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1

The Sound Generated by Mid-Ocean Ridge Black Smoker Hydrothermal Vents  

E-print Network

The Sound Generated by Mid-Ocean Ridge Black Smoker Hydrothermal Vents Timothy J. Crone*, William S, Seattle, Washington, United States of America Hydrothermal flow through seafloor black smoker vents Generated by Mid-Ocean Ridge Black Smoker Hydrothermal Vents. PLoS ONE 1(1): e133. doi:10.1371/journal

Crone, Timothy J.

2

Black Smokers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Black Smokers explains the phenomena of deep-sea hydrothermal vents that occur under oceans within mid-ocean ridge volcanoes. The site describes deep-sea hydrothermal vent life forms, the ocean floor, and the mid-ocean ridge system. Teacher resources include games and lesson plans about the human impact on black smoker environments, the debate on human versus robotic expeditions, tools and engineering for black smoker expeditions, and how oceanic crust forms and ages. There are reports from expeditions studying black smokers and information on the research vessels and other underwater tools of the expeditions.

3

Black Smokers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains a brief introduction to the discovery of hydrothermal systems and black smokers. Within the webpage are links to information on gigantic tube worms, polychaete worms, oceans, and extreme environments. This site also provides a list of hydrothermal systems, relevant links to organizations, laboratories and observatories, WebQuests, and other websites with further information on hydrothermal systems. As part of the Environmental Literacy Council site, this webpage also contains links to other resources with environmental content, including air climate, land, water, ecosystems, energy, food, and environment and society.

4

Phase separation, brine formation, and salinity variation at Black Smoker hydrothermal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first fully transient 2-D numerical simulations of black smoker hydrothermal systems using realistic fluid properties and allowing for all phase transitions possible in the system H2O-NaCl, including phase separation of convecting seawater into a low-salinity vapor and high-salinity brine. We investigate convection, multiphase flow, and phase segregation at pressures below, near, and above the critical point of

D. Coumou; T. Driesner; P. Weis; C. A. Heinrich

2009-01-01

5

The Sound Generated by Mid-Ocean Ridge Black Smoker Hydrothermal Vents  

PubMed Central

Hydrothermal flow through seafloor black smoker vents is typically turbulent and vigorous, with speeds often exceeding 1 m/s. Although theory predicts that these flows will generate sound, the prevailing view has been that black smokers are essentially silent. Here we present the first unambiguous field recordings showing that these vents radiate significant acoustic energy. The sounds contain a broadband component and narrowband tones which are indicative of resonance. The amplitude of the broadband component shows tidal modulation which is indicative of discharge rate variations related to the mechanics of tidal loading. Vent sounds will provide researchers with new ways to study flow through sulfide structures, and may provide some local organisms with behavioral or navigational cues. PMID:17205137

Crone, Timothy J.; Wilcock, William S.D.; Barclay, Andrew H.; Parsons, Jeffrey D.

2006-01-01

6

'Black Smokers' WebQuest: An Internet WebQuest on Hydrothermal Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a black smokers WebQuest where students in groups investigate one aspect of the science of black smokers. The WebQuest provides a separate list of links for each research role, including geochemist, biologist, oceanographer, and geologist. Upon completing their specialist research, the students work in groups to get a better understanding of black smokers and the issues by presenting a position on whether to protect black smokers or continue research on the black smokers for possible benefits. The webpage is divided into the following sections: introduction, the task, the process and resources, conclusion, and hypertext dictionary. This site provides a wealth of information relevant to black smokers with current information, many images, videos, animations, and first hand accounts.

UniServe Science

7

Black Smokers: A Huge but Untapped Mineral Storehouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting article, appearing in the online journal Mining Engineer (free registration required through Engineer Live), discusses mineral mining potentials of black smokers. Black smokers are hydrothermal vents emitting mineral bearing fluids from the deep ocean floor. This article gives an overview of how black smokers form geologically, sulfur-reducing bacteria and other organisms living on hydrothermal vents, and how ores are deposited at these vents. The overview is followed by suggested mining strategies and instruments for trace mineral detection.

8

Microearthquakes in the black smoker hydrothermal field, East Pacific Rise at 21/sup 0/N  

SciTech Connect

In July and August 1980, an array of five ocean bottom seismographs was deployed within 3 km of the 350 /sup 0/C hydrothermal vents at the Rivera submersible experiment (RISE) site at 21/sup 0/N, on the East Pacific Rise. Two of these instruments were placed within 600 m of the vents, using a transponder navigation network. The array detected four basic types of events. The first type consisted of local, very small microearthquakes. Locations obtained for 11 of these events place three within 1 km of the vents, with the others elsewhere along the rise crest. They appear to originate either from movement on the faults in the area or from the hydrothermal system beneath this area. A study of the S-P times of this type indicates a maximum hypocentral depth of 2-3 km, implying a similar limit to the depth of hydrothermal circulation and brittle fracturing in the vicinity of the vents. The second type of event found consisted of emergent earthquakes that have many of the characteristics of volcanic harmonic tremor. The frequency of these events falls in the 1-5 Hz range and are similar in appearance to those seen at Mount St. Helens prior to and during its May 1980 eruption. They may be either hydrothermal or volcanic in origin. The third type of event produced a very monochromatic, high-frequency seismogram, with the energy concentrated at 20 Hz. These events also appear to have a local origin.

Riedesel, M.; Orcutt, J.A.; MacDonald, K.C.; McClain, J.S.

1982-12-10

9

Thermoelasticity and the formation of black smokers  

SciTech Connect

Darcy's Law flow in a permeable medium, consisting of uniform parallel evenly spaced fractures, is used to elucidate how thermoelastic effects may modify the permeability and flow in fracture-controlled hydrothermal systems. Some simple permeability models are then used to investigate whether black smoker venting can result from focussing of low velocity porous flow into fractures at shallow depths ({approx equal} 100 m.). The models indicate that: (a) thermoelastic processes may be important in controlling the temporal evolution of hydrothermal upflow zones; (b) permeability structure, not just the bulk value of the permeability, may be critical for the formation of black smokers; (c) a small zone extending to a depth of {approx equal} 100 m containing a few fractures a factor of 2 or more wider than average may be sufficient to focus upflow into discrete vents provided thermoelastic and chemical effects seal parts of the upper crust.

Lowell, R.P. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (USA))

1990-05-01

10

Black Smokers: Life Forms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational web site features life forms of deep sea hydrothermal systems. Hosted by the American Museum of Natural History, this site offers a brief introduction of the community and then focuses on Vestimentiferan tube worms, Vescomyid clams, and Bathymodiolid mussels. The site includes interactive games, teacher resources, a glossary, and more.

The American Museum of Natural History

11

Microbial diversity of a sulfide black smoker in main endeavour hydrothermal vent field, Juan de Fuca Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submarine hydrothermal vents are among the least-understood habitats on Earth but have been the intense focus of research\\u000a in the past 30 years. An active hydrothermal sulfide chimney collected from the Dudley site in the Main Endeavour vent Field\\u000a (MEF) of Juan de Fuca Ridge was investigated using mineralogical and molecular approaches. Mineral analysis indicated that\\u000a the chimney was composed

Huaiyang Zhou; Jiangtao Li; Xiaotong Peng; Jun Meng; Fengping Wang; Yuncan Ai

2009-01-01

12

Formation of black and white smokers in the North Fiji Basin: Sulfur and lead isotope constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrothermal chimneys were recovered from 16o50¡_S triple junction area in the North Fiji Basin. The chimney samples are divided into three groups according to their mineralogy and metal contents; 1) Black smoker, 2) White smoker, 3) Transitional type. Black smoker chimneys are mainly composed of chalcopyrite and pyrite, and are enriched in high temperature elements such as Cu, Co, Mo, and Se. White smoker chimneys consist of sphalerite and marcasite with trace of pyrite and chalcopyrite, and are enriched in low temperature elements (Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Ga). Transitional chimneys show intermediate characteristics in mineralogy and composition between black and white smokers. Basaltic rocks sampled from the triple junction show wide variation in geochemistry. Trace elements composition of basaltic rocks indicates that the magma genesis in the triple junction area was affected by mixing between N-MORB and E-MORB sources. The sulfur and lead isotope compositions of hydrothermal chimneys show distinct differences between the black and white smokers. Black smokers are depleted in 34S (Øä34S = +0.4 to +4.8) and are low in lead isotope composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.082 to 18.132; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.440 to 15.481; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.764 to 37.916) compared to white smoker and transitional chimneys (Øä34S = +2.4 to +5.6; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.122 to 18.193; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.475 to 15.554; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.882 to 38.150). The heavier sulfur isotopic fractionation in white smoker can be explained by boiling of hydrothermal fluids and mixing with ambient seawater. The lead isotope compositions of the hydrothermal chimneys indicate that the metal in black and white smokers come from hydrothermal reaction with N-MORB and E-MORB, respectively. Regarding both black and white smoker are located in the same site, the condition of phase separation of hydrothermal fluid that formed white smokers might result from P-T condition of high temperature reaction zone below the hydrothermal venting site. Our results suggest that white smokers were formed by hydrothermal circulation closely related to E-MORB magma intrusion at shallower depth. Meanwhile, Black smoker probably formed by deeper intrusion of N-MORB magma before the formation of white smoker.

Kim, J.; Lee, I.; Lee, K.; Yoo, C.; Ko, Y.

2004-12-01

13

Variability in Microbial Communities in Black Smoker Chimneys at the NW Caldera Vent Field, Brothers Volcano, Kermadec Arc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial communities in black smoker chimney structures at the NW caldera vent field of the Brothers volcano, Kermadec arc were characterized by using both culture-dependent and -independent techniques. The hydrothermal vent fluid chemistry, as given by end-member salinities and gas contents, differ among the black smoker sites of the NW caldera field, indicating probable phase-separation-controlled variability in the fluid chemistry.

Ken Takai; Takuro Nunoura; Koki Horikoshi; Takazo Shibuya; Kentaro Nakamura; Yohey Suzuki; Matthew Stott; Gary J. Massoth; B. W. Christenson; Cornel E. J. deRonde; David A. Butterfield; Jun-ichiro Ishibashi; John E. Lupton; L. J. Evans

2009-01-01

14

Real-time craving differences between black and white smokers.  

PubMed

Black and White smokers may experience aspects of nicotine dependence, including craving, differently. This study used a naturalistic technique, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to explore differences in craving, mood, expectancy, and smoking enjoyment between Black and White smokers. Participants carried personal digital assistants (PDAs) programmed to obtain multiple daily assessments. Black smokers reported higher craving after smoking and at random assessment times and higher cigarette enjoyment. No differences were found in mood or expectancy. Racial differences in psychological factors related to smoking are explored in the contexts of genetic, sociological, and psychophysiological distinctions. Implications for practice and research are discussed. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-5). PMID:20163385

Carter, Brian L; Paris, Megan M; Lam, Cho Y; Robinson, Jason D; Traylor, Amy C; Waters, Andrew J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M

2010-01-01

15

Particulate DNA in smoker fluids: Evidence for existence of microbial populations in hot hydrothermal systems  

SciTech Connect

As part of an interdisciplinary study of hydrothermal vents on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, we used the submersible ALVIN to collect 57 fluid samples from 17 different hot vents (smokers and flanges) and their environs for the purpose of extracting particulate DNA. Particulate material concentrated from these samples was lysed enzymatically (enz) and by a combination of enzyme and French press treatment (fp). Concentrations of partially purified DNA recovered from these lysates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Ambient seawater surrounding the vents was found to contain low DNA concentrations, 0.18 to 0.32 ng of DNA per ml, while low-temperature vent samples yielded significantly higher concentrations of 0.37 to 2.12 ng of DNA per ml. Although DNA recovery values from superheated (210 to 345{degree}C) flange samples were not significantly different from ambient seawater values, most of the superheated (174 to 357{degree}C) smoker fluid samples contained particulate DNA in concentrations too high to be attributable to entrained seawater. Detailed sampling at one smoker site demonstrated not only the existence of significant levels of particulate DNA in the superheated smoker fluids but also the presence of an elevated microbial population in the buoyant plume 20 to 100 m above the smoker. These results underscore the heterogeneity of smoker environments within a given hydrothermal vent fluid and indicate that microorganisms exist in some superheated fluids.

Straube, W.L.; Colwell, R.R. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA) Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (USA)); Deming, J.W.; Baross, J.A. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Somerville, C.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))

1990-05-01

16

Response error in self-reported current smoking frequency by black and white established smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As compared with white smokers, black smokers, although they report using fewer cigarettes per day, are at higher risk for most smoking-related diseases. Among black smokers serum cotinine levels are also higher in proportion to cigarettes per day; this observation has led to suggestions of bias in self-reporting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the extent

Pamela I. Clark; Shiva P. Gautam; Wayway M. Hlaing; Lowell W. Gerson

1996-01-01

17

Discovery of a black smoker vent field and vent fauna at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge  

PubMed Central

The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) represents one of the most slow-spreading ridge systems on Earth. Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting, as well as the provenance of vent fauna at this northern and insular termination of the global ridge system, have been unsuccessful. Here, we report the first discovery of a black smoker vent field at the AMOR. The field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) and is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting and long-lived hydrothermal systems exist at ultraslow-spreading ridges, despite their strongly reduced volcanic activity. The vent field hosts a distinct vent fauna that differs from the fauna to the south along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The novel vent fauna seems to have developed by local specialization and by migration of fauna from cold seeps and the Pacific. PMID:21119639

Pedersen, Rolf B.; Rapp, Hans Tore; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.; Baumberger, Tamara; Flesland, Kristin; Fonseca, Rita; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Jorgensen, Steffen L.

2010-01-01

18

Response error in self-reported current smoking frequency by black and white established smokers.  

PubMed

As compared with white smokers, black smokers, although they report using fewer cigarettes per day, are at higher risk for most smoking-related diseases. Among black smokers serum cotinine levels are also higher in proportion to cigarettes per day; this observation has led to suggestions of bias in self-reporting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the extent of errors in self-reported smoking patterns among black and white established smokers. Ninety-seven white and 66 black smokers participated in structured telephone interviews, filled out two self-administered questionnaires one week apart, and collected all of their cigarette butts for a week. Group differences in the validity of self-reported smoking patterns were assessed by comparison with cigarette butt counts and the measured butt lengths. Both black and white smokers significantly overestimated smoking on our measure of smoking frequency (both P < 0.001); the group difference in bias was not significant (P = 0.13). There was no evidence that underreporting was more common among blacks than among whites (P = 0.67). Test-retest reliability was not significantly different in the two groups (P = 0.09). Both groups performed poorly when asked to categorize their smoking frequency according to the cutpoints of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Black smokers smoked more of each cigarette and smoked longer cigarettes, but they smoked fewer total millimeters of cigarettes per day (all P < 0.001). Contrary to an earlier report, the disproportionately high cotinine levels could not be attributed to reporting error. PMID:8978878

Clark, P I; Gautam, S P; Hlaing, W M; Gerson, L W

1996-11-01

19

Predictors of Cessation Pharmacotherapy Use Among Black and Non-Hispanic White Smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Use of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation improves quit rates, but these treatments are underutilized, particularly among Black smokers. Attitudes toward pharmacotherapy may differ between racial/ethnic minorities and Caucasian smokers. It was hypothesized that Black and non-Hispanic White smokers would differ in their attitudes toward pharmacotherapy and that the association between attitudes toward and actual use of pharmacotherapy would differ by race. Methods: The study consisted of a single, cross-sectional telephone-based survey of current smokers (N = 697), which examined the relationship between race, attitudes toward pharmacotherapy, and pharmacotherapy usage in a representative bi-racial sample (39% Black). Results: Black smokers were significantly less likely to report ever use of pharmacotherapy (23%) than Caucasians (39%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.33–0.66). Compared with Caucasians, Blacks had significantly less favorable attitudes toward pharmacotherapy, including disbelief about efficacy (p = .03), addiction concerns (p = .03), harmfulness of pharmacotherapy (p = .008), and need for treatment of any kind to quit smoking (p = .004). In a multiple logistic regression, racial group (Caucasian is referent: OR = 0.55, p = .003), addiction concerns (OR = 0.80, p < .01), and need for treatment of any kind to quit smoking (OR = 1.52, p < .001) were predictive of pharmacotherapy use. Conclusions: These findings replicate and build upon previous research demonstrating underutilization of pharmacotherapy and enduring misconceptions about pharmacotherapy, particularly among Black smokers. Regardless of racial group, misconceptions about pharmacotherapy are related to lower rates of use. Efforts to improve understanding about the efficacy and safety of these products are needed to boost utilization and impact cessation rates. PMID:21464200

Ryan, Katherine K.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Alberg, Anthony J.; Cartmell, Kathleen B.

2011-01-01

20

First Time Ever Retrieval of "Black Smokers" from Ocean Floor Reveals One of Earth's Strangest and Most Enigmatic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article features a black smoker retrieved by an expedition team on the Juan De Fuca Ridge, at a depth of more than one mile below the surface of the ocean. The article discusses the expedition, the black smoker's complex ecosystem, and the black smoker environment and lifeform implications for the possibility of life on other planetary bodies. To learn more about the expedition through logs and photographs, the site provides links to the American Museum of Natural History, the University of Washington, and PBS television. Additional University of Washington News articles may be accessed on site as well.

Hines, Sandra

21

First time ever retrieval of "black smokers" from ocean floor reveals one of Earth's strangest and most enigmatic ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article features a black smoker retrieved by an expedition team on the Juan De Fuca Ridge, at a depth of more than one mile below the surface of the ocean. The article discusses the expedition, the black smoker's complex ecosystem, and the black smoker environment and lifeform implications for the possibility of life on other planetary bodies. To learn more about the expedition through logs and photographs, the site provides links to the American Museum of Natural History, the University of Washington, and PBS television. Additional University of Washington News articles may be accessed on site as well.

Sandra Hines

22

A Serpentinite-Hosted Ecosystem: The Lost City Hydrothermal Field  

E-print Network

of hydrothermal chimneys and black smoker vents driven by the cooling of magma beneath mid-ocean ridges and host hydrothermal vent systems. Many of these high-temperature systems are restricted to the axis of the global mid any hydrothermal system found to date, hosting diffusely venting carbonate monoliths towering tens

Gilli, Adrian

23

Tidally-Forced Flow Variability Within Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems: Models and Measurement Techniques  

E-print Network

black smoker hydrothermal vents. The first technique I develop is based on passive acoustic measurementsTidally-Forced Flow Variability Within Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems: Models and Measurement of Washington Abstract Tidally-Forced Flow Variability Within Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems: Models

Crone, Timothy J.

24

Diversity of microbial communities of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present an organic geochemical study of Loki’s Castle, a black smoker field recently discovered at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around 73.2°N. Located at the Mohn-Knipovich Ridge, which is one of the slowest spreading ridge segments on Earth, Loki’s Castle is the most northerly major hydrothermal vent field known to date. The vent field is composed of five actively venting (320°C) black-smoker chimneys that tower on top of a large mound of hydrothermal sulfide deposits. Loki’s Castle is a basalt-hosted hydrothermal system, but high methane and ammonium contents in the vent fluids strongly indicate a sedimentary component below the volcanic ridge. In 2009, another site of low-temperature hydrothermal venting hosting numerous barite chimneys was discovered in the vicinity of the black smokers, which probably results from subsurface mixing of diffuse hydrothermal fluid with seawater. In our study, variations in microbial communities associated with the formation of actively venting, sulfide and sulfate chimneys in this essentially unexplored ultraslow spreading ridge system are assessed based on biomarker lipid and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses. Lipid extracts from an active, high-temperature sulfide chimney yielded abundant archaeal di- and tetraether lipids as well as irregular isoprenoidal hydrocarbons (PMIs) that are associated with archaeal methanogens and methanotrophs. Predominant archaeal biomarker lipids include archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as well as glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) containing 0-4 cyclopentyl moieties. In addition, GDGTs with an additional covalent bond between the isoprenoid hydrocarbon chains, so-called H-shaped GDGTs, containing 0-4 cyclopentyl rings were also found to be abundant components and are indicative of hyperthermophilic methanogens. Biomarkers characteristic of eukaryotes (sterols) and bacteria (fatty acids and hopanoids) were less prevalent in the sulfide chimney samples indicating a predominance of archaeal communities within the warmer interior zones of the chimney walls that are dominated by the iron sulfides sphalerite and pyrrhotite. The SiO2-bearing cooler outer parts of a chimney revealed predominantly bacterial fatty acids, whereas archaeal GDGTs were detected only to a minor extent. In contrast, the low-temperature barite-bearing vents located at the slope of the massive sulfide mound revealed the dominance of a range of unusual branched and unsaturated fatty acids that are specific for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). PMIs, archaeol, and sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as typically observed in methanogenic and methanotrophic archaea (AOM) have also been detected, although in much lower abundances. Ongoing compound-specific ?13C analyses will give additional information about carbon sources and metabolism of microbial consortia inhabiting actively venting sulfide and barite chimneys at Loki’s castle.

Jaeschke, A.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Früh-Green, G.

2010-12-01

25

Rare earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal deposits from the active TAG Mound, 26°N Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of various phases from the active TAG hydrothermal mound has been examined and related to their mineralogy and fluid chemistry. The mound deposits range from black and white smoker chimneys, massive anhydrite\\/sulphide mixtures, oxides, and ochres. All phases, except black smoker chimney anhydrite, demonstrate a positive Eu anomaly when normalised to chondrite REE values.

Rachel A. Mills; Henry Elderfield

1995-01-01

26

Characteristics of Cu isotopes from chalcopyrite-rich black smoker chimneys at Brothers volcano, Kermadec arc, and Niuatahi volcano, Lau basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed primary chalcopyrite from modern seafloor `black smoker' chimneys to investigate high-temperature hydrothermal Cu isotope fractionation unaffected by metamorphism. Samples came from nine chimneys collected from Brothers volcano, Kermadec arc, and Niuatahi volcano, Lau backarc basin. This is the first known study of Cu isotopes from submarine intraoceanic arc/backarc volcanoes, with both volcanoes discharging significant amounts of magmatic volatiles. Our results (n = 22) range from ?65Cu = -0.03 to 1.44 ± 0.18 ‰ (2 sd), with the majority of samples between ˜0.00 and 0.50 ‰. We interpret this cluster (n = 17) of lower ?65Cu values as representing a mantle source for the chimney Cu, in agreement with ?65Cu values for mantle rocks. The few higher ?65Cu values (>0.90 ‰) occur (1) within the same chimneys as lower values, (2) randomly distributed within the chimneys (i.e. near the top and bottom, interior and exterior), and (3) within chalcopyrite of approximately the same age (<1 year). This suggests the higher ?65Cu values are not related to oxidation by mixing with ambient seawater, but to isotopic variation within the vent fluids over a relatively short time. Theoretical studies demonstrate significant isotopic fractionation can occur between aqueous and vapourous complexing species. When combined with evidence for periodic release of magmatic volatiles at Brothers, we believe vapour transport of Cu is responsible for the observed isotopic fractionation. When compared to global ?65Cu data for primary chalcopyrite, volcanic arc chimneys are most similar to porphyry copper deposits that also form from magmatic-hydrothermal processes in convergent tectonic settings.

Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E. J.; Paul, B. T.; Gemmell, J. B.

2015-02-01

27

Candy Chemosynthesis: Biochemistry of Hydrothermal Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will differentiate between requirements for life in extreme environments such as hydrothermal vents and other environments and will use soft candy as a model to create a visual image of chemicals involved in autotrophic nutrition. As they review the biochemistry of hydrothermal vents, they will discover what chemicals are used by autotrophs in extreme environments in the deep ocean and how these chemicals differ from those used by terrestrial autotrophs. They will also study a diagram showing how a hydrothermal vent (black smoker) acquires the elements and compounds that deep-sea autotrophs require.

28

Nitrogen and carbon partitioning in diagenetic and hydrothermal minerals from Paleozoic Black Shales, (Selwyn Basin, Yukon Territories, Canada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected mineralized black shales of Devonian age from the Selwyn Basin, Northwest Territories (Canada) were analyzed by Nuclear Reaction Analyses (NRA) and electron microprobe for nitrogen and carbon in silicates, sulfides, phosphates and organic matter in order to give new insights on nitrogen and carbon fractionation processes during diagenesis and hydrothermal infiltration. Hydrothermal feldspars show tri-modal composition: albite, high nitrogen-bearing

Beate Orberger; Jean-Paul Gallien; Daniele L. Pinti; Michel Fialin; Laurent Daudin; Darren R. Gröcke; Jan Pasava

2005-01-01

29

Direct observation of the evolution of a seafloor ‘black smoker’ from vapor to brine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single hydrothermal vent, ‘F’ vent, occurring on very young crust at 9°16.8?N, East Pacific Rise, was sampled in 1991 and 1994. In 1991, at the measured temperature of 388°C and seafloor pressure of 258 bar, the fluids from this vent were on the two-phase curve for seawater. These fluids were very low in chlorinity and other dissolved species, and

K. L. Von Damm; L. G. Buttermore; S. E. Oosting; A. M. Bray; D. J. Fornari; M. D. Lilley; W SHANKSIII

1997-01-01

30

Discovery and Distribution of Black Smokers on the Western Galapagos Spreading Center: Implications for Spatial and Temporal Controls on High Temperature Venting at Ridge/Hotspot Intersections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though nearly one-fifth of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) lies on or near hotspots, it has been debated whether hotspots increase or decrease MOR hydrothermal flux, or affect vent biota. Despite hotspot enhancement of melt supply, high-temperature vent plumes are enigmatically sparse along two previously-surveyed ridge- hotspot intersections [Reykjanes Ridge (RR), Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR)]. This has been attributed to crustal thickening by excess volcanism. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, we conducted nested sonar, plume, and camera surveys along a 540 km-long portion of the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) where the ridge intersects the Galapagos hotspot at lon. 94.5 -89.5 deg. W. Although MOR hydrothermal springs were first found along the eastern GSC crest in 1977 near lon. 86 deg. W, the GalAPAGoS smokers are the first active high-temperature vents to be found anywhere along the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary. Active and/or recently-inactive smokers were located beneath plumes at 5 sites on the seafloor between lon. 91 deg. W and 94.5 deg. W (see Anderson et al., this session) during near-bottom, real-time fiber-optic Medea camera surveys. Smokers occur along eruptive seafloor fissures atop axial volcanic ridges near the middles of ridge segments, mainly in areas underlain by relatively shallow, continuous axial magma chamber (AMC) seismic reflectors. These findings (1) support magmatic, rather than tectonic, control of GSC smoker distribution; (2) demonstrate that thick crust at MOR-hotspot intersections does not prevent high-temperature hydrothermal vents from forming; and, (3) appear to be inconsistent with models suggesting that enhanced hydrothermal cooling causes abrupt deepening of the AMC and transition from non-rifted to rifted GSC morphology near lon. 92.7 deg. W. The widely-spaced smoker sites located on different GSC segments exhibit remarkably similar characteristics and seafloor settings. Most sites are mature or extinct, and are on lava flows of visually-similar ages (estimated to be tens-to-hundreds of years old). Possibly a volcanic pulse may have activated the hotspot- affected western GSC, and powered contemporaneous hydrothermal vents that now are waning. It may be that hotspots produce episodes of near-synchronous, extensive ridge volcanism and hydrothermal activity, followed by periods of quiescence. This idea is consistent with: the episodic eruption histories of Hawaii and Iceland; variably anomalous hydrothermal plume incidence (low on RR, SEIR, GSC; high on Mid-Atlantic Ridge near Azores hotspot); models of episodic melt extraction from mantle plumes; and evidence for magma propagation along hotspot-influenced ridges. Our hypothesis potentially can be tested by studies of gene flow between animal communities located on either side of the Galapagos hotspot, and by dating of GSC hydrothermal chimneys and the lava flows on which they are constructed.

