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Sample records for black smoker hydrothermal

  1. The Sound Generated by Mid-Ocean Ridge Black Smoker Hydrothermal Vents

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Timothy J.; Wilcock, William S.D.; Barclay, Andrew H.; Parsons, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrothermal flow through seafloor black smoker vents is typically turbulent and vigorous, with speeds often exceeding 1 m/s. Although theory predicts that these flows will generate sound, the prevailing view has been that black smokers are essentially silent. Here we present the first unambiguous field recordings showing that these vents radiate significant acoustic energy. The sounds contain a broadband component and narrowband tones which are indicative of resonance. The amplitude of the broadband component shows tidal modulation which is indicative of discharge rate variations related to the mechanics of tidal loading. Vent sounds will provide researchers with new ways to study flow through sulfide structures, and may provide some local organisms with behavioral or navigational cues. PMID:17205137

  2. Phase separation, brine formation, and salinity variation at Black Smoker hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coumou, D.; Driesner, T.; Weis, P.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2009-03-01

    We present the first fully transient 2-D numerical simulations of black smoker hydrothermal systems using realistic fluid properties and allowing for all phase transitions possible in the system H2O-NaCl, including phase separation of convecting seawater into a low-salinity vapor and high-salinity brine. We investigate convection, multiphase flow, and phase segregation at pressures below, near, and above the critical point of seawater. Our simulations accurately predict the range in vent salinities, from 0.05 to 2.5 times seawater salinity measured at natural systems. In low-pressure systems at 1500 m water depth, phase separation occurs in boiling zones stretching from the bottom of the hydrothermal cell to the seafloor. Low-salinity vapors and high-salinity brines can vent simultaneously, and transient variations in vent fluid salinities can be rapid. In high-pressure systems at roughly 3500 m water depth, phase separation is limited to the region close to the underlying magma chamber, and vent fluids consist of a low-salinity vapor mixed with a seawater-like fluid. Therefore, vent salinities from these systems are much more uniform in time and always below seawater salinity as long as phase separation occurs in the subseafloor. Only by shutting down the heat source can, in the high-pressure case, the brine be mined, resulting in larger than seawater salinities. These numerical results are in good agreement with long-term observations from several natural black smoker systems.

  3. Microearthquakes in the black smoker hydrothermal field, East Pacific Rise at 21/sup 0/N

    SciTech Connect

    Riedesel, M.; Orcutt, J.A.; MacDonald, K.C.; McClain, J.S.

    1982-12-10

    In July and August 1980, an array of five ocean bottom seismographs was deployed within 3 km of the 350 /sup 0/C hydrothermal vents at the Rivera submersible experiment (RISE) site at 21/sup 0/N, on the East Pacific Rise. Two of these instruments were placed within 600 m of the vents, using a transponder navigation network. The array detected four basic types of events. The first type consisted of local, very small microearthquakes. Locations obtained for 11 of these events place three within 1 km of the vents, with the others elsewhere along the rise crest. They appear to originate either from movement on the faults in the area or from the hydrothermal system beneath this area. A study of the S-P times of this type indicates a maximum hypocentral depth of 2-3 km, implying a similar limit to the depth of hydrothermal circulation and brittle fracturing in the vicinity of the vents. The second type of event found consisted of emergent earthquakes that have many of the characteristics of volcanic harmonic tremor. The frequency of these events falls in the 1-5 Hz range and are similar in appearance to those seen at Mount St. Helens prior to and during its May 1980 eruption. They may be either hydrothermal or volcanic in origin. The third type of event produced a very monochromatic, high-frequency seismogram, with the energy concentrated at 20 Hz. These events also appear to have a local origin.

  4. Distribution and solubility limits of trace elements in hydrothermal black smoker sulfides: An in-situ LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Viljoen, Fanus; Petersen, Sven; Vorster, Clarisa

    2015-06-01

    The key for understanding the trace metal inventory of currently explored VHMS deposits lies in the understanding of trace element distribution during the formation of these deposits on the seafloor. Recrystallization processes already occurring at the seafloor might liberate trace elements to later hydrothermal alteration and removement. To investigate the distribution and redistribution of trace elements we analyzed sulfide minerals from 27 black smoker samples derived from three different seafloor hydrothermal fields: the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the basaltic-hosted Turtle Pits field on the mid-atlantic ridge, and the felsic-hosted PACMANUS field in the Manus basin (Papua New Guinea). The sulfide samples were analyzed by mineral liberation analyser for the modal abundances of sulfide minerals, by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for As, Sb, Se, Te, and Au. The samples consist predominantly of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, galena and minor isocubanite as well as inclusions of tetrahedrite-tennantite. Laser ablation spectra were used to evaluate the solubility limits of trace elements in different sulfide minerals at different textures. The solubility of As, Sb, and Au in pyrite decreases with increasing degree of recrystallization. When solubility limits are reached these elements occur as inclusions in the different sulfide phases or they are expelled from the mineral phase. Most ancient VHMS deposits represent felsic or bimodal felsic compositions. Samples from the felsic-hosted PACMANUS hydrothermal field at the Pual ridge (Papua New Guinea) show high concentrations of Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Hg, and Te, which is likely the result of an additional trace element contribution derived from magmatic volatiles. Co-precipitating pyrite and chalcopyrite are characterized by equal contents of Te, while chalcopyrite that replaced pyrite (presumably during black smoker growth) is enriched in Te relative to pyrite. These higher Te concentrations may be related to higher fluid temperature.

  5. Thermoelasticity and the formation of black smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell, R.P. )

    1990-05-01

    Darcy's Law flow in a permeable medium, consisting of uniform parallel evenly spaced fractures, is used to elucidate how thermoelastic effects may modify the permeability and flow in fracture-controlled hydrothermal systems. Some simple permeability models are then used to investigate whether black smoker venting can result from focussing of low velocity porous flow into fractures at shallow depths ({approx equal} 100 m.). The models indicate that: (a) thermoelastic processes may be important in controlling the temporal evolution of hydrothermal upflow zones; (b) permeability structure, not just the bulk value of the permeability, may be critical for the formation of black smokers; (c) a small zone extending to a depth of {approx equal} 100 m containing a few fractures a factor of 2 or more wider than average may be sufficient to focus upflow into discrete vents provided thermoelastic and chemical effects seal parts of the upper crust.

  6. Modeling periodic megaplume emission by black smoker systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cann, J. R.; Strens, M. R.

    1989-09-01

    Two huge bodies of anomalously warm water, megaplumes, have been discovered above the normal black smoker plumes on the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. Their chemistry indicates that they contain high-temperature mature hydrothermal fluid mixed with entrained seawater. Their excess heat content (estimated at about 1017 J) is equivalent to that in about 0.1 km3 of black smoker fluid. Their buoyancy flux, estimated from the height of rise of the plume, indicates flow rates of up to about 20,000 kg s-1. The size, buoyancy flux, and hydrothermal characteristics of megaplumes strongly suggest that they are the result of a massive, catastrophic emission from a black smoker system. Such flow rates require a high recharge permeability (10-12 m2 or higher). An abrupt increase in discharge permeability is essential to allow black smoker flow rates to increase by orders of magnitude. This can be achieved in two ways. The most obvious way is a tectonic stretching event, such as those observed in Iceland, where some spreading segments undergo periodic extension with episodes of activity lasting a few years. This would result in a fundamental change in the hydraulic properties of the system. Megaplume emission would be associated with periods of tectonic activity, and it is estimated that several tectonically induced megaplumes might occur each year globally. We investigate hydrofracturing as an alternative mechanism for spontaneous megaplume discharge. This relies on the presence of a clogged cap to the discharge and a clogged cylindrical shell around the discharge pipe, both the result of subseafloor precipitation of sulfides and quartz through mixing of hydrothermal fluid with cool recharge water. With this structure, decrease in fluid density can lead to pressures sufficient to fracture the clogged cap and release a megaplume. Fluid density can be decreased either by injection of magmatic CO2, in which case megaplumes would be related to magmatic evolution or, if heat transport in a system is less than the rate of heat supply, by increase of fluid temperature to about 400°C, where there is rapid, nonlinear expansion of seawater at subseafloor pressures. We model hydrofracturing by increasing temperature and show that it can occur under geologically realistic conditions. We calculate the change in temperature, buoyancy pressure, and flow rate before and after initial fracture and show that megaplume flow rates can be generated by hydrofracturing. Periodic emission of megaplumes from a normal black smoker system is possible if the hydrofractures are clogged during the latter stages of megaplume activity. Sites of hydrofracture-induced megaplumes should be distinguished by mounds of fractured and recemented sulfides surrounding hydrothermal vent areas.

  7. Black smokers and the Tree of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linich, Michael

    The molecular biology revolution has turned the classification of life on its head. Is Whittaker's five-kingdom scheme for the classification of living things no longer relevant to life science education? Coupled with this is the discovery that most microscopic life cannot yet be brought into culture. One of the key organisms making this knowledge possible is Methanococcus jannishi a microorganism found in black smokers. This workshop presents the development of the Universal Tree of Life in a historical context and then links together major concepts in the New South Wales senior science programs of Earth and Environmental Science and Biology by examining the biological and geological aspects of changes to black smokers over geological time.

  8. Black Smokers Less Likely to Get Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... 157850.html Black Smokers Less Likely to Get Lung Cancer Screening Racial differences in smoking patterns probably why, ... black and white Americans may lead to lower lung cancer screening rates for blacks, new research suggests. Researchers ...

  9. Solid Medium for Culturing Black Smoker Bacteria at Temperatures to 120°C

    PubMed Central

    Deming, Jody W.; Baross, John A.

    1986-01-01

    A solid, highly thermostable medium, based on the new gelling agent GELRITE, was devised to facilitate the culturing of extremely thermophilic microorganisms from submarine hydrothermal vents. The medium remained solid at temperatures to 120°C at vapor pressures and hydrostatic pressures to 265 atm. It proved useful to its maximum tested limits in isolating colonies of black smoker bacteria from hydrothermal fluids recently collected at the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean. Images PMID:16346981

  10. Near-field entrainment in black smoker plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. E.; Germanovich, L. N.; Lowell, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we study the entrainment rate of the ambient fluid into a plume in the extreme conditions of hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths that would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Specifically, we investigate the flow regime in the lower parts of three black smoker plumes in the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge discharging at temperatures of 249°C, 333°C, and 336°C and a pressure of 21 MPa. Such flow conditions are typical for ocean floor hydrothermal venting but would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. The centerline temperature was measured at several heights in the plume above the orifice. Using a previously developed turbine flow meter, we also measured the mean flow velocity at the orifice. Measurements were conducted during dives 4452 and 4518 on the submersible Alvin. Using these measurements, we obtained a range of 0.064 - 0.068 for values of the entrainment coefficient α, which is assumed constant near the orifice. This is half the value of α ≈ 0.12 - 0.13 that would be expected for plume flow regimes based on the existing laboratory results and field measurements in lower temperature and pressure conditions. In fact, α = 0.064 - 0.068 is even smaller than the value of α ≈ 0.075 characteristic of jet flow regimes and appears to be the lowest reported in the literature. Assuming that the mean value α = 0.066 is typical for hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths, we then characterized the flow regimes of 63 black smoker plumes located on the Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Work with the obtained data is ongoing, but current results indicate that approximately half of these black smokers are lazy in the sense that their plumes exhibit momentum deficits compared to the pure plume flow that develops as the plume rises. The remaining half produces forced plumes that show the momentum excess compared to the pure plumes. The lower value of the entrainment coefficient has important implications for measurements of mass and heat output at mid-oceanic ridges. For example, determining heat output based on the maximum height of plume rise has become a common method of measuring heat flux produced by hydrothermal circulation at mid-oceanic ridges. The fundamental theory for the rise and spreading of turbulent buoyant plumes suggests that the heat output in this method is proportional to α2 and is, therefore, sensitive to the value of α. The considerably different entrainment rates in lazy and forced black smoker plumes may be important for understanding larvae transport mechanism in the life cycle of macrofauna near hydrothermal vents.

  11. Distribution of Archaea in a Black Smoker Chimney Structure

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Ken; Komatsu, Tetsushi; Inagaki, Fumio; Horikoshi, Koki

    2001-01-01

    Archaeal community structures in microhabitats in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney structure were evaluated through the combined use of culture-independent molecular analyses and enrichment culture methods. A black smoker chimney was obtained from the PACMANUS site in the Manus Basin near Papua New Guinea, and subsamples were obtained from vertical and horizontal sections. The elemental composition of the chimney was analyzed in different subsamples by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, indicating that zinc and sulfur were major components while an increased amount of elemental oxygen in exterior materials represented the presence of oxidized materials on the outer surface of the chimney. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that a shift in archaeal ribotype structure occurred in the chimney structure. Through sequencing of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clones from archaeal rDNA clone libraries, it was demonstrated that the archaeal communities in the chimney structure consisted for the most part of hyperthermophilic members and extreme halophiles and that the distribution of such extremophiles in different microhabitats of the chimney varied. The results of the culture-dependent analysis supported in part the view that changes in archaeal community structures in these microhabitats are associated with the geochemical and physical dynamics in the black smoker chimney. PMID:11472939

  12. Terrestrial smokers: Thermal springs due to hydrothermal convection of groundwater connected to surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayani Cardenas, M.; Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar F.; Andrews, Benjamin J.; Rodolfo, Raymond S.; Cabria, Hillel B.; Zamora, Peter B.; Lapus, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal springs are ubiquitous features whose underground kinematic structure is mostly unknown but are typically thought to originate from deep sources. We documented a type of thermal springs at the banks of a volcanic lake that are discharge zones of hydrothermal convection cells circulating groundwater within the near shore environment. The convection captures lake water through the lakebed, mixes it with deeper groundwater at velocities of 100s of m d-1, then returns the water to the lake via the spring. The convection cell is flushed in a few hours and turns over the lake's volume in a few days. Most volcanic lakes and other relatively cool surface water bodies in areas of elevated geothermal heat fluxes meet the conditions for the occurrence of local hydrothermal circulation of groundwater. The type of spring we studied, the terrestrial version of black smokers, is likely present but perhaps unrecognized at many areas.

  13. Real-Time Craving Differences between Black and White Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Brian L.; Paris, Megan M.; Lam, Cho Y.; Robinson, Jason D.; Traylor, Amy C.; Waters, Andrew J.; Wetter, David W.; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Black and White smokers may experience aspects of nicotine dependence, including craving, differently. This study used a naturalistic technique, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to explore differences in craving, mood, expectancy, and smoking enjoyment between Black and White smokers. Participants carried personal digital assistants (PDAs) programmed to obtain multiple daily assessments. Black smokers reported higher craving after smoking and at random assessment times and higher cigarette enjoyment. No differences were found in mood or expectancy. Racial differences in psychological factors related to smoking are explored in the contexts of genetic, sociological, and psychophysiological distinctions. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:20163385

  14. Measuring Black Smoker Fluid Flow Rates Using Image Correlation Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crone, T. J.; Wilcock, W. S.; McDuff, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Motivated by a desire to find non-invasive methods for obtaining time-series measurements of fluid flow rates through mid-ocean ridge black smokers, we are developing an image-based velocimetry technique that will provide this information through the analysis of video sequences showing the turbulent structures of black smoker effluent jets. Our ultimate goal is to develop an autonomous seafloor instrument suitable for use with a cabled seafloor observatory that can provide extended time-series measurements of black smoker discharge rates with little user intervention. The method we are developing is based on the two-dimensional cross-correlation of an array of overlapping subimages from two sequential image frames within a sequence. For each pair of images this yields a two- dimensional representation of the instantaneous velocity field in the imaged flow. For each video sequence, the set of these "image velocity fields" from all image pairs is temporally averaged to yield a smoothed representation of the time-averaged image flow field. A transformation is then applied to convert the image flow fields into a relative discharge rate. We have developed a computational algorithm to implement this technique and have successfully applied it to video sequences collected in the late 1980s and early 1990s showing the discharge of black smokers in the Main Endeavour field of the Juan de Fuca Ridge over the course of weeks and months. We are able to resolve velocity fields that are qualitatively consistent with those predicted by plume theory from 5 seconds of video (150 image pairs), but it is difficult to calibrate or assess the precision of the technique with field data alone. In order to address these issues, as well as refine the computational algorithm, we have conducted laboratory simulations of black smoker jets with known discharge rates over a range of Reynolds numbers. We have recorded these simulations to obtain video image sequences that are similar to those collected at the seafloor. We are currently applying our velocimetry technique to these video sequences. Early results suggest that robust estimates of black smoker discharge rate might be obtained through image-based velocimetry techniques.

  15. Particulate DNA in smoker fluids: Evidence for existence of microbial populations in hot hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Straube, W.L.; Colwell, R.R. Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore ); Deming, J.W.; Baross, J.A. ); Somerville, C.C. )

    1990-05-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary study of hydrothermal vents on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, we used the submersible ALVIN to collect 57 fluid samples from 17 different hot vents (smokers and flanges) and their environs for the purpose of extracting particulate DNA. Particulate material concentrated from these samples was lysed enzymatically (enz) and by a combination of enzyme and French press treatment (fp). Concentrations of partially purified DNA recovered from these lysates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Ambient seawater surrounding the vents was found to contain low DNA concentrations, 0.18 to 0.32 ng of DNA per ml, while low-temperature vent samples yielded significantly higher concentrations of 0.37 to 2.12 ng of DNA per ml. Although DNA recovery values from superheated (210 to 345{degree}C) flange samples were not significantly different from ambient seawater values, most of the superheated (174 to 357{degree}C) smoker fluid samples contained particulate DNA in concentrations too high to be attributable to entrained seawater. Detailed sampling at one smoker site demonstrated not only the existence of significant levels of particulate DNA in the superheated smoker fluids but also the presence of an elevated microbial population in the buoyant plume 20 to 100 m above the smoker. These results underscore the heterogeneity of smoker environments within a given hydrothermal vent fluid and indicate that microorganisms exist in some superheated fluids.

  16. The role of black smokers in the Cu mass balance of the oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannington, Mark D.

    2013-07-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems play an important role in the metal budgets of the oceans via hydrothermal plumes, accumulation of seafloor massive sulfide deposits, and alteration of the oceanic crust. These processes have resulted in large-scale metal anomalies on the Pacific plate, most notably at the Nazca-Pacific plate boundary. This plate-scale variability in metal deposition has important implications for the fluxes of metals to subduction zones and possibly the metal endowment of arc-related mineral deposits. However, the relative contributions to the metal budget from black smokers, deep-sea sediments, Mn nodules and altered crust remain unclear. The Cu contents of more than 10,000 samples of seafloor massive sulfide deposits, subseafloor stockwork mineralization, nodules and sediments reveal that most of the Cu metal originally mobilized by high-temperature hydrothermal convection at the ridges is retained in the crust as subseafloor alteration and mineralization, never reaching the seafloor. This metal accounts for at least 80% of the labile Cu that may be released to subduction fluids driven off a down-going slab. Copper deposited in deep-sea sediments, which account for 17% of the total budget, is derived in part from plume fallout associated with ridge-crest hydrothermal activity but also from pelagic deposition of marine organic matter enriched in Cu metal. Massive sulfide deposits, nodules and manganiferous crusts account for only ˜3% of the Cu metal of the subducting slab.

  17. Growth of `black smoker' bacteria at temperatures of at least 250 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baross, John A.

    1983-06-01

    Complex communities of thermophilic bacteria have been cultured from the 350 C waters emanating from sulphide chimneys, or `black smokers', at 21 N along the East Pacific Rise1. Several of the bacterial communities were shown to grow rapidly at 100 C and atmospheric pressure, producing methane, hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. These gases are found in superheated vent water, having previously been attributed to abiogenic reactions. Before concluding that these `black smoker' bacteria actually contribute to the chemistry of the superheated hydrothermal fluids, it was necessary to test their ability to grow and produce gases at in situ vent temperatures and pressures. Here we report that a bacterial community originally cultured from 306 C water is capable of chemolithotrophic growth in a titanium growth chamber under in situ vent pressure of 265 atm and at temperatures of at least 250 C. (At 265 atm, seawater remains liquid at temperatures of at least 460 C2.) Transmission electron microscopy of thin sections of bacteria cultured at 250 C has revealed the presence of at least two morphologically distinct organisms.

  18. Discovery of a black smoker vent field and vent fauna at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Rolf B.; Rapp, Hans Tore; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.; Baumberger, Tamara; Flesland, Kristin; Fonseca, Rita; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Jorgensen, Steffen L.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) represents one of the most slow-spreading ridge systems on Earth. Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting, as well as the provenance of vent fauna at this northern and insular termination of the global ridge system, have been unsuccessful. Here, we report the first discovery of a black smoker vent field at the AMOR. The field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) and is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting and long-lived hydrothermal systems exist at ultraslow-spreading ridges, despite their strongly reduced volcanic activity. The vent field hosts a distinct vent fauna that differs from the fauna to the south along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The novel vent fauna seems to have developed by local specialization and by migration of fauna from cold seeps and the Pacific. PMID:21119639

  19. Upper Limit to Black Smoker Temperatures Not Yet in Sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devey, C. W.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C.

    2011-12-01

    The world's hottest-known black smoker vent field (Turtle Pits Field, 4°50'S, Mid-Atlantic Ridge) has previously been reported as showing transient venting temperatures up to 464°C (Koschinsky et al., 2008). The calculated Mg-free endmember fluid has low salinity (ca. 280 mM Cl) suggesting it is a separated vapour phase. This end-member chlorinity has remained constant over the period of 26 months during which samples were repeatedly collected. We present new data showing that venting at Turtle Pits has in fact reached measured exit temperatures of at least 524°C, that the measured temperature is related to where on the smoker samples are collected (with higher temperatures found near the base) and that sampling temperature and salinity are not correlated. These observations can be explained by a simple two-stage model consisting of (1) a stable, high-temperature vapour production region at depth and (2) a region of cooling of the vapours within the smoker structure at the seafloor by heat exchange with ambient seawater. Sub-seafloor vapour transport between these two regions must occur with negligible heat loss to the surrounding rock - deposition of high-temperature minerals (e.g., Cu-sulphides, anhydrite) may, however, occur. Future attempts to sample the vapour before heat exchange will demonstrate its true maximum temperature - there seems to be no a priori reason why it could not approach magmatic temperatures, however. From chemical and phase equilibrium constraints, the vapour production region must lie at pressures of >550 bars (the pressure at which a vapour of the measured salinity will be formed on the two-phase boundary at 524°C), in conflict with the 350 bars given by silica geobarometry of the fluids (Koschinsky et al., 2008). This discrepancy may be related to the absence of quartz in the reaction zone, the very high fluid temperatures (outside the 390-430°C validity region of the Si barometry calibration) or a lack of fluid/rock equilibrium resulting from high water/rock ratios and rapid fluid through-put. Ref.: Koschinsky, A. et al. (2008), Geology, 36, 615-618, doi: 10.1130/G24726A.1

  20. Loki's Castle: Discovery and geology of a black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Lilley, M. D.; Barriga, F. J.; Früh-Green, G.; Nakamura, K.

    2010-12-01

    Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting at the ultraslow spreading and magma starved parts of the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge (AMOR) have been unsuccessful. A black smoker vent field was eventually discovered at the Mohns-Knipovich bend at 73.5°N in 2008, and the field was revisited in 2009 and 2010. The Loki’s Castle vent field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge that is bordered by a tectonic terrain dominated by core complexes to the NW, and a ridge flank that is buried by sediments from the Bear Island Fan to the SE. Fluid compositions are anomalous to other basalt-hosted fields and indicate interactions with sediments at depths. The vent field is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting occurs at ultraslow spreading ridges despite the strongly reduced magmatic heat budget. ROV surveys have shown that venting occurs in two areas separated by around 100 m. Micro-bathymetry acquired by a Hugin AUV documents that two 20-30 tall mounds that coalesce at the base have developed around the vent sites. The micro-bathymetry also shows that the venting is located above two normal faults that define the NW margin of a rift that runs along the crest of the volcano. The black smoker fluids reach 317 °C, with an end-member SiO2 content of 16 mmol/kg. End-member chlorinity is around 85% of seawater suggesting that the fluids have phase-separated at depth. The fluid compositions indicate that the rock-water reactions occur around 2 km below the seafloor. The crustal thickness is estimated to be 4 +/- 0.5 km in the area. Whereas the depth of the reaction zone is comparable with faster spreading ridges, the fraction of crust cooled convectively by hydrothermal circulation is two times that of vent fields at ridges with normal crustal thickness.

  1. Comparison of CYP1A2 and NAT2 Phenotypes between Black and White Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Muscat, Joshua E.; Pittman, Brian; Kleinman, Wayne; Lazarus, Philip; Stellman, Steven D.; Richie, John P.

    2008-01-01

    The lower incidence rate of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in blacks than in whites may be due to racial differences in the catalytic activity of enzymes that metabolize carcinogenic arylamines in tobacco smoke. To examine this, we compared cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) and N-acetyltransferase-2 activities (NAT2) in black and white smokers using urinary caffeine metabolites as a probe for enzyme activity in a community-based study of 165 black and 183 white cigarette smokers. The paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine, 17X)/caffeine (trimethylxanthine, 137X) ratio or [17X + 1,7-dimethyluric acid (17U)]/137X ratio was used as an indicator of CYP1A2 activity. The 5-acetyl-amino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil (AFMU)/1-methylxanthine (1X) ratio indicated NAT2 activity. The odds ratio for the slow NAT2 phenotype associated with black race was 0.4; 95% confidence intervals 0.2–0.7. The putative combined low risk phenotype (slow CYP1A2/rapid NAT2) was more common in blacks than in whites (25% vs. 15%, P<0.02). There were no significant racial differences in slow and rapid CYP1A2 phenotypes, and in the combined slow NAT2/rapid CYP1A2 phenotype. Age, education, cigarette smoking amount, body mass index, GSTM1 and GSTM3 genotypes were unrelated to CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity. Intake of cruciferous vegetables (primarily broccoli), red meat, carrots, grapefruit and onions predicted CYP1A2 activity either for all subjects or in race-specific analyses. Carrot and grapefruit consumption was related to NAT2 activity. Collectively, these results indicated that phenotypic differences in NAT2 alone or in combination with CYP1A2 might help explain the higher incidence rates of transitional cell bladder cancer in whites. PMID:18703023

  2. Diversity of microbial communities of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeschke, A.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Früh-Green, G.

    2010-12-01

    Here we present an organic geochemical study of Loki’s Castle, a black smoker field recently discovered at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around 73.2°N. Located at the Mohn-Knipovich Ridge, which is one of the slowest spreading ridge segments on Earth, Loki’s Castle is the most northerly major hydrothermal vent field known to date. The vent field is composed of five actively venting (320°C) black-smoker chimneys that tower on top of a large mound of hydrothermal sulfide deposits. Loki’s Castle is a basalt-hosted hydrothermal system, but high methane and ammonium contents in the vent fluids strongly indicate a sedimentary component below the volcanic ridge. In 2009, another site of low-temperature hydrothermal venting hosting numerous barite chimneys was discovered in the vicinity of the black smokers, which probably results from subsurface mixing of diffuse hydrothermal fluid with seawater. In our study, variations in microbial communities associated with the formation of actively venting, sulfide and sulfate chimneys in this essentially unexplored ultraslow spreading ridge system are assessed based on biomarker lipid and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses. Lipid extracts from an active, high-temperature sulfide chimney yielded abundant archaeal di- and tetraether lipids as well as irregular isoprenoidal hydrocarbons (PMIs) that are associated with archaeal methanogens and methanotrophs. Predominant archaeal biomarker lipids include archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as well as glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) containing 0-4 cyclopentyl moieties. In addition, GDGTs with an additional covalent bond between the isoprenoid hydrocarbon chains, so-called H-shaped GDGTs, containing 0-4 cyclopentyl rings were also found to be abundant components and are indicative of hyperthermophilic methanogens. Biomarkers characteristic of eukaryotes (sterols) and bacteria (fatty acids and hopanoids) were less prevalent in the sulfide chimney samples indicating a predominance of archaeal communities within the warmer interior zones of the chimney walls that are dominated by the iron sulfides sphalerite and pyrrhotite. The SiO2-bearing cooler outer parts of a chimney revealed predominantly bacterial fatty acids, whereas archaeal GDGTs were detected only to a minor extent. In contrast, the low-temperature barite-bearing vents located at the slope of the massive sulfide mound revealed the dominance of a range of unusual branched and unsaturated fatty acids that are specific for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). PMIs, archaeol, and sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as typically observed in methanogenic and methanotrophic archaea (AOM) have also been detected, although in much lower abundances. Ongoing compound-specific δ13C analyses will give additional information about carbon sources and metabolism of microbial consortia inhabiting actively venting sulfide and barite chimneys at Loki’s castle.

  3. Characteristics of Cu isotopes from chalcopyrite-rich black smoker chimneys at Brothers volcano, Kermadec arc, and Niuatahi volcano, Lau basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E. J.; Paul, B. T.; Gemmell, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    We analysed primary chalcopyrite from modern seafloor `black smoker' chimneys to investigate high-temperature hydrothermal Cu isotope fractionation unaffected by metamorphism. Samples came from nine chimneys collected from Brothers volcano, Kermadec arc, and Niuatahi volcano, Lau backarc basin. This is the first known study of Cu isotopes from submarine intraoceanic arc/backarc volcanoes, with both volcanoes discharging significant amounts of magmatic volatiles. Our results ( n = 22) range from δ65Cu = -0.03 to 1.44 ± 0.18 ‰ (2 sd), with the majority of samples between ˜0.00 and 0.50 ‰. We interpret this cluster ( n = 17) of lower δ65Cu values as representing a mantle source for the chimney Cu, in agreement with δ65Cu values for mantle rocks. The few higher δ65Cu values (>0.90 ‰) occur (1) within the same chimneys as lower values, (2) randomly distributed within the chimneys (i.e. near the top and bottom, interior and exterior), and (3) within chalcopyrite of approximately the same age (<1 year). This suggests the higher δ65Cu values are not related to oxidation by mixing with ambient seawater, but to isotopic variation within the vent fluids over a relatively short time. Theoretical studies demonstrate significant isotopic fractionation can occur between aqueous and vapourous complexing species. When combined with evidence for periodic release of magmatic volatiles at Brothers, we believe vapour transport of Cu is responsible for the observed isotopic fractionation. When compared to global δ65Cu data for primary chalcopyrite, volcanic arc chimneys are most similar to porphyry copper deposits that also form from magmatic-hydrothermal processes in convergent tectonic settings.

  4. A plan for a 5 km-deep borehole at Reykjanes, Iceland, into the root zone of a black smoker on land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friðleifsson, G. Ó.; Elders, W. A.; Bignall, G.

    2013-11-01

    A summary workshop report describing the progress made so far by the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is presented below. The report provides recommendations concerning technical aspects related to deep drilling, and invites international participation in both the engineering and the scientific activities of the next phase of the IDDP. No issues were identified at the workshop that should rule out attempting the drilling, sampling and testing of the proposed IDDP-2 well. Although technically challenging, the consensus of the workshop was that the drilling of such a hot deep well, and producing potentially hostile fluids, is possible but requires careful contingency planning. The future well will be explored for supercritical fluid and/or superheated steam beneath the current production zone of the Reykjanes geothermal field in SW Iceland. This deep borehole will provide the first opportunity worldwide to directly investigate the root zone of a magma-hydrothermal system which is likely to be similar to those beneath the black smokers on the world-encircling mid-ocean rift systems.

  5. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2015-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (p<0.001). Over two thirds (64%) of Whites reported ever using an e-cigarette compared to 30% of Blacks (p<0.001). There were significant trends in increasing e-cigarette use for both racial groups with an average increase of 13% each month (p<0.005) and in increasing e-cigarette advertisement exposure reported for the previous 6 months, with a 14% increase each month (p<0.0001). Whites reported 56% greater advertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; p<0.0001). For Blacks, advertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (p<0.001). Whites reported more advertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy. PMID:25503053

  6. Levels of cigarette availability and exposure in black and white women and efficient smokers.

    PubMed

    Ahijevych, Karen; Weed, Harrison; Clarke, Jo

    2004-04-01

    Purposes of this investigation were to examine differences in smoke exposure and smoking topography across three smoking conditions: usual number of cigarettes, restricted (50%) and increased (167%) simulating restricted and unrestricted cigarette availability. A repeated-measures counterbalanced design with a sample of 25 women (13 African Americans; 12 Caucasians) was implemented with a 6-day inpatient protocol conducted in the General Clinical Research Center (GCRC). There were significantly larger percentage increases in carbon monoxide (CO) postcigarette in the restricted condition compared to usual and increased condition. Women with baseline cotinine/cigarette ratios >20 ng/ml/cigarette, considered efficient smokers, had significantly higher CO increases postcigarette at baseline than participants with lower cotinine/cigarette ratios, yet increased this exposure further during the restricted condition. Efficient smokers had significantly higher nicotine boost in the restricted condition compared to less efficient smokers. Differences by ethnicity were also noted with significantly higher CO percentage increases pre- to postcigarette in African Americans across all conditions, compared to Caucasians. Levels of smoke exposure postcigarette in persons who reduce cigarettes per day in response to restricted cigarette availability may be substantial. PMID:15099913

  7. Geomicrobiological exploration and characterization of novel deep-sea hydrothermal activities accompanying with extremely acidic white smokers and elemental sulfur chimneys at the TOTO caldera in the Mariana Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Hirayama, H.; Kosaka, A.; Tsunogai, U.; Gamo, T.; Nealson, K. H.; Horikoshi, K.

    2004-12-01

    Novel hydrothermal activities accompanying effluent white smokers and elemental sulfur chimney structures at the northeast lava dome of the TOTO caldera depression in the Mariana Volcanic Arc were explored by the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. The white smoker hydrothermal fluids were observed in the potential hydrothermal activity center of the field and represented a maximal temperature of 172 degree C and a lowest pH of 1.59, that was the lowest pH of the hydrothermal fluid ever recorded. The chimney structures consisting all of elemental sulfur (sulfur chimney) were also peculiar to the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field in the world. The geochemical characterization strongly suggested that the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field was a novel system driven by subseafloor mixing between the oxygenated seawater and the superheated volcanic gasses. Microbial community structures in a sulfur chimney structure and its formation hydrothermal fluid with a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (15 mM) were investigated by culture-dependent and _|independent analyses. Ribosomal rRNA gene clone analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that epsilon-Proteobacteria, specifically classified into Group G and Group B, dominated the microbial communities in the sulfur chimney structure and formed a dense microbial mat covering the sulfur chimney surface. Archaeal phylotypes were consistently minor components in the communities and related to the genera Thermococcus, Pyrodictium, Aeropyrum, and the uncultivated archaeal group of Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeotal Group. Cultivation analysis suggested that the microbial components inhabiting in the sulfur chimney structure might be entrained by hydrothermal fluids from the potential subsurface habitats

  8. Visual Observations and Geologic Settings of the Newly-Discovered Black Smoker Vent Sites Across the Galapagos Ridge-Hotspot Intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, P.; Haymon, R.; MacDonald, K.; White, S.

    2006-12-01

    Nearly one-fifth of the global mid-ocean ridge is hotspot-affected, yet very little is known about how hotspots affect quantity and distribution of high-temperature hydrothermal vents along the ridge. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, acoustic and plume sensor surveys were conducted across the Galapagos ridge- hotspot intersection, lon. 94.5ºW- lon. 89.5ºW, to map fine scale geologic features and locate hydrothermal plumes emanating from the ridge crest. Where significant plumes were detected, the Medea fiber-optic camera sled was used successfully to find and image high-temperature vents on the seafloor. With Medea we discovered and imaged the first active and recently extinct black smokers known along the entire Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC), and documented the geologic setting of these vents. The Medea survey imaged numerous inactive vents as well as 3 active high-temperature vent fields along the ridge at 94º 04.5'W (Navidad Site), 91º56.2'W (Iguanas Site) and 91º54.3'W (Pinguinos Site). Two recently extinct vent fields also were identified at 91º23.4'-23.7'W and 91º13.8'W. All of the high-temperature vent sites that we identified along the GSC are found above relatively shallow AMC reflectors and are located in the middle 20% of ridge segments. Without exception the vent sites are located along fissures atop constructional axial volcanic ridges (AVR's) composed of relatively young pillow basalts. In some cases, the vents were associated with collapses adjacent to the fissures. The fissures appear to be eruptive sources of the pillow lavas comprising the AVR's. Video images of the chimneys show mature, cylindrical structures, up to 14m high; little diffuse flow; few animals; and some worm casts and dead clam shells, suggesting prior habitation. We conclude that distribution of the vents is controlled by magmatic processes, (i.e., by locations of shallow AMC magma reservoirs and eruptive fissures above dike intrusions), and that there is surprising similarity in the settings of the vents and the apparent ages of the chimneys and lavas along ~400 n.m of the GSC spanning the Galapagos mantle plume.

  9. Direct observation of the evolution of a seafloor 'black smoker' from vapor to brine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Damm, K. L.; Buttermore, L.G.; Oosting, S.E.; Bray, A.M.; Fornari, D.J.; Lilley, M.D.; Shanks, Wayne C., III

    1997-01-01

    A single hydrothermal vent, 'F' vent, occurring on very young crust at 9??16.8???N, East Pacific Rise, was sampled in 1991 and 1994. In 1991, at the measured temperature of 388??C and seafloor pressure of 258 bar, the fluids from this vent were on the two-phase curve for seawater. These fluids were very low in chlorinity and other dissolved species, and high in gases compared to seawater and most sampled seafloor hydrothermal vent fluids. In 1994, when this vent was next sampled, it had cooled to 351??C and was venting fluids ???1.5 times seawater chlorinity. This is the first reported example of a single seafloor hydrothermal vent evolving from vapor to brine. The 1991 and 1994 fluids sampled from this vent are compositionally conjugate pairs to one another. These results support the hypothesis that vapor-phase fluids vent in the early period following a volcanic eruption, and that the liquid-phase brines are stored within the oceanic crust, and vent at a later time, in this case 3 years. These results demonstrate that the venting of brines can occur in the same location, in fact from the same sulfide edifice, where the vapor-phase fluids vented previously.

  10. Hydrothermal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater (after C. A. Stein and S. Stein, 1994). The first geochemical evidence for the existence of hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor came in the mid-1960s when investigations in the Red Sea revealed deep basins filled with hot, salty water (40-60 °C) and underlain by thick layers of metal-rich sediment (Degens and Ross, 1969). Because the Red Sea represents a young, rifting, ocean basin it was speculated that the phenomena observed there might also prevail along other young MOR spreading centers. An analysis of core-top sediments from throughout the world's oceans ( Figure 2) revealed that such metalliferous sediments did, indeed, appear to be concentrated along the newly recognized global ridge crest (Boström et al., 1969). Another early indication of hydrothermal activity came from the detection of plumes of excess 3He in the Pacific Ocean Basin (Clarke et al., 1969) - notably the >2,000 km wide section in the South Pacific ( Lupton and Craig, 1981) - because 3He present in the deep ocean could only be sourced through some form of active degassing of the Earth's interior, at the seafloor. (62K)Figure 2. Global map of the (Al+Fe+Mn):Al ratio for surficial marine sediments. Highest ratios mimic the trend of the global MOR axis (after Boström et al., 1969). One area where early heat-flow studies suggested hydrothermal activity was likely to occur was along the Galapagos Spreading Center in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (Anderson and Hobart, 1976). In 1977, scientists diving at this location found hydrothermal fluids discharging chemically altered seawater from young volcanic seafloor at elevated temperatures up to 17 °C ( Edmond et al., 1979). Two years later, the first high-temperature (380±30 °C) vent fluids were found at 21° N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) (Spiess et al., 1980) - with fluid compositions remarkably close to those predicted from the lower-temperature Galapagos findings ( Edmond et al., 1979). Since that time, hydrothermal activity has been found at more than 40 locations throughout the Pacific, North Atlantic, and Indian Oceans (e.g., Van Dover et al., 2002) with further evidence - from characteristic chemical anomalies in the ocean water column - of its occurrence in even the most remote and slowly spreading ocean basins ( Figure 3), from the polar seas of the Southern Ocean (German et al., 2000; Klinkhammer et al., 2001) to the extremes of the ice-covered Arctic ( Edmonds et al., 2003). (61K)Figure 3. Schematic map of the global ridge crest showing the major ridge sections along which active hydrothermal vents have already been found (red circles) or are known to exist from the detection of characteristic chemical signals in the overlying water column (orange circles). Full details of all known hydrothermally active sites and plume signals are maintained at the InterRidge web-site: http://triton.ori.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~intridge/wg-gdha.htm The most spectacular manifestation of seafloor hydrothermal circulation is, without doubt, the high-temperature (>400 °C) "black smokers" that expel fluids from the seafloor along all parts of the global ocean ridge crest. In addition to being visually compelling, vent fluids also exhibit important enrichments and depletions when compared to ambient seawater. Many of the dissolved chemicals released from the Earth's interior during venting precipitate upon mixing with the cold, overlying seawater, generating thick columns of black metal-sulfide and oxide mineral-rich smoke - hence the colloquial name for these vents: "black smokers" (Figure 4). In spite of their common appearance, high-temperature hydrothermal vent fluids actually exhibit a wide range of temperatures and chemical compositions, which are determined by subsurface reaction conditions. Despite their spectacular appearance, however, high-temperature vents may only represent a small fraction - perhaps as little as 10% - of the total hydrothermal heat flux close to ridge axes. A range of studies - most notably along the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) in the NE Pacific Ocean (Rona and Trivett, 1992; Schultz et al., 1992; Ginster et al., 1994) have suggested that, instead, axial hydrothermal circulation may be dominated by much lower-temperature diffuse flow exiting the seafloor at temperatures comparable to those first observed at the Galapagos vent sites in 1977. The relative importance of high- and low-temperature hydrothermal circulation to overall ocean chemistry remains a topic of active debate. (141K)Figure 4. (a) Photograph of a "black smoker" hydrothermal vent emitting hot (>400 °C) fluid at a depth of 2,834 m into the base of the oceanic water column at the Brandon vent site, southern EPR. The vent is instrumented with a recording temperature probe. (b) Diffuse flow hydrothermal fluids have temperatures that are generally <35 °C and, therefore, may host animal communities. This diffuse flow site at a depth of 2,500 m on the EPR at 9°50' N is populated by Riftia tubeworms, mussels, crabs, and other organisms. While most studies of seafloor hydrothermal systems have focused on the currently active plate boundary (˜0-1 Ma crust), pooled heat-flow data from throughout the world's ocean basins (Figure 1) indicate that convective heat loss from the oceanic lithosphere actually continues in crust from 0-65 Ma in age ( Stein et al., 1995). Indeed, most recent estimates would indicate that hydrothermal circulation through this older (1-65 Ma) section, termed "flank fluxes," may be responsible for some 70% or more of the total hydrothermal heat loss associated with spreading-plate boundaries - either in the form of warm (20-65 °C) altered seawater, or as cooler water, which is only much more subtly chemically altered ( Mottl, 2003).When considering the impact of hydrothermal circulation upon the chemical composition of the oceans and their underlying sediments, however, attention returns - for many elements - to the high-temperature "black smoker" systems. Only here do many species escape from the seafloor in high abundance. When they do, the buoyancy of the high-temperature fluids carries them hundreds of meters up into the overlying water column as they mix and eventually form nonbuoyant plumes containing a wide variety of both dissolved chemicals and freshly precipitated mineral phases. The processes active within these dispersing hydrothermal plumes play a major role in determining the net impact of hydrothermal circulation upon the oceans and marine geochemistry.

  11. Discovery and Distribution of Black Smokers on the Western Galapagos Spreading Center: Implications for Spatial and Temporal Controls on High Temperature Venting at Ridge/Hotspot Intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haymon, R. M.; Anderson, P. G.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; White, S. M.; MacDonald, K. C.

    2006-12-01

    Though nearly one-fifth of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) lies on or near hotspots, it has been debated whether hotspots increase or decrease MOR hydrothermal flux, or affect vent biota. Despite hotspot enhancement of melt supply, high-temperature vent plumes are enigmatically sparse along two previously-surveyed ridge- hotspot intersections [Reykjanes Ridge (RR), Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR)]. This has been attributed to crustal thickening by excess volcanism. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, we conducted nested sonar, plume, and camera surveys along a 540 km-long portion of the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) where the ridge intersects the Galapagos hotspot at lon. 94.5 -89.5 deg. W. Although MOR hydrothermal springs were first found along the eastern GSC crest in 1977 near lon. 86 deg. W, the GalAPAGoS smokers are the first active high-temperature vents to be found anywhere along the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary. Active and/or recently-inactive smokers were located beneath plumes at 5 sites on the seafloor between lon. 91 deg. W and 94.5 deg. W (see Anderson et al., this session) during near-bottom, real-time fiber-optic Medea camera surveys. Smokers occur along eruptive seafloor fissures atop axial volcanic ridges near the middles of ridge segments, mainly in areas underlain by relatively shallow, continuous axial magma chamber (AMC) seismic reflectors. These findings (1) support magmatic, rather than tectonic, control of GSC smoker distribution; (2) demonstrate that thick crust at MOR-hotspot intersections does not prevent high-temperature hydrothermal vents from forming; and, (3) appear to be inconsistent with models suggesting that enhanced hydrothermal cooling causes abrupt deepening of the AMC and transition from non-rifted to rifted GSC morphology near lon. 92.7 deg. W. The widely-spaced smoker sites located on different GSC segments exhibit remarkably similar characteristics and seafloor settings. Most sites are mature or extinct, and are on lava flows of visually-similar ages (estimated to be tens-to-hundreds of years old). Possibly a volcanic pulse may have activated the hotspot- affected western GSC, and powered contemporaneous hydrothermal vents that now are waning. It may be that hotspots produce episodes of near-synchronous, extensive ridge volcanism and hydrothermal activity, followed by periods of quiescence. This idea is consistent with: the episodic eruption histories of Hawaii and Iceland; variably anomalous hydrothermal plume incidence (low on RR, SEIR, GSC; high on Mid-Atlantic Ridge near Azores hotspot); models of episodic melt extraction from mantle plumes; and evidence for magma propagation along hotspot-influenced ridges. Our hypothesis potentially can be tested by studies of gene flow between animal communities located on either side of the Galapagos hotspot, and by dating of GSC hydrothermal chimneys and the lava flows on which they are constructed.

  12. Error Analysis and the Computation of Turbulent Fluctuations for 3D Volume Reconstructions of Acoustic Images of Black Smoker Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, K. G.; Rona, P. A.; Jackson, D. R.; Jones, C. D.

    2002-12-01

    We present an error analysis and statistical description of 3D volume reconstructions and measurements based on our acoustic images of a high-temperature black smoker-type plume. Sources of error include (1) the intrinsic variance due to particle motion in the plume since the acoustic images are based on backscatter from small (5-100 μm) particles, (2) noise produced by the ROV Jason system on which the sonar was mounted, and (3) unwanted echos from the surrounding seafloor returning through the sonar sidelobes. Additional fluctuations in the particle concentration due to plume turbulence lead to time variations in the measured backscatter. The data were collected in July 2000 by a SM2000 (330 MHz) sonar mounted on the ROV Jason. The sonar system was calibrated to record absolute backscatter pressure. The squared magnitude of backscattered pressure is converted to differential backscatter cross-section per unit volume (units 1/m), which is proportional to particulate concentration. Three-dimensional imaging data were obtained by a combination of time gating, digital beamforming, and mechanical scanning for resolution in range, azimuth, and elevation, respectively. Several different processing steps were applied to the data to reduce the error: (a) averaging along the pings with a range window of 1 m reduced the standard error in a single ping due to intrinsic variance from 1 to 0.44, (b) narrow-band notch filtering reduced the effects of tonal noise, (c) bursts effected by occasional impulsive noise events were simply eliminated from further processing, (d) successive pings were subtracted in an effort to cancel out the effects of unwanted sidelobe returns. The resulting data were interpolated onto a uniform 3D grid with 0.5 m spacing. The statistics of six successive 3D volumes were computed. Averaging the six volumes further reduced the standard error to 0.18. The total rms error, computed as the sample standard deviation divided by the square root of 6 (the number of volumes averaged into the mean), includes all sources of random error and falls in the range 0.1-0.4x10-4 1/m. Intrinsic error (18% of mean) and rms error are both low compared to mean backscattering cross-section (core maximum is 1.1x10-4 1/m) and similar to minimum values (core minimum is 0.3x10-4 1/m). Total fluctuation in the plume structure during 20 minutes of recording (all volumes) falls in the range 0.1-3.0x10-4 1/m, with the largest values in the plume core reflecting the high variability expected in a plume core. The rms fluctuations decay upwards along the plume axis at a similar rate as the mean backscattering cross-section, indicating that the dilution process is self-similar, as in buoyant plume models, even though particles are not true passive tracers. The effective plume width increases at the predicted rate of 0.1 m/m for a fully developed plume. Despite significant error levels, the turbulence structure of the plume is observed in the acoustic data and provides some constraints on the entrainment and dilution mechanisms.

  13. Major off-axis hydrothermal activity on the northern Gorda Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Rona, P.A. ); Denlinger, R.P. ); Fisk, M.R.; Howard, K.J.; Taghon, G.L. ); Klitgord, K.D. ); McClain, J.S. ); McMurray, G.R. ); Wiltshire, J.C. )

    1990-06-01

    The first hydrothermal field on the northern Gorda Ridge, the Sea Cliff hydrothermal field, was discovered and geologic controls of hydrothermal activity in the rift valley were investigated on a dive series using the DSV Sea Cliff. The Sea Cliff hydrothermal field was discovered where predicted at the intersection of axis-oblique and axis-parallel faults at the south end of a linear ridge at mid-depth (2700 m) on on the east wall. Preliminary mapping and sampling of the field reveal: a setting nested on nearly sediment-free fault blocks 300 m above the rift valley floor 2.6 km from the axis; a spectrum of venting types from seeps to black smokers; high conductive heat flow estimated to be equivalent to the convective flux of multiple black smokers through areas of the sea floor sealed by a caprock of clastic breccia primarily derived from basalt with siliceous cement and barite pore fillings; and a vent biota with Juan de Fuca Ridge affinities. These findings demonstrate the importance of off-axis hydrothermal activity and the role of the intersection of tectonic lineations in controlling hydrothermal sites at sea-floor spreading centers.

  14. Hydrothermal activity at the Arctic mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Rolf B.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Nygård, Tor Eivind; Lilley, Marvin D.; Kelley, Deborah S.

    Over the last 10 years, hydrothermal activity has been shown to be abundant at the ultraslow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridges (AMOR). Approximately 20 active and extinct vent sites have been located either at the seafloor, as seawater anomalies, or by dredge sampling hydrothermal deposits. Decreasing spreading rates and decreasing influence of the Icelandic hot spot toward the north along the AMOR result in a north-south change from a shallow and magmatically robust to a deep and magmatically starved ridge system. This contrast gives rise to large variability in the ridge geology and in the nature of the associated hydrothermal systems. The known vent sites at the southern part of the ridge system are either low-temperature or white smoker fields. At the deep, northern parts of the ridge system, a large black smoker field has been located, and seawater anomalies and sulfide deposits suggest that black smoker-type venting is common. Several of these fields may be peridotite-hosted. The hydrothermal activity at parts of the AMOR exceeds by a factor of 2 to 3 what would be expected by extrapolating from observations on faster spreading ridges. Higher fracture/fault area relative to the magma volume extracted seems a likely explanation for this. Many of the vent fields at the AMOR are associated with axial volcanic ridges. Strong focusing of magma toward these ridges, deep rifting of the ridges, and subsequent formation of long-lived detachment faults that are rooted below the ridges may be the major geodynamic mechanisms causing the unexpectedly high hydrothermal activity.

  15. Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-02-01

    In the past 3 decades, hydrothermal vents on the deep seafloor have captivated our imagination. The otherworldly vistas of vent ecosystems with chemosynthetic bacteria, animals new to science, billowing black smokers, and brightly colored polymetallic sulphide mineral deposits have changed our perception of the ocean's depths. In the new AGU monograph Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges, editors Peter A. Rona, Colin W. Devey, Jrme Dyment, and Bramley J. Murton and participating authors take readers to the exciting exploration frontier of seafloor hydrothermal research on the slow spreading half of the 55,000-kilometer-long ocean ridge that spans the Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic oceans. In this interview, Eos talks with Peter Rona.

  16. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such determinations rely on studies of pieces of deep oceanic crust uplifted by tectonic forces such as along the Southwest Indian Ridge, or more complete sections of oceanic crust called ophiolite sequences which are presently exposed on continents owing to tectonic emplacement. Much of what is thought to happen in submarine hydrothermal systems is inferred from studies of ophiolite sequences, and especially from the better-exposed ophiolites in Oman, Cyprus and North America. The focus of much that follows is on a few general features: pressure, temperature, oxidation states, fluid composition and mineral alteration, because these features will control whether organic synthesis can occur in hydrothermal systems.

  17. Hydrothermal exploration with the Autonomous Benthic Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, Christopher R.; Yoerger, Dana R.; Jakuba, Michael; Shank, Timothy M.; Langmuir, Charles H.; Nakamura, Ko-ichi

    We describe a three-phase use of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's Autonomous Benthic Explorer ( ABE), to locate, map and photograph previously undiscovered fields of high temperature submarine hydrothermal vents. Our approach represents both a complement to and a significant advance beyond the prior state of the art. Previously, hydrothermal exploration relied upon deep-tow instruments equipped with sensors that could locate sites of active "black smoker" venting to within a few kilometers. Follow-on CTD tow-yos could then resolve the sites of seafloor venting to length scales of less than a kilometer but rarely to better than a few hundreds of meters. In our new approach ABE: (i) uses sensors to locate the center of a dispersing non-buoyant hydrothermal plume 100-400 m above the seabed; (ii) makes high-resolution maps of the seafloor beneath the plume center whilst simultaneously detecting interception of any rising, buoyant hydrothermal plumes; and (iii) dives to the seafloor to take photographs in and around any new vent site to characterize its geologic setting and reveal the nature of any chemosynthetic ecosystems it may host. By conducting all of the above under long-baseline navigation, precise sites of venting can be determined to within 5 m. Our approach can be used both to address important scientific issues in their own right and to ensure much more efficient use of other deep-submergence assets such as human occupied vehicles (HOVs) and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) during follow-on studies.

  18. Energetics of hydrothermal convection in heterogeneous ocean crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruepke, Lars; Hasenclever, Joerg; Andersen, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in hydrothermal flow modeling have revealed the key thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic controls on hydrothermal convection and vent temperatures at oceanic spreading centers. The observed upper limit to black smoker vent temperatures of approx. 400°C can be explained by the thermodynamic properties of water (Jupp and Schultz, 2000). Likewise, 3D models of hydrothermal flow at fast-spreading ridges show cylindrical upwellings with closely interwoven recharge flow (Coumou et al., 2008, Hasenclever et al., 2014). While these studies provide a robust theoretical basis for hydrothermal flow observations at fast-spreading ridges, the situation at slow-spreading ridges is different. The slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge produces highly heterogeneous crust along its tectonic and magmatic segments with significant permeability contrasts across structural and lithological interfaces. The sub-seafloor permeability structure has a strong control on vent field location such that off-axis hydrothermal systems are apparently consistently located at outcropping fault zones. We have recently shown that preferential flow along high-permeability conduits inevitably leads to the entrainment of cold ambient seawater (Andersen et al., 2014), which causes a temperature drop that is difficult to reconcile with fault-related high-temperature venting. A fundamental question is therefore how hydrothermal fluids can maintain their high temperature while flowing kilometers from a driving heat source through highly heterogeneous crust to a vent site at the seafloor? We address this question by exploring the energetics of hydrothermal convection in heterogeneous ocean crust using 2D and 3D flow simulations. In our analysis we focus on the energy balance of rising hydrothermal plumes and on mixing processes at permeability boundaries, with the aim to establish a more robust theoretical framework for hydrothermal flow through highly heterogeneous seafloor.

  19. Psychosocial differences between smokers and non-smokers during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Maxson, Pamela J; Edwards, Sharon E; Ingram, Amber; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2012-02-01

    Despite the well-established adverse birth and childhood health outcomes associated with maternal smoking, smoking rates among pregnant women remain high. Psychosocial health attributes, including anxiety, depression, perceived stress, self-efficacy, and personality characteristics, have especially important roles in smoking behavior. Understanding who smokes during pregnancy and what factors influence this behavior choice may be key to improving the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention programs. We use data from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women to understand the psychosocial health profiles of women who choose to smoke during pregnancy compared to the profiles of women who do not smoke or successfully quit smoking during pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression analyses on 1518 non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white women assessed the association between smoking status and psychosocial health while controlling for demographic characteristics. Higher levels of perceived stress, depression, neuroticism, negative paternal support, and perceived racism among non-Hispanic blacks were associated with higher odds of being a smoker than a non-smoker (p<0.05). Higher levels of self-efficacy, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, interpersonal support, positive paternal support, and perceived social standing were associated with lower odds of being a smoker than a non-smoker (p<0.05). Our analysis indicates that women who smoked during pregnancy experienced a more negative constellation of psychosocial adversities than women who did not smoke. Given the psychosocial needs and personality profiles experienced by smokers, more attention to the psychosocial strengths and weaknesses of these women may allow for more tailored smoking cessation programs, enhancing both the short- and long-term effectiveness of such interventions. PMID:22000409

  20. Drilling the Snake Pit hydrothermal sulfide deposit on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, lat 23/sup 0/22'N

    SciTech Connect

    Detrick, R.S.; Honnorez, J.; Adamson, A.C.; Brass, G.; Gillis, K.M.; Humphris, S.E.; Mevel, C.; Meyer, P.; Petersen, N.; Rautenschlein, M.; Shibata, T.; Staudigel, H.; Yamamoto, K.

    1986-12-01

    A major high-temperature hydrothermal area has been discovered in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley about 25 km south of the Kane Fracture Zone. The vent field consists of a wide area (> 40,000 m/sup 2/) of dark hydrothermal deposits, numerous sulfide chimneys and mounds, some up to 11 m high, and high-temperature black-smoker vents. Ten shallow holes, the first ever drilled in an active submarine hydrothermal area, recovered friable, unconsolidated Fe, Cu-Fe, and Zn sulfides and several large fragments of massive sulfide (mainly chalcopyrite) from the locally thick (> 13 m) hydrothermal deposits. The vents are also associated with an unusual biological community of smaller, more mobile organisms than reported from the East Pacific Rise.

  1. Submarine Hydrothermal Systems - No Two Fields Are Alike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Over 300 hydrothermal systems have been discovered since the first finding of Galapagos vents over three decades ago. The size, morphology, chemistry and associated biology show a rich diversity that is in part governed by their host rocks and tectonic setting. Each vent system is unique in terms of the morphology of black smoker edifices and associated diffuse flow, which suggests that local processes and feedback loops govern the nature and evolution of these dynamic systems. In fast-spreading environments (e.g. EPR), vent fields are spaced far apart and individual structures are small in number and size. In contrast, to date, the highest concentrations of fields per kilometer of ridge segment, and the largest individual black smokers occur in intermediate-spreading systems (e.g. Endeavour hosting 45 m-tall chimneys). The largest complexes occur in intermediate and slow-spreading environments (e.g. TAG at 200 m across). The highest temperature vents are transient, with temperature excursions at or above the critical point of seawater. Extremely high temperatures are associated with diking and eruptive events that likely vaporize subsurface fluids, forcing them across the two-phase boundary briefly. Along slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges, the character of vents is strongly controlled by faulting, in particular, long-lived detachment faults that expose variably deformed and altered ultramafic rocks. Here, vent systems evolve from high-temperature black smokers within the axial valley with fluids rich in CO2, to black smokers with mantle and basaltic signatures along the axial valley walls, to end member systems such as the Lost City Field with chimneys and fluid chemistries never before seen: 60 m tall limestone towers that vent 90C, metal-poor, pH 9-11 fluids devoid of CO2, yet rich in H2, CH4 and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons formed abiotically. This relatively stable environment, free from volcanic events, promotes venting for >150,000 years.

  2. Role of tectonic and volcanic activity in hydrothermal systems at the southern Mariana Trough: detailed bathymetric characteristics of the hydrothermal sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Okino, K.; Asada, M.; Nogi, Y.; Mochizuki, N.; Nakamura, K.

    2012-12-01

    We present the detailed bathymetric characterization of field-scale geological features associated with hydrothermal systems in the southern Mariana Trough near 12°57'N, 143°37'E, using near-bottom swath mapping data collected by the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) Urashima during cruise YK09-08 and dive observation data acquired by the submersible Shinkai6500 during cruise YK10-11. In the study area, two of the hydrothermal sites are located on the active backarc spreading axis (the Snail and Yamanaka sites), one is located at the eastern foot of the axial high (the Archean site), and two are located on an off-axis knoll about 5 km from the spreading axis (the Pika and Urashima sites). We examined 1) the nature of' tectonic and volcanic controls on the hydrothermal systems, and 2) the relationship between geomorphological characteristics and hydrothermal activity based on the survey results (Yoshikawa et al., 2012). The two on-axis hydrothermal sites are possibly locally developed on a 4th order spreading segment, in association with diking events (on the basis of comparisons with previously studied cases on the East Pacific Rise). The three off-axis sites (the Archean, Urashima, and Pika sites) appear to represent locations of sustained hydrothermal activity that has created relatively large-scale hydrothermal features compared with those in the on-axis area. The formation of off-axis hydrothermal sites is likely to be closely related to an off-axis magma upwelling system, as evidenced by the absence of fault systems and the undeformed morphology of the mound and knoll. The three off-axis hydrothermal sites are composed mainly of breccia assemblages that probably originated from hydrothermal activity with black smoker venting. These areas are characterized by numerous ridge lines (height, mainly 1-6 m), conical mounds (height: < 100 m, diameter: < 300 m), and bumpy seabed. Most of the ridge lines have formed as a result of collapse of the seafloor. The fragmental materials, steep slopes (generally 22°-37°), and perhaps hydrothermal alteration of the seafloor are prerequisite for the collapse. In contrast, the on-axis sites are characterized by the absence of ridge lines, and the presence of white smoker and shimmering observed on dome-shaped pillow mounds with smooth surfaces (height, 5-30 m; diameter, 250-320 m). Furthermore, in the off-axis area with no hydrothermal activity, the mounds and the knoll have relatively smooth surfaces. Hence, the distribution of ridge lines, mound morphology, and bumpy seabed is likely to correlate with hydrothermal activity.

  3. Extensive hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau basin revealed by ROV dives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embley, R. W.; Resing, J. A.; Tebo, B.; Baker, E. T.; Butterfield, D. A.; Chadwick, B.; Davis, R.; de Ronde, C. E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Merle, S. G.; Rubin, K. H.; Shank, T. M.; Walker, S. L.; Arculus, R. J.; Bobbitt, A. M.; Buck, N. J.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Crowhurst, P. V.; Mitchell, E.; Olson, E. J.; Ratmeyer, V.; Richards, S.; Roe, K. K.; Kenner-Chavis, P.; Martinez-Lyons, A.; Sheehan, C.; Brian, R.

    2014-12-01

    Dives with the QUEST 4000 ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) in September 2012 discovered nine hydrothermal sites in the arc and rear-arc region of the NE Lau Basin in 1150 m to 2630 m depth. These sites, originally detected by water column and seafloor surveys conducted in 2008-2011, include: (1) a paired sulfur-rich/black smoker field on the summit of a tectonically deformed magmatic arc volcano (Niua), (2) fracture-controlled black smoker venting on several small en echelon seamounts (north Matas) that lie between the magmatic arc and the backarc spreading center and (3) a magmatic degassing site on the summit of a dacite cone within a large (~12 km diameter) caldera volcano (Niuatahi). Dives at West Mata Seamount, which was undergoing strombolian volcanic activity and effusive rift-zone eruptions from 2008 to 2010, revealed a dormant volcanic phase in September 2012, with continued low-temperature diffuse venting. The high-temperature venting is likely driven by magmatic heat indicative of underlying partial melt zones and/or melt pockets distributed through the region. The occurrence of the youngest known boninite eruptions on the Mata volcanoes is consistent with subduction fluid flux melting extending into the rear-arc zone. Extension related to the transition from subduction to strike-slip motion of the northern Tonga Arc over the active Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault probably contributes to the enhanced volcanism/hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau Basin. Chemosynthetic ecosystems at these sites range from mostly motile, lower diversity ecosystems at the eruptive/magmatically-degassing sites to higher diversity ecosystems with less mobile faunal components at the black-smoker systems. The wide range of fluid chemistry, water depth and geologic settings of the hydrothermal systems in this area provides an intriguing template to study the interaction of hydrothermal fluid chemistry, chemosynthetic habitats and their geologic underpinning within an arc/backarc setting.

