.; Kelly, Deanna L.

2012-01-01

393

Solidification of coal fly ash using hydrothermal processing method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solidification of Coal Fly-ash (CFA) has been carried out using a hydrothermal processing method. In the hydrothermal processing,\\u000a the CFA was first compacted in a mold at 20 - 50 MPa, and then hydrothermally cured in an autoclave. The hydrothermal curing\\u000a was performed at 150 – 250C for 15 – 60 h. The experimental results showed that NaOH solution, Ca(OH)2

Z. Jing; N. Matsuoka; F. Jin; N. Yamasaki; K. Suzuki; T. Hashida

2006-01-01

394

Australian smokers support stronger regulatory controls on tobacco: findings from the ITC Four-Country Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine Australian smokers' attitudes towards regulation of the tobacco industry and to compare their attitudes with those of three similar countries - the United Kingdom (UK), the United States (US), and Canada Method: A telephone survey of 2,056 adult Australian smokers and 6,166 Canadian, US, and UK smokers was conducted in 2004 as the third wave of the

David Young; Ron Borland; Mohammad Siahpush; Gerard Hastings; Geoffrey T. Fong; K. Michael Cummings

2007-01-01

395

Significantly higher prevalence of cad in asymptomatic male smokers as compared with their female counterparts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) as detected by myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in asymptomatic smokers is unknown. The objective was to compare the prevalence of CAD among male and female smokers who underwent dobutamine (DBA) stress test with MPI.Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study on 192 smokers (99 males, mean age 70 + 11 years and

S Chiadika; M Lue; D. K Blood; S. R Bergmann; S Bokhari

2004-01-01

396

Use of Tobacco Cessation Treatments Among Young Adult Smokers: 2005 National Health Interview Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We compared use of smoking cessation treatments and factors associated with treatment use among young adult smokers and other adult smokers. Methods. We used data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey core and cancer control supplement. The sample consisted of 6511 current smokers, of whom 759 were aged 18-24 years. Our analyses were weighted to account for differential

Susan J. Curry; Amy K. Sporer; Oksana Pugach; Richard T. Campbell; Sherry Emery

2007-01-01

397

Self-Reported Alcohol Use Patterns in a Sample of Male and Female Heavy Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to characterize differences among male and female smokers based on past and current alcohol use, we studied patterns of drinking, smoking, caffeine intake, and depression as a function of lifetime history of alcohol dependence and current drinking status in a community sample of current smokers. Subjects were 65 male and 152 female moderate-to-heavy smokers. The CAGE was

Cynthia S. Pomerleau; Henri-Jean Aubin; Ovide F. Pomerleau

1997-01-01