Haymon, R. M.; Anderson, P. G.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; White, S. M.; MacDonald, K. C.

2006-12-01

31

Feeding biology of the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata at hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly described species of shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata Williams and Rona, 1986, dominates the megafaunal community at two hydrothermal vent sites on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Behavioral observations and gut-content analyses indicate, that these shrimp ingest large amounts of sulfide particles from black smoker chimneys. We found no evidence for chemoautotrophic endosymbionts in R. exoculata, based on analyses of morphology, stable

C. L. Dover; B. Fry; J. F. Grassle; S. Humphris; P. A. Rona

1988-01-01

32

Smoker's lung  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physicians can easily tell if you are a smoker by how your lungs look. Normal lungs are red or pink and fluid-looking. Smokers have blackened lungs that are drier than normal lungs. Tumors may develop from continued tobacco use-these appear as white masses.

John Hayman (None; )

2007-07-02

33

A new species of the shrimp genus Chorocaris (Decapoda: Caridea: Alvinocarididae) from hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chorocaris paulexa, new species, the first member of the genus Chorocaris Martin & Hessler, 1990 reported from the eastern Pacific, is de­ scribed based primarily on two specimens, one of which is ovigerous, collected by the DSV Alvin at the Homer hydrothermal (black smoker) vent site (17°S) on the southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR). Seven additional (non-type) speci­ mens from

Joel W. Martin; Timothy M. Shank

2005-01-01

34

Error Analysis and the Computation of Turbulent Fluctuations for 3D Volume Reconstructions of Acoustic Images of Black Smoker Plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an error analysis and statistical description of 3D volume reconstructions and measurements based on our acoustic images of a high-temperature black smoker-type plume. Sources of error include (1) the intrinsic variance due to particle motion in the plume since the acoustic images are based on backscatter from small (5-100 ?m) particles, (2) noise produced by the ROV Jason system on which the sonar was mounted, and (3) unwanted echos from the surrounding seafloor returning through the sonar sidelobes. Additional fluctuations in the particle concentration due to plume turbulence lead to time variations in the measured backscatter. The data were collected in July 2000 by a SM2000 (330 MHz) sonar mounted on the ROV Jason. The sonar system was calibrated to record absolute backscatter pressure. The squared magnitude of backscattered pressure is converted to differential backscatter cross-section per unit volume (units 1/m), which is proportional to particulate concentration. Three-dimensional imaging data were obtained by a combination of time gating, digital beamforming, and mechanical scanning for resolution in range, azimuth, and elevation, respectively. Several different processing steps were applied to the data to reduce the error: (a) averaging along the pings with a range window of 1 m reduced the standard error in a single ping due to intrinsic variance from 1 to 0.44, (b) narrow-band notch filtering reduced the effects of tonal noise, (c) bursts effected by occasional impulsive noise events were simply eliminated from further processing, (d) successive pings were subtracted in an effort to cancel out the effects of unwanted sidelobe returns. The resulting data were interpolated onto a uniform 3D grid with 0.5 m spacing. The statistics of six successive 3D volumes were computed. Averaging the six volumes further reduced the standard error to 0.18. The total rms error, computed as the sample standard deviation divided by the square root of 6 (the number of volumes averaged into the mean), includes all sources of random error and falls in the range 0.1-0.4x10-4 1/m. Intrinsic error (18% of mean) and rms error are both low compared to mean backscattering cross-section (core maximum is 1.1x10-4 1/m) and similar to minimum values (core minimum is 0.3x10-4 1/m). Total fluctuation in the plume structure during 20 minutes of recording (all volumes) falls in the range 0.1-3.0x10-4 1/m, with the largest values in the plume core reflecting the high variability expected in a plume core. The rms fluctuations decay upwards along the plume axis at a similar rate as the mean backscattering cross-section, indicating that the dilution process is self-similar, as in buoyant plume models, even though particles are not true passive tracers. The effective plume width increases at the predicted rate of 0.1 m/m for a fully developed plume. Despite significant error levels, the turbulence structure of the plume is observed in the acoustic data and provides some constraints on the entrainment and dilution mechanisms.

Bemis, K. G.; Rona, P. A.; Jackson, D. R.; Jones, C. D.

2002-12-01

35

Non?smokers seeking help for smokers: a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the phenomenon of non?smokers spontaneously taking action to seek help for smokers; to provide profiles of non?smoking helpers by language and ethnic groups. Setting A large, statewide tobacco quitline (California Smokers' Helpline) in operation since 1992 in California, providing free cessation services in English, Spanish, Mandarin, Cantonese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Subjects Callers between August 1992 and September 2005 who identified themselves as either white, black, Hispanic, American Indian, or Asian (n??=??349?110). A subset of these were “proxies”: callers seeking help for someone else. For more detailed analysis, n??=??2143 non?smoking proxies calling from October 2004 through September 2005. Main outcome measures Proportions of proxies among all callers in each of seven language/ethnic groups; demographics of proxies; and proxies' relationships to smokers on whose behalf they called. Results Over 22 000 non?smoking proxies called. Proportions differed dramatically across language/ethnic groups, from mean (±95% confidence interval) 2.7 (0.3)% among English?speaking American Indians through 9.3 (0.3)% among English?speaking Hispanics to 35.3 (0.7)% among Asian?speaking Asians. Beyond the differences in proportion, however, remarkable similarities emerged across all groups. Proxies were primarily women (79.2 (1.7)%), living in the same household as the smokers (65.0 (2.1)%), and having either explicit or implicit understandings with the smokers that calling on their behalf was acceptable (90.0 (1.3)%). Conclusions The willingness of non?smokers to seek help for smokers holds promise for tobacco cessation and may help address ethnic and language disparities. Non?smoking women in smokers' households may be the first group to target. PMID:16565458

Zhu, S?H; Nguyen, Q B; Cummins, S; Wong, S; Wightman, V

2006-01-01

36

Volcanic and Hydrothermal Activity of the North Su Volcano: New Insights from Repeated Bathymetric Surveys and ROV Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bathymetric data from cruises in 2002, 2006, and 2011 were combined and compared to determine the evolution of volcanic activity, seafloor structures, erosional features and to identify and document the distribution of hydrothermal vents on North Su volcano, SuSu Knolls, eastern Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea). Geologic mapping based on ROV observations from 2006 (WHOI Jason-2) and 2011 (MARUM Quest-4000) combined with repeated bathymetric surveys from 2002 and 2011 are used to identify morphologic features on the slopes of North Su and to track temporal changes. ROV MARUM Quest-4000 bathymetry was used to develop a 10 m grid of the top of North Su to precisely depict recent changes. In 2006, the south slope of North Su was steeply sloped and featured numerous white smoker vents discharging acid sulfate waters. These vents were covered by several tens of meters of sand- to gravel-sized volcanic material in 2011. The growth of this new cone changed the bathymetry of the south flank of North Su up to ~50 m and emplaced ~0.014 km3 of clastic volcanic material. This material is primarily comprised of fractured altered dacite and massive fresh dacite as well as crystals of opx, cpx, olivine and plagioclase. There is no evidence for pyroclastic fragmentation, so we hypothesize that the fragmentation is likely related to hydrothermal explosions. Hydrothermal activity varies over a short (~50 m) lateral distance from 'flashing' black smokers to acidic white smoker vents. Within 2 weeks of observation time in 2011, the white smoker vents varied markedly in activity suggesting a highly episodic hydrothermal system. Based on ROV video recordings, we identified steeply sloping (up to 30°) slopes exposing pillars and walls of hydrothermal cemented volcaniclastic material representing former fluid upflow zones. These features show that hydrothermal activity has increased slope stability as hydrothermal cementation has prevented slope collapse. Additionally, in some places, hydrothermal crusts cover loose volcaniclastic material on the steep slopes and stabilize them.

Thal, J.; Bach, W.; Tivey, M.; Yoerger, D.

2013-12-01

37

Submarine-hydrothermal exhalative ore layers in black shales from South China and associated fossils — insights into a Lower Cambrian facies and bio-evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early Cambrian (Tommotian) black shales in South China contain submarine-hydrothermal exhalative sulfide ore layers within an arc-parallel linear belt extending more than 1600km. Evidence for an Early Cambrian hydrothermal venting is given by the records of main and trace elements, rare earth elements (REE), sulfur isotopes and the petrological and geological investigations. Mass occurrences of arthropods, sponges and undetermined shelly

Michael Steiner; Eckart Wallis; Bernd-Dietrich Erdtmann; Yuanlong Zhao; Ruidong Yang

2001-01-01

38

Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such determinations rely on studies of pieces of deep oceanic crust uplifted by tectonic forces such as along the Southwest Indian Ridge, or more complete sections of oceanic crust called ophiolite sequences which are presently exposed on continents owing to tectonic emplacement. Much of what is thought to happen in submarine hydrothermal systems is inferred from studies of ophiolite sequences, and especially from the better-exposed ophiolites in Oman, Cyprus and North America. The focus of much that follows is on a few general features: pressure, temperature, oxidation states, fluid composition and mineral alteration, because these features will control whether organic synthesis can occur in hydrothermal systems.

Shock, Everett L.

1992-01-01

39

Hydrothermal Alteration Processes in the Oceanic Crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal alteration processes occurring in oceanic crust impact the physical, chemical, and biological processes of the Earth system. These hydrothermal systems are manifested in vents ranging from 350 °C black smokers, found exclusively in the axial zone of some ridge segments, to 20 °C low-temperature vents at the ridge axis or flanks. Collectively, these systems are responsible for ˜20% of Earth's total heat loss (11 TW; C. A. Stein and S. Stein (1994a, b)) and have major impact on ocean and solid earth chemistry. Elderfield and Schultz (1996) estimate black-smoker water fluxes to be ˜3.5×1012 kg yr-1 and low-temperature fluxes to be ˜6.4×1014 kg yr-1 (at 20 °C). These hydrothermal fluxes also carry substantial elemental flux between seawater and the oceanic crust. Combined with ocean-crust generation and recycling, these processes produce a two-way geochemical pathway between the oceans and the mantle. Recycling of altered oceanic crust into the mantle is likely to produce some of the mantle's chemical heterogeneity (e.g., Hofmann, 1988; see Chapter 2.04) and the delivery of mantle-derived materials to seawater through hydrothermal systems has profound effects on seawater chemistry (e.g., Wheat and Mottl, 2000; Chapters 3.15 and 6.07). Hydrothermal vents in mid-ocean ridges offer a unique habitat for very diverse biological communities that derive much of their energy needs from chemical energy in vent fluids (Jannasch and Mottl, 1985; Jannasch, 1995). The interior of the oceanic crust is likely to host a deep-ocean biosphere that reaches to at least 500 m depth ( Furnes and Staudigel, 1999).It is important to quantify hydrothermal chemical fluxes because they bear on the chemical and biological evolution of the Earth, the chemical composition of seawater, geochemical mass balance at arcs, and the heterogeneity of the mantle. Hydrothermal fluxes can be independently determined by analyzing the composition of hydrothermal fluids or by analyzing the alteration-related chemical changes in the oceanic crust. Ideally these two methods should yield the same results, but a comparison of data shows that there are major discrepancies between these types of estimates (e.g., Hart and Staudigel, 1982; Chapter 3.15). Reconciling these discrepancies is important for improving our understanding of this central theme in Earth system sciences.This review focuses on chemical flux estimates derived from studies of the oceanic crust, exploring in detail how such estimates are made, and the underlying assumptions and uncertainties. Three main themes will be covered. The first focuses the role of the original igneous characteristics of the crust in determining the nature of hydrothermal alteration processes. This includes how primary lithology and composition influence alteration, and difficulties encountered in determining an unaltered "fresh-rock" baseline composition for any particular ocean-crust section. The second theme focuses on the methods by which the bulk-altered oceanic composition is determined, and the attendant uncertainties. These include the difficulty of determining an average composition of a very heterogeneous medium by the analyses of rather small samples, and the limitations imposed by an incomplete sampling process on the ocean floor. Finally, hydrothermal fluxes inferred from ocean-crust data are compared to fluxes from hydrothermal vent studies and the reasons behind their differences are explored.

Staudigel, H.

2003-12-01

40

Drilling the Snake Pit hydrothermal sulfide deposit on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, lat 23/sup 0/22'N  

SciTech Connect

A major high-temperature hydrothermal area has been discovered in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley about 25 km south of the Kane Fracture Zone. The vent field consists of a wide area (> 40,000 m/sup 2/) of dark hydrothermal deposits, numerous sulfide chimneys and mounds, some up to 11 m high, and high-temperature black-smoker vents. Ten shallow holes, the first ever drilled in an active submarine hydrothermal area, recovered friable, unconsolidated Fe, Cu-Fe, and Zn sulfides and several large fragments of massive sulfide (mainly chalcopyrite) from the locally thick (> 13 m) hydrothermal deposits. The vents are also associated with an unusual biological community of smaller, more mobile organisms than reported from the East Pacific Rise.

Detrick, R.S.; Honnorez, J.; Adamson, A.C.; Brass, G.; Gillis, K.M.; Humphris, S.E.; Mevel, C.; Meyer, P.; Petersen, N.; Rautenschlein, M.; Shibata, T.; Staudigel, H.; Yamamoto, K.

1986-12-01

41

Effects of anhydrite precipitation on hydrothermal convection patterns at fast-spreading ridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in hydrothermal modeling capabilities have revealed the key thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic controls on hydrothermal convection patterns and vent temperatures at oceanic spreading centers. The observed upper limit to black smoker vent temperatures of approx. 400°C can be explained by the thermodynamic properties of water (Jupp and Schultz, 2000). Likewise, 3D models of hydrothermal flow at fast-spreading ridges show cylindrical upwellings with adjacent warm recharge flow (Coumou et al., 2008). This close relation between dis- and recharge flow implies that hydrothermal convection cells have a relatively short wavelength (~500m), which is difficult to reconcile with ideas on elongated along-axis convection cells proposed for the East Pacific Rise (Tolstoy et al., 2008) and with the irregular spacing of hydrothermal sites along ridge segments. One possible additional process controlling the spacing/wavelength of hydrothermal convection cells may be chemical precipitation reactions. A key reaction in hydrothermal systems is the precipitation of anhydrite. In recharge zones, heating of 1 kg of seawater to approx. 350°C results in the precipitation of roughly 1.4 g of anhydrite, which is buffered by the amount of calcium dissolved in seawater. More significant may be the precipitation of anhydrate when calcium-rich hydrothermal fluids mix with sulfate rich seawater. A consequence of anhydrite precipitation is the progressive clogging of pore space, which in turn affects permeability and thereby hydrothermal flow. We have implemented the above processes into 2D and 3D hydrothermal flow models and will present first results of how chemical reactions can affect hydrothermal flow patterns at fast-spreading ridges.

Ruepke, Lars; Hasenclever, Joerg

2014-05-01

42

Hyperactive hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau basin revealed by ROV dives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dives with the QUEST 4000 ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) in September 2012 discovered nine hydrothermal sites in the arc and rear-arc region of the NE Lau Basin in 1150 m to 2630 m depth. These sites, originally detected by water column and seafloor surveys conducted in 2008-2011, include: (1) a paired sulfur-rich/black smoker field on the summit of a tectonically deformed magmatic arc volcano (Niua), (2) fracture-controlled black smoker venting on several small en echelon seamounts (north Matas) that lie between the magmatic arc and the backarc spreading center and (3) a magmatic degassing site on the summit of a dacite cone within a large (~12 km diameter) caldera volcano (Niuatahi). Dives at West Mata Seamount, which was undergoing strombolian volcanic activity and effusive rift-zone eruptions from 2008 to 2010, revealed a dormant volcanic phase in September 2012, with continued low-temperature diffuse venting. The high-temperature venting is likely driven by magmatic heat indicative of underlying partial melt zones and/or melt pockets distributed through the region. The occurrence of the youngest known boninite eruptions on the Mata volcanoes is consistent with subduction fluid flux melting extending into the rear-arc zone. Extension related to the transition from subduction to strike-slip motion of the northern Tonga Arc over the active Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault probably contributes to the enhanced volcanism/hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau Basin. Chemosynthetic ecosystems at these sites range from mostly motile, lower diversity ecosystems at the eruptive/magmatically-degassing sites to higher diversity ecosystems with less mobile faunal components at the black-smoker systems. The wide range of fluid chemistry, water depth and geologic settings of the hydrothermal systems in this area provides an intriguing template to study the interaction of hydrothermal fluid chemistry, chemosynthetic habitats and their geologic underpinning within an arc/backarc setting.

Embley, R. W.; Resing, J. A.; Tebo, B.; Baker, E. T.; Butterfield, D. A.; Chadwick, B.; Davis, R.; de Ronde, C. E.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Merle, S. G.; Rubin, K. H.; Shank, T. M.; Walker, S. L.; Arculus, R. J.; Bobbitt, A. M.; Buck, N.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Crowhurst, P. V.; Mitchell, E.; Olson, E. J.; Ratmeyer, V.; Richards, S.; Roe, K. K.; Keener, P.; Martinez Lyons, A.; Sheehan, C.; Brian, R.

2013-12-01

43

The formation, oxidation and distribution of pyrite nanoparticles emitted from hydrothermal vents: A laboratory and field based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research identified the presence of nanoparticulate pyrite in hydrothermal vent black smoker emissions, and suggested that these nanoparticles may be a transport pathway for iron from hydrothermal vents to the larger ocean basin. Here, nanoparticulate pyrite was synthesized via a hydrothermal method and oxidized in air- saturated seawater, in order to explore how hydrothermally emitted pyrite forms, and may behave in oxic seawater. Additionally, hydrothermal emissions from the Mid- Atlantic Ridge were investigated for iron and sulfide speciation and reactions relating to pyrite formation. Pyrite was synthesized via both the Fe(II) + S(0) and the FeS + H 2S pathways of pyrite formation, and factors including surfactant and synthesis time were varied in order to modify morphology. The FeS + H 2S formation pathway, which is likely the pathway of pyrite formation occurring at hydrothermal sites, reproduces the pyrite nano and sub- micron particles found in black smoker emissions most closely. The oxidation of these pyrite particles results in an initial oxidation rate that is first order with respect to both the pyrite and oxygen concentration in seawater. This work is unique to previous studies on pyrite oxidation in that it uses synthesized, rather than ground and sieved pyrite, and uses seawater as the medium of oxidation. Along with the rate data, this study also demonstrates that the initial oxide formed from pyrite oxidation under these conditions is poorly crystalline and contains Fe(II) and Fe(III). Pyrite nanoparticles were identified at each of the three sites investigated at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Rainbow, TAG and Snakepit), and their presence at these sites, when combined with previous data from Lau Basin and EPR 9 °N demonstrates that they are likely to be a ubiquitous component of black- smoker hydrothermal emissions. The Rainbow site exhibited the highest concentration of nanoparticulate pyrite measured anywhere to date (1.15 mM). The potential rates of pyrite formation during hydrothermal buoyant plume rise are investigated, as are the rates of formation for different iron- containing particulates including FeS, silicate formation, and Fe(II) oxidation.

Gartman, Amy

44

Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges presents a multidisciplinary overview of the remarkable emerging diversity of hydrothermal systems on slow spreading ocean ridges in the Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic oceans. When hydrothermal systems were first found on the East Pacific Rise and other Pacific Ocean ridges beginning in the late 1970s, the community consensus held that the magma delivery rate of intermediate to fast spreading was necessary to support black smoker-type high-temperature systems and associated chemosynthetic ecosystems and polymetallic sulfide deposits. Contrary to that consensus, hydrothermal systems not only occur on slow spreading ocean ridges but, as reported in this volume, are generally larger, exhibit different chemosynthetic ecosystems, produce larger mineral deposits, and occur in a much greater diversity of geologic settings than those systems in the Pacific. The full diversity of hydrothermal systems on slow spreading ocean ridges, reflected in the contributions to this volume, is only now emerging and opens an exciting new frontier for ocean ridge exploration, including • Processes of heat and chemical transfer from the Earth's mantle and crust via slow spreading ocean ridges to the oceans • The major role of detachment faulting linking crust and mantle in hydrothermal circulation • Chemical reaction products of mantle involvement including serpentinization, natural hydrogen, abiotic methane, and hydrocarbon synthesis • Generation of large polymetallic sulfide deposits hosted in ocean crust and mantle • Chemosynthetic vent communities hosted in the diverse settings The readership for this volume will include schools, universities, government laboratories, and scientific societies in developed and developing nations, including over 150 nations that have ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

Rona, Peter A.; Devey, Colin W.; Dyment, Jérôme; Murton, Bramley J.

45

The Vilification of Smokers: Students' Perceptions of Current Smokers, Former Smokers, and Nonsmokers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smokers are increasingly stigmatized in our society. Pressures to limit public smoking have mounted, and there is evidence of discrimination against smokers in the workplace. This study examined how current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers were differentially characterized by students drawn from a suburban high school and college. Students…

Baker, Kathleen; Katona, Chris; Brosh, Joanne; Shull, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

46

Hydrothermal circulation, serpentinization, and degassing at a rift valley-fracture zone intersection: Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 15[degree]N, 45[degree]W  

SciTech Connect

A hydrothermal system characterized by high ratios of methane to both manganese and suspended particulate matter was detected in seawater sampled at the eastern intersection of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with the Fifteen-Twenty Fracture Zone. This finding contrasts with low ratios in black smoker-type hydrothermal systems that occur within spreading segments. Near-bottom water sampling coordinated with SeaBeam bathymetry and camera-temperature tows detected the highest concentrations of methane at fault zones in rocks with the appearance of altered ultramafic units in a large dome that forms part of the inside corner high at the intersection. The distinct chemical signatures of the two types of hydrothermal systems are inferred to be controlled by different circulation pathways related to reaction of seawater primarily with ultramafic rocks at intersections of spreading segments with fracture zones but with mafic rocks within spreading segments.

Rona, P.A.; Nelson, T.A. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, FL (United States)); Bougault, H.; Charlou, J.L.; Needham, H.D. (Inst. Francais de Recherche pour I'Exploitation de la Mer, Centre de Brest (France)); Appriou, P. (Univ. of Western Brittany, Brest (France)); Trefry, J.H. (Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne (United States)); Eberhart, G.L.; Barone, A. (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States))

1992-09-01

47

Measures of impulsivity in cigarette smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Drug users are thought to be more ”impulsive” than non-users. Objectives: This study examined whether regular smokers are more impulsive than never smokers using personality and behavioral measures\\u000a of impulsivity. Methods: Twenty regular smokers (?15 cigarettes\\/day) and 20 never smokers were recruited. Participants completed five personality\\u000a questionnaires to assess impulsivity: Adjective Checklist, Barratt’s Impulsivity Scale, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire,

Suzanne H. Mitchell

1999-01-01

48

A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem: the Lost City hydrothermal field.  

PubMed

The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from <40 degrees to 90 degrees C at pH 9 to 11, and carbonate chimneys 30 to 60 meters tall. A low diversity of microorganisms related to methane-cycling Archaea thrive in the warm porous interiors of the edifices. Macrofaunal communities show a degree of species diversity at least as high as that of black smoker vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but they lack the high biomasses of chemosynthetic organisms that are typical of volcanically driven systems. PMID:15746419

Kelley, Deborah S; Karson, Jeffrey A; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Yoerger, Dana R; Shank, Timothy M; Butterfield, David A; Hayes, John M; Schrenk, Matthew O; Olson, Eric J; Proskurowski, Giora; Jakuba, Mike; Bradley, Al; Larson, Ben; Ludwig, Kristin; Glickson, Deborah; Buckman, Kate; Bradley, Alexander S; Brazelton, William J; Roe, Kevin; Elend, Mitch J; Delacour, Adélie; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Lilley, Marvin D; Baross, John A; Summons, Roger E; Sylva, Sean P

2005-03-01

49

Are smokers more \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine (i) whether people advertising themselves on a dating website were more likely to be smokers than members of the general population; and (ii) whether attractive advertisers (those whose ads were viewed most often) were less likely to smoke than all advertisers. Design: Comparison of the number of advertisers who smoke with survey data on national smoking status.

CHRISTMAS OFFERINGS; Simon Chapman; Melanie A Wakefield; Sarah J Durkin

50

Propidium Monoazide-based Method for Identifying Phylogenetic Association of Necromass Near Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black Smoker hydrothermal systems are geologically driven systems located near subduction zones and spreading centers associated with plate margins. The high temperature and low pH of fluids that are often associated with basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems select for unique microbial communities primarily comprised of prokaryotes capable of S and Fe cycling. High temperature fluids, where temperatures exceed 300° C, are likely to have a lethal effect on transient deep water planktonic communities and, over long temporal scales, may influence the molecular composition of pelleted necromass aggregates near the chimney system. We have developed a method for discriminative sequencing permitting intra vs. extracellular 16S rDNA sequencing to reveal community differences between biologically-relevant and necromass-associated DNA. This method has only recently been applied to marine environments and, here, we propose its use as relevant tool for studying the molecular ecology of high temperature hydrothermal systems, as physical drivers of massive transient community die offs and associated detrital 16S rDNA community shifts. Ultimately, we aim to understand the fraction of 16S rDNA communities that do not represent living taxa, or the information-containing fraction of total necromass pool, to better frame ecological hypotheses regarding environmental biogeochemical cycling in hydrothermal system environments.