  4. VERY High Temperature Hydrothermal Record in Plagioclase of BLACK Gabbros in Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudier, F. I.; Mainprice, D.; Nicolas, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The lower crustal section in Oman ophiolite includes 'black gabbros' that have escaped the common medium-low temperature hydrous alteration. Their plagioclases are totally fresh, but contain in their mass, nebulous inclusions most times below the resolution of optical microscope, or expressed as solid silicate phases clinopyroxene and pargasitic amphibole, up to 10 µm sized, having T equilibrium above 900°C with their host plagioclase. These gabbros have a well-expressed magmatic foliation, relayed by plastic strain marked by stretched olivine crystals, and pinching twins in plagioclase. In addition to major elements analyses, the crystallographic relationships of these Mg silicate inclusions to their host plagioclase are explored by Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD) processing. - Diopsidic clinopyroxene inclusions are dominant over pargasitic amphibole that tend to locate close to the margins of host plagioclase (Fig 1). Some inclusions are mixed clinopyroxene-amphibole, separated by a non-indexed phase that could represent a pyribole-type structure, suggesting transformation from clinopyroxene to amphibole during cooling. High chlorine content in the amphibole sign the seawater contamination at least during the development of this phase. - Preliminary statistical pole figures (Fig. 2) in the six joined plagioclase grains studied, show that both plagioclase and diopside inclusions have a strong crystal preferred orientation (CPO) connected such that the strong [010]pl maximum coincide with the strong [100]di. In addition, a coincidence appears between three sub-maxima of [100]pl and [001]di. These interesting relationships are refined. It is inferred that clinopyroxene developed through corrosion of the plagioclase by a Mg-bearing hydrous fluid, penetrating possibly via twin interface and diffusing at T~1100°C, upper limit of clinopyroxene stability in hydrous conditions. Development of pargasite implies increasing hydration during cooling.

  5. Comparison of Smoking Habits of Blacks and Whites in a Case-Control Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Geoffrey C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Subjects were interviewed to determine smoking habits of 9,252 current cigarette smokers (11 percent black) and 7,555 former smokers (6 percent black). More blacks than whites smoked. Blacks were three times more likely to be light smokers than heavy smokers. Effective prevention may require better understanding of cultural factors affecting…

  6. Seafloor Hydrothermal Activity at the Galapagos Triple Junction, East Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Yu, Z.; Zhang, G.; Tao, C.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Since the first discovery of black smokers on the Gaplapgaos spreading center, over 500 hydrothermal sites have been confirmed on the mid-ocean ridge, arc and back-arc settings (Beaulieu et al., 2013). However, the hydrothermal activity at triple-junction has not received much attention. Consequently, there are outstanding questions regarding the features of the hydrothermal system, and the effect of the hydrothermal circulation on the tectonic activity of the triple-junction. In 2009, the Chinese Dayang Cruise 21 discovered the Precious Stone field (PSF) on the Dietz Semount at the southern flank of the Galapagos triple junction (GTJ). Most studies of the GTJ focus on the topographictectonic and stresssimulation, which suggest that the GTJ had complex evoluation(Smith et al., 2011, 2013; Mitchell et al., 2011,Schouten et al., 2012). Water anomay were clear detected and samples of hydrothermal deposit and rocks were collected by TV-Grab (Figure.1). This study aims to understand the geological features of the PSF related hydrothermal activity. Hydrothermal mineralization Three types of sedimentary hydrothermal deposits representing three different hydrothermal activity stages (Figure 1)are confirmed in the PSF: 1) sediments with native sulfur and pyrite clasts(Type I), 2) Fe—Mn oxides (Type II), and 3) clay minerals mainlynontronite(Type III). Type II sedimentsprecipitate early and the source comprises of clasts of distal hydrothermal plume. The nontronite-rich sediments propably derive from the low-temperature alteration of Fe—Mn oxides. Type 1 sediments are found on the active hydrothermal venting field. Hydrothermal plume Water anomaly were detected at the southewestern PSF. We observed widespreadsedimentary hydrothermal depositsin the western PSF, but no water anomaly. According to the results of five water anomaly dectection lines, we predicted the existence of three hydrothermal vents in the PSF. Seafloor type inversion Multi-beam backscatter data were used to study the seafloor type and distribution of the PSF. The results indicate that sedimentary hydrothermal deposits are widespread at the western PSF. Basalt makes up of the seafloor of the active hydrothermal vents. The results mentioned above suggest that the hydrothemal activity at the PSF is multi-stage, long-lived and wildspread.

  7. Interactions Between Serpentinization, Hydrothermal Activity and Microbial Community at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacour, A.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Schaeffer, P.; Frank, M.; Gutjahr, M.; Kelley, D. S.

    2008-12-01

    Seafloor investigations of slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges have reported many occurrences of exposed mantle peridotites and gabbroic rocks on the ocean floor. Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, these uplifted portions of oceanic crust host high-temperature black smoker-type hydrothermal systems (e.g., Rainbow, Logatchev, Saldanha), and the more distinct low-temperature Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF). Built on a southern terrace of the Atlantis Massif, the LCHF is composed of carbonate-brucite chimneys that vent alkaline and low-temperature (40-90°C) hydrothermal fluids. These fluids are related to serpentinization of mantle peridotites, which together with minor gabbroic intrusions form the basement of the LCHF. Long-lived hydrothermal activity at Lost City led to extensive seawater-rock interaction in the basement rocks, as indicated by seawater-like Sr- and mantle to unradiogenic Nd-isotope compositions of the serpentinites. These high fluid fluxes in the southern part of the massif influenced the conditions of serpentinization and have obliterated the early chemical signatures in the serpentinites, especially those of carbon and sulfur. Compared to reducing conditions commonly formed during the first stages of serpentinization, serpentinization at Lost City is characterized by relatively oxidizing conditions resulting in a predominance of magnetite, the mobilization/dissolution and oxidation of igneous sulfides to secondary pyrite, and the incorporation of seawater sulfate, all leading to high bulk-rock S-isotope compositions. The Lost City hydrothermal fluids contain high concentrations in methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons considered as being produced abiotically. In contrast, organic compounds in the serpentinites are dominated by the occurrences of isoprenoids (pristane, phytane, and squalane), polycyclic compounds (hopanes and steranes), and higher abundances of C16 to C20 n-alkanes indicative of a marine organic input. We propose that the high seawater fluxes in the basement rocks favour the transport of marine organic carbon in the serpentinites and overprint any earlier abiotic signature. Serpentinites forming the basement of active hydrothermal chimneys have carbon and sulfur signatures, i.e. negative S-isotope compositions and high content of squalane biomarker, reflecting the influence of microbial activity in the subseafloor. Our geochemical study of the basement rocks, based on multiple isotopic systems, reveals the close relationships and reciprocal interactions between serpentinization, hydrothermal activity, and microbial community at Lost City. In addition, it sheds new light on the consequences of long-lived peridotite-hosted hydrothermal system on the chemical compositions of the oceanic lithosphere and global geochemical cycles.

  8. Helium and methane measurements in hydrothermal fluids from the mid-Atlantic ridge: The Snake Pit site at 23°N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean-Baptiste, P.; Charlou, J. L.; Stievenard, M.; Donval, J. P.; Bougault, H.; Mevel, C.

    1991-09-01

    Methane and helium isotopes concentrations have been measured in hydrothermal fluids of black smoker vents at the Snake Pit area (MAR, 23°N) as part of the Hydrosnake cruise with the submersible Nautile. The samples contain large quantities of helium and methane with endmember values of 4.6 × 10 -5 cm 3 STP/g for helium and 1.38 × 10 -3 cm 3 STP/g for methane. The helium isotopic ratio 3He/ 4He is 8.4 times the atmospheric ratio. These values are strikingly similar to those already obtained on the East Pacific Rise. The CH 4/ 3He ratio is also quite similar (CH 4/ 3He= 2.6 × 10 6) suggesting a non-biogenic origin of this gas in the fluids. Assuming that the range of variation of the 3He concentration data obtained so far from various tectonic settings is close to the genuine range of values encountered on mid-ocean ridges, the global mass flow involved in the hydrothermal circulation at the ridge's axis is estimated between 1000 and 3000 m 3 of water/sec, leading to a residence time of the global ocean with respect to the hydrothermal circulation between 15 and 45 million years. This estimate implies that, in addition to the individual vents (smokers), there is an extensive diffuse circulation of hydrothermal fluids along the ridges, in agreement with recent observations concerning heat budgets at hydrothermal sites in the Eastern Pacific.

  9. Control of fault geometry and permeability contrast on fault-related hydrothermal fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Christine; Rüpke, Lars; Hasenclever, Jörg; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Petersen, Sven

    2015-04-01

    High-temperature black smoker systems along slow-spreading ridges such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) are frequently related to tectonic fault zones and therefore are commonly found off axis. While preferential flow of hot fluids along highly permeable, fractured rocks seems intuitive, such efficient flow leads to the entrainment of cold ambient seawater resulting in a drastic decrease in vent temperatures. This temperature drop is difficult to reconcile with high-temperature black smoker activity observed at outcropping fault zones. In our recent study we aim to resolve this apparent contradiction by combining newly acquired seismological data (Grevemeyer et al., 2013) from the high-temperature, off-axis Logatchev 1 hydrothermal field (LHF1) along the MAR with 2D hydrothermal flow modeling. The seismic data shows intense off-axis seismicity with focal mechanisms suggesting a fault zone dipping from LHF1 toward the ridge axis. In order to explain fault-related high-temperature hydrothermal discharge as observed at LHF1, our simulations predict that fault zones need to be just permeable and wide enough to capture and redirect hydrothermal plumes rising from depth but, because they are not isolated conduits, must not be too wide or permeable in order to prevent cooling through mixing with ambient colder fluids. The two controlling parameters fault width and permeability contrast between fault and surrounding rock can be expressed as a single term, the relative transmissibility of the fault zone, which is defined by the product of the two. Low relative fault transmissibility leads to plumes that cross the fault and vent above the heat source rather than at the fault termination at the seafloor. High relative fault transmissibility leads to significantly lower vent exit temperatures than those observed at black smoker systems. Our findings further illustrate the intrinsic relationship between permeability, mass flux and upflow temperature: the higher the permeability, the higher the mass flux and the lower the vent temperature. The common occurrence of fault-linked high-temperature vent fields strongly points at a not-yet-quantified self-adjusting permeability that depends on pore space-clogging reactions between hydrothermal and ambient cold fluids. Furthermore, the temperature drop associated with any high permeability zone in heterogeneous crust may well explain the sparse high-temperature vent fields along the MAR and why the heterogeneous crust of the Atlantic, with its strong permeability contrasts, is predominantly cooled by lower-temperature fluid flow.

  10. Reaction Permeability in Ocean Floor Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaig, A. M.; Cann, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Fracturing is normally assumed to be the only significant mechanism for generating the permeability required for black smoker hydrothermal circulation within oceanic sheeted dykes. We present evidence for reaction-enhanced permeability as an alternative mechanism using data from three diverse settings; epidosites from the Troodos ophiolite, diabase intrusions chilling against fault rocks and altered gabbros in the immediate footwall of a detachment fault at 30 °N in the Atlantic (IODP Site 1309), and the "type section" of Pacific ocean crust in ODP Hole 504b. In each case, freshly broken surfaces were examined in the SEM, revealing euhedral secondary minerals (amphibole or epidote) growing into porosity located in areas formerly occupied by igneous minerals such as pyroxene. Relict porosity is up to 20 μm in size but may originally have been considerably larger. BSEM and CL imaging of polished surfaces reveals euhedral zoning and resorbtion surfaces in both amphibole and quartz. Amphiboles at IODP site 1309 have a wide range in composition with early zones being exceptionally rich in Ti and Al (temperatures using the Ernst and Liu geothermometer in excess of 800 °C), but later zones and porosity-filling amphibole needles being actinolitic. Key field relations in the Troodos ophiolite show that the most intense alteration is often in the undeformed cores of dykes, and that each successive dyke was epidotised before the next was intruded. Reaction permeability provides a mechanism for concentrating fluid flow into the site of alteration, and can create exceptionally large transient permeabilities before the porosity is occluded by secondary minerals. Mineral solubilities generally peak at P-T conditions close to the critical point for water, so in a diabase cooling from magmatic temperatures the local fluid is always likely to be undersaturated down to the temperature of black smoker venting. A moving fluid will remove material from the cooling diabase, creating porosity. The porosity-filling phases generally represent greenschist facies conditions, consistent with black smoker vent temperatures. Reaction porosity textures have been observed in 8 out of 10 specimens so far examined in broken surface from Atlantic and Pacific dyke rocks. This permeability-generating mechanism may therefore be widespread.

  11. COPD in Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    McBurnie, Mary Ann; Vollmer, William M.; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Welte, Tobias; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa; Studnicka, Michael; Bateman, Eric; Anto, Josep M.; Burney, Peter; Mannino, David M.; Buist, Sonia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of patients with COPD. Their characteristics and possible risk factors in this population are not yet well defined. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 countries that participated in the international, population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study. Participants were aged ≥ 40 years and completed postbronchodilator spirometry testing plus questionnaires about respiratory symptoms, health status, and exposure to COPD risk factors. A diagnosis of COPD was based on the postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio, according to current GOLD (Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease) guidelines. In addition to this, the lower limit of normal (LLN) was evaluated as an alternative threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Results: Among 4,291 never smokers, 6.6% met criteria for mild (GOLD stage I) COPD, and 5.6% met criteria for moderate to very severe (GOLD stage II+) COPD. Although never smokers were less likely to have COPD and had less severe COPD than ever smokers, never smokers nonetheless comprised 23.3% (240/1,031) of those classified with GOLD stage II+ COPD. This proportion was similar, 20.5% (171/832), even when the LLN was used as a threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Predictors of COPD in never smokers include age, education, occupational exposure, childhood respiratory diseases, and BMI alterations. Conclusion: This multicenter international study confirms previous evidence that never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of individuals with COPD. Our data suggest that, in addition to increased age, a prior diagnosis of asthma and, among women, lower education levels are associated with an increased risk for COPD among never smokers. PMID:20884729

  12. A Diverse Community of Metal(loid) Oxide Respiring Bacteria Is Associated with Tube Worms in the Vicinity of the Juan de Fuca Ridge Black Smoker Field.

    PubMed

    Maltman, Chris; Walter, Graham; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Epibiotic bacteria associated with tube worms living in the vicinity of deep sea hydrothermal vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean were investigated for the ability to respire anaerobically on tellurite, tellurate, selenite, selenate, metavanadate and orthovanadate as terminal electron acceptors. Out of 107 isolates tested, 106 were capable of respiration on one or more of these oxides, indicating that metal(loid) oxide based respiration is not only much more prevalent in nature than is generally believed, but also is an important mode of energy generation in the habitat. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the bacterial community to be rich and highly diverse, containing many potentially new species. Furthermore, it appears that the worms not only possess a close symbiotic relationship with chemolithotrophic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, but also with the metal(loid) oxide transformers. Possibly they protect the worms through reduction of the toxic compounds that would otherwise be harmful to the host. PMID:26914590

  13. A Diverse Community of Metal(loid) Oxide Respiring Bacteria Is Associated with Tube Worms in the Vicinity of the Juan de Fuca Ridge Black Smoker Field

    PubMed Central

    Maltman, Chris; Walter, Graham; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Epibiotic bacteria associated with tube worms living in the vicinity of deep sea hydrothermal vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean were investigated for the ability to respire anaerobically on tellurite, tellurate, selenite, selenate, metavanadate and orthovanadate as terminal electron acceptors. Out of 107 isolates tested, 106 were capable of respiration on one or more of these oxides, indicating that metal(loid) oxide based respiration is not only much more prevalent in nature than is generally believed, but also is an important mode of energy generation in the habitat. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the bacterial community to be rich and highly diverse, containing many potentially new species. Furthermore, it appears that the worms not only possess a close symbiotic relationship with chemolithotrophic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, but also with the metal(loid) oxide transformers. Possibly they protect the worms through reduction of the toxic compounds that would otherwise be harmful to the host. PMID:26914590

  14. Physical controls on the salinity of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vent fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Fabrice J.; Wilcock, William S. D.; Butterfield, David A.

    2007-05-01

    Variations in the salinity of black smoker effluents (0.1- 8 wt.% NaCl) relative to seawater (3.2 wt.% NaCl) are attributed to phase separation and segregation of the resulting brines and vapors. However, models of phase separation predict brines with substantially higher salinities than observed at vents and such brines are commonly observed in fluid inclusions from fossil hydrothermal systems. It has been postulated that the range of observed salinities is controlled by the density of upwelling fluids. Here we present models of hydrothermal circulation that predict the observed maximum salinity when an upper layer of high-permeability is included, and also reproduce black smoker temperatures when the upflow zone is surrounded by a low-permeability shell. Pressure gradients across the permeability boundary act as a density filter impeding the passage of high-salinity fluids, while the shell provides sufficient insulation to tap hot fluids to the surface. Our models fit the observations when the permeabilities of the upper layer differ from the permeability of the lower layer by factors of 10 and 100 in upflow and downflow regions, respectively, and when the permeability of the shell is one tenth that of the lower layer. The permeability structure we propose is consistent with observations in oceanic crust and inferences from ophiolites. While a previous study argues that black smoker temperatures are a consequence of the thermodynamic properties of seawater, our work suggests that very specific permeability configurations are required to match both the temperature and maximum salinity.

  15. Archaeal Community in the Hydrothermal System at Suiyo Seamount on the Izu-Ogasawara Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, A.; Hara, K.; Itahashi, S.; Kasai, H.; Teramura, T.; Kakegawa, T.; Maruyama, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Marumo, K.; Urabe, T.

    2002-12-01

    Archaeal communities in extreme environment have been analyzed by phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA gene and fluorescent whole cell in situ hybridization method. These culture-independent methods revealed archaeal communities with much higher diversities than those found by conventional culture methods. In this work we have extended the culture-independent method to the analysis of microbial diversity in a deep-sea hydrothermal system at Suiyo Seamount. In the Archaean Park Project supported by Special Coordination Fund, several holes were bored and cased in the crater of the Suiyo seamount on the Izu-Ogasawara arc (about 1,400 depth) in 2001 and 2002. Hydrothermal fluids form these cased holes and black smoker chimneys were sampled at various sites on Suiyo seamount. The fluids were filtered to collect the microbial cells. Filters and black smoker chimney samples were crushed and DNA was extracted and purified. The DNA was used to amplify archaeal 16S rDNA fragments by PCR using an archaea specific primer set. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. Archaeal PCR clones of different samples will be compared.

  16. Metalliferous sediments adjacent to hydrothermal fields: Distribution and geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Cherkashev, G.A. )

    1990-06-01

    The study of metalliferous sediments located at small distances from their sources (10-15 km), such as modern or ancient hydrothermal fields, indicate essential differences in geochemistry compared with metalliferous sediments that occur at greater distances from geothermal fields. Thus, within areas of well-known metalliferous sediment, such as the TAG hydrothermal field, Galapagos Ridge, northern East Pacific Rise (near 13{degree}N), and triple junction zone in the Indian Ocean, are areas of sediment showing the following compositional features: (1) anomalously high concentrations of metals building up sulfide edifices in the central parts of hydrothermal fields (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb); (2) high noble metal concentrations; (3) rare-earth element patterns characterized by a europium anomaly (Eu/Eu* >1) and with no negative cerium anomaly (Ce/Ce* {>=}1), the latter being a peculiar feature of rare-earth composition of normal metalliferous sediments. The first two features may not always be distinguished based on examination of the bulk rock. Metalliferous sediments of this type are commonly restricted to exposed igneous rocks that supply lithogenic material (volcanic glass, clastic basalt) to the sediments during subsea weathering. Most elemental concentrations (including nonferrous and noble metals) are diluted by this lithogenic material. The diluting effect can be eliminated by recalculation on a detrital-free basis using the concentration of titanium, the element enriched in the detrital component and depleted in hydrothermal sedimentary component. The geochemical anomalies are caused by genetic features, namely that the metals are derived from the oxidation of sulfide minerals either previously building up the hydrothermal body (and transported by bottom currents after oxidation) or incorporated into black smokers (suspension in fluids).

  17. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem: the Lost City hydrothermal field.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Deborah S; Karson, Jeffrey A; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Yoerger, Dana R; Shank, Timothy M; Butterfield, David A; Hayes, John M; Schrenk, Matthew O; Olson, Eric J; Proskurowski, Giora; Jakuba, Mike; Bradley, Al; Larson, Ben; Ludwig, Kristin; Glickson, Deborah; Buckman, Kate; Bradley, Alexander S; Brazelton, William J; Roe, Kevin; Elend, Mitch J; Delacour, Adélie; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Lilley, Marvin D; Baross, John A; Summons, Roger E; Sylva, Sean P

    2005-03-01

    The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from <40 degrees to 90 degrees C at pH 9 to 11, and carbonate chimneys 30 to 60 meters tall. A low diversity of microorganisms related to methane-cycling Archaea thrive in the warm porous interiors of the edifices. Macrofaunal communities show a degree of species diversity at least as high as that of black smoker vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but they lack the high biomasses of chemosynthetic organisms that are typical of volcanically driven systems. PMID:15746419

  18. Comparing homeless smokers to economically disadvantaged domiciled smokers.

    PubMed

    Businelle, Michael S; Cuate, Erica L; Kesh, Anshula; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E

    2013-12-01

    We compared characteristics of homeless smokers and economically disadvantaged domiciled smokers (Dallas, TX; August 2011-November 2012). Although findings indicated similar smoking characteristics across samples, homeless smokers (n = 57) were exposed to more smokers and reported lower motivation to quit, lower self-efficacy for quitting, more days with mental health problems, and greater exposure to numerous stressors than domiciled smokers (n = 110). The sample groups reported similar scores on measures of affect, perceived stress, and interpersonal resources. Results may inform novel cessation interventions for homeless smokers. PMID:24148069

  19. Microbial Activity and Volatile Fluxes in Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, R. S.; Lowell, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding geographically and biologically the production or utilization of volatile chemical species such as CO2, CH4, and H2 is crucial not only for understanding hydrothermal processes but also for understanding life processes in the oceanic crust. To estimate the microbial effect on the transport of these volatiles, we consider a double-loop single pass model as shown in Figure 1 to estimate the mass fluxes shown. We then use a simple mixing formulation: C4Q4 = C3 (Q1 -Q3)+ C2Q2, where C2 is the concentration of the chemical in seawater, C3 is the average concentration of the chemical in high temperature focused flow, C4 is the expected concentration of the chemical as a result of mixing, and the relevant mass flows are as shown in Figure 1. Finally, we compare the calculated values of CO2, CH4, and H2 in diffuse flow fluids to those observed. The required data are available for both the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the East Pacific Rise 9°50' N systems. In both cases we find that, although individual diffuse flow sites have observed concentrations of some elements that are greater than average, the average concentration of these volatiles is smaller in all cases than the concentration that would be expected from simple mixing. This indicates that subsurface microbes are net utilizers of these chemical constituents at the Main Endeavour Field and at EPR 9°50' N on the vent field scale. Figure 1. Schematic of a 'double-loop' single-pass model above a convecting, crystallizing, replenished AMC (not to scale). Heat transfer from the vigorously convecting, cooling, and replenished AMC across the conductive boundary layer δ drives the overlying hydrothermal system. The deep circulation represented by mass flux Q1 and black smoker temperature T3 induces shallow circulation noted by Q2. Some black smoker fluid mixes with seawater resulting in diffuse discharge Q4, T4, while the direct black smoker mass flux with temperature T3 is reduced from Q1 to Q3. Heat output, vent temperature, and geochemical data allow estimates of the various mass fluxes. [Lowell et al., G-cubed 2013].

  20. Hydrothermal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2011-03-11

    This chapter is a contribution to a book on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass being edited by Prof. Robert Brown of Iowa State University. It describes both hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal gasification of biomass to fuels.

  1. Hydrothermal mineralization at seafloor spreading centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, Peter A.

    1984-01-01

    The recent recognition that metallic mineral deposits are concentrated by hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers constitutes a scientific breakthrough that opens active sites at seafloor spreading centers as natural laboratories to investigate ore-forming processes of such economically useful deposits as massive sulfides in volcanogenic rocks on land, and that enhances the metallic mineral potential of oceanic crust covering two-thirds of the Earth both beneath ocean basins and exposed on land in ophiolite belts. This paper reviews our knowledge of processes of hydrothermal mineralization and the occurrence and distribution of hydrothermal mineral deposits at the global oceanic ridge-rift system. Sub-seafloor hydrothermal convection involving circulation of seawater through fractured rocks of oceanic crust driven by heat supplied by generation of new lithosphere is nearly ubiquitous at seafloor spreading centers. However, ore-forming hydrothermal systems are extremely localized where conditions of anomalously high thermal gradients and permeability increase hydrothermal activity from the ubiquitous low-intensity background level (? 200C) to high-intensity characterized by high temperatures ( > 200-c.400C), and a rate and volume of flow sufficient to sustain chemical reactions that produce acid, reducing, metal-rich primary hydrothermal solutions. A series of mineral phases with sulfides and oxides as high- and low-temperature end members, respectively, are precipitated along the upwelling limb and in the discharge zone of single-phase systems as a function of increasing admixture of normal seawater. The occurrence of hydrothermal mineral deposits is considered in terms of spatial and temporal frames of reference. Spatial frames of reference comprise structural features along-axis (linear sections that are the loci of seafloor spreading alternating with transform faults) and perpendicular to axis (axial zone of volcanic extrusion and marginal zones of active extension) common to all spreading centers, regional tectonic setting determined by stage (early, advanced), and rate (slow, intermediate-to-fast) of opening of an ocean basin about a spreading center, and local tectonic sub-setting that incorporates anomalous structural and thermal conditions conducive to mineral concentration (thermal gradient, permeability, system geometry, leaky versus tight hydrothermal systems). Temporal frames of reference comprise the relation between mineral concentration and timing of regional plutonic, volcanic and tectonic cycles and of episodic local physical and chemical events (transient stress, fluctuating heat transfer, intrusion-extrusion, fracturing, sealing, etc.). Types of hydrothermal deposits are not uniquely associated with specific tectonic settings and subsettings. Similar types of hydrothermal deposits may occur in different tectonic settings as a consequence of convergence of physical and chemical processes of concentration. Local tectonic sub-settings with conditions conducive to hydrothermal mineralization at slow-spreading centers (half rate ? 2cm y -1; length c. 28,000 km), characterized by an estimated average convective heat transfer of 15.110 8 cal. cm -2, deep-level ( > 3 km), relative narrow (< 5 km wide at base) magma chambers, and high topographic relief (1-5 km) are: (1) basins along linear sections of the axial zone of volcanic extrusion near transform faults at an early stage of opening, represented by a large stratiform sulfide deposit (estimated 32.510 6 metric tons) of the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea; (2) the wall along linear sections of the rift valley in the marginal zone of active extension at an advanced stage of opening, represented by encrustations and layered deposits of manganese and iron oxides, hydroxides and silicates inferred to be underlain by stockwork sulfides at the TAG Hydrothermal Field at latitude 26C on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; (3) transform faults, especially those with large ridge-ridge offset ( > 30 km), at an advanced stage of opening, represented by stockwork sulfides exposed in the walls of equatorial fracture zones of the Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean; (4) the axial zone of volcanic extrusion at an advanced stage of opening. Local tectonic sub-settings with conditions conducive to hydrothermal mineralization at intermediate- to fast-spreading centers (half rate > 2cm y -1; length c. 22,000 km) characterized by an estimated average convective heat transfer of 11.510 8 cal. cm -2, relatively wide (up to 20 km at base), shallow-level (c. 1-3 km) magma chambers, and low topographic relief (< 1 km), are: (1) basins along linear sections of the axial zone of volcanic extrusion at an early stage of opening, represented by massive sulfide deposits of the Guaymas Basin of the Gulf of California; (2) the axial zone of volcanic extrusion at an advanced stage of opening, represented by individually small (c. 110 3 metric tons), massive sulfide mounds surmounted by chimneys of the East Pacific Rise at latitude 21N; (3) the marginal zone of active extension at an advanced stage of opening represented by a large, massive sulfide deposit (preliminary tentative estimate c.1010 6 metric tons) at a double-rifted section of the Galapagos Spreading Center; (4) transform faults, especially those with large ridge-ridge offset ( > 50 km) represented by manganese encrustations in a transform fault at the Galapagos Spreading Center; (5) volcanic seamounts related to persistent hot spots at spreading centers, represented by oxide and sulfide deposits on seamounts off the axis of the East Pacific Rise; (6) portions of spreading centers with anomalous configurations such as multiple, bent or extended rifts, represented by massive sulfide deposits at a double-rifted section of the Galapagos Spreading Center, suggesting the operation of a thermal-structural feedback mechanism indicative of the presence of hydrothermal mineralization; (7) discrete spreading centers in back-arc basins represented by hydrothermal deposits at sites in marginal seas of the western Pacific. Ore-forming processes appear to be least efficient in the axial zone of volcanic extrusion of oceanic ridges at an advanced stage of opening irrespective of spreading rate, where tight hydrothermal systems dissipate a major portion of contained metals by precipitation and dispersion in particulate form from "black smokers" that discharge into the water column. Ore-forming processes appear to be most efficient at sites in basins at linear sections of the axial zone of volcanic extrusion near transform faults during an early stage of opening, and at marginal zones of active extension along linear sections of a spreading center during an advanced stage of opening, irrespective of spreading rate, where both tight and leaky hydrothermal systems may conserve their contained metals to concentrate large sulfide deposits. Resemblances in mineralization between stockwork sulfides at seafloor spreading centers and porphyry copper-type deposits in volcanogenic rocks on land suggest the possibility for the occurrence of large tonnage, low-grade porphyry copper-like deposits concentrated by leaky hydrothermal systems at spreading centers. Systematic application of composite exploration procedures is leading to the discovery of numerous additional deposits. It is inferred from the limited data base available that the occurrence of hydrothermal mineral deposits is more frequent at intermediate-to-fast-than at slow-spreading centers, but the potential for the accumulation of large hydrothermal mineral deposits is greater at slow-spreading centers. Current knowledge of the distribution of hydrothermal mineral deposits at seafloor spreading centers is limited to about 55 sites at this early stage of exploration. Estimates of the distribution of either fields of hydrothermal mineral deposits or high-intensity ore-forming hydrothermal systems at seafloor spreading centers, deduced from various considerations, range from one such occurrence between 15 and 265 km along slow-spreading centers, and 1 and 100 km along intermediate- to fast-spreading centers. However, the distribution of sizable deposits will remain sporadic owing to the special structural and thermal conditions necessary to sustain and to retain high-intensity ore-forming hydrothermal systems.

  2. An off-axis hydrothermal vent field near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 30 degrees N.

    PubMed

    Kelley, D S; Karson, J A; Blackman, D K; Früh-Green, G L; Butterfield, D A; Lilley, M D; Olson, E J; Schrenk, M O; Roe, K K; Lebon, G T; Rivizzigno, P

    2001-07-12

    Evidence is growing that hydrothermal venting occurs not only along mid-ocean ridges but also on old regions of the oceanic crust away from spreading centres. Here we report the discovery of an extensive hydrothermal field at 30 degrees N near the eastern intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Atlantis fracture zone. The vent field--named 'Lost City'--is distinctly different from all other known sea-floor hydrothermal fields in that it is located on 1.5-Myr-old crust, nearly 15 km from the spreading axis, and may be driven by the heat of exothermic serpentinization reactions between sea water and mantle rocks. It is located on a dome-like massif and is dominated by steep-sided carbonate chimneys, rather than the sulphide structures typical of 'black smoker' hydrothermal fields. We found that vent fluids are relatively cool (40-75 degrees C) and alkaline (pH 9.0-9.8), supporting dense microbial communities that include anaerobic thermophiles. Because the geological characteristics of the Atlantis massif are similar to numerous areas of old crust along the Mid-Atlantic, Indian and Arctic ridges, these results indicate that a much larger portion of the oceanic crust may support hydrothermal activity and microbial life than previously thought. PMID:11449263

  3. An off-axis hydrothermal vent field near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 30° N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Deborah S.; Karson, Jeffrey A.; Blackman, Donna K.; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Butterfield, David A.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Olson, Eric J.; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Roe, Kevin K.; Lebon, Geoff T.; Rivizzigno, Pete; AT3-60 Shipboard Party, a2

    2001-07-01

    Evidence is growing that hydrothermal venting occurs not only along mid-ocean ridges but also on old regions of the oceanic crust away from spreading centres. Here we report the discovery of an extensive hydrothermal field at 30°N near the eastern intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Atlantis fracture zone. The vent field-named `Lost City'-is distinctly different from all other known sea-floor hydrothermal fields in that it is located on 1.5-Myr-old crust, nearly 15km from the spreading axis, and may be driven by the heat of exothermic serpentinization reactions between sea water and mantle rocks. It is located on a dome-like massif and is dominated by steep-sided carbonate chimneys, rather than the sulphide structures typical of `black smoker' hydrothermal fields. We found that vent fluids are relatively cool (40-75°C) and alkaline (pH 9.0-9.8), supporting dense microbial communities that include anaerobic thermophiles. Because the geological characteristics of the Atlantis massif are similar to numerous areas of old crust along the Mid-Atlantic, Indian and Arctic ridges, these results indicate that a much larger portion of the oceanic crust may support hydrothermal activity and microbial life than previously thought.

  4. Discovery of hydrothermal plumes at the Rodoriguez segment, Mid-Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, K.; Gamo, T.; Kiyota, K.; Kawagucci, S.; Connelly, D.; Boulart, C.; Poonyth, A.; Ura, T.; Sakamaki, T.; Nagahashi, K.; Tamaki, K.

    2007-12-01

    Geochemical surveys for the Rodriguez Segment of the Central Indian Ridge have been quite few so far. One of the principal objectives of this cruise is to locate hydrothermally active sites along the plate spreading center of the segments 15 and 16 of the Central Indian Ridge. We conducted water column observations using a CTDT (a package of Conductivity, Temperature, Depth, and light transmission sensors) + CMS (Carousel Multi-Sampling system) attached with an in situ Mn analyzer GAMOS (Okamura et al., 2001) in order to detect any anomalies due to hydrothermal plumes. Summary of some highlighted results: (1) Two typical hydrothermal active stations have been recognized; one is located east of East Brigitte Protrusion in the Roger Plateau (on the segment 15), and the other is close to Beak Rocks on the Great Dodo Lava Plain (on the segment 16). (2) Both sites are characterized by light transmission (LT) anomalies of 0.2 % at maximum, suggesting the existence of black (or white) smoker activity. (3) While the DMn(nM)/DLT(%) at the former station is 100, in a similar trend as that observed during KH-93-3 cruise (Kairei Field), the ratio at the latter station is only 10, an order of magnitude lower than that at station 20. There may be a significant difference in hydrothermal fluid chemistry at these two locations.

  5. Propidium Monoazide-based Method for Identifying Phylogenetic Association of Necromass Near Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Gustavo; Edwards, Katrina

    2014-05-01

    Black Smoker hydrothermal systems are geologically driven systems located near subduction zones and spreading centers associated with plate margins. The high temperature and low pH of fluids that are often associated with basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems select for unique microbial communities primarily comprised of prokaryotes capable of S and Fe cycling. High temperature fluids, where temperatures exceed 300° C, are likely to have a lethal effect on transient deep water planktonic communities and, over long temporal scales, may influence the molecular composition of pelleted necromass aggregates near the chimney system. We have developed a method for discriminative sequencing permitting intra vs. extracellular 16S rDNA sequencing to reveal community differences between biologically-relevant and necromass-associated DNA. This method has only recently been applied to marine environments and, here, we propose its use as relevant tool for studying the molecular ecology of high temperature hydrothermal systems, as physical drivers of massive transient community die offs and associated detrital 16S rDNA community shifts. Ultimately, we aim to understand the fraction of 16S rDNA communities that do not represent living taxa, or the information-containing fraction of total necromass pool, to better frame ecological hypotheses regarding environmental biogeochemical cycling in hydrothermal system environments.

  6. The origin of life near deep-sea hydrothermal systems during the Cambrian explosion: data from the Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Terleev, Alexander; Safonova, Inna; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey; Tokarev, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    On Earth the solar radiation and the hydrothermal circulation both affect life evolution. Recent extensive studies of the World Ocean have shown that the biodiversity of Earth is linked with hydrothermal activity on the oceanic floor. These deep-sea ecosystems use chemical energy, not solar radiation. In the last quarter of the XX century, a new type of hydrothermal systems, so-called black smokers, was discovered in mid-oceanic ridges. As black smokers form sulfide ores and are surrounded by abundant bio-oases or symbioses, identification of their analogues in ancient orogenic belts is necessary for studying life origin and evolution. Of special importance are problems of life associated with deep-sea hydrothermal systems acted at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary - the time of Cambrian explosion (Maruyama et al., 2013). During that explosion life significantly evolved and diversified due to dramatic changes of Earth's environment. Consequently, the early Cambrian - late Precambrian Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit of East Tuva in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is of special interest. This deposit was formed on the bottom of ancient back-arc deep-sea basin as a result of black smoker hydrothermal activity and is hosted by volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks altered by the high temperature solutions. The altered Kyzyl Tashtyg basalts have an amygdules (filled by albite, epidote and carbonates), contain brown-green microfossils, often attached to their walls. The microfossils are thin tubes 5 to 25 microns in diameter and 500 microns long. This tubes are empty and have straight, curved or branching shape. Chemically, the tube material is close to epidote. In consideration of microscopic dimensions, simple morphology and similarity with modern tubular microorganisms, the studied tube-shaped microfossils can be related to cyanobacteria. Almost the same fossils, associated with oceanic basalt complexes, were described earlier (Furnes et al., 2007; Mcloughlin et al., 2007). Our studies of fluid inclusions in minerals of amygdules showed that basalts, which contain microfossils, were altered by hydrothermal solutions heated up to 120-180 C and compositionally close to the sea water. The Kyzyl Tashtyg sedimentary complexes include hydrothermal quartz-hematite constructions. Ferriferous-siliceous rocks from these structures contain different types of ancient biota: monocyatea, cyanobacteria, cribricyatea and sponge spicules. Thus, our study of early Cambrian - late Precambrian volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks determine different types of ancient biota, which natural occurrence was connected with deep-sea hydrothermal ore-forming black smoker systems of the Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit. Some part of these hydrothermal solutions were suppliers of energy and nutritive elements for microfossils in closed spaces of amygdules in altered basalts, where cyanobacteria evolved without light and depend on chemosynthesis only. Presence of fossils in the ferriferous-siliceous rocks, formed on the bottom of the ancient deep-sea basin, was connected with biota growth during formation of quartz-hematite constructions as a result of hydrothermal system activity.

  7. Deep-sea smokers: Windows to a subsurface biosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Jody W.; Baross, John A.

    1993-07-01

    Since the discovery of hyperthermophilic microbial activity in hydrothermal fluids recovered from "smoker" vents on the East Pacific Rise, the widely accepted upper temperature limit for life (based on pure culture data) has risen from below the boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure to approximately 115C. Many microbiologists seem willing to speculate that the maximum may be closer to 150C. We have postulated not only higher temperatures than these (under deep-sea hydrostatic pressures), but also the existence of a biosphere subsurface to accessible seafloor vents. New geochemical information from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicative of subsurface organic material caused us to re-examine both the literature on hyperthermophilic microorganisms cultured from deep-sea smoker environments and recent results of microbial sampling efforts at actively discharging smokers on the Endeavour Segment. Here we offer the case for a subsurface biosphere based on an interdisciplinary view of microbial and geochemical analyses of Endeavour smoker fluids, a case in keeping with rapidly evolving geophysical understanding of organic stability under deep-sea hydrothermal conditions.

  8. Kinetic tremor: differences between smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D

    2007-05-01

    Tremor is among the acute effects of nicotine exposure. Published studies have focused on smoking-related postural (static) hand tremor rather than kinetic tremor (tremor during hand use), and gender differences in smoking-related tremor have not been examined. In a group of adults who were sampled from a population (mean+/-S.D.=65.7+/-11.5 years, range=18-92 years), the investigator assessed whether the severity of postural and kinetic tremors differed in smokers versus non-smokers, and whether this difference was influenced by gender. Twenty-seven (9.9%) of 273 subjects were current smokers. Greater tremor was observed in smokers than non-smokers during a variety of activities (drawing a spiral, using a spoon, finger-nose-finger maneuver, all p<0.05) and smokers had a higher total tremor score than non-smokers (5.15+/-3.06 versus 3.41+/-2.88, p<0.01), even after adjusting for age, caffeine intake and other potential confounding factors. The difference between smokers and non-smokers in terms of hand tremor was more apparent in women than in men. In women, the number of cigarettes smoked on the day of testing was weakly correlated with the total tremor score (r=0.17, p=0.03). In summary, smokers had more kinetic hand tremor than non-smokers. This difference between smokers and non-smokers was more apparent in women than in men. These results suggest that smoking habits should be considered carefully in order to avoid over- or underestimating the effects of occupational and non-occupational exposures to other tremor-producing neurotoxins. PMID:17267044

  9. Comparison of Cotinine Salivary Levels in Hookah Smokers, Passive Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Nosratzehi, Tahereh; Arbabi-Kalati, Fateme; Alijani, Ebrahim; Tajdari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background At present smoking is considered a great health-related problem. Smoking cigarettes and use of tobacco are on the rise in the Middle East countries; therefore, the number of people exposed to passive cigarette smoke is increasing, too. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare salivary cotinine levels in hookah smokers, individuals exposed to passive cigarette smoke and non-smoker (passive smokers). Methods In the present cross-sectional study, unstimulated salivary samples were collected from 150 subjects, including 50 hookah smokers, 50 passive smokers, and 50 non-smokers. Bioassay Technology Laboratory cotinine kit was used to determine salivary levels of cotinine using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique at a sensitivity rate of 0.019 pg/ml. Data were analyzed with SPSS software using t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Findings The highest salivary cotinine levels were recorded in hookah users (20.24 ± 5.62 ng/ml), followed by passive smokers (16.09 ± 3.51 ng/ml), in descending order. No detectable cotinine levels were observed in non-smokers. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a strong and positive correlation between use of hookah and salivary cotinine levels (r = 0.932, P = 0.001). Conclusion Based on the results of the present study, salivary cotinine levels were higher in hookah smokers compared with passive smokers and non-smokers, in descending order. PMID:26885355

  10. Sulphur Cycling at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Isotopic Evidence From the Logatchev and Turtle Pits Hydrothermal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickmann, B.; Strauss, H.; Koschinsky, A.; Kuhn, T.; Petersen, S.; Schmidt, K.

    2005-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridges and associated hydrothermal vent systems represent a unique scenario in which the interaction of hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere and the related element cycling can be studied. Sulphur participates in inorganic and microbially driven processes and plays, thus, an important role at these vent sites. The sulphur isotopic compositions of different sulphur-bearing minerals as well as dissolved sulphur compounds provide a tool for identifying the sulphur source and pertinent processes of sulphur cycling. Here, we present sulphur isotope data from an ongoing study of the Logatchev hydrothermal field at 14°45' N and the Turtle Pits hydrothermal field at 4°48' S. The former is located in 2900 to 3060 m water depth, hosted by ultramafic rocks, while the latter is situated in 2990 m water depth, hosted by basaltic rocks. Different metal sulphides (chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, various copper sulphides), either particles from the emanating hot fluid itself or pieces of active and inactive black smokers, display δ34S values between +2 and +9 ‰. So far, no significant difference is discernible between mineral precipitates from both hydrothermal fields. However, differences exist between different generations of sulphide precipitates. Based on respective data from other sites of hydrothermal activity at mid-ocean ridges, this sulphur isotope range suggests that sulphur in the hydrothermal fluid and mineral precipitates represents a mixture between mantle sulphur and reduced seawater sulphate. Anhydrite precipitates from hydrothermal chimneys, located inside sulphide conduits, and obvious late stage gypsum needles from voids, yielded sulphur isotope values between +17.5 and +20.0 ‰. This clearly identifies seawater sulphate as the principal sulphur source. Variable, but generally low abundances of sulphide and sulphate in differently altered mafic and ultramafic rocks point to a complex fluid-rock interaction. Sulphur isotope values for total sulphur range between 0.6 and +18.7 ‰, again reflecting a mixing between two principal end-members: seawater sulphate and mantle sulphur.

  11. Maximizing help for dissonant smokers.

    PubMed

    Kunze, M

    2000-01-01

    'Consonant' smokers know and accept the risks associated with tobacco consumption, and do not wish to change their smoking, whereas 'dissonant' smokers are tobacco consumers whose attitudes differ from their behaviour. Dissonant smokers have several options: to quit smoking (the optimal solution), reduce their smoking, switch products or brands, or do nothing. To date, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is the best-established medical aid to smoking cessation, but several important factors impact on NRT use. As smokers constitute a diverse group there is a need for various different formulations, some of which will suit certain smokers better than others. Smokers should be allowed to select their preferred products in order to increase compliance, and should also be permitted to combine various products if desired. Adequate dosage regimens should be stressed in order to avoid under-dosing, which is common with NRT. It is also essential that the medical system focuses increasingly on the diagnosis and treatment of those smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit smoking. High nicotine dependence correlates with a high risk of pulmonary and cardiovascular disease; because these smokers cannot quit, cessation efforts have little impact on the incidence of tobacco-related diseases in this population. Additional smoking control interventions, such as smoking reduction therapy, are therefore required to treat this group. Our experience in Vienna shows that these smokers can be targeted through approaches that utilize new messages offering alternatives to cessation. PMID:10723817

  12. The menthol smoker: tobacco industry research on consumer sensory perception of menthol cigarettes and its role in smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kreslake, Jennifer M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

    2008-04-01

    The use of menthol in cigarettes is actively promoted by the tobacco industry for its perceived sensory benefits, and smokers of menthol cigarettes commonly differ from nonmenthol smokers in markers of smoking behavior and addiction. In this study, we analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to describe the relationships between sensory perception and the attitudes, preferences, and patterns of cigarette use among menthol smokers. Two unique types of menthol smoker emerged from this analysis: those who cannot tolerate the harshness and irritation associated with smoking nonmenthol cigarettes, and those who seek out the specific menthol flavor and associated physical sensation. Among the first segment of menthol smokers, menthol reduces negative sensory characteristics associated with smoking. This segment of smokers may include a large proportion of occasional smokers or young people, as well as smokers who have "traded down" to a less strong cigarette because of perceived harshness or negative health effects. Some established menthol smokers, on the other hand, appear to be tolerant of and even actively seek stronger sensory attributes, including higher menthol levels. Smokers of these "stronger" menthols have traditionally been disproportionately Black and male. Some beginning or occasional smokers may adopt menthols for their mild properties and to cover up the taste of tobacco, but then develop a stronger desire for the menthol taste over time. Future research measuring smoking behavior and evaluating cessation outcomes of menthol smokers should consider the duration of menthol use and differentiate smokers according to their reasons for using menthols. PMID:18418792

  13. Mineral Dissolution and Reaction permeability in ocean floor hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaig, A. M.; Cann, J. R.; Klein, F.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2012-04-01

    The enhanced permeability required to allow black smoker hydrothermal circulation within oceanic sheeted dykes is generally assumed to be the result of fracturing caused by thermal contraction and/or tectonic faulting. Here we present evidence for reaction-enhanced permeability from diabase in three diverse settings; epidosites from the Troodos ophiolite, diabase intrusions which chill against fault rocks and altered gabbros in the immediate footwall of a detachment fault at 30 °N in the Atlantic (IODP Site 1309), and the "type section" of Pacific ocean crust in ODP Hole 504b. In each case, freshly broken surfaces were examined in the SEM, revealing euhedral secondary minerals (amphibole or epidote) growing into porosity located in areas formerly occupied by igneous minerals such as pyroxene. Relict porosity is up to 20 μm in size but may originally have been considerably larger. BSEM and CL imaging of polished surfaces reveals euhedral zoning and resorbtion surfaces in both amphibole and quartz . Amphiboles at IODP site 1309 show a wide range in composition with early zones being exceptionally rich in Ti and Al (temperatures using the Ernst and Liu geothermometer in excess of 800 °C), but later zones and porosity-filling amphibole needles being actinolitic. Key field relations in the Troodos ophiolite show that the most intense alteration is often in the undeformed core of dykes, and that each successive dyke was epidotised before the next was intruded. Reaction permeability provides a mechanism for concentrating fluid flow into the site of alteration, and has the capacity to create exceptionally large transient permeabilities before the porosity is occluded by secondary minerals. Affinities have been calculated using EQ3/6 for clinopyroxene in contact with a black smoker fluid at 350 and 400 °C at 50 MPa, and are of the order 130 kJ/mol. This corresponds to "far from equilibrium" conditions in which dissolution could proceed at rates > 1 μm/day. The limiting factor is the speed with which reactive fluid can be replenished at the reaction site, but a moving fluid will allow positive feedbacks between porosity creation, permeability and flow rates. The porosity-filling phases generally represent greenschist facies conditions, consistent with black smoker vent temperatures. Reaction porosity textures have been observed in 8 out of 10 specimens so far examined in broken surface from Atlantic and Pacific dyke rocks. This permeability-generating mechanism may therefore be widespread.

  14. Black Endobronchial Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Samjot S; Harris, Kassem; Ylagan, Lourdes

    2015-10-01

    The infrequent bronchoscopic finding of black airway pigmentation due to a variety of causes has been labeled as "Black Bronchoscopy." Black bronchioalveolar lavage has been sometimes described in tobacco, marijuana, and crack cocaine smokers. To add to this interesting panorama of bronchoscopic findings, we describe cases of black endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspirates due to metastatic melanoma and anthracotic lymph nodes. PMID:26348692

  15. Lung Cancer in Never Smokers.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Gabriel Alberto; Wakelee, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is predominantly associated with cigarette smoking; however, a substantial minority of patients with the disease have never smoked. In the US it is estimated there are 17,000-26,000 annual deaths from lung cancer in never smokers, which as a separate entity would be the seventh leading cause of cancer mortality. Controversy surrounds the question of whether or not the incidence of lung cancer in never-smokers is increasing, with more data to support this observation in Asia. There are several factors associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer in never smokers including second hand smoke, indoor air pollution, occupational exposures, and genetic susceptibility among others. Adenocarcinoma is the most common histology of lung cancer in never smokers and in comparison to lung cancer in smokers appears less complex with a higher likelihood to have targetable driver mutations. PMID:26667338

  16. Acoustic mapping of diffuse flow at a seafloor hydrothermal site: Monolith Vent, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, P. A.; Jackson, D. R.; Wen, T.; Jones, C.; Mitsuzawa, K.; Bemis, K. G.; Dworski, J. G.

    Diffuse flow of hydrothermal solutions commonly occurs in patchy areas up to tens of meters in diameter in seafloor hydrothermal fields. It is recognized as a quantitatively significant component of thermal and chemical fluxes, yet is elusive to map. We report a new acoustic method to detect and map areas of diffuse flow using phase-coherent correlation techniques. The sonar system was modified to record phase information and mounted on DSV SEA CLIFF. The submersible occupied a stationary position on the seafloor and the transducer scanned the seafloor surrounding Monolith Vent, a sulfide edifice venting black smokers, at a nominal range of 17 m at a depth of 2249 m on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Patchy areas of uncorrelated returns clearly stood out from a background of returns that exhibited ping-to-ping correlation. The areas of uncorrelated returns coincided with areas of diffuse flow as mapped by a video survey with the Navy's Advanced Tethered Vehicle (ATV). Correlated returns were backscattered from invariant seafloor. Uncorrelated returns were distorted by index of refraction inhomogeneities as they passed through diffuse flow between the seafloor and the transducer. The acoustic method presented can synoptically map areas of diffuse flow. When combined with standard in situ measurement and sampling methods the acoustic mapping will facilitate accurate determination of diffuse thermal and chemical fluxes in seafloor hydrothermal fields.

  17. Geology, sulfide geochemistry and supercritical venting at the Beebe Hydrothermal Vent Field, Cayman Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Alexander P.; Roberts, Stephen; Murton, Bramley J.; Hodgkinson, Matthew R. S.

    2015-09-01

    The Beebe Vent Field (BVF) is the world's deepest known hydrothermal system, at 4960 m below sea level. Located on the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre, Caribbean, the BVF hosts high temperature (˜401°C) "black smoker" vents that build Cu, Zn and Au-rich sulfide mounds and chimneys. The BVF is highly gold-rich, with Au values up to 93 ppm and an average Au:Ag ratio of 0.15. Gold precipitation is directly associated with diffuse flow through "beehive" chimneys. Significant mass-wasting of sulfide material at the BVF, accompanied by changes in metal content, results in metaliferous talus and sediment deposits. Situated on very thin (2-3 km thick) oceanic crust, at an ultraslow spreading centre, the hydrothermal system circulates fluids to a depth of ˜1.8 km in a basement that is likely to include a mixture of both mafic and ultramafic lithologies. We suggest hydrothermal interaction with chalcophile-bearing sulfides in the mantle rocks, together with precipitation of Au in beehive chimney structures, has resulted in the formation of a Au-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit. With its spatial distribution of deposit materials and metal contents, the BVF represents a modern day analogue for basalt hosted, Au-rich VMS systems.

  18. Functional interactions among filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent biofilm.

    PubMed

    Stokke, Runar; Dahle, Håkon; Roalkvam, Irene; Wissuwa, Juliane; Daae, Frida Lise; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Pedersen, Rolf B; Steen, Ida Helene

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about how lithoautotrophic primary production is connected to microbial organotrophic consumption in hydrothermal systems. Using a multifaceted approach, we analysed the structure and metabolic capabilities within a biofilm growing on the surface of a black smoker chimney in the Loki's Castle vent field. Imaging revealed the presence of rod-shaped Bacteroidetes growing as ectobionts on long, sheathed microbial filaments (> 100 μm) affiliated with the Sulfurovum genus within Epsilonproteobacteria. The filaments were composed of a thick (> 200 nm) stable polysaccharide, representing a substantial fraction of organic carbon produced by primary production. An integrated -omics approach enabled us to assess the metabolic potential and in situ metabolism of individual taxonomic and morphological groups identified by imaging. Specifically, we provide evidence that organotrophic Bacteroidetes attach to and glide along the surface of Sulfurovum filaments utilizing organic polymers produced by the lithoautotrophic Sulfurovum. Furthermore, in situ expression of acetyl-CoA synthetase by Sulfurovum suggested the ability to assimilate acetate, indicating recycling of organic matter in the biofilm. This study expands our understanding of the lifestyles of Epsilonproteobacteria in hydrothermal vents, their metabolic properties and co-operative interactions in deep-sea hydrothermal vent food webs. PMID:26147346

  19. Hydrothermal flow at Main Endeavour Field imaged and measured with Cable Operated Vent Imaging Sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, P. A.; Bemis, K. G.; Xu, G.; Jackson, D. R.; Jones, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    Initial acoustic monitoring of hydrothermal flow in the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) captures the spatial distribution of diffuse and focused discharge and shows potential for flux determinations. Our Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar (COVIS) was connected to the NEPTUNE Canada Endeavour Observatory in September 2010. Using a customized Reson 7125 multi-beam sonar, COVIS acquired a 29 day time series of black smoker plume and associated diffuse hydrothermal flow from Grotto, a 30 m diameter vent cluster in the MEF, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Detection of the spatial patterns of diffuse flow utilizes phase decorrelation of the acoustic signal (200kHz) by buoyancy-driven turbulence (acoustic scintillation) to produce a time series of maps. Substantial fluctuation in the detected diffuse flow area (0.1 - 18 m^2) was observed over the 29 days of observation, although position remained stable. Acoustic imaging of focused flow (400 kHz) utilizes high volume backscatter (attributed to particles and turbulent sound speed fluctuations) to image in 3D the initial tens of meters of rise of buoyant plumes. Spectral analysis of bending inclination of a strong plume from multiple fast smokers on the NW end of Grotto (north tower) indicates that the dominant modes correspond with the ambient mixed semi-diurnal tide (based on current meter data at a mooring 2.9 km to the north and on a tidal model), with at least one secondary mode attributable to sub-inertial flow related to inflow to the axial valley. A weaker plume from several slower smokers is present on the NE end of Grotto. On first analysis, the bending inclination of the weaker plume appears to be affected by the stronger plume. Quantification of flow velocity and volume flux of plumes begins with measuring the Doppler phase shift through plume cross-sections beginning at 5 m above source vents where discharge merges. The volume flux measurements enable calculation of entrainment coefficients, which prior work on the same strong plume indicated increase with degree of bending. The acoustic data in concert with in situ measurements support inversions to obtain fluxes to elucidate the role of hydrothermal flow in transfer of heat, chemicals and biological material from the crust to the ocean. We are exploring the feasibility of fitting plume models to Doppler velocity data in order to estimate heat flux. Ongoing analysis pursues quantification of fluid flux from diffuse and focused flow. In addition, the time series provide observations of hydrothermal flow response to tidal, tectonic and volcanic forcing on time scales from hours potentially to years. (Work supported by NSF Grants Nos. OCE-0824612 and OCE-0825088)

  20. Diversity of Ultramafic Hosted Hydrothermal Deposits on the Mid Atlantic Ridge: First Submersible Studies on Ashadze, Logatchev 2 and Krasnov Vent Fields During the Serpentine Cruise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouquet, Y.; Cherkashov, G.; Charlou, J.; Ondreas, H.; Cannat, M.; Bortnikov, N.; Silantiev, S.; Etoubleau, J.; Scientific Party Of The Serpentine Cruise

    2007-12-01

    During the Serpentine cruise (March 2007) we have explored and sampled, using the ROV Victor, new ultramafic hydrothermal fields between 13°N and 17°N on the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The Serpentine cruise was part of a 4 years cooperation agreement between France and Russia. Targets were Ashadze1 and 2 (12°58"N), Logatchev 1 (14°45"N) and 2 (14°43"N) and Krasnov (16°38"N) fields localized after several surface cruises of the R/V professor Logatchev. A significant portion of the dives was dedicated to detailed microbathymetry, 50 m and 20 m above the seafloor, and simultaneous physical and chemical plume studies and magnetic surveys. High resolution (30cm) maps were further used for geological, biological, microbiological and fluid sampling operations. The cruise identified three new very active black smoker fields (Ashadze 1 and 2, Logatchev 2) on serpentinized peridotites. One extensive low temperature inactive deposit (dominantly birnessite) was discovered 1 km east of the Logatchev 1 field. The basaltic hosted Krasnov field was inactive. The Ashadze 1 site at 4080m of water depth is the deepest active black smoker field so far known in the ocean. Inactive and basalt hosted sulfide chimneys (Ashadze 4) were found at the base of the rift valley at 4530 m. Extensive gravity sliding related to the emplacement of the ultramafic rocks is evident at all ultramafic sites (see abstract by Ondreas et al.). Fluids, enriched in H2 and hydrocarbon, confirm the originality of ultramafic environments (see abstract by Charlou et al.). Logatchev 2 is venting low salinity black smoker fluids indicating phase separation. In addition, its position 12 km off axis, moves from 8 (Logatchev 1) to 12 km the possibility to have off axis black smokers long the MAR. Basaltic hosted deposits are dominated by pyrite and silica at Krasnov (Fe:39%, Si:11%, Cu:2.2%, Zn:0.14%) and by sphalerite and pyrite at Ashadze 4 (Fe:24%, Si:1.5%, Cu:0.15%, isocubanite. Ashadze 1 (Fe:33%, Si:1.3%, Cu:14%, Zn:14%) and Logatchev 2 (Fe:20%, Si:3%, Cu:14%, Zn:23%) are enriched in sphalerite. New samples at Logatchev 1 confirm that copper is largely dominant at this site (Fe:29%, Si:3%, Cu:28%, Zn:4%). The Ashadze 2 field is unusual. A small active crater can be interpreted as a hydrothermal volcano built up with a mixture of carbonates and secondary copper sulfides and chlorides. Massive sulfide chimneys are associated with the active smokers at the center of the crater. Many inactive carbonates/sulfides mounds are also aligned along a N-S depression. Two types of hydrothermal deposits are observed: massive copper-rich sulfides associated with the black smokers and carbonate/sulfides chimneys. Average composition of hydrothermal deposits for the field is Fe:26%, Si:11%, Cu:11%, Zn:5%, Ca:8%. The dominant carbonate is aragonite, Mg-Calcite is rare, and talc is common. Comparisons with other ultramafic sites along the MAR will also bee presented.

  1. Stereotyping the smoker: adolescents' appraisals of smokers in film

    PubMed Central

    McCool, J; Cameron, L; Petrie, K

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relation between demographic factors and film smoking stereotypes in adolescents and the potential influence of smoker stereotypes on smoking susceptibility. Design: A cross sectional questionnaire survey of school students (n = 3041) aged 12–13 and 16–17 years who were asked to describe the personal characteristics of female and male smokers in films. Setting: 15 primary or intermediate schools and 10 secondary schools in Auckland, New Zealand. Results: Appraisals of smokers in film were strongly influenced by age and sex with younger adolescents and males more likely to see female smokers as sexy, intelligent and healthy whereas older students and females more often appraised female smokers as stressed bored and depressed. Overall, image stereotypes (sexy, stylish) were more likely to be significantly associated with smoking susceptibility than emotional sensitivity stereotypes (stressed, depressed etc). Conclusions: Adolescents differ significantly in their appraisal of smokers in films; however, image based stereotypes, rather than emotional sensitivity stereotypes, are significantly associated with smoking susceptibility. PMID:15333889

  2. Health plans helping smokers.

    PubMed

    Kottke, T E; Solberg, L I; Brekke, M L

    1995-09-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable mortality in the United States. Therefore, health care organizations have an important role to play in the control of tobacco use both among their plan members and in the communities that they serve. To be effective, they need to adopt a policy that all tobacco users will be identified and provided with advice to quit smoking (or chewing) at each contact with a health care professional. This same policy ought to be adopted for parents of pediatric patients. The policy can be implemented by defining tobacco use as a "vital sign" and periodically assessing implementation rates with a chart review. Patients who express an interest in quitting should be supported through individual or group follow-up. To make clinical interventions more effective, to counteract tobacco promotion that is directed at youth, and to protect the health of non-smokers, HMOs will want to support local and regional tobacco control coalitions that are taking action against tobacco promotion and are promoting smoke-free public areas. PMID:10151097

  3. [Helping the highly dependent smokers].

    PubMed

    Perriot, J; Mathern, G; André, E; Schmitt, A; Merson, F; Brousse, G; Underner, M

    2013-01-01

    Many smokers have difficulty in stopping smoking, either motivated to stop or forced for health, economic or statutory reasons. They have in common a heavy tobacco dependence and a high level of cigarette consumption. Often they combined factors impairing success in the attempt to stop smoking : e. g. anxio-depressive disorders, use of psychoactive substances, socio-economic deprivation. Smoking cessation specialists must optimize their interventions in order to improve the care of these highly dependent smokers. PMID:23888574

  4. Transfer and partitioning of energy and mass through seafloor hydrothermal systems: comparative studies at the Ridge2000 Integrated Study Sites (ISS) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivey, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems are major players in the transfer of mass and energy from the mantle and crust to the ocean and biosphere. Over the past thirty years, much has been learned about this transfer to the ocean, but considerably less is known about the transfer to the biosphere. Study of hydrothermal systems in a diverse range of geologic settings has shown relationships between spreading rate and hydrothermal heat flux, substrate composition (including rock geochemistry, presence/absence of sediment) and hydrothermal fluid composition, and magmatic/tectonic events and temporal variability of fluid composition (e.g., German and Von Damm, Treatise On Geochemistry, 2004; Baker et al. AGU Monograph Series 91, 1995). Studies in arc and back-arc settings are documenting the effects of magmatic acid volatiles on fluid-rock reaction and fluid and vent deposit compositions (e.g., Ishibashi and Urabe, Backarc Basins: Tectonics and Magmatism, 1995). These comparative studies in a wide range of geologic settings, including at the three Ridge2000 ISS, have provided a fairly good understanding of the flux of heat and many elements to the ocean associated with high temperature seafloor hydrothermal systems. Considerably less is known, however, about the partitioning of heat and mass (particularly metals and sulfur) in hydrothermal systems. The deposits that form at vent sites are intimately linked within paths of energy and mass transport from the mantle and crust to the oceans. Transport differs greatly through different types of deposits (e.g., black smokers, white smokers/diffusers, flanges). Estimates of heat flux from measured temperatures of flow (unless integrated over and around an entire vent field) require an understanding of the partitioning of flow between focused black smokers and more diffuse flow from diffusers, flanges, and surfaces of deposits, and from the igneous substrate. Estimates of mass flux into the ocean require an understanding of the temperature-composition paths taken by fluids, and the extent to which some elements (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn, Ba, S) are partitioned between deposits and plumes. Precipitation efficiency differs depending on the vigor of venting and fluid composition (e.g., pH), which (in part) determines the prevalence of black smoker activity versus flow through diffusers and flanges (e.g., review in Tivey, Oceanography, 2007). Quantification of this partitioning is further complicated by apparent differences in ages of accumulated deposits in different vent fields. An unknown at many vent fields is the length of time and duration of activity responsible for forming the existing deposits, and the extent to which large size is a result of efficient precipitation versus time. For biota, the different styles of fluid flow through the substrate and different parts of deposits affect thermal and chemical environments in plumes, as well as on, and just inside, deposit exteriors. As with our understanding of mass and energy transfer to the ocean, we can make significant advances in our understanding of this partitioning of energy and mass through comparative studies of hydrothermal systems in a diverse range of geologic settings (e.g., at the three Ridge2000 ISS).

  5. PGE fractionation in seafloor hydrothermal systems: examples from mafic- and ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal fields at the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pašava, Jan; Vymazalová, Anna; Petersen, Sven

    2007-04-01

    The distribution of platinum group elements (PGEs) in massive sulfides and hematite-magnetite±pyrite assemblages from the recently discovered basalt-hosted Turtle Pits hydrothermal field and in massive sulfides from the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev vent field both on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was studied and compared to that from selected ancient volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) deposits. Cu-rich samples from black smoker chimneys of both vent fields are enriched in Pd and Rh (Pd up to 227 ppb and Rh up to 149 ppb) when compared to hematite-magnetite-rich samples from Turtle Pits (Pd up to 10 ppb, Rh up to 1.9 ppb). A significant positive correlation was established between Cu and Rh in sulfide samples from Turtle Pits. PGE chondrite-normalized patterns (with a positive Rh anomaly and Pd and Au enrichment), Pd/Pt and Pd/Au ratios close to global MORB, and high values of Pd/Ir and Pt/Ir ratios indicate mafic source rock and seawater involvement in the hydrothermal system at Turtle Pits. Similarly shaped PGE chondrite-normalized patterns and high values of Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios in Cu-rich sulfides at Logatchev likely reflect a similar mechanism of PGE enrichment but with involvement of ultramafic source rocks.

  6. Hydrothermal Activity on the Mid-Cayman Rise: ROV Jason sampling and site characterization at the Von Damm and Piccard hydrothermal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    In January 2012 our multi-national and multi-disciplinary team conducted a series of 10 ROV Jason dives to conduct first detailed and systematic sampling of the Mid Cayman Rise hydrothermal systems at the Von Damm and Piccard hydrothermal fields. At Von Damm, hydrothermal venting is focused at and around a large conical structure that is approximately 120 m in diameter and rises at least 80m from the surrounding, largely sedimented seafloor. Clear fluids emitted from multiple sites around the flanks of the mound fall in the temperature range 110-130°C and fall on a common mixing line with hotter (>200°C) clear fluids emitted from an 8m tall spire at the summit which show clear evidence of ultramafic influence. Outcrop close to the vent-site is rare and the cone itself appear to consist of clay minerals derived from highly altered host rock. The dominant fauna at the summit of Von Damm are a new species of chemosynthetic shrimp but elsewhere the site also hosts two distinct species of chemosynthetic tube worm as well as at least one species of gastropod. The adjacent Piccard site, at ~5000m depth comprises 7 distinct sulfide mounds, 3 of which are currently active: Beebe Vents, Beebe Woods and Beebe Sea. Beebe Vents consists of 5 vigorous black smoker chimneys with maximum temperatures in the range 400-403°C while at Beebe Woods a more highly colonized thicket of up to 8m tall chimneys includes predominantly beehive diffusers with rare black smokers emitting fluids up to 353°C. Beebe Sea a diffuse site emitting fluids at 38°C Tmax, is the largest of the currently active mounds and immediately abuts a tall (8m) rift that strikes NE-SW bisecting the host Axial Volcanic Ridge. The fauna at Piccard are less diverse than at Von Damm and, predominantly, comprise the same species of MCR shrimp, a distinct gastropod species and abundant anemones.

  7. Characteristics of the cultivable bacteria from sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents in Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-lei; Wang, Ming-qing; Sun, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this study, different culture-dependent methods were used to examine the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in the sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents (named HV1 and HV2) located at Iheya Ridge and Iheya North in Okinawa Trough. The two vents differed in morphology, with HV1 exhibiting diffuse flows while HV2 being a black smoker with a chimney-like structure. A total of 213 isolates were identified by near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Of these isolates, 128 were from HV1 and 85 were from HV2. The bacterial community structures were, in large parts, similar between HV1 and HV2. Nevertheless, differences between HV1 and HV2 were observed in one phylum, one class, 4 orders, 10 families, and 20 genera. Bioactivity analysis revealed that 25 isolates belonging to 9 different genera exhibited extracellular protease activities, 21 isolates from 11 genera exhibited extracellular lipase activities, and 13 isolates of 8 genera displayed antimicrobial activities. This is the first observation of a large population of bacteria with extracellular bioactivities existing in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, the results of this study provide new insights into the characteristics of the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems. PMID:26410427

  8. Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Fluids in South Mariana Backarc Spreading Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, J.; Yamanaka, T.; Kimura, H.; Hirota, A.; Toki, T.; Tsunogai, U.; Gamo, T.; Utsumi, M.; Roe, K.; Miyabe, S.; Okamura, K.

    2004-12-01

    Fluid samples were collected from active hydrothermal sites along the south Mariana backarc spreading center, during dive programs with SHINKAI6500 (JAMSTEC) / Yokosuka (YK03-09 cruise) in Oct. 2003, and with ROPOS (CSSF) / Thomas G. Thompson (TN167A cruise) in March 2004. Fluid geochemistry shows diversity among three sites, probably reflecting their geological settings. High temperature fluid (T=315° C) from black smokers at the top of an off-axis seamount (Pika site: 12° 55.1'N, 143° 38.9'E, depth=2830m) shows metal-rich signature and high Cl concentration (=600mM). Modest high temperature fluid (T=213° C) from giant sulfide structure of a few ten meters high (Archaean Site: 12° 56.3'N, 143° 38.0'E, depth=2990m) shows slight K-rich from ridge-type fluids and low Cl concentration (=470mM). On the other hand, along the spreading axis, only shimmering venting directly from basaltic seafloor was observed (Fryer site: 12° 57.2'N, 143° 37.2'E, depth=2880m). Although temperature of the venting fluid were reported as 240° C when this site was discovered at May 2003, it has decreased to 110° C at Oct. 2003, and to 70° C at March 2004. Based on fluid chemistry composition, the shimmering fluid is considered as formed by mixing between hydrothermal fluid endmember (Mg=0) with seawater, and hydrothermal contribution has diminished for this one year. We also successfully collected fluid samples venting from the casing pipes which had been drilled by BMS at January 2004. The fluid (T=30° C) from APM01 located in the vicinity of Fryer site showed chemistry well explained by mixing of the same hydrothermal fluid endmember with seawater. Under the framework of Achaean Park Project, samples for microbiological studies were collected simultaneously, and these geochemical data provides basic information for them.

  9. Serum Metabolite Biomarkers Discriminate Healthy Smokers from COPD Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiuying; Deeb, Ruba S.; Ma, Yuliang; Staudt, Michelle R.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Gross, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is defined by a fixed expiratory airflow obstruction associated with disordered airways and alveolar destruction. COPD is caused by cigarette smoking and is the third greatest cause of mortality in the US. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is the only validated clinical marker of COPD, but it correlates poorly with clinical features and is not sensitive enough to predict the early onset of disease. Using LC/MS global untargeted metabolite profiling of serum samples from a well-defined cohort of healthy smokers (n = 37), COPD smokers (n = 41) and non-smokers (n = 37), we sought to discover serum metabolic markers with known and/or unknown molecular identities that are associated with early-onset COPD. A total of 1,181 distinct molecular ions were detected in 95% of sera from all study subjects and 23 were found to be differentially-expressed in COPD-smokers vs. healthy-smokers. These 23 putative biomarkers were differentially-correlated with lung function parameters and used to generate a COPD prediction model possessing 87.8% sensitivity and 86.5% specificity. In an independent validation set, this model correctly predicted COPD in 8/10 individuals. These serum biomarkers included myoinositol, glycerophopshoinositol, fumarate, cysteinesulfonic acid, a modified version of fibrinogen peptide B (mFBP), and three doubly-charged peptides with undefined sequence that significantly and positively correlate with mFBP levels. Together, elevated levels of serum mFBP and additional disease-associated biomarkers point to a role for chronic inflammation, thrombosis, and oxidative stress in remodeling of the COPD airways. Serum metabolite biomarkers offer a promising and accessible window for recognition of early-stage COPD. PMID:26674646

  10. Complex hydrothermal alteration and illite K-Ar ages in Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Variscan Badenweiler-Lenzkirch suture zone, Black Forest, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockamp, Olaf; Schlegel, Andreas; Wemmer, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Post-collisional Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Badenweiler-Lenzkirch Zone reveal by microscopy of thin sections different degrees of hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and mica particles, and XRD, IR and XRF data of the <2 µm fractions show illitic material as the dominant clay mineral consisting of a mixture of 1M and 2M1 polytypes. Moreover, small amounts of illite/smectite mixed-layer minerals of R1-ordering are proved in the granites. In the separates, two illite mixing lines with different Fe + Mg contents are verified between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and detrital illite in the molasse sediments, as well as between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and altered mica flakes in the granites. Fe-rich detrital chlorite is present within the molasse sediments, while mixtures of high aluminous Fe-poor dioctahedral/di-trioctahedral chlorite with randomly interstratified chlorite/smectite mixed-layer minerals are formed from feldspar alteration in the granites. Illite K-Ar dating of the <2 and <0.63 µm fractions yields hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and partial resetting of the K-Ar system of detrital illite and mica flakes in the molasse sediments at ≥200 °C during Upper Permian to Middle Triassic times, while the granites in the eastern part of the study area were not altered contemporaneously. In contrast, hydrothermal activity at ≤200 °C during Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous times occurred in the granites, whereas these temperatures were too low for resetting the older `Permo-Triassic' illite K-Ar ages in the molasse rocks. Within both K-Ar age clusters, the data are seen to decrease with grain size and portion of illite 2M1 polytype. The alteration phenomena indicate multiple hydrothermal episodes in the study area, and they match those from the Central and Western European crust as fluid supply was controlled geodynamically by episodic break up of Pangea.

  11. Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa Trough: Mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Marumo, Katsumi; Hattori, K.H.

    1999-09-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal activity at Jade has resulted in extensive alteration of the host epiclastic sediments and pumiceous tuffs, forming mica, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite), Mg-rich chlorite, talc, montmorillonite, and a mixed-layer mineral of dioctahedral chlorite and montmorillonite (Chl/Mont). Clay mineral assemblages show a vertical variation, which reflects variable amounts of cold seawater incorporated into hot hydrothermal fluids in subsurface sediments and tuff. However, mixing alone cannot explain the occurrence of abundant kaolin minerals at Jade. The formation of kaolin minerals requires much more acidic fluid than expected from simple mixing of hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Low pH values are likely attained by oxidation of H{sub 2}S either dissolved in the hydrothermal fluid or released from the fluid during decompression. The fluid reaching the seafloor is discharged into cold seawater, which caused precipitation of sulfides close to vents and native sulfur and barite at the margins of the vent areas. Halloysite, barite and anhydrite show Sr isotope compositions similar to marine Sr, indicating the derivation of marine Sr directly from seawater or by the dissolution of calcareous nannoplanktons. At Jade, there is only one black smoker actively discharging high temperature ({approximately}320 C) fluid, but there are many fossil sulfide chimneys and mounds in the area. The mineralogy and high Au and Cu in these precipitates suggest highly metalliferous hydrothermal activity in the past. These activities likely resulted in discharge of hydrothermal plumes and fall-outs of sulfides and sulfates on the seafloor. These fall-outs were incorporated in sediments far from the vent areas. They are now recorded as high metal contents in sediments with no petrographic and mineralogical evidence of in-situ hydrothermal activity. Some are high as 8,100 ppm for Cu, 12,500 ppm for Zn, 1,000 ppm for As, 100 ppm for Ag and 21,000 ppm for Pb. Detrital grains of montmorillonite in such sediments are coated with Fe-oxyhydroxides during the suspension in seawater before settling on the seafloor. The depths of such metal anomalies in sediments suggest high levels of metalliferous hydrothermal activities from 1,800 to 300 ybp.

  12. Many Smokers Have COPD Symptoms, without Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158913.html Many Smokers Have COPD Symptoms, Without Diagnosis It's not clear how many ... smokers have symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) even before they've been diagnosed with the ...

  13. Geochemical Evidence for Submarine Hydrothermal Activity in the Gulf of Aden, Northwestern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamo, T.; Hasumoto, H.; Okamura, K.; Hatanaka, H.; Mori, M.; Chinen, M.; Tanaka, J.; Komatsu, D.; Tamaki, K.; Fujimoto, H.; Tsunogai, U.; Kouzuma, F.; Hirota, A.

    2001-12-01

    We searched for hydrothermal plumes along spreading axes in the Gulf of Aden, between 45\\deg36'E and 52\\deg42'E, using a CTD multi-water sampling system, mapping water column distributions of light transmission and chemical tracers (Mn, Fe, CH4 etc.) in December 2000 and January 2001. In addition to water sampling for chemical analysis, an in-situ chemical analyzer GAMOS was attached to the CTD-system to conduct tow-yo observations. We found typical hydrothermal plumes (anomalies of light transmission and chemical tracers) at 600-800 m depth over twin peak seamounts (60 miles southeast of Aden) which may be hot spot volcanoes associated with the Afar mantle plume. Strong light transmission anomalies imply the existence of black smoker fluids. The maximum concentrations of Mn, Fe, and CH4 are 46 nM, 251 nM, and 15 nM, respectively. An estimated \\delta13C(CH4) value for an endmember fluid of approximately -15\\permil indicates magmatic CH4 with little contribution of CH4 from organic material decomposition in sediments.

  14. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent Epsilonproteobacteria encode a conserved and widespread nitrate reduction pathway (Nap)

    PubMed Central

    Vetriani, Costantino; Voordeckers, James W; Crespo-Medina, Melitza; O'Brien, Charles E; Giovannelli, Donato; Lutz, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the frequent isolation of nitrate-respiring Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents, the genes coding for the nitrate reduction pathway in these organisms have not been investigated in depth. In this study we have shown that the gene cluster coding for the periplasmic nitrate reductase complex (nap) is highly conserved in chemolithoautotrophic, nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Furthermore, we have shown that the napA gene is expressed in pure cultures of vent Epsilonproteobacteria and it is highly conserved in microbial communities collected from deep-sea vents characterized by different temperature and redox regimes. The diversity of nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria was found to be higher in moderate temperature, diffuse flow vents than in high temperature black smokers or in low temperatures, substrate-associated communities. As NapA has a high affinity for nitrate compared with the membrane-bound enzyme, its occurrence in vent Epsilonproteobacteria may represent an adaptation of these organisms to the low nitrate concentrations typically found in vent fluids. Taken together, our findings indicate that nitrate reduction is widespread in vent Epsilonproteobacteria and provide insight on alternative energy metabolism in vent microorganisms. The occurrence of the nap cluster in vent, commensal and pathogenic Epsilonproteobacteria suggests that the ability of these bacteria to respire nitrate is important in habitats as different as the deep-sea vents and the human body. PMID:24430487

  15. Sound field near hydrothermal vents on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, S.A.; Stolzenbach, K.D.; Purdy, G.M.

    1990-08-10

    High-quality acoustic noise measurements were obtained by two hydrophones located 3 m and 40 m from an active hydrothermal vent on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an effort to determine the feasibility of monitoring hydrothermal vent activity through flow noise generation. Most of the measured noise field could be attributed to ambient ocean noise sources of microseisms, distant shipping, and weather, punctuated by local ships and biological sources. Long-period, low-velocity, water/rock interface waves were detected with high amplitudes which rapidly decayed with distance from the seafloor. Detection of vent signals was hampered by unexpected spatial nonstationarity due to the shadowing effects of the calders wall. No continuous vent signals were deemed significant based on a criterion of 90% probability of detection and 5% probability of false alarm. However, a small signal near 40 Hz, with a power level of 0.0001 Pa sq/Hz was noticed on two records taken within 3 m of the Inferno black smoker. The frequency of this signal is consistent with predictions, and the power level suggests the occurrence of jet noise amplification due to convected density inhomogeneities. Keywords: Seamounts; Flow noise; Underwater acoustics; Acoustic measurement; Geothermy/noise; Ocean ridges; Underwater sound signals; Reprints; North Pacific Ocean. (EDC).

  16. A dual sensor device to estimate fluid flow velocity at diffuse hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrazin, J.; Rodier, P.; Tivey, M. K.; Singh, H.; Schultz, A.; Sarradin, P. M.

    2009-11-01

    Numerous attempts have been made over the last thirty years to estimate fluid flow rates at hydrothermal vents, either at the exit of black smoker chimneys or within diffuse flow areas. In this study, we combine two methods to accurately estimate fluid flow velocities at diffuse flow areas. While the first method uses a hot film anemometer that performs high-frequency measurements, the second allows a relatively rapid assessment of fluid flow velocity through video imagery and provides in situ data to calibrate the sensor. Measurements of flow velocities on hydrothermal diffuse flow areas were obtained on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). They range from 1.1 to 4.9 mm/s at the substratum level, in low-temperature (4.5-16.4 °C) diffuse flow areas from the Tour Eiffel sulfide edifice. A strong correlation was observed between fluid flow velocities and temperature, supporting the possible use of temperature as a proxy to estimate the flow rates in diffuse flow areas where such a simple linear flow/temperature relation is shown to dominate.

  17. Insights From Magnesium Isotopic Compositions on the Oceanic Hydrothermal Circulation: Is Seamount Weathering the Solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, A.; Carder, E.; Elderfield, H.

    2006-12-01

    It has been long recognised that the input of Mg in the ocean by river is removed by precipitation of Mg-rich bearing phases, either directly from the ocean such as dolomite or through hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust. The sampling of hydrothermal fluids demonstrated the efficiency of Mg consumption by the alteration of the oceanic crust, even at temperatures as low as 15°. For high-temperature fluids vented through black or white smokers in the vicinity of the ridge, the Mg concentration is up to 50 time lower than in seawater, and the close relationship between chlorine and Mg led to the idea that seawater was feeding the hydrothermal system and that Mg is quantitatively removed from it during high-T° alteration, the so called zero Mg hypothesis. Despite some hint for a non zero Mg hydrothermal end-member for a handful sites, the low concentration of Mg in oceanic hydrothermal fluids (around 1 mmol/l) has been mainly attributed to contamination by seawater during the sampling. Here we present Mg isotopic composition of 14 seawater samples from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Mediterranean and Red Seas and covering a range of depth of almost 5km and 26 hydrothermal fluids from 7 sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with temperature from 15° to 380°C. We find the magnesium isotope composition of seawater to be constant, with a δ^{26}Mg = -0.82±0.10 ‰ relative to the DSM3 standard. This value is consistent with a long residence time for Mg in seawater. In addition, out of the 26 hydrothermal fluids studied, more than 58% differ from seawater for their Mg isotopic composition by more than 2σ. This number rises up to 88% at 2σmean level and the shift is systematic with the fluids being either indistinguishable from seawater or enriched in light isotopes by up to 2.4‰ in δ^{26}Mg. This clearly demonstrates that fluids having low Mg concentrations are not solely bearing Mg added by contamination during sampling. The isotopic and concentration data are consistent with the preferential incorporation of heavy isotopes of Mg during the weathering and already similar to the mechanisms found in soil (Tipper et al., 2006a, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.04.033). The fractionation factor (α) is around 1.001 for the high-T° fluids, while the low temperature fluids, samples off axis during the ODP Leg 168 (Est of Juan de Fuca Ridge), requires a more variable and higher α of 1.001 to 1.003. At low temperature, the α is somehow greater that the estimate made from the soil formation but the T-α relationship is consistent with the expected behaviour for an equilibrium isotopic fractionation. However, such a large α implies that the significant flux of the low-T component of the hydrothermal circulation required to fulfil the heat budget of the oceanic lithosphere would buffer any isotopic mass balance calculation of the oceanic Mg to an unsustainable value (e.g. Tipper et al., 2006b, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.07.037). Therefore, either the low-T hydrothermal circulation leaves the Mg unaffected, or the off axis fluids from the ODP Leg 168 are not representative of the global low-T hydrothermal circulation. Given that Mg gets significantly re-incorporated in soil processes, we favour the later hypothesis and propose that a significant part of the low-T hydrothermal circulation is occurring around relief of the oceanic floor, including seamounts, with a different residence-time and chemistry than what have been described in the ODP Leg 168 setting.

  18. Investigations of a novel fauna from hydrothermal vents along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, H.; Schander, C.; Halanych, K. M.; Levin, L. A.; Sweetman, A.; Tverberg, J.; Hoem, S.; Steen, I.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic deep ocean hosts a variety of habitats ranging from fairly uniform sedimentary abyssal plains to highly variable hard bottoms on mid ocean ridges, including biodiversity hotspots like seamounts and hydrothermal vents. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna, and since their discovery in 1977 more than 400 species of animals have been described. This fauna includes various animal groups of which the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. The newly discovered deep sea hydrothermal vents on the Mohns-Knipovich ridge north of Iceland harbour unique biodiversity. The Jan Mayen field consists of two main areas with high-temperature white smoker venting and wide areas with low-temperature seepage, located at 5-700 m, while the deeper Loki Castle vent field at 2400 m depth consists of a large area with high temperature black smokers surrounded by a sedimentary area with more diffuse low-temperature venting and barite chimneys. The Jan Mayen sites show low abundance of specialized hydrothermal vent fauna. Single groups have a few specialized representatives but groups otherwise common in hydrothermal vent areas are absent. Slightly more than 200 macrofaunal species have been identified from this vent area, comprising mainly an assortment of bathyal species known from the surrounding area. Analysis of stable isotope data also indicates that the majority of the species present are feeding on phytodetritus and/or phytoplankton. However, the deeper Loki Castle vent field contains a much more diverse vent endemic fauna with high abundances of specialized polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. These specializations also include symbioses with a range of chemosynthetic microorganisms. Our data show that the fauna composition is a result of high degree of local specialization with some similarities to the fauna of cold seeps along the Norwegian margin and wood-falls in the abyssal Norwegian Sea. Few species are common to both the deep and the shallow vents, but some gastropod species show a structured population difference between the sites. Our data indicate that there has been a migration of vent fauna into the Arctic Ocean from the Pacific Ocean rather than from the known vent sites further south in the Atlantic Ocean. The discovery and sampling of these new arctic vent fields provide unique data to further understand the migration of vent organisms and interactions between different deep sea chemosynthetic environments. Based on the high degree of local adaptation and specialization of fauna from the studied sites we propose the AMOR to be a new zoogeographical province for vent fauna.

  19. [Patterns of behaviour of juvenile smokers and non-smokers].

    PubMed

    Prüss, Ulrike; Brandenburg, Alexander; von Ferber, Christian; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    Preventing habitual smoking by young people forms an important goal of health promotion in schools. In achieving this target, information is needed about the age at which smoking becomes a temptation for young people as well as knowledge about the attitudes that are associated with smoking. At two elementary schools and at one grammar school in a community of a former coalmining area, 985 German pupils aged 11-18 years were interviewed with the Youth Self Report (YSR) together with a questionnaire concerning their smoking habits. The rate of smoking among the pupils rose from the age group 11-15 years to the age group 16-18 years (in this age access to cigarettes is no longer restricted by law) from 12% to 63%; between the sexes there is no difference in smoking habits. According to the scales of the YSR in both types of school, smokers scored significantly higher on scales of "antisocial" and ,,aggressive behaviour". On the other hand non-smokers scored significantly higher on the scale "social problems". The significantly higher rate of smokers in both elementary schools compared with the corresponding rate in the grammar school will be interpreted by two interrelated explanations: the influence of lower social class as well as the lack of the deferred gratification pattern as an ingredient of the culture in elementary schools. The difference between smoking and non-smoking juveniles according to the scales of the YSR can be explained by the association of smoking behaviour with the juvenile culture of deviant groups on the one hand and by the attitudes of the non-smokers, who are more reluctant in joining peer groups. The results support a strategy for effectively preventing habitual smoking habits of juveniles in schools by combining youth activities inside and outside the schools. PMID:15216962

  20. Dual-scale hydrothermal circulation inferred from detailed heat flow measurements in the Suiyo Seamount Hydrothermal System, Izu-Bonin Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomado, M.; Kinoshita, M.

    2002-12-01

    Hydrothermal activity within the caldera of Suiyo Seamount was investigated in detail using manned or remotely-operated submersibles, and by deep-tow imagery and seismic surveys. Hydrothermal regime in the Suiyo-seamount is characterized by a geochemically uniform fluid, shallow reservoir depth, very permeable seafloor, and venting without creating big chimneys. Detailed heat flow surveys were carried out through four research cruises conducted in 2001-2002. Geothermal probes, called SAHF (Stand-Alone Heat Flow) meter, are 1m in length, and five thermistors are installed at 11-12 cm intervals. Heat flow is highest (> 10 W/m2) within the active area. These values were obtained close to black smokers, thus are affected by the venting or very shallow reservoirs. To the east, heat flow is uniform around 4 W/m2. Since there were no indications of discharge, this area is dominated by thermal conduction, and its heat source would be a hydrothermal reservoir capped by some impermeable layer. To the west, we detected very low heat flow values of less than 0.3 W/m2, only several tens of meters away from the active area. A similar heat flow anomaly was detected in the TAG hyudrothermal mound of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Becker et al., 1996). We penetrated at 1-2 m away from two isolated active sulfide mounds. At both sites subbottom temperatures were about 40 degC at 10-20 cm depth, then they decreased to about 20 degC at 30-40cm. The temperature reversals suggest a meter-scale hydrothermal circulation, where a hot fluid discharges as a branch flow from the main vent to the mound. An impermeable structure of the mound and a permeable sediment surrounding the mound would make this very local circulation possible. We suggest a dual scale hydrothermal circulation system, one with several meters scale, and the other with few tens of meters scale. The former would be driven by a suction created by discrete venting of high temperature fluid, and the latter is a regional-scale circulation which can be described by DarcyOs law of flow in porous media. This research is funded by Ministry of Education, Science and Technology through Special Coordination Fund "Archaean Park" project.

  1. Measuring fluid flow and heat output in seafloor hydrothermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, Leonid N.; Hurt, Robert S.; Smith, Joshua E.; Genc, Gence; Lowell, Robert P.

    2015-12-01

    We review techniques for measuring fluid flow and advective heat output from seafloor hydrothermal systems and describe new anemometer and turbine flowmeter devices we have designed, built, calibrated, and tested. These devices allow measuring fluid velocity at high- and low-temperature focused and diffuse discharge sites at oceanic spreading centers. The devices perform at ocean floor depths and black smoker temperatures and can be used to measure flow rates ranging over 2 orders of magnitude. Flow velocity is determined from the rotation rate of the rotor blades or paddle assembly. These devices have an open bearing design that eliminates clogging by particles or chemical precipitates as the fluid passes by the rotors. The devices are compact and lightweight enough for deployment from either an occupied or remotely operated submersible. The measured flow rates can be used in conjunction with vent temperature or geochemical measurements to obtain heat outputs or geochemical fluxes from both vent chimneys and diffuse flow regions. The devices have been tested on 30 Alvin dives on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and 3 Jason dives on the East Pacific Rise (EPR). We measured an anomalously low entrainment coefficient (0.064) and report 104 new measurements over a wide range of discharge temperatures (5°-363°C), velocities (2-199 cm/s), and depths (1517-2511 m). These include the first advective heat output measurements at the High Rise vent field and the first direct fluid flow measurement at Middle Valley. Our data suggest that black smoker heat output at the Main Endeavour vent field may have declined since 1994 and that after the 2005-2006 eruption, the high-temperature advective flow at the EPR 9°50'N field may have become more channelized, predominately discharging through the Bio 9 structure. We also report 16 measurements on 10 Alvin dives and 2 Jason dives with flow meters that predate devices described in this work and were used in the process of their development. This includes the first advective measurements in the Lau Basin and at the EPR 9°39.5'N. We discuss potential error sources and how they may affect the accuracy of measurements by our devices and other devices. In particular, we use the turbulent plume theory to evaluate the effect of entrainment of ambient seawater.

  2. Discovery of hydrothermally active and extinct talc mounds on the Mid-Cayman Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, M.; Murton, B. J.; Roberts, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since 1977, hydrothermal vents have been the subject of intense scientific interest due to their role in cooling the oceanic crust and global geochemical cycles. Until now, two types of hydrothermal system have been identified: one, driven by magmatic heat extruding ';black smoker' fluids; and another, involving serpentinisation of ultramafic rocks and the precipitation of carbonate/brucite chimneys. Here, we present details of a new, off-axis type of hydrothermal system consisting of mounds of predominately botryoidal talc (a magnesium-silicate) with accessory silica and copper sulphides, and chimneys exhaling fluids of moderate temperature and pH. Discovered on the Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR) in 2010, the Von Damm Vent Field (VDVF) features a NNW-ESE-trending line of four overlapping cones, the largest of which is 75 m high by 150 m in diameter. The VDVF is hosted in the gabbroic footwall of the Mount Dent Oceanic Core Complex (MDOCC), which includes serpentinised peridotite at depth. The largest cone vents clear fluids from two main orifices at its summit, with primary temperatures of 215°C. Elsewhere, both focussed and diffuse flow areas emit fluids with temperatures of up to 150°C. The surrounding ~1 m thick pelagic sediment contains abundant pockmarks that emit methane-rich fluids at temperatures of less than 10°C. During the return to the MCR in early 2013, several other talc mounds were discovered within a kilometre of the active VDVF. These inactive mounds also comprise an assemblage of botryoidal talc, silica, disseminated sulphides (including chalcopyrite) and sulphates. One of these mounds (Mystic Mount) is double the volume of the active VDVF. The unique dominance of talc as the major mineral forming the hydrothermal structures indicates unusual vent fluid compositions that are able to carry both copper (at high-temperatures) and precipitate magnesium silicate. Thermodynamic modelling indicates that talc precipitates on mixing a moderately acidic, silica rich fluid (e.g. the primary VDVF fluids) with only 2% of seawater. At lower pH (e.g. typical ';black smoker' fluids), the ratio jumps to over 90% while at high pH (e.g. ';Lost City' fluids) brucite and carbonate dominate. Estimates using recently measured vent temperatures and fluid fluxes indicate a heat flux of ~800 MW for the active VDVF. Assuming the primary vent fluid has remained largely unchanged, the VDVF could have grown in under 1000 years and Mystic Mount in ~2000 years. Both the hydrothermal mounds and faults in the surrounding gabbro share a NNW-ESE orientation that is consistent with a brittle structural control imposed by the flexural curvature of the MDOCC in response to the uplift of the lower oceanic crust along a low-angle detachment fault. We propose that these flexural faults provide pathways for fluids to ingress deep into the MDOCC where they react with both mafic rocks (producing high-temperature, low pH, sulphide and copper-bearing fluids), peridotites and carbonates (increasing the pH) resulting in a moderate pH, silica-rich fluid that precipitates talc on mixing with seawater. The presence of further, inactive, talc mounds within 1 km of the VDVF indicates hydrothermal activity on OCCs has been widespread and represents a significant but hitherto overlooked mechanism of crustal heat loss and chemical interaction with the ocean at slow-spreading ridges.

  3. Hydrothermal plumes over spreading ridges and related deposits in the northeast Pacific Ocean: The East Pacific Rise near 11 degrees north and 21 degrees north, Explorer Ridge and J. Tuzo Wilson Seamounts

    SciTech Connect

    McConachy, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrothermal plumes emanating from hot springs over spreading ridges in the north east Pacific Ocean have been mapped and sampled using the submersible ALVIN and equipment deployed from surface ships. The geologic setting and polymetallic sulfides of the vent field producing the hydrothermal plume at 11{degree}N have also been examined. At 11{degree}N, two distinct metalliferous components are delivered to the intermediate to far-field from high temperature black smoker discharge as a result of the physical and chemical processes that occur in the lower 32 m of the plume. About 60 volume % of this material is estimated to settle within a 6-km-radius of the vent field, based on the results of SEM-IPS grain-size analyses and their application to a published particle settling model. The second component delivered to the far-field consists of the remaining 40 volume % of fine-grained sulfides and non-sulfides, 10% of dissolved Fe which will eventually precipitate as oxyhydroxides, and {>=} 80% of the hydrothermally injected Mn, Si, and probably Ba. At 21{degree} N by contrast, only 20 volume % of the smoke particles is conservatively estimated to settle within a 8-km-radius of the NGS vent due to their finer grain size and a higher terminal height of the buoyant hydrothermal plume.

  4. Few smokers develop COPD. Why?

    PubMed

    Siafakas, N M; Tzortzaki, E G

    2002-08-01

    COPD is a common disease and its major risk factor, cigarette smoking, has been identified. However, only a minority of smokers develop clinically relevant disease. Although, the current understanding of the pathogenesis includes an "abnormal inflammation" as a response to various noxious agents, its various pathways are not clear. Oxidative stress, inflammation, tissue damage and tissue repair (remodeling) are parts of the complex procedure leading to COPD. This is a review of the available literature concerning the "susceptible" smoker. An epidemiological model is discussed, putting emphasis on the timing of the exposure to cigarette smoke. There are evidences that respiratory adenoviral infection in early life could be also an important factor. Differences in nutrition could also play a role in protecting against the oxidative stress. Airway hyperresponsiveness failed to clarify the whole picture and is still open for debate. Genetic differences are the most likely explanations to describe the "susceptible" smoker. However, the only well-established genetic risk factor is the alpha-l-antitrypsin. Other candidate genes were reviewed, alpha-l-antichymotrypsin, blood group antigens, vitamin-D binding protein, a2-macroglobulin, immunoglobulin deficiency, extracellular superoxide dismutase, secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor, cathepsin G, tumor necrosis factor-a gene and others. Microsatellite DNA instability in COPD could be a useful tool to identify the locus of genetic alterations leading to COPD. Thus, in addition to exposure to exogenous factors, host factors, most likely several genes, are involved and affect various pathways of the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:12195843

  5. The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for Biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Alex D.; Tyler, Paul A.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jon T.; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D.; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A.; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearce, David A.; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; German, Christopher R.; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Alker, Belinda J.; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A.; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J. J.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D. K.; Roterman, Christopher N.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than previously recognised. PMID:22235194

  6. The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alex D; Tyler, Paul A; Connelly, Douglas P; Copley, Jon T; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D; Pearce, David A; Polunin, Nicholas V C; German, Christopher R; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H; Alker, Belinda J; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J J; Graham, Alastair G C; Green, Darryl R H; Hawkes, Jeffrey A; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D K; Roterman, Christopher N; Sweeting, Christopher J; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than previously recognised. PMID:22235194

  7. Geology of a vigorous hydrothermal system on the Endeavour segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, J.R.; Robigou, V.; McDuff, R.E. ); Tivey, M.K. )

    1992-12-10

    A high-precision, high-resolution geologic map explicitly documents relationships between tectonic features and large steep-sided, sulfide-sulfate-silica deposits in the vigorously venting Endeavour hydrothermal field near the northern end of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Location of the most massive sulfide structures appears to be controlled by intersections of ridge-parallel normal faults and other fracture-fissure sets that trend oblique to, and perpendicular to the overall structural fabric of the axial valley. As presently mapped, the field is about 200 by 400 m on a side and contains at least 15 large (> 1,000 m[sup 3]) sulfide edifices and many tens of smaller, commonly inactive, sulfide structures. The larger sulfide structures are also the most vigorously venting features in the field; they are commonly more than 30 m in diameter and up to 20 m in height. Maximum venting temperatures of 375[degrees]C are associated with the smaller structures in the northern portion of the field are consistently 20[degrees]-30[degrees]C lower. Hydrothermal output from individual active sulfide features varies from no flow in the lower third of the edifice to vigorous output from fracture-controlled black smoker activity near the top of the structures. Two types of diffuse venting in the Endeavour field include a lower temperature 8[degrees]-15[degrees]C output through colonies of large tubeworms and 25[degrees]-50[degrees]C vent fluid that seems to percolate through the tops of overhanging flanges. The large size and steep-walled nature of these structures evidently results from sustained venting in a mature hydrothermal system, coupled with dual mineral depositional mechanisms involving vertical growth by accumulation of chimney sulfide debris and lateral growth by means of flange development.

  8. Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa trough: Mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marumo, Katsumi; Hattori, Kiko H.

    1999-09-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal activity at Jade has resulted in extensive alteration of the host epiclastic sediments and pumiceous tuffs, forming mica, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite), Mg-rich chlorite, talc, montmorillonite, and a mixed-layer mineral of dioctahedral chlorite and montmorillonite (Chl/Mont). Clay mineral assemblages show a vertical variation, which reflects variable amounts of cold seawater incorporated into hot hydrothermal fluids in subsurface sediments and tuff. However, mixing alone cannot explain the occurrence of abundant kaolin minerals at Jade. The formation of kaolin minerals requires much more acidic fluid than expected from simple mixing of hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Low pH values are likely attained by oxidation of H 2S either dissolved in the hydrothermal fluid or released from the fluid during decompression. The fluid reaching the seafloor is discharged into cold seawater, which caused precipitation of sulfides close to vents and native sulfur and barite at the margins of the vent areas. Halloysite, barite and anhydrite show Sr isotope compositions similar to marine Sr, indicating the derivation of marine Sr directly from seawater or by the dissolution of calcareous nannoplanktons. The isotopic compositions of kaolinite (? 18O = +7.4, ?D = -23), Chl/Mont (? 18O = +7.0, ?D = -32), and mica (? 18O = +5.4 to +9.9, ?D = -30 to -26) suggest fluids of a heated seawater origin. The O isotopic data yielded formation temperatures of 170C for kaolinite, 61 to 110C for halloysite, and 145 to 238C for mica. Barite ? 34S values (+21.0 to +22.5) are very similar to the marine sulfate value, confirming that the barite formation took place due to mixing of Ba-bearing hydrothermal fluids and sulfate-rich seawater. Native sulfur shows a large variation in ? 34S in one hand specimen probably because of rapid disequilibrium precipitation of S during fluid exhalation on the seafloor. Sulfur in hydrothermal fluids is usually consumed to form metal sulfides. Therefore, abundant native sulfur at Jade suggests high H 2S/metals ratios of the hydrothermal fluids. The alteration assemblages and isotopic data of hydrothermal minerals from Jade are very similar to those of Kuroko-type barite deposits of middle Miocene age, which formed from fluids of high S/metals ratios at less than 200C. At Jade, there is only one black smoker actively discharging high temperature (320C) fluid, but there are many fossil sulfide chimneys and mounds in the area. The mineralogy and high Au and Cu in these precipitates suggest highly metalliferous hydrothermal activity in the past. These activities likely resulted in discharge of hydrothermal plumes and fall-outs of sulfides and sulfates on the seafloor. These fall-outs were incorporated in sediments far from the vent areas. They are now recorded as high metal contents in sediments with no petrographic and mineralogical evidence of in-situ hydrothermal activity. Some are high as 8,100 ppm for Cu, 12,500 ppm for Zn, 1,000 ppm for As, 100 ppm for Ag and 21,000 ppm for Pb. Detrital grains of montmorillonite in such sediments are coated with Fe-oxyhydroxides during the suspension in seawater before settling on the seafloor. The depths of such metal anomalies in sediments suggest high levels of metalliferous hydrothermal activities from 1,800 to 300 ybp.

  9. The Case against a Smoker's License

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Background to the debate Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a “smoker's license” and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic—the tobacco industry—and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor. PMID:23152727

  10. The Case for a Smoker's License

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background to the debate Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a “smoker's license” and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic—the tobacco industry—and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor. PMID:23152726

  11. Unplanned Quitting in a Triethnic Sample of U.S. Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Resnicow, Ken; Zhou, Yan; Nollen, Nicole L.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers who report quitting without prior planning have been shown to report longer abstinence compared with those who planned. Little is known about unplanned quitting (UQ) among U.S. smokers, minorities, or nondaily and light smokers. Methods: Using an online panel, we recruited equal numbers of Black, White, and Latino nondaily, light daily, and moderate/heavy daily smokers. Of the 1,127 who reported a past-year quit attempt, we queried whether it was planned and the maximum number of days abstinent. Results: Overall, 38% reported that their last quit attempt was unplanned. The impact of planned versus unplanned quitting interacted with smoking level and race. Among White moderate/heavy smokers, mean days abstinent was 99 for those who reported an unplanned quit attempt compared with 60 days for those who reported a planned attempt (p = .02). Among Black moderate/heavy smokers, the mean days abstinent was higher among those whose last attempt was planned, 92 days, compared with 56 days among those whose last attempt was unplanned (p = .09). The pattern among Latinos resembled Whites but was not significant. Results remained after adjusting for confounds such as age, gender, education, income, time to first cigarette, and menthol use. There were no significant differences in abstinence by quit type for light or nondaily smokers. Conclusions: Future studies are needed to elucidate why UQ appears to have differential effectiveness across racial/ethnic groups and different levels of cigarette use. Research examining the impact of UQ on long-term quitting, which is not addressed here, is needed. PMID:24420329

  12. Barite in hydrothermal environments as a recorder of subseafloor processes: a multiple-isotope study from the Loki's Castle vent field.

    PubMed

    Eickmann, B; Thorseth, I H; Peters, M; Strauss, H; Bröcker, M; Pedersen, R B

    2014-07-01

    Barite chimneys are known to form in hydrothermal systems where barium-enriched fluids generated by leaching of the oceanic basement are discharged and react with seawater sulfate. They also form at cold seeps along continental margins, where marine (or pelagic) barite in the sediments is remobilized because of subseafloor microbial sulfate reduction. We test the possibility of using multiple sulfur isotopes (δ34S, Δ33S, ∆36S) of barite to identify microbial sulfate reduction in a hydrothermal system. In addition to multiple sulfur isotopes, we present oxygen (δ18O) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes for one of numerous barite chimneys in a low-temperature (~20 °C) venting area of the Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultraslow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). The chemistry of the venting fluids in the barite field identifies a contribution of at least 10% of high-temperature black smoker fluid, which is corroborated by 87Sr/86 Sr ratios in the barite chimney that are less radiogenic than in seawater. In contrast, oxygen and multiple sulfur isotopes indicate that the fluid from which the barite precipitated contained residual sulfate that was affected by microbial sulfate reduction. A sulfate reduction zone at this site is further supported by the multiple sulfur isotopic composition of framboidal pyrite in the flow channel of the barite chimney and in the hydrothermal sediments in the barite field, as well as by low SO4 and elevated H2S concentrations in the venting fluids compared with conservative mixing values. We suggest that the mixing of ascending H2- and CH4-rich high-temperature fluids with percolating seawater fuels microbial sulfate reduction, which is subsequently recorded by barite formed at the seafloor in areas where the flow rate is sufficient. Thus, low-temperature precipitates in hydrothermal systems are promising sites to explore the interactions between the geosphere and biosphere in order to evaluate the microbial impact on these systems. PMID:24725254

  13. Food and nutrient intake differences between smokers and non-smokers in the US.

    PubMed Central

    Subar, A F; Harlan, L C; Mattson, M E

    1990-01-01

    Data from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to determine food and nutrient intake differences between current smokers (also categorized as light, moderate, and heavy smokers) and non-smokers. Smokers in several age-race-sex categories have lower intakes of vitamin C, folate, fiber, and vitamin A than non-smokers, and intake tended to decrease as cigarette consumption increased, particularly for vitamin C, fiber, and folate. Smokers were less likely to have consumed vegetables, fruits (particularly fruits and vegetables high in vitamins C and A), high fiber grains, low fat milk, and vitamin and mineral supplements than non-smokers. A negative linear trend was found between smoking intensity and intake of several categories of fruits and vegetables. These data suggest that the high cancer risk associated with smoking is compounded by somewhat lower intake of nutrients and foods which are thought to be cancer protective. PMID:2240298

  14. Some Lessons Learned From Observations and Modeling of Mid-ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathles, L. M.

    2004-05-01

    Modeling of critical observations at mid-ocean ridge and continental hydrothermal systems has taught us a good deal about how these systems operate. Aspects will be reviewed from the large to small scale focusing on physical processes. At the largest scale the shape of the axial mid-ocean ridge magma chamber is clearly controlled by seawater convection. If the crust is impermeable, the 400°C isotherm of the magma chamber extends ~15 km from the ridge. As the crust becomes permeable, the width of the magma chamber collapses. A narrow axial magma chamber requires a crust whose permeability decreases exponentially from few 10's of millidarcies to a few tenths of millidarcy at moho depths (or the equivalent). Venting of ~350°C seawater at black smokers requires flow not significantly penetrate hotter rock. Variations in black smoker salinity from half to twice seawater, transit times of ~10 yrs, and megaplume discharge at ~250 times the normal black smoker rates (proceeded and succeeded by normal discharge), suggest a ~3.4 m wide, 350°C flow zone separated by ~180 m from 1200°C magma. With this geometry, periodic thermal contraction cracking in the 180 m wide thermal boundary layer can draw in sufficient flow-zone waters (which flash, leave behind salt, and return and salt-free condensed vapor) to lower the flow zone salinity by a factor of two. Halo-less veins with salt-rich amphiboles and minerals precipitated at >600°C record boundary layer cracking events. Migration of the flow zone toward the axis recovers the salt and doubles flow zone salinity. Increases in flow zone permeability by faulting or magma deflation produces megaplume discharges preceded and succeeded by normal black smoker venting. The routine (discharge salinities almost never equal seawater) interaction of convecting seawater with basalt at temperatures of >600°C makes it difficult to distinguish true magmatic waters (e.g., waters exsolved from magma) from seawater from thermal contraction cracks. Buoyant forces in the flow zone (5 km vertical extent) can equal lithostatic at a depth of several hundred meters, and repeatedly fracture shallow areas if they are plugged by mineral deposition, producing funnel-shaped breccia-vein feeder pipes similar to observed. Magma bodies establish upwelling at their edges whose effects propagate and ultimately control the broad pattern of convection. The axial upwelling at ridges, for example, draws in cold seawater, cools the adjacent crust, and creates horizontal temperature gradients that drive upwelling ~12 km from the axis. This upwelling spawns the next set of cells, etc. The cells interact as they migrate toward the ridge as seafloor spreading occurs. Pulses of more intense off-ridge discharge (e.g., times when the venting is >200°C) occur when interaction is constructive. The Mn lenses observed in ophiolites could form at these times. Similarly, convection developed first at the edges of crustal sills, spawns rings of satellite convection over the top of the sill. Tilts or undulations in the sill can affect the pattern but it is not significantly affected by faults and fractures. The spacing of discharge zones is similar to deposit spacing in massive sulfide districts, as is the variation in size. Deep model sills produce a single, large vent/deposit; shallow sills many small and a few large deposits. Model deposits require enhanced permeability in upwelling zones, however. The mechanism by which this occurs in nature could involve initial selection of permeable pathways with their subsequent isolation by anhydrite selvaging.

  15. Imaging and Quantifying Seafloor HydrothermaL Flow Using Sound and Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, P. A.; Bemis, K. G.; Jones, C. D.; Jackson, D. R.; Mitsuzawa, K.; Silver, D.

    2006-05-01

    We are developing and applying methods using acoustics and light to image and measure seafloor hydrothermal flow in order to advance understanding of the role of this flow in mass and energy transfer. We show, with examples from the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, the capabilities we have developed and applied in acoustic imaging of hydrothermal flows. These capabilities include reconstructing in 3-D and measuring scalar and vector properties of buoyant plumes of black smokers, mapping areas of diffuse flow, and monitoring these hydrothermal flows on scales from individual vents, to vent clusters, and eventually to entire hydrothermal fields. 1. Hydrothermal plumes: Our acoustic imaging of buoyant hydrothermal plumes is based on intensity of backscatter primarily from suspended metallic mineral particles that are small relative to the wavelength of the acoustic frequency of pulses projected from a sonar transducer (~1 cm at 200 to 330 kHz; particle diameter 1-1000 microns): (a) Scalar properties of plume: Specialized software is used to construct a centerline as a reference for the distribution of properties within a plume and to measure scalar properties as defined in a time-integrated buoyant plume model. These properties include mass and distribution of suspended particulate matter, volume, surface and cross-sectional area and shape, radius with altitude above a vent, connectivity of constituent parts, and degree of bending. (b)Vector properties of plume: Doppler algorithms are used to measure flow velocity in sonar line-of-sight cross-sections with a geometric correction to obtain mean vertical velocity with altitude on the assumption that net velocity in a buoyant plume is vertical. 2. Diffuse flow: Our AST (Acoustic Scintillation Thermography) method uses echo-to echo correlation to detect distortion by index-of-refraction fluctuations of consecutive pings as they pass through warm water and reflect back from the seafloor to a sonar transducer in order to map areas of diffuse flow. 3. Application: Our VIP (Vent Imaging and Processing) 2000 cruise to the MEF successfully imaged plume and diffuse flow in vent clusters; recorded a 24-hour time series that shows bending of an intense plume discharging from the Grotto sulfide edifice apparently related to tidal forcing; used Doppler to measure flow rate and volume flux in the Grotto plume; calculated entrainment coefficients (0.07-0.018) from measurements of plume expansion with height (0-30 m rise), and showed that entrainment rate increased with degree of bending. We used these observations in conjunction with in situ measurements to calculate plume and diffuse volume and heat flux for the Grotto cluster. We are working to incorporate our acoustic methods into the proposed Regional Cabled Observatory at the MEF to decipher linkages between hydrothermal flow and external oceanographic and forcing functions on time scales from days to years. With reference to light, we are using images from our current IMAX film, "Volcanoes of the Deep Sea", which clearly illuminates hydrothermal vents using Hollywood lighting and camera technology with Rutgers and NSF support, to directly measure flow at the vents and as a guide to transform our acoustic images into light images for realistic visualization and for inference of physical properties of plumes.

  16. Integrated Fe- and S-isotope study of seafloor hydrothermal vents at East Pacific Rise 9-10°N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rouxel, O.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Bach, W.; Edwards, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we report on coupled Fe- and S-isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids and sulfide deposits from the East Pacific Rise at 9–10°N to better constrain processes affecting Fe-isotope fractionation in hydrothermal environments. We aim to address three fundamental questions: (1) Is there significant Fe-isotope fractionation during sulfide precipitation? (2) Is there significant variability of Fe-isotope composition of the hydrothermal fluids reflecting sulfide precipitation in subsurface environments? (3) Are there any systematics between Fe- and S-isotopes in sulfide minerals? The results show that chalcopyrite, precipitating in the interior wall of a hydrothermal chimney displays a limited range of δ56Fe values and δ34S values, between − 0.11 to − 0.33‰ and 2.2 to 2.6‰ respectively. The δ56Fe values are, on average, slightly higher by 0.14‰ relative to coeval vent fluid composition while δ34S values suggest significant S-isotope fractionation (− 0.6 ± 0.2‰) during chalcopyrite precipitation. In contrast, systematically lower δ56Fe and δ34S values relative to hydrothermal fluids, by up to 0.91‰ and 2.0‰ respectively, are observed in pyrite and marcasite precipitating in the interior of active chimneys. These results suggest isotope disequilibrium in both Fe- and S-isotopes due to S-isotopic exchange between hydrothermal H2S and seawater SO42− followed by rapid formation of pyrite from FeS precursors, thus preserving the effects of a strong kinetic Fe-isotope fractionation during FeS precipitation. In contrast, δ56Fe and δ34S values of pyrite from inactive massive sulfides, which show evidence of extensive late-stage reworking, are essentially similar to the hydrothermal fluids. Multiple stages of remineralization of ancient chimney deposits at the seafloor appear to produce minimal Fe-isotope fractionation. Similar affects are indicated during subsurface sulfide precipitation as demonstrated by the lack of systematic differences between δ56Fe values in both high-temperature, Fe-rich black smokers and lower-temperature, Fe-depleted vents.

  17. Evaluation of young smokers and non-smokers with Electrogustometry and Contact Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pavlos, Pavlidis; Vasilios, Nikolaidis; Antonia, Anogeianaki; Dimitrios, Koutsonikolas; Georgios, Kekes; Georgios, Anogianakis

    2009-01-01

    Background Smoking is the cause of inducing changes in taste functionality under conditions of chronic exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate taste sensitivity in young smokers and non-smokers and identify any differences in the shape, density and vascularisation of the fungiform papillae (fPap) of their tongue. Methods Sixty-two male subjects who served in the Greek military forces were randomly chosen for this study. Thirty-four were non-smokers and 28 smokers. Smokers were chosen on the basis of their habit to hold the cigarette at the centre of their lips. Taste thresholds were measured with Electrogustometry (EGM). The morphology and density of the fungiform papillae (fPap) at the tip of the tongue were examined with Contact Endoscopy (CE). Results There was found statistically important difference (p < 0.05) between the taste thresholds of the two groups although not all smokers presented with elevated taste thresholds: Six of them (21%) had taste thresholds similar to those of non-smokers. Differences concerning the shape and the vessels of the fungiform papillae between the groups were also detected. Fewer and flatter fPap were found in 22 smokers (79%). Conclusion The majority of smokers shown elevated taste thresholds in comparison to non-smokers. Smoking is an important factor which can lead to decreased taste sensitivity. The combination of methods, such as EGM and CE, can provide useful information about the vascularisation of taste buds and their functional ability. PMID:19695082

  18. Response of choroidal blood flow to carbogen breathing in smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wimpissinger, B; Resch, H; Berisha, F; Weigert, G; Schmetterer, L; Polak, K

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate a potential difference in ocular vascular reactivity during carbogen breathing in optic nerve head, choroid, and retina between healthy smokers and non-smokers. Methods: 25 (13 smokers and 12 non-smokers) healthy male volunteers participated in this observer masked, two cohort study. During inhalation of carbogen (5% CO2 and 95% O2) over 10 minutes measurements were taken using laser Doppler flowmetry to assess submacular choroidal and optic nerve head blood flow, laser interferometry to assess fundus pulsation amplitudes, and retinal vessel analyser (RVA) to assess retinal vessel diameters. Results: At baseline choroidal blood flow was higher (p = 0.018, ANOVA) in smokers than in non-smokers. During administration of carbogen the response in choroidal blood flow was significantly different between the two groups: there was an increase in non-smokers after carbogen breathing (p = 0.048) compared with relatively stable blood flow in smokers (p = 0.049 between groups, ANOVA). A similar response pattern was seen for fundus pulsation amplitude, which increased notably after carbogen breathing in non-smokers but not in smokers (p<0.001 between groups, ANOVA). Optic nerve head blood flow and retinal vessel diameters were reduced in both groups to a comparable degree during carbogen breathing. Conclusion: The study indicated abnormal choroidal vascular reactivity in chronic smokers. These early haemodynamic changes may be related to the increased risk to smokers of developing ocular vascular diseases. The specific mechanisms underlying abnormal choroidal vascular reactivity in chronic smokers remain to be characterised. PMID:15148211

  19. Subgingival microbiome in smokers and non-smokers in Korean chronic periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Moon, J-H; Lee, J-H; Lee, J-Y

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is a major environmental factor associated with periodontal diseases. However, we still have a very limited understanding of the relationship between smoking and subgingival microflora in the global population. Here, we investigated the composition of subgingival bacterial communities from the pooled plaque samples of smokers and non-smokers, 134 samples in each group, in Korean patients with moderate chronic periodontitis using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. A total of 17,927 reads were analyzed and classified into 12 phyla, 126 genera, and 394 species. Differences in bacterial communities between smokers and non-smokers were examined at all phylogenetic levels. The genera Fusobacterium, Fretibacterium, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Corynebacterium, TM7, and Filifactor were abundant in smokers. On the other hand, Prevotella, Campylobacter, Aggregatibacter, Veillonellaceae GQ422718, Haemophilus, and Prevotellaceae were less abundant in smokers. Among species-level taxa occupying > 1% of whole subgingival microbiome of smokers, higher abundance (≥ 2.0-fold compared to non-smokers) of seven species or operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was found: Fusobacterium nucleatum, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria oralis, Corynebacterium matruchotii, Veillonella dispar, Filifactor alocis, and Fretibacterium AY349371. On the other hand, lower abundance of 11 species or OTUs was found in smokers: Neisseria elongata, six Prevotella species or OTUs, Fusobacterium canifelinum, Aggregatibacter AM420165, Selenomonas OTU, and Veillonellaceae GU470897. Species richness and evenness were similar between the groups whereas diversity was greater in smokers than non-smokers. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that differences exist in the subgingival bacterial community between smoker and non-smoker patients with chronic moderate periodontitis in Korea, suggesting that cigarette smoking considerably affects subgingival bacterial ecology. PMID:25283067

  20. Implications of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project for improving understanding of hydrothermal processes at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, Wilfred A.; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur Ómar

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is investigating producing geothermal energy from magma-hydrothermal systems at supercritical conditions. This requires drilling to depths of 4 to 5 km where temperatures should be in the range of 450-600°C or higher. Modeling studies suggest producing superheated steam from supercritical temperatures >450°C could increase power output tenfold relative to steam produced from a 300°C reservoir. The first IDDP well was drilled at Krafla within a volcanic caldera in the active rift zone of NE Iceland. At the end of June 2009, drilling was terminated at only 2100 m depth when a >900°C rhyolitic magma flowed into the drill hole. The well was completed with a casing cemented a few meters above the magma. Depending on the result of a planned flow test, there is the possibility of creating the world's hottest "Engineered Geothermal System" by injecting water in a nearby well to produce superheated steam from the magma. An advantage of such a strategy would be that the acidic gases likely to be given off by the magma could be neutralized by injecting suitably treated water. Two new wells, ˜4 km deep, are planned to be drilled during 2010-2012 at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields in SW Iceland to explore for supercritical zones. The Reykjanes geothermal system produces hydrothermally modified seawater. This presents an ideal situation to study a high-temperature magma-hydrothermal system at depth analogous to those responsible for the black smokers at submarine divergent plate margins.

  1. Hydrogen and thiosulfate limits for growth of a thermophilic, autotrophic Desulfurobacterium species from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lucy C; Llewellyn, James G; Butterfield, David A; Lilley, Marvin D; Holden, James F

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal fluids (341°C and 19°C) were collected < 1 m apart from a black smoker chimney and a tubeworm mound on the Boardwalk edifice at the Endeavour Segment in the northeastern Pacific Ocean to study anaerobic microbial growth in hydrothermal mineral deposits. Geochemical modelling of mixed vent fluid and seawater suggests the mixture was anoxic above 55°C and that low H2 concentrations (79 μmol kg(-1) in end-member hydrothermal fluid) limit anaerobic hydrogenotrophic growth above this temperature. A thermophilic, hydrogenotrophic sulfur reducer, Desulfurobacterium strain HR11, was isolated from the 19°C fluid raising questions about its H2 -dependent growth kinetics. Strain HR11 grew at 40-77°C (Topt 72-75°C), pH 5-8.5 (pHopt 6-7) and 1-5% (wt vol(-1) ) NaCl (NaClopt 3-4%). The highest growth rates occurred when S2 O3 (2-) and S° were reduced to H2 S. Modest growth occurred by NO3 (-) reduction. Monod constants for its growth were Ks of 30 μM for H2 and Ks of 20 μM for S2 O3 (2-) with a μmax of 2.0 h(-1) . The minimum H2 and S2 O3 (2-) concentrations for growth were 3 μM and 5 μM respectively. Possible sources of S2 O3 (2-) and S° are from abiotic dissolved sulfide and pyrite oxidation by O2 . PMID:26696328

  2. Global synthesis and analysis of deep-sea hydrothermal time-series data: Toward a characterization of the outflow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreyre, T.; Sohn, R. A.; Crone, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Time-series records of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluid properties and flow rates have the potential to help constrain the hydrogeology, subsurface circulation patterns, heat, mass, and chemical fluxes, and habitat conditions within young oceanic crust. This potential has motivated a concerted international effort to acquire such records from a variety of geologically distinct vent fields at numerous locations along the mid-ocean ridge system. However up until now, the global database has not been systematically explored. These records have only been analyzed in a piecemeal fashion, which is problematic because hydrothermal time-series records from individual sites typically exhibit enigmatic modes of episodic and periodic variability that are difficult to interpret in isolation. In this study, we conduct a systematic analysis of the extant set of hydrothermal time-series records from several mid-ocean ridge sites where observatory-style experiments have been conducted (including, LSHF, TAG, EPR 9°50'N and MEF). We show that most temperature records, regardless of location or geological setting, display systematic tide-related variability, with the strongest signal at the principal semidiurnal tidal periods (M2, S2, N2 and K2). Cross-spectral multi-taper methods applied to the temperature and bottom pressure records reveal robust phase relationships, particularly for the high-temperature, black-smoker records, as predicted by poroelastic theory. These results suggest that tidal pressures diffusely propagate through the formation, perturbing fluid velocities and temperatures, resulting in phase lags between the seafloor loading and the exit-fluid temperatures. Here, we use multi-layer analytical and numerical models to constrain the subseafloor permeability, skin depth, and Darcy velocities required to explain the phase lag observations.

  3. Evaluation of Vibration Response Imaging (VRI) Technique and Difference in VRI Indices Among Non-Smokers, Active Smokers, and Passive Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongying; Chen, Jichao; Cao, Jinying; Mu, Lan; Hu, Zhenyu; He, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Vibration response imaging (VRI) is a new technology for lung imaging. Active smokers and non-smokers show differences in VRI findings, but no data are available for passive smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of VRI and to assess the differences in VRI findings among non-smokers, active smokers, and passive smokers. Material/Methods Healthy subjects (n=165: 63 non-smokers, 56 active smokers, and 46 passive smokers) with normal lung function were enrolled. Medical history, physical examination, lung function test, and VRI were performed for all subjects. Correlation between smoking index and VRI scores (VRIS) were performed. Results VRI images showed progressive and regressive stages representing the inspiratory and expiratory phases bilaterally in a vertical and synchronized manner in non-smokers. Vibration energy curves with low expiratory phase and plateau were present in 6.35% and 3.17%, respectively, of healthy non-smokers, 41.07% and 28.60% of smokers, and 39.13% and 30.43% of passive smokers, respectively. The massive energy peak in the non-smokers, smokers, and passive-smokers was 1.77±0.27, 1.57±0.29, and 1.66±0.33, respectively (all P<0.001). A weak but positive correlation was observed between VRIS and smoking index. Conclusions VRI can intuitively show the differences between non-smokers and smokers. VRI revealed that passive smoking can also harm the lungs. VRI could be used to visually persuade smokers to give up smoking. PMID:26212715

  4. Comparative metagenomics of microbial communities inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys with contrasting chemistries

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wei; Wang, Fengping; Guo, Lei; Chen, Zeling; Sievert, Stefan M; Meng, Jun; Huang, Guangrui; Li, Yuxin; Yan, Qingyu; Wu, Shan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Shangwu; He, Guangyuan; Xiao, Xiang; Xu, Anlong

    2011-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys harbor a high diversity of largely unknown microorganisms. Although the phylogenetic diversity of these microorganisms has been described previously, the adaptation and metabolic potential of the microbial communities is only beginning to be revealed. A pyrosequencing approach was used to directly obtain sequences from a fosmid library constructed from a black smoker chimney 4143-1 in the Mothra hydrothermal vent field at the Juan de Fuca Ridge. A total of 308 034 reads with an average sequence length of 227 bp were generated. Comparative genomic analyses of metagenomes from a variety of environments by two-way clustering of samples and functional gene categories demonstrated that the 4143-1 metagenome clustered most closely with that from a carbonate chimney from Lost City. Both are highly enriched in genes for mismatch repair and homologous recombination, suggesting that the microbial communities have evolved extensive DNA repair systems to cope with the extreme conditions that have potential deleterious effects on the genomes. As previously reported for the Lost City microbiome, the metagenome of chimney 4143-1 exhibited a high proportion of transposases, implying that horizontal gene transfer may be a common occurrence in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In addition, genes for chemotaxis and flagellar assembly were highly enriched in the chimney metagenomes, reflecting the adaptation of the organisms to the highly dynamic conditions present within the chimney walls. Reconstruction of the metabolic pathways revealed that the microbial community in the wall of chimney 4143-1 was mainly fueled by sulfur oxidation, putatively coupled to nitrate reduction to perform inorganic carbon fixation through the Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle. On the basis of the genomic organization of the key genes of the carbon fixation and sulfur oxidation pathways contained in the large genomic fragments, both obligate and facultative autotrophs appear to be present and contribute to biomass production. PMID:20927138

  5. [Are blood gas tests valid in smokers?].