Ramírez, Gustavo; Edwards, Katrina

2014-05-01

51

Geologic setting of the Snake Pit hydrothermal site: An active vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake Pit Hydrothermal Site lies on the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 23°22' N latitude, about 30 km south of the Kane Transform Intersection. Active ‘black smoker’ vents and a surrounding field of hydrothermal sediment occur at the crest of a laterally extensive neovolcanic ridge. It is one of the first active hydrothermal vent fields to be found on a slow-spreading ridge axis and despite significant differences in its geologic setting from those of the East Pacific Rise, has many similarities to its fast-spreading counterparts. Although preliminary reports have documented many interesting aspects of these vents and their surroundings, new data collected from the manned submersible ALVIN and the deep-towed ANGUS camera system define the regional tectonic setting as well as the local geologic environment of this fascinating area. The Snake Pit vents are located on a local peak of a volcanic constructional ridge at a depth of 3450 m, 700 800 m deeper than vents known from the East Pacific Rise, Galapagos, or Juan de Fuca spreading centers. The vent field is at least 600 m long and up to 200 m wide and is covered by a thick blanket of greenish to yellow-orange hydrothermal sediment. Both active and extinct vents are perched along the crests of steep-sided sulfide mounds that reach heights of over 40 m. High-temperature (350° C) fluids are vented from black smoker chimneys and low-temperature (226° C) fluids seep from sulphide domes and subordinate anhydrite constructions. Water temperatures, flow rates, fluid chemistries, and mineralization are strikingly similar to vents of faster spreading ridge crests; however, a somewhat distinct fauna inhabit the area.

Karson, Jeffrey A.; Brown, Jennifer R.

1988-03-01

52

Sulphur Cycling at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Isotopic Evidence From the Logatchev and Turtle Pits Hydrothermal Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mid-ocean ridges and associated hydrothermal vent systems represent a unique scenario in which the interaction of hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere and the related element cycling can be studied. Sulphur participates in inorganic and microbially driven processes and plays, thus, an important role at these vent sites. The sulphur isotopic compositions of different sulphur-bearing minerals as well as dissolved sulphur compounds provide a tool for identifying the sulphur source and pertinent processes of sulphur cycling. Here, we present sulphur isotope data from an ongoing study of the Logatchev hydrothermal field at 14°45' N and the Turtle Pits hydrothermal field at 4°48' S. The former is located in 2900 to 3060 m water depth, hosted by ultramafic rocks, while the latter is situated in 2990 m water depth, hosted by basaltic rocks. Different metal sulphides (chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, various copper sulphides), either particles from the emanating hot fluid itself or pieces of active and inactive black smokers, display ?34S values between +2 and +9 ‰. So far, no significant difference is discernible between mineral precipitates from both hydrothermal fields. However, differences exist between different generations of sulphide precipitates. Based on respective data from other sites of hydrothermal activity at mid-ocean ridges, this sulphur isotope range suggests that sulphur in the hydrothermal fluid and mineral precipitates represents a mixture between mantle sulphur and reduced seawater sulphate. Anhydrite precipitates from hydrothermal chimneys, located inside sulphide conduits, and obvious late stage gypsum needles from voids, yielded sulphur isotope values between +17.5 and +20.0 ‰. This clearly identifies seawater sulphate as the principal sulphur source. Variable, but generally low abundances of sulphide and sulphate in differently altered mafic and ultramafic rocks point to a complex fluid-rock interaction. Sulphur isotope values for total sulphur range between 0.6 and +18.7 ‰, again reflecting a mixing between two principal end-members: seawater sulphate and mantle sulphur.

Eickmann, B.; Strauss, H.; Koschinsky, A.; Kuhn, T.; Petersen, S.; Schmidt, K.

2005-12-01

53

Microbial mediated formation of low-temperature hydrothermal barite chimneys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-temperature (20 degrees C) venting area with numerous active and extinct barite chimneys (up to 1 m tall) are located on the eastern flank of the hydrothermal mound of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the Mohns-Knipovich bend of the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. The active barite chimneys are covered by white mats containing abundant microbial cells and extracellular material with attached barite crystals. Within the chimneys microbial cells are partly embedded in barite and crystals are covered by extracellular material. These observations indicate that the microbial material serve as a substrate for nucleation and precipitation of barite with the potential of having an important control on the construction of the chimneys. In addition, the presence of framboidal pyrite in black interior flow channels and in the underlying hydrothermal sediment further suggests that the chimney formation is linked to microbial sulphate reduction (MSR). To further investigate the relationship between chimney growth and microbial activity we used a combination of biomolecular and isotope analyses. Pyrosequencing of PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA followed by taxonomic classification revealed that sulphide oxidizers (Sulfurimonas) within the Epsilonproteobacteria dominate the microbial mats and the white barite of the chimney wall. In the black interior flow channel a more diverse microbial community was observed indicating methane, sulphur and ammonia oxidation as well as heterotrophic processes. Multiple isotope analyses (?18O, ?34S, ?33S) reveal that the barite chimneys precipitated from a fluid that was modified by subseafloor MSR in the sulphide mound. This is supported by the sulphur isotope signature of the framboidal pyrite, pore water, and mono- and disulphides extracted from the hydrothermal sediment as well as the biomolecular data. We suggest that the MSR was triggered by mixing of the H2 and CH4 rich high-temperature (320 degrees C) fluids and percolating seawater, which resulted in remobilization of hydrothermal barite deposited as debris and plume fall out in the mound. The combined results strongly suggest that the formation of the barite chimneys is a result of complex seafloor and subseafloor geobio-interactions.

Thorseth, I. H.; Steen, I. H.; Eickmann, B.; Dahle, H.; Baumberger, T.; Peters, M.; Strauss, H.; Pedersen, R. B.

2012-12-01

54

Discovery of a new hydrothermal vent based on an underwater, high-resolution geophysical survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new hydrothermal vent site in the Southern Mariana Trough has been discovered using acoustic and magnetic surveys conducted by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology's (JAMSTEC) autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), Urashima. The high-resolution magnetic survey, part of a near-bottom geophysical mapping around a previously known hydrothermal vent site, the Pika site, during the YK09-08 cruise in June-July 2009, found that a clear magnetization low extends ˜500 m north from the Pika site. Acoustic signals, suggesting hydrothermal plumes, and 10 m-scale chimney-like topographic highs were detected within this low magnetization zone by a 120 kHz side-scan sonar and a 400 kHz multibeam echo sounder. In order to confirm the seafloor sources of the geophysical signals, seafloor observations were carried out using the deep-sea manned submersible Shinkai 6500 during the YK 10-10 cruise in August 2010. This discovered a new hydrothermal vent site (12°55.30'N, 143°38.89'E; at a depth of 2922 m), which we have named the Urashima site. This hydrothermal vent site covers an area of approximately 300 m×300 m and consists of black and clear smoker chimneys, brownish-colored shimmering chimneys, and inactive chimneys. All of the fluids sampled from the Urashima and Pika sites have chlorinity greater than local ambient seawater, suggesting subseafloor phase separation or leaching from rocks in the hydrothermal reaction zone. End-member compositions of the Urashima and Pika fluids suggest that fluids from two different sources feed the two sites, even though they are located on the same knoll and separated by only ˜500 m. We demonstrate that investigations on hydrothermal vent sites located in close proximity to one another can provide important insights into subseafloor hydrothermal fluid flow, and also that, while such hydrothermal sites are difficult to detect by conventional plume survey methods, high-resolution underwater geophysical surveys provide an effective means.

Nakamura, Kentaro; Toki, Tomohiro; Mochizuki, Nobutatsu; Asada, Miho; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Nogi, Yoshifumi; Yoshikawa, Shuro; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Okino, Kyoko

2013-04-01

55

Stereotyping the smoker: adolescents’ appraisals of smokers in film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the relation between demographic factors and film smoking stereotypes in adolescents and the potential influence of smoker stereotypes on smoking susceptibility.Design: A cross sectional questionnaire survey of school students (n = 3041) aged 12–13 and 16–17 years who were asked to describe the personal characteristics of female and male smokers in films.Setting: 15 primary or intermediate schools

J P McCool; L Cameron; K Petrie

2004-01-01

56

Barite in hydrothermal environments as a recorder of subseafloor processes: a multiple-isotope study from the Loki's Castle vent field.  

PubMed

Barite chimneys are known to form in hydrothermal systems where barium-enriched fluids generated by leaching of the oceanic basement are discharged and react with seawater sulfate. They also form at cold seeps along continental margins, where marine (or pelagic) barite in the sediments is remobilized because of subseafloor microbial sulfate reduction. We test the possibility of using multiple sulfur isotopes (?34S, ?33S, ?36S) of barite to identify microbial sulfate reduction in a hydrothermal system. In addition to multiple sulfur isotopes, we present oxygen (?18O) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes for one of numerous barite chimneys in a low-temperature (~20 °C) venting area of the Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultraslow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). The chemistry of the venting fluids in the barite field identifies a contribution of at least 10% of high-temperature black smoker fluid, which is corroborated by 87Sr/86 Sr ratios in the barite chimney that are less radiogenic than in seawater. In contrast, oxygen and multiple sulfur isotopes indicate that the fluid from which the barite precipitated contained residual sulfate that was affected by microbial sulfate reduction. A sulfate reduction zone at this site is further supported by the multiple sulfur isotopic composition of framboidal pyrite in the flow channel of the barite chimney and in the hydrothermal sediments in the barite field, as well as by low SO4 and elevated H2S concentrations in the venting fluids compared with conservative mixing values. We suggest that the mixing of ascending H2- and CH4-rich high-temperature fluids with percolating seawater fuels microbial sulfate reduction, which is subsequently recorded by barite formed at the seafloor in areas where the flow rate is sufficient. Thus, low-temperature precipitates in hydrothermal systems are promising sites to explore the interactions between the geosphere and biosphere in order to evaluate the microbial impact on these systems. PMID:24725254

Eickmann, B; Thorseth, I H; Peters, M; Strauss, H; Bröcker, M; Pedersen, R B

2014-07-01

57

Alteration at the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field: Constraints from trace element and Sr-O isotope data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serpentinized peridotite and gabbronorite represent the host rocks to the active, ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We use trace element,?18O and 87Sr/86Sr data from bulk rock samples and mineral separates in order to constrain the controls on the geochemical budget within the Logatchev hydrothermal system. The trace element data of serpentinized peridotite show strong compositional variations indicating a range of processes. Some peridotites experienced geochemical modifications associated with melt-rock interaction processes prior to serpentinization, which resulted in positive correlations of increasing high field strength element (HFSE) concentrations and light rare earth element (LREE) contents. Other serpentinites and lizardite mineral separates are enriched in LREE, lacking a correlation with HFSE due to interaction with high-temperature, black-smoker type fluids. The enrichment of serpentinites and lizardite separates in trace elements, as well as locally developed negative Ce-anomalies, indicate that interaction with low-T ambient seawater is another important process in the Logatchev hydrothermal system. Hence, mixing of high-T hydrothermal fluids during serpentinization and/or re-equilibration of O-isotope signatures during subsequent low-T alteration is required to explain the trace element and?18O temperature constraints. Highly radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr signatures of serpentinite and lizardite separates provide additional evidence for interaction with seawater-derived fluids. Sparse talc alteration at the Logatchev site are most likely caused by Si-metasomatism of serpentinite associated with the emplacement of shallow gabbro intrusion(s) generating localized hydrothermal circulation. In summary the geochemistry of serpentinites from the Logatchev site document subsurface processes and the evolution of a seafloor ultramafic hydrothermal system.

Augustin, N.; Paulick, H.; Lackschewitz, K. S.; Eisenhauer, A.; Garbe-SchöNberg, D.; Kuhn, T.; Botz, R.; Schmidt, M.

2012-03-01

58

Knowledge Regarding Nutrition, Attitude and Practice of Smokers and Non-Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Generally, non-smokers have healthier lifestyles compared to smokers. Typical foods eaten more by non- smokers are fruits and vegetables, whereas smokers eat more meat and fat and drink more alcoholic beverages. We aimed to compare nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of smokers participating in smoking cessation clinics with their non-smoker family members. Materials and Methods: Two hundred twenty-six

Habib Emami; Marjan Saber Ashkzari; Ghazal Naseri; Bahareh Aghaeinia; Amir Soha Rezaei

2008-01-01

59

Direct Measurements of Hydrothermal Heat Output at Juan de Fuca Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat output and fluid flow are key parameters for characterizing seafloor hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers. In particular, they are essential for examining partition of heat and geochemical fluxes between discrete and diffuse flow components. Hydrothermal heat output also constrains permeability of young oceanic crust and thickness of the conductive boundary layer separating hydrothermal circulation from the underlying magmatic heat source. Over the past several years, we have deployed a number of relatively simple devices to make direct measurements of focused and diffuse flow. Most recently, we have used cup anemometer and turbine flow meters to measure fluid flow and heat flux at individual high-temperature vents and diffuse flow sites. The turbine flow meter (Figure 1) includes a titanium rotor assembly housed within a stainless steel tube and supported by sapphire bearings. The device can be used at different seafloor settings for measurements of both diffuse and focused flow. The spin of the rotor blades is videotaped to acquire the angular velocity, which is a function of the flow rate determined through calibration. We report data obtained during four cruises to the Main Endeavor and High Rise vent fields, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR), between 2007 and 2009. Overall more than 50 successful measurements of heat flow have been made on a variety of high-, medium-, and low-temperature hydrothermal sites on the Endeavor, Mothra, and High Rise structures. For example, the velocity of diffuse flow at Endeavor ranged from ~1 to ~10 cm/sec. The flow velocity from black smokers varied from ~10 cm/sec to ~1 m/sec, which appears to be similar to EPR 9°N. Typical measurements of heat flux obtained at JdFR ranged from ~1 kW for diffuse flow to ~1 MW for black smokers. Although it is difficult to extrapolate the data and obtain the integrated heat output for a vent field on JdFR, the data are used to characterize the heat fluxes from individual vent structures such as Hulk, Dante, and Godzilla. Figure 1. Turbine flow meter deployed on Fairy Castle structure at the High Rise vent field (6-26-09, Alvin dive 4526).

Germanovich, L. N.; di Iorio, D.; Genc, G.; Hurt, R. S.; Lowell, R. P.; Holden, J. F.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.

2009-12-01

60

Rare earth elements as indicators of hydrothermal processes within the East Scotia subduction zone system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East Scotia subduction zone, located in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, hosts a number of hydrothermal sites in both back-arc and island-arc settings. High temperature (>348 °C) ‘black smoker’ vents have been sampled at three locations along segments E2 and E9 of the East Scotia back-arc spreading ridge, as well as ‘white smoker’ (<212 °C) and diffuse (<28 °C) hydrothermal fluids from within the caldera of the Kemp submarine volcano. The composition of the endmember fluids (Mg = 0 mmol/kg) is markedly different, with pH ranging from <1 to 3.4, [Cl-] from ?90 to 536 mM, [H2S] from 6.7 to ?200 mM and [F-] from 35 to ?1000 ?M. All of the vent sites are basalt- to basaltic andesite-hosted, providing an ideal opportunity for investigating the geochemical controls on rare earth element (REE) behaviour. Endmember hydrothermal fluids from E2 and E9 have total REE concentrations ranging from 7.3 to 123 nmol/kg, and chondrite-normalised distribution patterns are either light REE-enriched (LaCN/YbCN = 12.8-30.0) with a positive europium anomaly (EuCN/Eu?CN = 3.45-59.5), or mid REE-enriched (LaCN/NdCN = 0.61) with a negative Eu anomaly (EuCN/Eu?CN = 0.59). By contrast, fluids from the Kemp Caldera have almost flat REE patterns (LaCN/YbCN = 2.1-2.2; EuCN/Eu?CN = 1.2-2.2). We demonstrate that the REE geochemistry of fluids from the East Scotia back-arc spreading ridge is variably influenced by ion exchange with host minerals, phase separation, competitive complexation with ligands, and anhydrite deposition, whereas fluids from the Kemp submarine volcano are also affected by the injection of magmatic volatiles which enhances the solubility of all the REEs. We also show that the REE patterns of anhydrite deposits from Kemp differ from those of the present-day fluids, potentially providing critical information about the nature of hydrothermal activity in the past, where access to hydrothermal fluids is precluded.

Cole, Catherine S.; James, Rachael H.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Hathorne, Ed C.

2014-09-01

61

Transfer and partitioning of energy and mass through seafloor hydrothermal systems: comparative studies at the Ridge2000 Integrated Study Sites (ISS) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seafloor hydrothermal systems are major players in the transfer of mass and energy from the mantle and crust to the ocean and biosphere. Over the past thirty years, much has been learned about this transfer to the ocean, but considerably less is known about the transfer to the biosphere. Study of hydrothermal systems in a diverse range of geologic settings has shown relationships between spreading rate and hydrothermal heat flux, substrate composition (including rock geochemistry, presence/absence of sediment) and hydrothermal fluid composition, and magmatic/tectonic events and temporal variability of fluid composition (e.g., German and Von Damm, Treatise On Geochemistry, 2004; Baker et al. AGU Monograph Series 91, 1995). Studies in arc and back-arc settings are documenting the effects of magmatic acid volatiles on fluid-rock reaction and fluid and vent deposit compositions (e.g., Ishibashi and Urabe, Backarc Basins: Tectonics and Magmatism, 1995). These comparative studies in a wide range of geologic settings, including at the three Ridge2000 ISS, have provided a fairly good understanding of the flux of heat and many elements to the ocean associated with high temperature seafloor hydrothermal systems. Considerably less is known, however, about the partitioning of heat and mass (particularly metals and sulfur) in hydrothermal systems. The deposits that form at vent sites are intimately linked within paths of energy and mass transport from the mantle and crust to the oceans. Transport differs greatly through different types of deposits (e.g., black smokers, white smokers/diffusers, flanges). Estimates of heat flux from measured temperatures of flow (unless integrated over and around an entire vent field) require an understanding of the partitioning of flow between focused black smokers and more diffuse flow from diffusers, flanges, and surfaces of deposits, and from the igneous substrate. Estimates of mass flux into the ocean require an understanding of the temperature-composition paths taken by fluids, and the extent to which some elements (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn, Ba, S) are partitioned between deposits and plumes. Precipitation efficiency differs depending on the vigor of venting and fluid composition (e.g., pH), which (in part) determines the prevalence of black smoker activity versus flow through diffusers and flanges (e.g., review in Tivey, Oceanography, 2007). Quantification of this partitioning is further complicated by apparent differences in ages of accumulated deposits in different vent fields. An unknown at many vent fields is the length of time and duration of activity responsible for forming the existing deposits, and the extent to which large size is a result of efficient precipitation versus time. For biota, the different styles of fluid flow through the substrate and different parts of deposits affect thermal and chemical environments in plumes, as well as on, and just inside, deposit exteriors. As with our understanding of mass and energy transfer to the ocean, we can make significant advances in our understanding of this partitioning of energy and mass through comparative studies of hydrothermal systems in a diverse range of geologic settings (e.g., at the three Ridge2000 ISS).

Tivey, M. K.

2010-12-01

62

First Discovery and Investigation of a High-Temperature Hydrothermal Vent Field on the Ultra- Slow Spreading Southwest Indian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recent cruises on board the Chinese research vessel Dayang Yihao have successfully investigated the first active hydrothermal vent field to be located along the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) and collected hydrothermal sulfide deposit samples. The newly discovered hydrothermal vent field is located on the western end of a magmatically robust spreading segment immediately west of the Gallieni transform fault. Preliminary evidence of strong turbidity anomalies was first measured during a Nov. 2005 cruise on board Dayang Yihao (InterRidge News, vol. 15, pp. 33-34, 2006). Color video footages of the seafloor in the vent-field area were first obtained by a deep-towed video camera in February 2007 during DY115-19 Leg 1, when significant water column turbidity anomalies, noticeable temperature anomalies and methane anomalies were also measured. The vent field was then precisely located, mapped, and photographed in great detail in February- March 2007 during the DY115-19 Leg 2, using the autonomous underwater vehicle ABE of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. A high-resolution bathymetric map, more than 5,000 near-bottom color photos, and several types of water column data were all obtained during three phases of ABE dives. Within the approximately 120-m-long by 100-m-wide hydrothermal field, three groups of active high-temperature vents were identified and color images of black smokers and associated biological communities were obtained from ABE, flying 5 m above the seafloor. Hydrothermal sulfide deposits were then successfully obtained using a TV-guided grab.

Tao, C.; Lin, J.; Guo, S.; Chen, Y. J.; Wu, G.; Han, X.; German, C. R.; Yoerger, D. R.; Zhu, J.; Zhou, N.; Su, X.; Baker, E. T.; Party, S.

2007-12-01

63

Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa Trough: Mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Seafloor hydrothermal activity at Jade has resulted in extensive alteration of the host epiclastic sediments and pumiceous tuffs, forming mica, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite), Mg-rich chlorite, talc, montmorillonite, and a mixed-layer mineral of dioctahedral chlorite and montmorillonite (Chl/Mont). Clay mineral assemblages show a vertical variation, which reflects variable amounts of cold seawater incorporated into hot hydrothermal fluids in subsurface sediments and tuff. However, mixing alone cannot explain the occurrence of abundant kaolin minerals at Jade. The formation of kaolin minerals requires much more acidic fluid than expected from simple mixing of hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Low pH values are likely attained by oxidation of H{sub 2}S either dissolved in the hydrothermal fluid or released from the fluid during decompression. The fluid reaching the seafloor is discharged into cold seawater, which caused precipitation of sulfides close to vents and native sulfur and barite at the margins of the vent areas. Halloysite, barite and anhydrite show Sr isotope compositions similar to marine Sr, indicating the derivation of marine Sr directly from seawater or by the dissolution of calcareous nannoplanktons. At Jade, there is only one black smoker actively discharging high temperature ({approximately}320 C) fluid, but there are many fossil sulfide chimneys and mounds in the area. The mineralogy and high Au and Cu in these precipitates suggest highly metalliferous hydrothermal activity in the past. These activities likely resulted in discharge of hydrothermal plumes and fall-outs of sulfides and sulfates on the seafloor. These fall-outs were incorporated in sediments far from the vent areas. They are now recorded as high metal contents in sediments with no petrographic and mineralogical evidence of in-situ hydrothermal activity. Some are high as 8,100 ppm for Cu, 12,500 ppm for Zn, 1,000 ppm for As, 100 ppm for Ag and 21,000 ppm for Pb. Detrital grains of montmorillonite in such sediments are coated with Fe-oxyhydroxides during the suspension in seawater before settling on the seafloor. The depths of such metal anomalies in sediments suggest high levels of metalliferous hydrothermal activities from 1,800 to 300 ybp.

Marumo, Katsumi; Hattori, K.H.

1999-09-01

64

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent Epsilonproteobacteria encode a conserved and widespread nitrate reduction pathway (Nap).  

PubMed

Despite the frequent isolation of nitrate-respiring Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents, the genes coding for the nitrate reduction pathway in these organisms have not been investigated in depth. In this study we have shown that the gene cluster coding for the periplasmic nitrate reductase complex (nap) is highly conserved in chemolithoautotrophic, nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Furthermore, we have shown that the napA gene is expressed in pure cultures of vent Epsilonproteobacteria and it is highly conserved in microbial communities collected from deep-sea vents characterized by different temperature and redox regimes. The diversity of nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria was found to be higher in moderate temperature, diffuse flow vents than in high temperature black smokers or in low temperatures, substrate-associated communities. As NapA has a high affinity for nitrate compared with the membrane-bound enzyme, its occurrence in vent Epsilonproteobacteria may represent an adaptation of these organisms to the low nitrate concentrations typically found in vent fluids. Taken together, our findings indicate that nitrate reduction is widespread in vent Epsilonproteobacteria and provide insight on alternative energy metabolism in vent microorganisms. The occurrence of the nap cluster in vent, commensal and pathogenic Epsilonproteobacteria suggests that the ability of these bacteria to respire nitrate is important in habitats as different as the deep-sea vents and the human body. PMID:24430487

Vetriani, Costantino; Voordeckers, James W; Crespo-Medina, Melitza; O'Brien, Charles E; Giovannelli, Donato; Lutz, Richard A

2014-07-01

65

Sound field near hydrothermal vents on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

High-quality acoustic noise measurements were obtained by two hydrophones located 3 m and 40 m from an active hydrothermal vent on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an effort to determine the feasibility of monitoring hydrothermal vent activity through flow noise generation. Most of the measured noise field could be attributed to ambient ocean noise sources of microseisms, distant shipping, and weather, punctuated by local ships and biological sources. Long-period, low-velocity, water/rock interface waves were detected with high amplitudes which rapidly decayed with distance from the seafloor. Detection of vent signals was hampered by unexpected spatial nonstationarity due to the shadowing effects of the calders wall. No continuous vent signals were deemed significant based on a criterion of 90% probability of detection and 5% probability of false alarm. However, a small signal near 40 Hz, with a power level of 0.0001 Pa sq/Hz was noticed on two records taken within 3 m of the Inferno black smoker. The frequency of this signal is consistent with predictions, and the power level suggests the occurrence of jet noise amplification due to convected density inhomogeneities. Keywords: Seamounts; Flow noise; Underwater acoustics; Acoustic measurement; Geothermy/noise; Ocean ridges; Underwater sound signals; Reprints; North Pacific Ocean. (EDC).

Little, S.A.; Stolzenbach, K.D.; Purdy, G.M.

1990-08-10

66

Insights From Magnesium Isotopic Compositions on the Oceanic Hydrothermal Circulation: Is Seamount Weathering the Solution?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been long recognised that the input of Mg in the ocean by river is removed by precipitation of Mg-rich bearing phases, either directly from the ocean such as dolomite or through hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust. The sampling of hydrothermal fluids demonstrated the efficiency of Mg consumption by the alteration of the oceanic crust, even at temperatures as low as 15°. For high-temperature fluids vented through black or white smokers in the vicinity of the ridge, the Mg concentration is up to 50 time lower than in seawater, and the close relationship between chlorine and Mg led to the idea that seawater was feeding the hydrothermal system and that Mg is quantitatively removed from it during high-T° alteration, the so called zero Mg hypothesis. Despite some hint for a non zero Mg hydrothermal end-member for a handful sites, the low concentration of Mg in oceanic hydrothermal fluids (around 1 mmol/l) has been mainly attributed to contamination by seawater during the sampling. Here we present Mg isotopic composition of 14 seawater samples from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Mediterranean and Red Seas and covering a range of depth of almost 5km and 26 hydrothermal fluids from 7 sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with temperature from 15° to 380°C. We find the magnesium isotope composition of seawater to be constant, with a ?^{26}Mg = -0.82±0.10 ‰ relative to the DSM3 standard. This value is consistent with a long residence time for Mg in seawater. In addition, out of the 26 hydrothermal fluids studied, more than 58% differ from seawater for their Mg isotopic composition by more than 2?. This number rises up to 88% at 2?mean level and the shift is systematic with the fluids being either indistinguishable from seawater or enriched in light isotopes by up to 2.4‰ in ?^{26}Mg. This clearly demonstrates that fluids having low Mg concentrations are not solely bearing Mg added by contamination during sampling. The isotopic and concentration data are consistent with the preferential incorporation of heavy isotopes of Mg during the weathering and already similar to the mechanisms found in soil (Tipper et al., 2006a, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.04.033). The fractionation factor (?) is around 1.001 for the high-T° fluids, while the low temperature fluids, samples off axis during the ODP Leg 168 (Est of Juan de Fuca Ridge), requires a more variable and higher ? of 1.001 to 1.003. At low temperature, the ? is somehow greater that the estimate made from the soil formation but the T-? relationship is consistent with the expected behaviour for an equilibrium isotopic fractionation. However, such a large ? implies that the significant flux of the low-T component of the hydrothermal circulation required to fulfil the heat budget of the oceanic lithosphere would buffer any isotopic mass balance calculation of the oceanic Mg to an unsustainable value (e.g. Tipper et al., 2006b, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.07.037). Therefore, either the low-T hydrothermal circulation leaves the Mg unaffected, or the off axis fluids from the ODP Leg 168 are not representative of the global low-T hydrothermal circulation. Given that Mg gets significantly re-incorporated in soil processes, we favour the later hypothesis and propose that a significant part of the low-T hydrothermal circulation is occurring around relief of the oceanic floor, including seamounts, with a different residence-time and chemistry than what have been described in the ODP Leg 168 setting.

Galy, A.; Carder, E.; Elderfield, H.

2006-12-01

67

Hydrothermal Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater (after C. A. Stein and S. Stein, 1994). The first geochemical evidence for the existence of hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor came in the mid-1960s when investigations in the Red Sea revealed deep basins filled with hot, salty water (40-60 °C) and underlain by thick layers of metal-rich sediment (Degens and Ross, 1969). Because the Red Sea represents a young, rifting, ocean basin it was speculated that the phenomena observed there might also prevail along other young MOR spreading centers. An analysis of core-top sediments from throughout the world's oceans ( Figure 2) revealed that such metalliferous sediments did, indeed, appear to be concentrated along the newly recognized global ridge crest (Boström et al., 1969). Another early indication of hydrothermal activity came from the detection of plumes of excess 3He in the Pacific Ocean Basin (Clarke et al., 1969) - notably the >2,000 km wide section in the South Pacific ( Lupton and Craig, 1981) - because 3He present in the deep ocean could only be sourced through some form of active degassing of the Earth's interior, at the seafloor. (62K)Figure 2. Global map of the (Al+Fe+Mn):Al ratio for surficial marine sediments. Highest ratios mimic the trend of the global MOR axis (after Boström et al., 1969). One area where early heat-flow studies suggested hydrothermal activity was likely to occur was along the Galapagos Spreading Center in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (Anderson and Hobart, 1976). In 1977, scientists diving at this location found hydrothermal fluids discharging chemically altered seawater from young volcanic seafloor at elevated temperatures up to 17 °C ( Edmond et al., 1979). Two years later, the first high-temperature (380±30 °C) vent fluids were found at 21° N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) (Spiess et al., 1980) - with fluid compositions remarkably close to those predicted from the lower-temperature Galapagos findings ( Edmond et al., 1979). Since that time, hydrothermal activity has been found at more than 40 locations throughout the Pacific, North Atlanti

German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

2003-12-01

68

Temperature variation records at diffuse and focused outflow in Lucky Strike hydrothermal field: toward a characterization of the outflow dynamic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal activity along mid-ocean ridges accounts for a large proportion of the Earth's heat loss, but the space-time variation of both heat and chemical fluxes of venting at individual sites remains largely unconstrained. As part of the MOMAR experiment to monitor hydrothermal activity, we used an ROV to deploy autonomous temperatures sensors at black smoker chimneys, cracks, and diffuse flow areas throughout the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, ~37°17'N) between summer 2009 and summer 2012. We deployed a set of high- and low-temperature thermal probes (<350°C and <125°C respectively) sampling at intervals that varied from <1 min to 24 min. Microseismicity and bottom pressure was also recorded with an ocean bottom seismometer network and a pressure gauge. We place particular emphasis on temporal variability at semi-diurnal tidal periods, and use poroelastic theory to constrain hydrologic parameters of the sub-surface circulation system. We identify two main types of temporal variability in the temperature records : (1) episodic variability with rapid temperature changes of ~5-150°C over time periods of few hours to several days, and (2) systematic variability at tidal periods with amplitudes ranging from a few tens of a degree to a few degrees, depending largely on mean outflow temperature. The episodic variability is stochastic (i.e., typically not correlated between mutitple probes among vents at the scale of the site), and does not appear to be correlated with local nor regional seismicity. The episodic events are observed primarily in diffuse flow records. The lack of spatial and temporal correlation of these events among probes, even at distances of <5 m within the same mound, suggests that they represent episodes of seawater mixing within the shallowmost crust underlying individual vents, or within the hydrothermal edifice itself. Most temperature records display systematic tide-related variability, with the strongest signal at the principal semidiurnal tidal periods (M2, S2, N2 and K2). Cross-spectral multi-taper methods applied to the temperature and bottom pressure records reveal robust phase relationships, particularly for the high-temperature, black-smoker records, as predicted by poroelastic theory (Jupp and Schultz, Wang and Davis, Crone and Wilcock). These results demonstrate the tidal pressures diffusely propagate through the porous matrix hosting sub-surface flow, which results in phase lags between the surface pressure and the fluid dischage temperature. We use this observation to constrain the poroelastic skin depth, bulk permeability, and vertical D'arcy flow velocity of the sub-surface regime at the Lucky Strike field.

Barreyre, T.; Escartin, J.; Sohn, R. A.; Cannat, M.; Ballu, V.

2012-12-01

69

Investigations of a novel fauna from hydrothermal vents along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic deep ocean hosts a variety of habitats ranging from fairly uniform sedimentary abyssal plains to highly variable hard bottoms on mid ocean ridges, including biodiversity hotspots like seamounts and hydrothermal vents. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna, and since their discovery in 1977 more than 400 species of animals have been described. This fauna includes various animal groups of which the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. The newly discovered deep sea hydrothermal vents on the Mohns-Knipovich ridge north of Iceland harbour unique biodiversity. The Jan Mayen field consists of two main areas with high-temperature white smoker venting and wide areas with low-temperature seepage, located at 5-700 m, while the deeper Loki Castle vent field at 2400 m depth consists of a large area with high temperature black smokers surrounded by a sedimentary area with more diffuse low-temperature venting and barite chimneys. The Jan Mayen sites show low abundance of specialized hydrothermal vent fauna. Single groups have a few specialized representatives but groups otherwise common in hydrothermal vent areas are absent. Slightly more than 200 macrofaunal species have been identified from this vent area, comprising mainly an assortment of bathyal species known from the surrounding area. Analysis of stable isotope data also indicates that the majority of the species present are feeding on phytodetritus and/or phytoplankton. However, the deeper Loki Castle vent field contains a much more diverse vent endemic fauna with high abundances of specialized polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. These specializations also include symbioses with a range of chemosynthetic microorganisms. Our data show that the fauna composition is a result of high degree of local specialization with some similarities to the fauna of cold seeps along the Norwegian margin and wood-falls in the abyssal Norwegian Sea. Few species are common to both the deep and the shallow vents, but some gastropod species show a structured population difference between the sites. Our data indicate that there has been a migration of vent fauna into the Arctic Ocean from the Pacific Ocean rather than from the known vent sites further south in the Atlantic Ocean. The discovery and sampling of these new arctic vent fields provide unique data to further understand the migration of vent organisms and interactions between different deep sea chemosynthetic environments. Based on the high degree of local adaptation and specialization of fauna from the studied sites we propose the AMOR to be a new zoogeographical province for vent fauna.

Rapp, H.; Schander, C.; Halanych, K. M.; Levin, L. A.; Sweetman, A.; Tverberg, J.; Hoem, S.; Steen, I.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.

2010-12-01

70

Integrated Fe- and S-isotope study of seafloor hydrothermal vents at East Pacific Rise 9-10°N  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study, we report on coupled Fe- and S-isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids and sulfide deposits from the East Pacific Rise at 9–10°N to better constrain processes affecting Fe-isotope fractionation in hydrothermal environments. We aim to address three fundamental questions: (1) Is there significant Fe-isotope fractionation during sulfide precipitation? (2) Is there significant variability of Fe-isotope composition of the hydrothermal fluids reflecting sulfide precipitation in subsurface environments? (3) Are there any systematics between Fe- and S-isotopes in sulfide minerals? The results show that chalcopyrite, precipitating in the interior wall of a hydrothermal chimney displays a limited range of ?56Fe values and ?34S values, between ? 0.11 to ? 0.33‰ and 2.2 to 2.6‰ respectively. The ?56Fe values are, on average, slightly higher by 0.14‰ relative to coeval vent fluid composition while ?34S values suggest significant S-isotope fractionation (? 0.6 ± 0.2‰) during chalcopyrite precipitation. In contrast, systematically lower ?56Fe and ?34S values relative to hydrothermal fluids, by up to 0.91‰ and 2.0‰ respectively, are observed in pyrite and marcasite precipitating in the interior of active chimneys. These results suggest isotope disequilibrium in both Fe- and S-isotopes due to S-isotopic exchange between hydrothermal H2S and seawater SO42? followed by rapid formation of pyrite from FeS precursors, thus preserving the effects of a strong kinetic Fe-isotope fractionation during FeS precipitation. In contrast, ?56Fe and ?34S values of pyrite from inactive massive sulfides, which show evidence of extensive late-stage reworking, are essentially similar to the hydrothermal fluids. Multiple stages of remineralization of ancient chimney deposits at the seafloor appear to produce minimal Fe-isotope fractionation. Similar affects are indicated during subsurface sulfide precipitation as demonstrated by the lack of systematic differences between ?56Fe values in both high-temperature, Fe-rich black smokers and lower-temperature, Fe-depleted vents.

Rouxel, O.; Shanks, W. C., III; Bach, W.; Edwards, K.J.

2008-01-01

71

Complex hydrothermal alteration and illite K-Ar ages in Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Variscan Badenweiler-Lenzkirch suture zone, Black Forest, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-collisional Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Badenweiler-Lenzkirch Zone reveal by microscopy of thin sections different degrees of hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and mica particles, and XRD, IR and XRF data of the <2 µm fractions show illitic material as the dominant clay mineral consisting of a mixture of 1M and 2M1 polytypes. Moreover, small amounts of illite/smectite mixed-layer minerals of R1-ordering are proved in the granites. In the separates, two illite mixing lines with different Fe + Mg contents are verified between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and detrital illite in the molasse sediments, as well as between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and altered mica flakes in the granites. Fe-rich detrital chlorite is present within the molasse sediments, while mixtures of high aluminous Fe-poor dioctahedral/di-trioctahedral chlorite with randomly interstratified chlorite/smectite mixed-layer minerals are formed from feldspar alteration in the granites. Illite K-Ar dating of the <2 and <0.63 µm fractions yields hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and partial resetting of the K-Ar system of detrital illite and mica flakes in the molasse sediments at ?200 °C during Upper Permian to Middle Triassic times, while the granites in the eastern part of the study area were not altered contemporaneously. In contrast, hydrothermal activity at ?200 °C during Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous times occurred in the granites, whereas these temperatures were too low for resetting the older `Permo-Triassic' illite K-Ar ages in the molasse rocks. Within both K-Ar age clusters, the data are seen to decrease with grain size and portion of illite 2M1 polytype. The alteration phenomena indicate multiple hydrothermal episodes in the study area, and they match those from the Central and Western European crust as fluid supply was controlled geodynamically by episodic break up of Pangea.

Brockamp, Olaf; Schlegel, Andreas; Wemmer, Klaus

2015-01-01

72

The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for Biogeography  

PubMed Central

Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than previously recognised. PMID:22235194

Rogers, Alex D.; Tyler, Paul A.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jon T.; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D.; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A.; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearce, David A.; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; German, Christopher R.; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Alker, Belinda J.; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A.; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J. J.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D. K.; Roterman, Christopher N.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

2012-01-01

73

The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.  

PubMed

Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than previously recognised. PMID:22235194

Rogers, Alex D; Tyler, Paul A; Connelly, Douglas P; Copley, Jon T; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D; Pearce, David A; Polunin, Nicholas V C; German, Christopher R; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H; Alker, Belinda J; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J J; Graham, Alastair G C; Green, Darryl R H; Hawkes, Jeffrey A; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D K; Roterman, Christopher N; Sweeting, Christopher J; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

2012-01-01

74

Hydrothermal calderas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard model of caldera formation is related to the emptying of a magma chamber and ensuing roof collapse during large eruptions or subsurface withdrawal. Although this model works well for numerous volcanoes, it is inappropriate for many basaltic volcanoes (with the notable exception of Hawaii), as these have eruptions that involve volumes of magma that are small compared to the collapse. Many arc volcanoes also have similar oversized depressions, such as Poas (Costa Rica) and Aoba (Vanuatu). In this article, we propose an alternative caldera model based on deep hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks in the central part of the edifice. Under certain conditions, the clay-rich altered and pressurized core may flow under its own weight, spread laterally, and trigger very large caldera-like collapse. Several specific mechanisms can generate the formation of such hydrothermal calderas. Among them, we identify two principal modes: mode 1: ripening with summit loading and flank spreading and mode II: unbuttressing with flank subsidence and flank sliding. Processes such as summit loading or flank subsidence may act simultaneously in hybrid mechanisms. Natural examples are shown to illustrate the different modes of formation. For ripening, we give Aoba (Vanuatu) as an example of probable summit loading, while Casita (Nicaragua) is the type example of flank spreading. For unbuttressing, Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas) is our example for flank subsidence and Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion) is our example of flank sliding. The whole process is slow and probably needs (a) at least a few tens of thousands of years to deeply alter the edifice and reach conditions suitable for ductile flow and (b) a few hundred years to achieve the caldera collapse. The size and the shape of the caldera strictly mimic that of the underlying weak core. Thus, the size of the caldera is not controlled by the dimensions of the underlying magma reservoir. A collapsing hydrothermal caldera could generate significant phreatic activity and trigger major eruptions from a coexisting magmatic complex. As the buildup to collapse is slow, such caldera-forming events could be detected long before their onset.

Merle, Olivier; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

2010-03-01

75

Driver Mutations Determine Survival in Smokers and Never Smokers with Stage IIIB/IV Lung Adenocarcinomas  

PubMed Central

Background We previously demonstrated that stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) never smokers lived 50% longer than former/current smokers. This observation persisted after adjusting for age, performance status, and gender. We hypothesized that smoking-dependent differences in the distribution of driver mutations might explain differences in prognosis between these subgroups. Methods We reviewed 293 never smokers and 382 former/current smokers with lung adenocarcinoma who underwent testing for EGFR and KRAS mutations and rearrangements in ALK between 2009 and 2010. Clinical outcomes and patient characteristics were collected. Survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Group comparison was performed with log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards methods. Results While the overall incidence of these mutations was nearly identical (55% never smokers vs. 57% current/former smokers, p=0.48), there were significant differences in the distribution of mutations between these groups: EGFR mutations- 37% never smokers vs. 14% former/current smokers (p<0.0001); KRAS mutations- 4% never smokers vs. 43% former/current smokers (p<0.0001); ALK rearrangements- 12% never smokers vs. 2% former/current smokers (p<0.0001). Among never smokers and former/current smokers, prognosis differed significantly by genotype. Patients harboring KRAS mutations demonstrated the poorest survival. Smoking status, however, had no influence on survival within each genotype. Conclusion Never smokers and former/current smokers with lung adenocarcinomas are not homogeneous subgroups. Each is made up of individuals whose tumors have a unique distribution of driver mutations which are associated with different prognoses, irrespective of smoking history. PMID:22605530

Paik, Paul K.; Johnson, Melissa L.; D’Angelo, Sandra P.; Sima, Camelia S.; Ang, Daphne; Dogan, Snjezana; Miller, Vincent A.; Ladanyi, Marc; Kris, Mark G.; Riely, Gregory J.

2012-01-01

76

Geology of a vigorous hydrothermal system on the Endeavour segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge  

SciTech Connect

A high-precision, high-resolution geologic map explicitly documents relationships between tectonic features and large steep-sided, sulfide-sulfate-silica deposits in the vigorously venting Endeavour hydrothermal field near the northern end of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Location of the most massive sulfide structures appears to be controlled by intersections of ridge-parallel normal faults and other fracture-fissure sets that trend oblique to, and perpendicular to the overall structural fabric of the axial valley. As presently mapped, the field is about 200 by 400 m on a side and contains at least 15 large (> 1,000 m[sup 3]) sulfide edifices and many tens of smaller, commonly inactive, sulfide structures. The larger sulfide structures are also the most vigorously venting features in the field; they are commonly more than 30 m in diameter and up to 20 m in height. Maximum venting temperatures of 375[degrees]C are associated with the smaller structures in the northern portion of the field are consistently 20[degrees]-30[degrees]C lower. Hydrothermal output from individual active sulfide features varies from no flow in the lower third of the edifice to vigorous output from fracture-controlled black smoker activity near the top of the structures. Two types of diffuse venting in the Endeavour field include a lower temperature 8[degrees]-15[degrees]C output through colonies of large tubeworms and 25[degrees]-50[degrees]C vent fluid that seems to percolate through the tops of overhanging flanges. The large size and steep-walled nature of these structures evidently results from sustained venting in a mature hydrothermal system, coupled with dual mineral depositional mechanisms involving vertical growth by accumulation of chimney sulfide debris and lateral growth by means of flange development.

Delaney, J.R.; Robigou, V.; McDuff, R.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Tivey, M.K. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States))

1992-12-10

77

Temporal variability and tidal modulation of hydrothermal exit-fluid temperatures at the Lucky Strike deep-sea vent field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We deployed autonomous temperature sensors at black smoker chimneys, cracks, and diffuse flow areas at the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, ~37°17'N) between summer 2009 and summer 2012 and contemporaneously measured tidal pressures and currents as part of the long-term MoMAR experiment to monitor hydrothermal activity. We classify the temperature data according to the hydrogeologic setting of the measurement sites: a high-temperature regime (>190°C) representing discharge of essentially unmixed, primary hydrothermal fluids through chimneys, an intermediate-temperature regime (10-100°C) associated with mixing of primary fluids with cold pore fluids discharging through cracks, and a low-temperature regime (<10°C) associated with a thermal boundary layer forming over bacterial mats associated with diffuse outflow of warm fluids. Temperature records from all the regimes exhibit variations at semi-diurnal tidal periods, and cross-spectral analyses reveal that high-temperature discharge correlates to tidal pressure while low-temperature discharge correlates to tidal currents. Intermediate-temperature discharge exhibits a transitional behavior correlating to both tidal pressure and currents. Episodic perturbations, with transient temperature drops of up to ~150°C, which occur in the high-temperature and intermediate-temperature records, are not observed on multiple probes (including nearby probes at the same site), and they are not correlated with microearthquake activity, indicating that the perturbation mechanism is highly localized at the measurement sites within the hydrothermal structures. The average temperature at a given site may increase or decrease at annual time scales, but the average temperature of the hydrothermal field, as a whole, appears to be stable over our 3 year observation period.

Barreyre, Thibaut; Escartín, Javier; Sohn, Robert A.; Cannat, Mathilde; Ballu, Valérie; Crawford, Wayne C.

2014-04-01

78

Perceived Arsenic-Related Mortality Risks for Smokers and Non-smokers [Revised Draft: December, 2010  

E-print Network

Perceived Arsenic-Related Mortality Risks for Smokers and Non-smokers [Revised Draft: December University of Nevada, Las Vegas Abstract: Prolonged ingestion of arsenic in drinking water can increase the risks of dying of lung and bladder cancer, particularly for smokers. In a survey of arsenic hotspots

Shaw, W. Douglass

79

Citromicrobium bathyomarinum, a Novel Aerobic Bacterium Isolated from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Plume Waters That Contains Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes  

PubMed Central

We have taxonomically and phylogenetically characterized a new aerobic bacterial strain (JF-1) that contains photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes and which was recently isolated from black smoker plume waters of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Strain JF-1 is a gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, motile bacterium that is salt-, pH-, and thermotolerant. These properties are consistent with an oligotrophic adaptation to varied environmental conditions thought to exist around deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The analysis of 16S rDNA sequences revealed that strain JF-1 forms a separate phylogenetic branch between the genus Erythromonas and the Erythromicrobium-Porphyrobacter-Erythrobacter cluster within the ? subclass of the Proteobacteria. The taxonomic name Citromicrobium bathyomarinum (gen. nov., sp. nov.) is proposed for strain JF-1. PMID:10419948

Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Krieger, Steven; Stackebrandt, Erko; Beatty, J. Thomas

1999-01-01

80

[Personality disorders in smokers: a review].  

PubMed

The association between psychopathology and nicotine dependence in smokers has been a relevant topic in recent years. Nevertheless, little is known about personality disorders in smokers. The aim of this article is to review research published nationally and internationally which analyzes the relation between tobacco use and personality disorders. Our review permits us to affirm that research on the presence of Axis II disorders in smokers is rather scarce. Of 12 studies analyzed, it can be concluded that the prevalence of personality disorders in smokers is highly variable (between 9% and 45%), and that, in the majority of the studies, smoking is associated first with the presence of cluster C disorders (dependent, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive), and second, with cluster B disorders (histrionic, narcissistic, borderline and antisocial). Finally, we note the various limitations of previous studies and stress the need to better understand these disorders, given their relevance to the treatment of smokers. PMID:20549151

Fernández del Río, Elena; Becoña Iglesias, Elisardo

2010-01-01

81

Structure of central airways in current smokers and ex-smokers with and without mucus hypersecretion: relationship to lung function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-five patients who underwent thoracotomy and lung resection for tumour were studied to compare the structure of the central airways in current smokers and ex-smokers. The patients were divided into four groups: current smokers with mucus hypersecretion (n = 15), current smokers without mucus hypersecretion (n = 14), ex-smokers with mucus hypersecretion (n = 5), and ex-smokers without mucus hypersecretion

J B Mullen; J L Wright; B R Wiggs; P D Paré; J C Hogg

1987-01-01

82

Methanococcus jannaschii sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic methanogen from a submarine hydrothermal vent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new extremely thermophilic methane-producing bacterium was isolated from a submarine hydrothermal vent sample collected by a research team from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution using the manned submersible ALVIN. The sample was obtained from the base of a “white smoker” chimney on the East Pacific Rise at 20° 50' N latitude and 109° 06' W longitude at a depth

W. J. Jones; J. A. Leigh; F. Mayer; C. R. Woese; R. S. Wolfe

1983-01-01

83

Hydrothermal Biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life in hot spring ecosystems is confronted with diverse challenges, and the responses to those challenges have dynamic biogeochemical consequences over narrow spatial and temporal scales. Within meters along hot spring outflow channels at Yellowstone, temperatures drop from boiling, and the near-boiling conditions of hot chemolithotrophic communities, to those that permit photosynthesis and on down to conditions where nematodes and insects graze on the edges of photosynthetic mats. Many major and trace element concentrations change only mildly in the water that flows through the entire ecosystem, while concentrations of other dissolved constituents (oxygen, sulfide, ammonia, total organic carbon) increase or decrease dramatically. Concentrations of metals and micronutrients range from toxic to inadequate for enzyme synthesis depending on the choice of hot spring. Precipitation of minerals may provide continuous growth of microbial niches, while dissolution and turbulent flow sweeps them away. Consequently, microbial communities change at the meter scale, and even more abruptly at the photosynthetic fringe. Isotopic compositions of carbon and nitrogen in microbial biomass reflect dramatic and continuous changes in metabolic strategies throughout the system. Chemical energy sources that support chemolithotrophic communities can persist at abundant or useless levels, or change dramatically owing to microbial activity. The rate of temporal change depends on the selection of hot spring systems for study. Some have changed little since our studies began in 1999. Others have shifted by two or more units in pH over several years, with corresponding changes in other chemical constituents. Some go through daily or seasonal desiccation cycles, and still others exhibit pulses of changing temperature (up to 40°C) within minutes. Taken together, hydrothermal ecosystems provide highly manageable opportunities for testing how biogeochemical processes respond to the scale of temporal, spatial, and compositional changes.

Shock, E.; Havig, J.; Windman, T.; Meyer-Dombard, D.; Michaud, A.; Hartnett, H.

2006-12-01

84

Subgingival microbiome in smokers and non-smokers in Korean chronic periodontitis patients.  

PubMed

Smoking is a major environmental factor associated with periodontal diseases. However, we still have a very limited understanding of the relationship between smoking and subgingival microflora in the global population. Here, we investigated the composition of subgingival bacterial communities from the pooled plaque samples of smokers and non-smokers, 134 samples in each group, in Korean patients with moderate chronic periodontitis using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. A total of 17,927 reads were analyzed and classified into 12 phyla, 126 genera, and 394 species. Differences in bacterial communities between smokers and non-smokers were examined at all phylogenetic levels. The genera Fusobacterium, Fretibacterium, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Corynebacterium, TM7, and Filifactor were abundant in smokers. On the other hand, Prevotella, Campylobacter, Aggregatibacter, Veillonellaceae GQ422718, Haemophilus, and Prevotellaceae were less abundant in smokers. Among species-level taxa occupying > 1% of whole subgingival microbiome of smokers, higher abundance (? 2.0-fold compared to non-smokers) of seven species or operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was found: Fusobacterium nucleatum, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria oralis, Corynebacterium matruchotii, Veillonella dispar, Filifactor alocis, and Fretibacterium AY349371. On the other hand, lower abundance of 11 species or OTUs was found in smokers: Neisseria elongata, six Prevotella species or OTUs, Fusobacterium canifelinum, Aggregatibacter AM420165, Selenomonas OTU, and Veillonellaceae GU470897. Species richness and evenness were similar between the groups whereas diversity was greater in smokers than non-smokers. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that differences exist in the subgingival bacterial community between smoker and non-smoker patients with chronic moderate periodontitis in Korea, suggesting that cigarette smoking considerably affects subgingival bacterial ecology. PMID:25283067

Moon, J-H; Lee, J-H; Lee, J-Y

2014-10-01

85

Differential expression of biomarkers in lung adenocarcinoma: a comparative study between smokers and never-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients and methods: Using immunohistochemical analysis, we retrospectively analyzed EGFR, pAKT, PTEN, Ki-67, p27 and hTERT expression in specimens from 190 patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinomas (43 never-smokers and 147 smokers). These analyses were performed on tissue microarrays. Results: EGFR expression was higher in tumors from smokers (P < 0.01), while pAKT was over- expressed mainly in tumors from

T. Dutu; S. Michiels; P. Fouret; F. Penault-Llorca; P. Validire; S. Benhamou; E. Taranchon; L. Morat; D. Grunenwald; T. Le Chevalier; L. Sabatier; J.-C. Soria

2005-01-01

86

[Negative evaluations and discrimination against smokers].  