    PubMed

    Sevila Bellido, Vanesa; Lassaletta Goñi, Inmaculada; Hernández Blasco, Luis; Alvarez González, Mercedes; Asensio Sánchez, Santos; Giménez Tébar, José Luis; Romero Candiera, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze the influence of smoking on the validity of measurements of arterial saturation using percutaneous oxygen-hemoglobin blood gas tests. The authors conclude that these methods can yield elevated oxygen saturation values in smokers. PMID:20201194

  6. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Pereira, Laís Helena

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is defined as “paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally”. Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181). The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR) and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB. PMID:26270556

  7. Personal Fable: Optimistic Bias in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Masiero, Marianna; Lucchiari, Claudio; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several empirical studies have shown the attitude of smokers to formulate judgments based on distortion in the risk perception. This alteration is produced by the activation of the optimistic bias characterized by a set of the unrealistic beliefs compared to the outcomes of their behavior. This bias exposes individuals to adopt lifestyles potentially dangerous for their health, underestimate the risks and overestimate the immediate positive effects. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the relationship between optimistic bias and smoking habits. In particular, it was hypothesized that smokers develop optimistic illusions, able to facilitate the adoption and the maintenance over time of the unhealthy lifestyles, such as cigarette smoking, and the former smokers could acquire a belief system centered on own responsibility. Patients and Methods: The samples (n = 633, female = 345, male = 288) composed of smokers (35.7%), ex-smokers (32.2%) and nonsmokers (32.1%). Each participant filled out two questionnaires including The Fagerström test and the motivational questionnaire as well as a set of items measured on a Likert scales to evaluate health beliefs. Results: The results confirmed the presence of the optimistic bias in comparative judgments, and the attitude to overestimate the effectiveness of their preventive behaviors in the smokers. Conclusions: Cognitive bias in risk perception may influence health behaviors in negative way and reinforce cigarette smoking over the time. Future research should be conducted to identify the better strategies to overtake this cognitive bias to improve the quitting rate. PMID:25883917

  8. Assessment of Tobacco-Related Approach and Attentional Biases in Smokers, Cravers, Ex-Smokers, and Non-Smokers.

    PubMed

    Woud, Marcella L; Maas, Joyce; Wiers, Reinout W; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2016-01-01

    According to theories of addictive behaviors, approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues play a crucial role in tobacco dependence. Several studies have investigated these biases by using various paradigms in different sample types. However, this heterogeneity makes it difficult to compare and evaluate the results. The present study aimed to address this problem, via (i) a structural comparison of different measures of approach-avoidance and a measure of smoking-related attentional biases, and (ii) using within one study different representative samples in the context of tobacco dependence. Three measures of approach-avoidance were employed: an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT), a Stimulus Response Compatibility Task (SRC), and a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT). To assess attentional biases, a modified Stroop task including smoking-related words was administered. The study included four groups: n = 58 smokers, n = 57 non-smokers, n = 52 cravers, and n = 54 ex-smokers. We expected to find strong tobacco-related approach biases and attentional biases in smokers and cravers. However, the general pattern of results did not confirm these expectations. Approach responses assessed during the AAT and SRC did not differ between groups. Moreover, the Stroop did not show the expected interference effect. For the ST-IAT, cravers had stronger approach associations toward smoking-related cues, whereas non-smokers showed stronger avoidance associations. However, no such differences in approach-avoidance associations were found in smokers and ex-smokers. To conclude, these data do not provide evidence for a strong role of implicit approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues in tobacco dependency. PMID:26955359

  9. Assessment of Tobacco-Related Approach and Attentional Biases in Smokers, Cravers, Ex-Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Woud, Marcella L.; Maas, Joyce; Wiers, Reinout W.; Becker, Eni S.; Rinck, Mike

    2016-01-01

    According to theories of addictive behaviors, approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues play a crucial role in tobacco dependence. Several studies have investigated these biases by using various paradigms in different sample types. However, this heterogeneity makes it difficult to compare and evaluate the results. The present study aimed to address this problem, via (i) a structural comparison of different measures of approach-avoidance and a measure of smoking-related attentional biases, and (ii) using within one study different representative samples in the context of tobacco dependence. Three measures of approach-avoidance were employed: an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT), a Stimulus Response Compatibility Task (SRC), and a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT). To assess attentional biases, a modified Stroop task including smoking-related words was administered. The study included four groups: n = 58 smokers, n = 57 non-smokers, n = 52 cravers, and n = 54 ex-smokers. We expected to find strong tobacco-related approach biases and attentional biases in smokers and cravers. However, the general pattern of results did not confirm these expectations. Approach responses assessed during the AAT and SRC did not differ between groups. Moreover, the Stroop did not show the expected interference effect. For the ST-IAT, cravers had stronger approach associations toward smoking-related cues, whereas non-smokers showed stronger avoidance associations. However, no such differences in approach-avoidance associations were found in smokers and ex-smokers. To conclude, these data do not provide evidence for a strong role of implicit approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues in tobacco dependency. PMID:26955359

  10. Identifying Subgroups among Hardcore Smokers: a Latent Profile Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Kleinjan, Marloes; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; Burk, William J.; van den Eijnden, Regina; van de Mheen, Dike

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hardcore smokers are smokers who have little to no intention to quit. Previous research suggests that there are distinct subgroups among hardcore smokers and that these subgroups vary in the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. Identifying these subgroups could help to develop individualized messages for the group of hardcore smokers. In this study we therefore used the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting to identify profiles among hardcore smokers. Methods A sample of 510 hardcore smokers completed an online survey on the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. We used these perceived pros and cons in a latent profile analysis to identify possible subgroups among hardcore smokers. To validate the profiles identified among hardcore smokers, we analysed data from a sample of 338 non-hardcore smokers in a similar way. Results We found three profiles among hardcore smokers. ‘Receptive’ hardcore smokers (36%) perceived many cons of smoking and many pros of quitting. ‘Ambivalent’ hardcore smokers (59%) were rather undecided towards quitting. ‘Resistant’ hardcore smokers (5%) saw few cons of smoking and few pros of quitting. Among non-hardcore smokers, we found similar groups of ‘receptive’ smokers (30%) and ‘ambivalent’ smokers (54%). However, a third group consisted of ‘disengaged’ smokers (16%), who saw few pros and cons of both smoking and quitting. Discussion Among hardcore smokers, we found three distinct profiles based on perceived pros and cons of smoking. This indicates that hardcore smokers are not a homogenous group. Each profile might require a different tobacco control approach. Our findings may help to develop individualized tobacco control messages for the particularly hard-to-reach group of hardcore smokers. PMID:26207829

  11. Insights into Spatial Sulfur Variation within the Modified Gill-Chamber of the Epibiont-Colonized Hydrothermal Vent Shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempfert, K. R.; Sievert, S. M.; Hansel, C. M.; Webb, S. M.; Thomas, F.

    2013-12-01

    Rimicaris exoculata dominates the megafaunal biomass at numerous Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents. Within the gill chamber of the shrimp exists a rich epibiotic community. These shrimp swarm around active black smoker chimneys at the Snake Pit vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and have been hypothesized to utilize the mixing zone between ambient seawater and hydrothermal fluid to supply these epibionts with a redox environment suitable for the promotion of chemoautotrophic growth. Investigation of the oxidation state, distribution, and concentration of sulfur of different compartments within the shrimp's gill chamber was conducted using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy. Principle component analysis of point XANES spectra yielded four reference components indentified as elemental sulfur, sulfate, monosulfide (likely iron sulfide), and an organosulfur thiol compound. Energy specific micro-XRF mapping of these reference components in both the modified mouthparts and inner lining of the carapace enclosing the gill chamber displayed spatial heterogeneity in sulfur oxidation state and coordination. Sulfate, organosulfur thiol compounds, and phosphate tended to correlate with chitin structural features, while elemental sulfur was concentrated in areas where epibionts were observed. DNA extraction and sequencing from epibiont populations within each of the modified mouthparts and carapace was conducted to provide insight into the community structure at each of these distinct areas of the gill chamber. Here we demonstrate the complexity of sulfur speciation and mineralization in association with the host epibiont community composition.

  12. Continental smokers couple mantle degassing and distinctive microbiology within continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossey, Laura J.; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Schmandt, Brandon; Crow, Ryan R.; Colman, Daniel R.; Cron, Brandi; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Northup, Diana E.; Hilton, David R.; Ricketts, Jason W.; Lowry, Anthony R.

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of oceanic black (and white) smokers revolutionized our understanding of mid-ocean ridges and led to the recognition of new organisms and ecosystems. Continental smokers, defined here to include a broad range of carbonic springs, hot springs, and fumaroles that vent mantle-derived fluids in continental settings, exhibit many of the same processes of heat and mass transfer and ecosystem niche differentiation. Helium isotope (3He/4He) analyses indicate that widespread mantle degassing is taking place in the western U.S.A., and that variations in mantle helium values correlate best with low seismic-velocity domains in the mantle and lateral contrasts in mantle velocity rather than crustal parameters such as GPS, proximity to volcanoes, crustal velocity, or composition. Microbial community analyses indicate that these springs can host novel microorganisms. A targeted analysis of four springs in New Mexico yield the first published occurrence of chemolithoautotrophic Zetaproteobacteria in a continental setting. These observations lead to two linked hypotheses: that mantle-derived volatiles transit through conduits in extending continental lithosphere preferentially above and at the edges of mantle low velocity domains. High CO2 and other constituents ultimately derived from mantle volatiles drive water-rock interactions and heterogeneous fluid mixing that help structure diverse and distinctive microbial communities.

  13. Discovering New Mantle-Hosted Submarine Ecosytems: The Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D. S.; Karson, J. A.; Yoerger, D.; Fruh-Green, G. L.; Butterfield, D. A.; Lilley, M.

    2003-12-01

    In April-May 2003, the Lost City Hydrothermal Field was investigated during 19 Alvin dives and 17 missions with the autonomous vehicle ABE to examine the linkages among geological, chemical and biological processes associated with a submarine hydrothermal system hosted on mantle material. In concert, these two programs resulted in 1) delineation of the geologic features that control hydrothermal flow in this area; 2) an extremely high-resolution bathymetric map (meter scale) of the field and adjacent areas of the Atlantis Massif; 3) interdisciplinary sampling of 10 individual venting sites within the field; and 4) documentation of a nearly continuous zone of deformation at the top of the massif that is very likely the surface expression of a long-lived detachment fault that caps the massif. This hydrothermal system, which is driven by exothermic serpentinization reactions beneath the Atlantis Massif, is unlike any known field examined to date. It is hosted on 1-2 my old variably altered mantle material, it contains more than 30 carbonate chimneys that reach up to 60 m in height, and generation of diffusely venting 40-90C fluids with pH 9-11 that are enriched in methane, hydrogen and other hydrocarbons support dense microbial communities. ABE bathymetry shows that a linear array of the largest structures within the field is controlled by an E-W trending, 200 m long lineament intersected by a N-S trending fault. Mapping of the near vertical cliffs adjacent to the field indicates that much of the subsurface flow within this area is controlled by very gently west-dipping faults that result in a nearly horizontal, sheet-like style of flow. Venting of diffuse fluids directly from the near vertical walls forms perpendicular growths of carbonate flanges, and results in the formation of vertical spires, and massive, shingled deposits that cascade down the cliff faces. The plumbing system within this area is very different from the vertical conduits that typify black smoker environments. The large surface areas exposed to hydrothermal fluids along the gently dipping faults may provide important environments for microbiological communities within the subsurface. Stockwork systems and variably cemented breccias preserved along the steep walls immediately adjacent to the field are reminiscent of ancient ophicalcite deposits preserved in ophiolitic rocks since the Archean. The Lost City Field is an astounding, intensely beautiful area that hosts numerous composite chimneys that extend over an area >350 m in length. Many structures contain an array of delicate flanges, multiple pinnacles, and beehive deposits. The complex structure Poseidon dominates the field: it is over 60 m in height, >40 m in length and it hosts multiple active and inactive towers, smaller pinnacles, and flanges. It is unlikely that hydrothermal systems like Lost City are unique along the global mid-ocean ridge spreading network; where massifs similar to those at the Atlantis Fracture Zone are common. In these environments, intense long-lived faulting and seismic activity, coupled with serpentinization reactions act depth serve to promote hydrothermal flow.

  14. A Japanese cross-sectional multicentre study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lüdicke, Frank; Magnette, John; Baker, Gizelle; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre study in Japan to detect the differences in biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular biomarkers between smokers and non-smokers. Several clinically relevant cardiovascular biomarkers differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers, including lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations – lower in smokers), inflammation (fibrinogen and white blood cell count – both higher in smokers), oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin F2α – higher in smokers) and platelet activation (11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 – higher in smokers) (p ≤ 0.0001). These results provide further evidence showing that cardiovascular biomarkers can discriminate smokers from non-smokers, and could be used to evaluate the risks associated with tobacco products. PMID:26616146

  15. Stressful Life Events and Psychosomatic Symptoms among Students Smokers and Non-smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodaj, Arta; Simic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the rate of stressful life events and psychosomatic symptoms among students smokers and non-smokers and examine the predictive contribution of stress and smoking to subjective health status. Methods were conducted on a convenience sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of…

  16. Increasing Prevalence of Electronic Cigarette Use Among Smokers Hospitalized in 5 US Cities, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Kathleen F.; Richter, Kimber; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Sherman, Scott E.; Grossman, Ellie; Chang, Yuchiao; Tindle, Hilary A.; Ylioja, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the pattern of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use over time or among smokers with medical comorbidity. Methods: We assessed current cigarette smokers’ use of e-cigarettes during the 30 days before admission to 9 hospitals in 5 geographically dispersed US cities: Birmingham, AL; Boston, MA; Kansas City, KS; New York, NY; and Portland, OR. Each hospital was conducting a randomized controlled trial as part of the NIH-sponsored Consortium of Hospitals Advancing Research on Tobacco (CHART). We conducted a pooled analysis using multiple logistic regression to examine changes in e-cigarette use over time and to identify correlates of e-cigarette use. Results: Among 4,660 smokers hospitalized between July 2010 and December 2013 (mean age 57 years, 57% male, 71% white, 56% some college, average 14 cigarettes/day), 14% reported using an e-cigarette during the 30 days before admission. The prevalence of e-cigarette use increased from 1.1% in 2010 to 10.3% in 2011, 10.2% in 2012, and 18.4% in 2013; the increase was statistically significant (p < .0001) after adjustment for age, sex, education, and CHART study. Younger, better educated, and heavier smokers were more likely to use e-cigarettes. Smokers who were Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and who had Medicaid or no insurance were less likely to use e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use also varied by CHART project and by geographic region. Conclusions: E-cigarette use increased substantially from 2010 to 2013 among a large sample of hospitalized adult cigarette smokers. E-cigarette use was more common among heavier smokers and among those who were younger, white, and who had higher socioeconomic status. PMID:25168031

  17. Borders of life: lessons from Microbiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieur, D.

    Thirty years ago, the deep-sea was known as a low density biotope due to coldness, darkness and famine-like conditions. The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Eastern Pacific in 1977 and the associated black smokers in 1979 considerably changed our views about life on Earth. For the first time, an ecosystem almost independent (at least for tens of years) of solar nergy was discovered. Besides the spectacular and unexpected communities of invertebrates based on symbiotic associations with chemo-litho-autotrophic bacteria, prokaryotic communities associated with high temperature black smokers fascinated microbiologists of extreme environments. Within mineral structures where temperature gradients may fluctuate from ambient seawater temperatures (2°C) up to 350°C, thermophilic (optimal growth above 60°C) and hyperthermophilic (optimal growth above 80°C) microorganisms thrived under very severe conditions due to elevated hydrostatic pressure, toxic compounds or strong ionizing radiations. These organisms belong to both domains of Bacteria and Archaea and live aerobically but mostly anaerobically, using a variety of inorganic and organic carbon sources, and a variety of electron donnors and acceptors as well. The most thermophilic organism known on Earth was isolated from a mid-Atlantic-Ridge hydrotermal vent: Pyrolobus fumarii grows optimally at 110°c and its upper temperature limit for life is 113°C. Such an organism survived to autoclaving conditions currently used for sterilization procedures. Many other hyperthermophilic organisms were isolated and described, including fermenters, sulphate and sulphur reducers, hydrogen oxidizers, nitrate reducers, methanogens, etc. Although most of anaerobes are killed when exposed to oxygen, several deep-sea hyperthermophiles appeared to survive to both oxygen and starvation exposures, indicating that they probably can colonize rather distant environments Because of elevated hydrostatic pressure that exists at deep-sea vents, hydrothermal fluids remain liquid at temperatures above 100°C (boiling water temperature under atmospheric pressure). If strictly barophilic thermophiles or hyperthermophiles have not been reported yet (the deepest vents known are 3500 m in depth), barophilic Bacteria and Archaea have been reported that grow much more faster when exposed to in situ (pressurized) conditions. Morover, they grow preferentially at pressures above those existing at captures depth, that may indicate that their natural habitat is situated below the sea floor. Recently, several studies reported that hyperthermophiles and particularly deep-sea organisms may resist to elevated doses of gamma ionizing radiations, as strong as 20 kGy, similarly to the famous radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. From these reports, it can be concluded that exploration of Earth is not already finished: novel biotopes, novel organisms with novel metabolic and physiologic properties are waiting for their discovery. Also, severe physio-chemical conditions allow for florishing living forms that use efficiently chemical energy sources. If these data do not allow to claim that life arose at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, they clearly extend physio-chemical and spatial borders of life and stimulate to further exploration of Earth and the solar system.

  18. The Minority Are the Majority: Today's Smoker.

    PubMed

    Clark, C Brendan; Leventhal, Adam M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cropsey, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    The smoking rate in America has decreased substantially over the past 50 years; however, this decrease is disproportionately accounted for by the high quit rates and lower initiation rates of middle class smokers with no medical or psychiatric comorbidities. The majority of modern smokers' cessations efforts are complicated by one or more forms of "disadvantage, " such as social, economic, legal, or psychiatric problems. The next step in reducing the national smoking prevalence is to reduce the prevalence in the most neglected portions of the population. In this paper, the characteristics of modern smokers are discussed in light of the 2014 Surgeon General's Report and the Affordable Care Act. Implications for current treatment and future research are suggested in an effort to take advantage of the progress that has been made and the new opportunities provided by healthcare reform. PMID:26046120

  19. Modeling the Growth of Hyperthermophiles in Deep-sea Hydrothermal Diffuse Fluids and Sulfide Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ver Eecke, H. C.; Oslowski, D. M.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Holden, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    In 2008 and 2009, 534 hydrothermal fluid samples and 5 actively-venting black smoker chimneys were collected using Alvin for correlative microbiological and chemical analyses as part of the Endeavour Segment and Axial Volcano Geochemistry and Ecology Research (EAGER) program. Hyperthermophilic, autotrophic Fe(III) oxide reducers, methanogens, and sulfur-reducing heterotrophs were enriched for at 85 and 95C using most-probable-number estimates from 28 diffuse fluid and 8 chimney samples. Heterotrophs were the most abundant of the three groups in both diffuse fluids and black-smoker chimneys. Iron reducers were more abundant than methanogens, and more abundant in sulfide-hosted vents than in basalt-hosted vents. Fluid chemistry suggests that there is net biogenic methanogenesis at the Marker 113/62 diffuse vent at Axial Volcano but nowhere else sampled. The growth of hyperthermophilic methanogens and heterotrophs was modeled in the lab using pure cultures. Methanocaldococcus jannaschii grew at 82C in a 2-liter reactor with continuous gas flow at H2 concentrations between 20 and 225 M with a H2 km of 100 M. Correlating H2 end-member mixing curves from vent fluids and seawater with our laboratory modeling study suggests that H2 concentrations are limiting for Methanocaldococcus growth at most Mothra, Main Field, and High Rise vent sites at Endeavour but sufficient to support growth at some Axial Volcano vents. Therefore, hyperthermophilic methanogens may depend on H2 syntrophy at low H2 sites. Twenty-one pure hyperthermophilic heterotroph strains each grew on ?-1,4 and ?-1,4 linked sugars and polypeptides with concomitant H2 production. The H2 production rate (cell-1 doubling-1) for Pyrococcus furiosus at 95C without sulfur was 29 fmol, 36 fmol, and 53 fmol for growth on ?-1,4 sugars, ?-1,4 sugars, and peptides, respectively. The CH4 production rate for M. jannaschii was 390 fmol cell-1 doubling-1; therefore, we estimate that it would take approximately 40 heterotroph cells to provide all of the H2 necessary to support the growth of a single methanogen. In contrast to methanogens, autotrophic Fe(III) oxide reducers consume far less H2 during growth and reach cell concentrations similar to methanogens in pure culture. Thermodynamic predictions suggest that they would grow at H2 concentrations lower than those needed by methanogens.

  20. Plasma 3-nitrotyrosine in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Petruzzelli, S; Puntoni, R; Mimotti, P; Pulerà, N; Baliva, F; Fornai, E; Giuntini, C

    1997-12-01

    Peroxynitrite has been associated with increased oxidative reactions and DNA damage in inflamed tissues as it may cause a reduction of plasma antioxidants as well. Nitration of tyrosine residues of proteins leads to the production of 3-nitrotyrosine (NTYR), which may be considered as a marker of NO.-dependent oxidative damage. We developed a highly sensitive method to detect NTYR in human plasma and tested it in cigarette smokers and in healthy control subjects. Peripheral venous blood (10 ml) was obtained in 20 healthy, asymptomatic cigarette smokers (13 males, 7 females; age: 49 +/- 11 yr) and in 18 healthy nonsmokers (10 males and 8 females; age: 36 +/- 6 yr). In smokers, plasma nicotine, cotinine, and expired CO levels were measured. NTYR was determined with a sequential HPLC/gas chromatography-thermal energy analysis (GC-TEA) technique. The total plasma Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was also measured using metmyoglobin as peroxidase and a phenothiazine as a radical donor. NTYR was detectable (detection limit: 0.02 ng/injection) in 11 smokers (mean +/- SD: 1.60 +/- 1.24 ng/mg protein) and in two nonsmokers (1.10 and 1.20 ng/mg protein, respectively). NTYR was not associated with nicotine and cotinine levels or expired CO in smokers. Plasma TEAC in smokers was significantly lower (0.43 +/- 0.38 mM) than in nonsmokers (1.42 +/- 0.3 mM; p < 0.001) and showed a biphasic, negative relationship with NTYR (r = 0.96, p < 0.001). This highly sensitive HPLC/GC-TEA method for detection and quantitation of plasma NTYR may be used for monitoring oxidative reactions associated with tobacco smoking. This assay might be incorporated into molecular epidemiologic studies for lung chronic inflammatory and neoplastic disorders in which exposure to oxidants may be an important risk factor. PMID:9412573

  1. Subseafloor Microbial Life in Venting Fluids from the Mid Cayman Rise Hydrothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, J. A.; Reveillaud, J.; Reddington, E.; McDermott, J. M.; Sylva, S. P.; Breier, J. A.; German, C. R.; Seewald, J.

    2012-12-01

    In hard rock seafloor environments, fluids emanating from hydrothermal vents are one of the best windows into the subseafloor and its resident microbial community. The functional consequences of an extensive population of microbes living in the subseafloor remains unknown, as does our understanding of how these organisms interact with one another and influence the biogeochemistry of the oceans. Here we report the abundance, activity, and diversity of microbes in venting fluids collected from two newly discovered deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the ultra-slow spreading Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR). Fluids for geochemical and microbial analysis were collected from the Von Damm and Piccard vent fields, which are located within 20 km of one another, yet have extremely different thermal, geological, and depth regimes. Geochemical data indicates that both fields are highly enriched in volatiles, in particular hydrogen and methane, important energy sources for and by-products of microbial metabolism. At both sites, total microbial cell counts in the fluids ranged in concentration from 5 x 10 4 to 3 x 10 5 cells ml-1 , with background seawater concentrations of 1-2 x 10 4 cells ml-1 . In addition, distinct cell morphologies and clusters of cells not visible in background seawater were seen, including large filaments and mineral particles colonized by microbial cells. These results indicate local enrichments of microbial communities in the venting fluids, distinct from background populations, and are consistent with previous enumerations of microbial cells in venting fluids. Stable isotope tracing experiments were used to detect utilization of acetate, formate, and dissolve inorganic carbon and generation of methane at 70 °C under anaerobic conditions. At Von Damm, a putatively ultra-mafic hosted site located at ~2200 m with a maximum temperature of 226 °C, stable isotope tracing experiments indicate methanogenesis is occurring in most fluid samples. No activity was detected in Piccard vent fluids, a basalt-hosted black smoker site located at ~4950 m with a maximum temperature of 403 °C. However, hyperthermophilic and thermophilic heterotrophs of the genus Thermococcus were isolated from Piccard vent fluids, but not Von Damm. These obligate anaerobes, growing optimally at 55-90 °C, are ubiquitous at hydrothermal systems and serve as a readily cultivable indicator organism of subseafloor populations. Finally, molecular analysis of vent fluids is on-going and will define the microbial population structure in this novel ecosystem and allow for direct comparisons with other deep-sea and subsurface habitats as part of our continuing efforts to explore the deep microbial biosphere on Earth.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis map of bismuth titanates

    SciTech Connect

    Sardar, Kripasindhu; Walton, Richard I.

    2012-05-15

    The hydrothermal synthesis of four bismuth titanate materials from common bismuth and titanium precursors under hydrothermal conditions is described. Reaction of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and anatase TiO{sub 2} in concentrated NaOH solution at 240 Degree-Sign C is shown to produce perovskite and sillenite phases Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20}, depending on the ratio of metal precursors used. When KOH solution is used and a 1:1 ratio of the same precursors, a pyrochlore Bi{sub 1.43}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 0.29}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.66} is formed. The use of a mixture of HNO{sub 3} and NaOH is shown to facilitate the formation of the Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}. The phases have been isolated separately as phase-pure powders and profile refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data allows comparisons with comparable materials reported in the literature. Analysis of Bi L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the materials shows the oxidation state of bismuth is +3 in all of the hydrothermally derived products. - Graphical abstract: Use of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} as reagents under hydrothermal conditions allows the phase-pure preparation of four crystalline bismuth titanate materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NaBiO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} under hydrothermal conditions allow formation of bismuth titanates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of four distint phases has been mapped. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi LIII-edge XANES shows Bi is reduced to oxidation state +3 in all materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new hydrated bismuth titanate pyrochlore has been isolated.

  3. The Impact of Cigarette Excise Tax Increases on Purchasing Behaviors Among New York City Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Coady, Micaela H.; Chan, Christina A.; Mbamalu, Ijeoma G.; Kansagra, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between cigarette excise tax increases and tax-avoidant purchasing behaviors among New York City adult smokers. Methods. We analyzed data from the city’s annual Community Health Survey to assess changes in rates of tax avoidance over time (2003–2010) and smokers’ responses to the 2008 state cigarette tax increase. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified correlates of buying more cigarettes on the street in response to the increase. Results. After the 2002 tax increase, the percentage of smokers engaged in tax-avoidant behavior decreased with time from 30% in 2003 to 13% in 2007. Following the 2008 tax increase, 21% of smokers reported buying more cigarettes from another person on the street. Low-income, younger, Black, and Hispanic smokers were more likely than respondents with other sociodemographic characteristics to purchase more cigarettes on the street. Conclusions. To maximize public health impact, cigarette tax increases should be paired with efforts to limit the flow of untaxed cigarettes entering jurisdictions with high cigarette pack prices. PMID:23597382

  4. Use of the current population survey to characterize subpopulations of continued smokers: a national perspective on the "hardcore" smoker phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Augustson, Erik; Marcus, Stephen

    2004-08-01

    The existence of "hardcore" smokers, those most likely to have substantial difficulty quitting, may have far reaching impact on how to best allocate cessation resources. It has been suggested that hardcore smokers make up only a small fraction of current smokers and therefore do not represent a significant public health problem. However, little is known about the prevalence and nature of this subgroup of smokers in the United States. Based on a national sample, the 1998-1999 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, we categorized, based on smoking pattern, groups of current smokers who were over age 25 years (N=33,568). We compared hardcore smokers with other groups of current smokers on demographic, environmental, and smoking variables to assess whether hardcore smokers represent a unique group. Hardcore smokers were defined as established daily smokers, consuming 15 or more cigarettes per day with no reported history of quit attempts. Hardcore smokers represent 13.7% of all current smokers and 17.6% of all established smokers. They are more likely to be male, unmarried, not in the work force, and have lower education. They also are more likely to have started smoking at a younger age, smoke more, and are less likely to report contact with smoking restrictions. This analysis suggests that hardcore smokers are distinct from other groups of smokers. These results also indicate that hardcore smokers account for a substantial proportion of smokers and as such may represent a significant public health challenge that needs to be addressed. PMID:15370158

  5. Teens' images of smoking and smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Luke, D.; Allen, P.; Arian, G.; Crawford, M.; Headen, S.; Spigner, A. C.; Tassler, P.; Ureda, J.

    2001-01-01

    The authors used qualitative and quantitative data to identify and interpret specific images teens have about smoking and smokers. Qualitative data were collected in 1996 from 793 teenagers participating in 125 focus groups at eight different sites across the United States. Most focus groups were homogeneous with respect to gender, ethnicity, and smoking status. Ages ranged from 12 to 18 years, and about half of the participants were female. The majority of participants (62%) were white and African American, the remainder (38%) were Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian/Pacific Islander. Groups were comprised of smoking and nonsmoking teens. Focus group activities were used to elicit image-related discussions about attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of smoking. Investigators identified seven consistent and distinctive image themes: Appearance (smoking is dirty and unattractive), Activity (nonsmokers have busy, active lives), Drugs and sex (smokers are substance abusers and are sexually active), Rebellion (smokers belong to rebellious groups), Affect (smokers are depressed, angry, and stressed-out), In control (nonsmokers have self-control and are independent), and Pride (nonsmokers are proud of themselves, their families, and their heritage). A large scale, multi-site qualitative research approach can increase understanding of teen smoking. The identification of distinctive images of smoking can help researchers develop more sophisticated models of the processes of teen smoking than currently exist. PMID:11889285

  6. Laboratory markers for COPD in "susceptible" smokers.

    PubMed

    Tzortzaki, Eleni G; Tsoumakidou, Maria; Makris, Demosthenes; Siafakas, Nikolaos M

    2006-02-01

    Smoking is the major risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Apart from the important preventive steps of smoking cessation, there are no other specific treatments for COPD that are as effective in reversing the condition. However, only a relatively small proportion of smokers-about 15%-will develop clinically relevant COPD. Allergy, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) to methacholine, and gender differences have been proposed to identify individuals susceptible to the development of COPD. However, variable response to cigarette smoke clearly suggests genetic susceptibility. Among the COPD candidate genes are those (a) that effect the production of proteases and antiproteases, (b) modulate the metabolism of toxic substances in cigarette smoke, (c) are involved with mucocilliary clearance, and (d) that influence inflammatory mediators. Recently, sputum cells from smokers with and without COPD were tested for Microsatellite DNA Instability (MSI) with positive results. This finding suggests that MSI can be a useful marker of genetic susceptibility and thereby indicate destabilization of the genome in the "susceptible" smoker. Nevertheless, COPD lacks established viable biomarkers to predict and monitor disease progression and outcome variables. Such monitoring tools may be induced sputum, exhaled air condensate, peripheral blood, urine, bronchial biopsies, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). This review summarizes recent research on potential laboratory markers in smokers and subsequent COPD development. PMID:16139829

  7. Body image evaluations in women smokers.

    PubMed

    King, T K; Matacin, M; Marcus, B H; Bock, B C; Tripolone, J

    2000-01-01

    While body image has been found to be an important predictor for several health behaviors (abnormal dieting. weight regain, exercise), only one study to date has examined body image attitudes in women smokers (Australian sample) with results suggesting that women smokers feel less attractive than nonsmokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare body image in women smokers to normative samples of women. Subjects were 136 women (89.0% White, M age = 39.85, 74% employed. 52% married, body mass index [BMI] = 25.54) entering a randomized clinical smoking cessation trial. Subjects completed the Appearance Evaluation and Fitness Orientation subscales of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and the Silhouette Choosing Task. Pooled t-tests showed that subjects scored significantly lower on Appearance Evaluation (t = -6.58, p < .01) and Fitness Orientation (t = -5.55, p < .01) than the normative sample. For the silhouette choosing task, the present sample reported a significantly higher current silhouette (t = 2.29, p < .05) and dissatisfaction score (t = 4.04, p < .01) than the comparative sample. There were no significant differences on the ideal or attraction scores. Results suggest that women smokers may be more dissatisfied with their bodies than women in general. Possible implications include that smoking may adversely affect body image and/or body image concerns may negatively impact cessation attempts. PMID:10972454

  8. GENOMIC LANDSCAPE OF NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER IN SMOKERS AND NEVER SMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, Ramaswamy; Ding, Li; Griffith, Malachi; Subramanian, Janakiraman; Dees, Nathan D.; Kanchi, Krishna L.; Maher, Christopher A.; Fulton, Robert; Fulton, Lucinda; Wallis, John; Chen, Ken; Walker, Jason; McDonald, Sandra; Bose, Ron; Ornitz, David; Xiong, Donghai; You, Ming; Dooling, David J.; Watson, Mark; Mardis, Elaine R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We report the results of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples from 17 patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We identified 3,726 point mutations and over 90 indels in the coding sequence, with an average mutation frequency more than 10-fold higher in smokers than in never-smokers. Novel alterations in genes involved in chromatic modification and DNA repair pathways were identified along with DACH1, CFTR, RELN, ABCB5, and HGF. Deep digital sequencing revealed diverse clonality patterns in both never smokers and smokers. All validated EFGR and KRAS mutations were present in the founder clones, suggesting possible roles in cancer initiation. Analysis revealed 14 fusions including ROS1 and ALK as well as novel metabolic enzymes. Cell cycle and JAK-STAT pathways are significantly altered in lung cancer along with perturbations in 54 genes that are potentially targetable with currently available drugs. PMID:22980976

  9. Effects of nicotine gum on psychomotor performance in smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Hindmarch, I; Kerr, J S; Sherwood, N

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of nicotine on human performance. In the first study six smokers, who had been allowed to smoke normally prior to testing, completed a battery of psychometric tests (choice reaction time, memory scanning, tracking and flicker fusion threshold) at set points over 4 h after chewing 0, 2, or 4 mg nicotine polacrilex gum. A second study followed a similar design, but used five non-smoker volunteers who were required to chew only the 0 or 2 mg nicotine gum. Blood nicotine levels following the gum were measured in all subjects. The results indicate that additional nicotine improved both the speed and accuracy of motor activity among the smokers, but did not enhance central cognitive processes. No drug effects were found in the non-smoker study. PMID:2320715

  10. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Smokers and Non-smokers Receiving Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Acquavita, Shauna P.; McClure, Erin A.; Hargraves, Daniel; Stitzer, Maxine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) has been linked to numerous health problems. While research has demonstrated high prevalence of tobacco use among individuals receiving treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs), no studies have examined ETS among individuals receiving treatment for SUDs, paying specific attention to non-smokers who may be at risk for high exposure to ETS. Methods Participants (N=261) enrolled in outpatient substance abuse treatment completed a survey, in which 14 items were used to quantify ETS exposure and smoking policies across several environments. Results Among smokers, 85% reported that their significant others also smoked as compared to 15% among non-smokers (X2=6.624, p<.05). A logistic regression examined the characteristics that predicted smoking in the home. The overall model was significant, (χ2 = 36.046, p < .0005) with variables that independently predicted smoking in the home included having less than a high school diploma, being female, and living with a smoker. Income, age, and living with children were not found to be significant. Overall, 42% white collar workers 26% of service workers and 30% of blue collar workers reported no exposure to ETS. Sixty-seven percent of smokers strongly agreed or agreed the hazards of secondhand smoke have been clearly demonstrated versus 58% of non-smokers. Conclusions Smokers and non-smokers enrolled in outpatient substance abuse treatment are frequently exposed to ETS at home, work, and in social settings. The dangers of ETS should be addressed among this population through education, smoke-free policies, and cessation resources, with help from their treatment facility. PMID:25117848

  11. A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

  12. A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen

  13. Probing the characteristics of metal- and sulfide-binding proteins in hydrothermal vent polychaetes using HPLC/IES-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Martineu, P.; Juniper, S.K.; Ikonomou, M.G.; Thompson, J.

    1995-12-31

    Alvinellids polychaetes colonizing the surfaces of black smokers from Eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents occupy extreme environments with high levels of heavy metals and sulfide. Investigations of mechanisms that enable them to tolerate these extreme conditions indicate sulfide-binding capacity in the blood serum of Paralvinella palmiformis and accumulation of heavy metals in their tissues. A need to characterize metal-binding proteins lead the authors to improve purification and separation of metallothioneins (MTs) by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on-line with electrospray mass spectrometry (ES/MS). A first separation step of small proteins from crude homogenates of worm tissues is performed on a size exclusion column following by accurate molecular weight identification with on-line LC-MS. This powerful technique has refined separation of isoform MT standards and weight characterization, and has provided an analytical tool to analyze metal-binding proteins from vent polychaetes. The authors are also applying this technique to separation of sulfide-binding proteins in blood serum and to identify ligands involved in sulfide detoxication and transport.

  14. Do former smokers respond to nicotine differently from never smokers? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J R; Rose, G L; Callas, P W

    2000-08-01

    Nine former, 11 never, and 10 current smokers abstained from smoking for 16 h on each of 4 days. On each of 3 days, participants received three doses per day of 0-, 2-, or 4-mg nicotine gum in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. To examine subjective effects, participants completed the POMS, ARCI, and other ratings before and after each dose. To examine nicotine reinforcement, participants reported preferences among the gums, reported gum vs. money choices plus, on a fourth day, underwent a double-blind self-administration test. Former and never smokers did not differ on any of the subjective or reinforcement outcomes. Current smokers did prefer and self-administer more nicotine than former and never smokers. These results contradict our prior finding that former and never smokers differ in their response to nicotine. We consider the present study a more valid test than our prior study for reasons outlined in the discussion. Our results fail to confirm theories that those destined to be smokers are more or less sensitive to nicotine and that nicotine use causes irreversible brain changes that increase nicotine reinforcement. PMID:11082826

  15. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  16. Comparison of salivary calcium level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Kambalyal, Preeti; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj; Hungund, Shital

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare salivary calcium (Ca) level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 56 subjects were included in the study and were grouped as follows: 12 subjects who were periodontally healthy (Group I), 12 subjects having chronic periodontitis who were non-smokers (Group II), 12 non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis (Group III), 12 smokers with chronic periodontitis (Group IV), and 8 smokers with aggressive periodontitis (Group V). Clinical measurements and non-stimulated whole saliva samples were obtained and analyzed for Ca levels by ion-selective electrolyte analyzer. Results: When salivary Ca values were compared between the groups, they showed statistically significant values (P < 0.001) with the highest mean Ca level in Group IV and Group V, which include smokers with chronic periodontitis and smokers with aggressive periodontitis, respectively, than in other groups. Between groups II and III also, the mean salivary Ca level was statistically significant (P < 0.001) with higher mean salivary Ca in non-smokers having chronic periodontitis than in non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis. Conclusions: The present study showed that smokers having chronic periodontitis as well as smokers having aggressive periodontitis have higher salivary calcium levels. Also, patients with aggressive periodontitis were found to have lesser salivary calcium level than chronic periodontitis patients by ion-selective electrolyte analyzer. PMID:26942120

  17. 32P-POSTLABELING ANALYSIS OF DNA ADDUCTS IN HUMAN SPERM CELLS FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the feasibility of using human sperm cells for DNA 32postlabeling analyses, and to evaluate the baseline level and the possible presence of smoking-related DNA adducts in these cells, sperm DNA was isolated from 12 heavy smokers, 12 light smokers and 12 non-smokers. ...

  18. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking

  19. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  20. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Moyen, N E; Ganio, M S; Burchfield, J M; Tucker, M A; Gonzalez, M A; Dougherty, E K; Robinson, F B; Ridings, C B; Veilleux, J C

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for >4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature (T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p > 0.05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s(-1)) to 1.5 °C ΔT C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s(-1); p < 0.005), suggesting heat stress acutely increased central arterial stiffness. pPWV did not change with heating (grand mean: baseline = 691.9 ± 92.9 cm · s(-1); 1.5 °C ΔT C = 691.9 ± 79.5 cm · s(-1); p > 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated (p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness. PMID:26266482

  1. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyen, N. E.; Ganio, M. S.; Burchfield, J. M.; Tucker, M. A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dougherty, E. K.; Robinson, F. B.; Ridings, C. B.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for >4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature ( T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p > 0.05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s-1) to 1.5 °C Δ T C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s-1; p < 0.005), suggesting heat stress acutely increased central arterial stiffness. pPWV did not change with heating (grand mean: baseline = 691.9 ± 92.9 cm · s-1; 1.5 °C Δ T C = 691.9 ± 79.5 cm · s-1; p > 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated ( p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  2. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyen, N. E.; Ganio, M. S.; Burchfield, J. M.; Tucker, M. A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dougherty, E. K.; Robinson, F. B.; Ridings, C. B.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for >4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature (T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p > 0.05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s-1) to 1.5 °C ΔT C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s-1; p < 0.005), suggesting heat stress acutely increased central arterial stiffness. pPWV did not change with heating (grand mean: baseline = 691.9 ± 92.9 cm · s-1; 1.5 °C ΔT C = 691.9 ± 79.5 cm · s-1; p > 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated (p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  3. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. Methods A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people (“everyday” and “everyday or sometimes”) were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. Results While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62–1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79–4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. Conclusions Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality due to SHS exposure may be higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. This information may be useful for advocating workplace smoke-free policies. PMID:27050819

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of lutetium disilicate nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Xiaoping; Gao Yanfeng; Chen Hongfei; Luo Hongjie

    2012-04-15

    A simple, low-cost hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize irregular-and rod-shaped lutetium disilicate (Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}) powders with sizes ranging from 71 to 340 nm. The synthesis temperature was 260 Degree-Sign C, which is nearly 1300 Degree-Sign C lower than that required for the solid-state reaction. The results indicated that both the hydrothermal temperature and pH values had great influences on the composition, crystalline phase and morphology of the powders. The formation mechanism, basic thermophysical properties, stability and anticorrosion properties of the Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders were also investigated. The obtained powders possessed low thermal conductivity, a suitable thermal expansion coefficient (3.92-5.17 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} K{sup -1}) with the silicon-based substrate and excellent thermal and structural stability. During hot corrosion testing, the surfaces of the samples appeared to react with the water and molten salt vapors, but no serious failure occurred. - Graphical abstract: An image for the as-prepared Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders (left) and XRD pattern (right) (inset shows the SEM graph of powders). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders via a hydrothermal process at 260 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline phase and morphology of the powders changed with experimental parameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hot corrosion was determined in an airflow environment containing alkaline vapor.

  5. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Ida H.; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (≤ 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field. This may be related to niche-specific physical characteristics. Altogether, the model provides a reference for future studies and illustrates the importance of systematic comparative studies of spatially closely connected niches in order to fully understand the geomicrobiology of hydrothermal systems. PMID:26779165

  6. Distinct SNP Combinations Confer Susceptibility to Urinary Bladder Cancer in Smokers and Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Marchan, Rosemarie; Ickstadt, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified and validated genetic variations associated with urinary bladder cancer (UBC). However, it is still unknown whether the high-risk alleles of several SNPs interact with one another, leading to an even higher disease risk. Additionally, there is no information available on how the UBC risk due to these SNPs compare to the risk of cigarette smoking and to occupational exposure to urinary bladder carcinogens, and whether the same or different SNP combinations are relevant in smokers and non-smokers. To address these questions, we analyzed the genotypes of six SNPs, previously found to be associated with UBC, together with the GSTM1 deletion, in 1,595 UBC cases and 1,760 controls, stratified for smoking habits. We identified the strongest interactions of different orders and tested the stability of their effect by bootstrapping. We found that different SNP combinations were relevant in smokers and non-smokers. In smokers, polymorphisms involved in detoxification of cigarette smoke carcinogens were most relevant (GSTM1, rs11892031), in contrast to those in non-smokers with MYC and APOBEC3A near polymorphisms (rs9642880, rs1014971) being the most influential. Stable combinations of up to three high-risk alleles resulted in higher odds ratios (OR) than the individual SNPs, although the interaction effect was less than additive. The highest stable combination effects resulted in an OR of about 2.0, which is still lower than the ORs of cigarette smoking (here, current smokers' OR: 3.28) and comparable to occupational carcinogen exposure risks which, depending on the workplace, show mostly ORs up to 2.0. PMID:23284801

  7. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Hayati, Zahra; Rezaei, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions such as leukoplakia and hairy tongue. Controversy exists in the literature, however, about the prevalence of oral lesions in smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral lesions in male smokers compared with nonsmokers in Hamadan. A total of 516 male participants were assessed, 258 of whom were smokers and 258 of whom were healthy nonsmokers. The prevalence of lesions was evaluated by clinical observation and biopsy. We found that the most prevalent lesions among smokers were gingival problems and coated tongue; smokers had significantly more lesions than did nonsmokers. Malignant and premalignant lesions were found in a higher age range. Among all participants in our study, we found a large number of oral mucosal lesions in smokers that had a strong correlation with smoking. Dental services need to implement care and health education for smokers to promote health. PMID:24010068

  8. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-05-31

    The term “hydrothermal” used here refers to the processing of biomass in water slurries at elevated temperature and pressure to facilitate the chemical conversion of the organic structures in biomass into useful fuels. The process is meant to provide a means for treating wet biomass materials without drying and to access ionic reaction conditions by maintaining a liquid water processing medium. Typical hydrothermal processing conditions are 523-647K of temperature and operating pressures from 4-22 MPa of pressure. The temperature is sufficient to initiate pyrolytic mechanisms in the biopolymers while the pressure is sufficient to maintain a liquid water processing phase. Hydrothermal gasification is accomplished at the upper end of the process temperature range. It can be considered an extension of the hydrothermal liquefaction mechanisms that begin at the lowest hydrothermal conditions with subsequent decomposition of biopolymer fragments formed in liquefaction to smaller molecules and eventually to gas. Typically, hydrothermal gasification requires an active catalyst to accomplish reasonable rates of gas formation from biomass.

  9. Stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2015-12-01

    Many adult smokers are intermittent smokers (ITS) who do not smoke daily. Prior analyses have suggested that, compared with daily smokers (DS), ITS smoking was, on average, more linked to particular situations, such as alcohol consumption. However, such particular associations assessed in common across subjects may underestimate stimulus control over smoking, which may vary across persons, due to different conditioning histories. We quantify such idiographic stimulus control using separate multivariable logistic regressions for each subject to estimate how well the subject's smoking could be predicted from a panel of situational characteristics, without requiring that other subjects respond to the same stimuli. Subjects were 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days/month) and 194 DS (5-30 cigarettes daily). Using ecological momentary assessment, subjects monitored situational antecedents of smoking for 3 weeks, recording each cigarette in an electronic diary. Situational characteristics were assessed in a random subset of smoking occasions (n = 21,539), and contrasted with assessments of nonsmoking occasions (n = 26,930) obtained by beeping subjects at random. ITS showed significantly stronger stimulus control than DS across all context domains: mood, location, activity, social setting, consumption, smoking context, and time of day. Mood and smoking context showed the strongest influence on ITS smoking; food and alcohol consumption had the least influence. ITS smoking was under very strong stimulus control; significantly more so than DS, but DS smoking also showed considerable stimulus control. Stimulus control may be an important influence on maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult for all smokers, but especially among ITS. PMID:25706335

  10. Approach bias modification in inpatient psychiatric smokers.

    PubMed

    Machulska, Alla; Zlomuzica, Armin; Rinck, Mike; Assion, Hans-Jörg; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Drug-related automatic approach tendencies contribute to the development and maintenance of addictive behavior. The present study investigated whether a nicotine-related approach bias can be modified in smokers undergoing inpatient psychiatric treatment by using a novel training variant of the nicotine Approach-Avoidance-Task (AAT). Additionally, we assessed whether the AAT-training would affect smoking behavior. Inpatient smokers were randomly assigned to either an AAT-training or a sham-training condition. In the AAT-training condition, smokers were indirectly instructed to make avoidance movements in response to nicotine-related pictures and to make approach movements in response to tooth-cleaning pictures. In the sham-training condition, no contingency between picture content und arm movements existed. Trainings were administered in four sessions, accompanied by a brief smoking-cessation intervention. Smoking-related self-report measures and automatic approach biases toward smoking cues were measured before and after training. Three months after training, daily nicotine consumption was obtained. A total of 205 participants were recruited, and data from 139 participants were considered in the final analysis. Prior to the trainings, smokers in both conditions exhibited a stronger approach bias for nicotine-related pictures than for tooth-cleaning pictures. After both trainings, this difference was no longer evident. Although reduced smoking behavior at posttest was observed after both trainings, only the AAT-training led to a larger reduction of nicotine consumption at a three-month follow-up. Our preliminary data partially support the conclusion that the AAT might be a feasible tool to reduce smoking in the long-term in psychiatric patients, albeit its effect on other smoking-related measures remains to be explored. PMID:26874269

  11. On the global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields: One decade later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Baker, E. T.; German, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Since the last global compilation one decade ago, the known number of active submarine hydrothermal vent fields has almost doubled. At the end of 2009, a total of 518 active vent fields was catalogued, with about half (245) visually confirmed and others (273) inferred active at the seafloor. About half (52%) of these vent fields are at mid-ocean ridges (MORs), 25% at volcanic arcs, 21% at back-arc spreading centers (BASCs), and 2% at intra-plate volcanoes and other settings. One third are in high seas, and the nations with the most known active vent fields within EEZs are Tonga, USA, Japan, and New Zealand. The increase in known vent fields reflects a number of factors, including increased national and commercial interests in seafloor hydrothermal deposits as mineral resources. Here, we have comprehensively documented the percentage of strike length at MORs and BASCs that has been systematically explored for hydrothermal activity. As of the end of 2009, almost 30% of the ~60,000 km of MORs had been surveyed at least with spaced vertical profiles to detect hydrothermal plumes. A majority of the vents discovered at MORs in the past decade occurred at segments with < 60 mm/yr full spreading rate. Discoveries at ultra-slow MORs in the past decade included the deepest known vent (Beebe at Mid-Cayman Rise) and high-temperature black smoker vents (e.g., Dragon at SWIR and Loki's Castle at Mohns Ridge), and the highest temperature vent was measured at the slow-spreading S MAR (Turtle Pits). Using a previously published equation for the linear relationship between the number of active vent fields per 100 km strike length (F_s) vs. weighted-average full spreading rate (u_s), we predicted 676 vent fields remaining to be discovered at MORs. Even accounting for the lower F_s at slower spreading rates, almost half of the vents that are predicted remaining to be discovered at MORs are at ultra-slow to slow spreading rates (< 40 mm/yr) and about 1/3 at intermediate rates (40-80 mm/yr). MOR regions that are little explored tend to be at high latitudes, such as the ultra-slow to slow spreading Arctic MORs (e.g., Kolbeinsey and Mohns Ridges), the ultra-slow American-Antarctic Ridge, and the intermediate spreading Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Although a greater percentage of the ~11,000 km of BASCs has been surveyed for hydrothermal activity, the discoveries at BASCs in the past decade were mainly at segments with intermediate to fast spreading rates. Using the same equation for F_s vs. u_s, we predicted 71 vent fields remaining to be discovered at BASCs, and most are likely to be found at ultra-slow and slow spreading segments (e.g., Andaman Basin, and central to northern Mariana Trough). With 2/3 of our overall predicted total vent fields at spreading ridges remaining to be discovered, we expect that the next decade of exploration will continue to yield new discoveries, leading to new insights into biogeography of vent fauna and the global impacts of fluxes of heat and materials from vents into our oceans.

  12. COMBUSTION OF HYDROTHERMALLY TREATED COALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of: (1) the relationship of the combustion characteristics of hydrothermally treated (HTT) coals to environmental emissions, boiler design, and interchangeability of solid fuels produced by the Hydrothermal Coal Process (HCP) with raw coa...

  13. Heavy smokers have higher bcl-2 mutation frequency and risk for lymphoma than non-smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Cortopassi, G.A.; Bell, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    Early detection of cells carrying somatic mutations at oncogenic loci could prove useful for identifying individuals at high risk for cancer and permit intervention prior to the onset of clinically recognizable disease. We have determined the frequency of rare t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocations at the bcl-2 proto-oncogene locus in the peripheral blood of 85 smokers and 35 nonsmokers using a sensitive nested PCR assay. The identical translocation occurs in 85% of follicular lymphoma tumors, and about 50% of all non-Hodgkin`s Lymphoma. Smokers with the highest exposure had a 3.6-fold higher mutation frequency relative to the nonsmokers. Logistic regression analysis showed that of the variables tested (age, race, sex, current smoking, years of smoking, and pack-years), the cumulative smoking measure (pack-years) was the best predictor of t(14;18) frequency (p=0.004). These observations are consistent with two recent epidemiological studies showing 2.3-fold and 3.8-fold increased risk for Non-Hodgkins lymphoma among heavy smokers. The results support the hypothesis that smokers have an increased burden of lymphocytes bearing bcl-2 mutations which raises their individual risk for future lymphoid tumors. We speculate that the increased frequency of oncogenic translocations in smokers may result either from the mutagenic or antigenic activity of cigarette smoke.

  14. Prediction of twenty-four-hour energy expenditure in a respiration chamber in smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Warwick, P M; Busby, R

    1993-08-01

    Fourteen subjects (seven smokers, seven non-smokers) underwent at least one measurement of 24-h energy expenditure (EE) in a respiration chamber, smoking or not smoking as normal. Activity levels (AL) were calculated as multiples of basal metabolic rate (BMR) from records of time spent in specified activity categories and their average published energy costs. Predicted 24-h EE was estimated by multiplying AL by BMR measured on exit from the chamber. Smokers smoked an average of 18.6 cigarettes during the 24-h EE measurement (range 9-29). Measured 24-h EE was higher than predicted in the smokers (7.1%, P < 0.001) but not significantly different from predicted in the non-smokers (2.6% lower). We conclude that smoking increases 24-h EE and that factorial prediction of EE using average published energy costs of activities under-estimates 24-h EE in smokers but not in non-smokers. PMID:8404796

  15. Prevalence of NRT Use and Associated Nicotine Intake in Smokers, Recent Ex-Smokers and Longer-Term Ex-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shahab, Lion; Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is used by smokers wanting to reduce their smoking and to quit. However, there are very little data on nicotine intake associated with NRT use in representative population samples. This study aimed to provide estimates for NRT use and associated nicotine exposure among smokers, recent and longer-term ex-smokers in England, a country with a permissive regulatory regime for nicotine substitution. Methods In the Smoking Toolkit Study, a monthly series of representative household surveys of adults aged 16+ in England, current and recent ex-smokers who agreed to be re-contacted were followed up 6 months later and standard socio-demographic and smoking characteristics assessed (N = 5,467, response rate 25.1%). A random sub-sample (N = 1,614; 29.5%) also provided saliva, analysed for cotinine. Results The sample followed up was broadly representative of the original sample. At follow-up, 11.8% (95%CI 10.9–12.8, N = 565) of current smokers, 34.8% (95%CI 28.9–41.3, N = 77) of recent (≤3 months) ex-smokers, and 7.8% (95%CI 5.6–10.6, N = 36) of longer-term (>3 months) ex-smokers reported using NRT. Smokers who used NRT had similar saliva cotinine concentrations to smokers who did not use NRT (mean ± sd  = 356.0±198.6 ng/ml vs. 313.1±178.4 ng/ml). Recent ex-smokers who used NRT had levels that were somewhat lower, but not significantly so, than current smokers (216.7±179.3 ng/ml). Longer-term ex-smokers using NRT had still lower levels (157.3±227.1 ng/ml), which differed significantly from smokers using NRT (p = 0.024). Conclusions Concurrent use of nicotine replacement therapy while smoking is relatively uncommon and is not associated with higher levels of nicotine intake. Among ex-smokers, NRT use is common in the short but not longer-term and among longer-term users is associated with lower nicotine intake than in smokers. PMID:25405343

  16. Changes in serum IgD in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Bahna, S L; Heiner, D C; Myhre, B A

    1983-01-01

    Serum IgD levels in 83 healthy adults were measured by a radioimmunoassay technique and analysed according to each subject's smoking habit. The IgD geometric mean in cigarette smokers was twice as high as in non-smokers (408.6 vs 202.0 micrograms/dl). Serum IgD levels of 1,000 micrograms/dl or greater were noted in 22% of smokers but in none of the rare smokers or non-smokers. In the smokers group, the highest mean IgD level was found in those who did not actively inhale the smoke (762.6 micrograms/dl), followed by that in moderate smokers (563.8 micrograms/dl), and was lowest in heavy smokers who inhaled the smoke (283.0 micrograms/dl). The number of years a person smoked did not appear to have a significant effect on IgD levels. In ex-smokers, the mean IgD level (199.8 micrograms/dl) was similar to that in non-smokers, suggesting reversibility of the IgD changes following cessation of smoking. It seems prudent that the smoking habit should be taken into consideration in the interpretation of serum IgD levels. PMID:6851250

  17. Neural correlates of cigarette health warning avoidance among smokers

    PubMed Central

    Stothart, George; Maynard, Olivia; Lavis, Rosie; Munafò, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Background Eye-tracking technology has indicated that daily smokers actively avoid pictorial cigarette package health warnings. Avoidance may be due to a pre-cognitive perceptual bias or a higher order cognitive bias, such as reduced emotional processing. Using electroencephalography (EEG), this study aimed to identify the temporal point at which smokers’ responses to health warnings begin to differ. Method Non-smokers (n = 20) and daily smokers (n = 20) viewed pictorial cigarette package health warnings and neutral control stimuli. These elicited Event Related Potentials reflecting early perceptual processing (visual P1), pre-attentive change detection (visual Mismatch Negativity), selective attentional orientation (P3) and a measure of emotional processing, the Late Positive Potential (LPP). Results There was no evidence for a difference in P1 responses between smokers and non-smokers. There was no difference in vMMN and P3 amplitude but some evidence for a delay in vMMN latency amongst smokers. There was strong evidence for delayed and reduced LPP to health warning stimuli amongst smokers compared to non-smokers. Conclusion We find no evidence for an early perceptual bias in smokers’ visual perception of health warnings but strong evidence that smokers are less sensitive to the emotional content of cigarette health warnings. Future health warning development should focus on increasing the emotional salience of pictorial health warning content amongst smokers. PMID:26874916

  18. What determines mortality risk in male former cigarette smokers?

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shlomo, Y; Smith, G D; Shipley, M J; Marmot, M G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to examine what factors determine the mortality experience of male ex-cigarette smokers, those who no longer smoke at all and those who changed to pipe or cigar smoking. METHODS. A cohort study was undertaken with 18-year mortality data on 19,018 men. RESULTS. Ex-cigarette smokers had an intermediate mortality risk compared with never and current smokers. Ex-cigarette smokers who switched to pipe smoking had higher mortality than those who no longer smoked at all. The mortality rates for pipe and cigar smokers who were former cigarette smokers were higher than those for pipe or cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes. Ex-cigarette smokers who consumed more than 20 cigarettes per day for more than 20 years experienced increased mortality for both coronary heart disease and neoplasms, even after 30 years of cessation. CONCLUSIONS. These results support the notion that an elevated mortality risk may be seen for ex-cigarette smokers, even after they have given up smoking for many years. Ex-cigarette smokers who change to a pipe have a greater mortality risk than those who no longer smoke at all. PMID:8059878

  19. Could a scheme for licensing smokers work in Australia?

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Roger S; Currow, David C

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we evaluate the possible advantages and disadvantages of a licensing scheme that would require adult smokers to verify their right to purchase tobacco products at point of sale using a smart-card licence. A survey of Australian secondary school students conducted in 2011 found that half of 17-2013-old smokers and one-fifth of 12-2013-old smokers believed it was "easy" or "very easy" to purchase cigarettes themselves. Reducing tobacco use by adolescents now is central to the future course of the current epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, since most current adult smokers began to smoke as adolescents--at a time when they were unable to purchase tobacco lawfully. The requirement for cigarette retailers to reconcile all stock purchased from wholesalers against a digital record of retail sales to licensed smokers would create a robust incentive for retailers to comply with laws that prohibit tobacco sales to children. Foreseeable objections to introducing a smokers licence need to be taken into account, but once we move beyond the "shock of the new", it is difficult to identify anything about a smokers licence that is particularly offensive or demeaning. A smoker licensing scheme deserves serious consideration for its potential to dramatically curtail retailers' violation of the law against selling tobacco to minors, to impose stricter accountability for sale of a uniquely harmful drug and to allow intelligent use of information about smokers' purchases to help smokers quit. PMID:23909540

  20. Water-Rock Reaction, Substrate Composition, Magmatic Degassing, and Mixing as Major Factors Controlling Vent Fluid Compositions in Manus Basin Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seewald, J.; Reeves, E.; Saccocia, P.; Rouxel, O.; Walsh, E.; Price, R.; Tivey, M.; Bach, W.; Tivey, M.

    2006-12-01

    A major objective of cruise MGLN06MV to the Manus Basin, north of Papua New Guinea, was the use of vent fluid chemistry as a guide to sub-seafloor processes occurring within four major areas of hydrothermal activity. A broad spectrum of high and low temperature fluids were sampled using gas-tight and syringe style "major" samplers from black smoker chimneys, white smoker spires, and igneous and sediment substrates. The majority of fluids exhibit salinities lower or higher than seawater, consistent with phase separation having occurred at or below the seafloor. Preliminary shipboard analyses of 273 to 285C vent fluids at the basalt- hosted Vienna Woods system (Manus Spreading Center) indicate that black/grey smoker fluids are characterized by compositions and pH similar to fluids sampled from other basalt-hosted (e.g., mid-ocean ridge (MOR)) systems. In contrast, the majority of fluids sampled from felsic-hosted hydrothermal systems in the eastern Manus Basin exhibit substantially lower pH and greater compositional variability within an individual vent field. High temperature fluids from four different areas of venting at the PACMANUS (Papua New Guinea Australia Canada Manus) vent field exhibit temperatures from 271 to 356C, pH from 2.3 to 2.8, H2 from 8 to 325 umol/l, H2S from 2.5 to 26 mmol/l, and CH4 from 8 to 39 umol/l. The low pH of these fluids (relative to MOR fluids) may reflect water-rock reaction with felsic rocks, input of magmatic volatiles (as proposed for the Mariner Field on the Valu Fa Ridge), and subsurface deposition of metal sulfides. Lower temperature fluids (80 to 180C) at PACMANUS exhibit higher pH (4.9 to 3.4). White smoker fluids (70 to 115C) collected at the DESMOS Caldera, were extraordinarily acidic (pH = 1.0 to 1.5), with very low H2S and CH4 concentrations. The composition of these fluids supports the hypothesis of Gamo et al. (Geology 25, 1997) that they reflect a mixture of magmatic volatiles and heated seawater. Fluids collected from vent fields within the SuSu Knolls area exhibited the largest range in properties. For example, on the lower flanks of the North Su vent field, extremely acidic fluids (pH = 0.87 to 1.8) were recovered from cracks within volcaniclastic debris with measured temperatures of 48 to 215C. These fluids are CH4 and H2S poor, with salinities identical to that of seawater, and, as at DESMOS, likely represent a mix of magmatic volatiles and heated seawater. Further up the flanks of the North Su vent field, high temperature fluids (300 to 325C) exhibit more moderate pH (2.8 to 3.5), higher H2S abundances (5.3 to 7.7 umol/l) and very high CH4 concentrations (91 to 566 umol/l). High temperature fluids recovered from the Suzette vent fields also contained high concentrations of CH4 (90 to 503 umol/l). Elevated CH4 concentrations in fluids from the SuSu Knolls area may reflect entrainment of CH4 generated by thermal alteration of organic sediments or biomass.

  1. Study of Electrophysiological Changes in Sensory Nerves Among Diabetic Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Moinuddin, Arsalan; Ahsan, Akif; Goel, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neuropathy is one of the most troublesome complication affecting individuals with diabetes. The resultant loss of function in peripheral nerves causes loss of protective sensations and impairs patient’s ability to perceive incipient or even apparent ulcerations in the feet. Aim This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis of alteration in electrophysiological parameters of nerve before actual manifestations of neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients and to analyse the effect of smoking on Sensory Nerve Conduction Velocity (SNCV) of diabetic subjects. Materials and Methods One hundred and twenty diagnosed diabetics were taken as cases while 30 healthy non diabetics were taken as control. Case group was divided into diabetic non-smoker and diabetic smoker. Diabetic smoker were further subdivided into light smoker, moderate smoker and heavy smoker according to smoking index. After detailed history and physical examination SNCV of median and ulnar nerve in upper limb and sural nerve in lower limb was performed. Results On comparison of SNCV of median and ulnar nerve of upper limb and sural nerve of lower limb between control and diabetic non-smoker only sural nerve of diabetic non smoker showed significant bilateral decrease. There was significant bilateral decrease in SNCV of median and ulnar nerve of diabetic heavy smoker when compared to control and diabetic non smoker. Similarly, SNCV of sural nerve of diabetic heavy smoker was significantly decreased when compared with control, diabetic non-smoker, diabetic light and moderate smoker. A negative and statistically significant correlation was found between SNCV and smoking index. Conclusion Present study indicates that nerves of lower limbs are more susceptible to diabetic assault as compared to upper limb suggesting that long nerves are commonly affected. Also, apart from duration and severity of diabetes, smoking itself is an independent factor for diabetic neuropathy. PMID:26894060

  2. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in asymptomatic smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sansores, Raúl H; Velázquez-Uncal, Mónica; Pérez-Bautista, Oliver; Villalba-Caloca, Jaime; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Physicians do not routinely recommend smokers to undergo spirometry unless they are symptomatic. Objective To test the hypothesis that there are a significant number of asymptomatic smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we estimated the prevalence of COPD in a group of asymptomatic smokers. Methods Two thousand nine hundred and sixty-one smokers with a cumulative consumption history of at least 10 pack-years, either smokers with symptoms or smokers without symptoms (WOS) were invited to perform a spirometry and complete a symptom questionnaire. Results Six hundred and thirty-seven (21.5%) smokers had no symptoms, whereas 2,324 (78.5%) had at least one symptom. The prevalence of COPD in subjects WOS was 1.5% when considering the whole group of smokers (45/2,961) and 7% when considering only the group WOS (45/637). From 329 smokers with COPD, 13.7% were WOS. Subjects WOS were younger, had better lung function and lower cumulative consumption of cigarettes, estimated as both cigarettes per day and pack-years. According to severity of airflow limitation, 69% vs 87% of subjects were classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I–II in the WOS and smokers with symptoms groups, respectively (P<0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that forced expiratory volume in 1 second (mL) was the only predictive factor for COPD in asymptomatic smokers. Conclusion Prevalence of COPD in asymptomatic smokers is 1.5%. This number of asymptomatic smokers may be excluded from the benefit of an “early” intervention, not just pharmacological but also from smoking cessation counseling. The higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second may contribute to prevent early diagnosis. PMID:26586941

  3. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, Bock; Ross, D.S.

    1990-08-14

    We are examining the effects on composition and behavior of Argonne-supplied Wyodak coal under both thermal (no added water/N{sub 2}) and hydrothermal (liquid water/N{sub 2}) conditions at 350{degree}C for periods of 30 min and 5 hr, with emphasis during this period on the longer treatment. Field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) of the untreated, thermally treated, and hydrothermally treated coals is conducted at conditions where the samples are heated from ambient to 500{degree}C at 2.5{degree}/min. In the 5 hr work the volatilities of the coals are 24%, 16%, and 25% respectively. Solvent swelling studies with the recovered coals do not demonstrate the expected lower degree of crosslinking in the hydrothermal case. Both the thermal and hydrothermal treatments yield products with a decreased swelling ratio, but the ratio for the product from the aqueous treatment is slightly lower than that from thermal treatment. At present we cannot reconcile this result with our other data. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Perceptions of smokers influence nonsmoker attitudes and preferences for interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Amanda J.; Magnan, Renee E.; Köblitz, Amber R.; McCaul, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, we examined nonsmokers’ perceptions of smokers and consequences of the perceptions. In Study 1, smokers answered questions about their sense of self, dependence on smoking, and motivation to quit. Nonsmokers answered questions about their perceptions of these characteristics. Differences between smokers’ self-descriptions and nonsmokers’ perceptions were observed. Study 2 asked nonsmokers to judge two types of smokers for which the descriptions were based on Study 1 findings. Results showed that nonsmokers held a more negative attitude about and were less willing to engage in different close relationships with the smoker who was described in terms of nonsmokers’ perceptions rather than smokers’ reports. Attitude mediated the relationship between type of smoker and willingness to date a smoker. PMID:23734065

  5. Loneliness in HIV-infected smokers

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Cassandra A.; Moadel, Alyson B.; Kim, Ryung S.; Weinberger, Andrea H.; Shuter, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Loneliness is common in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Lonely people smoke at higher rates than the general population, and loneliness is a likely contributor to the ongoing smoking epidemic among PLWH. We explored factors associated with loneliness in a cohort of 272 PLWH smokers enrolled in two separate tobacco treatment trials. Loneliness was independently associated with lack of a spouse or partner, lower educational attainment, “other or unknown” HIV exposure category, depression, anxiety, recent alcohol consumption, and higher daily cigarette consumption. Referral to group therapy reduced loneliness whereas referral to an individual web-based tobacco treatment did not. PMID:25298196

  6. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly. PMID:22829798

  7. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  8. Attributions for Smoking Behavior: Comparing Smokers with Nonsmokers and Predicting Smokers' Cigarette Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared smokers' (214) and nonsmokers' (220) explanations for cigarette smoking behavior to determine predictors of cigarette consumption. Results showed addiction and affective smoking were the most important motives predicting consumption. Presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 1980. (WAS)

  9. Tide-related variability of TAG hydrothermal activity observed by deep-sea monitoring system and OBSH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Kantaro; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kato, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Misumi; Mitsuzawa, Kyohiko; Kinoshita, Masataka; Nishizawa, Azusa

    1997-12-01

    Hydrothermal activities were monitored by an ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone (OBSH) and a composite measuring system (Manatee) including CTD, current meter, transmission meter and cameras at a small depression on the TAG hydrothermal mound in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Low-frequency pressure pulses detected by the hydrophone with semi-diurnal periodicity seem to correspond to cycles of hydrothermal upflow from a small and short-lived smoker vent close to the observing site. The peaks of pressure pulses are synchronous with the maximum gradient of areal strain decrease due to tidal load release. Microearthquakes with very near epicenters occur sporadically and do not appear to be directly correlatable to hydrothermal venting. Temporal variations in bottom water temperature also have semi-diurnal periodicity but are more complicated than the pressure events. Temperatures may be affected both by upwelling of hot water and by lateral flow of the bottom current changing its directions with ocean tide.

  10. volcanic architecture of an active felsic-hosted hydrothermal system reconstructed using rab-images and wireline logging data (odp hole 1189c)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, J.; Bartetzko, A.; Clauser, C.

    2003-04-01

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 193 drilled an active black smoker field (Roman Ruins) of the PACMANUS hydrothermal system (Papua New Guinea), a hydrothermal system associated with felsic magmatism at a convergent plate margin. Leg 193 drilled three holes at this hydrothermal site but only two holes were cored and variably altered dacites were recovered. Hole 1189C was drilled 166 m deep without coring using Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) technique and employing the Resistivity-at-the-Bit (RAB) technique for the first time in ODP. Therefore, LWD data and additional wireline measurements, including Formation Microscanner (FMS) images recorded over a 40 m long interval, are of prime importance for reconstructing the different volcanic facies. The RAB provides electrical images of the borehole wall with lower spatial resolution than the images from the FMS tool but yields a full 360° coverage of the borehole wall. Volcanic facies were reconstructed by calibrating logs with the RAB and FMS images. Information on the volcanic facies as well as their petrophysical properties were taken from the cores in the neighboring holes. Using the combination of LWD and wireline measurements defined individual log response patterns for each facies could be defined. Massive units cause high electrical resistivity values and low total gamma-ray values The massive dacites belong to the coherent facies representing the interior part of lava flows where the erupted melt cools slowly. Brecciated and fractured material from the outer part of lava flows, the so-called volcaniclastic facies show low electrical resistivity and high gamma-ray counts. Sulfide disseminations developing in connection with hydrothermal fluids are characterized by high density and photoelectrical factor. In the RAB images fresh massive rocks of the coherent facies can be distinguished by the strongly altered material of the volcaniclastic facies. Besides in the FMS images it is possible to separate breccia from fractured units within the volcaniclastic facies. The reconstructed lithology of Hole 1189C consists of a complex facies association. The equal portions of coherent and volcaniclastic facies indicate a medial facies situated at the flanks of the subaqueous, lava-dominated felsic volcano.

  11. Insights into Magmatic-Hydrothermal Processes in the Newly-Discovered Seafloor Massive Sulfide Deposits of the New Hebrides Arc-Backarc System, SW Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. O.; Hannington, M. D.; Haase, K. M.; Schwarz-Schampera, U.; McConachy, T.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic processes leading to hydrothermal venting and the controls on the distribution of vents at two locations along the New Hebrides arc-backarc system are being revealed by new bathymetric data and geological maps interpreted from remotely operated vehicle dive videos. The Nifonea volcanic complex spans the width of the Vate Trough, a nascent backarc basin located ~50 km to the east of the New Hebrides arc. Hydrothermal activity occurs in the caldera at the summit of Nifonea at a water depth of ~1875 m. A NW-trending eruptive fissure cuts through the center of the caldera near the area of active venting. This fissure is associated with isolated pillow mounds and collapse features along its length, and is the source of extensive jumbled sheet flows that cover the caldera floor. Low-temperature, diffuse venting is widespread; active black smoker chimneys are localized on and around the pillow mounds, in clusters of ~20 x 20 m and growing directly on the flows. The impression is that the hydrothermal venting is young and not yet "organized," in large part because of the eruptive style dominated by collapsed sheet flows. The Tinakula seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposit is located in a much shallower (~1150 m), extended arc-backarc setting at the northern end of the New Hebrides arc, ~25 km from the arc front. Chimney fields occur along two corridors, and are associated with volcanic mounds and calderas. The eastern field occupies an area of ~1200 x 200 m, and the western sulfide field is ~500 x 100 m in size. The density of chimneys appears to be largely controlled by permeability of the volcanic facies, which are dominated by autoclastic and hyaloclastic breccias. Tinakula has been commercially drilled, offering insight into the third dimension of the system. This is one of the first studies of SMS deposits in the New Hebrides arc and fills a 'knowledge gap' in the occurrence of seafloor hydrothermal systems in arc-related settings of the Melanesian archipelago.

  12. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate

    PubMed Central

    PARK, KYUNG-SHIN; LEE, YANG

    2011-01-01

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (≤ 1 pack year, n=7) and non-smokers (n=7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO2max. AI and L were analyzed at rest (Pre), immediately after (Post), and 1 h following (1 h post) each run. Data was analyzed using two way repeated measures ANOVA. Smokers showed higher AI than non-smokers at Post in 60% (12.5±0.62% vs. 9.97±0.51, p<.008) and 70% VO2max running trials (17.53±0.57% vs. 15.6±0.41, p<.018). All L values at post showed significantly higher than Pre and 1 h post, but there was no significant difference between smokers and non-smokers. The strong positive relationship between AI and L was detected (r=.739, smokers vs. r=.793, non-smokers). Smokers tend to have higher AI than non-smokers following runs at 60% and 70% VO2max, but not following a run at 80% VO2max. An increase in AI following a run at 60% VO2max indicates that lymphocyte apoptosis can be increased following moderate intensity exercise. Since L and AI at post were increased in dose-dependent manner to exercise intensity, it is suggested that an increase in lactate production during exercise might contribute to the increase in lymphocyte apoptosis.

  13. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. PMID:24387877

  14. [Occupational exposure and lung cancer in smokers].

    PubMed

    Mahuad, R; Pezotto, S; Poletto, L

    1994-06-01

    High male lung cancer incidence and mortality in Rosario city, Argentina, have been found in previous studies. A project was undertaken for the purpose of evaluating the life-time occupational history as well as the duration and intensity of cigarette smoking as determinants of histologic cell types in 211 male patients with primary lung cancer. Their histologic cell types were: squamous 39%, adenocarcinoma 29%, small cell 18%, and others and not specified 14%. An association was found between histologic cell types and occupations (p < 0.0001), adenocarcinoma being more prevalent in office personnel, teachers, accountants, lawyers, and squamous in the other, supposedly dirtier working environments, mainly in those men who had begun to work in farming and later transferred to mechanics and metallurgy. These latter ones were diagnosed at a younger age than those in other occupations, with a significant difference for squamous and small cell. No differences in the smoking intensity were found between the occupational groups. The mean age these patients began to smoke at was 15 years for those with squamous and small cell, and 17 years for those with adenocarcinoma (p < 0.001). An interesting finding was the difference at their mean-age at diagnosis, 58 years for smokers and 68 for ex-smokers (p < 0.0001). Studies are needed to elucidate the interplay of risk factors in the etiology of histologic subtypes of lung cancer. PMID:7747079

  15. Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking: a study of smokers and former smokers*

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Maria Fernanda Besteiro; Alves, Maria Graça Pereira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. METHODS: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. RESULTS: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking. PMID:24068268

  16. Evolution of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, D.; Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Mothra Hydrothermal Field (MHF) is a 600 m long, high-temperature hydrothermal field. It is located 2.7 km south of the Main Endeavour Field at the southern end of the central Endeavour Segment. Mothra is the most areally extensive field along the Endeavour Segment, composed of six active sulfide clusters that are 40-200 m apart. Each cluster contains rare black smokers (venting up to 319°C), numerous diffusely venting chimneys, and abundant extinct chimneys and sulfide talus. From north to south, these clusters include Cauldron, Twin Peaks, Faulty Towers, Crab Basin, Cuchalainn, and Stonehenge. As part of the Endeavour Integrated Study Site (ISS), the MHF is a site of intensive interdisciplinary studies focused on linkages among geology, geochemistry, fluid chemistry, seismology, and microbiology. Axial valley geology at MHF is structurally complex, consisting of lightly fissured flows that abut the walls and surround a core of extensively fissured, collapsed terrain. Fissure abundance and distribution indicates that tectonism has been the dominant process controlling growth of the axial graben. Past magmatic activity is shown by the 200 m long chain of collapse basins between Crab Basin and Stonehenge, which may have held at least ~7500 m3 of lava. Assuming a flow thickness of 0.5 m, this amount of lava could cover over half the valley floor during a single volcanic event. At a local scale, MHF clusters vary in size, activity, and underlying geology. They range in size from 400-1600 m2 and consist of isolated chimneys and/or coalesced cockscomb arrays atop ramps of sulfide talus. In the northern part of the field, Cauldron, Twin Peaks, Faulty Towers, and Crab Basin are located near the western valley wall, bounded by basalt talus and a combination of collapsed sheet flows, intermixed lobate and sulfide, disrupted terrain, and isolated pillow ridges. The southern clusters, Cuchalainn and Stonehenge, are associated with collapse basins in the central valley and bounded by extensive lobate flows and disrupted terrain. At all clusters, active chimneys stand within meters of extinct chimneys, suggesting that flow in the shallow subsurface is both complex and transient. 1-2 m high mounds of sulfide talus and broken chimneys indicate that focused flow has been concentrated at the clusters for long periods, while extinct sulfide deposits between clusters and in collapse basins demonstrate that flow conduits have been rerouted and/or clogged by mineral precipitation. Two subsurface processes are responsible for hydrothermal venting at the clusters: tapping of magmatic heat near the lava drainbacks and tectonic movement along the steeply dipping, inward-facing normal faults at the western wall boundary. The interplay between these processes and fluid flow is synthesized in an evolutionary model of hydrothermal development at Mothra.

  17. Hormonal, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to acute stress in smokers

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Harriet

    2009-01-01

    Rationale There are complex relationships between stress and smoking; smoking may reduce the emotional discomfort of stress, yet nicotine activates stress systems and may alter responses to acute stress. It is important to understand how smoking affects physiological and psychological outcomes after stress and how these may interact to motivate smoking. Objectives This study aimed to examine the magnitude and time course of hormonal, cardiovascular, and psychological responses to acute psychosocial stress in smokers and non-smokers to investigate whether responses to acute stress are altered in smokers. Materials and methods Healthy male non-smokers (n=20) and smokers (n=15) participated in two experimental sessions involving a standardized public speaking stress procedure and a control non-stressful task. The outcome measures included self-reported mood, cardiovascular measures (heart rate and blood pressure), and plasma hormone levels (noradrenaline, cortisol, progesterone, and allopregnanolone). Results Smokers exhibited blunted increases in cortisol after the Trier Social Stress Test, and they reported greater and more prolonged subjective agitation than non-smokers. Stress-induced changes in progesterone were similar between smokers and non-smokers, although responses overall were smaller among smokers. Stress did not significantly alter levels of allopregnanolone, but smokers exhibited lower plasma concentrations of this neurosteroid. Conclusions These findings suggest that smoking dampens hormonal responses to stress and prolongs subjective discomfort. Dysregulated stress responses may represent a breakdown in the body’s ability to cope efficiently and effectively with stress and may contribute to smokers’ susceptibility to acute stress, especially during abstinence. PMID:18936915

  18. Hydrothermal reactivity of saponite.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, G.

    1983-01-01

    The nature and extent of the reactions of synthetic Fe-free saponite have been investigated under experimental hydrothermal conditions as a first step towards understanding saponite reactivity under relatively simple conditions. Saponite crystallizes from amorphous gel of ideal saponite composition within 7 days at 300o-550oC under P = 1 kbar. Reactions subsequent to this initial crystallization depend on reaction T and interlayer cations. Saponite is found to react hydrothermally, over a period of 200 days, at T down to 400oC, at least 150oC lower than previously reported, but showed no signs of reaction below 400oC. At 450oC, a mixture of talc/saponite and saponite/phlogopite clays forms from K-saponite via intracrystalline layer transformations, while above 450oC the initial K-saponite dissolves, with talc and phlogopite forming as discrete phases. After 200 days reactions at 400-450oC were not complete, so that given sufficient time to reach equilibrium, a lower hydrothermal stability limit for saponite is possible. Further study of the Fe-bearing saponite system will be required before experimental results can be applied to natural systems.-D.F.B.

  19. Levels of caffeine and its metabolites among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-03-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2009-2010 were used to estimate the levels of caffeine and 14 of its metabolite among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers after adjustments were made for other factors that affect observed caffeine levels. In this study, when adjusted for daily caffeine intake, adjusted levels (AGM) of caffeine and its metabolites were not found to be statistically significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers. AGMs for caffeine and all of its metabolites were found to be statistically significantly higher (p < 0.01) among females aged ≥ 12 years than males. For caffeine, 1,3-dimethylxanthine, and 1,7-dimethylxanthine, those aged ≥ 20 years had statistically significantly higher (p < 0.01) AGM than those aged 12-19 years but the reverse was true for 7-methylxanthine and 3,7-dimethylxanthine (p ≤ 0.02). The order of the AGMs by race/ethnicity was non-Hispanic whites > Hispanics > non-Hispanic blacks and most of the differences were statistically significant, at least between non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks (p < 0.01). In general, there was a statistically significant positive association between the levels of caffeine and its metabolites and body mass index as well as daily caffeine intake. However, the levels of 7-methylxanthine were negatively associated with body mass index. PMID:25733129

  20. Internet and Mobile Phone Text Messaging Intervention for College Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, William; Obermayer, Jami; Jean-Mary, Jersino

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors developed a smoking cessation program using mobile phone text messaging to provide tailored and stage-specific messages to college smokers. Participants and Methods: The authors recruited 31 daily smokers who desired to quit from a college campus and asked them to use an Internet and mobile phone text messaging program to

  1. Educating Smokers about Their Cigarettes and Nicotine Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Brown, Anthony; Celestino, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers' Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group…

  2. Spontaneous Action Representation in Smokers when Watching Movie Characters Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Dylan D.; Cin, Sonya Dal; Sargent, James D.; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2013-01-01

    Do smokers simulate smoking when they see someone else smoke? For regular smokers, smoking is such a highly practiced motor skill that it often occurs automatically, without conscious awareness. Research on the brain basis of action observation has delineated a frontopareital network that is commonly recruited when people observe, plan or imitate actions. Here, we investigated whether this action observation network would be preferentially recruited in smokers when viewing complex smoking cues, such as those occurring in motion pictures. Seventeen right-handed smokers and seventeen non-smokers watched a popular movie while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a natural stimulus, such as a movie, allowd us to keep both smoking and non-smoking participants naïve to the goals of the experiment. Brain activity evoked by scenes of movie smoking was contrasted with non-smoking control scenes which were matched for frequency and duration. Compared to non-smokers, smokers showed greater activity in left anterior intraparietal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus, both regions involved in the simulation of contralateral hand-based gestures, when viewing smoking vs. control scenes. These results demonstrate that smokers spontaneously represent the action of smoking when viewing others smoke, the consequence of which may make it more difficult to abstain from smoking. PMID:21248113

  3. Internet and Mobile Phone Text Messaging Intervention for College Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, William; Obermayer, Jami; Jean-Mary, Jersino

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors developed a smoking cessation program using mobile phone text messaging to provide tailored and stage-specific messages to college smokers. Participants and Methods: The authors recruited 31 daily smokers who desired to quit from a college campus and asked them to use an Internet and mobile phone text messaging program to…

  4. Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

  5. Faculty and Student Views of College Student Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Authier, Charlene; Hodges, Jilda; Srebro, Karen; Chambliss, Catherine

    Seventy-two nonsmoker and four smoker college faculty/staff members and 160 nonsmoker and 52 smoker college students from a small liberal arts college in a suburban area in the Northeast United States completed a 15-item survey concerning views of smoking. Participants were asked to rate "when you watch someone else smoke, how do they appear?" on…

  6. Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…

  7. Educating Smokers about Their Cigarettes and Nicotine Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Brown, Anthony; Celestino, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers' Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group

  8. Increased Levels of Serum Uric Acid among Ex-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Masako; Mizuno, Shoichi; Yokota, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Background It remains unclear whether serum uric acid level increases after the cessation of smoking. Methods In 2000, we conducted a cross-sectional study on the effects of smoking cessation on serum uric acid levels by analyzing the results of annual health check-ups in the Japanese male working population (n = 16,642). Results The serum uric acid level (6.18 mg/dL) was the highest in ex-smokers, followed by that in never-smokers (6.10 mg/dL) and that in current smokers (5.98 mg/dL). Ex-smokers weighed 0.6 kg more than the never-smokers and 1.5 kg more than the current smokers. The frequency of alcohol intake was closely correlated to the smoking habits. The serum uric acid levels declined in all groups, after adjustments for age, body mass index, and alcohol intake, though the levels in ex-smokers were 0.2 mg/dL higher than those in current smokers. Conclusion The results suggested that alcohol intake contributed considerably to the serum uric acid levels and that smoking itself may have suppressed these levels via metabolic effects or the action of superoxides. PMID:18469491

  9. Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,

  10. Lung cancer in never smokers Epidemiology and risk prediction models

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, William J.; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model. PMID:22882894

  11. Gene expression subtraction of non-cancerous lung from smokers and non-smokers with adenocarcinoma, as a predictor for smokers developing lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stav, David; Bar, Ilan; Sandbank, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in developed countries. Adenocarcinoma is becoming the most common form of lung cancer. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for lung cancer. Long-term cigarettes smoking may be characterized by genetic alteration and diffuse injury of the airways surface, named field cancerization, while cancer in non-smokers is usually clonally derived. Detecting specific genes expression changes in non-cancerous lung in smokers with adenocarcinoma may give us instrument for predicting smokers who are going to develop this malignancy. Objectives We described the gene expression in non-cancerous lungs from 21 smoker patients with lung adenocarcinoma and compare it to gene expression in non-cancerous lung tissue from 10 non-smokers with primary lung adenocarcinoma. Methods Total RNA was isolated from peripheral non-cancerous lung tissue. The cDNA was hybridized to the U133A GeneChip array. Hierarchical clustering analysis on genes obtained from smokers and non-smokers, after subtracting were exported to the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software for further analysis. Results The genes subtraction resulted in disclosure of 36 genes with high score. They were subsequently mapped and sorted based on location, cellular components, and biochemical activity. The gene functional analysis disclosed 20 genes, which are involved in cancer process (P = 7.05E-5 to 2.92E-2). Conclusion Detected genes may serve as a predictor for smokers who may be at high risk of developing lung cancer. In addition, since these genes originating from non-cancerous lung, which is the major area of the lungs, a sample from an induced sputum may represent it. PMID:18811983

  12. Recruiting women smokers: the engineering of consent.

    PubMed

    Brandt, A M

    1996-01-01

    A range of social forces contributed to the effective recruitment of women to cigarette smoking in the crucial period between 1900 and 1940. Cigarette advertisers and public relations experts recognized the significance of women's changing roles and the rising culture of consumption, and worked to create specific meanings for the cigarette to make it appeal to women. The cigarette was a flexible symbol, with a remarkably elastic set of meanings; for women, it represented rebellious independence, glamour, seduction, and sexual allure, and served as a symbol for both feminists and flappers. The industry, with the help of advertisers and public relations experts, effectively engineered consent for women as smokers. The "engineering of consent" has a role to play in smoking cessation, since negative meanings for the cigarette can be engineered as well. PMID:8868552

  13. Channelling of hydrothermal fluids during the accretion and evolution of the upper oceanic crust: Sr isotope evidence from ODP Hole 1256D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Michelle; Coggon, Rosalind M.; Smith-Duque, Christopher E.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Milton, James A.; Teagle, Damon A. H.

    2015-04-01

    ODP Hole 1256D in the eastern equatorial Pacific is the first penetration of a complete section of fast spread ocean crust down to the dike-gabbro transition, and only the second borehole to sample in situ sheeted dikes after DSDP Hole 504B. Here a high spatial resolution record of whole rock and mineral strontium isotopic compositions from Site 1256 is combined with core observations and downhole wireline geophysical measurements to determine the extent of basalt-hydrothermal fluid reaction and to identify fluid pathways at different levels in the upper ocean crust. The volcanic sequence at Site 1256 is dominated by sheet and massive lava flows but the Sr isotope profile shows only limited exchange with seawater. However, the upper margins of two anomalously thick (>25 m) massive flow sequences are strongly hydrothermally altered with elevated Sr isotope ratios and appear to be conduits of lateral low-temperature off-axis fluid flow. Elsewhere in the lavas, high 87Sr/86Sr are restricted to breccia horizons. Mineralised hyaloclastic breccias in the Lava-Dike Transition are strongly altered to Mg-saponite, silica and pyrite, indicating alteration by mixed seawater and cooled hydrothermal fluids. In the Sheeted Dike Complex 87Sr/86Sr ratios are pervasively shifted towards hydrothermal fluid values (∼0.705). Dike chilled margins display secondary mineral assemblages formed during both axial recharge and discharge and have higher 87Sr/86Sr than dike cores, indicating preferential fluid flow along dike margins. Localised increases in 87Sr/86Sr in the Dike-Gabbro Transition indicates the channelling of fluids along the sub-horizontal intrusive boundaries of the 25 to 50 m-thick gabbroic intrusions, with only minor increases in 87Sr/86Sr within the cores of the gabbro bodies. When compared to the pillow lava-dominated section from Hole 504B, the Sr isotope measurements from Site 1256 suggest that the extent of hydrothermal circulation in the upper ocean crust may be strongly dependent on the eruption style. Sheet and massive flow dominated lava sequences typical of fast spreading ridges may experience relatively restricted circulation, but there may be much more widespread circulation through pillow lava-dominated sections. In addition, the Hole 1256D sheeted dikes display a much greater extent of Sr-isotopic exchange compared to dikes from Hole 504B. Because seawater-derived hydrothermal fluids must transit the dikes during their evolution to black smoker-type fluids, the different Sr-isotope profiles for Holes 504B and 1256D suggest there are significant variations in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems at fast and intermediate spreading ridges, which may impact geochemical cycles of elements mobilised by fluid-rock exchange at different temperatures.

  14. Hair cadmium level of smoker and non-smoker human volunteers in and around Calcutta City

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Samaddar, K.R. ); Joshi, H.C. )

    1990-08-01

    In recent years considerable interest has arisen concerning cadmium accumulation in man. In general, the body burden of cadmium of an urban population is due to occupational exposure, as well as non-occupational contamination. Several reports indicate that cadmium body burden of cigarette smokers or tobacco users is more than of non-smokers. Measurement of cadmium in human hair has been suggested as an indicator of body burden. Most industrialized countries have regular monitoring programs for measuring cadmium accumulation in humans. There has been little or no work done thus far in India regarding the level of cadmium in humans. The objective of this investigation was to survey the levels of cadmium in hair of random samples of human volunteers. The influences of smoking habits, urban or rural life and age of the volunteers on the level of cadmium in hair were examined.

  15. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the carbohydrate structures as they have been further reacted to phenolic Aldol condensation products. The bio-oil is more hydrophobic because of the lower oxygen content and resulting lower polarity and therefore has a lower amount of dissolved water. Without the light oxygenates acting as solvents along with the water, the bio-oil product is much more viscous. Related results are that the bio-oil is less dense and has a higher energy content. These differences in properties led to the earlier held belief that the HTL bio-oils could be upgraded by catalytic hydroprocessing in a manner more similar to simple petroleum hydrotreating. Some initial results from the HydroThermal Liquefaction of kelp are shown in Table 1. The experiments were performed with kelp slurries of 5-13 wt.% dry solids in water. Oil yields from kelp are low at 24% on ash-free basis but up to 41% calculated on a carbon basis. The bulk of the rest of the carbon ends up dissolved in the water stream.

  16. Hydrothermal calcite in the Elephant Moraine

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, G.; Taylor, K.S.; Jones, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    In the course of geologic mapping of the Elephant Moraine on the east antarctic ice sheet, Faure and Taylor (1985) collected several specimens of black botryoidal calcite, composed of radiating acicular crystals that resemble stromatolites. Calcite from this and other specimens is significantly enriched in strontium-87 (the strontium-87/strontium-86 ratio equals 0.71417 +/- 0.00002), carbon-12 (delta carbon-13 equals -22.9 parts per thousand, PDB standard) and oxygen-16 (delta oxygen-18 equals -21.1 parts per thousand, standard mean ocean water) compared with calcite of marine origin. The enrichment in carbon-12 is similar to that of calcite associated with coal in the Allan Hills. The enrichment in oxygen-16 indicates that the calcite from the Elephant Moraine could only have precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with glacial melt water. Therefore, the temperature at which the black calcite precipitated from water of that isotope composition was about 85/sup 0/C. A temperature of this magnitude implies that the black calcite formed as a result of volcanic activity under the east antarctic ice sheet. The enrichment of the black calcite in carbon-12 suggests that it formed in part from carbon dioxide derived from the coal seams of the Weller Formation in the Beacon Supergroup. The isotopic composition of strontium in the black calcite is similar to that of carbonate beds and concretions in the Beacon rocks of southern Victoria Land. A volcanic-hydrothermal origin is also consistent with the very low total organic carbon content of 0.15% in the calcite.

  17. "I Smoke but I Am Not a Smoker": Phantom Smokers and the Discrepancy between Self-Identity and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Youjin; Choi, Sejung Marina; Rifon, Nora

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the development of a new smoking status, the "phantom smokers," who do not view themselves as smokers but report smoking cigarettes. Participants: Students from 2 universities in Michigan (N = 899; October 2005) and Florida (N = 1,517; May 2006) participated in surveys. Methods: Respondents in Michigan completed

  18. "I Smoke but I Am Not a Smoker": Phantom Smokers and the Discrepancy between Self-Identity and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Youjin; Choi, Sejung Marina; Rifon, Nora

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the development of a new smoking status, the "phantom smokers," who do not view themselves as smokers but report smoking cigarettes. Participants: Students from 2 universities in Michigan (N = 899; October 2005) and Florida (N = 1,517; May 2006) participated in surveys. Methods: Respondents in Michigan completed…

  19. Similar Squamous Cell Carcinoma Epithelium microRNA Expression in Never Smokers and Ever Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kolokythas, Antonia; Zhou, Yalu; Schwartz, Joel L.; Adami, Guy R.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral tumors in patients who never used mutagenic agents such as tobacco is increasing. In an effort to better understand these tumors we studied microRNA (miRNA) expression in tumor epithelium of never tobacco users, tumor epithelium of ever tobacco users, and nonpathological control oral epithelium. A comparison of levels among 372 miRNAs in 12 never tobacco users with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) versus 10 healthy controls was made using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A similar analysis was done with 8 ever tobacco users with OSCC. These comparisons revealed miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-31-5p as enriched in the tumor epithelium in OSCC of both never and ever tobacco users. Examination of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project miRNA data on 305 OSCCs and 30 controls revealed 100% of those miRNAs enriched in never smoker OSCCs in this patient group were also enriched in ever smoker OSCCs. Nonsupervised clustering of TCGA OSCCs was suggestive of two or four subgroups of tumors based on miRNA levels with limited evidence for differences in tobacco exposure among the groups. Results from both patient groups together stress the importance of miR196a-5p in OSCC malignancy in both never and ever smokers, and emphasize the overall similarity of miRNA expression in OSCCs in these two risk groups. It implies that there may be great similarity in etiology of OSCC in never and ever smokers and that classifying OSCC based on tobacco exposure may not be helpful in the clinic. PMID:26544609

  20. Cody hydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    The hot springs of Colter's Hell are the surface manifestations of a much larger hydothermal system. That system has been studied to define its extent, maximum temperature, and mechanism of operation. The study area covers 2700 km/sup 2/ (1040 mi/sup 2/) in northwest Wyoming. Research and field work included locating and sampling the hot springs, geologic mapping, thermal logging of available wells, measuring thermal conductivities, analyzing over 200 oil and gas well bottom-hole temperatures, and compiling and analyzing hydrologic data. These data were used to generate a model for the hydrothermal system.

  1. Enceladus: Starting Hydrothermal Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, D. L.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; Davies, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a process for starting the hydrothermal activity in Enceladus' South Polar Region. The process takes advantage of fissures that reach the water table, about 1 kilometer below the surface. Filling these fissures with fresh ocean water initiates a flow of water up from an ocean that can be self-sustaining. In this hypothesis the heat to sustain the thermal anomalies and the plumes comes from a slightly warm ocean at depth. The heat is brought to the surface by water that circulates up, through the crust and then returns to the ocean.

  2. Comparison by optical coherence tomography of the frequency of lipid coronary plaques in current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Abtahian, Farhad; Yonetsu, Taishi; Kato, Koji; Jia, Haibo; Vergallo, Rocco; Tian, Jinwei; Hu, Sining; McNulty, Iris; Lee, Hang; Yu, Bo; Jang, Ik-Kyung

    2014-09-01

    Smoking is associated with high incidence of cardiovascular events including acute coronary syndrome. We sought to characterize coronary plaques in patients with ongoing smoking using optical coherence tomography (OCT) compared with former smokers and nonsmokers. We identified 465 coronary plaques from 182 subjects who underwent OCT imaging for all 3 coronary arteries. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: current smokers (n = 41), former smokers (n = 67), and nonsmokers (n = 74). OCT analysis included the presence of lipid-rich plaque, thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), calcification, maximum lipid arc, lipid core length, lipid index, and fibrous cap thickness. Lipid index was defined by mean lipid arc multiplied by lipid core length. Compared with former smokers and nonsmokers, the incidence of lipid plaques and TCFA was significantly higher in current smokers (lipid plaques: 68.0% vs 45.9% and 52.6%, p = 0.002; TCFA: 18.4% vs 7.6% and 9.9%, p = 0.018). There was a trend for higher plaque disruption in current smokers. Former smokers were more likely to have calcified plaques than current and nonsmokers (52.9% vs 32.0% and 38.0%, p = 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, current smoking, low-density lipoprotein, and presentation with acute coronary syndrome were independently associated with the presence of TCFAs. In conclusion, current smokers are more likely to have lipid plaques and OCT-defined vulnerable plaques (TCFAs). Former smokers have increased number of calcified plaques. These results may explain the increased risk of acute cardiac events among smokers. PMID:25048344

  3. Double dissociation of working memory and attentional processes in smokers and non-smokers with and without nicotine.

    PubMed

    Grundey, Jessica; Amu, Rosa; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Batsikadze, Georgi; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Nicotine has been shown to affect cortical excitability measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation in smoking and non-smoking subjects in different ways. In tobacco-deprived smokers, administration of nicotine restores compromised cortical facilitation while in non-smokers, it enhances cortical inhibition. As cortical excitability and activity are closely linked to cognitive processes, we aimed to explore whether nicotine-induced physiological alterations in non-smokers and smokers are associated with cognitive changes. Specifically, we assessed the impact of nicotine on working memory performance (n-back letter task) and on attentional processes (Stroop interference test) in healthy smokers and non-smokers. Both tasks have been shown to rely on prefrontal areas, and nicotinic receptors are relevantly involved in prefrontal function. Sixteen smoking and 16 non-smoking subjects participated in the 3-back letter task and 21 smoking and 21 non-smoking subjects in the Stroop test after the respective application of placebo or nicotine patches. The results show that working memory and attentional processes are compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers compared to non-smoking individuals. After administration of nicotine, working memory performance in smokers improved, while non-smoking subjects displayed decreased accuracy with increased number of errors. The effects have been shown to be more apparent for working memory performance than attentional processes. In summary, cognitive functions can be restored by nicotine in deprived smokers, whereas non-smokers do not gain additional benefit. The respective changes are in accordance with related effects of nicotine on cortical excitability in both groups. PMID:25721074

  4. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: MOLECULAR PROFILES AND THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Rudin, Charles M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Harris, Curtis C.; Herman, James G.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Pao, William; Schwartz, Ann G.; Vahakangas, Kirsi H.; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of lung cancers are caused by long term exposure to the several classes of carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. While a significant fraction of lung cancers in never smokers may also be attributable to tobacco, many such cancers arise in the absence of detectable tobacco exposure, and may follow a very different cellular and molecular pathway of malignant transformation. Recent studies summarized here suggest that lung cancers arising in never smokers have a distinct natural history, profile of oncogenic mutations, and response to targeted therapy. The majority of molecular analyses of lung cancer have focused on genetic profiling of pathways responsible for metabolism of primary tobacco carcinogens. Limited research has been conducted evaluating familial aggregation and genetic linkage of lung cancer, particularly among never smokers in whom such associations might be expected to be strongest. Data emerging over the past several years demonstrates that lung cancers in never smokers are much more likely to carry activating mutations of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), a key oncogenic factor and direct therapeutic target of several newer anti-cancer drugs. EGFR mutant lung cancers may represent a distinct class of lung cancers, enriched in the never smoking population, and less clearly linked to direct tobacco carcinogenesis. These insights followed initial testing and demonstration of efficacy of EGFR-targeted drugs. Focused analysis of molecular carcinogenesis in lung cancers in never smokers is needed, and may provide additional biologic insight with therapeutic implications for lung cancers in both ever smokers and never smokers. PMID:19755392

  5. Smokers' Beliefs About The Inability to Stop Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, John R.

    2009-01-01

    We recruited 367 current daily smokers via the Internet and randomized them to rate the causes of an inability to stop smoking, inability to stop problem alcohol use, or inability to lose excess weight in a fictional scenario. Most smokers attributed inability to stop smoking to addiction (88%), habit (88%) and stress (62%). Surprisingly, equal numbers of smokers agreed and disagreed that inability to stop smoking was due to lack of willpower or motivation. Most disagreed that it was due to biological factors, denial, family/upbringing, genetics, mental disease, personality problem, psychological problems, or weakness of character. Many expected correlations among perceived causes were not found; e.g. endorsement of addiction was not inversely related to endorsement of willpower. Most smokers endorsed treatment. Higher ratings of addiction were related to endorsing treatment, and higher ratings of motivation were related to endorsing no need for treatment; however, these relationships were of small magnitude. Ratings of almost all the causes varied across the three problems; e.g. ratings of addiction were greater for smoking than for problem alcohol use. In summary, smokers appear to view the inability to stop smoking as multicausal; however, their views of causes are only weakly related to attitudes towards treatment. Given the several unexpected findings, qualitative research into smokers' conceptualizations about smokers' inability to stop smoking is indicated. PMID:19635648

  6. Distribution and Sources of Trace Metals in Volcaniclastic Sediments of the SuSu Knolls Hydrothermal Field, Eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrischeva, E. H.; Scott, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    Thirty-one sediment cores from the Suzette sulfide mound (renamed Solwara 1 by Nautilus Minerals Inc) in the SuSu Knolls hydrothermal field, eastern Manus back-arc basin, were studied in order to outline anomalies in metal concentrations within the mound and to explain the sources of the anomalies. The sediment cores were collected during expeditions of Nautilus Minerals Inc in 2006 and 2007. The work complements our previous study of metalliferous sediments of the SuSu Knolls and aims to provide guidelines for exploration for seafloor massive sulfide deposits in both modern and ancient back-arc environments. In contrast to mid-ocean ridges, the sedimentation in back-arc basins is more complex and involves deposition of large amount of volcaniclastic material that may mask the hydrothermal signal. The SuSu Knolls are covered by an apron of laminated dark gray volcanic sandy silts and silty sands composed of various amounts of volcanic rock fragments, volcanic glass, Ca plagioclase, pyroxene, cristobalite, Si-rich amorphous material, alunite, pyrite, barite and magnetite. In many cases the gray volcaniclastic sediments exhibit patches and layers having a black or greenish-brown color that contain fecal pellets. On the western slope of Suzette (Solwara 1), dark gray volcaniclastic sediments overlie greenish, greenish-brown and greenish-black volcaniclastic sediments containing up to 10 wt % clay-size component that comprises alteration products of volcanic glass such as smectite, chlorite and X-ray amorphous material. In most cases black and greenish-brown colored sediments contain fecal pellets at different stages of preservation. The distributions of Au (19 ppb to 2 ppm), Cu (159 ppm to 1 wt %), Zn (35 ppm to 1333 ppm), Pb (7 ppm to 977 ppm) and Ba (0.05 wt % to 2.8 wt %) outline patchy anomalies throughout the sediments of the mound. The study showed that some volcaniclastic sediments as deep as 25 cm below seafloor that are proximal to chimneys and chimney fragments do not exhibit clear metal anomalies. Local strong anomalies in metal concentrations caused by dispersal of chimney sulfides in the volcaniclastic sediments were found on the rim of the mound. More widespread anomalies were detected down to 80 cm depth in greenish-brown and greenish- black volcaniclastic sediments from the western slope of the mound. Metal anomalies in these sediments may be a result of dispersal of fine-grained particles of secondary minerals, such as atacamite and Fe-oxyhydroxides, derived from oxidation of sulfide chimneys. Another possible source of the metals is hydrothermal particles that were deposited in the sediments within fecal pellets. With the exception of local anomalies in surface sediments around active chimneys, the current particulate plume emanating from black smokers does not leave a clear signal in the sediments covering the mound.

  7. Hydrothermal processes above the Yellowstone magma chamber: Large hydrothermal systems and large hydrothermal explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, W.C. Pat, III; Pierce, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrothermal explosions are violent and dramatic events resulting in the rapid ejection of boiling water, steam, mud, and rock fragments from source craters that range from a few meters up to more than 2 km in diameter; associated breccia can be emplaced as much as 3 to 4 km from the largest craters. Hydrothermal explosions occur where shallow interconnected reservoirs of steam- and liquid-saturated fluids with temperatures at or near the boiling curve underlie thermal fields. Sudden reduction in confi ning pressure causes fluids to fl ash to steam, resulting in signifi cant expansion, rock fragmentation, and debris ejection. In Yellowstone, hydrothermal explosions are a potentially signifi cant hazard for visitors and facilities and can damage or even destroy thermal features. The breccia deposits and associated craters formed from hydrothermal explosions are mapped as mostly Holocene (the Mary Bay deposit is older) units throughout Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and are spatially related to within the 0.64-Ma Yellowstone caldera and along the active Norris-Mammoth tectonic corridor. In Yellowstone, at least 20 large (>100 m in diameter) hydrothermal explosion craters have been identifi ed; the scale of the individual associated events dwarfs similar features in geothermal areas elsewhere in the world. Large hydrothermal explosions in Yellowstone have occurred over the past 16 ka averaging ??1 every 700 yr; similar events are likely in the future. Our studies of large hydrothermal explosion events indicate: (1) none are directly associated with eruptive volcanic or shallow intrusive events; (2) several historical explosions have been triggered by seismic events; (3) lithic clasts and comingled matrix material that form hydrothermal explosion deposits are extensively altered, indicating that explosions occur in areas subjected to intense hydrothermal processes; (4) many lithic clasts contained in explosion breccia deposits preserve evidence of repeated fracturing and vein-fi lling; and (5) areal dimensions of many large hydrothermal explosion craters in Yellowstone are similar to those of its active geyser basins and thermal areas. For Yellowstone, our knowledge of hydrothermal craters and ejecta is generally limited to after the Yellowstone Plateau emerged from beneath a late Pleistocene icecap that was roughly a kilometer thick. Large hydrothermal explosions may have occurred earlier as indicated by multiple episodes of cementation and brecciation commonly observed in hydrothermal ejecta clasts. Critical components for large, explosive hydrothermal systems include a watersaturated system at or near boiling temperatures and an interconnected system of well-developed joints and fractures along which hydrothermal fluids flow. Active deformation of the Yellowstone caldera, active faulting and moderate local seismicity, high heat flow, rapid changes in climate, and regional stresses are factors that have strong infl uences on the type of hydrothermal system developed. Ascending hydrothermal fluids flow along fractures that have developed in response to active caldera deformation and along edges of low-permeability rhyolitic lava flows. Alteration of the area affected, self-sealing leading to development of a caprock for the hydrothermal system, and dissolution of silica-rich rocks are additional factors that may constrain the distribution and development of hydrothermal fields. A partial lowpermeability layer that acts as a cap to the hydrothermal system may produce some over-pressurization, thought to be small in most systems. Any abrupt drop in pressure initiates steam fl ashing and is rapidly transmitted through interconnected fractures that result in a series of multiple large-scale explosions contributing to the excavation of a larger explosion crater. Similarities between the size and dimensions of large hydrothermal explosion craters and thermal fields in Yellowstone may indicate that catastrophic events which result in l

  8. Predictors, Indicators, and Validated Measures of Dependence in Menthol Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad-Kah, Raheema; Rimmer, Lonnie; Liang, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive review of the menthol cigarette dependence-related literature and results from an original analysis of the Total Exposure Study (TES), which included 1,100 menthol and 2,400 nonmenthol adult smokers. The substantial scientific evidence available related to age of first cigarette, age of regular use, single-item dependence indicators (smoking frequency, cigarettes per day, time to first cigarette, night waking to smoke), smoking duration, numerous validated and widely accepted measures of nicotine/cigarette dependence, and our analysis of the TES do not support that menthol smokers are more dependent than nonmenthol smokers or that menthol increases dependence. PMID:24738914

  9. The Self-Reported Oral Health Status and Dental Attendance of Smokers and Non-Smokers in England

    PubMed Central

    Csikar, Julia; Kang, Jing; Wyborn, Ceri; Dyer, Tom A.; Marshman, Zoe; Godson, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Smoking has been identified as the second greatest risk factor for global death and disability and has impacts on the oral cavity from aesthetic changes to fatal diseases such as oral cancer. The paper presents a secondary analysis of the National Adult Dental Health Survey (2009). The analysis used descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression models to report the self-reported oral health status and dental attendance of smokers and non-smokers in England. Of the 9,657 participants, 21% reported they were currently smoking. When compared with smokers; non-smokers were more likely to report ‘good oral health’ (75% versus 57% respectively, p<0.05). Smokers were twice as likely to attend the dentist symptomatically (OR = 2.27, CI = 2.02–2.55) compared with non-smoker regardless the deprivation status. Smokers were more likely to attend symptomatically in the most deprived quintiles (OR = 1.99, CI = 1.57–2.52) and perceive they had poorer oral health (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.42–2.20). The present research is consistent with earlier sub-national research and should be considered when planning early diagnosis and management strategies for smoking-related conditions, considering the potential impact dental teams might have on smoking rates. PMID:26863107

  10. The Self-Reported Oral Health Status and Dental Attendance of Smokers and Non-Smokers in England.

    PubMed

    Csikar, Julia; Kang, Jing; Wyborn, Ceri; Dyer, Tom A; Marshman, Zoe; Godson, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Smoking has been identified as the second greatest risk factor for global death and disability and has impacts on the oral cavity from aesthetic changes to fatal diseases such as oral cancer. The paper presents a secondary analysis of the National Adult Dental Health Survey (2009). The analysis used descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression models to report the self-reported oral health status and dental attendance of smokers and non-smokers in England. Of the 9,657 participants, 21% reported they were currently smoking. When compared with smokers; non-smokers were more likely to report 'good oral health' (75% versus 57% respectively, p<0.05). Smokers were twice as likely to attend the dentist symptomatically (OR = 2.27, CI = 2.02-2.55) compared with non-smoker regardless the deprivation status. Smokers were more likely to attend symptomatically in the most deprived quintiles (OR = 1.99, CI = 1.57-2.52) and perceive they had poorer oral health (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.42-2.20). The present research is consistent with earlier sub-national research and should be considered when planning early diagnosis and management strategies for smoking-related conditions, considering the potential impact dental teams might have on smoking rates. PMID:26863107

  11. Thermococcus Thioreducens sp. nov., A Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Bej, Asim K.; Garriott, Owen

    2003-01-01

    A novel hyperthermophilic organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P(sup T), was isolated from 'black smoker' chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2 N; 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P(sup T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed to occur within the pH range 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), NaCl concentration range 1-5 % (w/v) (optimum 3 %), and temperature range 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). Novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent from elemental sulfur as electron acceptor, but it cannot reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, iron (III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products that can be utilized as substrates during sulfur-reduction are: peptone, bactotryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G+C content of DNA is 57.1 mol% . Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is most closely related to Thermococcus celer and 'T. barossii', but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-394(sup T) = DSM 1498(sup T)).

  12. Thermococcus sulfurophilus sp. nov., a New Hyperthermophilic, Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon Isolated from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Whitman, William B.; Marsic, Damien; Garriott, Owen; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P, was isolated from "black smoker" chimney material at the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site in the Atlantic Ocean (36.2 N; 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P have irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth occurs within pH range of 5.5-8.2 (optimal at pH 7.0-7.2), salinity range of 1-5% NaCl (optimal concentration 3% NaCl wt/vol), and temperature range of +55 C to +94 C (optimal growth at +83 C to +85 C). Strain OGL-20P is resistant to freezing (at -20 C). New isolate is strictly anaerobic with sulfur-type of respiration. A limited number of compounds are utilized as electron donors, including peptone, becto-tryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract but does not grow with separate amino acids. Sulfur and Iron can be used as electron acceptors; but not sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate or nitrate. Strain OGL-20P is resistant to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin. Growth of str. OGL20P is inhibited by tetracyclin but not by Na2MoO4. The G+C content of DNA is 57.2 mol%. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis allows one to classify strain OGL-20P as a representative of a now species of Thermococcus genus. The name Thermococcus sulfurophilus op. nov., was suggested for the new isolate, type strain OGL-20P (sup T) (= ATCC BAA_394 (sup T) = DSM...(supT)).

  13. Thermococcus Thioreducens sp. Nov., a Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-reducing Archaeon from a Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Itoh, Takashi; Bej, Asim K.; Tang, Jane; Whitman, William B.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P was isolated from black smoker chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2 N, 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P(sup T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed within the pH range 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), NaCl concentration range 1-5 % (w/v) (optimum 3%), and temperature range 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). The novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent upon elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, but it does not reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, iron (III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products (peptone, bacto-tryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract) are utilized as substrates during sulfur-reduction. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G+C content of DNA is 52.9 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is closely related to Thermococcus coalescens and related species, but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, we conclude that strain OGL-20P(sup T) represents a new separate species within the genus Thermococcus, and propose the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-394(sup T) = JCM 12859(sup T) = DSM 14981(sup T)).

  14. Tidally-driven effluent detected by long-term temperature monitoring at the TAG hydrothermal mound, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, M.; Von Herzen, R. P.; Matsubayashi, O.; Fujioka, K.

    1998-06-01

    During Aug. 13-21, 1994, temperatures and current velocity were simultaneously monitored on the TAG hydrothermal mound. Three `Giant Kelps (GKs)', vertical thermistor arrays of 50 m height, were moored on the periphery of the central black smoker complex (CBC). A `Manatee', multi-monitoring system including current velocity, was deployed 50 m east of CBC. Four `Daibutsu' geothermal probes penetrated the sediment south to west of CBC. Compilation of all data revealed semi-diurnal variations in water temperatures and current velocity, and allowed us to discuss the source of these anomalies. Temperature anomalies of GKs correlate well with current velocity, and are interpreted to be caused by the main plume from CBC that was bent over by the tidal current. We identified two types of asymmetric, periodic temperature variations at Daibutsu Probes 2 and 8, located 20 m to the south of CBC. By comparing temperatures and current velocity, they are attributed to non-buoyant effluents laterally advected by the tidal current. The source of one variation is located east to ESE of the probes, and the source of the other is located to the north. On Aug. 31, a new periodic anomaly emerged on Probe 2 with its amplitude up to 0.8°C. The 6-h offset between the new anomaly and the previous one suggests that the source of the new anomaly lies to the west of Probe 2. The heat flux of these non-buoyant effluents is estimated to range from 30 to 100 kW/m 2, which is of the same order as direct estimates of diffuse flow at the TAG mound. It suggests that a significant amount of diffuse effluent is laterally advected by the prevailing current near the seafloor.

  15. Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov., a Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Itoh, Takashi; Bej, Asim K.; Tang, Jane; Whitman, William B.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P(sup T), was isolated from 'black smoker' chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2degN, 33.9degW). The cells of strain OGL-20P(T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed within a pH range of 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), an NaCl concentration range of 1-5%(w/v) (optimum 3%)and a temperature range of 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). The novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent upon elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, but it does not reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, Fe(III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products (peptone, bacto-tryptone, Casamino acids and yeast extract) are utilized as substrates during sulfur reduction. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloram phenicol, kanamycin and gentamicin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G + C content of the DNA is 52.9 mol% The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is closely related to Thermococcus coalescens and related species, but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, we conclude that strain OGL-20P(sup T) represents a new separate species within the genus Thermococcus, for which we propose the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (=JCM 12859(exp T) = DSM 14981(exp T)=ATCC BAA-394(exp T)).

  16. Do adolescent smokers know the risks?

    PubMed

    Slovic, P

    1998-04-01

    Professor Slovic challenges Professor Viscusi by suggesting that "risk" is a term with varying meanings and the potential for misinterpretation by study participants. He distinguishes between the probability and severity of a risk, and suggests that teens who know the probability of smoking causing cancer are not aware of the severity of the experience of cancer. He goes on to note that people often perceive themselves as being less at risk than others, and observes that Professor Viscusi's study posed questions about others, instead of asking teens to assess their own risks. Thirdly, he argues that teens perceive each individual cigarette as posing a small risk even if they seem to be aware of the larger risk of smoking. Finally, since many teen smokers intend to quit, he contends, they do not see smoking as hazardous to themselves. He argues that Professor Viscusi underrates the misperception of the risks of personal addiction. Professor Slovic augments his argument with original research demonstrating that smoking teens are more likely than nonsmoking teens to perceive the short term risks of smoking as trivial. PMID:10557547

  17. Black Cohosh

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Black Cohosh Share: On This Page Introduction What the ... Effects and Cautions For More Information Key References black_cohosh.jpg © Steven Foster Common Names: black cohosh, ...

  18. Smokers and non‐smokers talk about regulatory options in tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Objective Community members are occasionally polled about tobacco control policies, but are rarely given opportunities to elaborate on their views. We examined laypeople's conversations to understand how 11 regulatory options were supported or opposed in interactions. Design Qualitative design; purposive quota sampling; data collection via focus groups. Setting Three locations in Sydney, Australia. Participants 63 smokers and 75 non‐smokers, men and women, from three age groups (18–24, 35–44, 55–64 years), recruited primarily via telephone. Measurements Semi‐structured question route; data managed in NVivo; responses compared between groups. Results Laypeople rejected some regulatory proposals and certain arguments about taxation and the cost of cessation treatments. Protecting children and hypothecating tobacco excise for health education and care were highly acceptable. Plain packaging, banning retail displays and youth smoking prevention received qualified support. Bans on political donations from tobacco corporations were popular in principle but considered logistically fraught. Smokers asked for better cessation assistance and were curious about cigarette ingredients. Justice was an important evaluative principle. Support was often conditional and unresolved arguments frequent. We present both sides of these conflicts and the ways in which policies were legitimised or de‐legitimised in conversation. Conclusions Simple measures of agreement used in polls may obscure the complexity of community responses to tobacco policy. Support was frequently present but contested; some arguments that seem self‐evident to advocates were not so to participants. The detailed understanding of laypeople's responses provided through qualitative methods may help frame proposals and arguments to meet concerns about justice, effectiveness and feasibility. PMID:16998175

  19. Fear reactivity to bodily sensations among heavy smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Kenneth; Zvolensky, Michael J; Dorflinger, Lindsey; Galatis, Andrea; Blank, Melissa; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Individuals who smoke are more likely to experience panic attacks and develop panic disorder than those in the general population. One possible explanation is that smokers may experience a heightened fear response to somatic disturbances. To date, few laboratory studies have tested this hypothesis directly. The present study examined 24 adult heavy smokers (10 females) in 12-hr nicotine withdrawal and 24 adult nonsmokers (12 females) on subjective and physiological reactivity to a 4-min carbon dioxide rebreathing challenge. Results indicate that, despite an attenuated acceleration in respiration during the challenge, smokers experienced a significantly greater increase in self-reported panic symptoms than nonsmokers. In addition, smokers reported significantly greater trait levels of suffocation fear prior to the challenge. Findings are discussed with respect to the role of smoking in panic vulnerability. PMID:18540783

  20. Population health and the hardcore smoker: Geoffrey Rose revisited.

    PubMed

    Chaiton, Michael O; Cohen, Joanna E; Frank, John

    2008-09-01

    The "hardening hypothesis" suggests that as smoking prevalence decreases, lighter smokers will quit first, leaving more "hardcore" smokers in the population. At a population level, however, the weight of evidence suggests that no hardening is occurring. By understanding the lessons from Geoffrey Rose's model of population-level risk factor change, we argue that the hardening of the smoking population is not inevitable. The Rose model predicts that the effect of policy interventions, and changes in social norms, can shift the population-level risk distribution for continuing to be a smoker, making it more likely that all smokers will quit. This analysis also suggests that further reductions in smoking prevalence will not come without further changes in the underlying--and largely cultural--root causes of smoking in a population. PMID:18701900

  1. Smoking Bans Beat Cigarette Taxes to Help Smokers Quit

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156279.html Smoking Bans Beat Cigarette Taxes to Help Smokers Quit: ... News) -- Cigarette bans and high taxes both reduce smoking rates, but bans may have one important advantage, ...

  2. Free Nicotine Patches by Mail May Help Smokers Quit

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156886.html Free Nicotine Patches by Mail May Help Smokers Quit Intervention ... may be as easy as mailing them free nicotine-replacement patches, even in the absence of counseling ...

  3. Smokers with Pneumonia at Risk for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 156704.html Smokers With Pneumonia at Risk for Lung Cancer: Study Chest scans a cost-effective strategy to ... pneumonia may be at greater risk for developing lung cancer, a new study suggests. Researchers found that 9 ...

  4. A Retrievable Mineral Microcosm for Examining Microbial Colonization and Mineral Precipitation at Seafloor Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, E. E.; Holloway, J. R.; Cary, S.; Voglesonger, K. M.; Ashbridge, D. A.; O'Day, P. A.

    2002-12-01

    Although seafloor hydrothermal vent environments are known to support thriving ecosystems, the microscale physical and chemical environment suitable for microbial colonization and the identity of pioneering organisms is unknown. Because of the fragility of young chimneys and their ephemeral nature, novel methods for sample retrieval and analysis are required. The mineral microcosm consists of four titanium mesh chambers containing crushed minerals mounted on a titanium base that allows for fluid flow through the chambers. The chambers can be filled with different minerals or mineral mixtures (or no minerals) to supply different substrates for microbial colonization and different local microenvironments as minerals react with the surrounding fluids. The device sets on top of an active hydrothermal vent for a period of days to weeks to allow colonization and mineral reaction. The mineral microcosm was deployed during the Atlantis/Alvin Extreme 2001 Cruise (Oct.- Nov.,2001) to 9° 50'N on the East Pacific Rise a total of three times, for ~ 24, ~ 96, and ~ 48 hours each. It was deployed in two different environments, twice in lower temperature (<300°C), diffuse-flow environments and once (for ~96 hours) in a higher temperature black smoker environment (>350°C).Seed minerals included sulfides, sulfates, magnetite, apatite, and quartz, both individually and in mixtures. In the first 24-hour deployment, dissolution of anhydrite but not sulfide minerals within the chambers indicated high temperatures in chamber interiors and rapid reaction rates. Temperatures measured on chamber exteriors before retrieval ranged from 4° -98°C. The 96-hour deployment on a hot vent (fluid ~370°C before deployment) resulted in extensive mineral precipitation and chimney growth inside the mineral chambers, on the outer surfaces of the chambers, and on the platform as a whole, creating micro-chimneys several centimeters tall. The young chimneys were mainly composed of pyrite with lesser amounts of chalcopyrite and sphalerite and with thin veneers of anhydrite on exterior surfaces in contact with seawater. Bulk trace element analyses of the newly formed chimneys show concentrations of Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, and Pb (up to ~200 ppm) but a lack of As, Sn, U, and W. On the last deployment in a polychaete-rich, diffuse-flow area (vent temperature ~300°C), the microcosm was covered with biofilm and polychaete tubes had formed on the surface during the ~48 hours on the vent. Temperatures at chamber exteriors had decreased to 16- 20°C, suggesting that the vent was not vigorous enough to maintain a large flow through the chambers. Although no evidence for microbial colonization was obtained in these initial deployments, the device can simulate the mineralogy and temperature gradients of a natural hydrothermal chimney. Young chimney samples of known age (~96 hours) obtained from the second deployment were analyzed by synchrotron X-ray computed tomography for porosity and mineralogy and compared with existing chimneys at these sites (see companion abstract by Ashbridge, et al.).

  5. Quantification of plasma microRNAs in a group of healthy smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers and correlation to biomarkers of tobacco exposure

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Anisha; Waters, David; Camacho, Oscar M.; Minet, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The stability of circulating miRNAs, their non-invasive sampling techniques and deregulation in diseases make them potential candidate biomarkers of biological effect. Here, we profiled the level of 84 plasma miRNAs in 30 smokers, 20 non-smokers and 20 ex-smokers. A robust statistical strategy was applied with replicate samples to account for reproducibility of the results. We identified differential expression of miR-124 and let-7a between the smoking and control groups. We further explored the dose–response relationship of miR-124 and let-7a with two biomarkers of tobacco exposure and found that this relationship was affected by adjustments based on age, pack-year and gender. PMID:25598229

  6. Hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers,

    SciTech Connect

    Sleep, N.H.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses the initial entry of hydrothermal seawater into deep levels of the oceanic crust, the effectiveness of hydrothermal circulation in cooling the crust, the geometry of hydrothermal circulation, the relationship between the hydrothermal circulation and the magma chamber, the reaction of the oceanic crust with the seawater, and the identification of the hydrothermal fluid which alters a rock sample. Topics considered include the crack front, observation relevant to the crack front, the limitations of the crack front hypothesis, the observed pattern of hydrothermal alteration, the nature of the hydrothermal fluid, the physics of large scale convection, and convection through crack zones. Knowledge of hydrothermal circulation at the ridge axis is based on sampling of the hydrothermal fluid, indirect geophysical measurements of the oceanic crust, and studies of rocks which are believed to have undergone hydrothermal alteration at the ridge axis. Includes 2 drawings.