PubMed

The present study examined the negative evaluations and discrimination against smokers among the Japanese. In Study 1, 52 students rated one of four target-persons differentially depicted in terms of gender and smoking habit using scales to measure coolness, sociability, intellectuality, and earnestness. The results showed that participants rated smokers more negatively than nonsmokers except for sociability. Those who perceived smoking as controllable rated smokers' earnestness even more negatively, suggesting that the negative evaluations are partially moderated by the perceived controllability of smoking. To examine a hypothesis that negative evaluations of smokers would mediate discrimination, in Study 2 we measured how participants (96 students) responded to target persons asking for a loan or a job, as well as their ratings of the targets on the Big Five personality dimensions. The results support the hypothesis of mediation. PMID:25016832

Yamamoto, Takehiro; Sato, Hiromi; Ohbuchi, Ken-Ichi

2014-06-01

87

Smoking Cessation Resources California Smokers' Helpline  

E-print Network

Smoking Cessation Resources California Smokers' Helpline www ­ 6197186666 Smoke Stoppers of San Diego ­ 3699 Park Boulevard, San Diego, CA 92103 ­ 6192968700 Nicotine Smoking (CHAMPSS) ­ www.champss.com Partnership for SmokeFree Families ­ www

Russell, Lynn

88

Telephone Counselling for Pregnant Smokers: Essential Elements  

E-print Network

smoking make helping pregnant smokers quit an important publicpublic service announcement about the importance of quitting smoking.smoking in pregnancy: Effects on pregnancy outcomes and cessation efforts. Annual Review of Public

Cummins, Sharon E; Tedeschi, Gary J; Anderson, Christopher M; Quinlan-Downs, Raechelle; Harris, Patricia; Zhu, Shu-Hong

2007-01-01

89

Systemic sensitivity to corticosteroids in smokers with asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smokers with asthma are insensitive to the therapeutic effects of corticosteroids. It is not known whether this insensitivity to corticosteroids in smokers affects tissue sites beyond the airways. A total of 75 asthmatic subjects (39 smokers) and 78 healthy controls (30 smokers) were recruited to an observational study. The cutaneous and peripheral blood lymphocyte responses to corticosteroids were measured.

E. Livingston; R. Chaudhuri; A. D. McMahon; I. Fraser; C. P. McSharry; N. C. Thomson

2007-01-01

90

Improving Anti-Smoking Education: Profiling the Ex-Smoker.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a profile of the ex-smoker in comparison to smokers and nonsmokers. Collected data from 5,393 youths in grades seven-12. Analysis of data by grade and sex clearly indicated that the ex-smoker group had a significantly different profile from the smoker or nonsmoker groups. (BH)

O'Rourke, Thomas; And Others

1985-01-01

91

Personal Fable: Optimistic Bias in Cigarette Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background: Several empirical studies have shown the attitude of smokers to formulate judgments based on distortion in the risk perception. This alteration is produced by the activation of the optimistic bias characterized by a set of the unrealistic beliefs compared to the outcomes of their behavior. This bias exposes individuals to adopt lifestyles potentially dangerous for their health, underestimate the risks and overestimate the immediate positive effects. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the relationship between optimistic bias and smoking habits. In particular, it was hypothesized that smokers develop optimistic illusions, able to facilitate the adoption and the maintenance over time of the unhealthy lifestyles, such as cigarette smoking, and the former smokers could acquire a belief system centered on own responsibility. Patients and Methods: The samples (n = 633, female = 345, male = 288) composed of smokers (35.7%), ex-smokers (32.2%) and nonsmokers (32.1%). Each participant filled out two questionnaires including The Fagerström test and the motivational questionnaire as well as a set of items measured on a Likert scales to evaluate health beliefs. Results: The results confirmed the presence of the optimistic bias in comparative judgments, and the attitude to overestimate the effectiveness of their preventive behaviors in the smokers. Conclusions: Cognitive bias in risk perception may influence health behaviors in negative way and reinforce cigarette smoking over the time. Future research should be conducted to identify the better strategies to overtake this cognitive bias to improve the quitting rate.

Masiero, Marianna; Lucchiari, Claudio; Pravettoni, Gabriella

2015-01-01

92

Implications of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project for improving understanding of hydrothermal processes at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is investigating producing geothermal energy from magma-hydrothermal systems at supercritical conditions. This requires drilling to depths of 4 to 5 km where temperatures should be in the range of 450-600°C or higher. Modeling studies suggest producing superheated steam from supercritical temperatures >450°C could increase power output tenfold relative to steam produced from a 300°C reservoir. The first IDDP well was drilled at Krafla within a volcanic caldera in the active rift zone of NE Iceland. At the end of June 2009, drilling was terminated at only 2100 m depth when a >900°C rhyolitic magma flowed into the drill hole. The well was completed with a casing cemented a few meters above the magma. Depending on the result of a planned flow test, there is the possibility of creating the world's hottest "Engineered Geothermal System" by injecting water in a nearby well to produce superheated steam from the magma. An advantage of such a strategy would be that the acidic gases likely to be given off by the magma could be neutralized by injecting suitably treated water. Two new wells, ˜4 km deep, are planned to be drilled during 2010-2012 at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields in SW Iceland to explore for supercritical zones. The Reykjanes geothermal system produces hydrothermally modified seawater. This presents an ideal situation to study a high-temperature magma-hydrothermal system at depth analogous to those responsible for the black smokers at submarine divergent plate margins.

Elders, Wilfred A.; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur Ómar

93

PGE distribution in massive sulfides from the PACMANUS hydrothermal field, eastern Manus basin, Papua New Guinea: implications for PGE enrichment in some ancient volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of platinum group elements (PGE) in Cu- and Zn-rich samples from the Roman Ruins and Satanic Mills vent sites in the PACMANUS hydrothermal field (Papua New Guinea) was studied and compared to that from selected ancient volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. Samples from the Satanic Mills site are enriched in Pd and Rh when compared to samples from Roman Ruins and reach highest values in active and inactive Cu-rich black smoker chimneys and chalcopyrite-cemented dacite breccias (up to 356 ppb Pd and up to 145 ppb Rh). A significant positive correlation was established between Cu and Pd and Rh in samples from both vent sites. Comparisons of chondrite normalized patterns and values of Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios in Cu-rich sulfides and probable source rocks (felsic volcanic rocks/MORB) along with the evidence for a magmatic component in the PACMANUS hydrothermal system indicate that leaching of back-arc volcanic rocks together with addition of magmatic volatiles to the convecting hydrothermal system was the most important factor for PGE enrichment at PACMANUS and likely at some PGE-enriched ancient VMS deposits.

Paå¡Ava, Jan; Vymazalová, Anna; Petersen, Sven; Herzig, Peter

2004-11-01

94

Stressful Life Events and Psychosomatic Symptoms among Students Smokers and Non-smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study is to analyze the rate of stressful life events and psychosomatic symptoms among students smokers and non-smokers and examine the predictive contribution of stress and smoking to subjective health status. Methods were conducted on a convenience sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of…

Dodaj, Arta; Simic, Natasa

2012-01-01

95

The Economic Cost of Smoking: Differences in Wages between Smokers and Non-smokers in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the economic losses related to the negative effect of smoking on wages in Russia. Data from the 2006 Living Standards Survey of Russia’s Tomsk region are used to jointly estimate a system of three equations: the smoking decision equation and two separate equations for wages of smokers and non-smokers. The results show that, after controlling for observed

Mikhail Lokshin; Zurab Sajaia

2007-01-01

96

Structural and functional properties of hemocyanin from Cyanagraea praedator, a deep-sea hydrothermal vent crab.  

PubMed

Cyanagraea praedator (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) is an endemic species of the East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vents, living in the upper part of black smoker chimneys. Because we were seeking species that have made respiratory adaptations to the hydrothermal environment, we looked at Cyanograea hemocyanin (Hc) and determined its quaternary structure and the oxygen-binding properties in relation to temperature, pH, and lactate. C. praedator Hc is composed of dodecamers and hexamers, with dodecamers formed by the perpendicular association of two hexamers. The composition of these polymers was determined by electrophoresis and, for the first time, by electrospray mass spectrometry. Dodecamers and hexamers are composed of six subunits common to the two forms, with molecular mass ranging from 75,008 Da to 75,534 Da. In addition, we found two dodecamer-specific subunits, at 75,419 Da and 75,629 Da. The native hemocyanin possesses a high oxygen affinity (P(50) varies between 4 and 10 Torr at pH 7.5, 15 degrees C) and a large Bohr coefficient (Delta log P(50)/DeltapH approximately -1.8). Oxygen affinity is not affected by lactate or, surprisingly, temperature between 5 degrees C and 35 degrees C (DeltaH = 1.16 kJ/mol(1) 5-35 degrees C). Dialysis of native hemolymph elicited a significant increase in Hc-O(2) affinity (DeltaP(50) = 2.5 Torr at pH 7.5), an effect opposite the usual trend observed for crustacean hemocyanins. In this article these functional properties are interpreted in relation to characteristics of the environment. PMID:11746683

Chausson, F; Bridges, C R; Sarradin, P M; Green, B N; Riso, R; Caprais, J C; Lallier, F H

2001-12-01

97

Comparative metagenomics of microbial communities inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys with contrasting chemistries  

PubMed Central

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys harbor a high diversity of largely unknown microorganisms. Although the phylogenetic diversity of these microorganisms has been described previously, the adaptation and metabolic potential of the microbial communities is only beginning to be revealed. A pyrosequencing approach was used to directly obtain sequences from a fosmid library constructed from a black smoker chimney 4143-1 in the Mothra hydrothermal vent field at the Juan de Fuca Ridge. A total of 308?034 reads with an average sequence length of 227?bp were generated. Comparative genomic analyses of metagenomes from a variety of environments by two-way clustering of samples and functional gene categories demonstrated that the 4143-1 metagenome clustered most closely with that from a carbonate chimney from Lost City. Both are highly enriched in genes for mismatch repair and homologous recombination, suggesting that the microbial communities have evolved extensive DNA repair systems to cope with the extreme conditions that have potential deleterious effects on the genomes. As previously reported for the Lost City microbiome, the metagenome of chimney 4143-1 exhibited a high proportion of transposases, implying that horizontal gene transfer may be a common occurrence in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In addition, genes for chemotaxis and flagellar assembly were highly enriched in the chimney metagenomes, reflecting the adaptation of the organisms to the highly dynamic conditions present within the chimney walls. Reconstruction of the metabolic pathways revealed that the microbial community in the wall of chimney 4143-1 was mainly fueled by sulfur oxidation, putatively coupled to nitrate reduction to perform inorganic carbon fixation through the Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle. On the basis of the genomic organization of the key genes of the carbon fixation and sulfur oxidation pathways contained in the large genomic fragments, both obligate and facultative autotrophs appear to be present and contribute to biomass production. PMID:20927138

Xie, Wei; Wang, Fengping; Guo, Lei; Chen, Zeling; Sievert, Stefan M; Meng, Jun; Huang, Guangrui; Li, Yuxin; Yan, Qingyu; Wu, Shan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Shangwu; He, Guangyuan; Xiao, Xiang; Xu, Anlong

2011-01-01

98

Comparative metagenomics of microbial communities inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys with contrasting chemistries.  

PubMed

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys harbor a high diversity of largely unknown microorganisms. Although the phylogenetic diversity of these microorganisms has been described previously, the adaptation and metabolic potential of the microbial communities is only beginning to be revealed. A pyrosequencing approach was used to directly obtain sequences from a fosmid library constructed from a black smoker chimney 4143-1 in the Mothra hydrothermal vent field at the Juan de Fuca Ridge. A total of 308,034 reads with an average sequence length of 227 bp were generated. Comparative genomic analyses of metagenomes from a variety of environments by two-way clustering of samples and functional gene categories demonstrated that the 4143-1 metagenome clustered most closely with that from a carbonate chimney from Lost City. Both are highly enriched in genes for mismatch repair and homologous recombination, suggesting that the microbial communities have evolved extensive DNA repair systems to cope with the extreme conditions that have potential deleterious effects on the genomes. As previously reported for the Lost City microbiome, the metagenome of chimney 4143-1 exhibited a high proportion of transposases, implying that horizontal gene transfer may be a common occurrence in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In addition, genes for chemotaxis and flagellar assembly were highly enriched in the chimney metagenomes, reflecting the adaptation of the organisms to the highly dynamic conditions present within the chimney walls. Reconstruction of the metabolic pathways revealed that the microbial community in the wall of chimney 4143-1 was mainly fueled by sulfur oxidation, putatively coupled to nitrate reduction to perform inorganic carbon fixation through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. On the basis of the genomic organization of the key genes of the carbon fixation and sulfur oxidation pathways contained in the large genomic fragments, both obligate and facultative autotrophs appear to be present and contribute to biomass production. PMID:20927138

Xie, Wei; Wang, Fengping; Guo, Lei; Chen, Zeling; Sievert, Stefan M; Meng, Jun; Huang, Guangrui; Li, Yuxin; Yan, Qingyu; Wu, Shan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Shangwu; He, Guangyuan; Xiao, Xiang; Xu, Anlong

2011-03-01

99

Life expectancies of cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research employs the National Health Interview and the National Mortality Followback Surveys to calculate life expectancies by age and sex for white nonsmokers,former smokers, and current smokers in the United States in 1986. In general, life expectancies are higher for never smokers than for former smokers, and higher for former smokers than for current smokers. Heavy smokers have lower

Richard G. Rogers; Eve Powell-Griner

1991-01-01

100

Life Gain in Italian Smokers Who Quit  

PubMed Central

This study aims to estimate the number of life years gained with quitting smoking in Italian smokers of both sexes, by number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day) and age at cessation. All-cause mortality tables by age, sex and smoking status were computed, based on Italian smoking data, and the survival curves of former and current smokers were compared. The more cig/day a man/woman smokes, and the younger his/her age of quitting smoking, the more years of life he/she gains with cessation. In fact, cessation at age 30, 40, 50, or 60 years gained, respectively, about 7, 7, 6, or 5, and 5, 5, 4, or 3 years of life, respectively, for men and women that smoked 10–19 cig/day. The gain in life years was higher for heavy smokers (9 years for >20 cig/day) and lower for light smokers (4 years for 1–9 cig/day). Consistently with prospective studies conducted worldwide, quitting smoking increases life expectancy regardless of age, gender and number of cig/day. The estimates of the number of years of life that could be gained by quitting smoking, when computed specifically for a single smoker, could be used by physicians and health professionals to promote a quit attempt. PMID:24577282

Carrozzi, Laura; Falcone, Franco; Carreras, Giulia; Pistelli, Francesco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Martini, Andrea; Viegi, Giovanni

2014-01-01

101

Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ways in which heat is useful in organic synthesis experiments are described, and experiments on the hydrothermal destruction and synthesis of organic compounds are discussed. It is pointed out that, if heat can overcome kinetic barriers to the formation of metastable states from reduced or oxidized starting materials, abiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions is a distinct possibility. However, carefully controlled experiments which replicate the descriptive variables of natural hydrothermal systems have not yet been conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis of hydrothermal organic systems.

Shock, Everett L.

1992-01-01

102

Insights into Spatial Sulfur Variation within the Modified Gill-Chamber of the Epibiont-Colonized Hydrothermal Vent Shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rimicaris exoculata dominates the megafaunal biomass at numerous Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents. Within the gill chamber of the shrimp exists a rich epibiotic community. These shrimp swarm around active black smoker chimneys at the Snake Pit vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and have been hypothesized to utilize the mixing zone between ambient seawater and hydrothermal fluid to supply these epibionts with a redox environment suitable for the promotion of chemoautotrophic growth. Investigation of the oxidation state, distribution, and concentration of sulfur of different compartments within the shrimp's gill chamber was conducted using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy. Principle component analysis of point XANES spectra yielded four reference components indentified as elemental sulfur, sulfate, monosulfide (likely iron sulfide), and an organosulfur thiol compound. Energy specific micro-XRF mapping of these reference components in both the modified mouthparts and inner lining of the carapace enclosing the gill chamber displayed spatial heterogeneity in sulfur oxidation state and coordination. Sulfate, organosulfur thiol compounds, and phosphate tended to correlate with chitin structural features, while elemental sulfur was concentrated in areas where epibionts were observed. DNA extraction and sequencing from epibiont populations within each of the modified mouthparts and carapace was conducted to provide insight into the community structure at each of these distinct areas of the gill chamber. Here we demonstrate the complexity of sulfur speciation and mineralization in association with the host epibiont community composition.

Rempfert, K. R.; Sievert, S. M.; Hansel, C. M.; Webb, S. M.; Thomas, F.

2013-12-01

103

Heart Rate Variability and Wavelet-based Studies on ECG Signals from Smokers and Non-smokers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study deals with the heart rate variability (HRV) and wavelet-based ECG signal analysis of smokers and non-smokers. The results of HRV indicated dominance towards the sympathetic nervous system activity in smokers. The heart rate was found to be higher in case of smokers as compared to non-smokers ( p < 0.05). The frequency domain analysis showed an increase in the LF and LF/HF components with a subsequent decrease in the HF component. The HRV features were analyzed for classification of the smokers from the non-smokers. The results indicated that when RMSSD, SD1 and RR-mean features were used concurrently a classification efficiency of > 90 % was achieved. The wavelet decomposition of the ECG signal was done using the Daubechies (db 6) wavelet family. No difference was observed between the smokers and non-smokers which apparently suggested that smoking does not affect the conduction pathway of heart.

Pal, K.; Goel, R.; Champaty, B.; Samantray, S.; Tibarewala, D. N.

2013-12-01

104

First hydrothermal active vent discovered on the Galapagos Microplate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galapagos Microplate (GM) lies on the western Gaplapagos Spreading Center (GSC), representing one of the classic Ridge-Ridge-Ridge (R-R-R) plate boundaries of the Nazca, Cocos, and Pacific plates. The presence of the 'black smoke' and hydrothermal vent community were firstly confirmed on the GSC. Lots of hydrothermal fields were discovered on the center and eastern GSC, while the western GSC has not been well investigated. During 17th Oct. to 9th Nov. 2009, the 3rd leg of Chinese DY115-21 cruise with R/V Dayangyihao has been launched along 2°N-5°S near equatorial East Pacific Rise (EPR). Two new hydrothermal fields were confirmed. One is named 'Precious Stone Mountain', which is the first hydrothermal field on the GM. The other is found at 101.47°W, 0.84°S EPR. The 'Precious Stone Mountain' hydrothermal field (at 101.49°W, 1.22°N) is located at an off-axial seamount on the southern GM boundary, with a depth from 1,450 to 1,700m. Hydrothermal fluids emitting from the fissures and hydrothermal fauna were captured by deep-tow video. Few mineral clasts of pyrite and chalcopyrite were separated from one sediment sample, but no sulfide chimney was found yet. Hydrothermal fauna such as alive mussels, crabs, shrimps, tubeworms, giant clams, as well as rock samples were collected by TV-Grab. The study of the seafloor classification with Simrad EM120 multi-beam echosounder has been conducted on the 'Precious Stone Mountain' hydrothermal field. The result indicates that seafloor materials around the hydrothermal field can be characterized into three types, such as the fresh lava, hydrothermal sediment, and altered rock.

Tao, C.; Li, H.; Wu, G.; Su, X.; Zhang, G.; Chinese DY115-21 Leg 3 Scientific Party

2011-12-01

105

Patterns in Global Hydrothermal  

E-print Network

) High-T vents High = hydrothermal discharge Low = active or inactive discharge sites B. Davy, GNS NZ #12Patterns in Global Hydrothermal Activity noaa ocean exploration Presenter: Edward T. Baker #12;First vents discovered in the S Atl. First hi-T vents discovered on ultra-slow ridge Eruption discovered

106

A Cohort Study of 1,205 Secondary School Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Important findings of the study indicate that regular cigarette smokers yield less to any smoking behavior changes than do the occasional smokers and well organized and executed anti smoking education programs should start as early as the eighth grade. (Author)

Laoye, Joseph A.; And Others

1972-01-01

107

Subgingival Microbial Profiles of Smokers with Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

The subgingival microbiome is largely uncultivated, and therefore, cultivation-based and targeted molecular approaches have limited value in examining the effect of smoking on this community. We tested the hypothesis that the subgingival biofilm is compositionally different in current and never-smokers by using an open-ended molecular approach for bacterial identification. Subgingival plaque from deep sites of current and never-smokers matched for disease was analyzed by 16S sequencing. Smokers demonstrated greater abundance of Parvimonas, Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Bacteroides, and Treponema and lower levels of Veillonella, Neisseria, and Streptococcus. Several uncultivated Peptostreptococci, Parvimonas micra, Campy-lobacter gracilis, Treponema socranskii, Dialister pneumosintes, and Tannerella forsythia were elevated in this group, while Veillonella sp. oral clone B2, Neisseria sp. oral clone 2.24, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Capnocytophaga sp. clone AH015 were at lower levels. The microbial profile of smoking-associated periodontitis is distinct from that of non-smokers, with significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of disease-associated and health-compatible organisms. PMID:20739702

Shchipkova, A.Y.; Nagaraja, H.N.; Kumar, P.S.

2010-01-01

108

Teens' images of smoking and smokers.  

PubMed Central

The authors used qualitative and quantitative data to identify and interpret specific images teens have about smoking and smokers. Qualitative data were collected in 1996 from 793 teenagers participating in 125 focus groups at eight different sites across the United States. Most focus groups were homogeneous with respect to gender, ethnicity, and smoking status. Ages ranged from 12 to 18 years, and about half of the participants were female. The majority of participants (62%) were white and African American, the remainder (38%) were Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian/Pacific Islander. Groups were comprised of smoking and nonsmoking teens. Focus group activities were used to elicit image-related discussions about attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of smoking. Investigators identified seven consistent and distinctive image themes: Appearance (smoking is dirty and unattractive), Activity (nonsmokers have busy, active lives), Drugs and sex (smokers are substance abusers and are sexually active), Rebellion (smokers belong to rebellious groups), Affect (smokers are depressed, angry, and stressed-out), In control (nonsmokers have self-control and are independent), and Pride (nonsmokers are proud of themselves, their families, and their heritage). A large scale, multi-site qualitative research approach can increase understanding of teen smoking. The identification of distinctive images of smoking can help researchers develop more sophisticated models of the processes of teen smoking than currently exist. PMID:11889285

Luke, D.; Allen, P.; Arian, G.; Crawford, M.; Headen, S.; Spigner, A. C.; Tassler, P.; Ureda, J.

2001-01-01

109

Variations in Lung Cancer Risk Among Smokers  

Cancer.gov

Variations in Lung Cancer Risk Among Smokers Peter B. Bach, Michael W. Kattan, Mark D. Thornquist, Mark G. Kris, Ramsey C. Tate, Matt J. Barnett, Lillian J. Hsieh, Colin B. Begg Institutions: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Fred

110

Altered antigenic profiling and infectivity of Porphyromonas gingivalis in smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette smokers are more susceptible to periodontal diseases and are more likely to be infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis than non-smokers. Furthermore, smoking is known to alter the expression of P. gingivalis surface components and to compromise IgG generation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether IgG response to P. gingivalis is suppressed in smokers in vivo and whether previously established in vitro tobacco-induced phenotypic P. gingivalis changes would be reflected in vivo. Methods We examined the humoral response to several P. gingivalis strains as well as specific tobacco-regulated outer membrane proteins (FimA and RagB) by ELISA in biochemically-validated (salivary cotinine) smokers and non-smokers with chronic (CP, n = 13) or aggressive (AP, n = 20) periodontitis. We also monitored the local and systemic presence of P. gingivalis DNA by PCR. Results Smoking was associated with decreased total IgG responses against clinical (10512, 5607, and 10208C; all p < 0.05) but not laboratory (ATCC 33277, W83) P. gingivalis strains. Smoking did not influence IgG produced against specific cell surface proteins, although a non-significant pattern towards increased total FimA-specific IgG in CP subjects, but not AP subjects, was observed. Seropositive smokers were more likely to be infected orally and systemically with P. gingivalis (p < 0.001), as determined by 16S RNA analysis. Conclusions Smoking alters the humoral response against P. gingivalis, strengthening the evidence that mechanisms of periodontal disease progression in smokers may differ from non-smokers with the same disease classification. PMID:23725027

Zeller, Iris; Hutcherson, Justin A.; Lamont, Richard J.; Demuth, Donald R.; Gumus, Pinar; Nizam, Nejat; Buduneli, Nurcan; Scott, David A.

2014-01-01

111

3-Hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene in the urine of smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The people studied were male volunteers without occupational and dietary exposure to PAH: 27 smokers (10 cigarettes or more) and 27 non-smokers matched for age and socio-professional category. For each person, all the 24h voided urine samples were reassembled in a single sample. 1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHPy) and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OHBaP) were then determined by automated column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography.Urinary 1-OHPy ranged from

M. Lafontaine; C. Champmartin; P. Simon; P. Delsaut; C. Funck-Brentano

2006-01-01

112

Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker’s saliva  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPH-Spectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers’ instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37°C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher’s protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker’s or nonsmoker’s saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group. PMID:20155506

Oguri, Makoto; O’Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M.; Marshall, Grayson W.