  7. Prediction of Acute Respiratory Disease in Current and Former Smokers With and Without COPD

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Victor; Regan, Elizabeth; Williams, André A. A.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Make, Barry J.; Lynch, David A.; Hokanson, John E.; Washko, George R.; Bercz, Peter; Soler, Xavier; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J.; Ramsdell, Joe; Han, MeiLan K.; Demeo, Dawn; Anzueto, Antonio; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D.; Dransfield, Mark; Wells, J. Michael; Hersh, Craig P.; MacIntyre, Neil; Martinez, Fernando; Nath, Hrudaya P.; Niewoehner, Dennis; Sciurba, Frank; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K.; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Wilson, Carla; Wendt, Christine; Wise, Robert A.; Curtis, Jeffrey; Kazerooni, Ella; Hanania, Nicola; Alapat, Philip; Bandi, Venkata; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha; Guy, Elizabeth; Lunn, William; Mallampalli, Antara; Trinh, Charles; Atik, Mustafa; DeMeo, Dawn; Hersh, Craig; Jacobson, Francine; Graham Barr, R.; Thomashow, Byron; Austin, John; MacIntyre, Neil; Washington, Lacey; Page McAdams, H.; Rosiello, Richard; Bresnahan, Timothy; McEvoy, Charlene; Tashjian, Joseph; Wise, Robert; Hansel, Nadia; Brown, Robert; Casaburi, Richard; Porszasz, Janos; Fischer, Hans; Budoff, Matt; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Niewoehner, Dennis; Allen, Tadashi; Rice, Kathryn; Foreman, Marilyn; Westney, Gloria; Berkowitz, Eugene; Bowler, Russell; Friedlander, Adam; Meoni, Eleonora; Criner, Gerard; Kim, Victor; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Satti, Aditi; James Mamary, A.; Steiner, Robert; Dass, Chandra; Bailey, William; Dransfield, Mark; Gerald, Lynn; Nath, Hrudaya; Ramsdell, Joe; Ferguson, Paul; Friedman, Paul; McLennan, Geoffrey; van Beek, Edwin JR; Martinez, Fernando; Han, MeiLan; Thompson, Deborah; Kazerooni, Ella; Wendt, Christine; Allen, Tadashi; Sciurba, Frank; Weissfeld, Joel; Fuhrman, Carl; Bon, Jessica; Anzueto, Antonio; Adams, Sandra; Orozco, Carlos; Santiago Restrepo, C.; Mumbower, Amy; Crapo, James; Silverman, Edwin; Make, Barry; Regan, Elizabeth; Samet, Jonathan; Willis, Amy; Stinson, Douglas; Beaty, Terri; Klanderman, Barbara; Laird, Nan; Lange, Christoph; Ionita, Iuliana; Santorico, Stephanie; Silverman, Edwin; Lynch, David; Schroeder, Joyce; Newell, John; Reilly, John; Coxson, Harvey; Judy, Philip; Hoffman, Eric; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George; Leek, Rebecca; Zach, Jordan; Kluiber, Alex; Rodionova, Anastasia; Mann, Tanya; Crapo, Robert; Jensen, Robert; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Murphy, James; Everett, Douglas; Wilson, Carla; Hokanson, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not have COPD are unknown. METHODS: Eight thousand two hundred forty-six non-Hispanic white and black current and former smokers in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort had longitudinal follow-up (LFU) every 6 months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an ED visit, or hospitalization. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the factors associated with acute respiratory episodes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first episode and an acute episode of respiratory disease risk score. RESULTS: At enrollment, 4,442 subjects did not have COPD, 658 had mild COPD, and 3,146 had moderate or worse COPD. Nine thousand three hundred three acute episodes of respiratory disease and 2,707 hospitalizations were reported in LFU (3,044 acute episodes of respiratory disease and 827 hospitalizations in those without COPD). Major predictors included acute episodes of respiratory disease in year prior to enrollment (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24 per exacerbation), airflow obstruction (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96 per 10% change in % predicted FEV1), and poor health-related quality of life (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08 for each 4-unit increase in St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score). Risks were similar for those with and without COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Although acute episode of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar, and at a population level, there are more episodes in smokers without COPD. PMID:24945159

  8. Regional Grey and White Matter Changes in Heavy Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rongjun; Zhao, Liyan; Lu, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in the general population but the effects of chronic smoking on brain structures are still unclear. Previous studies have found mixed results regarding regional grey matter abnormalities in smokers. To characterize both grey and white matter changes in heavy male smokers, we investigated 16 heavy smokers and 16 matched healthy controls, using both univariate voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and multivariate pattern classification analysis. Compared with controls, heavy smokers exhibited smaller grey matter volume in cerebellum, as well as larger white matter volume in putamen, anterior and middle cingulate cortex. Further, the spatial patterns of grey matter or white matter both discriminated smokers from controls in these regions as well as in other brain regions. Our findings demonstrated volume abnormalities not only in the grey matter but also in the white matter in heavy male smokers. The multivariate analysis suggests that chronic smoking may be associated with volume alternations in broader brain regions than those identified in VBM analysis. These results may better our understanding of the neurobiological consequence of smoking and inform smoking treatment. PMID:22076160

  9. Recruiting unmotivated smokers into a smoking induction trial.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kari Jo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Goggin, Kathy; Richter, Kimber P; Patten, Christi; Williams, Karen; Lee, Hyoung S; Staggs, Vincent S; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about effective methods to recruit unmotivated smokers into cessation induction trials, the reasons unmotivated smokers agree to participate, and the impact of those reasons on study outcomes. A mixed-method approach was used to examine recruitment data from a randomized controlled cessation induction trial that enrolled 255 adult smokers with low motivation to quit. Over 15 months, 33% of smokers who inquired about the study were enrolled. Common recruitment methods included word-of-mouth, print advertisements and clinic referrals. Frequently mentioned reasons for participating included to: gain financial incentives (44.7%), learn about research or help others quit (43%), learn about smoking and risks (40%) and help with future quits (i.e. Quit Assistance, 23.9%). Separate regression models predicting study outcomes at 26 weeks indicated that smokers who said they participated for Quit Assistance reported higher motivation to quit (B 1.26) and were more likely to have made a quit attempt (OR 2.03) compared to those not mentioning this reason, when baseline characteristics were controlled. Understanding reasons for unmotivated smokers' interest in treatment can help practitioners and researchers design effective strategies to engage this population. PMID:27081187

  10. Neural Reward and Punishment Sensitivity in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Geoffrey F.; Bloom, Erika; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicotine addiction remains a major public health problem but the neural substrates of addictive behavior remain unknown. One characteristic of smoking behavior is impulsive choice, selecting the immediate reward of smoking despite the potential long-term negative consequences. This suggests that drug users, including cigarette smokers, may be more sensitive to rewards and less sensitive to punishment. Methods We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to test the hypothesis that smokers are more responsive to reward signals and less responsive to punishment, potentially predisposing them to risky behavior. We conducted two experiments, one using a reward prediction design to elicit a Medial Frontal Negativity (MFN) and one using a reward- and punishment-motivated flanker task to elicit an Error Related Negativity (ERN), ERP components thought to index activity in the cortical projection of the dopaminergic reward system. Results and Conclusions The smokers had a greater MFN response to unpredicted rewards, and non-smokers, but not smokers, had a larger ERN on punishment motivated trials indicating that smokers are more reward sensitive and less punishment sensitive than nonsmokers, overestimating the appetitive value and underestimating aversive outcomes of stimuli and actions. PMID:25292454

  11. Phylogenetic diversity of methanogenic, sulfate-reducing and methanotrophic prokaryotes from deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Andrew J.; Dorn, Ruth; Van Dover, Cindy L.; Lutz, Richard A.; Vetriani, Costantino

    2009-09-01

    Microbial communities of methanogenic, sulfate-reducing and methanotrophic prokaryotes from deep-sea environments were investigated by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the genes encoding for the methyl coenzyme M reductase ( mcrA), dissimilatory sulfite reductase ( dsrAB) and particulate methane monoxygenase ( pmoA), respectively. Clone libraries of PCR amplified genes were constructed using DNA extracted from deep-sea vent chimneys (Rainbow and Logatchev hydrothermal vent fields, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Atlantic Ocean; 9°N East Pacific Rise, Pacific Ocean) and from vertically subsampled sediment cores from cold-seep areas (Blake Ridge, western Atlantic Ocean; Florida Escarpment, Gulf of Mexico). Recombinant clones were screened by RFLP and representative dsrAB, mcrA and pmoA genes were sequenced. The dsrAB sequences grouped primarily within the orders Desulfobacterales, Syntrophobacterales and the Gram-positive order Clostridales. Cold-seep mcrA sequences were distributed among the ANME-2c, -2d and -2e groups, which were previously shown to be associated with the anaerobic oxidation of methane. This study also reports the first mcrA sequences from a high-temperature, black smoker chimney (Logatchev) to group within the ANME-2e subgroup. The majority of the remaining hydrothermal vent mcrA sequences were primarily related to thermophilic members of the anaerobic, methanogenic order Methanococcales. A shift in the dominant ANME-2 group with depth in the sediment for both Florida Escarpment and Blake Ridge mcrA libraries was detected. ANME-2d related clones were detected in the top zones of both cores, with the frequency of ANME-2e related clones increasing with depth. All pmoA sequences retrieved from the cold-seep sites were found to be related to Type I methanotrophic members of the γ-proteobacteria, and were primarily distributed among three major clusters of sequences. No Type II pmoA sequences related to methanotrophic members of the α-proteobacteria were detected, suggesting that the methanotrophic communities in these cold-seep areas are dominated by Type I γ-proteobacteria.

  12. Data to assess the generalizability of samples from studies of adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Callas, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: One major determinant of external validity is the representativeness of the sample. This article provides data to help authors and readers assess the generalizability of samples from smoking studies Methods: We analyzed the 2007 U.S. National Health Interview Survey. Results: We provide means, SEMs, and 95% CIs for demographic and smoking behavior characteristics of never-smokers, ever-smokers, all current smokers, current daily smokers, current nondaily smokers, long-term ex-smokers, and smokers who made a quit attempt in the last year. Discussion: Our results can help studies assess generalizability, set targets for recruitment, or reweigh data to reflect U.S. averages. PMID:19955340

  13. Change in Smoking, Diet, and Walking for Exercise in Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Thomas, Janet L.; An, Lawrence C.; Guo, Hongfei; Collins, Tracie; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Positive changes in one health behavior may be accompanied by other constructive health behavior changes. Thus, the authors investigated the association of smoking reduction and cessation to changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and engaging in walking for exercise. This study included 539 Black light smokers ([less than or equal to]10…

  14. Change in Smoking, Diet, and Walking for Exercise in Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Thomas, Janet L.; An, Lawrence C.; Guo, Hongfei; Collins, Tracie; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Positive changes in one health behavior may be accompanied by other constructive health behavior changes. Thus, the authors investigated the association of smoking reduction and cessation to changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and engaging in walking for exercise. This study included 539 Black light smokers ([less than or equal to]10

  15. [Cadmium and lead concentrations in the amniotic fluid of pregnant smokers and non-smokers].

    PubMed

    Klink, F; Jungblut, J R; Oberheuser, F; Siegers, C P

    1983-11-01

    Many studies showed the unhealthy effect of smoking on the fetus. Several mechanisms for the unfavorable effect are discussed. In the last few years interest has been shown in the occurrence of heavy metals such as cadmium and lead in smoke. In animal experiments high doses of cadmium showed mutations, teratogenicity and low doses showed retardation of fetal growth. Amniotic fluid examinations of smoking and non-smoking pregnant women showed that there is no barrier to cadmium from the placenta. A direct correlation between cigarette smoking and cadmium concentration in the amniotic fluid was found. Cadmium was discussed as a reason for hypertension. But this was not verified in our study. There were no correlations between the cadmium and lead content of amniotic fluid and the gestational age, and disturbances of the pregnancy nor a correlation to the incidence of abortions. The lead concentration in the amniotic fluid of smokers and non-smokers showed no significant difference. This is attributed to the ubiquitous exposition to lead with increasing pollution of the environment. The relatively small additional amounts of lead in cigarettes do not increase the amount of lead in the amniotic fluid. PMID:6557981

  16. Scottish court dismisses a historic smoker's suit

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, L; Daynard, R

    2007-01-01

    The decision in a Scottish smoker's case, McTear v. Imperial Tobacco Limited, that there was no scientific proof of causation between the plaintiff's smoking and his death from lung cancer, accepted all of the traditional arguments that the tobacco industry has made throughout the history of tobacco litigation, including that epidemiology is not an adequate branch of science to draw a conclusion of causation, that the tobacco industry has no knowledge that its products are dangerous to consumers, and that, despite this lack of knowledge, the plaintiff had sufficient information to make an informed decision about the dangers of smoking. This case relied on outmoded methods of reasoning and placed too great a faith in the tobacco industry's timeworn argument that “everybody knew, nobody knows”. Further, the judge found it prejudicial that the plaintiff's expert witnesses were not paid for their services because she was indigent, believing that the lack of payment placed in doubt their credibility and claiming that the paid tobacco expert witnesses had more motive to testify independently because they had been paid, a perverse and novel line of reasoning. The McTear case contrasts unfavourably with the recent decision in United States v. Philip Morris, a United States decision that found the tobacco industry defendants to be racketeers, based both on the weight of a huge amount of internal tobacco industry documents showing that the tobacco industry knew their products were addictive and were made that way purposely to increase sales, and on the testimony of expert witnesses who, like those who testified in McTear, have made the advancement of the public health their life's work and are not “hired guns”. The McTear case's reasoning seems outdated and reminiscent of early litigation in the United States. Hopefully, it will not take courts outside of the United States 40 more years to acknowledge the current scientific knowledge about smoking and health. PMID:17897973

  17. School Absenteeism Among Children Living With Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Involuntary tobacco smoke exposure causes substantial morbidity in children. We hypothesized that children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home would have increased school absenteeism with associated costs due to lost caregiver wages/time. METHODS: We analyzed data on health and absenteeism among schoolchildren aged 6 to 11 years identified in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). We used multivariate models to assess the relationships between adult-reported household smoking and child health and school absenteeism. Analyses were adjusted for children's and parents' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The value of lost caregiver time was estimated by using self-reported employment and earnings data in the NHIS and publicly available time-use data. RESULTS: Children living with 1 or ≥2 adults who smoked in the home had 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54–1.55) and 1.54 (95% CI: 0.95–2.12) more days absent from school per year, respectively, than children living with 0 smokers in the home. Living with ≥2 adults who smoked in the home was associated with increased reports of having ≥3 ear infections in the previous 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.65 [95% CI: 1.36–5.16]) and having a chest cold in the 2 weeks before interview (aOR: 1.77 [95% CI: 1.03–3.03]) but not with having vomiting/diarrhea in the previous 2 weeks (aOR: 0.93 [95% CI: 0.45–1.89]). Caregivers' time tending children absent from school was valued at $227 million per year. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoke exposure has significant consequences for children and families above and beyond child morbidity, including academic disadvantage and financial burden. PMID:21890826

  18. Scottish court dismisses a historic smoker's suit.

    PubMed

    Friedman, L; Daynard, R

    2007-10-01

    The decision in a Scottish smoker's case, McTear v. Imperial Tobacco Limited, that there was no scientific proof of causation between the plaintiff's smoking and his death from lung cancer, accepted all of the traditional arguments that the tobacco industry has made throughout the history of tobacco litigation, including that epidemiology is not an adequate branch of science to draw a conclusion of causation, that the tobacco industry has no knowledge that its products are dangerous to consumers, and that, despite this lack of knowledge, the plaintiff had sufficient information to make an informed decision about the dangers of smoking. This case relied on outmoded methods of reasoning and placed too great a faith in the tobacco industry's timeworn argument that "everybody knew, nobody knows". Further, the judge found it prejudicial that the plaintiff's expert witnesses were not paid for their services because she was indigent, believing that the lack of payment placed in doubt their credibility and claiming that the paid tobacco expert witnesses had more motive to testify independently because they had been paid, a perverse and novel line of reasoning. The McTear case contrasts unfavourably with the recent decision in United States v. Philip Morris, a United States decision that found the tobacco industry defendants to be racketeers, based both on the weight of a huge amount of internal tobacco industry documents showing that the tobacco industry knew their products were addictive and were made that way purposely to increase sales, and on the testimony of expert witnesses who, like those who testified in McTear, have made the advancement of the public health their life's work and are not "hired guns". The McTear case's reasoning seems outdated and reminiscent of early litigation in the United States. Hopefully, it will not take courts outside of the United States 40 more years to acknowledge the current scientific knowledge about smoking and health. PMID:17897973

  19. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Stephanie K.; Rogers, Brooke G.; Webb Hooper, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%). Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy. PMID:25429684

  20. Why Don't Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting.

    PubMed

    Morphett, Kylie; Partridge, Brad; Gartner, Coral; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2015-06-01

    The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker's addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual's situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers' views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers' attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences. PMID:26068089

  1. Microbial ecology of hydrothermal biotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, Clemente I.; Conners, Shannon B.; Johnson, Matthew R.; Pysz, Marybeth A.; Shockley, Keith R.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2004-02-01

    Hydrothermal environments, whether terrestrial or marine, provide a window into potentially thriving ecosystems on other solar bodies. If such extraterrestrial biotopes do exist, they might be inhabited by extremophilic microorganisms, perhaps related to hyperthermophiles (optimal growth temperature > 80°C) previously characterized from geothermal sites on this planet. Study of the physiological and metabolic patterns in hyperthermophiles will shed light on microbial lifestyles consistent with putative hydrothermal niches on other planets and moons.

  2. Hydrothermal Growth of Polyscale Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrappa, Kullaiah

    In this chapter, the importance of the hydrothermal technique for growth of polyscale crystals is discussed with reference to its efficiency in synthesizing high-quality crystals of various sizes for modern technological applications. The historical development of the hydrothermal technique is briefly discussed, to show its evolution over time. Also some of the important types of apparatus used in routine hydrothermal research, including the continuous production of nanosize crystals, are discussed. The latest trends in the hydrothermal growth of crystals, such as thermodynamic modeling and understanding of the solution chemistry, are elucidated with appropriate examples. The growth of some selected bulk, fine, and nanosized crystals of current technological significance, such as quartz, aluminum and gallium berlinites, calcite, gemstones, rare-earth vanadates, electroceramic titanates, and carbon polymorphs, is discussed in detail. Future trends in the hydrothermal technique, required to meet the challenges of fast-growing demand for materials in various technological fields, are described. At the end of this chapter, an Appendix 18.A containing a more or less complete list of the characteristic families of crystals synthesized by the hydrothermal technique is given with the solvent and pressure-temperature (PT) conditions used in their synthesis.

  3. Constraints On Fluid Evolution During Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Circulation From Anhydrite Sampled by ODP Hole 1256D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Duque, C.; Teagle, D. A.; Alt, J. C.; Cooper, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Anhydrite is potentially a useful mineral for recording the evolution of seawater-derived fluids during mid- ocean ridge hydrothermal circulation because it exhibits retrograde solubility, and hence may precipitate due to the heating of seawater or the sub-surface mixing of seawater with black smoker-like fluids. Here we provide new insights into the chemical and thermal evolution of seawater during hydrothermal circulation through analyses of anhydrite recovered from ODP Hole 1256D, the first complete penetration of intact upper oceanic crust down to gabbros. Previously, crustal anhydrite has been recovered only from Hole 504B. Measurements of 87Sr/86Sr, major element ratios, Rare Earth Elements and δ18O in anhydrite constrain the changing composition of fluids as they chemically interact with basalt. Anhydrite fills veins and pore-space in the lower lava sequences from ~530 to ~1000 meters sub- basement (msb), but is concentrated in the lava-dike transition (754 to 811 msb) and uppermost sheeted dikes. Although present in greater quantities than in Hole 504B, the amount of anhydrite recovered from the Site 1256 crust is low compared to that predicted by models of hydrothermal circulation (e.g., Sleep, 1991). Two distinct populations of anhydrite are indicated by measurements of 87Sr/86Sr suggesting different fluid evolution paths within Site 1256. One group of anhydrites have 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7070 to 0.7085, close to that of 15 Ma seawater (0.70878), suggesting that some fluids penetrate through the lavas and into the sheeted dikes with only minimal Sr-exchange with the host basalts. A second group, with low 87Sr/86Sr between 0.7048 and 0.7052, indicates precipitation from a fluid that has undergone far greater interaction with basalt. This range is close to that estimated from Sr-isotopic analyses of epidote for the Hole 1256D hydrothermal fluids (87Sr/86Sr ~0.705). Sr/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr indicate a similar relationship to that seen at ODP Hole 504B suggesting that Sr/Ca ratios reduce greatly during recharge before there is significant Sr exchange with the host basalts. δ18O measurements display an irregular trend with depth from +17‰ in the lower volcanics to +10‰ in the sheeted dikes suggesting an increase in precipitation temperatures from 105 to 211°C. One sample, from a chalcopyrite mineralized dike margin has a very light δ18O of +2.2‰ suggesting a temperature of ~408°, perhaps indicating that fluid was superheated following direct contact with the hot intrusive body. This sample also records low 87Sr/86Sr and high total REE.

  4. Black holes.

    PubMed

    Brügmann, B; Ghez, A M; Greiner, J

    2001-09-11

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  5. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  6. Altered Affective Response in Marijuana Smokers: An FMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Staci A.; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    More than 94 million Americans have tried marijuana, and it remains the most widely used illicit drug in the nation. Investigations of the cognitive effects of marijuana report alterations in brain function during tasks requiring executive control, including inhibition and decision-making. Endogenous cannabinoids regulate a variety of emotional responses, including anxiety, mood control, and aggression; nevertheless, little is known about smokers’ responses to affective stimuli. The anterior cingulate and amygdala play key roles in the inhibition of impulsive behavior and affective regulation, and studies using PET and fMRI have demonstrated changes within these regions in marijuana smokers. Given alterations in mood and perception often observed in smokers, we hypothesized altered fMRI patterns of response in 15 chronic heavy marijuana smokers relative to 15 non-marijuana smoking control subjects during the viewing of masked happy and fearful faces. Despite no between-group differences on clinical or demographic measures, smokers demonstrated a relative decrease in both anterior cingulate and amygdalar activity during masked affective stimuli compared to controls, who showed relative increases in activation within these regions during the viewing of masked faces. Findings indicate that chronic heavy marijuana smokers demonstrate altered activation of frontal and limbic systems while viewing masked faces, consistent with autoradiographic studies reporting high CB-1 receptor density in these regions. These data suggest differences in affective processing in chronic smokers, even when stimuli are presented below the level of conscious processing, and underscore the likelihood that marijuana smokers process emotional information differently from those who do not smoke, which may result in negative consequences. PMID:19656642

  7. Simulating smokers' acceptance of modifications in a cessation program.

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, R

    1992-01-01

    Recent research has underscored the importance of assessing barriers to smokers' acceptance of cessation programs. This paper illustrates the use of computer simulations to gauge smokers' response to program modifications which may produce barriers to participation. It also highlights methodological issues encountered in conducting this work. Computer simulations were based on conjoint analysis, a consumer research method which enables measurement of smokers' relative preference for various modifications of cessation programs. Results from two studies are presented in this paper. The primary study used a randomly selected sample of 218 adult smokers who participated in a computer-assisted phone interview. Initially, the study assessed smokers' relative utility rating of 30 features of cessation programs. Utility data were used in computer-simulated comparisons of a low-cost, self-help oriented program under development and five other existing programs. A baseline version of the program under development and two modifications (for example, use of a support group with a higher level of cost) were simulated. Both the baseline version and modifications received a favorable response vis-à-vis comparison programs. Modifications requiring higher program costs were, however, associated with moderately reduced levels of favorable consumer response. The second study used a sample of 70 smokers who responded to an expanded set of smoking cessation program features focusing on program packaging. This secondary study incorporate in-person, computer-assisted interviews at a shopping mall, with smokers viewing an artist's mock-up of various program options on display. A similar pattern of responses to simulated program modifications emerged, with monetary cost apparently playing a key role. The significance of conjoint-based computer simulation as a tool in program development or dissemination, salient methodological issues, and implications for further research are discussed. PMID:1738813

  8. Mg/Ca and isotopic high resolution record of deep-sea hydrothermal barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, A.-V.; Bojar, H.-P.; Tufar, W.

    2012-04-01

    Barnacles are crustaceans adapted to a sessile existence and cemented to a substrate by a protein complex. Most of the known species inhabit shallow marine environment, less than 2% of the species are found at depths between 100 and 2500 m. The shell of barnacles has a great adaptive significance, the shell of some barnacle species have been already investigated for microstructure. In this study we investigated the shell microstructure as well as the Mg/Ca and stable isotope distribution of barnacles found at a depth of around 2500m at a black smoker from the Manus Spreading centre, north-east of Papua New Guinea. The shell consists of three substructures: an outer layer with pores and aragonite crystals, a massive interior mass and an inner layer with pores. The shell shows grown lines and the outer layer exhibits longitudinal striation from base to apex. The pores have a medium size of 0.8 microns. The size of the calcitic microcrystals are in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 microns, beside, larger aragonite crystals, with size of c. 10 microns are present. The massive interior mass has a compact structure, no pores or channels could be observed. Oxygen stable isotope data of barnacle shell were performed from the centre to the border of the calcitic shells, along profiles. Within one shell, the isotope values show variations of max. 0.6 ‰. The calculated temperatures from the stable isotope data consistently indicate that the barnacles populate sites with low temperature values, up to a few °C. The calculated temperatures from the isotope data are also in agreement with the reported habitat from the North Fiji and Lau Basins, where temperatures of max. 6°C were measured at sites populated by barnacles. Both calculated and measured temperatures of a few degrees indicate that at the sites where barnacles live, hydrothermal fluid input is present, as ambient temperature is around 1.5°C. Electron-microbeam analyses were done along the interior layer of the shell. The shell consists of a low-Mg calcite. The magnesium content varies between 0.1 and 0.85 wt.%.

  9. Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2011-02-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Anton Koekemoer; 1. Black holes, entropy, and information G. T. Horowitz; 2. Gravitational waves from black-hole mergers J. G. Baker, W. D. Boggs, J. M. Centrella, B. J. Kelley, S. T. McWilliams and J. R. van Meter; 3. Out-of-this-world physics: black holes at future colliders G. Landsberg; 4. Black holes in globular clusters S. L. W. McMillan; 5. Evolution of massive black holes M. Volonteri; 6. Supermassive black holes in deep multiwavelength surveys C. M. Urry and E. Treister; 7. Black-hole masses from reverberation mapping B. M. Peterson and M. C. Bentz; 8. Black-hole masses from gas dynamics F. D. Macchetto; 9. Evolution of supermassive black holes A. Müller and G. Hasinger; 10. Black-hole masses of distant quasars M. Vestergaard; 11. The accretion history of supermassive black holes K. Brand and the NDWFS Boötes Survey Teams; 12. Strong field gravity and spin of black holes from broad iron lines A. C. Fabian; 13. Birth of massive black-hole binaries M. Colpi, M. Dotti, L. Mayer and S. Kazantzidis; 14. Dynamics around supermassive black holes A. Gualandris and D. Merritt; 15. Black-hole formation and growth: simulations in general relativity S. L. Shapiro; 16. Estimating the spins of stellar-mass black holes J. E. McClintock, R. Narayan and R. Shafee; 17. Stellar relaxation processes near the Galactic massive black hole T. Alexander; 18. Tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes S. Gezari; 19. Where to look for radiatively inefficient accretion flows in low-luminosity AGN M. Chiaberge; 20. Making black holes visible: accretion, radiation, and jets J. H. Krolik.

  10. Genome-wide unmasking of epigenetically silenced genes in lung adenocarcinoma from smokers and never smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yingling, Christin M.; Liu, Yushi; Tellez, Carmen S.; Van Neste, Leander; Baylin, Stephen S.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer in never smokers (NS) shows striking demographic, clinicopathological and molecular distinctions from the disease in smokers (S). Studies on selected genetic and epigenetic alterations in lung cancer identified that the frequency and profile of some abnormalities significantly differ by smoking status. This study compared the transcriptome of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from S (n = 3) and NS (n = 3) each treated with vehicle (control), histone deacetylation inhibitor (trichostatin A) or DNA methylation inhibitor (5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine). Among 122 genes reexpressed following 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine but not trichostatin A treatment in two or more cell lines (including 32 genes in S-only and 12 NS-only), methylation was validated for 80% (98/122 genes). After methylation analysis of 20 normal tissue samples and 14 additional non–small cell lung cancer cell lines (total 20), 39 genes frequently methylated in normal (>20%, 4/20) and 21 genes rarely methylated in non–small cell lung cancer (≤10%, 2/20) were excluded. The prevalence for methylation of the remaining 38 genes in lung adenocarcinomas from S (n = 97) and NS (n = 75) ranged from 8–89% and significantly differs between S and NS for CPEB1, CST6, EMILIN2, LAYN and MARVELD3 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, methylation of EMILIN2, ROBO3 and IGDCC4 was more prevalent in advanced (Stage II–IV, n = 61) than early (Stage I, n = 110) tumors. Knockdown of MARVELD3, one of the novel epigenetically silenced genes, by small interfering RNA significantly reduced anchorage-independent growth of lung cancer cells (P < 0.001). Collectively, this study has identified multiple, novel, epigenetically silenced genes in lung cancer and provides invaluable resources for the development of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. PMID:24398667

  11. Affective Motives for Smoking Among Early Stage Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wahlquist, Amy E.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Methods: Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16–20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Results: Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR − NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Conclusions: Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. PMID:24924155

  12. Do anti-smoking media campaigns help smokers quit?

    PubMed

    Popham, W J; Potter, L D; Bal, D G; Johnson, M D; Duerr, J M; Quinn, V

    1993-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of the 1990-91 anti-tobacco media campaign carried out by the California Department of Health Services, a study was conducted among 417 regular smokers who had quit during the period of the media campaign. In brief telephone interviews, all respondents identified up to three events or experiences that had influenced them to quit. In response to uncued questions, 6.7 percent of those interviewed indicated that they had been influenced to quit by an advertisement they had seen or heard on radio, television, or billboards. In response to direct questions about the media campaign, 34.3 percent of the respondents indicated that the media campaign's advertisement had played a part in their decision to quit. Applying the 6.7 percentage to the number of Californians who quit smoking in 1990-91, it can be estimated that for 33,000 former smokers, the anti-tobacco media advertisements were an important stimulus in their quit decision. Multiplying the 34.3 percent by the number of former California smokers who quit in 1990-91, the estimate of former smokers for whom the media campaign's advertisements played at least some part in their decision to quit rises to 173,000 persons. While causal attributions from such investigations should be made with caution, the evidence suggests that the 1990-91 campaign did influence substantial number of smokers in California to quit. PMID:8341788

  13. Health care institutions should not exclude smokers from employment.

    PubMed

    Huddle, Thomas S; Kertesz, Stefan G; Nash, Ryan R

    2014-06-01

    Some health care institutions, including academic health centers, have adopted policies excluding smokers from employment. Claims advanced on behalf of these policies include financial savings from reduced health costs and absenteeism as well as advantages consonant with their message of healthy living. The authors suggest that the institutional savings from these policies are speculative and unproven. Also, in settings where large medical schools operate, it is likely to be the poor, including members of minority groups, who, under an employee smoker ban, will lose the opportunity to work for an employer that offers health insurance and other benefits. In response to the incentives created by such bans, some will quit smoking, but most will not. Thus, at the community level, employee smoker bans are more likely to be harmful than beneficial.Although private businesses may rightly choose not to hire smokers in the 19 states where such policies are legal, health care institutions, including academic health centers, should consider hiring choices in light of the values they profess. The traditional values of medicine include service to all persons in need, even when illness results from addiction or unsafe behavior. Secular academic communities require a shared dedication to discovery without requiring strict conformity of private behavior or belief. The authors conclude that for health care institutions, policies of hiring smokers and helping them to quit are both prudent and expressive of the norms of medical care, such as inclusion, compassion, and fellowship, that academic health professionals seek to honor. PMID:24871233

  14. Natural killer cell activity in cigarette smokers and asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ginns, L.C.; Ryu, J.H.; Rogol, P.R.; Sprince, N.L.; Oliver, L.C.; Larsson, C.J.

    1985-06-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure on cellular immunity, the authors tested a group of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers for natural killer (NK) activity in the peripheral blood. The mean NK activity in cigarette smokers was lower than in normal subjects (13.7 +/- 1.6 versus 29.0 +/- 3%; p less than 0.05). As a group, the mean NK activity for the asbestos-exposed group was also reduced compared with that of the nonsmoking control group (22.6 +/- 3.2%; p less than 0.05). When divided according to the smoking status, the asbestos workers who were nonsmokers or ex-smokers showed similar decreases in NK activity compared with normal subjects (19.5 +/- 6.2 and 21.2 +/- 4.5%, respectively; p less than 0.05). A subgroup of asbestos-exposed subjects who currently smoked showed no decrease in NK activity. The data show that NK activity is reduced in the peripheral blood of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers. The relatively normal NK activity found in asbestos workers who also smoked is unexplained. Impairment of NK activity is a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of infection and cancer in smokers and neoplasia in asbestos workers.

  15. Pain intensity and smoking behavior among treatment seeking smokers.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaie, Jafar; Ditre, Joseph W; Langdon, Kirsten J; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Paulus, Daniel J; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-03-30

    Empirical evidence supporting the interplay between pain intensity and tobacco smoking has been growing. The current investigation advances this work in three important ways: (1) controlling for negative affectivity and gender; (2) examining pain intensity in smokers from a community sample, rather than specialized pain treatment centers; and, (3) studying smokers who are highly motivated to quit. Participants were adult smokers (N=112; 35% female; Mage=41.4, SD=13.1) participating in a larger study examining barriers to cessation during a self-guided quit attempt. At baseline, participants completed self-report measures on pain intensity and smoking severity outcomes. As hypothesized, more intense pain was significantly associated with all four smoking severity variables: years as a daily smoker, current cigarettes per day, cigarettes per day during the heaviest lifetime smoking period, and current level of nicotine dependence. These associations remained when taking into account the variance accounted for by gender and negative affectivity. These data provide evidence that more intense pain is related to more severe smoking behavior and nicotine dependence. Pain reduction could be an important target in regard to smokers with chronic pain. PMID:26921054

  16. Isolated and Skeptical: Social Engagement and Trust in Information Sources Among Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Kelly; Hesse, Bradford W.; Ackerson, Leland K.

    2014-01-01

    Our study compared indicators of social engagement and trust among current, former, and never smokers. Multinomial regression analyses of data from the 2005 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (n=5586) were conducted to identify independent associations between social engagement, trust in health information sources, and smoking status. Never smokers (odds ratio (OR)=2.08) and former smokers (OR=2.48) were significantly more likely to belong to community organizations than current smokers. Never (OR=4.59) and former smokers (OR=1.96) were more likely than current smokers to attend religious services. Never smokers (OR=1.38) were significantly more likely than current smokers to use the Internet. Former smokers (OR=1.41) were more likely than current smokers to be married. Compared to current smokers, never smokers were significantly more likely to trust health care professionals (OR=1.52) and less likely to trust the Internet (OR=0.59) for health information. Current smokers are less socially engaged and less trusting of information resources than non-smokers. PMID:21340632

  17. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of perovskite bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Biasotto, G.; Simoes, A.Z.; Foschini, C.R.; Zaghete, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) nanoparticles were grown by hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The soaking time is effective in improving phase formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rietveld refinement reveals an orthorhombic structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed magnetism of the BFO crystallites is a consequence of particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HTMW is a genuine technique for low temperatures and short times of synthesis. -- Abstract: Hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline bismuth ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) nanoparticles (BFO) in the temperature of 180 Degree-Sign C with times ranging from 5 min to 1 h. BFO nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray analyses, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, TG-DTA and FE-SEM. X-ray diffraction results indicated that longer soaking time was benefit to refraining the formation of any impurity phases and growing BFO crystallites into almost single-phase perovskites. Typical FT-IR spectra for BFO nanoparticles presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. TG-DTA analyses confirmed the presence of lattice OH{sup -} groups, commonly found in materials obtained by HTMW process. Compared with the conventional solid-state reaction process, submicron BFO crystallites with better homogeneity could be produced at the temperature as low as 180 Degree-Sign C. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could be used as an alternative to obtain BFO nanoparticles in the temperature of 180 Degree-Sign C for 1 h.

  18. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.S.

    1989-12-21

    We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

  19. Mechanisms Linking Socioeconomic Disadvantage and BMI in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Castro, Yessenia; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate a conceptual model of the psychosocial pathways linking socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI) among smokers. Methods A latent variable modeling approach was used to evaluate the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect, and BMI among smokers recruited from the Houston metropolitan area (N = 424). Results A total of 42.4% of participants were obese, with the highest prevalence of obesity among Latinos followed by African Americans. Across all racial/ethnic groups, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect functioned as pathways linking socioeconomic status and BMI. Conclusions Findings indicate the need for interventions that target obesity among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers and provide potential intervention targets for the prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:23985281

  20. Smokers in Pain Report Lower Confidence and Greater Difficulty Quitting

    PubMed Central

    Zale, Emily L.; Dorfman, Michelle L.; Heckman, Bryan W.; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pain and tobacco smoking are both highly prevalent and comorbid conditions, and there is reason to believe that pain may pose a barrier to smoking cessation. Although motivation to quit smoking and abstinence self-efficacy have been shown to predict future quit attempts and smoking cessation outcomes, little is known about how these factors may differ as a function of pain status. The goal of the current study was to test cross-sectional relations between past-month pain and self-reported motivation to quit smoking, recent difficulty quitting, and current abstinence self-efficacy. Methods: Current daily smokers were recruited from the local community to participate in a laboratory study that included a baseline assessment of recent pain and smoking history. Results: Approximately 59% of 132 smokers endorsed past-month pain. Consistent with hypotheses, smokers who endorsed past-month pain reported lower confidence in their ability to remain abstinent and having experienced greater difficulty during their most recent quit attempt (ps < .03). Smokers in pain also endorsed greater motivation to quit and were more than twice as likely (odds ratio = 2.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.28–5.84) to be classified in the contemplation/preparation (vs. precontemplation) stages, relative to pain-free smokers. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate an association between positive pain status, recent difficulty quitting smoking, and reduced self-efficacy for future smoking abstinence. These findings support the utility of assessing pain among all smokers and may help to inform future intervention efforts aimed at helping persons in pain quit smoking. PMID:24827790

  1. Altered hypothalamic response to food in smokers123

    PubMed Central

    Geha, Paul Y; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Felsted, Jennifer; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Small, Dana M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Smoking cessation is often followed by weight gain. Eating behaviors and weight change have been linked to the brain response to food, but it is unknown whether smoking influences this response. Objective: We determined the influence of smoking status (smokers compared with nonsmokers) on the brain response to food in regions associated with weight changes in nonsmokers. Design: In study 1, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to identify regions of the brain associated with weight change in nonsmokers. BMI and the brain response to a milk shake, which is a palatable and energy-dense food, were measured in a group of 27 nonsmokers (5 men). Sixteen subjects (3 men) returned 1 y later for BMI reassessment. The change in BMI was regressed against the brain response to isolate regions associated with weight change. In study 2, to determine whether smokers showed altered responses in regions associated with weight change, we assessed the brain response to a milk shake in 11 smokers. The brain response to a milk shake compared with a tasteless control solution was assessed in 11 smokers (5 men) in comparison with a group of age-, sex- and body weight–matched nonsmokers selected from the pool of nonsmokers who participated in study 1. Results: The response in the midbrain, hypothalamus, thalamus, and ventral striatum was positively associated with weight change at the 1-y follow-up in 16 nonsmokers. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers had a greater response to milk shakes in the hypothalamus. Conclusion: Smokers display an altered brain response to food in the hypothalamus, which is an area associated with long-term weight change in nonsmokers. PMID:23235196

  2. Subjective Social Status Predicts Smoking Abstinence Among Light Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Davis, Julia T.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Guo, Hongfei; Thomas, Janet L.; Goldade, Kate R.; Okuyemi, Kola S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine if community subjective social status (SSS) predicted smoking abstinence through 26 weeks postrandomization among 755 African American light smokers of low SES (socioeconomic status). Methods Participants were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, which examined the efficacy of nicotine gum and counseling for smoking cessation. Results Results indicated that SSS predicted smoking abstinence over time [P=.046; odds ratio (OR) =1.075 (1.001–1.155)] after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions Further research is needed to understand the effects of community SSS on smoking cessation among heavy smokers and other ethnic groups. PMID:22584091

  3. Predicting young adulthood smoking among adolescent smokers and nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Jennifer R.; Berg, Carla J.; Windle, Rebecca C.; Windle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examined predictors of smoking in young adulthood among (1) adolescent nonsmokers and (2) adolescent smokers. Methods Data were analyzed from a longitudinal study of adolescents to young adulthood in 1988-1998. Results Predictors of smoking in young adulthood among adolescent nonsmokers included less education, being unmarried in adulthood, lower family social support, nonsmoking parents, and increased alcohol use over time. Predictors of smoking in young adulthood among adolescent smokers included lower family social support, more adolescent friends who used drugs, and slower decreases in depressive symptoms over time. Conclusions Distinct factors predict smoking initiation versus maintenance among young adults. PMID:22488404

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

  5. Smoker-Free Workplace Policies: Developing a Model of Public Health Consequences of Workplace Policies Barring Employment to Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Brian; Siegel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A marked shift in tobacco-related workplace health promotion intervention involves the adoption of policies barring employment to smokers. We discuss the potential public health consequences of these policies on those affected – smokers, their families, the surrounding community, and society at large. We find a lack of published evidence evaluating the effectiveness and consequences of these policies. By developing a model of policy effects, we outline possible unintended consequences. With such large gaps in the evidence base and the potential for deleterious consequences, we argue for increased discussion about the use of smoker-free employment policies as a public health intervention and for increased engagement of employers by the public health community in worksite health promotion. PMID:19168490

  6. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    Black tea is a product made from the Camellia sinesis plant. The aged leaves and stems are ... of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness as ...

  7. Black Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraka, Amiri

    1987-01-01

    Discusses black art as not only an expression of black life but as revolutionary art. It must be collective, functional, and committing. It must also be anti-racist, anti-capitalist, and anti-imperialist. (LHW)

  8. Craving and Withdrawal Symptoms During Smoking Cessation: Comparison of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Ivan; Singleton, Edward G; Heishman, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Although pregnant smokers are aware of the negative peri- and postnatal health consequences of smoking, the cessation rate in pregnancy is low, raising the question of why pregnant smokers have difficulty quitting. Reasons might be that pregnant smokers experience more intense craving and withdrawal symptoms than non-pregnant smokers. We compared craving and withdrawal in 306 pregnant smokers versus 93 non-pregnant women using data from two smoking cessation trials. Complete data were analyzed using pre-quit and post-quit (2weeks after quit date) craving and withdrawal measured by the 12-item French Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ-12) and French Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (FMNWS). Pregnant smokers started smoking and smoked regularly earlier and succeeded far less at quitting smoking by week 2 than the general population of smokers (11% versus 43%). Post-quit date FTCQ-12 general score was higher in pregnant smokers compared to comparison groups, and was driven by elevated emotionality and expectancy. FMNWS decreased significantly less among pregnant smokers than among non-pregnant smokers. Insufficient reduction of craving and withdrawal symptoms in response to a quit attempt may partially explain why pregnant smokers may have more difficulty quitting than non-pregnant smokers. Because this was a historical comparison, findings are preliminary; however, they might foster further investigation of differences in craving and withdrawal symptoms in pregnant versus non-pregnant smokers. PMID:26806411

  9. Comparison of barriers to cessation among Arab American smokers of cigarettes and waterpipe.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Linda; El-Shahawy, Omar; Ghadban, Roula

    2014-09-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the differences in barriers to cessation and reasons for quitting smoking among dual smokers of cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco, exclusive cigarette smokers and exclusive waterpipe smokers. Participants were Arab American adults residing in Richmond, Virginia, who were recruited from Middle Eastern grocery stores, restaurants/lounges and faith and charity organizations. The study yielded several key findings: (1) Exclusive cigarette and waterpipe smokers had similar mean barriers to quitting and were more concerned about their health than dual smokers. (F(2, 150) = 5.594, p = 0.0045). This implies that barriers to smoking and health concerns could be a function of the individual who smokes rather than the modality of smoking itself. (2) Exclusive cigarette or waterpipe smokers and dual smokers may have different reasons for quitting, since they have different reasons for smoking. The proportion of smokers who endorsed smoking as a messy habit as the reason among exclusive cigarette smokers was 0.37, whereas the proportion among exclusive waterpipe smokers was 0.04 and among dual smokers 0.39. The difference in proportions is significant, χ2 (df = 2, N = 154) = 13.17, p = 0.0014. In summary, this study supports the need to further investigate dual cigarette and waterpipe smokers, as the study results indicate greater barriers to smoking cessation in this group. Recognition and understanding of these barriers among dual tobacco users would be important for any future tobacco intervention among waterpipe smokers. PMID:25226410

  10. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  11. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of black historian Ed Cabbell by Pat…

  12. Talking Black.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Roger D.

    This book contains essays which focus on the systems of communication that operate within and between various social segments of Afro-American communities in the United States. The essays are presented under the following headings: (1) "Getting Into It: Black Talk, Black Life and the Academic," (2) "'Talking My Talk': Black Talk Varieties and…

  13. Mesozoic hydrothermal alteration associated with gold mineralization in the Mercur district, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.N.; Parry, W.T. )

    1990-09-01

    K/Ar dates and chemical data show that a Mesozoic gold-bearing hydrothermal system altered black shales of the Mississippian Great Blue Limestone throughout an area encompassing the Mercur gold district, Utah. K/Ar dates of illite veins and illite-rich, clay-sized separates of altered shales that are enriched in Au, As, Hg, Sc, and other heavy metals indicate that hydrothermal activity occurred from 193 to 122 Ma. Several ages from within the Mercur district cluster near 160 Ma and may date the minimum age of gold mineralization.

  14. Putting It on the Line: Telephone Counseling for Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedeschi, Gary J.; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Anderson, Christopher M.; Cummins, Sharon; Ribner, Neil G.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an adolescent counseling intervention used by the California Smokers' Helpline and test in the largest randomized trials to date. In this study, more than 1,400 teen clients were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received telephone counseling

  15. Factors in Nonadherence to Quitline Services: Smoker Characteristics Explain Little

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Emily K.; Levinson, Arnold H.; Deaton, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Quitlines offer evidence-based, multisession coaching support for smoking cessation in the 50 U.S. states, Canada, and several other countries. Smokers who enroll in quitline services have, "ipso facto," shown readiness to attempt to quit, but noncompletion of coaching services appears widespread and has not been widely investigated.…

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF COUGH FOR ENHANCING MUCUS CLEARANCE IN ASYMPTOMATIC SMOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using monodisperse aerosols radiolabeled with 99mTc, we studied the effectiveness of ough and rapid inhalations for clearing mucus in en asymptomatic smokers. On three eparate study days, each subject breathed 5 um (MMAD) 99mTc-iron oxide particles under ontrolled breathing condi...

  17. Behavioral Strategies for Nonsmokers: Avoiding and Confronting Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.

    Nonsmokers repeatedly breathe smoke-polluted air in various settings, despite the evidence demonstrating the deleterious consequences upon such passive smokers. The extent of exposure to environmental irritants during a 17-day baseline period was tested, and the efficacy of two simple behavioral strategies in reducing smoke were documented…

  18. Behavioral Strategies for Nonsmokers: Avoiding and Confronting Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.

    Nonsmokers repeatedly breathe smoke-polluted air in various settings, despite the evidence demonstrating the deleterious consequences upon such passive smokers. The extent of exposure to environmental irritants during a 17-day baseline period was tested, and the efficacy of two simple behavioral strategies in reducing smoke were documented

  19. Smoking Intensity among Nigerian Secondary Schools Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhonde, Henry O.; Aluede, Oyaziwo

    2007-01-01

    This study examined smoking intensity among secondary school adolescent smokers. A total of 800 students, made up of 685 males and 115 females who have at least tasted a cigarette once, from twenty secondary schools (5 private and 15 public secondary schools) in Benin City, Nigeria participated in the study. A questionnaire was used in collecting…

  20. Putting It on the Line: Telephone Counseling for Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedeschi, Gary J.; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Anderson, Christopher M.; Cummins, Sharon; Ribner, Neil G.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an adolescent counseling intervention used by the California Smokers' Helpline and test in the largest randomized trials to date. In this study, more than 1,400 teen clients were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received telephone counseling…

  1. [Smoking cessation in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G

    2014-12-01

    One out of two smokers who smoke throughout their lifetime will die from a disease related to smoking. Tobacco smoking therefore represents a major global public health issue. Smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Projections for 2020 indicate that by then, COPD will have become the third cause of death and the fifth cause of disability worldwide. Stopping smoking reduces the risk of developing COPD and is an essential treatment for this inflammatory disease. Smoking cessation decreases the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, number of hospitalizations, and decline in FEV1, as well as exacerbation frequency and overall mortality. Among the patients, 38-77% with COPD are smokers. Their daily cigarette consumption and level of nicotine dependence are often high. The combination of high intensity behavioral interventions and medication treatments (nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, bupropion) is the most effective strategy for smokers with COPD. In contrast, behavioral interventions without medication are not more effective than simple advice to stop. Two factors seem to predict the success of the attempt to quit in smokers with COPD: a strong motivation to quit and the use of smoking cessation medications. PMID:25496790

  2. Recurrent hemoptysis in a 62-year-old smoker.

    PubMed

    Gowrinath, Karanam; Ramakrishna, Baddukonda Appala; Shanthi, Vissa; Sujatha, Gogineni

    2013-04-01

    Tracheal papillary adenoma is a rare benign tumor. We report a case of papillary adenoma in a 62-year-old male smoker who presented with recurrent hemoptysis. The tumor was located in the upper third of trachea and forceps biopsy through flexible bronchoscopy was uncomplicated and diagnostic. PMID:23741099

  3. Recurrent hemoptysis in a 62-year-old smoker

    PubMed Central

    Gowrinath, Karanam; Ramakrishna, Baddukonda Appala; Shanthi, Vissa; Sujatha, Gogineni

    2013-01-01

    Tracheal papillary adenoma is a rare benign tumor. We report a case of papillary adenoma in a 62-year-old male smoker who presented with recurrent hemoptysis. The tumor was located in the upper third of trachea and forceps biopsy through flexible bronchoscopy was uncomplicated and diagnostic. PMID:23741099

  4. Does every US smoker bear the same cigarette tax?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Malarcher, Ann; OHalloran, Alissa; Kruger, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate state cigarette excise tax pass-through rates for selected price-minimizing strategies. Design Multivariate regression analysis of current smokers from a stratified, national, dual-frame telephone survey. Setting United States. Participants A total of 16 542 adult current smokers aged 18 years or older. Measurements Cigarette per pack prices paid with and without coupons were obtained for pack versus carton purchase, use of generic brands versus premium brands, and purchase from Indian reservations versus outside Indian reservations. Findings The average per pack prices paid differed substantially by price-minimizing strategy. Smokers who used any type of price-minimizing strategies paid substantially less than those who did not use these strategies (P < 0.05). Premium brand users who purchased by pack in places outside Indian reservations paid the entire amount of the excise tax, together with an additional premium of 710 cents per pack for every $1 increase in excise tax (pass-through rate of 1.071.10, P < 0.05). In contrast, carton purchasers, generic brand users or those who were likely to make their purchases on Indian reservations paid only 3083 cents per pack for every $1 tax increase (pass-through rate of 0.300.83, P < 0.05). Conclusions Many smokers in the United States are able to avoid the full impact of state excise tax on cost of smoking by buying cartons, using generic brands and buying from Indian reservations. PMID:24861973

  5. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  6. How Can We Balance Ethics and Law When Treating Smokers?

    PubMed Central

    Senderovich, Helen

    2016-01-01

    A physician is a valued member of society on whom many individuals rely for both professional advice and support during times when they may feel to be at a disadvantage, whether it be physically or mentally. An issue on the rise today concerns the population of smokers in our society. Many are coming to share the opinion that physicians should not provide treatments for smokers. Some of the opinions are based on the claim that smokers are morally responsible for their medical conditions. But, providing care in a fair manner includes not treating differently those who suffer from addiction. Moreover, it is important to recognize that allocating medical resources based on moral responsibility will undermine the physician–patient relationship which is necessary for the practice of medicine. Many countries have codes and policies that physicians must legally follow in terms of providing treatments. With acceptance of the fact that the patient may be unable to execute the decisions made by the physician, it is the legal duty of the physician to provide care and not abandon the patient. An analysis of the many policies around the world brings forward certain changes that must be made in order to make sure that physicians fulfil their legal duty, which is to provide care. As such, this article looks into the existing ethical dilemma in treating smokers around the world, with a review of some policies that will guide our approach in this matter. PMID:27101222

  7. Linking Smokers' Susceptibility to Tuberculosis with Lysosomal Storage Disorders.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Annemarie H; Aerts, Johannes M

    2016-04-18

    Reporting in Cell, Berg et al. (2016) reveal a connection between genetic lysosomal storage disorders and the ability of macrophages to migrate and control mycobacterial infection. This insight, resulting from a zebrafish genetic screen, inspired the authors to propose an explanation for the increased susceptibility of cigarette smokers to tuberculosis. PMID:27093080

  8. Willingness among College Students to Help a Smoker Quit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Gerber, Tracy A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Patten, Christi A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Offord, Kenneth P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Between February and March 2003, the authors examined college students' willingness to help a smoker quit and assessed demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with willingness to help. Participants: Survey respondents were 701 college students (474 women, 227 men) aged 18 to 24 years who indicated there was someone close

  9. Willingness among College Students to Help a Smoker Quit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Gerber, Tracy A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Patten, Christi A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Offord, Kenneth P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Between February and March 2003, the authors examined college students' willingness to help a smoker quit and assessed demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with willingness to help. Participants: Survey respondents were 701 college students (474 women, 227 men) aged 18 to 24 years who indicated there was someone close…

  10. Factors in Nonadherence to Quitline Services: Smoker Characteristics Explain Little

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Emily K.; Levinson, Arnold H.; Deaton, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Quitlines offer evidence-based, multisession coaching support for smoking cessation in the 50 U.S. states, Canada, and several other countries. Smokers who enroll in quitline services have, "ipso facto," shown readiness to attempt to quit, but noncompletion of coaching services appears widespread and has not been widely investigated.

  11. Transtheoretical Model of Change Among Hospitalized African American Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Connie L.; Fish, Larry; Davies, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine predicted relationships among transtheoretical model of change measures in a sample of 211 low-income, African American hospitalized smokers. Methods: We used discriminant analysis to examine differences in decisional balance and self-efficacy across stages of change for quitting. Results: Differences in decisional balance…

  12. How Can We Balance Ethics and Law When Treating Smokers?

    PubMed

    Senderovich, Helen

    2016-01-01

    A physician is a valued member of society on whom many individuals rely for both professional advice and support during times when they may feel to be at a disadvantage, whether it be physically or mentally. An issue on the rise today concerns the population of smokers in our society. Many are coming to share the opinion that physicians should not provide treatments for smokers. Some of the opinions are based on the claim that smokers are morally responsible for their medical conditions. But, providing care in a fair manner includes not treating differently those who suffer from addiction. Moreover, it is important to recognize that allocating medical resources based on moral responsibility will undermine the physician-patient relationship which is necessary for the practice of medicine. Many countries have codes and policies that physicians must legally follow in terms of providing treatments. With acceptance of the fact that the patient may be unable to execute the decisions made by the physician, it is the legal duty of the physician to provide care and not abandon the patient. An analysis of the many policies around the world brings forward certain changes that must be made in order to make sure that physicians fulfil their legal duty, which is to provide care. As such, this article looks into the existing ethical dilemma in treating smokers around the world, with a review of some policies that will guide our approach in this matter. PMID:27101222

  13. Plagioclase and epidote buffering of cation ratios in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids: Experimental results in and near the supercritical region

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, M.E.; Seyfried, W.E. Jr. ); Janecky, D.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Experiments have been performed with Na-Ca-K-Cl fluids of seawater chlorinity and diabase, basalt, and plagioclase bearing mineral mixtures at 350-425{degree}C and 250-400 bars to help constrain hydrothermal alteration processes at mid-ocean ridges. Dissolved Ca, Na, and pH for all experiments responded systematically to differences in dissolved SiO{sub 2} concentrations and the compositions of plagioclase reactants. Diabase alteration at low fluid/rock mass ratios (0.5 to 1) produces fluids undersaturated with respect to quartz during hydration of primary olivine and orthopyroxene, whereas basalt alteration under similar conditions yields fluids slightly supersaturated with respect to quartz during breakdown of glass to smectite and amphibole. Fluid chemistry in all experiments appears to approach a partial equilibrium state with the albite and anorthite components in plagioclase and approaches a pH consistent with plagioclase alteration to epidote. Trace element data from vent fluids, specifically B and Sr, together with major element chemistry, provides evidence that the reaction zone for black-smoker fluids at mid-ocean ridges is composed of only slightly altered diabase and is characterized by small amounts of epidote, nearly fresh plagioclase and clinopyroxene, and partially to completely hydrated olivine and orthopyroxene. Using equilibrium between plagioclase, the dominant reactant, and epidote, the dominant reaction product in experiments, the authors estimate that temperatures in reaction zones are in excess of 375{degree}C for most vent systems. These temperatures are higher than measured vent temperatures, suggesting that hot spring fluids commonly loose heat during ascent to the sea floor.

  14. Clinical and Radiologic Disease in Smokers With Normal Spirometry

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Elizabeth A.; Lynch, David A.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Austin, John H. M.; Grenier, Philippe A.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bailey, William C.; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Casaburi, Richard H.; Friedman, Paul; Van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Hokanson, John E.; Bowler, Russell P.; Beaty, Terri H.; Washko, George R.; Han, MeiLan K.; Kim, Victor; Kim, Song Soo; Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Washington, Lacey; McEvoy, Charlene E.; Tanner, Clint; Mannino, David M.; Make, Barry J.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Airflow obstruction on spirometry is universally used to define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and current or former smokers without airflow obstruction may assume that they are disease free. OBJECTIVE To identify clinical and radiologic evidence of smoking-related disease in a cohort of current and former smokers who did not meet spirometric criteria for COPD, for whom we adopted the discarded label of Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 0. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Individuals from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cross-sectional observational study completed spirometry, chest computed tomography (CT) scans, a 6-minute walk, and questionnaires. Participants were recruited from local communities at 21 sites across the United States. The GOLD 0 group (n = 4388) (ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration [FEV1] to forced vital capacity >0.7 and FEV1 ≥80% predicted) from the COPDGene study was compared with a GOLD 1 group (n = 794), COPD groups (n = 3690), and a group of never smokers (n = 108). Recruitment began in January 2008 and ended in July 2011. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Physical function impairments, respiratory symptoms, CT abnormalities, use of respiratory medications, and reduced respiratory-specific quality of life. RESULTS One or more respiratory-related impairments were found in 54.1% (2375 of 4388) of the GOLD 0 group. The GOLD 0 group had worse quality of life (mean [SD] St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score, 17.0 [18.0] vs 3.8 [6.8] for the never smokers; P < .001) and a lower 6-minute walk distance, and 42.3% (127 of 300) of the GOLD 0 group had CT evidence of emphysema or airway thickening. The FEV1 percent predicted distribution and mean for the GOLD 0 group were lower but still within the normal range for the population. Current smoking was associated with more respiratory symptoms, but former smokers had greater emphysema and gas trapping. Advancing age was associated with smoking cessation and with more CT findings of disease. Individuals with respiratory impairments were more likely to use respiratory medications, and the use of these medications was associated with worse disease. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Lung disease and impairments were common in smokers without spirometric COPD. Based on these results, we project that there are 35 million current and former smokers older than 55 years in the United States who may have unrecognized disease or impairment. The effect of chronic smoking on the lungs and the individual is substantially underestimated when using spirometry alone. PMID:26098755

  15. Ocean ridge magmatic and hydrothermal geochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Emily M.

    The ocean ridge system as an interaction site linking the interior of the earth with the lithosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Sections are devoted to magmatic and hydrothermal processes, with particular attention to the chemical variability of MORB, studies of magmatic segmentation in the East Pacific Rise, plans for sampling the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge, regional differences in the extent and pressure of melting, the diversity of oceanic plutonic rocks, observations of active hydrothermal venting, the composition of hydrothermal fluids, models of hydrothermal circulation, and the mineralogy and geochemistry of hydrothermal deposits. A comprehensive bibliography is provided.

  16. Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Sibai, Abla; Oubari, Dima; Ashkar, Jihad; Fuleihan, Nabil

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9% were males. The average age was 30.02 +/- 9.48 years and the average number of years of smoking was 8.09 +/- 6.45 years. Three subjects had dysphonia at the time of examination. The incidence of benign lesions of the vocal folds in the hubble-bubble group was 21.5%, with edema being the most common at 16.7% followed by cyst at 4.8%. The incidence of laryngeal findings was significantly higher in the hubble-bubble group compared to controls. In the cigarette-smoking group, the most common finding was vocal fold cyst in 14.8% followed by polyps in 7.4%, and edema, sulcus vocalis and granuloma. These findings were not significantly different from the hubble-bubble group except for the thick mucus, which was significantly higher in the latter. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between hubble-bubble smokers and controls except for the VTI and MPT, which were significantly lower in the hubble-bubble group. In comparison with the cigarette-smoking group, hubble-bubble smokers had significantly higher Fundamental frequency and habitual pitch (p value 0.042 and 0.008, respectively). The laryngeal findings in hubble-bubble smokers are comparable to cigarette smokers. These laryngeal findings are not translated acoustically, as all the acoustic parameters are within normal range compared to controls. PMID:20480370

  17. Nicotine vaccines: Will smokers take a shot at quitting?

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Caryn; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: A vaccine against nicotine may soon be available to smokers who want to quit. The vaccine stimulates the production of antibodies that bind to nicotine, thereby impeding nicotine from crossing the blood-brain barrier and exerting psychoactive effects. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate intentions to try a nicotine vaccine if one were to become available among a nationally representative sample of smokers. The secondary purpose was to assess whether information about genetic susceptibility to nicotine addiction had an effect on smokers’ interest in receiving the vaccine. Methods: Four hundred and twenty-seven adults were randomized to read one of two versions of a short description about the vaccine. One version framed addiction as genetically influenced, while the other framed it as environmentally influenced. Smokers were then asked about their intentions to use a nicotine vaccine if one were to become available in the future. Results: Across both groups, 53% indicated that they would be likely or very likely to try the vaccine. Using multivariate linear regression, the strongest predictors of vaccination intention were having a favorable attitude toward a nicotine vaccine (β = .41) and having a favorable attitude toward vaccination in general (β = .22). There were no significant effects of the framing conditions on intention to receive the vaccine. Discussion: Intentions to try a nicotine vaccine as a cessation method are relatively high among smokers. If the vaccine becomes available, specific groups of smokers may be more interested than others; education and recruitment efforts could be targeted appropriately. PMID:20185516

  18. Reward and Affective Regulation in Depression-Prone Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Wileyto, E. Paul; Ashare, Rebecca; Cuevas, Jocelyn; Strasser, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a disproportionately high smoking prevalence among individuals who are prone to depression. While depression has been conceptualized as a disorder of dysregulated positive affect and disrupted reward processing, little research has been conducted to determine the role of smoking in these processes among depression-prone smokers. Methods Depression-prone smokers (DP+; n = 34) and smokers not depression-prone (DP-; n=49) underwent two laboratory sessions, once while smoking abstinent and once while smoking ad-libitum, to assess the relative reinforcing value of smoking and reward sensitivity. Using experience sampling methods, participants completed self-report measures of subjective reward, positive affect, and negative affect across three days while smoking as usual and three days while smoking abstinent. Results DP+ were two times more likely to work for cigarette puffs versus money in a progressive ratio, choice task (OR 2.05; CI 95% 1.04 to 4.06, p=0.039) compared to DP-. Reward sensitivity as measured by the signal detection task did not yield any significant findings. Mixed models regressions revealed a 3-way interaction (depression group, smoking phase, and time) for subjective reward, negative affect and positive affect. For all three of these outcomes, the slopes for DP- and DP+ differed significantly from each other (p's < 0.05), and the effect of smoking (vs. abstinence) over time was greater for DP+ than DP- smokers (p's <0.05). Conclusions These findings indicate that the effects of smoking on reward and positive affect regulation are specific to DP+ smokers and highlight novel targets for smoking cessation treatment in this population. PMID:24947541

  19. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  20. Synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide by single-step soft hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar Bokinala, Kiran; CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608; Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara ; Pollet, M.; Artemenko, A.; Miclau, M.; Grozescu, I; Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara

    2013-02-15

    Lithium cobalt double oxide LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized at 220 Degree-Sign C by soft hydrothermal method using Co(OH){sub 2} and LiOH as precursors, LiOH/NaOH as mineralizers and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The soft hydrothermal synthesis method offers the dual advantage of a much lower synthesis time and a higher purity in comparison with other synthesis methods. The compound was identified by X-ray diffraction and its purity was checked by magnetic and electron magnetic resonance measurements. The grain morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and an exponential growth of particle size with synthesis time was observed. - Graphical abstract: Concave cuboctohedrons obtained after 60 h reaction time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimized soft hydrothermal method for a fast synthesis of high purity LiCoO{sub 2} compound is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both lamellar and cuboctahedral particles could be stabilized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary phases content is lower than 0.1%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close to surface defects were evidenced using EMR.

  1. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Smokers are at increased risk for developing lung and other cancers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  2. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.

  3. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  4. A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Responses to Messages Discouraging Dual Tobacco Product Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried…

  5. A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Responses to Messages Discouraging Dual Tobacco Product Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried

  6. COMPARISON OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION IN NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS OBTAINED FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several studies have demonstrated that individuals who smoke have greater susceptibility to influenza infections, as well as other respiratory virus infections, than non-smokers, yet the role of airway epithelial cells in this response is not clear. To determine whether in vivo t...

  7. Perceived Risks of Certain Types of Cancer and Heart Disease among Asian American Smokers and Non-Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Feeley, Rosemary M.; Thomas, Priya

    2002-01-01

    Assessed Asian Americans' knowledge levels regarding the health risks of tobacco use. Surveys of Korean, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Cambodian smokers and nonsmokers indicated that most respondents recognized the association between smoking and increased risk for lung, mouth, throat, and esophageal cancer and heart disease. There were significant

  8. Perceived Risks of Certain Types of Cancer and Heart Disease among Asian American Smokers and Non-Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Feeley, Rosemary M.; Thomas, Priya

    2002-01-01

    Assessed Asian Americans' knowledge levels regarding the health risks of tobacco use. Surveys of Korean, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Cambodian smokers and nonsmokers indicated that most respondents recognized the association between smoking and increased risk for lung, mouth, throat, and esophageal cancer and heart disease. There were significant…

  9. The analysis of 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid in the plasma of smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Brian A.; Maserek, Wendy K.; Rockwood, Gary A.; Keebaugh, Michael W.; Baskin, Steven I.

    2009-01-01

    ATCA (2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid) is a promising marker to assess cyanide exposure because of several advantages of ATCA analysis over direct determination of cyanide and alternative cyanide biomarkers (i.e. stability in biological matrices, consistent recovery, and relatively small endogenous concentrations). Concentrations of ATCA in the plasma of smoking and non-smoking human volunteers were analyzed using gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry to establish the feasibility of using ATCA as a marker for cyanide exposure. The levels of ATCA in plasma of smoking volunteers, 17.2 ng/ml, were found to be significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that of non-smoking volunteers, 11.8 ng/ml. Comparison of ATCA concentrations of smokers relative to non-smokers in both urine and plasma yielded relatively similar results. The concentration ratio of ATCA for smokers versus non-smokers in plasma and urine was compared to similar literature studies of cyanide and thiocyanate, and correlations are discussed. This study supports previous evidence that ATCA can be used to determine past cyanide exposure and indicates that further studies should be pursued to validate the use of ATCA as a marker of cyanide exposure. PMID:19730703

  10. The analysis of 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid in the plasma of smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Logue, Brian A; Maserek, Wendy K; Rockwood, Gary A; Keebaugh, Michael W; Baskin, Steven I

    2009-03-01

    ATCA (2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid) is a promising marker to assess cyanide exposure because of several advantages of ATCA analysis over direct determination of cyanide and alternative cyanide biomarkers (i.e. stability in biological matrices, consistent recovery, and relatively small endogenous concentrations). Concentrations of ATCA in the plasma of smoking and non-smoking human volunteers were analyzed using gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry to establish the feasibility of using ATCA as a marker for cyanide exposure. The levels of ATCA in plasma of smoking volunteers, 17.2 ng/ml, were found to be significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that of non-smoking volunteers, 11.8 ng/ml. Comparison of ATCA concentrations of smokers relative to non-smokers in both urine and plasma yielded relatively similar results. The concentration ratio of ATCA for smokers versus non-smokers in plasma and urine was compared to similar literature studies of cyanide and thiocyanate, and correlations are discussed. This study supports previous evidence that ATCA can be used to determine past cyanide exposure and indicates that further studies should be pursued to validate the use of ATCA as a marker of cyanide exposure. PMID:19730703

  11. Hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers,

    SciTech Connect

    Rona, P.A.; Bostrom, K.; Laubier, L.; Smith, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    This book examines research on the description and interpretation of hydrothermal and associated phenomena at seafloor spreading centers. An interdisciplinary overview of the subject is presented, including geological, geophysical, geochemical, and biological discoveries. The implications of the discoveries for understanding the earth's heat transfer, geochemical mass balances and cycles, mineralization, and biological adaptation are discussed. Topics considered include geologic setting (e.g., the four dimensions of the spreading axis, geological processes of the mid-ocean ridge), hydrothermal convection (e.g., oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies, the basic physics of water penetration into hot rock), Iceland and oceanic ridges (e.g., chemical evidence from Icelandic geothermal systems, the physical environment of hydrothermal systems), mass balances and cycles (e.g., reduced gases and bacteria in hydrothermal fluids, the effects of hydrothermal activity on sedimentary organic matter), ferromanganese deposits, hydrothermal mineralization, and the biology of hydrothermal vents.

  12. The French Observational Cohort of Usual Smokers (FOCUS) cohort: French smokers perceptions and attitudes towards smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite increasing governmental anti-smoking measures, smoking prevalence remains at a high level in France. Methods The objectives of this panel study were (1) to estimate smoking prevalence in France, (2) to identify smokers' profiles according to their perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in relation to smoking cessation, (3) to determine predictive factors of quit attempts, and (4) to assess tobacco-related behaviours and their evolutions according to the changes in the smokers' environments. A representative sample of French population was defined using the quota method. The identified cohort of smokers was assessed, in terms of smoking behaviour, previous quit attempts, and intention to quit smoking. Results A response rate of 66% for the screening enabled to identify a representative sample of the French population (N = 3 889) comprising 809 current smokers (21%). A majority of current smokers (63%) had made an attempt to quit smoking. Main reasons for having made the last attempt were cost (44%), social pressure (39%), wish to improve physical fitness (36%), fear of a future smoking-related disease (24%), and weariness of smoking (21%). Few attempts (16%) were encouraged by a physician. In those who used some kind of support (38%), NRT was the mostly used. Relapse was triggered by craving (45%), anxiety/stress (34%), a significant life event (21), weight gain (18%), and irritability (16%). Depression was rarely quoted (5%). Forty percent of smokers declared they intended to quit smoking permanently. Main reasons were cost (65%), physical fitness improvement (53%), fear of a future smoking-related disease (43%), weariness of tobacco (34%), and social pressure (30%). Using a smoking cessation treatment was considered by 43% of smokers that intended to quit. Barriers to smoking cessation were mainly fear of increased stress (62%), irritability (51%), and anxiety (42%), enjoying smoking (41%), and weight concerns (33%). Conclusion Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation attempts rate were lower in this survey than in previous reports. Cost and social pressure were the main reasons for quitting smoking, maybe an effect of dramatic tax increases and smoking ban. PMID:20184784

  13. Preliminary results from Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 - NE Lau: First explorations of hydrothermally active volcanoes across the supra-subduction zone and a return to the West Mata eruption site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J.; Embley, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    Several expeditions in the past few years have shown that the NE Lau basin has one of the densest concentrations of volcanically and hydrothermally active volcanoes on the planet. In 2008 two active submarine volcanic eruptions were discovered during a one week period and subsequent dives with the Jason remotely operated vehicle at one of the sites (West Mata) revealed an active boninite eruption taking place at 1200 m depth. Two dives at the other revealed evidence for recent eruption along the NE Lau Spreading Center. Several more expeditions in 2010-11 discovered additional evidence about the extent and types of hydrothermal activity in this area. Data from CTDO (conductivity, temperature, depth, optical) vertical casts, tow-yos, and towed camera deployments revealed more than 15 hydrothermal sites at water depths from ~800 to 2700 m that include sites from the magmatic arc, the "rear arc," and the back arc spreading centers. These sites range from high temperature black smoker sulfide-producing systems to those dominated by magmatic degassing. Dives by remotely operated vehicle (Quest 4000) in September 2012 will explore these sites and return samples for chemical, biological and geologic studies. One of the dives will be a return visit to West Mata volcano, the site of the deepest submarine eruption yet observed (in 2009). Recent multibeam data reveal large changes in West Mata's summit, suggesting that the nature of the eruption and the location of the erupting vents may have changed. In addition to the preliminary results from the science team, we will also discuss our use and experience with continuous live video transmission (through the High Definition video camera on the Quest 4000) back to shore via satellite and through the internet. Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 Science Team: Bradley Tebo, Bill Chadwick, Ed Baker, Ken Rubin, Susan Merle, Timothy Shank, Sharon Walker, Andra Bobbitt, Nathan Buck, David Butterfield, Eric Olson, John Lupton, Richard Arculus, Fabio Caratori-Tontini, Rick Davis, Kevin Roe, Edward Mitchell, Paula Keener-Chavis Carolyn Sheehan, Peter Crowhurst, Simon Richards,and Volker Ratmeyer along with the Quest-4000 team. .

  14. Drill core-based facies reconstruction of a deep-marine felsic volcano hosting an active hydrothermal system (Pual Ridge, Papau New Guinea, ODP Leg 193)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulick, H.; Vanko, D. A.; Yeats, C. J.

    2004-02-01

    Pual Ridge is a deep-marine, felsic volcanic edifice in the eastern Manus back-arc basin (Papua New Guinea) with an estimated volume of ˜6 to 9 km 3. It is 1-1.5 km wide, 20 km long and rises 500-600 m above the surrounding ocean floor. The active PACMANUS hydrothermal field on the crest of Pual Ridge at 1640-1690 m below sea level was the target of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 193. Variably altered dacite lavas have been recovered from the subsurface of a low-T discharge site (Snowcap) and a high-T black smoker site (Roman Ruins) reaching a maximum depth of 380 m below seafloor (mbsf). Volcanic facies interpretation of these cores is difficult due to incomplete recovery and widespread pseudoclastic textures generated by fracturing and multi-phase, incomplete fluid-dacite interaction. However, distinction of genuine volcaniclastic facies and facies with alteration-related clastic appearance is important in order to define paleo-seafloor positions within the volcanic stratigraphy, that may be prospective for massive sulfide mineralization. This has been accomplished using remnant primary characteristics indicative of transportation such as polymictic composition, grading or textural evidence for differential movement of individual clasts. Three phases of volcanic activity can be distinguished and a proximal facies association dominated by coherent facies of dacite lavas exists below Snowcap. At Roman Ruins, a medial facies association consists of lava flows with about equal proportions of coherent and volcaniclastic facies. Endogenous growth was an important process during lava flow emplacement and groundmass textures such as perlite, flow banding and spherulites indicate that cooling rates were variable, locally allowing for high-temperature devitrification. A tube pumice breccia unit is interpreted as the resedimented facies of a quench fragmented, highly vesicular dacite lava carapace. Sulfide accumulations in the subsurface are restricted to Roman Ruins suggesting that the abundance of volcaniclastic facies favored ascent of metal-bearing fluids due to the inherent high permeability. Evidence for mineralization at paleo-seafloor positions at 110 and 195 mbsf indicate a complex interrelationship between volcanic and hydrothermal activity. A facies model has been developed which may help to locate subaqueous, felsic lava-dominated volcanic centers and associated sulfide deposits in ancient volcano-sedimentary successions.

  15. Pregnant smokers who quit, pregnant smokers who don't: does history of problem behavior make a difference?

    PubMed

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Pickett, Kate E; Middlecamp, Molly K; Walton, Laura L; Tenzer, Penny; Leventhal, Bennett L

    2003-06-01

    More than half of women who smoke in the USA continue to do so while pregnant. While socioeconomic and demographic factors that distinguish pregnancy quitters from persistent smokers have been identified, less is known about behavioral factors that are associated with persistent smoking. Because smoking during pregnancy is not only an individual, but also a maternal behavior, it may have different behavioral correlates than women's smoking has in general. We propose a conceptual framework in which smoking during pregnancy is viewed as a maternal problem behavior. We explore this conceptualization by examining whether persistent smoking during pregnancy is associated with a pattern of psychosocial risk- and health-compromising behaviors in multiple domains, with pilot data from a small clinic-based sample. Data are presented for 96 predominantly Caucasian, working-class pregnant women recruited from prenatal clinics in the USA. Smoking during pregnancy was measured repeatedly by self-report and biochemical assay. Participants were non-smokers (37%), pregnancy quitters (17%), and persistent smokers (46%). These groups were compared in terms of their history of problem behavior in three domains: interpersonal difficulties, problems in adaptive functioning and problematic health behaviors. With few exceptions, smokers were more likely to have problematic relationships, poorer adaptive functioning and to engage in problematic health behaviors, than both pregnancy quitters and non-smokers. This pattern of problem behavior may interfere with the effectiveness of standard public health prenatal cessation interventions for a sub-group of women. Examining pregnancy smoking as part of a broader matrix of problem behavior may help to identify pregnant women most at risk for persistent smoking and inform the development of targeted interventions. PMID:12742608

  16. A dual center study to compare breath volatile organic compounds from smokers and non-smokers with and without COPD.

    PubMed

    Gaida, A; Holz, O; Nell, C; Schuchardt, S; Lavae-Mokhtari, B; Kruse, L; Boas, U; Langejuergen, J; Allers, M; Zimmermann, S; Vogelmeier, C; Koczulla, A R; Hohlfeld, J M

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that breath volatile organic compounds (VOC) have the potential to support the diagnosis and management of inflammatory diseases such as COPD. In this study we used a novel breath sampling device to search for COPD related VOCs. We included a large number of healthy controls and patients with mild to moderate COPD, recruited subjects at two different sites and carefully controlled for smoking. 222 subjects were recruited in Hannover and Marburg, and inhaled cleaned room air before exhaling into a stainless steel reservoir under exhalation flow control. Breath samples (2.5 l) were continuously drawn onto two Tenax(®) TA adsorption tubes and analyzed in Hannover using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Data of 134 identified VOCs from 190 subjects (52 healthy non-smokers, 52 COPD ex-smokers, 49 healthy smokers, 37 smokers with COPD) were included into the analysis. Active smokers could be clearly discriminated by higher values for combustion products and smoking related VOCs correlated with exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), indicating the validity of our data. Subjects from the study sites could be discriminated even after exclusion of cleaning related VOCs. Linear discriminant analysis correctly classified 89.4% of COPD patients in the non/ex-smoking group (cross validation (CV): 85.6%), and 82.6% of COPD patients in the actively smoking group (CV: 77.9%). We extensively characterized 134 breath VOCs and provide evidence for 14 COPD related VOCs of which 10 have not been reported before. Our results show that, for the utilization of breath VOCs for diagnosis and disease management of COPD, not only the known effects of smoking but also site specific differences need to be considered. We detected novel COPD related breath VOCs that now need to be tested in longitudinal studies for reproducibility, response to treatment and changes in disease severity. PMID:27082437

  17. Differences between nicotine-abstinent smokers and non-smokers in terms of visuospatial attention and inhibition before and after single-blind nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-09-26

    The cholinergic system is implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, however the exact role is still unclear. Two key mechanisms in visuospatial attention are bias and disengagement. Bias refers to neuronal signals that enhance the sensitivity of the sensory cortex, disengagement is the decoupling of attention. Previous studies suggest that nicotine affects disengagement and (related) inhibition. However the exact relation is still unknown. Furthermore, nicotine-abstinence in 'healthy' smokers may resemble some anomalies of visuospatial attention and inhibition as seen in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Smokers and non-smokers (32 male students) performed in a visuospatial cueing (VSC) task, to assess bias and disengagement, and in a stop-signal task (SST) to assess inhibition. It was expected that nicotine abstinent smokers compared to non-smokers, would show poor disengagement (indicated by an enhanced validity effect) and poor inhibitory control (indicated by an enhanced stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)). It was expected that nicotine would positively affect disengagement and inhibition: hypothesis 1 stated that this effect would be larger in smokers as opposed to non-smokers, in terms of smoking-related deficient inhibitory control. Hypothesis 2 stated the exact opposite, in terms of drug-tolerance. Results indicated no baseline differences. Nicotine enhanced inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers. Integrating the results, nicotine-abstinent smokers do not seem to resemble ADHD patients, and do not seem to smoke in order to self-medicate a pre-existing deficit pertaining to mechanisms of visuospatial attention and inhibition. Nicotine may affect inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers, consistent with a drug-tolerance account. PMID:25050819

  18. Intent to quit among daily and non-daily college student smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking category as it relates to readiness to quit among current smokers. Of the 4438 students at six Southeast colleges who completed an online survey, 69.7% (n = 3094) were non-smokers, 6.6% (n = 293) were quitters, 7.1% (n = 317) were native non-daily smokers, 6.4% (n = 283) were converted non-daily smokers and 10.2% (n = 451) were daily smokers. There were differences in sociodemographics, substance use (alcohol, marijuana, other tobacco products) in the past 30 days and psychosocial factors among these subgroups of students (P < 0.001). Among current smokers, there were differences in cigarettes smoked per day, recent quit attempts, self-identification as a smoker, self-efficacy and motivation to quit (P < 0.001). After controlling for important factors, converted non-daily smokers were more likely to be ready to quit in the next month versus native non-daily smokers (OR = 2.15, CI 1.32–3.49, P = 0.002). Understanding differences among young adults with different smoking patterns and histories is critical in developing interventions targeting psychosocial factors impacting cessation among this population. PMID:23197630

  19. Who smokes in Hollywood? Characteristics of smokers in popular films from 1940 to 1989.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, W D; Bazzini, D G; Smith, S M; Wayne, S M

    1998-01-01

    We examined how smokers were depicted in 100 popular films spanning 5 decades. Smokers were depicted as more romantically and sexually active than nonsmokers and as marginally more intelligent than nonsmokers. Smokers and nonsmokers did not differ in terms of attractiveness, goodness, socioeconomic status, aggression, friendliness, or outcome at film's end. Thus, if anything, smokers are depicted a bit more positively than nonsmokers. We compared Hollywood's depiction of smokers to real-world demographics on smoking and found that Hollywood's depiction of smoking tends to ignore the negative consequences and correlates (e.g., ill health, low socioeconomic status, aggressive behavior) of smoking. PMID:9668937

  20. Effect of smoking one cigarette on antioxidant metabolites in the saliva of healthy smokers.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, B; Persichilli, S; De Sole, P; Mordente, A; Giardina, B

    1999-06-01

    Concentrations of glutathione, uric acid and total antioxidant activity, expressed as Trolox (a water-soluble vitamin E analogue) equivalent, were measured in the saliva of healthy non-smokers and smokers before and just after smoking a single cigarette. There was no statistically significant difference between smokers and non-smokers in uric acid concentrations and total radical-trapping antioxidant capacity, but glutathione concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in smokers. Smoking of a single cigarette induced a significant reduction in glutathione concentration (p < 0.05). Salivary antioxidant power may affect individual sensitivity toward tobacco stress. PMID:10401526

  1. False promises: the tobacco industry, "low tar" cigarettes, and older smokers.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Janine K; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging baby boomers, We performed archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis was done using iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. "Low tar" cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing "low tar" or "light" cigarettes to older smokers "at risk" of quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer, although "light" cigarettes may make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers, and families about the tobacco industry's influence may decrease the tendency to "blame the victim," thereby enhancing the likelihood of older adults receiving tobacco addiction treatment. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

  2. Using motives for smoking to distinguish between different college student smoker typologies.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Juliana Da Rocha; Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Henry, Kimberly L

    2014-12-01

    Relatively little is known about how to categorize different types of smokers, especially occasional smokers. Because of the prevalence of occasional smoking among college students, the current study aimed to gain an understanding of the different typologies of smokers on campus. To accomplish this, a latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted using 17 motives for smoking items (N = 327). The LCA revealed that four smoker groups were present: (1) addicted smokers who endorsed smoking due to pleasure and habit/addiction; (2) stress smokers, who endorsed smoking to relax, to reduce levels of stress, and to regulate mood; (3) social smokers, who endorsed smoking because of social factors such as to fit in or because friends smoke; and (4) nonendorsing smokers, who had a low endorsement for all the items. An additional LCA with covariates revealed that age of initiation, current smoking patterns, smoker self-classification, and quit likelihood differentiated these groups of smokers whereas current age and alcohol use did not. These typologies should be considered when designing interventions for occasional smokers. PMID:25528054

  3. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Do, Kathy T; Galvn, Adriana

    2015-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers. PMID:25887154

  4. Differential use of other tobacco products among current and former cigarette smokers by income level

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Pierce, John P.; White, Martha; Messer, Karen

    2014-01-01

    With the declining sales of cigarettes, the tobacco industry has been promoting other forms of combustible and smokeless tobacco to current and former cigarette smokers. Exposure to the promotion of tobacco products has been shown to vary by income level. We combined the 2006 through 2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and health to compare the prevalence and patterns of other tobacco use (cigar, snuff, and chewing tobacco) between current and former cigarette smokers by income level. Other tobacco use was minimal among females and among male non-smokers. Approximately a third of both current and former male cigarette smokers reported past-year other tobacco use. Overall, current smokers were more likely than former smokers to have used cigars (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.50–1.92) or snuff (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.28) in the past year. The association of smoking status with other tobacco use differed by income level (interaction term p value < 0.001). Among lower-income groups, current smokers were more likely to use cigars and snuff compared to former smokers. Among the highest income group, former smokers were just as likely to use smokeless tobacco as current smokers. The differing patterns of use of other tobacco between current and former smokers by income level highlight a need for studies to understand the motivations for the use of these products and their role in smoking cessation. PMID:24930053

  5. Boron isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids from submarine hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Hong, E.; Ishikawa, T.; Gamo, T.; Kawahata, H.

    2013-12-01

    Boron is highly mobile in submarine hydrothermal systems and useful to trace the process of water-rock reaction. In this study, we measured the boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids collected from arc-backarc hydrothermal systems in the western Pacific. In sediment-starved hydrothermal systems (Manus Basin, Suiyo Seamount, and Mariana Trough), the boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids are dependent on type of host rock. The end member fluids from MORB-like basalt-hosted Vienna Woods in the Manus Basin showed low boron content and high δ11B value (0.53 mM, 29.8‰), while dacite-hosted PACMANUS and the Suiyo Seamount showed high boron contents and low δ11B values (1.45 and 1.52 mM, 13.6 and 18.5‰, respectively). The Alice Springs and Forecast Vent field in the Mariana Trough showed values intermediate between them (0.72 and 0.63 mM, 19.9 and 24.0‰, respectively), reflecting reaction of seawater and basalt influenced by slab material. In phase separated hydrothermal systems (North Fiji Basin), boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids (0.44-0.56 mM, 34.5-35.9‰) were similar to those in the Vienna Woods. Considering little fractionation of boron and boron isotope during phase separation demonstrated by the previous experimental studies, it is suggested that the host rock in the North Fiji Basin is MORB-like basalt. In sediment-hosted hydrothermal system (Okinawa Trough), the reaction with boron-enriched sediment following seawater-rock reaction resulted in significantly high boron contents and low δ11B values of vent fluids (4.4-5.9 mM, 1.5-2.6‰). The water-sediment ratio was estimated to be ~2. In spite of the different geological settings, the end member fuids from all vent fields are enriched in B relative to seawater (0.41 mM, 39.6‰) and the δ11B values are inversely propotional to the boron concentrations. It suggests that boron isotopic composition of vent fluid predominantly depends on the amount of boron originated from solid-phase.

  6. Project IMPACT: A pharmacotherapy pilot trial investigating the abstinence and treatment adherence of Latino light smokers

    PubMed Central

    de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stanton, Cassandra; Audet, Daniel A.; Stein, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Light smoking is particularly prevalent among Latino smokers. Nicotine replacement (NRT) and varenicline are effective medications for smoking cessation for moderate-heavy smokers, but have not been tested in light smokers and thus there are no treatment guidelines for use with light smokers. This pilot trial tested the efficacy of NRT and varenicline in increasing smoking abstinence among Latino light smokers. A 3-group (NRT, varenicline, varenicline-placebo) randomized design was used and Latino light smokers (≤10 cpd) received 12 weeks of treatment which included a culturally-informed behavioral health session and ongoing medication management visits. At follow-up, there were no abstinent participants in the placebo and NRT groups. However, 30% of participants in the varenicline group were abstinent at the 3, 4, and 6 month follow-up. This study represents the only investigation that specifically targets Latino light smokers using these treatments and characterizing their treatment adherence. PMID:22377389

  7. Discovery and drilling of on- and off-axis hydrothermal sites in backarc spreading center of southern Mariana Trough, Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urabe, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Maruyama, A.; Marumo, K.; Seama, N.; Utsumi, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Mariana Trough is an actively spreading backarc basin that is located along the eastern margin of Philippine Sea Plate. GPS monitoring indicates that the rate of spreading is about 45 mm/yr in the southern section (Kato et al., 2003). No transform fault offsets exist despite significant changes in the trend of the spreading center. Fryer et al. (1998) pointed out the close proximity of submarine arc volcanoes to the spreading center and tectonic fabric that is at a high angle to the trend of the spreading center on the eastern flank. Three hydrothermal sites were discovered along such tectonic lineament in southern Mariana Trough (12o55-57'N, 143o37-39'E). On-axis site (so-called Fryer site, depth: 2,850 m) consists of a hydrothermal mound about 20 m in diameter that develops on pillow lava of a segment center of the spreading axis. The segment is characterized by highly variable rock composition (up to 68% SiO2). Repeated temperature measurements revealed rapid cooling of the hydrothermal system from 240oC in April 2003, through 112oC in October 2003 to 69oC in March 2004. On the other hand, two off-axis sites seem to have longevity of life: The Archaean site which locates about 2 km off-axis on the eastern (arc side) skirt is characterized by its huge sulfide spire; 50 m in height and 20 m in diameter. It is composed of pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite, and is emanating hydrothermal fluids up to 220oC. In the third site (Pika site), active black smokers (max. temp. = 330oC), numerous dead chimneys and sulfide mounds were found on a basaltic seamount about 5 km off-axis. These lines of evidence support the idea of Fryer et al. (1998) that the backarc magma is replenished by arc/off-axis magma along the tectonic lineation. The first and third sites been drilled and cased using a tethered, submarine rock-drill system BMS (Benthic Multi-coring System) on-board the R/V Hakurei-Maru # 2 as a part of Archaean Park Project*. Rocks from two holes (7.5 m and 4.1 m) in the Fryer site are porous basaltic lava with frequent fractures. Fluid 76oC was discharged from one of the holes. The Pika site has two holes; one hole (5.61 m) is entirely composed of massive sulfides (pyrite-sphalerite) beneath thin manganese oxide cover. The other (4.61 m) shares common features with those of Fryer site. No venting was witnessed during the drilling but the latter hole was found venting fluid (10.1oC) month later during the ROPOS/ Thompson cruise when extensive sampling and monitoring were done on these holes. * Funded by MEXT through the Special Coordination Fund.

  8. Imaging-based assessment of dyspnea in cigarette smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, Jeffrey R.; Chang, Paul J.; Schwartz, David A.; Hunninghake, Gary W.; Helmers, Richard; Mori, Masaki

    1994-05-01

    Patients with pulmonary fibrosis frequently smoke cigarettes. The cause of dyspnea in these patients is often complex because of the coexistence of multiple disease processes. We investigated 10 cigarette smokers with pulmonary fibrosis who were referred for evaluation of new onset or worsening dyspnea. Chest radiographs and pulmonary function tests were obtained in addition to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). In those patients with HRCT evidence of both diseases, spirometry and lung volumes were most often normal. Although plain films provided a reasonable assessment of fibrosis, they underestimated the severity of emphysema. Quantitation of both emphysema and fibrosis by HRCT was reproducible and correlated with key pulmonary function tests. Our findings indicate that the HRCT scan is a useful diagnostic test in patients with pulmonary fibrosis who are also cigarette smokers.

  9. Aesthetic Depigmentation of Gingival Smoker's Melanosis Using Carbon Dioxide Lasers

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Luis Silva; Costa, José Adriano; da Câmara, Marco Infante; Albuquerque, Rui; Martins, Marco; Pacheco, José Júlio; Salazar, Filomena; Figueira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Melanic pigmentation results from melanin produced by the melanocytes present in the basal layer of the oral epithelium. One of the most common causes of oral pigmentation is smoker melanosis, a condition associated with the melanocyte stimulation caused by cigarette smoke. This paper aims to illustrate the use of a carbon dioxide laser in the removal of the gingival melanic pigmentation for aesthetic reasons in a 27-year-old female patient with history of a smoking habit. The carbon dioxide laser vaporisation was performed on the gingival mucosa with effective and quick results and without any complications or significant symptoms after the treatment. We conclude that a carbon dioxide laser could be a useful, effective, and safe instrument to treat the aesthetic complications caused by oral smoker melanosis. PMID:25954535

  10. Smokers' decision making: more than mere risk taking.

    PubMed

    Ert, Eyal; Yechiam, Eldad; Arshavsky, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The fact that smoking is bad for people's health has become common knowledge, yet a substantial amount of people still smoke. Previous studies that sought to better understand this phenomenon have found that smoking is associated with the tendency to take risk in other areas of life as well. The current paper explores factors that may underlie this tendency. An experimental analysis shows that smokers are more easily tempted by immediate high rewards compared to nonsmokers. Thus the salience of risky alternatives that produce large rewards most of the time can direct smokers to make bad choices even in an abstract situation such as the Iowa Gambling Task. These findings suggest that the risk taking behavior associated with smoking is not related to the mere pursuit of rewards but rather reflects a tendency to yield to immediate temptation. PMID:23844156

  11. Beliefs, Experience, and Interest in Pharmacotherapy among Smokers with HIV

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, Amy; Shacham, Enbal; Sumner, Walton; Overton, E. Turner

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine beliefs, prior use, and interest in using pharmacotherapy among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods Cross-sectional survey of smokers in a midwestern HIV clinic. Results The sample (N = 146) included 69% men, 82% African American, 45% were in precontemplation for quitting, and 46% were interested in using pharmacotherapy. Primary reasons for non-use included cost and a belief that they would be able to quit on their own. Physician’s assistance was the strongest correlate of prior use. Perceived benefits and self-efficacy were the strongest correlates of willingness to use pharmacotherapy. Conclusions Future interventions should address misconceptions, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy for using cessation aids. Physicians should offer pharmacotherapy to all smokers. PMID:24629557

  12. Predicting Home Smoking Restrictions Among African American Light Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jennifer R.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Guo, Hongfei; Thomas, Janet L.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine home smoking restrictions (HSR) predictors among African American light smokers (smoke ≤10 cigarettes per day). Methods Data were obtained from a clinical trial testing the efficacy of nicotine gum and counseling among 755 African American light smokers. Results Forty percent reported adopting HSR at week 26. Implementing HSR increased with higher baseline confidence to quit (P<0.0001) and female gender (P=0.019) and decreased with older age (P=0.016) and reduced confidence to quit between baseline and week 26 (P<0.0001). Conclusions Confidence to quit, gender, and age are important factors to incorporate into interventions enhancing the adoption of HSR. PMID:19663758

  13. The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Methods Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Results All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they ‘ought’ to quit as opposed to ‘wanted’ to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be considerable in order to influence motivation. Highly motivated smokers expressed more willingness to visit Stop Smoking Services, although none had done so. Conclusion Continuing smokers’ attitudes towards smoking and quitting suggests that research and policy need to focus on increasing smokers’ implicit motivation to quit smoking, even for those who classified themselves as having high motivation to quit. Targeted information and further education about Stop Smoking Services is required to increase uptake. PMID:23641875

  14. Up-regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in menthol cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Arthur L; Mukhin, Alexey G; La Charite, Jaime; Ta, Karen; Farahi, Judah; Sugar, Catherine A.; Mamoun, Michael S.; Vellios, Evan; Archie, Meena; Kozman, Maggie; Phuong, Jonathan; Arlorio, Franca; Mandelkern, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    One-third of smokers primarily use menthol cigarettes and usage of these cigarettes leads to elevated serum nicotine levels and more difficulty quitting in standard treatment programmes. Previous brain imaging studies demonstrate that smoking (without regard to cigarette type) leads to up-regulation of β2*-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We sought to determine if menthol cigarette usage results in greater nAChR up-regulation than non-menthol cigarette usage. Altogether, 114 participants (22 menthol cigarette smokers, 41 non-menthol cigarette smokers and 51 non-smokers) underwent positron emission tomography scanning using the α4β2* nAChR radioligand 2-[18F]fluoro-A-85380 (2-FA). In comparing menthol to non-menthol cigarette smokers, an overall test of 2-FA total volume of distribution values revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from menthol smokers having 9–28% higher α4β2* nAChR densities than non-menthol smokers across regions. In comparing the entire group of smokers to non-smokers, an overall test revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from smokers having higher α4β2* nAChR levels in all regions studied (36–42%) other than thalamus (3%). Study results demonstrate that menthol smokers have greater up-regulation of nAChRs than non-menthol smokers. This difference is presumably related to higher nicotine exposure in menthol smokers, although other mechanisms for menthol influencing receptor density are possible. These results provide additional information about the severity of menthol cigarette use and may help explain why these smokers have more trouble quitting in standard treatment programmes. PMID:23171716

  15. Comparison of the Respiratory Microbiome in Healthy Nonsmokers and Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Beck, James M.; Schloss, Patrick D.; Campbell, Thomas B.; Crothers, Kristina; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Flores, Sonia C.; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Ghedin, Elodie; Huang, Laurence; Jablonski, Kathleen; Kleerup, Eric; Lynch, Susan V.; Sodergren, Erica; Twigg, Homer; Young, Vincent B.; Bassis, Christine M.; Venkataraman, Arvind; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Weinstock, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Results from 16S rDNA-encoding gene sequence–based, culture-independent techniques have led to conflicting conclusions about the composition of the lower respiratory tract microbiome. Objectives: To compare the microbiome of the upper and lower respiratory tract in healthy HIV-uninfected nonsmokers and smokers in a multicenter cohort. Methods: Participants were nonsmokers and smokers without significant comorbidities. Oral washes and bronchoscopic alveolar lavages were collected in a standardized manner. Sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding genes was performed, and the neutral model in community ecology was used to identify bacteria that were the most plausible members of a lung microbiome. Measurements and Main Results: Sixty-four participants were enrolled. Most bacteria identified in the lung were also in the mouth, but specific bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus, Methylobacterium, and Ralstonia species were disproportionally represented in the lungs compared with values predicted by the neutral model. Tropheryma was also in the lung, but not the mouth. Mouth communities differed between nonsmokers and smokers in species such as Porphyromonas, Neisseria, and Gemella, but lung bacterial populations did not. Conclusions: This study is the largest to examine composition of the lower respiratory tract microbiome in healthy individuals and the first to use the neutral model to compare the lung to the mouth. Specific bacteria appear in significantly higher abundance in the lungs than would be expected if they originated from the mouth, demonstrating that the lung microbiome does not derive entirely from the mouth. The mouth microbiome differs in nonsmokers and smokers, but lung communities were not significantly altered by smoking. PMID:23491408

  16. Pulmonary ventilation defects in older never-smokers.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Khadija; Paulin, Gregory A; Svenningsen, Sarah; Kirby, Miranda; Paterson, Nigel A M; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

    2014-08-01

    Hyperpolarized (3)He MRI previously revealed spatially persistent ventilation defects in healthy, older compared with healthy, younger never-smokers. To understand better the physiological consequences and potential relevance of (3)He MRI ventilation defects, we evaluated (3)He-MRI ventilation-defect percent (VDP) and the effect of deep inspiration (DI) and salbutamol on VDP in older never-smokers. To identify the potential determinants of ventilation defects in these subjects, we evaluated dyspnea, pulmonary function, and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) measurements, as well as occupational and second-hand smoke exposure. Fifty-two never-smokers (71 6 yr) with no history of chronic respiratory disease were evaluated. During a single visit, pulmonary function tests, CPET, and (3)He MRI were performed and the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease questionnaire administered. For eight of 52 subjects, there was spirometry evidence of airflow limitation (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease-Unclassified, I, and II), and occupational exposure was reported in 13 of 52 subjects. In 13 of 52 (25%) subjects, there were no ventilation defects and in 39 of 52 (75%) subjects, ventilation defects were observed. For those subjects with ventilation defects, six of 39 showed a VDP response to DI/salbutamol. Ventilation heterogeneity and VDP were significantly greater, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity was significantly lower (P < 0.05) for subjects with ventilation defects with a response to DI/salbutamol than subjects with ventilation defects without a response to DI/salbutamol and subjects without ventilation defects. In a step-wise, forward multivariate model, FEV1, inspiratory capacity, and airway resistance significantly predicted VDP (R(2) = 0.45, P < 0.001). In conclusion, most never-smokers had normal spirometry and peripheral ventilation defects not reversed by DI/salbutamol; such ventilation defects were likely related to irreversible airway narrowing/collapse but not to dyspnea and decreased exercise capacity. PMID:24903918

  17. T1 Relaxation Time in Lungs of Asymptomatic Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Alamidi, Daniel F.; Kindvall, Simon S. I.; Hubbard Cristinacce, Penny L.; McGrath, Deirdre M.; Young, Simon S.; Naish, Josephine H.; Waterton, John C.; Wollmer, Per; Diaz, Sandra; Olsson, Marita; Hockings, Paul D.; Lagerstrand, Kerstin M.; Parker, Geoffrey J. M.; Olsson, Lars E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interest in using T1 as a potential MRI biomarker of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has recently increased. Since tobacco smoking is the major risk factor for development of COPD, the aim for this study was to examine whether tobacco smoking, pack-years (PY), influenced T1 of the lung parenchyma in asymptomatic current smokers. Materials and Methods Lung T1 measurements from 35 subjects, 23 never smokers and 12 current smokers were retrospectively analyzed from an institutional review board approved study. All 35 subjects underwent pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements and lung T1, with similar T1 measurement protocols. A backward linear model of T1 as a function of FEV1, FVC, weight, height, age and PY was tested. Results A significant correlation between lung T1 and PY was found with a negative slope of -3.2 ms/year (95% confidence interval [CI] [-5.8, -0.6], p = 0.02), when adjusted for age and height. Lung T1 shortens with ageing among all subjects, -4.0 ms/year (95%CI [-6.3, -1.7], p = 0.001), and among the never smokers, -3.7 ms/year (95%CI [-6.0, -1.3], p = 0.003). Conclusions A correlation between lung T1 and PY when adjusted for both age and height was found, and T1 of the lung shortens with ageing. Accordingly, PY and age can be significant confounding factors when T1 is used as a biomarker in lung MRI studies that must be taken into account to detect underlying patterns of disease. PMID:26958856

  18. Small cell lung cancer in never-smokers.

    PubMed

    Torres-Durán, María; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Kelsey, Karl T; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Provencio, Mariano; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Abal-Arca, José; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; Vidal-Garcia, Iria; Pena, Carolina; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Guzmán-Taveras, Rosirys; Mejuto-Martí, María José; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to describe the characteristics of a case-series of never-smoker small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cases.Cases of SCLC were selected from a prospective, multicenter, hospital-based case-control study performed in Spain. Participants were never-smokers older than 30 years with an anatomo-pathological confirmation of primary lung cancer. We collected clinical and epidemiological variables according to the study's protocol.We included 19 SCLC cases, 18 females (94.7%), median age 75 years (interquartile range (IQR) 70-80 years). Median residential radon concentration was 195 Bq·m(-3) (IQR 130-229 Bq·m(-3)). 10 patients had limited disease and nine had extended disease. Median survival was 242 days (IQR 94-496 days); 1- and 2-year survival were 36.8% and 17.6%, respectively. Survival was much higher for individuals with limited disease than for those with extended disease (median 336 versus 235 days; 1-year survival 50% versus 22.2% and 2-year survival 27% versus 0%, respectively). Performance status at diagnosis was closely related to survival.SCLC is an infrequent, highly aggressive disease in never-smokers. Survival is poor, even for limited disease. Age at diagnosis in SCLC is higher than that observed for never-smokers with adenocarcinoma. Residential radon exposure is higher than the action levels recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:26699724

  19. Cognitive Deficits Specific to Depression-Prone Smokers During Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Ashare, Rebecca; Strasser, Andrew A.; Wileyto, E. Paul; Cuevas, Jocelyn; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms and individuals with elevated symptoms of depression have more difficulty quitting smoking. Depression is accompanied by cognitive deficits similar to those observed during nicotine withdrawal. Depressed smokers may smoke to alleviate these cognitive symptoms, which are exacerbated upon smoking abstinence. We hypothesized that following overnight abstinence, depression-prone smokers (DP+; past history and current depression symptoms; n = 34) would exhibit deficits in short-term and working memory, and experience greater attentional bias for affective stimuli, compared with smokers with no history or current symptoms of depression (DP?; n = 34). All participants underwent two laboratory sessions, once while smoking abstinent and once while smoking ad libitum (order counterbalanced, abstinence biochemically verified). Smokers completed measures of short-term memory (STM; word recognition task), working memory (N-back task), and attentional bias (Emotional Stroop task). The DP+ group showed declines in STM during abstinence compared with smoking, whereas the DP? group did not (interaction p = .02). There were small decrements in working memory accuracy during abstinence (p = .05), but this did not interact with depression status. During the Emotional Stroop task, the DP+ group showed an attentional bias toward positive versus neutral stimuli during abstinence compared with smoking (interaction p = .01). This study provides initial evidence that depressive symptoms may moderate abstinence-induced deficits in STM and shift attentional bias toward emotionally salient stimuli during abstinence. These cognitive changes may prompt relapse and may help identify novel targets for nicotine dependence treatment aimed at attenuating these deficits to improve cessation rates. PMID:24932895

  20. Attentional bias toward cigarette cues in active smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sours, Chandler R.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale While it is well documented that substance users exhibit attentional bias toward addiction-related stimuli, the exact mechanism remains unclear. Objectives To differentiate between distinct aspects of attentional allocation in the smoking-cue attentional bias observed in smokers. Methods Active smokers (AS) and non-smoking controls completed spatial cueing tasks with pairs of smoking and neutral pictorial cues to measure attentional capture, and an attentional blink task with either a smoking or neutral image appearing behind the first target (T1) to measure aspects of attention separate from capture. In addition, we tested groups of sports enthusiasts, and non-enthusiasts in corresponding tasks replacing smoking images with sports-related images to address the possibility that effects found in the smoking study were due simply to greater stimulus familiarity. Results Smoking cues reflexively capture smokers' attention, as AS showed a greater bias toward smoking cues in short stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA; the time between the onset of two stimuli) trials, but not in trials with a longer SOA. These effects represent a facilitation of responding to smoking- versus neutral-cued targets, and were absent in the sports control task. The attentional blink effects were similar in the smoking- and sports-cue experiments: the special T1 resulted in better detection of the second target for the smokers and sports enthusiasts. Conclusions Stimulus familiarity may contribute to some aspects of attentional bias in regular nicotine users, but selective quick capture of attention by smoking cues may be nicotine-habit specific. PMID:20668841

  1. Recycling of hard-core smokers with nicotine nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Tønnesen, P; Mikkelsen, K; Nørregaard, J; Jørgensen, S

    1996-08-01

    The primary aim of this smoking cessation study was to evaluate the effect of long-term treatment with nicotine nasal spray in a group of hard-core smokers. A further aim was to compare the effect of ad libitum with fixed dosage of nasal nicotine spray. Eighty nine smokers, failures from two earlier studies with nicotine patches, were enrolled in an open smoking cessation study with nicotine nasal sprays, to be used ad libitum (n=45) or on a fixed schedule of 1 mg x h-1 during the day (n= 44). Carbon monoxide-verified continuous abstinence from smoking beyond Week 2, was 39% at 3 weeks, 12% at 3 months, 10% at 6 months and 6% after 1 yr, with no significant difference in success rate between ad libitum and fixed dosing. Mean daily nicotine dose was 15-16 mg during the first 3 months (range 2-65 mg). Tolerance to local irritating side-effects of nicotine developed during the first weeks of use. Although short-term outcome was promising, the long-term success rate in this group of hardcore smokers was low. Other recycling set-ups are warranted, which might include more aggressive nicotine dosing. PMID:8866582

  2. Masticatory Changes as a Result of Oral Disorders in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rech, Rafaela Soares; Santos, Karoline Weber dos; Maahs, Marcia Angelica Peters; Vidor, Deisi Cristina Gollo Marques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction For chewing to occur properly, it is necessary that all oral structures are present and of normal standard. Objectives The aim of this study is to verify the presence of oral changes in smokers and the impact of the changes on masticatory function compared with individuals who never smoked. Methods Forty-eight subjects were evaluated, split into two study groups (24 subjects each) of current tobacco users and individuals who have never smoked. The variables halitosis, presence of lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems, number of teeth, classification of malocclusions according to angle, standard grinding food, chewing pattern, and speed of chewing were evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant difference in tooth loss between the groups, but the smokers had more losses manifesting malocclusion. Most smokers had halitosis and lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems; the halitosis was associated with the latter variable. Masticatory speed was also reduced significantly in these individuals compared with the control group when associated with occlusal alterations, in addition to grinding food with the tongue. No difference was observed regarding the chewing pattern. The presence of halitosis and periodontal problems were more common in those who smoke more than 20 years. Conclusion There is an association between smoking and dental changes, which cause increased masticatory changes. PMID:25992124

  3. Smokers' sources of e-cigarette awareness and risk information

    PubMed Central

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Bover Manderski, Michelle T.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have explored sources of e-cigarette awareness and peoples' e-cigarette information needs, interests, or behaviors. This study contributes to both domains of e-cigarette research. Methods Results are based on a 2014 e-cigarette focused survey of 519 current smokers from a nationally representative research panel. Results Smokers most frequently reported seeing e-cigarettes in stores (86.4%) and used in person (83%). Many (73%) had also heard about e-cigarettes from known users, broadcast media ads (68%), other (print, online) advertisements (71.5%), and/or from the news (60.9%); sources of awareness varied by e-cigarette experience. Most smokers (59.9%) believed e-cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, a belief attributed to “common sense” (76.4%), the news (39.2%), and advertisements (37.2%). However, 79.5% felt e-cigarette safety information was important. Over one-third said they would turn to a doctor first for e-cigarette safety information, although almost a quarter said they would turn to the Internet or product packaging first. Most (59.6%) ranked doctors as the most trustworthy risk source, and 6.8% had asked a health professional about e-cigarettes. Conclusions Future research should explore the content of e-cigarette information sources, their potential impact, and ways they might be strengthened or changed through regulatory and/or educational efforts. PMID:26576338

  4. Smoking Patterns and Stimulus Control in Intermittent and Daily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Ferguson, Stuart G.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent smokers (ITS) – who smoke less than daily – comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4–27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5–30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n = 21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n = 26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or “indulgent” smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS. PMID:24599056

  5. Iron isotope fractionation in sulfides: constraints on mechanisms of sulfide formations in hydrothermal and magmatic systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, Veniamin; Soultanov, Dilshod

    2010-05-01

    Data on non-traditional stable isotope fractionations (e.g., Fe, Cu) provide further insight into mechanisms of sulfide mineralization. Correct interpretation of these data is impossible without knowledge on equilibrium isotopic fractionation factors of sulfides. We present data on iron isotope fractionation factors (β-factors) of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and mackinawite (FeS). Iron β-factors for chalcopyrite were derived from synchrotron experimental data on inelastic nuclear resonant x-ray scattering (INRXS) [1] using the method described elsewhere [2,3]. The β-factors for mackinawite were found from the Moessbauer second-order Doppler shift data [4] by the method presented in [5]. The temperature dependence of the iron β-factors are fitted by following third-order polynomials: 103lnβcpy = 0.82560x - 0.01298x2 + 0.0005246x3 103lnβmcw = 0.2542x - 0.0001847x2 + 2.072×103x3 where x=106/T2 Using these data along with β-factors for pyrite and troilite [3,6], we compared iron isotope fractionation between pyrite and chalcopyrite in hydrothermal and magmatic conditions. Rouxel et al. [7] studied iron isotope of seafloor of hydrothermal vents in detail. They found that pyrite is enriched in light iron isotope relative to chalcopyrite in the case of black smoker Bio 9. This result evidences absence of iron isotope equilibrium between pyrite and chalcopyrite, because in equilibrium pyrite is enriched in heavy iron isotope (βpy > βcpy). Quantitatively, iron isotope fractionation between chalcolpyrite and pyrite is very close to equilibrium iron isotope fractionation between chalcolpyrite and FeS phase (mackinawite or troilite). This agrees the mechanism of pyrite formation through intermidient FeS phase if to assume isotopic equilibrium between the FeS phase and dissolved iron and no isotopic effect in the final stage of conversion FeS to FeS2 (pyrite). Another iron isotope fractionation was observed between pyrite and chalcopyrite in the case of the Cu-Au porphyry deposit of Crasberg igneous complex (GIC) [8]. In this case, pyrite is enriched in heavy iron isotope relative to chalcopyrite that is in agreement with direction of iron isotope fractionation in equilibrium. Using these data [8] and appropriate iron β-factors obtained from INRXS- and Moessbauer experiments, we estimated temperatures of pyrite and chalcopyrite formation. We obtained reasonable temperatures varying between 180 and 650oC for different intrusions of GIC, which are in agreement with other estimations [9,10] Conclusions: Iron β-factors for chalcopyrite CuFeS2 were calculated from 57Fe PDOS obtained in INRXS synchrotron radiation experiments [1]. Iron β-factors for mackinawite were calculated from the Moessbauer SOD shift based on experiments [4]. Using new value of chalcopyrite and mackinawite and/or troilite iron β-factors, it was shown that isotope composition of pyrite in hydrothermal seafloor processes is controlled by equilibrium isotope fractionation between FeS phase (pyrite precursor) and hydrothermal fluid. Fe isotope equilibrium between pyrite and chalcopyrite may be attained in magmatic processes. References: Kobayashi H., Umemura J., Kazekami Y. and Sakai N. Phys. Rev. B. (2007) 76, 134108. Polyakov V. B., Mineev S. D., Clayton R. N., Hu G. and Mineev K. S. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2005) 69, 5531-5536. Polyakov V. B., Clayton R. N., Horita J. and Mineev S.D. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2007) 71, 3833-3846. Bertaut E. F., Burlet P. and Chappert J. Solid State Comm. (1965) 3, 335 - 338. Polyakov V. B. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (1997)61, 4213 - 4217. Polyakov V.B. and Mineev S. D. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2000) 64, 849 - 865 Rouxel O., Shanks III W. C., Bach W. and Edwards K. J. Chem. Geol. (2008) 252, 214 - 227 Graham S., Pearson N., Jackson S., Griffin W. and O'Reilly S. Y. Chem. Geol. (2004) 204, 147 - 169 Heinrich C. A. Mineralium Deposita (2005) 39, 864-889 Pollard P.J. and Taylor R.G. Mineralium Deposita (2004) 37, 117-136. .

  6. Black Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E., Ed.

    The essays in this book examine some of the major issues affecting the behavior and status of black men in the United States. The volume is divided into four sections. Part one compares black and white men on such indicators as sex ratio, age distribution, marital and family status, educational attainment, employment, income, social and political…

  7. Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szwed, John F., Ed.

    The twenty-three contributors to this volume show that, despite racism, American blacks have independently developed some of their own cultural strengths. If these are correctly harnessed, they could provide important resources for the revitalization and development of the black community. The four parts of which this book is comprised are: (1)…

  8. Black Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E., Ed.

    The essays in this book examine some of the major issues affecting the behavior and status of black men in the United States. The volume is divided into four sections. Part one compares black and white men on such indicators as sex ratio, age distribution, marital and family status, educational attainment, employment, income, social and political

  9. Microbial Geochemistry in Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, J. P.; Pichler, T.

    2006-12-01

    Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are far more ubiquitous than generally recognized. Approximately 50-60 systems are currently known, occurring world-wide in areas of high heat flow, such as, volcanic island arcs, near-surface mid-ocean ridges, and intraplate oceanic volcanoes. In contrast to deep-sea systems, shallow- sea vent fluids generally include a meteoric component, they experience phase separation near the sediment- water interface, and they discharge into the photic zone (<200 m). They also are characterized by wide ranges in chemical composition, hundreds of redox disequilibria that translate to potential metabolisms, and broad phylogenetic diversity among the thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Perhaps because deep-sea smokers and continental hot springs are visually more stunning, shallow-sea systems are often overlooked study sites. We will discuss their particular features that afford unique opportunities in microbial geochemistry. Two of the better studied examples are at Vulcano Island (Italy) and Ambitle Island (Papua New Guinea). The vents and sediment seeps at Vulcano are the "type locality" for numerous cultured hyperthermophiles, including the bacteria Aquifex and Thermotoga, the crenarchaeon Pyrodictium, and the Euryarchaeota Archaeoglobus and Pyrococcus. Isotope-labeled incubation experiments of heated sediments and an array of culturing studies have shown that simple organic compounds are predominantly fermented or anaerobically respired with sulfate. 16S rRNA gene surveys, together with fluorescent in situ hybridization studies, demonstrated the dominance of key thermophilic bacteria and archaea (e.g., Aquificales, Thermotogales, Thermococcales, Archaeoglobales) in the sediments and the presence of a broad spectrum of mostly uncultured crenarchaeota in several vent waters, sediment samples, and geothermal wells. Thermodynamic modeling quantified potential energy yields from aerobic and anaerobic respiration reactions and fermentation reactions. In contrast to their deep-sea counterparts, shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are often characterized by high arsenic concentrations of more than 500-times seawater levels. The arsenic, generally present as arsenite (As^{III}) in the vent fluid, feeds local biogeochemical arsenic cycles. Thus, shallow sites are excellent hunting grounds for novel extremophiles that may gain metabolic energy by catalyzing arsenic redox reactions. Particularly the Ambitle site, where hydrothermal fluids contain up to 1,000 μg/L arsenite, has proven to be exceptional. There, the arsenic has a wide-ranging impact on micro-, meio-, and macro-fauna.

  10. Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Stein, J L

    1984-02-17

    The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy. PMID:17841030

  11. Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal hydrothermal vents

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.L.

    1984-02-17

    The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.

  12. Subtidal Gastropods Consume Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria: Evidence from Coastal Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Jeffrey L.

    1984-02-01

    The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.

  13. Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In an attempt to minimize the pack design avenue of communication between tobacco producers and smokers and potential smokers, several jurisdictions, including Norway, have considered regulations on cigarette pack design. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how package design affects young people’s perceptions of typical smokers of some pre-chosen cigarette brands and brand varieties. Methods Based on data from a web survey among 1022 15–22 year-olds, possible effects of plain packaging of cigarettes on adolescents’ views about typical cigarette smokers were investigated. The data collection had a between-subjects design, in which participants were allocated to one of three groups, and asked to typify the smokers of selected cigarette packs either in branded, plain or plain with descriptor versions. The sample included boys and girls, and smokers and non-smokers. The smoker characteristics included in the investigation were: gender, glamour, stylishness, popularity, coolness, sophistication and slimness. Results After creating sum-scores within and across packs and pack versions, analyses indicated that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging would result in a reduction in positive user images related to smoking among adolescents and young adults. For girls, this effect held up after controlling for confounders. Conclusions To the extent that plain packaging contributes to making smoking images less positive, it can potentially be an efficient aid in reducing smoking uptake among adolescents. PMID:24156515

  14. Male smoker and non-smoker responses to television advertisements on the harms of secondhand smoke in China, India and Russia.

    PubMed

    Murukutla, Nandita; Bayly, Megan; Mullin, Sandra; Cotter, Trish; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-02-01

    Mass media campaigns can play an important role in strengthening support for smoke-free policies and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Identifying anti-SHS advertisements that are effective in diverse cultural contexts may allow for resource sharing in low- and middle-income countries. A convenience sample of 481 male cigarette smokers and non-smokers in three high tobacco burden and culturally dissimilar countries (India, China and Russia) viewed and rated five anti-SHS ads. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 'Message Acceptance', 'Negative Emotion', 'Perceived Effectiveness' and 'Behavioral Intentions'. Smokers and non-smokers in all countries consistently rated the strong graphic, health harm ads as the most effective, and the 'informational' ad as the least effective overall: the graphic ad 'Baby Alive' was at least 1.8 times more likely than the informational ad 'Smoke-free works' to receive positive ratings on all four outcomes (all P < 0.001). Graphic, health harm messages about SHS exposure have the greatest universal appeal and are the most effective in motivating changes in behavioral intentions. Similarity in reactions between smokers and non-smokers, and across countries, suggests that resource sharing and the use of a single graphic ad targeted at smokers and non-smokers would be cost-efficient strategies. PMID:25122618

  15. Why do smokers try to quit without medication or counselling? A qualitative study with ex-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Objective When tobacco smokers quit, between half and two-thirds quit unassisted: that is, they do not consult their general practitioner (GP), use pharmacotherapy (nicotine-replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline), or phone a quitline. We sought to understand why smokers quit unassisted. Design Qualitative grounded theory study (in-depth interviews, theoretical sampling, concurrent data collection and data analysis). Participants 21 Australian adult ex-smokers (aged 28–68 years; 9 males and 12 females) who quit unassisted within the past 6 months to 2 years. 12 participants had previous experience of using assistance to quit; 9 had never previously used assistance. Setting Community, Australia. Results Along with previously identified barriers to use of cessation assistance (cost, access, lack of awareness or knowledge of assistance, including misperceptions about effectiveness or safety), our study produced new explanations of why smokers quit unassisted: (1) they prioritise lay knowledge gained directly from personal experiences and indirectly from others over professional or theoretical knowledge; (2) their evaluation of the costs and benefits of quitting unassisted versus those of using assistance favours quitting unassisted; (3) they believe quitting is their personal responsibility; and (4) they perceive quitting unassisted to be the ‘right’ or ‘better’ choice in terms of how this relates to their own self-identity or self-image. Deep-rooted personal and societal values such as independence, strength, autonomy and self-control appear to be influencing smokers’ beliefs and decisions about quitting. Conclusions The reasons for smokers’ rejection of the conventional medical model for smoking cessation are complex and go beyond modifiable or correctable problems relating to misperceptions or treatment barriers. These findings suggest that GPs could recognise and respect smokers’ reasons for rejecting assistance, validate and approve their choices, and modify brief interventions to support their preference for quitting unassisted, where preferred. Further research and translation may assist in developing such strategies for use in practice. PMID:25933811

  16. Chemical and biochemical transformations in hydrothermal plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, Marvin D.; Feely, Richard A.; Trefry, John H.

    Hydrothermal plumes integrate the heat and mass flux originating at seafloor hydrothermal vents thereby providing both a means of detecting hydrothermal activity and estimating hydrothermal fluxes. Many chemical species are introduced into the deep sea via hydrothermal plumes (Figure 1) in concentrations many orders of magnitude higher than that existing in background seawater (e.g. H2, CH4 3He, Mn, Fe) while others are scavenged from seawater by hydrothermal particles (e.g. PO4-3, V, As, rare earth elements, Th). Dilution by entrainment of background seawater in the buoyant portion of the plume is very rapid (see chapters by Lupton and McDuff, this volume) such that the hydrothermal component in the near-field portion of the neutrally buoyant plume represents only about 0.01% of the mixture. Nevertheless, chemical tracers such as 3He, CH4, and Mn are widely utilized in addition to temperature, salinity, and light transmission anomalies to detect hydrothermal venting and to draw inferences about the nature of the underlying geochemistry of the hydrothermal system. Many other chemical tracers can be utilized during plume studies to provide additional information about the nature of the venting. These include particles, H2, Al, and radioisotopes, among others.

  17. Noninvasive quantification of alveolar morphometry in elderly never- and ex-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Gregory A; Ouriadov, Alexei; Lessard, Eric; Sheikh, Khadija; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a way to generate invivo lung images with contrast sensitive to the molecular displacement of inhaled gas at subcellular length scales. Here, we aimed to evaluate hyperpolarized 3He MRI estimates of the alveolar dimensions in 38 healthy elderly never-smokers (736years, 15 males) and 21 elderly ex-smokers (7010years, 14 males) with (n=8, 776years) and without emphysema (n=13, 6510years). The ex-smoker and never-smoker subgroups were significantly different for FEV1/FVC (P=0.0001) and DLCO (P=0.009); while ex-smokers with emphysema reported significantly diminished FEV1/FVC (P=0.02) and a trend toward lower DLCO (P=0.05) than ex-smokers without emphysema. MRI apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and CT measurements of emphysema (relative areaCT density histogram, RA950) were significantly different (P=0.001 and P=0.007) for never-smoker and ex-smoker subgroups. In never-smokers, the MRI estimate of mean linear intercept (26027?m) was significantly elevated as compared to the results previously reported in younger never-smokers (21030?m), and trended smaller than in the age-matched ex-smokers (32072?m, P=0.06) evaluated here. Never-smokers also reported significantly smaller internal (22024?m, P=0.01) acinar radius but greater alveolar sheath thickness (1204?m, P<0.0001) than ex-smokers. Never-smokers were also significantly different than ex-smokers without emphysema for alveolar sheath thickness but not ADC, while ex-smokers with emphysema reported significantly different ADC but not alveolar sheath thickness compared to ex-smokers without CT evidence of emphysema. Differences in alveolar measurements in never- and ex-smokers demonstrate the sensitivity of MRI measurements to the different effects of smoking and aging on acinar morphometry. PMID:26462748

  18. Smoking cessation, obesity and weight concerns in black women: a call to action for culturally competent interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A. P.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 20.8% of black women and 23.1% of white women smoke, and significantly more blacks (37.4%) than whites (22.4%) are obese. Although the average amount of weight gain after quitting smoking is 6-8 lbs for women, blacks tend to gain substantially more weight. This large increase in postcessation weight gain in blacks may further augment the health risks that blacks face in conjunction with obesity. Interventions that promote smoking cessation, while simultaneously reducing weight concerns or weight gain has been proposed as a strategy to help weight-concerned women quit smoking. However, these studies have included primarily white samples and no studies have examined the feasibility or effectiveness of smoking-cessation and weight-control interventions for black women smokers. This review describes the literature on smoking, obesity/weight control and weight concerns in smokers, with a particular attention to black women smokers. A call to action to develop comprehensive and culturally competent smoking-cessation and obesity/weight-control interventions for black women is emphasized due to their high rates of smoking, obesity and postcessation weight gain. PMID:16396055

  19. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Alyssa Marie M.; Fagan, Pebbles; Hamamura, Faith D.; Lagua, Ian Joseph N.; Liu, Jenny; Park, Devin J.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Pagano, Ian; Cassel, Kevin; Sy, Angela; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Boushey, Carol J.; Franke, Adrian; Clanton, Mark S.; Moolchan, Eric T.; Alexander, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates 1) the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2) the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175). A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000). The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000). After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04). The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02) in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers. PMID:26844173

  20. A fluorescein tracer release experiment in the hydrothermally active crater of Vailulu'u volcano, Samoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, S. R.; Staudigel, H.; Workman, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Girard, A. P.

    2003-08-01

    On 3 April 2001, a 20 kg point source of fluorescein dye was released 30 m above the bottom of the active summit caldera of Vailulu'u submarine volcano, Samoa. Vailulu'u crater is 2000 m wide and at water depths of 600-1000 m, with the bottom 200 m completely enclosed; it thus provides an ideal site to study the hydrodynamics of an active hydrothermal system. The magmatically driven hydrothermal system in the crater is currently exporting massive amounts of particulates, manganese, and helium. The dispersal of the dye was tracked for 4 days with a fluorimeter in tow-yo mode from the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Polar Sea. Lateral dispersion of the dye ranged from 80 to 500 m d-1; vertical dispersion had two components: a diapycnal diffusivity component averaging 21 cm2 s-1, and an advective component averaging 0.025 cm s-1. These measurements constrain the mass export of water from the crater during this period to be 8-1.3+4.6 × 107 m3 d-1, which leads to a "turnover" time for water in the crater of ˜3.2 days. Coupled with temperature data from CTD profiles and Mn analyses of water samples, the power output from the crater is 610-100+350 MW, and the manganese export flux is ˜240 kg d-1. The Mn/Heat ratio of 4.7 ng J-1 is significantly lower than ratios characteristic of hot smokers and diffuse hydrothermal flows on mid-ocean ridges and points to phase separation processes in this relatively shallow hydrothermal system.

  1. Field occurrence and lithology of Archean hydrothermal systems in the 3.2Ga Dixon Island Formation, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Y.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Horie, K.; Sakamoto, R.; Miki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Stratigraphic transition of black chert to iron-rich sedimentary rocks above volcanic sequences with hydrothermal systems is common and characteristic feature of Archean greenstone belts. The 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation, exposed along the northern coast of Dixon Island located in the coastal Pilbara terrane, Western Australia, is one of such units and the focus of our study. We introduce field occurrence and lithology of the Dixon Island Formation that preserves features of paleohydrohermal environment in the Mesoarchean ocean. The Dixon Island Formation is composed of the following three members (in ascending order): Komatiite-Rhyolite Tuff, Black Chert, and Varicolored Chert members (Kiyokawa and Taira, 1998). Here we focus on the Komatiite-Rholite Tuff member. It preserves two cycles of highly altered komatiite lavas and well-stratified rhyolite tuff. Komatiite lavas include dendritic crystals of chrome spinel and ghosts of spinifex, euhedral and sheet-like olivines and pyroxenes. These rocks are now composed of granular microcrystalline quartz with chromian muscovite, chrome spinel and chrorite that formed by intense silicification. Its upper part contains hydrothermal veining and alteration (i.e., many vein swarms composed of veins of quartz and organic carbon-rich black chert). Most black chert veins intrude vertically into overlying layers, and contain barite, pyrite, monazite and clay minerals which were least affected by silicificatio. Based on the cross-cutting relationship seen in the outcrops, we recognized two generations of black chert veins (type 1 and type 2 veins; Kiyokawa et al., 2006). Type 1 veins are mainly composed of carbonaceous peloids in a microcrystalline quartz matrix. Euhedral and xenocrystic tourmaline are found only in Type1 veins. Type 2 veins are organic carbon-poor and contain fragments of black chert and siliceous volcanic breccia (Kiyokawa et al., 2006). Intense silicification of komatiitic volcaniclastics and lava, enriched in Si and K and depleted in Mg, occurred earlier than the formation of black chert veins and probably during sedimentation of the overlying Black Chert member. Petrographycally, tourmaline in Type1 veins formed by hydrothermal processes and can be used to infer physicochemical conditions of the hydrothermal activity. Fragmentation of black chert and volcanic rocks within Type 2 veins was probably due to high pressure caused by hydrothermal activity.

  2. Fabrication of hollow mesoporous NiO hexagonal microspheres via hydrothermal process in ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jinbo; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan ; Wu, Lili; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan ; Zou, Ke; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors were synthesized in ionic liquid and water solution by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were prepared by thermal treatment of Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were self-assembled by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals with high specific surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mesoporous structure is stable at 773 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic liquid absorbed on the O-terminate surface of the crystals to form hydrogen bond and played key roles in determining the final shape of the NiO novel microstructure. -- Abstract: The novel NiO hexagonal hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by annealing Ni(OH){sub 2}, which was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the hollow NiO microstructures are self-organized by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals. The mesoporous structure possessed good thermal stability and high specific surface area (ca. 83 m{sup 2}/g). The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF{sub 4}]) was found to play a key role in controlling the morphology of NiO microstructures during the hydrothermal process. The special hollow mesoporous architectures will have potential applications in many fields, such as catalysts, absorbents, sensors, drug-delivery carriers, acoustic insulators and supercapacitors.

  3. Black Hills

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... surfaces with lower absorption appear as green, yellow, orange or red. Black pixels indicate areas where albedo could not be derived, ... notably reduced in extent, and higher albedo areas (yellow, orange and red pixels) have increased. Because incoming sunlight is ...