2010-01-01

113

Smoking topography in tobacco chippers and dependent smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most cigarette smokers exhibit signs of tobacco dependence, a subset of this population, referred to as tobacco chippers, does not show characteristic signs of dependence. Few studies have attempted to characterize differences between these groups of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to examine smoking topography in chippers (CH) and dependent smokers (DS). Topographical variables including puff

Saul Shiffman

1996-01-01

114

A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

Patten, Christi A.

2000-01-01

115

Vision in hydrothermal vent shrimp.  

PubMed Central

Bresiliid shrimp from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have non-imaging eyes adapted for photodetection in light environments of very low intensity. Comparison of retinal structures between both vent shrimp and surface-dwelling shrimp with imaging eyes, and between juvenile and adult vent shrimp, suggests that vent shrimp have evolved from ancestors that lived in a light environment with bright cyclic lighting. Whether the vent shrimp live in swarms and have large dorsal eyes or live in sparse groupings and have large anterior eyes, the basic retinal adaptations are the same across species. Retinal adaptations in adult vent shrimp include the loss of dioptrics, enlargement of both the rhabdomeral segment of the photoreceptors and the light-sensitive rhabdomere therein, attenuation of the arhabdomeral segment of the photoreceptors, reduction of black screening pigment, development of a white diffusing layer behind the photoreceptors, and the loss of rhabdom turnover. PMID:11079388

Chamberlain, S C

2000-01-01

116

Subseafloor Microbial Life in Venting Fluids from the Mid Cayman Rise Hydrothermal System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In hard rock seafloor environments, fluids emanating from hydrothermal vents are one of the best windows into the subseafloor and its resident microbial community. The functional consequences of an extensive population of microbes living in the subseafloor remains unknown, as does our understanding of how these organisms interact with one another and influence the biogeochemistry of the oceans. Here we report the abundance, activity, and diversity of microbes in venting fluids collected from two newly discovered deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the ultra-slow spreading Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR). Fluids for geochemical and microbial analysis were collected from the Von Damm and Piccard vent fields, which are located within 20 km of one another, yet have extremely different thermal, geological, and depth regimes. Geochemical data indicates that both fields are highly enriched in volatiles, in particular hydrogen and methane, important energy sources for and by-products of microbial metabolism. At both sites, total microbial cell counts in the fluids ranged in concentration from 5 x 10 4 to 3 x 10 5 cells ml-1 , with background seawater concentrations of 1-2 x 10 4 cells ml-1 . In addition, distinct cell morphologies and clusters of cells not visible in background seawater were seen, including large filaments and mineral particles colonized by microbial cells. These results indicate local enrichments of microbial communities in the venting fluids, distinct from background populations, and are consistent with previous enumerations of microbial cells in venting fluids. Stable isotope tracing experiments were used to detect utilization of acetate, formate, and dissolve inorganic carbon and generation of methane at 70 °C under anaerobic conditions. At Von Damm, a putatively ultra-mafic hosted site located at ~2200 m with a maximum temperature of 226 °C, stable isotope tracing experiments indicate methanogenesis is occurring in most fluid samples. No activity was detected in Piccard vent fluids, a basalt-hosted black smoker site located at ~4950 m with a maximum temperature of 403 °C. However, hyperthermophilic and thermophilic heterotrophs of the genus Thermococcus were isolated from Piccard vent fluids, but not Von Damm. These obligate anaerobes, growing optimally at 55-90 °C, are ubiquitous at hydrothermal systems and serve as a readily cultivable indicator organism of subseafloor populations. Finally, molecular analysis of vent fluids is on-going and will define the microbial population structure in this novel ecosystem and allow for direct comparisons with other deep-sea and subsurface habitats as part of our continuing efforts to explore the deep microbial biosphere on Earth.

Huber, J. A.; Reveillaud, J.; Reddington, E.; McDermott, J. M.; Sylva, S. P.; Breier, J. A.; German, C. R.; Seewald, J.

2012-12-01

117

32P-POSTLABELING ANALYSIS OF DNA ADDUCTS IN HUMAN SPERM CELLS FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

To determine the feasibility of using human sperm cells for DNA 32postlabeling analyses, and to evaluate the baseline level and the possible presence of smoking-related DNA adducts in these cells, sperm DNA was isolated from 12 heavy smokers, 12 light smokers and 12 non-smokers. ...

118

Distribution of Archaea in a Black Smoker Chimney Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Guinea, and subsamples were obtained from vertical and horizontal sections. The elemental composition of the chimney was analyzed in different subsamples by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, indicating that zinc and sulfur were major components while an increased amount of elemental oxygen in exterior materials represented the presence of oxidized materials on the outer surface of the

KEN TAKAI; TETSUSHI KOMATSU; FUMIO INAGAKI; KOKI HORIKOSHI

2001-01-01

119

Constraints On Fluid Evolution During Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Circulation From Anhydrite Sampled by ODP Hole 1256D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anhydrite is potentially a useful mineral for recording the evolution of seawater-derived fluids during mid- ocean ridge hydrothermal circulation because it exhibits retrograde solubility, and hence may precipitate due to the heating of seawater or the sub-surface mixing of seawater with black smoker-like fluids. Here we provide new insights into the chemical and thermal evolution of seawater during hydrothermal circulation through analyses of anhydrite recovered from ODP Hole 1256D, the first complete penetration of intact upper oceanic crust down to gabbros. Previously, crustal anhydrite has been recovered only from Hole 504B. Measurements of 87Sr/86Sr, major element ratios, Rare Earth Elements and ?18O in anhydrite constrain the changing composition of fluids as they chemically interact with basalt. Anhydrite fills veins and pore-space in the lower lava sequences from ~530 to ~1000 meters sub- basement (msb), but is concentrated in the lava-dike transition (754 to 811 msb) and uppermost sheeted dikes. Although present in greater quantities than in Hole 504B, the amount of anhydrite recovered from the Site 1256 crust is low compared to that predicted by models of hydrothermal circulation (e.g., Sleep, 1991). Two distinct populations of anhydrite are indicated by measurements of 87Sr/86Sr suggesting different fluid evolution paths within Site 1256. One group of anhydrites have 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7070 to 0.7085, close to that of 15 Ma seawater (0.70878), suggesting that some fluids penetrate through the lavas and into the sheeted dikes with only minimal Sr-exchange with the host basalts. A second group, with low 87Sr/86Sr between 0.7048 and 0.7052, indicates precipitation from a fluid that has undergone far greater interaction with basalt. This range is close to that estimated from Sr-isotopic analyses of epidote for the Hole 1256D hydrothermal fluids (87Sr/86Sr ~0.705). Sr/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr indicate a similar relationship to that seen at ODP Hole 504B suggesting that Sr/Ca ratios reduce greatly during recharge before there is significant Sr exchange with the host basalts. ?18O measurements display an irregular trend with depth from +17‰ in the lower volcanics to +10‰ in the sheeted dikes suggesting an increase in precipitation temperatures from 105 to 211°C. One sample, from a chalcopyrite mineralized dike margin has a very light ?18O of +2.2‰ suggesting a temperature of ~408°, perhaps indicating that fluid was superheated following direct contact with the hot intrusive body. This sample also records low 87Sr/86Sr and high total REE.

Smith-Duque, C.; Teagle, D. A.; Alt, J. C.; Cooper, M. J.

2008-12-01

120

Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions such as leukoplakia and hairy tongue. Controversy exists in the literature, however, about the prevalence of oral lesions in smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral lesions in male smokers compared with nonsmokers in Hamadan. A total of 516 male participants were assessed, 258 of whom were smokers and 258 of whom were healthy nonsmokers. The prevalence of lesions was evaluated by clinical observation and biopsy. We found that the most prevalent lesions among smokers were gingival problems and coated tongue; smokers had significantly more lesions than did nonsmokers. Malignant and premalignant lesions were found in a higher age range. Among all participants in our study, we found a large number of oral mucosal lesions in smokers that had a strong correlation with smoking. Dental services need to implement care and health education for smokers to promote health. PMID:24010068

Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Hayati, Zahra; Rezaei, Farzad

2013-01-01

121

‘We will speak as the smoker’: the tobacco industry’s smokers’ rights groups  

PubMed Central

Introduction The tobacco industry usually keeps its commercial and political communications separate. However, the images of the smoker developed by the two types of communication may contradict one another. This study assesses industry attempts to organize ‘smokers’ rights groups,’ (SRGs) and the image of the smoker that underlay these efforts. Methods Searches of the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, the British American Tobacco documents database, and Tobacco Documents Online. Results 1100 documents pertaining to SRGs were found, including groups from across Europe and in Australia, New Zealand, and Hong Kong. From the late 1970s through the late 1990s they were active in numerous policy arenas, particularly the defeat of smoke-free laws. Their strategies included asserting their right to smoke and positioning themselves as courteous victims of tobacco control advocates. However, most SRGs were short-lived and apparently failed to inspire smokers to join in any significant numbers. Conclusion SRGs conflated the legality of smoking with a right to smoke. SRGs succeeded by focusing debates about smoke-free policies on smokers rather than on smoke. However, SRGs’ inability to attract members highlights the conflict between the image of the smoker in cigarette ads and that of the smokers’ rights advocate. The changing social climate for smoking both compelled the industry’s creation of SRGs, and created the contradictions that led to their failure. As tobacco control becomes stronger, the industry may revive this strategy in other countries. Advocates should be prepared to counter SRGs by exposing their origins and exploiting these contradictions. PMID:17065174

Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

2009-01-01

122

Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrothermal method of synthesizing hydroxyapatite by heating a precipitate, formed by mixing Ca(NO3)2?4H2O and (NH4)2HPO4 with distilled water, in a hydrothermal reactor at 200 C for 24-72 hrs is described. A treatment time of 24 hrs produced single phase (as shown by XRD) hydroxyapatite powder, however for longer treatment times XRD patterns were indicative of the presence of a

J S Earl; D J Wood; S J Milne

2006-01-01

123

Genetics might determine which smokers get hooked  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have identified genetic risk factors that may accelerate a teen's progression to becoming a lifelong heavy smoker. The team of scientists from the U.S., the U.K., and New Zealand examined earlier studies by other research teams to develop a genetic risk profile for heavy smoking. Then they looked at their own long-term study of 1,000 New Zealanders from birth to age 38 to identify whether individuals at high genetic risk got hooked on cigarettes more quickly as teens and whether, as adults, they had a harder time quitting. Duke University researchers developed a new "genetic risk score" for the study by examining prior genome-wide associations (GWAS) of adult smokers. Duke is home to the Duke Cancer Institute.

124

Distribution of Particulates in Hydrothermal Plumes of the Endeavour Axial Valley: Preliminary Results from the Sea Breeze Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal vent plumes provide zones for chemical reactions between vent fluids and seawater, potential habitats for anaerobic bacteria and zooplankton, and a probable mechanism for the dispersal of vent larvae. Within the Endeavour Integrated Study Site are five known vent fields situated along the axial valley of the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (N.E. Pacific Ocean). Each of these fields has a particle rich neutrally buoyant plume above it almost constantly, a common characteristic of vent systems worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine 1) how plume particle distribution varies along the Endeavour segment axial valley; 2) whether a correlation exists between vent activity and particle density in the surrounding water, and 3) if the peak signals in backscatter and light transmission fall within a consistent range of potential density values along the axial valley. Light transmission and backscatter data were collected from vertically oscillating CTD casts at 21 stations along the axial valley covering the fields of Mothra, Main Endeavour, High Rise, Salty Dawg, and Sasquatch during the Sea Breeze - REVEL 2004 seagoing program. Plume particle density within ocean water was measured using a Wetlabs transmissometer and a Seapoint turbidity sensor. Preliminary results indicate a positive correlation between "black smoker" activity and signal strength in backscatter and light transmission. Main Endeavour and High Rise, known to exhibit the most rigorous hydrothermal activity, show correspondingly high amplitude signals in both backscatter and light transmission. Predicted diurnal currents seem to effect lateral plume particle movement away from vent sources, greatly impacting the particle density in surrounding areas. Peak signals in backscatter and light transmission occur in less dense water moving northward from Mothra to Salty Dawg.

Nassif, T. H.; McDuff, R. E.; Robigou, V.; Stahr, F.

2004-12-01

125

Hydrothermal synthesis map of bismuth titanates  

SciTech Connect

The hydrothermal synthesis of four bismuth titanate materials from common bismuth and titanium precursors under hydrothermal conditions is described. Reaction of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and anatase TiO{sub 2} in concentrated NaOH solution at 240 Degree-Sign C is shown to produce perovskite and sillenite phases Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20}, depending on the ratio of metal precursors used. When KOH solution is used and a 1:1 ratio of the same precursors, a pyrochlore Bi{sub 1.43}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 0.29}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.66} is formed. The use of a mixture of HNO{sub 3} and NaOH is shown to facilitate the formation of the Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}. The phases have been isolated separately as phase-pure powders and profile refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data allows comparisons with comparable materials reported in the literature. Analysis of Bi L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the materials shows the oxidation state of bismuth is +3 in all of the hydrothermally derived products. - Graphical abstract: Use of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} as reagents under hydrothermal conditions allows the phase-pure preparation of four crystalline bismuth titanate materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NaBiO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} under hydrothermal conditions allow formation of bismuth titanates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of four distint phases has been mapped. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi LIII-edge XANES shows Bi is reduced to oxidation state +3 in all materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new hydrated bismuth titanate pyrochlore has been isolated.

Sardar, Kripasindhu [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Walton, Richard I., E-mail: r.i.walton@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2012-05-15

126

Heavy smokers have higher bcl-2 mutation frequency and risk for lymphoma than non-smokers  

SciTech Connect

Early detection of cells carrying somatic mutations at oncogenic loci could prove useful for identifying individuals at high risk for cancer and permit intervention prior to the onset of clinically recognizable disease. We have determined the frequency of rare t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocations at the bcl-2 proto-oncogene locus in the peripheral blood of 85 smokers and 35 nonsmokers using a sensitive nested PCR assay. The identical translocation occurs in 85% of follicular lymphoma tumors, and about 50% of all non-Hodgkin`s Lymphoma. Smokers with the highest exposure had a 3.6-fold higher mutation frequency relative to the nonsmokers. Logistic regression analysis showed that of the variables tested (age, race, sex, current smoking, years of smoking, and pack-years), the cumulative smoking measure (pack-years) was the best predictor of t(14;18) frequency (p=0.004). These observations are consistent with two recent epidemiological studies showing 2.3-fold and 3.8-fold increased risk for Non-Hodgkins lymphoma among heavy smokers. The results support the hypothesis that smokers have an increased burden of lymphocytes bearing bcl-2 mutations which raises their individual risk for future lymphoid tumors. We speculate that the increased frequency of oncogenic translocations in smokers may result either from the mutagenic or antigenic activity of cigarette smoke.

Liu, Y.; Cortopassi, G.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Bell, D.A.

1994-09-01

127

Probing the characteristics of metal- and sulfide-binding proteins in hydrothermal vent polychaetes using HPLC/IES-MS  

SciTech Connect

Alvinellids polychaetes colonizing the surfaces of black smokers from Eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents occupy extreme environments with high levels of heavy metals and sulfide. Investigations of mechanisms that enable them to tolerate these extreme conditions indicate sulfide-binding capacity in the blood serum of Paralvinella palmiformis and accumulation of heavy metals in their tissues. A need to characterize metal-binding proteins lead the authors to improve purification and separation of metallothioneins (MTs) by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on-line with electrospray mass spectrometry (ES/MS). A first separation step of small proteins from crude homogenates of worm tissues is performed on a size exclusion column following by accurate molecular weight identification with on-line LC-MS. This powerful technique has refined separation of isoform MT standards and weight characterization, and has provided an analytical tool to analyze metal-binding proteins from vent polychaetes. The authors are also applying this technique to separation of sulfide-binding proteins in blood serum and to identify ligands involved in sulfide detoxication and transport.

Martineu, P.; Juniper, S.K. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Ikonomou, M.G.; Thompson, J. [Inst. of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia (Canada). Ocean Chemistry Div.

1995-12-31

128

Prevalence of NRT Use and Associated Nicotine Intake in Smokers, Recent Ex-Smokers and Longer-Term Ex-Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is used by smokers wanting to reduce their smoking and to quit. However, there are very little data on nicotine intake associated with NRT use in representative population samples. This study aimed to provide estimates for NRT use and associated nicotine exposure among smokers, recent and longer-term ex-smokers in England, a country with a permissive regulatory regime for nicotine substitution. Methods In the Smoking Toolkit Study, a monthly series of representative household surveys of adults aged 16+ in England, current and recent ex-smokers who agreed to be re-contacted were followed up 6 months later and standard socio-demographic and smoking characteristics assessed (N?=?5,467, response rate 25.1%). A random sub-sample (N?=?1,614; 29.5%) also provided saliva, analysed for cotinine. Results The sample followed up was broadly representative of the original sample. At follow-up, 11.8% (95%CI 10.9–12.8, N?=?565) of current smokers, 34.8% (95%CI 28.9–41.3, N?=?77) of recent (?3 months) ex-smokers, and 7.8% (95%CI 5.6–10.6, N?=?36) of longer-term (>3 months) ex-smokers reported using NRT. Smokers who used NRT had similar saliva cotinine concentrations to smokers who did not use NRT (mean ± sd ?=?356.0±198.6 ng/ml vs. 313.1±178.4 ng/ml). Recent ex-smokers who used NRT had levels that were somewhat lower, but not significantly so, than current smokers (216.7±179.3 ng/ml). Longer-term ex-smokers using NRT had still lower levels (157.3±227.1 ng/ml), which differed significantly from smokers using NRT (p?=?0.024). Conclusions Concurrent use of nicotine replacement therapy while smoking is relatively uncommon and is not associated with higher levels of nicotine intake. Among ex-smokers, NRT use is common in the short but not longer-term and among longer-term users is associated with lower nicotine intake than in smokers. PMID:25405343

Shahab, Lion; Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert

2014-01-01

129

Could a scheme for licensing smokers work in Australia?  

PubMed

In this article, we evaluate the possible advantages and disadvantages of a licensing scheme that would require adult smokers to verify their right to purchase tobacco products at point of sale using a smart-card licence. A survey of Australian secondary school students conducted in 2011 found that half of 17-2013-old smokers and one-fifth of 12-2013-old smokers believed it was "easy" or "very easy" to purchase cigarettes themselves. Reducing tobacco use by adolescents now is central to the future course of the current epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, since most current adult smokers began to smoke as adolescents--at a time when they were unable to purchase tobacco lawfully. The requirement for cigarette retailers to reconcile all stock purchased from wholesalers against a digital record of retail sales to licensed smokers would create a robust incentive for retailers to comply with laws that prohibit tobacco sales to children. Foreseeable objections to introducing a smokers licence need to be taken into account, but once we move beyond the "shock of the new", it is difficult to identify anything about a smokers licence that is particularly offensive or demeaning. A smoker licensing scheme deserves serious consideration for its potential to dramatically curtail retailers' violation of the law against selling tobacco to minors, to impose stricter accountability for sale of a uniquely harmful drug and to allow intelligent use of information about smokers' purchases to help smokers quit. PMID:23909540

Magnusson, Roger S; Currow, David C

2013-08-01

130

Dispatch from the Deep: Hydrothermal Vent Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses how hydrothermal vents are formed and why scientists monitor minute temperature changes around them. It details the writer's personal account of preparing temperature probes to be deployed for a year-long study, an explanation of deep sea vents and their hydrothermal nature, and why they seem to spew black smoke. The thermometers prepared by the writer help monitor the currents that pull the hot chimney water into the cold ocean to measure how fast it is cooled off and mixed. This information is used in the study of life at the vents and also to monitor changes in the effluent and to examine, over time, the chemistry of the mineral-rich waters that emerge from these vents.

131

Association of serotonin transporter genotype with selective processing of smoking-related stimuli in current smokers and ex-smokers.  

PubMed

We sought to determine whether polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (5HTT) gene is associated with attentional bias toward smoking-related stimuli in current smokers and ex-smokers, using a modified Stroop task and an attentional blink task to measure selective processing of smoking-related stimuli. All participants attended a single testing session during which they completed the modified Stroop and attentional blink tasks to index attentional bias for smoking-related stimuli, in counterbalanced order. The experimental design included two between-subjects factors of smoking status (current smoker, ex-smoker) and 5HTT genotype (short, long). Smoking status x genotype interactions were significant on both the modified Stroop (p = .046) and the attentional blink (p = .006) tasks. On the modified Stroop task, we found a significant effect of 5HTT genotype on color-naming interference among ex-smokers (p = .018) but not current smokers (p = .989). On the attentional blink task, we found a significant effect of 5HTT genotype for current smokers (p = .028), whereas among ex-smokers this effect did not reach statistical significance, although it constituted a trend (p = .086). Our data provide tentative support for a moderating influence of 5HTT genotype on attentional bias for smoking-related stimuli in ex-smokers. This finding may account for inconsistent reports of attentional bias among ex-smokers. PMID:16191748

Munafò, Marcus R; Johnstone, Elaine C; Mackintosh, Bundy

2005-10-01

132

Submarine hydrothermal fossils confirmed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers from Princeton University (D. Crerrar et al, Econ. Geol., May 1982) have documented, in considerable detail, evidence for the formation of some of the 800 or more manganiferous chert deposits occurring in the central belt of the Fransiscan formation in northwestern California. They confirm the surprisingly old conclusion o f Tiaferro and Hudson (Cal. Div. Mines Bull., 125, 217-276, 1943) that the Fransiscan chert deposits probably represent the fossil remains of submarine hydrothermal vents.The deposits resemble recently discovered hydrothermal mounds near the Galapagos rift, the Gulf of Aden, and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. As the Princeton investigators point out, there are important implications of the existence of deep hydrothermal circulation systems at oceanic spreading centers throughout geologic time. They note that the calculated annual flow of hydrothermal fluids in such processes is about 1017 g, which implies that the entire volume of the oceans could circulate completely every 10 million years. With such circulation, the hydrothermal processes along midocean ridges could control the composition of seawater and strongly influence the geochemical flux of elements in the marine environment.

Bell, Peter M.

133

Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

Freeman, Allison

134

COMBUSTION OF HYDROTHERMALLY TREATED COALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of: (1) the relationship of the combustion characteristics of hydrothermally treated (HTT) coals to environmental emissions, boiler design, and interchangeability of solid fuels produced by the Hydrothermal Coal Process (HCP) with raw coa...

135

Cigarette Litter: Smokers’ Attitudes and Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly. PMID:22829798

Rath, Jessica M.; Rubenstein, Rebecca A.; Curry, Laurel E.; Shank, Sarah E.; Cartwright, Julia C.

2012-01-01

136

Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.  

PubMed

Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly. PMID:22829798

Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

2012-06-01

137

Light and intermittent cigarette smokers: a review (1989–2009)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Growing proportions of smokers in the USA do not smoke everyday and can be referred to as light and intermittent smokers (LITS).\\u000a Despite a current prevalence of LITS in the USA estimated at 25–33% of all smokers, a systematic review of the literature\\u000a on this group of smokers has yet to be written.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The aim of this paper is to

Chris R. E. Coggins; E. Lenn Murrelle; Richard A. Carchman; Christian Heidbreder

2009-01-01

138

Hydrothermal synthesis of lutetium disilicate nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

A simple, low-cost hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize irregular-and rod-shaped lutetium disilicate (Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}) powders with sizes ranging from 71 to 340 nm. The synthesis temperature was 260 Degree-Sign C, which is nearly 1300 Degree-Sign C lower than that required for the solid-state reaction. The results indicated that both the hydrothermal temperature and pH values had great influences on the composition, crystalline phase and morphology of the powders. The formation mechanism, basic thermophysical properties, stability and anticorrosion properties of the Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders were also investigated. The obtained powders possessed low thermal conductivity, a suitable thermal expansion coefficient (3.92-5.17 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} K{sup -1}) with the silicon-based substrate and excellent thermal and structural stability. During hot corrosion testing, the surfaces of the samples appeared to react with the water and molten salt vapors, but no serious failure occurred. - Graphical abstract: An image for the as-prepared Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders (left) and XRD pattern (right) (inset shows the SEM graph of powders). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders via a hydrothermal process at 260 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline phase and morphology of the powders changed with experimental parameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hot corrosion was determined in an airflow environment containing alkaline vapor.

Tang Xiaoping [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (SIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 1295 Dingxi, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquanlu, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao Yanfeng, E-mail: yfgao@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (SIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 1295 Dingxi, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China); Chen Hongfei [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (SIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 1295 Dingxi, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquanlu, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo Hongjie [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (SIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 1295 Dingxi, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China)

2012-04-15

139

Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

140

Serum Antibody Levels in Smoker and NonSmoker Saudi Subjects With Chronic Periodontitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cigarette smoking is a significant risk factor for the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Stud- ies have shown altered serum and gingival crevicular fluid inflammatory cytokine profiles, immune cell function, and al- tered proteolytic regulation in smokers. The observations are not consistent, and to date, there is no clear mechanism to ex- plain how smoking may affect periodontal

Hamdan S. Al-Ghamdi; Sukumaran Anil

2007-01-01

141

Bronchial reactivity to inhaled histamine and annual rate of decline in FEV1 in male smokers and ex-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relations between bronchial reactivity, baseline FEV1, and annual decline of height corrected FEV1 (delta FEV1\\/ht3) over 7.5 years in 227 men (117 smokers, 71 ex-smokers, and 39 non-smokers). Men with a clinical diagnosis of asthma or receiving bronchodilator treatment were excluded. Bronchial reactivity was determined as the provocation concentration (PC20) of inhaled histamine sufficient to reduce FEV1

R G Taylor; H Joyce; E Gross; F Holland; N B Pride

1985-01-01

142

Tide-related variability of TAG hydrothermal activity observed by deep-sea monitoring system and OBSH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal activities were monitored by an ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone (OBSH) and a composite measuring system (Manatee) including CTD, current meter, transmission meter and cameras at a small depression on the TAG hydrothermal mound in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Low-frequency pressure pulses detected by the hydrophone with semi-diurnal periodicity seem to correspond to cycles of hydrothermal upflow from a small and short-lived smoker vent close to the observing site. The peaks of pressure pulses are synchronous with the maximum gradient of areal strain decrease due to tidal load release. Microearthquakes with very near epicenters occur sporadically and do not appear to be directly correlatable to hydrothermal venting. Temporal variations in bottom water temperature also have semi-diurnal periodicity but are more complicated than the pressure events. Temperatures may be affected both by upwelling of hot water and by lateral flow of the bottom current changing its directions with ocean tide.