  4. Black Cohosh

    MedlinePlus

    ... of cells from columnar to squamous ) in ovariectomized rats [ 17 ]. What is the regulatory status of black ... on gonadotropin release in menopausal women and ovariectomized rats. Planta Medica 57: 420-424, 1991. [ PubMed abstract ] ...

  5. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  6. Indicators of humoral immunity in smokers and nonsmokers working underground.

    PubMed

    Wagner, V; Skokanová, K; Wagnerová, M; Heribanová, A; Ríha, M

    1983-01-01

    A group of 215 underground shale miners (148 smokers and 67 nonsmokers) was examined for levels of immunoglobulins in sera (IgG, IgA, IgM) and saliva (sIgA), transferrin (TRF), alpha 2-macroglobulin (A 2M) and lysozyme levels in sera (LYS) and saliva (sLYS). The control group consisting of 95 healthy men was selected to match the age of the exposed miners. The mine environment was characterized by the presence of ionizing radiation, due to a geological configuration of the rock. The study revealed that the decline of IgG, IgA and sLYS levels in smokers was significantly deeper than in nonsmokers and controls. The levels of sIgA and serum LYS levels were increased both in smokers and nonsmokers. The change in the serum LYS and A 2M levels in miners did not depend on the smoking habits, except of A 2M levels in miners employed for more than 21 years. The differences were, as a rule, less pronounced in younger miners and tended to increase with the increasing length of work underground. The distribution analysis revealed some inter-miner differences in the susceptibility to these changes and the formation of smaller subgroups of miners with more or less subnormal test values, which supports the hypothesis on the heterogeneity of this population group. The tests showed that the statistical analysis of abnormal test values might play an important role in the assessment of the health risk in individuals. A simultaneous detection of subnormal values in some of pairs of tests may provide decisive data allowing a reliable differentiation between the afflicted miners and the healthy control subjects. PMID:6193167

  7. Protein networks in induced sputum from smokers and COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N; Casado, Begona; Pannell, Lewis K; McGarvey, Peter B; Boschetto, Piera; Luisetti, Maurizio; Iadarola, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Subtypes of cigarette smoke-induced disease affect different lung structures and may have distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Objective To determine if proteomic classification of the cellular and vascular origins of sputum proteins can characterize these mechanisms and phenotypes. Subjects and methods Individual sputum specimens from lifelong nonsmokers (n=7) and smokers with normal lung function (n=13), mucous hypersecretion with normal lung function (n=11), obstructed airflow without emphysema (n=15), and obstruction plus emphysema (n=10) were assessed with mass spectrometry. Data reduction, logarithmic transformation of spectral counts, and Cytoscape network-interaction analysis were performed. The original 203 proteins were reduced to the most informative 50. Sources were secretory dimeric IgA, submucosal gland serous and mucous cells, goblet and other epithelial cells, and vascular permeability. Results Epithelial proteins discriminated nonsmokers from smokers. Mucin 5AC was elevated in healthy smokers and chronic bronchitis, suggesting a continuum with the severity of hypersecretion determined by mechanisms of goblet-cell hyperplasia. Obstructed airflow was correlated with glandular proteins and lower levels of Ig joining chain compared to other groups. Emphysema subjects’ sputum was unique, with high plasma proteins and components of neutrophil extracellular traps, such as histones and defensins. In contrast, defensins were correlated with epithelial proteins in all other groups. Protein-network interactions were unique to each group. Conclusion The proteomes were interpreted as complex “biosignatures” that suggest distinct pathophysiological mechanisms for mucin 5AC hypersecretion, airflow obstruction, and inflammatory emphysema phenotypes. Proteomic phenotyping may improve genotyping studies by selecting more homogeneous study groups. Each phenotype may require its own mechanistically based diagnostic, risk-assessment, drug- and other treatment algorithms. PMID:26396508

  8. Smoking Intensity and Lipoprotein Abnormalities in Active Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Gossett, Linda K.; Johnson, Heather M.; Piper, Megan E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.; Stein, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Smoking is associated with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and elevated triglycerides. Objective To evaluate the effects of five markers of smoking intensity on lipoprotein concentrations and particle sizes in a large, modern cohort of current smokers. Methods Fasting nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy lipoprotein profiles were obtained in a large cohort of current smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation trial. Multivariate linear regression models were constructed to determine predictors of lipoprotein fractions. Models included age, sex, race, waist circumference, level of physical activity and alcohol consumption. Smoking intensity parameters included: current cigarettes smoked/day, pack-years, the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels. Results The 1,504 subjects (58% women, 84% white) had a mean (standard deviation) age of 45 (11.0) years. They smoked 21.4 (8.9) cigarettes/day (29.4 [20.4] pack-years). HDL-C (42.0 [13.5] mg/dL) and total HDL particles (30.3 [5.9] μmol/L) were low. Cigarettes smoked/day independently predicted higher total cholesterol (p=0.009), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.023), and triglycerides (p=0.002). CO levels predicted lower HDL-C (p=0.027) and total HDL particles (p=0.009). However, the incremental R2 for each marker of smoking intensity on each lipoprotein was small. Relationships between the FTND score and lipoproteins were weak and inconsistent. Participants in the lowest quintiles of current smoking, pack-years, and CO had more favorable lipoproteins (all p<0.04). Conclusions Among current smokers, increased smoking burden is associated with small increases in total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglycerides. Increased recent smoke exposure is associated with small decreases in HDL-C and HDL particles. PMID:20161531

  9. Connecting low-income smokers to tobacco treatment services.

    PubMed

    Slater, Jonathan S; Nelson, Christina L; Parks, Michael J; Ebbert, Jon O

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for using population-level incentive-based interventions, and cigarette smoking is one of the most significant health behaviors driving costs and adverse health in low-income populations. Telehealth offers an opportunity to facilitate delivery of evidence-based smoking cessation services as well as incentive-based interventions to low-income populations. However, research is needed on effective strategies for linking smokers to services, how to couple financial incentives with telehealth, and on how to scale this to population-level practice. The current paper evaluates primary implementation and follow-up results of two strategies for connecting low-income, predominantly female smokers to a telephone tobacco quitline (QL). The population-based program consisted of participant-initiated phone contact and two recruitment strategies: (1) direct mail (DM) and (2) opportunistic telephone referrals with connection (ORC). Both strategies offered financial incentives for being connected to the QL, and all QL connections were made by trained patient navigators through a central call center. QL connections occurred for 97% of DM callers (N=870) and 33% of ORC callers (N=4550). Self-reported continuous smoking abstinence (i.e., 30 smoke-free days at seven-month follow-up) was 20% for the DM group and 16% for ORC. These differences between intervention groups remained in ordered logistic regressions adjusting for smoking history and demographic characteristics. Each recruitment strategy had distinct advantages; both successfully connected low-income smokers to cessation services and encouraged quit attempts and continuous smoking abstinence. Future research and population-based programs can utilize financial incentives and both recruitment strategies, building on their relative strengths. PMID:26489597

  10. Weight concerns in women smokers during pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Pomerleau, C S; Brouwer, R J; Jones, L T

    2000-01-01

    When women smokers become pregnant, they are asked to control weight gain and at the same time to relinquish an addictive drug with weight suppressing effects. For women with serious body image concerns or a history of unhealthful eating patterns, smoking cessation may be particularly problematic. To investigate the relationship of weight concerns with smoking and weight gain during pregnancy and postpartum weight loss strategies, we conducted a retrospective study of women who had given birth to their first child within the past 10 years and were smokers when they became pregnant. We observed that women smokers with high weight and body image concerns (HC) gained significantly more weight during pregnancy-in amounts that far exceeded maximum recommended weight gain-than did women with low concerns (LC). HC were more likely to adopt smoking as a weight-control strategy and to be receptive to multiple weight-control strategies. Although they lost significantly more weight in the first month postpartum than did LC, they had also gained significantly more during pregnancy; the net result was that weight loss as a percentage of weight gained did not differ significantly between groups. HC were significantly less likely to experience food cravings in the first trimester and marginally less likely to vomit than LC. We conclude that early identification of high-risk women, coordination of prenatal care with smoking cessation counseling, and development of effective relapse prevention strategies that specifically address weight issues both during and after pregnancy will be needed if efforts to reduce smoking during pregnancy and postpartum are to be optimized. PMID:11023016

  11. Genomic Aberrations in Lung Adenocarcinoma in Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Beau-Faller, Michèle; Camilleri-Broët, Sophie; Girard, Philippe; Hofman, Paul; Mazières, Julien; Toujani, Saloua; Lacroix, Ludovic; Laffaire, Julien; Dessen, Philippe; Fouret, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Background Lung cancer in never smokers would rank as the seventh most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Methods and Findings We performed high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of lung adenocarcinoma in sixty never smokers and identified fourteen new minimal common regions (MCR) of gain or loss, of which five contained a single gene (MOCS2, NSUN3, KHDRBS2, SNTG1 and ST18). One larger MCR of gain contained NSD1. One focal amplification and nine gains contained FUS. NSD1 and FUS are oncogenes hitherto not known to be associated with lung cancer. FISH showed that the amplicon containing FUS was joined to the next telomeric amplicon at 16p11.2. FUS was over-expressed in 10 tumors with gain of 16p11.2 compared to 30 tumors without that gain. Other cancer genes present in aberrations included ARNT, BCL9, CDK4, CDKN2B, EGFR, ERBB2, MDM2, MDM4, MET, MYC and KRAS. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering with adjustment for false-discovery rate revealed clusters differing by the level and pattern of aberrations and displaying particular tumor characteristics. One cluster was strongly associated with gain of MYC. Another cluster was characterized by extensive losses containing tumor suppressor genes of which RB1 and WRN. Tumors in that cluster frequently harbored a central scar-like fibrosis. A third cluster was associated with gains on 7p and 7q, containing ETV1 and BRAF, and displayed the highest rate of EGFR mutations. SNP array analysis validated copy-number aberrations and revealed that RB1 and WRN were altered by recurrent copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. Conclusions The present study has uncovered new aberrations containing cancer genes. The oncogene FUS is a candidate gene in the 16p region that is frequently gained in never smokers. Multiple genetic pathways defined by gains of MYC, deletions of RB1 and WRN or gains on 7p and 7q are involved in lung adenocarcinoma in never smokers. PMID:21151896

  12. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

    2006-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist consumers in distinguishing real health threats from spurious health claims. As this report documents, there is a strong scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction, and it shows great potential as a public health strategy to help millions of smokers. PMID:17184539

  13. SEPAR-ALAT Consensus Document on Antipneumoccal Vaccination in Smokers.

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A; Buljubasich, Daniel; Sansores, Raúl; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Guerreros Benavides, Alfredo; Luhning, Susana; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zabert, Gustavo; de Granda Orive, José Ignacio; Solano Reina, Segismundo; Casas Herrera, Alejandro; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for several clinical syndromes, such as community-acquired pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, and others. The most severe clinical entity caused by this bacteria is undoubtedly invasive pneumococcal disease. Certain factors are known to increase the risk of presenting invasive pneumococcal disease, the most important being smoking habit and underlying concomitant diseases. This article comprises a consensus document on antipneumococcal vaccination in smokers, drawn up by a Smoking Expert Group from the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery and the Latin American Chest Association. PMID:25641351

  14. Poor smokers, poor quitters, and cigarette tax regressivity.

    PubMed

    Remler, Dahlia K

    2004-02-01

    The traditional view that excise taxes are regressive has been challenged. I document the history of the term regressive tax, show that traditional definitions have always found cigarette taxes to be regressive, and illustrate the implications of the greater price responsiveness observed among the poor. I explain the different definitions of tax burden: accounting, welfare-based willingness to pay, and welfare-based time inconsistent. Progressivity (equity across income groups) is sensitive to the way in which tax burden is assessed. Analysis of horizontal equity (fairness within a given income group) shows that cigarette taxes heavily burden poor smokers who do not quit, no matter how tax burden is assessed. PMID:14759931

  15. Smoking-related self-efficacy, beliefs, and intention: assessing factorial validity and structural relationships in 9 th–12th grade current smokers in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Kymberle Landrum; Diamond, Pamela M.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Pallonen, Unto; Ford, Kentya H.; McAlister, Alfred L.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking-related self-efficacy and beliefs about the benefits of smoking are consistently related to intention to continue smoking, a common proximal outcome in youth smoking cessation studies. Some measures of these constructs are used frequently in national and state youth tobacco surveys, despite little evidence of validity for high school smokers. Further, the association of the constructs with intention has not been demonstrated in this group. The factorial validity of the measures and the cross-sectional correlations among self-efficacy, beliefs, and intention were examined among 9th–12th grade current smokers (N=2767, 13.8% reporting smoking ≥1 cigarette in the previous 30 days; mean age 16.2; 61.2% white, 6.2% Black, 17.8% Hispanic, 5.0% Asian, 3.5% other; response rate 70%) from a convenience sample of 22 Texas schools. Confirmatory factor analyses supported evidence of factorial validity for the scales in this sample. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested youth smokers have low confidence in their ability to avoid smoking, believe smoking offers emotional or social benefits, and intend to continue smoking. The scales assess smoking-related self-efficacy, beliefs, and intention in this sample. Prospective studies are needed before intervention development implications are suggested. PMID:17270357

  16. Ongoing hydrothermal activities within Enceladus.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Postberg, Frank; Sekine, Yasuhito; Shibuya, Takazo; Kempf, Sascha; Horányi, Mihály; Juhász, Antal; Altobelli, Nicolas; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masaki, Yuka; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Tachibana, Shogo; Sirono, Sin-iti; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Srama, Ralf

    2015-03-12

    Detection of sodium-salt-rich ice grains emitted from the plume of the Saturnian moon Enceladus suggests that the grains formed as frozen droplets from a liquid water reservoir that is, or has been, in contact with rock. Gravitational field measurements suggest a regional south polar subsurface ocean of about 10 kilometres thickness located beneath an ice crust 30 to 40 kilometres thick. These findings imply rock-water interactions in regions surrounding the core of Enceladus. The resulting chemical 'footprints' are expected to be preserved in the liquid and subsequently transported upwards to the near-surface plume sources, where they eventually would be ejected and could be measured by a spacecraft. Here we report an analysis of silicon-rich, nanometre-sized dust particles (so-called stream particles) that stand out from the water-ice-dominated objects characteristic of Saturn. We interpret these grains as nanometre-sized SiO2 (silica) particles, initially embedded in icy grains emitted from Enceladus' subsurface waters and released by sputter erosion in Saturn's E ring. The composition and the limited size range (2 to 8 nanometres in radius) of stream particles indicate ongoing high-temperature (>90 °C) hydrothermal reactions associated with global-scale geothermal activity that quickly transports hydrothermal products from the ocean floor at a depth of at least 40 kilometres up to the plume of Enceladus. PMID:25762281

  17. Ongoing hydrothermal activities within Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Postberg, Frank; Sekine, Yasuhito; Shibuya, Takazo; Kempf, Sascha; Hornyi, Mihly; Juhsz, Antal; Altobelli, Nicolas; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masaki, Yuka; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Tachibana, Shogo; Sirono, Sin-Iti; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Srama, Ralf

    2015-03-01

    Detection of sodium-salt-rich ice grains emitted from the plume of the Saturnian moon Enceladus suggests that the grains formed as frozen droplets from a liquid water reservoir that is, or has been, in contact with rock. Gravitational field measurements suggest a regional south polar subsurface ocean of about 10 kilometres thickness located beneath an ice crust 30 to 40 kilometres thick. These findings imply rock-water interactions in regions surrounding the core of Enceladus. The resulting chemical `footprints' are expected to be preserved in the liquid and subsequently transported upwards to the near-surface plume sources, where they eventually would be ejected and could be measured by a spacecraft. Here we report an analysis of silicon-rich, nanometre-sized dust particles (so-called stream particles) that stand out from the water-ice-dominated objects characteristic of Saturn. We interpret these grains as nanometre-sized SiO2 (silica) particles, initially embedded in icy grains emitted from Enceladus' subsurface waters and released by sputter erosion in Saturn's E ring. The composition and the limited size range (2 to 8 nanometres in radius) of stream particles indicate ongoing high-temperature (>90 C) hydrothermal reactions associated with global-scale geothermal activity that quickly transports hydrothermal products from the ocean floor at a depth of at least 40 kilometres up to the plume of Enceladus.

  18. Smoking and the bandit: A preliminary study of smoker and non-smoker differences in exploratory behavior measured with a multi-armed bandit task

    PubMed Central

    Addicott, Merideth A.; Pearson, John M.; Wilson, Jessica; Platt, Michael L.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Advantageous decision-making is an adaptive trade-off between exploring alternatives and exploiting the most rewarding option. This trade-off may be related to maladaptive decision-making associated with nicotine dependence; however, explore/exploit behavior has not been previously investigated in the context of addiction. The explore/exploit trade-off is captured by the multi-armed bandit task, in which different arms of a slot machine are chosen to discover the relative payoffs. The goal of this study was to preliminarily investigate whether smokers differ from non-smokers in their degree of exploratory behavior. Smokers (n = 18) and non-smokers (n = 17) completed a six-armed bandit task as well as self-report measures of behavior and personality traits. Smokers were found to exhibit less exploratory behavior (i.e. made fewer switches between slot machine arms) than non-smokers within the first 300 trials of the bandit task. The overall proportion of exploratory choices negatively correlated with self-reported measures of delay aversion and nonplanning impulsivity. These preliminary results suggest that smokers make fewer initial exploratory choices on the bandit task. The bandit task is a promising measure that could provide valuable insights into how nicotine use and dependence is associated with explore/exploit decision-making. PMID:23245198

  19. Numerical Modeling of Convection in a Porous Layer with Temperature-Dependent Permeability: Application to Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Lowell, R. P.

    2005-12-01

    Tectonic and magmatic events in the oceanic crust can alter the permeability distribution and generate regions of new crack-related permeability. Hydrothermal fluids moving into newly created cracks encounter rocks that are initially at different temperature than the fluid. The thermoelastic stresses that result generate a temperature dependent permeability that exerts feedback on the circulation pathways. Using a 1-D model, Germanovich et al. (2001)1 showed that thermoelastic stresses could result in bifurcated flow systems in which steady state discharge temperatures could vary dramatically in response to small parameter changes. Here we perform a more detailed analysis of the role of thermoelastic stresses on convection in a porous medium using the finite difference code GTH. The code is modified to incorporate temperature dependent permeability. We considered a 2-D rectangular system one kilometer deep and five kilometers wide, and considered both heterogeneous and homogeneous scenarios. In the heterogeneous simulation, we constructed a 1 km-wide recharge zone with initial permeability k0 = 10-13m2 and 100 m-wide cross-flow and discharge zones with k0 = 10-12m2. In the interior part of the model, we assigned k0 = 10-16m2. We also simulated the effect of a layer of high porosity and permeability pillows. The side boundaries were impermeable and insulated; the lower boundary was also impermeable and either at constant temperature or constant heat flux, with values appropriate for black smoker flows. The top boundary was open with seawater entering at a constant temperature and exiting at the upwelling plume temperature. In the homogenous simulation, we assigned the initial permeability k0 = 10-12m2 throughout the whole domain, and the boundary conditions are the same as the heterogeneous matter. To describe the thermoelastically controlled, temperature dependent permeability we used the form k(T) = k0 [1-γ(T -Ti)]3H[1-γ(T - Ti)] + kres., where H is the Heavyside step function. The first term in the expression expresses the main temperature dependent permeability; the latter term represents a residual permeability that remains after the primary permeability is closed. For the basic heterogeneous model, the results tended to validate the initial results of Germanovich et al. (2001). For the homogenous models, the thermoelastic effects tended to affect plume spacing and shape, the magnitude of the effect depending upon whether or not the primary permeability was closed. The affect of high porosity pillows in the heterogeneous system was promote mixing between the deep upwelling fluid with shallow circulation. Such a model could explain Galapagos-type hydrothermal systems in which the seafloor venting occurs at relatively low temperature despite the geochemical evidence of a high-temperature end-member fluid. 1Germanovich et al., J. Geophys. Res., 106, 473-496, 2001.

  20. High Resolution Mapping of the Ashadze and Logachev Hydrothermal Fields, Mid Atlantic Ridge 13-15N.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondreas, H.; Cannat, M.; Cherkashov, G.; Fouquet, Y.; Normand, A.; Serpentine Scientific Party, A.

    2007-12-01

    During the SERPENTINE cruise (feb 25 to apr. 5, 2007) on board the french research vessel Pourquoi Pas? a new multibeam bathymetric system (RESON 7125 echo sounder) was used on the ROV Victor 6000 to gather real time fine-scale bathymetry. The resolution is 5% of the altitude above the seafloor (h), and the footprint at the seafloor is 0.2% of h. The Ashadze and Logachev hydrothermal fields are located in the 13-15N region of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, on outcrops of serpentinized mantle-derived peridotite with interspeded gabbroic bodies. Maps at 50 m above the seafloor were done to investigate the relationships between the vent fields and their tectonic/volcanic environnement. Higher resolution mapping, 20 m above the seafloor, was done at the scale of the vent fields. These maps, which have resolutions of a few tens of centimetres, are unique tools to understand the local geological control on the vents. Our observations also emphasize the role of slope failure, and spreading-parallel or oblique structural lineaments on the fine scale topography of MAR axial valley walls. Ashadze area comprises two active vent fields located at two different levels on the western wall of the axial valley near 13N. The Ashadze1 and 2 sites, 5 km apart, are respectively 4 km and 9 km off-axis. Active vents at Azhadze1 (4100 m) are distributed over an area about 150 m-long, along an EW-trending south-facing scarp. High resolution mapping at 20 m (450x450 m area) reveals the fine structure of sulfide mounds, as well as complex fissure arrays near the vents. Away from the vents, topography appears dominated by slope failure, with prominent landslides. Black smokers at Ashadze 2 (3260 m) are located in a crater-shaped depression, about 25 m in diameter, which lies in a narrow (about 70 m), N-S trending trough. On the high resolution maps at Ashadze 2 (800x450 m) the N-S trending trough appears bounded to the east by a faulted gabbroic body. To the west, it is limited by a narrow N-S trending ridge, 20 to 50 m-high, that bears numerous extinct hydrothermal chimneys. Logachev comprises two active vent fields located east of the ridge near 1445"N. Logachev 1 and 2 sites, 5 km apart, are located 8 km and 12 km off-axis. We only mapped Logatchev 1, which is a large and well studied vent field on the eastern axial valley wall. It comprises many vents in a NW-trending elongated area about 400 m-long. High resolution mapping at 20m (550X750 m) reveals the circular shape of the main sulfide mounds, as well as complex arrays of scarps and fissures, oriented predominantly E-W, and NE- SW. Numerous lens-shaped slump features are also revealed near the vents.

  1. Risk factors for subclinical carotid atherosclerosis among current smokers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Heather M; Piper, Megan E; Jorenby, Douglas E; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B; Stein, James H

    2010-01-01

    This study characterized the determinants of carotid atherosclerosis in a large contemporary sample of current smokers. Associations between risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and carotid plaque presence were determined by multivariable regression. Participants included 1504 current smokers (58% female) who were a median (interquartile range) of 44.7 (38-53) years old and smoked 25 (15-40) pack-years; 55% had plaque. Pack-years, age, male sex, nonwhite race, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, small low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and total high-density lipoproteins were independently associated with CIMT (model R(2) =0.434, P<.001). Pack-years (odds ratio [OR], 1.14 per 10 pack-years; P=.001), age (OR, 1.75 per 10 years; P<.001), body mass index (OR, 0.91 per 5 kg/m(2) ; P=.035), and small LDLs (OR, 1.11 per 100 nmol/L; P<.001) were independently associated with carotid plaque presence (model χ(2) =210.7, P<.001). The association between pack-years and carotid plaque was stronger in women (OR, 1.09 per 10 pack-years, P(interaction) =.018). PMID:20860639

  2. Adherence to Tobacco Dependence Treatment Among HIV-Infected Smokers.

    PubMed

    Browning, Kristine K; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Ferketich, Amy K; Diaz, Philip; Koletar, Susan L; Reynolds, Nancy R

    2016-03-01

    High prevalence of tobacco use and low success in quitting remain significant problems for reducing disease burden among HIV-infected persons. This study's purpose was to examine participant responsiveness and tobacco dependence treatment adherence and their influences on tobacco abstinence among HIV-infected patients. This non-randomized study included HIV-infected smokers 18 years of age or older, who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day, and had an interest in quitting smoking in the next 30 days. HIV-infected smokers (n = 247) received a 12-week tobacco dependence treatment intervention that included pharmacotherapy and telephone counseling. Younger age and non-White race were associated with lower adherence to pharmacotherapy. Younger age, non-White race, and increased monthly binge drinking were associated with lower adherence to telephone counseling. High participant responsiveness was associated with adherence to pharmacotherapy, counseling, and abstinence. Development and testing of interventions to improve adherence to evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment is warranted. PMID:25855045

  3. Understanding how mass media campaigns impact on smokers

    PubMed Central

    Borland, R; Balmford, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the immediate impact of the 2001 National Tobacco Campaign (NTC) advertising on movement towards quitting in a broadly representative sample of smokers. Method: Repeated measures design with surveys two weeks apart. 1000 current smokers aged 18–40 were interviewed. 250 telephone interviews were conducted in each of Sydney and Melbourne (both unexposed at initial survey) and Brisbane and Adelaide (both exposed at initial survey) to measure frequency of negative thoughts about smoking and passive smoking, positive thoughts about smoking, and thoughts about the conduct of tobacco companies; perspective on change; and thoughts and actions about quitting. Results: At the initial survey, those in regions exposed to the campaign were more advanced in thoughts about quitting. Between surveys, 33% progressed toward cessation and 21% regressed. 69% of participants reported recalling NTC advertising at follow up, which was significantly associated with greater self reported quitting activity and a greater increase in frequency of negative thoughts about smoking. Conclusions: The results show increased frequency of negative thoughts about smoking and an increase in quitting related thoughts and actions following onset of the NTC campaign. There was also evidence of sustained increase in cessation activity for a month following onset of the campaign. This all occurred in the context of considerable naturally occurring smoking cessation activity, suggesting that the challenge of campaigns in Australia is to induce progress toward quitting among people who are generally engaged with the issue at some level, rather than attempt to stimulate fundamentally new consideration of smoking. PMID:12878773

  4. Bronchiolar epithelial catalase is diminished in smokers with mild COPD.

    PubMed

    Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Fuke, Satoshi; Inomata, Takashi; Kaga, Kichizo; Morikawa, Toshiaki; Odajima, Nao; Adair-Kirk, Tracy; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate bronchiolar catalase expression and its relationship with smoking and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans and to determine the dynamic change of bronchiolar catalase expression in response to cigarette smoke in mice. Lung tissue was obtained from 36 subjects undergoing surgery for peripheral tumours, consisting of life-long nonsmokers and smokers with or without COPD. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cigarette smoke exposure for up to 3 months followed by a 28-day cessation period. We quantified bronchiolar catalase mRNA using laser capture microdissection and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. C22 club cells (Clara cells) in culture were exposed to cigarette smoke extract and monitored for viability when catalase expression was decreased by siRNA. Catalase was decreased at mRNA and protein levels in bronchiolar epithelium in smokers with COPD. In mice, bronchiolar catalase is temporarily upregulated at 1 day after cigarette smoke exposure but is downregulated by repeated cigarette smoke exposure, and is not restored long after withdrawal once emphysema is developed. Decreasing catalase expression in C22 cells resulted in greater cigarette smoke extract-induced cell death. Bronchiolar catalase reduction is associated with COPD. Regulation of catalase depends on the duration of cigarette smoke exposure, and plays a critical role for protection against cigarette smoke-induced cell damage. PMID:23100509

  5. [Asymptomatic 32 year old female smoker with persistent polyclonal lymphocytosis].

    PubMed

    Chapuy, B; Wulf, G; Tessen, H W; Griesinger, F; Trümper, L; Schroers, R

    2007-03-01

    A 32 year old female smoker (20 pack years) presented with an asymptomatic lymphocytosis of 13,000/nl and splenomegaly. The patient's blood smear showed an absolute lymphocytosis with 65% atypical lymphocytes. A total of 1% of the lymphocytes were bilobulated. Bone marrow histology and immunphenotyping of blood and bone marrow excluded leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. IgH-CDR-3 PCR analysis revealed a polyclonal pattern. In summary, a persistent polyclonal B-cell-lymphocytosis (PPBL) was diagnosed. The exact etiology of PPBL is still unclear, however, it is associated with a polyclonal raise in the lymphocyte count of CD27+IgD+-memory-B-lymphocytes due to a defect in apoptosis signaling and leukocyte homing to secondary lymphoid tissues. An association with cigarette smoking is obvious since all patients are smokers. From all published cases, only two developed a malignancy with an uncertain association with PPBL. We have been monitoring our patient for 6.5 years without any evidence of the development of a lymphoma. PMID:17287965

  6. Olfactory Cue-reactivity in Nicotine-Dependent Adult Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Bernadette M.; Uhde, Thomas W.; LaRowe, Steven D.; Stein, Sarah V.; Freeman, W. Connor; McClernon, F. Joseph; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    Cue-elicited reactivity is a significant factor in relapse during smoking quit attempts. Previous research has focused primarily on visual smoking cues, with very limited research examining reactivity to olfactory triggers. Twenty-six adult, non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent smokers were exposed to seven odorants during a cue-reactivity session measuring heart rate, skin conductance, and subjective craving. Cues included 2 cigarette odors (fresh tobacco and cigarette smoke), 2 odors previously identified as smoking-related (freshly mowed grass and coffee), 2 odors previously identified as unrelated to smoking (lavender and burned rubber), and 1 odorless control (propylene glycol). Pairwise comparisons demonstrated that subjective intensity of craving was significantly higher following exposure to the fresh tobacco odor compared to the odorless control (p<.01). A significant main effect for cue type on a physiological measure of arousal was also revealed, with a fresh tobacco odor-elicited significant increase in skin conductance level compared to the odorless control. No main effect of cue type on heart rate, however, was found (p=.25). The results of the present study indicate that cigarette odor is an effective olfactory cue that heightens both subjective craving and increases skin conductance in smokers. Future research is needed to evaluate whether avoidance of these odors, or extinction of responses to them, can reduce relapse risk during smoking quit attempts. PMID:25180553

  7. Time to First Cigarette and Hypertension in Korean Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Saerom; Jang, Miae; Noh, Hye-Mi; Oh, Hye-Young; Song, Hong Ji; Park, Kyung Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background Morning blood pressure surge affects to cardiovascular disease risk. Short time to first cigarette (TTFC) after waking can enhance morning blood pressure surge, and accelerate atherosclerosis Methods We investigated that the relationship between TTFC and blood pressure. The study subjects included male current smokers (n=211) who had health check-up in Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital from July to September, 2014. We categorized the subjects into 2 groups according to TTFC; early TTFC (TTFC <30 minutes) and late TTFC (TTFC ≥30 minutes), and the subjects who were taking antihypertensive medications or had a high blood pressure (>140 mm Hg or 90 mm Hg) were defined as hypertensive group. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval to investigate the association between TTFC and hypertensive group. Results Compared with late TTFC, early TTFC had higher odds (odds ratio [OR], 3.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.89-7.94) for hypertensive group. After adjusting confounding factors, early TTFC was significantly associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR, 4.43; 95% CI, 1.84-10.70). Conclusion early TTFC after waking is associated with hypertension. It suggests delaying TTFC might help to control of blood pressure among the current smokers who are not ready to immediately quit smoking. PMID:26435812

  8. Attentional avoidance of smoking cues in former smokers.

    PubMed

    Peuker, Ana Carolina; Bizarro, Lisiane

    2014-02-01

    It has been speculated that attentional bias (AB) to smoking cues is a permanent feature of addiction. The objective of the present study was to investigate if abstinence duration has an influence on AB. Performance on a visual probe task of three groups (recent, intermediate and prolonged) of ex-smokers (n=62, mean age 5011 years) with different abstinence durations was compared. Target/Control images were presented at three stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs: 200, 500, and 2000 ms) on a 17-inch monitor. Former smokers avoided target images (TIs). Mean reaction time to control images was shorter than to TIs, confirming the attentional avoidance of TIs. Attentional avoidance of TIs and the lower emotional valence of these stimuli may have been a strategy to avoid relapse. Sustained avoidance to smoking-related cues may be a predictor of long-term abstinence. Direct training of AB away from drug cues may improve the results of smoking cessation therapy. PMID:24074848

  9. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  10. Hidden truth of circulating neutrophils (polymorphonuclear neutrophil) function in periodontally healthy smoker subjects

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Chitra; Baron, Tarun Kumar; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2016-01-01

    Context: Tobacco smoking is considered to be a major risk factor associated with periodontal disease. Smoking exerts a major effect on the protective elements of the immune response, resulting in an increase in the extent and severity of periodontal destruction. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess viability and phagocytic function of neutrophils in circulating blood of the smokers and nonsmokers who are periodontally healthy. Settings and Design: Two hundred subjects in the mean range of 20–30 years of age were included in the study population. It was a retrospective study carried out for 6 months. Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects were divided into four groups: 50 nonsmokers, 50 light smokers (<5 cigarettes/day), 50 moderate smokers (5–15 cigarettes/day), and 50 heavy smokers (>15 cigarettes/day). Full mouth plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, and probing depths were measured. Percentage viability of circulating neutrophils and average number of phagocytosed Candida albicans were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Means and standard deviations were calculated from data obtained within the groups. Comparison between the smokers and nonsmokers was performed by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA analysis. Comparison between smoker groups was performed using Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test. Results: Percentage viability of neutrophils was significantly less in heavy smokers (66.9 ± 4.0), moderate (76.6 ± 4.2), light smokers (83.1 ± 2.5) as compared to nonsmokers (92.3 ± 2.6) (P < 0.01). The ability of neutrophils to phagocytose, i.e., mean particle number was significantly less in light smokers (3.5 ± 0.5), moderate smokers (2.3 ± 0.5), and heavy smokers (1.4 ± 0.5) compared to nonsmokers (4.9 ± 0.7) (P < 0.01) with evidence of dose-response effect. Conclusions: Smoking significantly affects neutrophils viability and phagocytic function in periodontally healthy population.

  11. False promises: The tobacco industry, “low-tar” cigarettes, and older smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging Baby Boomers. Methods Archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis utilizing iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Results Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. “Low tar” cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Conclusion Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing “low-tar” or “light” cigarettes to older smokers at risk at quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer; however, “light” cigarettes may actually make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers and families about the tobacco industry’s influence may decrease the tendency to “blame the victim,” thereby enhancing the likelihood of tobacco addiction treatment for older adults. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

  12. Body image emotions, perceptions, and cognitions distinguish physically active and inactive smokers

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Gisèle A.; Sabiston, Catherine M.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Bélanger, Mathieu; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine if body image emotions (body-related shame and guilt, weight-related stress), perceptions (self-perceived overweight), or cognitions (trying to change weight) differ between adolescents characterized by smoking and physical activity (PA) behavior. Methods Data for this cross-sectional analysis were collected in 2010–11 and were available for 1017 participants (mean (SD) age = 16.8 (0.5) years). Participants were categorized according to smoking and PA status into four groups: inactive smokers, inactive non-smokers, active smokers and active non-smokers. Associations between body image emotions, perceptions and cognitions, and group membership were estimated in multinomial logistic regression. Results Participants who reported body-related shame were less likely (OR (95% CI) = 0.52 (0.29–0.94)) to be in the active smoker group than the inactive smoker group; those who reported body-related guilt and those trying to gain weight were more likely (2.14 (1.32–3.48) and 2.49 (1.22–5.08), respectively) to be in the active smoker group than the inactive smoker group; those who were stressed about weight and those perceiving themselves as overweight were less likely to be in the active non-smoker group than the inactive smoker group (0.79 (0.64–0.97) and 0.41 (0.19–0.89), respectively). Conclusion Body image emotions and cognitions differentiated the active smoker group from the other three groups. PMID:26844062

  13. Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2014-01-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

  14. Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2014-09-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

  15. Modeling methane production by iron-bearing carbonate minerals in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Norman, D.

    2005-12-01

    We measured methane and other major volatiles in fluid inclusions from gold deposits such as Lone Tree, Getchell, Twin Creeks, and Pipeline Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada by bulk analysis using quadrupole mass spectrometry. Ore-stage fluids are characterized by CO2/CH4 ratios that typically are < 10. Fluid inclusion methane concentrations generally are between 0.1 and 0.5 mol.%; other gaseous species show much wider ranges in composition. Also we commonly measure CO2/CH4 ratios of 10 or less in geothermal fluid inclusions. Similar ratios are reported in some black smokers. Few geothermal systems in production have CH4 in other than trace amounts. Giggenbach (1997) demonstrates that CO2/CH4 ratio in geothermal fluids in equilibrium with granite should vary positively with temperature, but we see no such variation and some fluid inclusion CO2/CH4 in granite-hosted inclusions ratios are an order of magnitude higher than calculated by Giggenbach (1997). This raises the question about the fluid inclusion gas measurements. We have looked at explanations for measurement of fluid inclusion methane that include preferential trapping of hydrocarbon compounds, concentration of methane by boiling, and contamination, but none can explain in all cases the methane concentrations measured. Hence we have modeled geothermal fluid rock reactions using Geochemists Workbench to demonstrate that methane can be a result of fluid-rock reactions. For gold ore wall rocks, we assume that wall rock includes iron-bearing carbonate minerals, epidote, and biotite. For geothermal systems, we assumed fluids with 1 mol.% CO2 and salinity of 1 %. We modeled the reaction of iron-bearing carbonate minerals, epidote, and biotite with the fluid between 100 and 300 °C. The reaction released ferrous iron, and the released ferrous iron is oxidized and precipitated as hematite or magnetite. The precipitation of hematite or magnetite produced acid and the acid dissolved calcite increasing CO2 concentration. The oxidation of ferrous iron produced hydrogen gas and the produced hydrogen reacted with CO2 producing methane. The equilibrium between magnetite and other ferrous-iron bearing minerals controlled the hydrogen fugacity and the hydrogen fugacity controlled the ratio of CO2 and methane. When the hydrogen fugacity was controlled by the equilibrium of magnetite and iron-bearing calcite, the modeled CO2/CH4 was about 10 and the ratio did not significantly vary between 100 and 300 °C. The reaction occurred over a wide range of pH conditions. At a low pH, the modeled ferrous iron concentration in the fluid was higher than that of higher pH. The modeled result suggests that the methane trapped in fluid inclusion can be produced by water-rock interaction in hydrothermal systems.

  16. Hydrothermal carbonization of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2012-08-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermochemical conversion process to convert lignocellulosic biomass into value-added products. HTC processes were studied using two different biomass feedstocks: corn stalk and Tamarix ramosissima. The treatment brought an increase of the higher heating values up to 29.2 and 28.4 MJ/kg for corn stalk and T. ramosissima, respectively, corresponding to an increase of 66.8% and 58.3% as compared to those for the raw materials. The resulting lignite-like solid products contained mainly lignin with a high degree of aromatization and a large amount of oxygen-containing groups. Liquid products extracted with ethyl acetate were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified degradation products were phenolic compounds and furan derivatives, which may be desirable feedstocks for biodiesel and chemical production. Based on these results, HTC is considered to be a potential treatment in a lignocellulosic biomass refinery. PMID:22698445

  17. Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2003-07-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  18. Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2002-01-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  19. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  20. Hydrothermal Occurrences in Gusev Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, S. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Milliken, R.; Mills, V. W.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    Exploration of the Gusev crater landing site by the Spirit rover has revealed for the first time, in situ evidence of hydrothermal activity on Mars. Most compelling are eroded outcrops of opaline silica found adjacent to "Home Plate" [1], an eroded stack of volcaniclastic deposits stratigraphically overlain by a vesicular basalt unit [2]. Recent work [3] demonstrates that the silica outcrops occur in a stratiform unit that possibly surrounds Home Plate. The outcrops are dominated by opal-A with no evidence for diagenesis to other silica phases. No other hydrous or alteration phases have been identified within the outcrops; most notable is a lack of sulfur phases. The outcrops have porous and in some cases, brecciated microtextures. Taken together, these observations support the interpretation that the opaline silica outcrops were produced in a hot spring or perhaps geyser environment. In this context, they are silica sinter deposits precipitated from silica-rich hydrothermal fluids, possibly related to the volcanism that produced the Home Plate volcanic rocks. On Earth, debris aprons in which sinter is brecciated, reworked, and cemented, are common features of hot springs and geysers and are good analogs for the Martian deposits. An alternative hypothesis is that the silica resulted from acid-sulfate leaching of precursor rocks by fumarolic steam condensates. But stratigraphic, textural, and chemical observations tend to diminish this possibility [3]. We are conducting extensive laboratory and field investigations of silica from both hot spring/geyser and fumarole environments to understand the full range of mineralogical, chemical, textural, and morphological variations that accompany its production, in order to shed more light on the Home Plate occurrence. The recent discovery of abundant Mg-Fe carbonate (16-34 wt%) in outcrops named Comanche provides possible evidence for additional hydrothermal activity in Gusev [4]. However, the carbonate is hosted by olivine-rich (~40 wt%) volcaniclastic rocks that show no other phases indicative of significant alteration, such as phyllosilicates. Even the presence of so much olivine in the outcrops attests to minimal alteration. This suggests that the carbonate was not derived from hydrothermal alteration of the local rock. Instead, carbonate-bearing solutions sourced from elsewhere in the region may have precipitated carbonate as cement within the olivine-rich host rock [4]. An alternative hypothesis by [5] suggests that Comanche carbonate resulted from direct precipitation of evaporating brine, perhaps related to the putative ancient lake in Gusev crater, which infiltrated the host rock. In either case, the presence of outcrops of abundant carbonate and opaline silica demonstrates a rich and varied aqueous history in Gusev crater. [1] Squyres, S. W., et al. (2008), Science, 320, 1063-1067. [2] Squyres, S. W., et al. (2007), Science, 316, 738-742. [3] Ruff, S. W., et al. (2011), J. Geophys. Res., 116, E00F23, 10.1029/2010JE003767. [4] Morris, R. V., et al. (2010), Science, 329, 5990, 421-424, 10.1126/science.1189667. [5] Ruff, S. W. (2011), Lunar Planet. Sci., XLII, abstract #2708.

  1. The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) in the Middle East region and worldwide is increasing. There is evidence to indicate both short term and long term health effects of WTS, resulting in the issuance of an advisory note by the World Health Organization. Methods This research aimed at gaining an in-depth understanding of the factors contributing to the rise in WTS in Lebanon. Qualitative focus groups (25) and in-depth interviews (9) were conducted with adults in Lebanon in 2007. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, gender, age groups and urban/rural residence. The interviews and focus groups were thematically analyzed, and recurrent themes noted and summarized. Results The main themes identified were availability, affordability, innovation, influence of media, lack of a policy framework, and the sensory characteristics evoked from WTS. Men and women, smokers and non-smokers, and younger and older participants differed in their emphases on the above themes. These themes, though specific to waterpipe, are similar to themes manipulated by the cigarette industry, and eventually controlled through tobacco control policies. Conclusions Understanding reasons behind the rise in waterpipe tobacco use is important if appropriate prevention, cessation, and policy interventions are to be formulated. Strict adherence to the FCTC is warranted, with careful and vigilant attention that all tobacco products are covered by laws in both high as well as middle to lower income countries. PMID:21569577

  2. Black Literature vs. Black Studies: Three Lynchings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Melvin G.

    1977-01-01

    Considers three works by black authors, all dealing with lynchings, that may be used in a black literature course to introduce students to the esthetic dimension of black literature, as well as to its cultural and racial significance. (GW)

  3. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Loessial Mesoporous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, L.; Jing, Z.; Wang, Z.; Pan, X.; Ishida, E. H.

    2010-11-01

    In order to sustain the inherent porous properties of loess, hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous materials from loess was carried out under saturated steam pressure at 100-200 °C for up to 24h. The experimental results showed that the curing temperature and time exerted a positive influence on the strength development, which was believed to be due to tobermorite formation. Moreover, during the hydrothermal process, a huge number of new mesopores could be formed within the matrix. Therefore a tough and mesoporous material could be produced from loess hydrothermally, which is expected to provide a good humidity regulating property.

  4. Formation of Hydrothermal nontronite associated with microbial activity at the South Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Kaiwen; Peng, Xiaotong; Chen, Shun; Xu, Hengchao; Li, Jiwei; Jiang, Lei; Du, Mengran

    2015-04-01

    Nontronite is an ubiquitous clay minerals in marine sediments, microbial mediation of hydrothermal nontronite have been increasing. The deposits collected from Southern Atlantic Ridge were very friable with an obvious laminated to stromatolitic to highly porous structure, varying from red, black to light yellow indicate redox condition may undergo range from micro-oxidizing to reducing. Although microbial activity are revealed to play an important role in the formation of clay minerals in sediment, little is currently known about microbial communities that reside in nontronite associated with hydrothermal activity. Here, we used Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nano secondary ion mass spectrometer (nanoSIMS) and molecular techniques to focus on potential mediation role of microbial in the nontronite formation of low-temperature hydrothermal deposits in South Atlantic Mid-ocean ridge. Our data suggest that the presences of abundant lamellar nontronite structures, as well as microbe-like mineralized morphologies similar to consistent with a biogenic origin. Nontronite in the lower zone of Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides are inferred to have been suboxic environment and their formation appear to be significantly controlled by the locus of redox conditions. Keywords: Nontronite, Microbial activity, Hydrothermal deposits, Biogenic origin.

  5. Policy Compliance of Smokers on a Tobacco-Free University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russette, Helen C.; Harris, Kari Jo; Schuldberg, David; Green, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors influencing compliance with campus tobacco policies and strategies to increase compliance. Participants: Sixty tobacco smokers (April 2012). Methods: A 22-item intercept-interview with closed-and open-ended questions was conducted with smokers in adjacent compliant and noncompliant areas at 1 university with a 100%…

  6. Emotion regulation in heavy smokers: experiential, expressive and physiological consequences of cognitive reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lingdan; Winkler, Markus H.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Andreatta, Marta; Li, Yonghui; Pauli, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation dysfunctions are assumed to contribute to the development of tobacco addiction and relapses among smokers attempting to quit. To further examine this hypothesis, the present study compared heavy smokers with non-smokers (NS) in a reappraisal task. Specifically, we investigated whether non-deprived smokers (NDS) and deprived smokers (DS) differ from non-smokers in cognitive emotion regulation and whether there is an association between the outcome of emotion regulation and the cigarette craving. Sixty-five participants (23 non-smokers, 22 NDS, and 20 DS) were instructed to down-regulate emotions by reappraising negative or positive pictorial scenarios. Self-ratings of valence, arousal, and cigarette craving as well as facial electromyography and electroencephalograph activities were measured. Ratings, facial electromyography, and electroencephalograph data indicated that both NDS and DS performed comparably to nonsmokers in regulating emotional responses via reappraisal, irrespective of the valence of pictorial stimuli. Interestingly, changes in cigarette craving were positively associated with regulation of emotional arousal irrespective of emotional valence. These results suggest that heavy smokers are capable to regulate emotion via deliberate reappraisal and smokers’ cigarette craving is associated with emotional arousal rather than emotional valence. This study provides preliminary support for the therapeutic use of reappraisal to replace maladaptive emotion-regulation strategies in nicotine addicts. PMID:26528213

  7. Tobacco Use by College Students: A Comparison of Daily and Nondaily Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Berg, Carla J.; Champion, Heather; Helme, Donald W.; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore demographics, contextual factors, and health risk behaviors associated with nondaily smoking by college students. Methods: In fall 2005, a random sample of 4100 students completed an online survey. Results: Of those surveyed, 29% reported current smoking; of that 29%, 70% were nondaily smokers. Compared to daily smokers,

  8. Obese Smokers as a Potential Subpopulation of Risk in Tobacco Reduction Policy.

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, Laura E; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2015-09-01

    Smoking and obesity represent the largest challenges to public health. There is an established inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and smoking, but this relationship becomes more complicated among obese smokers. Smokers with higher BMI consume more cigarettes per day and may be more nicotine-dependent than lean smokers. Rates of obesity are lower among smokers than non-smokers, indicating that chronic exposure to tobacco smoke may prevent excess weight gain in people who would otherwise become obese. Furthermore, obese smokers may be more sensitive to the weight-suppressive and reinforcing effects of nicotine. Consequently, obese smokers may respond differently to reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, a tobacco control policy being considered both in the Unites States and abroad. Here, we review the interrelationship between nicotine and obesity in the context of a potential nicotine reduction policy. We discuss the implications of nicotine-induced body weight suppression in obese smokers, as well as the possibility that obesity might increase susceptibility to smoking and nicotine dependence. PMID:26339212

  9. Correcting Media Mis-Education: The Portrayal of Smokers and Smoking in Top Grossing Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Alyssa; Brackin, Taryn; Chubb, Jamie; Covata, Sandy; Ferguson, Liz; Hinckley, Adele; Hodges, Jilda; Liberati, Cheryl; Tornetta, Jonette; Chambliss, Catherine

    Given that young people are extremely concerned with how they appear socially, beguiling and glamorous portrayals of smokers in recent films may be contributing to the continual rise in college student smoking. The pervasive positive depiction of smokers as attractive and appealing easily preys on young people who lack confidence and self esteem.…

  10. Use of and Interest in Smoking Cessation Strategies among Daily and Nondaily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mendel, Jennifer; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine use of and interest in cessation strategies among nondaily and daily college student smokers. Participants: 800 undergraduate student smokers aged 18 to 25. Methods: The authors examined nondaily versus daily smoking in relation to use of and interest in cessation strategies using an online survey. Results: Nondaily (65.8%)

  11. Does Precontemplation Represent a Homogeneous Stage Category? A Latent Class Analysis on German Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Gudrun; Ulbricht, Sabina; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Ruge, Jeannette; Schumann, Anja; Rumpf, Hans-Jurgen; John, Ulrich; Meyer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the subtype structure of smokers classified in the precontemplation stage of change within the transtheoretical model. From a general practice-based sample of 1,499 daily smoking patients from Germany (participation rate 80%), they used a subgroup of 929 smokers who were classified in the precontemplation stage and applied

  12. Targeting African American Nonsmokers to Motivate Smokers to Quit: A Qualitative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Scherber, Robyn M.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2010-01-01

    African Americans bear a disproportionate health burden from smoking but are less likely than other populations to engage in cessation treatment. Intervening on adult nonsmokers residing with a smoker might represent an innovative approach to motivate smokers to engage in smoking behavior change. Twelve focus groups were conducted with African

  13. Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users: A Comparison of Personality Characteristics among Collegiate Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study of 289 undergraduate males indicate significant differences in personality traits between cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Smokeless tobacco users were more practical, conventional, and concerned with immediate interests and issues. Cigarette smokers tended to be more imaginative and Bohemian. (IAH)

  14. Knowledge and perception about health risks of cigarette smoking among Iraqi smokers

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Omar Thanoon; Rashan, Mohammed Abd Ahmed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are to determine smokers' knowledge and perception about smoking health risks; and to determine smoking behavior and quitting intentions among Iraqi smokers; as well as to predict the factors that may associate with quit intentions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinic in Tikrit Teaching Hospital, Tikrit City, Iraq. Adult smokers who are smoking cigarette everyday and able to communicate with the researcher were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 386 participants. Results: This study showed that smokers had low awareness about some risk effects of smoking such as lung cancer in nonsmokers (30.1%), impotence in male smokers (52.6%), premature ageing (64%), and stroke (66.3%). In addition, the high score of knowledge and perception was significantly associated with quitting intention. Conclusion: Smokers' knowledge and perception regarding smoking health effects were low, especially in terms of secondhand smokers. Many efforts needed from health policy-makers and health care professionals to disseminate information about the risks of smoking and health benefits of give up smoking. PMID:27134468

  15. Peer Influence, Images of Smokers, and Beliefs about Smoking among Preadolescent Nonsmokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragesser, Sarah L.; Aloise-Young, Patricia A.; Swaim, Randall C.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test whether perceived peer influence is related to image of a typical smoker, and whether image of a typical smoker is associated with beliefs about the effects of smoking among preadolescent nonsmokers. Two hundred and ninety-two preadolescents completed a survey indicating their perceptions of the…

  16. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Samet, Jonathan M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Boffetta, Paolo; Hannan, Lindsay M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Thun, Michael J.; Rudin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the U.S. in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10–15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000–24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U.S. if considered to be a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accompanying article, lung cancers that occur in never smokers differ from those that occur in smokers in their molecular profile and response to targeted therapy. These recent laboratory and clinical observations highlight the importance of defining the genetic and environmental factors responsible for the development of lung cancer in never-smokers. This article summarizes available data on the clinical epidemiology of lung cancer in never smokers, and the several environmental risk factors that population-based research has implicated in the etiology of these cancers. Primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in never smokers include exposure to known and suspected carcinogens including radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, and other indoor air pollutants. Several other exposures have been implicated. However, a large fraction of lung cancers occurring in never-smokers cannot be definitively associated with established environmental risk factors, highlighting the need for additional epidemiologic research in this area. PMID:19755391

  17. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

  18. A Qualitative Study of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices among 40 Undergraduate Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Beti; Thompson, L. Anne; Hymer, Jennifer; Zbikowsi, Susan; Halperin, Abigail; Jaffe, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Because little is known about college-age smokers, the authors conducted a qualitative study to better understand this population. Participants: Forty college student smokers from 12 Pacific Northwest colleges participated in the study. Methods: The authors identified themes and built models to ascertain important factors related to…

  19. Adverse Reaction to Nicotine Gum in Malay Female Smoker: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorzurani, Md Haris Robson; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are prescribed in smoking cessation programmes to help smokers stop smoking. The ideal dosage of NRT should control cravings and withdrawal symptoms but avoid adverse reactions. This report describes a case of adverse reaction to nicotine gum in a female Malay smoker. Assays taken 2 h after the gum, showed that…

  20. Obese Smokers as a Potential Subpopulation of Risk in Tobacco Reduction Policy

    PubMed Central

    Rupprecht, Laura E.; Donny, Eric C.; Sved, Alan F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and obesity represent the largest challenges to public health. There is an established inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and smoking, but this relationship becomes more complicated among obese smokers. Smokers with higher BMI consume more cigarettes per day and may be more nicotine-dependent than lean smokers. Rates of obesity are lower among smokers than non-smokers, indicating that chronic exposure to tobacco smoke may prevent excess weight gain in people who would otherwise become obese. Furthermore, obese smokers may be more sensitive to the weight-suppressive and reinforcing effects of nicotine. Consequently, obese smokers may respond differently to reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, a tobacco control policy being considered both in the Unites States and abroad. Here, we review the interrelationship between nicotine and obesity in the context of a potential nicotine reduction policy. We discuss the implications of nicotine-induced body weight suppression in obese smokers, as well as the possibility that obesity might increase susceptibility to smoking and nicotine dependence. PMID:26339212

  1. Use of and Interest in Smoking Cessation Strategies among Daily and Nondaily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mendel, Jennifer; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine use of and interest in cessation strategies among nondaily and daily college student smokers. Participants: 800 undergraduate student smokers aged 18 to 25. Methods: The authors examined nondaily versus daily smoking in relation to use of and interest in cessation strategies using an online survey. Results: Nondaily (65.8%)…

  2. Mood Management Intervention for College Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Campbell, Duncan G.; Harrar, Solomon W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined smoking reduction and cessation among college smokers with elevated depressive symptomatology participating in a group-based behavioral counseling, mood management, and motivational enhancement combined intervention (CBT). Participants and Methods: Fifty-eight smokers (smoked 6 days in the past 30) were…

  3. Policy Compliance of Smokers on a Tobacco-Free University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russette, Helen C.; Harris, Kari Jo; Schuldberg, David; Green, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors influencing compliance with campus tobacco policies and strategies to increase compliance. Participants: Sixty tobacco smokers (April 2012). Methods: A 22-item intercept-interview with closed-and open-ended questions was conducted with smokers in adjacent compliant and noncompliant areas at 1 university with a 100%

  4. Tobacco Use by College Students: A Comparison of Daily and Nondaily Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Berg, Carla J.; Champion, Heather; Helme, Donald W.; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore demographics, contextual factors, and health risk behaviors associated with nondaily smoking by college students. Methods: In fall 2005, a random sample of 4100 students completed an online survey. Results: Of those surveyed, 29% reported current smoking; of that 29%, 70% were nondaily smokers. Compared to daily smokers,…

  5. Does Precontemplation Represent a Homogeneous Stage Category? A Latent Class Analysis on German Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Gudrun; Ulbricht, Sabina; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Ruge, Jeannette; Schumann, Anja; Rumpf, Hans-Jurgen; John, Ulrich; Meyer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the subtype structure of smokers classified in the precontemplation stage of change within the transtheoretical model. From a general practice-based sample of 1,499 daily smoking patients from Germany (participation rate 80%), they used a subgroup of 929 smokers who were classified in the precontemplation stage and applied…

  6. Adverse Reaction to Nicotine Gum in Malay Female Smoker: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorzurani, Md Haris Robson; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are prescribed in smoking cessation programmes to help smokers stop smoking. The ideal dosage of NRT should control cravings and withdrawal symptoms but avoid adverse reactions. This report describes a case of adverse reaction to nicotine gum in a female Malay smoker. Assays taken 2 h after the gum, showed that

  7. A Qualitative Study of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices among 40 Undergraduate Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Beti; Thompson, L. Anne; Hymer, Jennifer; Zbikowsi, Susan; Halperin, Abigail; Jaffe, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Because little is known about college-age smokers, the authors conducted a qualitative study to better understand this population. Participants: Forty college student smokers from 12 Pacific Northwest colleges participated in the study. Methods: The authors identified themes and built models to ascertain important factors related to

  8. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and

  9. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Yawen; Ding, Weina; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xu, Jianrong; Du, Yasong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA. PMID:25506057

  10. Annual review of earth and planetary sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Wetherill, G.W. ); Albee, A.L. ); Stehli, F.G. )

    1990-01-01

    This book is the 1990 Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science. Included are the following chapters: Seismic discrimination of nuclear explosions, Seafloor hydrothermal activity; Black smoker chemistry, Synchrotron Radiation; Applications in the earth sciences.

  11. Black Bear

    The Oklahoma Unit has been studying population expansion and genetics of black bear in southeastern Oklahoma since 2001. Live capture and hair snares have been used to collect samples; from left to right: field technician, JD Davis and M.S. candidates, Angie Brown and Meredith Magnuson....

  12. Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    This volume presents an overview of contemporary black adolescents from social, psychological, economic, educational, medical, historical, and comparative perspectives, with most emphasizing the roles that race, socioeconomic status, and environmental forces play in this critical period. The volume includes 19 chapters by various authors arranged…

  13. Counseling Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  14. Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered by particular interest in the study of black Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within these subject areas: I. African…

  15. Magmatic intrusions and hydrothermal systems on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V. C.

    1992-01-01

    We are continuing our investigation of Martian hydrothermal systems and the formation of fluvial valleys on Mars. Here we present our initial numerical modeling results of hydrothermal systems associated with magmatic intrusions on Mars. To model such hydrothermal systems, we consider single, cylindrical intrusions of 4 km height 2 km below the surface. Our preliminary results of modeling hydrothermal systems associated with magmatic intrusions in the Martian environment suggest that such systems, if associated with intrusions of several 10(exp 2) km(exp 3) or larger, in the presence of permeable, water-rich subsurface should be able to provide adequate discharges of water over the time periods needed to form fluvial valleys. However, it is important to note that the amount of water ultimately available for erosion also depends on the surface and subsurface lithology.

  16. Reduced expression IRF7 in nasal epithelial cells from smokers as a potential mechanism mediating enhanced susceptibility to influenza

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Smokers are more susceptible to viral infections, including influenza virus, yet the mechanisms mediating this effect are not known. Methods: We have established an in vitro model of differentiated nasal epithelial cells from smokers, which maintain enhanced levels...

  17. Anticipation of Smoking Sufficiently Dampens Stress Reactivity in Nicotine Deprived Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Daniel E.; Curtin, John J.; Piper, Megan E.

    2014-01-01

    Most smokers attempting to quit will relapse, even when using evidence-based cessation treatment. This illustrates the need for better understanding of the relapse process to thereby improve cessation treatments. While the impact of stress sensitivity on relapse is clear, little research has precisely examined stress reactivity in addicted individuals. Further, most research on relapse focuses on affect surrounding self-administration, and doesn't address potentially important pre-consumption processes such as anticipation of use. We examined the effects of anticipation and actual smoking on stress reactivity in 34 deprived smokers withdrawn for 24 hours and 37 non-deprived smokers, with 37 non-smoker controls. Using a cued shock stressor task, we measured stress reactivity via startle potentiation and self-reported anxiety. After completing the task once, smokers anticipated smoking a cigarette resting in front of them while they completed the task a second time. Smokers then smoked before completing the task a third and final time. Non-smokers anticipated and drank water as a control. Anticipation of smoking significantly attenuated both startle potentiation and self-reported anxiety to shock cues for deprived smokers relative to non-deprived smokers. Smokers' stress reactivity was not reduced by smoking beyond the prior effect of anticipation. These results suggest that anticipation, rather than actual drug consumption, may drive the primary reinforcing effect of reduced stress reactivity in smoking. Future research is needed to understand this effect of anticipation on drug use and determine whether anticipation would make an effective intervention target for addiction and other psychopathology which exhibits increased stress sensitivity. PMID:25688439

  18. Opioid antagonism enhances marijuana's effects in heavy marijuana smokers

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Rationale and objective Studies in laboratory animals strongly suggest reciprocal modulation of the opioidergic and endocannabinoid systems, a relationship that has not been demonstrated in humans. This study sought to clarify this interaction by assessing how a range of naltrexone doses altered the subjective, cognitive, and cardiovascular effects of marijuana. Material and methods Daily marijuana smokers (n=29) participated in this within-subject, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Naltrexone (0, 12, 25, 50, or 100 mg) was administered before active or inactive marijuana (3.27 or 0% THC) was smoked. Results Active marijuana increased subjective ratings of marijuana ‘Strength,’ ‘High,’ and positive subjective ratings of marijuana quality and drug effect including ‘Liking,’ ‘Good,’ and ‘Take Again’ compared to inactive marijuana. Naltrexone alone decreased ratings of ‘Liking,’ ‘Take Again,’ and ‘Stimulated’ compared with placebo, but increased ratings of drug ‘Strength,’ ‘High,’ ‘Good,’ ‘Liking,’ ‘Stimulated,’ and ‘Take Again’ when administered under active marijuana conditions. Active marijuana did not affect performance on cognitive tasks relative to inactive marijuana, whereas naltrexone decreased performance when administered alone or in combination with active marijuana. Active marijuana increased heart rate compared to inactive marijuana under placebo naltrexone conditions. Although naltrexone alone decreased heart rate, it further increased marijuana's cardiovascular effect. Conclusions In heavy marijuana smokers opioid-receptor blockade enhanced the subjective and cardiovascular effects of marijuana, suggesting that endogenous opioids dampen cannabinoid effects in this population. These findings demonstrate that a broad range of clinically used doses of naltrexone potentially increases the abuse liability and cardiovascular risks of cannabinoids. PMID:20490465

  19. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  20. A Paleoarchean coastal hydrothermal field inhabited by diverse microbial communities: the Strelley Pool Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Sugitani, K; Mimura, K; Takeuchi, M; Yamaguchi, T; Suzuki, K; Senda, R; Asahara, Y; Wallis, S; Van Kranendonk, M J

    2015-11-01

    The 3.4-Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) at the informally named 'Waterfall Locality' in the Goldsworthy greenstone belt of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, provides deeper insights into ancient, shallow subaqueous to possibly subaerial ecosystems. Outcrops at this locality contain a thin (<3 m) unit of carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous cherts and silicified sandstones that were deposited in a shallow-water coastal environment, with hydrothermal activities, consistent with the previous studies. Carbonaceous, sulfide-rich massive black cherts with coniform structures up to 3 cm high are characterized by diverse rare earth elements (REE) signatures including enrichment of light [light rare earth elements (LREE)] or middle rare earth elements and by enrichment of heavy metals represented by Zn. The massive black cherts were likely deposited by mixing of hydrothermal and non-hydrothermal fluids. Coniform structures in the cherts are characterized by diffuse laminae composed of sulfide particles, suggesting that unlike stromatolites, they were formed dominantly through physico-chemical processes related to hydrothermal activity. The cherts yield microfossils identical to previously described carbonaceous films, small and large spheres, and lenticular microfossils. In addition, new morphological types such as clusters composed of large carbonaceous spheroids (20-40 μm across each) with fluffy or foam-like envelope are identified. Finely laminated carbonaceous cherts are devoid of heavy metals and characterized by the enrichment of LREE. This chert locally contains conical to domal structures characterized by truncation of laminae and trapping of detrital grains and is interpreted as siliceous stromatolite formed by very early or contemporaneous silicification of biomats with the contribution of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids. Biological affinities of described microfossils and microbes constructing siliceous stromatolites are under investigation. However, this study emphasizes how diverse the microbial community in Paleoarchean coastal hydrothermal environment was. We propose the diversity is at least partially due to the availability of various energy sources in this depositional environment including reducing chemicals and sunlight. PMID:26189535