Fujioka, Kantaro; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kato, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Misumi; Mitsuzawa, Kyohiko; Kinoshita, Masataka; Nishizawa, Azusa

1997-12-01

143

Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking: a study of smokers and former smokers*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. METHODS: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. RESULTS: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking. PMID:24068268

Afonso, Maria Fernanda Besteiro; Alves, Maria Graça Pereira

2013-01-01

144

Telomerase mutations in smokers with severe emphysema.  

PubMed

Mutations in the essential telomerase genes TERT and TR cause familial pulmonary fibrosis; however, in telomerase-null mice, short telomeres predispose to emphysema after chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Here, we tested whether telomerase mutations are a risk factor for human emphysema by examining their frequency in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Across two independent cohorts, we found 3 of 292 severe COPD cases carried deleterious mutations in TERT (1%). This prevalence is comparable to the frequency of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency documented in this population. The TERT mutations compromised telomerase catalytic activity, and mutation carriers had short telomeres. Telomerase mutation carriers with emphysema were predominantly female and had an increased incidence of pneumothorax. In families, emphysema showed an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, along with pulmonary fibrosis and other telomere syndrome features, but manifested only in smokers. Our findings identify germline mutations in telomerase as a Mendelian risk factor for COPD susceptibility that clusters in autosomal dominant families with telomere-mediated disease including pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25562321

Stanley, Susan E; Chen, Julian J L; Podlevsky, Joshua D; Alder, Jonathan K; Hansel, Nadia N; Mathias, Rasika A; Qi, Xiaodong; Rafaels, Nicholas M; Wise, Robert A; Silverman, Edwin K; Barnes, Kathleen C; Armanios, Mary

2015-02-01

145

Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.  

PubMed

Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. PMID:24387877

Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

2014-06-01

146

Cue Reactivity in Smokers: An Event-Related Potential Study  

PubMed Central

Drugs-of-abuse may increase the salience of drug cues by sensitizing the dopaminergic (DA) system (Robinson & Berridge, 1993), leading to differential attention to smoking stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to assess attention to smoking cues but not using an ERP component associated with DA-mediated salience evaluation. In this study the DA-related P2a and the P3, were compared in smokers (N=21) and non-smokers (N=21) during an attention selection cue exposure task including both cigarette and neutral images. We predicted that both the P2a and P3 would be larger to targets than non-targets, but larger to non-target cigarette images than non-target neutral images only in the smokers, reflecting smokers’ evaluation of smoking stimuli as relevant even when they were not targets. Results indicated that smokers showed behavioral cue reactivity, with more false alarms to cigarette images (responding to cigarette images when they were not targets) than non-smokers; however, both smokers and non-smokers had a larger P2a and P3 to cigarette images. Thus, while smokers showed behavioral evidence of differential salience evaluation of the cigarette images, this group difference was not reflected in differential brain activity. These findings may reflect characteristics of the ERPs (both ERP components were smaller in the smokers), the smoking sample (they were not more impulsive, i.e. reward sensitive, than the non-smokers, in contrast to prior studies) and the design (all participants were aware that the aim of the study was related to smoking). PMID:23958866

Bloom, Erika Litvin; Potts, Geoffrey F.; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

2013-01-01

147

Hydrothermal carbonization of microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal carbonization is a process in which biomass is heated in water under pressure to create a char product. With higher plants, the chemistry of the process derives primarily from lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose components. In contrast, green and blue-green microalgae are not lignocellulosic in composition, and the chemistry is entirely different, involving proteins, lipids and carbohydrates (generally not cellulose).

Steven M. Heilmann; H. Ted Davis; Lindsey R. Jader; Paul A. Lefebvre; Michael J. Sadowsky; Frederick J. Schendel; Marc G. von Keitz; Kenneth J. Valentas

2010-01-01

148

Bacteria at Hydrothermal Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information on thermophiles living in deep-sea vents, including their importance in biotechnology and extraterrestrial life research. The site also contains images of thermophiles at varying scales and a link to the "Hot Topics" main page including numerous links to further information on hydrothermal vents and research conducted in deep-sea environments.

Expeditions to the Sea Floor Dive and Discover

149

Hydrothermal Reactivity of Amines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reactivity of aqueous amines depends on temperature, pH, and redox state [1], all of which are highly variable in hydrothermal systems. Temperature and pH affect the ratio of protonated to unprotonated amines (R-NH2 + H+ = R-NH3+), which act as nucleophiles and electrophiles, respectively. We hypothesize that this dual nature can explain the pH dependence of reaction rates, and predict that rates will approach a maximum at pH = pKa where the ratio of protonated and unprotonated amines approaches one and the two compounds are poised to react with one another. Higher temperatures in hydrothermal systems allow for more rapid reaction rates, readily reversible reactions, and unique carbon-nitrogen chemistry in which water acts as a reagent in addition to being the solvent. In this study, aqueous benzylamine was used as a model compound to explore the reaction mechanisms, kinetics, and equilibria of amines under hydrothermal conditions. Experiments were carried out in anoxic silica glass tubes at 250°C (Psat) using phosphate-buffered solutions to observe changes in reaction rates and product distributions as a function of pH. The rate of decomposition of benzylamine was much faster at pH 4 than at pH 9, consistent with the prediction that benzylamine acts as both nucleophile and an electrophile, and our estimate that the pKa of benzylamine is ~5 at 250°C and Psat. Accordingly, dibenzylamine is the primary product of the reaction of two benzylamine molecules, and this reaction is readily reversible under hydrothermal conditions. Extremely acidic or basic pH can be used to suppress dibenzylamine production, which also suppresses the formation of all other major products, including toluene, benzyl alcohol, dibenzylimine, and tribenzylamine. This suggests that dibenzylamine is the lone primary product that then itself reacts as a precursor to produce the above compounds. Analog experiments performed with ring-substituted benzylamine derivatives and chiral methylbenzylamine suggest an SN2 mechanism for the formation of dibenzylamine. These results show the interdependence of pH and speciation with amine reaction rates. We predict the distribution of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary amines in hydrothermal solutions can be used to solve for the pH of subsurface reaction zones in hydrothermal systems. [1] McCollom, T.M. (2013) The influence of minerals on decomposition of the n-alkyl-?-amino acid norvaline under hydrothermal conditions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 104, 330-357.

Robinson, K.; Shock, E.; Hartnett, H. E.; Williams, L. B.; Gould, I.

2013-12-01

150

Smoking and intention to quit among a large sample of black sexual and gender minorities.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to more completely quantify smoking and intention to quit from a sample of sexual and gender minority (SGM) Black individuals (N = 639) through analysis of data collected at Pride festivals and online. Frequencies described demographic characteristics; chi-square analyses were used to compare tobacco-related variables. Black SGM smokers were more likely to be trying to quit smoking than White SGM smokers. However, Black SGM individuals were less likely than White SGM individuals to become former smokers. The results of this study indicate that smoking behaviors may be heavily influenced by race after accounting for SGM status. PMID:25470333

Jordan, Jenna N; Everett, Kevin D; Ge, Bin; McElroy, Jane A

2015-05-01

151

Temperature, pressure, and composition of hydrothermal fluids, with their bearing on the magnitude of tectonic uplift at mid-ocean ridges, inferred from fluid inclusions in oceanic layer 3 rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz-bearing veins in metagabbroic rocks dredged from the Mathematician Ridge, east Pacific, contain abundant fluid inclusions. Heating and freezing data on nearly 400 inclusions from seven samples allow determination of the temperatures, pressures, and fluid compositions in the subseafloor hydrothermal system at the time of quartz growth. Coexisting dense halite-saturated inclusions and low-density, low-salinity vapor-rich inclusions (average 45 and 2 wt % NaCl equivalent, respectively) attest to an episode of phase separation in some samples. The phase separation occurred at temperatures of about 600°-700°C and pressures of 60-100 MPa (600-1000 bars). The fact that samples that formed at 60-100 MPa are now exposed on the seafloor, where ambient hydrostatic pressure is only 30-35 MPa, suggests that the samples have been tectonically uplifted of the order of 3 km. The fluids could originally have been part of a deep axial hydrothermal circulation cell, or alternatively, they could have been formed in a deep convection cell underlying the off-axis edges of a magma chamber. Fluids are NaCl-CaCl2 brines with molar Na: Ca of 4-8. This range of molar Na: Ca is very close to that of the inferred hydrothermal end-member from various active black smokers, to the measured ratios from basalt-seawater interaction experiments, and to the ratio calculated during numerical basalt-seawater interaction calculations. Crushing experiments indicate little or no compressible gas within the fluids. Fluid inclusions in albite suggest trapping temperatures of around 410°-500°C. Those in epidote may have been trapped at around 500°C and 110 MPa (1.1 kbar) pressure, or around 3 km beneath the Mathematician Ridge seafloor.

Vanko, David A.

1988-05-01

152

Educating Smokers about Their Cigarettes and Nicotine Medications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers' Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group…

Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Brown, Anthony; Celestino, Paula

2010-01-01

153

Somatotype, physical growth, and sexual maturation in young male smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

One thousand school boys aged 8 to 16 were examined for their somatotype, physical growth, sexual maturation, and smoking habits. Fifty-two boys were found to be smokers, of whom 30 were regularly smoking between two and 20 bidis or cigarettes a day for a mean duration of 2.5 years. The mean height and weight of the smokers was significantly lower

K B Lall; S Singhi; M Gurnani; P Singhi; O P Garg

1980-01-01

154

Quitting Smoking Smokers Helpline: 1-800-QUIT-NOW  

E-print Network

Quitting Smoking Smokers Helpline: 1-800-QUIT-NOW This national smokers helpline directs callers, and staying smoke free after quitting. 4. Screening for medication: You will be screened and may be eligible of the Massachusetts state health insurance plans offer coverage for quit-smoking medication and counseling. Private

Liu, Xiaole Shirley

155

Smoking Cessation: Social Comparison Level Predicts Success for Adult Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The affiliation preferences of 151 adult heavy smokers who joined smoking cessation groups were assessed at the 1st group session and were then used to predict their smoking status 6 and 12 months later. Those who preferred to be in groups with other smokers who were having relatively little trouble quitting were more likely to be successful than were those

Meg Gerrard; Frederick X. Gibbons; Michelle L. Stock

2005-01-01

156

Internet and Mobile Phone Text Messaging Intervention for College Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors developed a smoking cessation program using mobile phone text messaging to provide tailored and stage-specific messages to college smokers. Participants and Methods: The authors recruited 31 daily smokers who desired to quit from a college campus and asked them to use an Internet and mobile phone text messaging program to…

Riley, William; Obermayer, Jami; Jean-Mary, Jersino

2008-01-01

157

Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…

Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

2013-01-01

158

Dietary Patterns Affect Lung Cancer Risk in Never Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies suggest a role of dietary factors as risk predictors of lung cancer in never smokers. However, it is difficult to interpret the observed associations of lung cancer risk with any particular dietary item due to high correlation among different dietary items. In this study, we derived uncorrelated patterns of dietary items in the never smokers and

Olga Y. Gorlova; Shih-Feng Weng; Ladia Hernandez; Margaret R. Spitz; Michele R. Forman

2011-01-01

159

Identification of Early Interstitial Lung Disease in Smokers from the  

E-print Network

: Early interstitial lung disease; CT scan; smoker. ªAUR, 2010 I diopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF most patients have advanced pulmonary fibrosis that does not respond to therapeutic intervention. Some for the identification of early ILD in a population of smokers (both with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary

160

Tobacco Denormalization and Industry Beliefs Among Smokers from Four Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tobacco denormalization is an important concept for understanding smoking behavior. The present study sought to assess beliefs about the tobacco industry and the social acceptability of smoking among nationally representative samples of adult smokers from four countries, and to assess the relationship of these measures to cessation behavior and tobacco-control policy. Design: A longitudinal survey of 9058 adult smokers

David Hammond; Geoffrey T. Fong; Mark P. Zanna; James F. Thrasher; Ron Borland

2006-01-01

161

["How does smoker really smoke?"--preliminary report on smoking topography among Polish smokers].  

PubMed

Levels of toxic substances in tobacco smoke are undeniably influenced by temperature-oxygen conditions in which the smoke is generated. These conditions depend on the way the cigarette is smoked (smoking topography). Smoking topography may be characterized by such factors as: puff volume and its velocity, intervals between puffs and a number of puffs per cigarette. Vast majority of formerly published papers on tobacco smoke composition present data obtained in accordance with ISO (International Standard Organization) and FTC (Federal Trade Commission) standards concerning conditions of tobacco smoke production. Currently, the standard methods for tobacco smoke generation in lab conditions are frequently questioned by researchers, since such methods do not give reliable results as far as toxic substances delivery to smokers' bodies is concerned. To determine the real doses a tobacco smoker is exposed to, first of all smoking topography should be measured in a given population. The aim of this study was to characterize smoking topography among Poles and its statistical assessment. 129 volunteers were involved in the research. To assure representativeness of the group of smokers, in the first step of the study a demographic structure analysis of smokers' population in Poland was carried out (the authors used data provided by GUS (Central Statistical Office). Smokers were divided into study groups in terms of their sex and age and also detailed information on tobacco addiction (number of cigarettes smoked, its brand and type etc.). Smoking topography was measured using a portable CreSSmicro device (Plowshare Technologies, USA). Mean puff volume in the examined group was 60 ml and was 78% higher than the puff volume used for tobacco smoke control according to the ISO method (35 ml). Mean measured puff velocity (48 ml/ sec.) was as much as 120% higher comparing to ISO (17.5 ml/sec.). Mean duration time of puff in the examined group was 1.7 sec. (2 sec. in the ISO standard method) so the difference was not very significant but still 13.2%. However, mean interval between puffs in our group was 20 sec.--threefold lower than in the ISO method (60 sec.). Moreover, examining the variability of subsequent puffs, the authors found out that the puff volume lowers as the cigarette is smoked. All measured smoking topography parameters were highly dispersed within the examined population of smokers. PMID:19189573

Czoga?a, Jan; Goniewicz, Maciej ?ukasz; Czubek, Agnieszka; Koszowski, Bartosz; Sobczak, Andrzej

2008-01-01

162

Lung cancer in never smokers Epidemiology and risk prediction models  

PubMed Central

In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model. PMID:22882894

McCarthy, William J.; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh

2012-01-01

163

Marriage to a smoker and lung cancer risk.  

PubMed Central

As part of a population-based case-control study of lung cancer in New Mexico, we have collected data on spouses' tobacco smoking habits and on-the-job exposure to asbestos. The present analyses include 609 cases and 781 controls with known passive and personal smoking status, of whom 28 were lifelong nonsmokers with lung cancer. While no effect of spouse cigarette smoking was found among current or former smokers, never smokers married to smokers had about a two-fold increased risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer risk in never smokers also increased with duration of exposure to a smoking spouse, but not with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day by the spouse. Our findings are consistent with previous reports of elevated risk for lung cancer among never smokers living with a spouse who smokes cigarettes. PMID:3565655

Humble, C G; Samet, J M; Pathak, D R

1987-01-01

164

Compounds enhanced in a mass spectrometric profile of smokers' exhaled breath versus non-smokers as determined in a pilot study using PTR-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study has been carried out to define typical characteristics of the trace gas compounds in exhaled breath of non-smokers and smokers to assist interpretation of breath analysis data from patients who smoke with respiratory diseases and lung cancer. Exhaled breath was analyzed using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for 370 volunteers (81 smokers, 210 non-smokers, 79 ex-smokers). Volatile

Ievgeniia Kushch; Konrad Schwarz; Lukas Schwentner; Bettina Baumann; Alexander Dzien; Alex Schmid; Karl Unterkofler; Günter Gastl; Patrik Spanel; David Smith; Anton Amann

2008-01-01

165

Dental health in smokers with and without COPD.  

PubMed

The association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontal disease is sparsely studied. The aim was to describe the co-variation of periodontitis and lung function impairment in smokers. The hypothesis was that the destructive processes in the mouth and the lungs are interdependent due to a general individual susceptibility to detrimental effects of tobacco smoke. Smokers with COPD (n?=?28) stage II and III according to GOLD guidelines and smokers without COPD (n?=?29) and healthy non-smokers (n?=?23) participated in the study. The groups of smokers were matched for cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Radiographic, general and dental clinical examination, lung function measurements and quality of life (SF-36) assessment were conducted. The relationship between respiratory and dental outcomes was analyzed. Dental health, assessed by plaque, gingival bleeding, periodontal pocket depth and loss of teeth was impaired in the smokers compared with non-smokers with no major differences between smokers with and without COPD. There was, however, a weak correlation between periodontitis and emphysema/impaired diffusion capacity. Impaired quality of life was associated with smoking and impaired lung function but not influenced by dental status. In conclusion periodontitis was strongly associated with smoking, weakly associated with lung tissue destruction and very weakly or even not at all associated with chronic airflow limitation. The results indicate that, although there was a co-variation between periodontitis and pathologic lung processes in smokers, the risk of developing COPD, as defined by spirometric outcomes, is not associated with the risk of impaired dental health in smokers. PMID:23544074

Bergström, Jan; Cederlund, Kerstin; Dahlén, Barbro; Lantz, Ann-Sofie; Skedinger, Maria; Palmberg, Lena; Sundblad, Britt-Marie; Larsson, Kjell

2013-01-01

166

Evidence of Chemolithoautotrophy in the Bacterial Community Associated with Alvinella pompejana, a Hydrothermal Vent Polychaete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep-sea polychaete Alvinella pompejana colonizes tubes on the sides of black smoker chimneys along the East Pacific Rise. A diverse, yet phylogenetically constrained episymbiotic community is obligately associated with its dorsal surface. The morphologically and phylogenetically distinct dominant episymbionts have not yet been cultured, and there are no clearly defined roles for these bacteria in this symbiosis. A large

Barbara J. Campbell; Jeffrey L. Stein; S. Craig Cary

2003-01-01

167

Recruiting women smokers: the engineering of consent.  

PubMed

A range of social forces contributed to the effective recruitment of women to cigarette smoking in the crucial period between 1900 and 1940. Cigarette advertisers and public relations experts recognized the significance of women's changing roles and the rising culture of consumption, and worked to create specific meanings for the cigarette to make it appeal to women. The cigarette was a flexible symbol, with a remarkably elastic set of meanings; for women, it represented rebellious independence, glamour, seduction, and sexual allure, and served as a symbol for both feminists and flappers. The industry, with the help of advertisers and public relations experts, effectively engineered consent for women as smokers. The "engineering of consent" has a role to play in smoking cessation, since negative meanings for the cigarette can be engineered as well. PMID:8868552

Brandt, A M

1996-01-01

168

"I Smoke but I Am Not a Smoker": Phantom Smokers and the Discrepancy between Self-Identity and Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article presents the development of a new smoking status, the "phantom smokers," who do not view themselves as smokers but report smoking cigarettes. Participants: Students from 2 universities in Michigan (N = 899; October 2005) and Florida (N = 1,517; May 2006) participated in surveys. Methods: Respondents in Michigan completed…

Choi, Youjin; Choi, Sejung Marina; Rifon, Nora

2010-01-01

169

Perceived Arsenic-Related Mortality Risks for Smokers and Non-smokers [Forthcoming, Contemporary Economic Policy, May 2011  

E-print Network

Perceived Arsenic-Related Mortality Risks for Smokers and Non-smokers [Forthcoming, Contemporary and Mary Riddel University of Nevada, Las Vegas Abstract: Prolonged ingestion of arsenic in drinking water of arsenic hotspots in the United States, we elicited individuals' subjective mortality risks related

Shaw, W. Douglass

170

Effects of exam stress on mood, cortisol, and immune functioning: Influences of neuroticism and smoker-non-smoker status  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a number of studies, neuroticism, depression and stress have been reported to be positively correlated with each other, with serum cortisol concentration and with smoking. The same factors are inversely related to measures of immune system functioning. The present study assessed in smokers and non-smokers the effects of the presumed stress of final examinations on moods, cortisol and immune

David G. Gilbert; Mary E. Stunkard; Robert A. Jensen; Fred R. J. Detwiler; John M. Martinko

1996-01-01

171

Opioid Antagonism of Cannabinoid Effects: Differences between Marijuana Smokers and Nonmarijuana Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In non-human animals, opioid antagonists block the reinforcing and discriminative-stimulus effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), while in human marijuana smokers, naltrexone (50 mg) enhances the reinforcing and subjective effects of THC. The objective of this study was to test a lower, more opioid-selective dose of naltrexone (12 mg) in combination with THC. The influence of marijuana-use history and sex was also

Margaret Haney

2007-01-01

172

Ocean crustal fault rocks and the chemo-mechanical record of hydrothermal fluid flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal systems in the oceanic crust appear to require fluid-flow conduits such as faults and fracture-networks. Laboratory and borehole experiments reinforce the need for fracturing to increase the otherwise intrinsically low basalt permeability to allow high-flux fluid flow. Additionally, microseismicity and surface displacements along mid-ocean ridges have been modeled as resulting from fluid flow along localized conduits during fluid-pressure modulated faulting events. Near-bottom images and samples of fault zones from in situ, basaltic East-Pacific Rise (EPR)-spread oceanic crust provide an opportunity to further establish linkages between faulting, fracturing, and hydrothermal fluid flow. Human Occupied Vehicle (HOV) Alvin investigations along the north wall of the Hess Deep rift found faults in lavas and dikes that display a core-damage zone structure. The damage zones can be quite extensive, with intensely fractured materials spanning tens-of-meters. In places the damage zones can be linked to the volcanic constructional history of the axial region, with undeformed dikes cross-cutting damaged materials and relatively undamaged lavas overlying more damaged ones. Faults are less-than meter-wide planar structures that in many instances accommodated relative rotations and displacements of dikes and lavas. Though fault displacements cannot be quantitatively determined, they are a maximum of 100-m based on local depth-variations in the base of the lavas, and this is probably an overestimate given variations in the depositional thickness of the lavas. Microstructurally, the damage-zone and fault-core materials exhibit increasing amounts of chlorite-filled fractures, culminating with a cataclastic (deformational) foliation comprising anomalously high concentrations of chlorite (and bulk-rock MgO). Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Jason II and HOV Alvin work along the EPR-spread crust exposed in the Pito Deep rift found similar fault and damage zone structures. However, the Pito Deep rift also exposes distinctive quartz-rich hydrothermal breccias in the fault cores. As shown by isotopic, geochemical, and structural analyses, the fault breccias developed through multiple increments of fluid flow and faulting, likely at the base of axial black-smoker vents. Lastly, both Pito and Hess Deep rifts expose a distinctive fault gouge that is relatively unaltered. In the Pito Deep rift this unit can be clearly related to off-axis rift-related faulting, whereas in the Hess Deep rift certain gouge units are clearly part of the fault structure that developed predominantly in the axial region. Some of the fault-rock units therefore may have sealed faults to fluid flow whereas others, such as the chlorite-rich fracture systems, cataclasites, and quartz-rich breccias, were conduits. Given the well-understood spreading history of the EPR, and recent observations of axial deformation and hydrothermal fluid flow, these geological observations can be of great utility in placing bounds on the mechanical processes of faulting and fluid flow, particularly through ongoing quantitative microstructural analysis, rock-mechanics experiments, and comparisons with other spreading-rate environments.

Hayman, N. W.; Karson, J. A.

2010-12-01

173

Cigarette brand preference among middle and high school students who are established smokers - United States, 2004 and 2006.  

PubMed

Studies have suggested a link between exposure to tobacco advertising and cigarette brand preference. Knowing the brand preferences of young established smokers can provide insight into what influences young smokers to start and continue to smoke. A report of 2005 data indicated that the three most heavily advertised brands, Marlboro, Newport, and Camel, were preferred by 81% of U.S. youths aged 12-17 years. To assess the cigarette brand preferences among middle school and high school students who were established smokers, CDC analyzed data from the 2004 and 2006 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that among established student smokers in middle and high school, Marlboro was the preferred brand (43.3% and 52.3%, respectively), followed by Newport (26.4% and 21.4%, respectively). The use of Newport was significantly higher among blacks in middle school (59.7%) and high school (78.6%) compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Information on brand preferences and tobacco marketing strategies that are attractive to students can be used by tobacco control programs and community initiatives in the design of tobacco countermarketing campaigns. These countermarketing campaigns have been shown to be effective as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program to decrease the initiation of tobacco use among youths and young adults. PMID:19214160

2009-02-13

174

Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hydrothermal method of synthesizing hydroxyapatite by heating a precipitate, formed by mixing Ca(NO3)2bold dot4H2O and (NH4)2HPO4 with distilled water, in a hydrothermal reactor at 200 °C for 24-72 hrs is described. A treatment time of 24 hrs produced single phase (as shown by XRD) hydroxyapatite powder, however for longer treatment times XRD patterns were indicative of the presence of a secondary phase, monetite (CaHPO4). SEM examination of the treated powders displayed particles of rod-like morphology with dimensions 100-500 nm in length and 10-60 nm in diameter. Preliminary results on the use of the particles for the infiltration of dentine tubules are presented.

Earl, J. S.; Wood, D. J.; Milne, S. J.

2006-02-01

175

Oral Iloprost Improves Endobronchial Dysplasia in Former Smokers  

PubMed Central

There are no established chemopreventive agents for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Prostacyclin levels are low in lung cancer and supplementation prevents lung cancer in preclinical models. We carried out a multicenter double-blind, randomized, phase II placebo-controlled trial of oral iloprost in current or former smokers with sputum cytologic atypia or endobronchial dysplasia. Bronchoscopy was performed at study entry and after completion of six months of therapy. Within each subject, the results were calculated by using the average score of all biopsies (Avg), the worst biopsy score (Max), and the dysplasia index (DI). Change in Avg was the primary end point, evaluated in all subjects, as well as in current and former smokers. The accrual goal of 152 subjects was reached and 125 completed both bronchoscopies (60/75 iloprost, 65/77 placebo). Treatment groups were well matched for age, tobacco exposure, and baseline histology. Baseline histology was significantly worse for current smokers (Avg 3.0) than former smokers (Avg 2.1). When compared with placebo, former smokers receiving oral iloprost exhibited a significantly greater improvement in Avg (0.41 units better, P = 0.010), in Max (1.10 units better, P = 0.002), and in DI (12.45%, P = 0.006). No histologic improvement occurred in current smokers. Oral iloprost significantly improves endobronchial histology in former smokers and deserves further study to determine if it can prevent the development of lung cancer. PMID:21636546

Keith, Robert L.; Blatchford, Patrick J.; Kittelson, John; Minna, John D.; Kelly, Karen; Massion, Pierre P.; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Mao, Jenny; Wilson, David O.; Merrick, Daniel T.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Kennedy, Timothy C.; Bunn, Paul A.; Geraci, Mark W.; Miller, York E.

2011-01-01

176

Reduced executive and default network functional connectivity in cigarette smokers.  

PubMed

Altered functional connectivity has been associated with acute and chronic nicotine use. Connectivity alterations, specifically in the right and left executive control networks (RECN/LECN) and the default mode network (DMN), may contribute to the addiction cycle. The objective of this study was to determine if executive control network (ECN) and DMN connectivity is different between non-smokers and smokers and whether reductions in connectivity are related to chronic cigarette use. The RECN, LECN, and DMN were identified in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 650 subjects. Analyses tested for group differences in network connectivity strength, controlling for age and alcohol use. There was a significant group effect on LECN and DMN connectivity strength with smokers (n = 452) having lower network strengths than non-smokers (n = 198). Smokers had lower connectivity than non-smokers associated with key network hubs: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and parietal nodes within ECNs. Further, ECN connectivity strength was negatively associated with pack years of cigarette use. Our data suggest that chronic nicotine use negatively impacts functional connectivity within control networks that may contribute to the difficulty smokers have in quitting. PMID:25346448

Weiland, Barbara J; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Calhoun, Vince D; Welsh, Robert C; Hutchison, Kent E

2015-03-01

177

Prostate tissue metal levels and prostate cancer recurrence in smokers.  

PubMed

Although smoking is not associated with prostate cancer risk overall, smoking is associated with prostate cancer recurrence and mortality. Increased cadmium (Cd) exposure from smoking may play a role in progression of the disease. In this study, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine Cd, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) levels in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumor and tumor-adjacent non-neoplastic tissue of never- and ever-smokers with prostate cancer. In smokers, metal levels were also evaluated with regard to biochemical and distant recurrence of disease. Smokers (N?=?25) had significantly higher Cd (median ppb, p?=?0.03) and lower Zn (p?=?0.002) in non-neoplastic tissue than never-smokers (N?=?21). Metal levels were not significantly different in tumor tissue of smokers and non-smokers. Among smokers, Cd level did not differ by recurrence status. However, the ratio of Cd ppb to Pb ppb was significantly higher in both tumor and adjacent tissue of cases with distant recurrence when compared with cases without distant recurrence (tumor tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.19, p?=?0.009, adjacent non-neoplastic tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.02, p?=?0.038). Tissue Zn levels were also higher in smokers with distant recurrence (tumor, p?=?0.039 and adjacent non-neoplastic, p?=?0.028). These initial findings suggest that prostate tissue metal levels may differ in smokers with and without recurrence. If these findings are confirmed in larger studies, additional work will be needed to determine whether variations in metal levels are drivers of disease progression or are simply passengers of the disease process. PMID:24385087

Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Kandegedara, Ashoka; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Gupta, Nilesh; Rogers, Craig; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Dou, Q Ping; Mitra, Bharati

2014-02-01

178

Channelling of hydrothermal fluids during the accretion and evolution of the upper oceanic crust: Sr isotope evidence from ODP Hole 1256D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ODP Hole 1256D in the eastern equatorial Pacific is the first penetration of a complete section of fast spread ocean crust down to the dike-gabbro transition, and only the second borehole to sample in situ sheeted dikes after DSDP Hole 504B. Here a high spatial resolution record of whole rock and mineral strontium isotopic compositions from Site 1256 is combined with core observations and downhole wireline geophysical measurements to determine the extent of basalt-hydrothermal fluid reaction and to identify fluid pathways at different levels in the upper ocean crust. The volcanic sequence at Site 1256 is dominated by sheet and massive lava flows but the Sr isotope profile shows only limited exchange with seawater. However, the upper margins of two anomalously thick (>25 m) massive flow sequences are strongly hydrothermally altered with elevated Sr isotope ratios and appear to be conduits of lateral low-temperature off-axis fluid flow. Elsewhere in the lavas, high 87Sr/86Sr are restricted to breccia horizons. Mineralised hyaloclastic breccias in the Lava-Dike Transition are strongly altered to Mg-saponite, silica and pyrite, indicating alteration by mixed seawater and cooled hydrothermal fluids. In the Sheeted Dike Complex 87Sr/86Sr ratios are pervasively shifted towards hydrothermal fluid values (?0.705). Dike chilled margins display secondary mineral assemblages formed during both axial recharge and discharge and have higher 87Sr/86Sr than dike cores, indicating preferential fluid flow along dike margins. Localised increases in 87Sr/86Sr in the Dike-Gabbro Transition indicates the channelling of fluids along the sub-horizontal intrusive boundaries of the 25 to 50 m-thick gabbroic intrusions, with only minor increases in 87Sr/86Sr within the cores of the gabbro bodies. When compared to the pillow lava-dominated section from Hole 504B, the Sr isotope measurements from Site 1256 suggest that the extent of hydrothermal circulation in the upper ocean crust may be strongly dependent on the eruption style. Sheet and massive flow dominated lava sequences typical of fast spreading ridges may experience relatively restricted circulation, but there may be much more widespread circulation through pillow lava-dominated sections. In addition, the Hole 1256D sheeted dikes display a much greater extent of Sr-isotopic exchange compared to dikes from Hole 504B. Because seawater-derived hydrothermal fluids must transit the dikes during their evolution to black smoker-type fluids, the different Sr-isotope profiles for Holes 504B and 1256D suggest there are significant variations in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems at fast and intermediate spreading ridges, which may impact geochemical cycles of elements mobilised by fluid-rock exchange at different temperatures.

Harris, Michelle; Coggon, Rosalind M.; Smith-Duque, Christopher E.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Milton, James A.; Teagle, Damon A. H.

2015-04-01

179

Lung Adenocarcinoma of Never Smokers and Smokers Harbor Differential Regions of Genetic Alteration and Exhibit Different Levels of Genomic Instability  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that the observed clinical distinctions between lung tumors in smokers and never smokers (NS) extend beyond specific gene mutations, such as EGFR, EML4-ALK, and KRAS, some of which have been translated into targeted therapies. However, the molecular alterations identified thus far cannot explain all of the clinical and biological disparities observed in lung tumors of NS and smokers. To this end, we performed an unbiased genome-wide, comparative study to identify novel genomic aberrations that differ between smokers and NS. High resolution whole genome DNA copy number profiling of 69 lung adenocarcinomas from smokers (n?=?39) and NS (n?=?30) revealed both global and regional disparities in the tumor genomes of these two groups. We found that NS lung tumors had a greater proportion of their genomes altered than those of smokers. Moreover, copy number gains on chromosomes 5q, 7p, and 16p occurred more frequently in NS. We validated our findings in two independently generated public datasets. Our findings provide a novel line of evidence distinguishing genetic differences between smoker and NS lung tumors, namely, that the extent of segmental genomic alterations is greater in NS tumors. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that these lung tumors are globally and genetically different, which implies they are likely driven by distinct molecular mechanisms. PMID:22412972

Thu, Kelsie L.; Vucic, Emily A.; Chari, Raj; Zhang, Wei; Lockwood, William W.; English, John C.; Fu, Rong; Wang, Pei; Feng, Ziding; MacAulay, Calum E.; Gazdar, Adi F.; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.

2012-01-01

180

Dissolved free amino acids in hydrothermal vent habitats of the Guaymas Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total dissolved free amino acid (DFAA) concentrations and molecular compositions were determined in high-temperature smoker fluids (exit temperatures 152-319°C) and interstitial waters of a sediment-covered hydrothermal vent system located in the southern Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. DFAAs were not detected (? 1 nM) in the hot vent fluids, a result which probably reflects the instability of these compounds when exposed to the extreme high temperatures and pressures characteristic of hydrothermal fluids. Ammonium is the principal end-product of this thermal catalytic diagenesis. Hydrothermal vent and non-vent control sediments had DFAA concentrations ranging from 5-445 and 10-28 ?M, respectively. The DFAA concentrations in both habitats were highest in the near-surface region (0-4 cm) and decreased at greater depths. The depth-dependent concentration gradients for hydrothermally impacted sediments were steeper than for the control samples and covaried with total microbial biomass. The molecular composition of the hydrothermally impacted samples included most common protein amino acids in addition to ?-aminoglutaric acid. Glutamate, glycine, serine, and alanine were major constituents of the DFAA pool.

Haberstroh, P. R.; Karl, D. M.

1989-11-01

181

Correlation between nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual (water pipe) smokers among Arab Americans  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence suggests that dual cigarette and water pipe use is growing among minority groups, particularly among Arab Americans. Differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to smoking cessation among such dual smokers have not been previously examined in this population. We examined potential differences that might exist between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers (cigarette and water pipe) pertaining to nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation among Arab Americans. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of self-identified Arab immigrant smokers (n=131) living in the Richmond, VA metropolitan area. Data were collected using four questionnaires: Demographic and Cultural Information questionnaire, Tobacco Use questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) questionnaire, and Barriers to Cessation questionnaire. We examined differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers of cigarettes and water pipe. Furthermore, we explored the correlations of these measures with select variables. Results There was a significant difference in the FTND scores between the exclusive cigarette smokers (mean M=2.55, standard deviation [SD] =2.10) and dual smokers (M=3.71, SD =2.42); t(129) = (2.51), P=0.0066. There was also a significant difference in the Barriers to Cessation scores between exclusive cigarette smokers (M=38.47, SD =13.07) and dual smokers (M=45.21, SD =9.27); t(129) = (2.56), P=0.0058. Furthermore, there was a highly significant correlation among FTND scores, Barriers to Cessation scores, and past quit attempts among dual smokers. Conclusion Water pipe tobacco smoking seems to be both adding to the dependence potential of cigarette smoking and enhancing barriers to cessation in our study sample. However, the high correlation between quit attempts, FTND, and barriers to cessation needs further investigation to ascertain the possible reasons behind it. This preliminary study utilized a cross-sectional survey among participants of a rather small convenience sample, especially in the dual smokers group. Thus, there is a need to examine these differences via a longitudinal design in a larger sample. PMID:25674035

El-Shahawy, Omar; Haddad, Linda

2015-01-01

182

Diet May Protect Against Gene Changes in Smokers  

Cancer.gov

Leafy green vegetables, folate, and some multivitamins could serve as protective factors against lung cancer in current and former smokers, according to a study that is a first step in understanding a complex association.

183

Plain Packaging Laws Might Spur Smokers to Quit  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Plain Packaging Laws Might Spur Smokers to Quit Legislation would also ... 2012 and 2013. During that time, an Australian law was implemented requiring that all tobacco packaging be ...

184

Daily patterns of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timeline followback (TLFB) methodology was used to assess the daily use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in adolescent cigarette smokers and nonsmokers over the prior 30 days. Adolescent smokers reported more frequent daily use of both alcohol and marijuana than nonsmokers did. Of those smokers and nonsmokers who drank alcohol and used marijuana, smokers reported more frequent daily use of

Amy M. Duhig; Dana A. Cavallo; Sherry A. McKee; Tony P. George; Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin

2005-01-01

185

Life at Hydrothermal Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site is a NOVA Online Adventure from PBS (1). Into the Abyss decribes the "pitch darkness, poison gas, heavy metals, extreme acidity, and enormous pressure" found at hydrothermal vents, and offers a look at bizarre and fascinating creatures found in this environment. The next Web site from Exploring Earth, an online earth sciences text book, contains video clips taken during research expeditions along the Juan de Fuca Ridge (2). Ocean AdVENTure, a ThinkQuest Web site, offers a comprehensive and well-designed introduction to hydothermal vents from research tools to fauna to unsolved mysteries and more (3). Visitors can choose their own scientific adVENTure to explore hydrothermal vents in this interactive feature from the University of Washington School of Oceonagraphy Exploraquarium (4). Dive and Discover is "an interactive distance learning Web site designed to immerse you in the excitement of discovery and exploration of the deep seafloor." This Web site (5) extends a virtual invitation to join scientists aboard research cruises to the depth of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, providing daily logs, video, and other features for each expedition. The next Web site from the University of California-Berkeley offer a closer look at the "strange tube-dwelling worm" phylum found only near hydrothermal vents (6). Creature Features, provided by the University of Delaware Graduate College of Marine Science, contains descriptions and video clips of tubeworms, vent crabs, Pompeii crabs, and ancient bacteria found at deep sea vents (7). The last Web site (8) is a transcript of a June 1997 PBS NewsHour interview with science writer William Broad. Broad discusses his book The Universe Below: Discovering the Secrets of the Deep Sea, and relates the exciting opportunities for scientific exploration of the sea floor made possible by the end of the Cold War.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

186

Nicotine intake and smoking topography in smokers with bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Objectives Cigarette smoking behavior in bipolar disorder (BPD), including the effects of mood-stabilizing medications, has not been well characterized. Methods We compared serum nicotine, nicotine metabolite levels, and smoking topography in 75 smokers with BPD to 86 control smokers (CON). For some comparisons, an additional control group of 75 smokers with schizophrenia (SCZ) were included. Results There were no differences between the BPD and CON groups in baseline smoking characteristics or serum nicotine or cotinine levels. Fifty-one smokers with BPD (68.9%) were taking one of the following mood stabilizers: valproic acid, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, lithium, or topiramate. The 3-hydroxycotinine-to-cotinine ratio, a marker of cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) metabolic activity, was significantly higher in BPD versus CON and versus SCZ (0.68 versus 0.49 versus 0.54; p = 0.002). The difference between groups, however, was no longer significant when the analysis was repeated with those taking hepatic enzyme-inducing drugs (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate) included as a covariate. The time between puffs, or interpuff interval (IPI), was shorter in BPD versus CON by an average of 3.0 sec (p < 0.05), although this was no longer significant when we removed smokers from the analysis of those taking hepatic enzyme inducers. Conclusions Smokers with BPD are not different from CON on most measures of nicotine intake and smoking topography. We found an increased rate of nicotine metabolism in smokers taking mood stabilizers that are hepatic enzyme inducers, including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate. Smokers with rapid nicotine metabolism might be expected to smoke more intensely to compensate for the more rapid disappearance of nicotine from the blood and brain, and may have more difficulty in quitting smoking, although this requires further study. PMID:22938167

Williams, Jill M; Gandhi, Kunal K; Lu, Shou-En; Steinberg, Marc L; Benowitz, Neal L

2013-01-01

187

Biocatalytic transformations of hydrothermal fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of copious animal populations at deep-sea vents indicates an effective microbial chemosynthetic biocatalysis of hydrothermal fluids on their emission into oxygenated ambient seawater. The large metabolic and physiological diversity of microbes found at these sites, including anaerobic and aerobic hyperthermophiles, reflects an even higher variety of biocatalytic or enzymatic reactions that greatly influence deep-sea hydrothermal geochemistry.

Jannasch, H. W.

188

Cody hydrothermal system  

SciTech Connect

The hot springs of Colter's Hell are the surface manifestations of a much larger hydothermal system. That system has been studied to define its extent, maximum temperature, and mechanism of operation. The study area covers 2700 km/sup 2/ (1040 mi/sup 2/) in northwest Wyoming. Research and field work included locating and sampling the hot springs, geologic mapping, thermal logging of available wells, measuring thermal conductivities, analyzing over 200 oil and gas well bottom-hole temperatures, and compiling and analyzing hydrologic data. These data were used to generate a model for the hydrothermal system.

Heasler, H.P.

1982-01-01

189

Plasma kinetics in man of epicatechin from black chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the plasma kinetics in man of epicatechin from black chocolate.Design: An intervention study with 8 volunteers. Each served as his own control. Theobromine was used as control marker of the chocolate intake.Setting: Metabolic Unit, Nestlé Research Center, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, Switzerland.Subjects: Eight healthy male volunteers (4 smokers and 4 non-smokers) were enrolled in this study. They abstained from foods

M Richelle; I Tavazzi; M Enslen; EA Offord

1999-01-01

190

Spontaneous action representation in smokers when watching movie characters smoke.  

PubMed

Do smokers simulate smoking when they see someone else smoke? For regular smokers, smoking is such a highly practiced motor skill that it often occurs automatically, without conscious awareness. Research on the brain basis of action observation has delineated a frontoparietal network that is commonly recruited when people observe, plan, or imitate actions. Here, we investigated whether this action observation network would be preferentially recruited in smokers when viewing complex smoking cues, such as those occurring in motion pictures. Seventeen right-handed smokers and 17 nonsmokers watched a popular movie while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a natural stimulus, such as a movie, allowed us to keep both smoking and nonsmoking participants naive to the goals of the experiment. Brain activity evoked by movie scenes of smoking was contrasted with nonsmoking control scenes that were matched for frequency and duration. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers showed greater activity in left anterior intraparietal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus, regions involved in the simulation of contralateral hand-based gestures, when viewing smoking versus control scenes. These results demonstrate that smokers spontaneously represent the action of smoking when viewing others smoke, the consequence of which may make it more difficult to abstain from smoking. PMID:21248113

Wagner, Dylan D; Dal Cin, Sonya; Sargent, James D; Kelley, William M; Heatherton, Todd F

2011-01-19

191

No difference between smokers, former smokers, or nonsmokers in the operative outcomes of laparoscopic donor nephrectomies.  

PubMed

The laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has revolutionized the living donation process for kidney transplantation. Because this surgery is elective and altruistic and smoking has been associated with greater technical difficulty and increased risk for postoperative complications for other types of surgeries, the potential risk of smoking must be addressed with regard to surgical complications. We reviewed 221 laparoscopic kidney donors with known smoking status. Forty-two (19%) were smokers, 39 (18%) were former smokers, and 140 (63%) were nonsmokers. Important donor demographics were similar between groups. There was no difference between the 3 groups for mean operative time (4.5 h vs. 4.6 h vs. 4.4 h), median or mean length of stay (2 days for all groups), estimated blood loss (173+/-137 mL vs. 209+/-184 mL vs. 188+/-198 mL), narcotic use (0.57+/-0.48 mg/kg vs. 0.49+/-0.26 mg/kg vs. 0.53+/-0.36 mg/kg of total 4 morphine equivalents), or postoperative complications. Smoking status does not seem to impact perisurgical patient outcomes in patients undergoing laparoscopic nephrectomies. PMID:19390284

Taber, David J; Ashcraft, Elizabeth; Cattanach, Larissa A; Baillie, G Mark; Weimert, Nicole A; Lin, Angello; Bratton, Charles F; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Chavin, Kenneth D

2009-04-01

192

Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, ?9 and ?8 in the skin, serum and saliva of smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking induces skin ageing, affects wound healing and inflammatory responses in skin and mucous membranes but the mechanisms\\u000a behind these adverse effects of smoking are not clear. The objective was to elucidate the mechanisms of smoking-related tissue\\u000a damage, by comparing the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) ?2, ?9, and ?8 in the skin, serum and saliva of smokers\\u000a and non-smokers.

Anina Raitio; Hans Tuomas; Nina Kokkonen; Tuula Salo; Timo Sorsa; Roeland Hanemaaijer; Aarne Oikarinen

2005-01-01

193

Smokers and non-smokers: differences in alcohol consumption and intake of other health-related substances in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study addresses the problem of clustering of risky habits, i.e. the drinking and substance use habits of smokers and non-smokers. Methods: A sample survey of the general non-hospitalized, Norwegian population (>15 years), excluding abstainers from alcohol was used. We investigated differences in yearly consumption of beer, wine, liquor and total alcohol consumption and intake of sedatives, snuff, coffee

REIDULF G. WATTEN

194

Tidally-driven effluent detected by long-term temperature monitoring at the TAG hydrothermal mound, Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Aug. 13-21, 1994, temperatures and current velocity were simultaneously monitored on the TAG hydrothermal mound. Three `Giant Kelps (GKs)', vertical thermistor arrays of 50 m height, were moored on the periphery of the central black smoker complex (CBC). A `Manatee', multi-monitoring system including current velocity, was deployed 50 m east of CBC. Four `Daibutsu' geothermal probes penetrated the sediment south to west of CBC. Compilation of all data revealed semi-diurnal variations in water temperatures and current velocity, and allowed us to discuss the source of these anomalies. Temperature anomalies of GKs correlate well with current velocity, and are interpreted to be caused by the main plume from CBC that was bent over by the tidal current. We identified two types of asymmetric, periodic temperature variations at Daibutsu Probes 2 and 8, located 20 m to the south of CBC. By comparing temperatures and current velocity, they are attributed to non-buoyant effluents laterally advected by the tidal current. The source of one variation is located east to ESE of the probes, and the source of the other is located to the north. On Aug. 31, a new periodic anomaly emerged on Probe 2 with its amplitude up to 0.8°C. The 6-h offset between the new anomaly and the previous one suggests that the source of the new anomaly lies to the west of Probe 2. The heat flux of these non-buoyant effluents is estimated to range from 30 to 100 kW/m 2, which is of the same order as direct estimates of diffuse flow at the TAG mound. It suggests that a significant amount of diffuse effluent is laterally advected by the prevailing current near the seafloor.

Kinoshita, M.; Von Herzen, R. P.; Matsubayashi, O.; Fujioka, K.

1998-06-01

195

Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov., a Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hyperthermophilic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P(sup T), was isolated from 'black smoker' chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2degN, 33.9degW). The cells of strain OGL-20P(T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed within a pH range of 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), an NaCl concentration range of 1-5%(w/v) (optimum 3%)and a temperature range of 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). The novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent upon elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, but it does not reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, Fe(III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products (peptone, bacto-tryptone, Casamino acids and yeast extract) are utilized as substrates during sulfur reduction. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloram phenicol, kanamycin and gentamicin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G + C content of the DNA is 52.9 mol% The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is closely related to Thermococcus coalescens and related species, but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, we conclude that strain OGL-20P(sup T) represents a new separate species within the genus Thermococcus, for which we propose the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (=JCM 12859(exp T) = DSM 14981(exp T)=ATCC BAA-394(exp T)).

Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Itoh, Takashi; Bej, Asim K.; Tang, Jane; Whitman, William B.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.; Hoover, Richard B.

2007-01-01

196

Thermococcus Thioreducens sp. Nov., a Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-reducing Archaeon from a Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hyperthermophilic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P was isolated from black smoker chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2 N, 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P(sup T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed within the pH range 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), NaCl concentration range 1-5 % (w/v) (optimum 3%), and temperature range 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). The novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent upon elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, but it does not reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, iron (III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products (peptone, bacto-tryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract) are utilized as substrates during sulfur-reduction. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G+C content of DNA is 52.9 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is closely related to Thermococcus coalescens and related species, but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, we conclude that strain OGL-20P(sup T) represents a new separate species within the genus Thermococcus, and propose the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-394(sup T) = JCM 12859(sup T) = DSM 14981(sup T)).

Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Itoh, Takashi; Bej, Asim K.; Tang, Jane; Whitman, William B.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.; Hoover, Richard B.

2007-01-01

197

Thermococcus Thioreducens sp. nov., A Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel hyperthermophilic organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P(sup T), was isolated from 'black smoker' chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2 N; 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P(sup T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed to occur within the pH range 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), NaCl concentration range 1-5 % (w/v) (optimum 3 %), and temperature range 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). Novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent from elemental sulfur as electron acceptor, but it cannot reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, iron (III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products that can be utilized as substrates during sulfur-reduction are: peptone, bactotryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G+C content of DNA is 57.1 mol% . Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is most closely related to Thermococcus celer and 'T. barossii', but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-394(sup T) = DSM 1498(sup T)).

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Bej, Asim K.; Garriott, Owen

2003-01-01

198

Thermococcus sulfurophilus sp. nov., a New Hyperthermophilic, Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon Isolated from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P, was isolated from "black smoker" chimney material at the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site in the Atlantic Ocean (36.2 N; 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P have irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth occurs within pH range of 5.5-8.2 (optimal at pH 7.0-7.2), salinity range of 1-5% NaCl (optimal concentration 3% NaCl wt/vol), and temperature range of +55 C to +94 C (optimal growth at +83 C to +85 C). Strain OGL-20P is resistant to freezing (at -20 C). New isolate is strictly anaerobic with sulfur-type of respiration. A limited number of compounds are utilized as electron donors, including peptone, becto-tryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract but does not grow with separate amino acids. Sulfur and Iron can be used as electron acceptors; but not sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate or nitrate. Strain OGL-20P is resistant to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin. Growth of str. OGL20P is inhibited by tetracyclin but not by Na2MoO4. The G+C content of DNA is 57.2 mol%. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis allows one to classify strain OGL-20P as a representative of a now species of Thermococcus genus. The name Thermococcus sulfurophilus op. nov., was suggested for the new isolate, type strain OGL-20P (sup T) (= ATCC BAA_394 (sup T) = DSM...(supT)).

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Whitman, William B.; Marsic, Damien; Garriott, Owen; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

199

Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%). Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy. PMID:25429684

Kolar, Stephanie K.; Rogers, Brooke G.; Webb Hooper, Monica

2014-01-01

200

nanotubes via hydrothermal method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red long-lasting phosphor Y2O2S:Eu3+, Zn2+, Ti4+ nanotubes were prepared by hydrothermal method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence and thermoluminescence spectra (TL) were used to characterize the long-lasting phosphor. XRD investigation revealed that the product synthesised under 750 °C for 6 h was a pure phase of Y2O2S. SEM observation showed that the sulfuretted phosphor inherited the tube-like shape from the precursor. Under 325 nm UV excitation, the result indicated the strongest red-emission lines at 627 nm, corresponded to the transition from 5D0 to 7F2 level of Eu3+ ion. Both the afterglow decay curves and TL curves revealed that the phosphor had efficient luminescent and excellent long-lasting properties.

Huang, Ping; Liu, Dan; Cui, Cai E.; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Guowei

2014-08-01

201

Phylogenetic diversity of methanogenic, sulfate-reducing and methanotrophic prokaryotes from deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial communities of methanogenic, sulfate-reducing and methanotrophic prokaryotes from deep-sea environments were investigated by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the genes encoding for the methyl coenzyme M reductase ( mcrA), dissimilatory sulfite reductase ( dsrAB) and particulate methane monoxygenase ( pmoA), respectively. Clone libraries of PCR amplified genes were constructed using DNA extracted from deep-sea vent chimneys (Rainbow and Logatchev hydrothermal vent fields, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Atlantic Ocean; 9°N East Pacific Rise, Pacific Ocean) and from vertically subsampled sediment cores from cold-seep areas (Blake Ridge, western Atlantic Ocean; Florida Escarpment, Gulf of Mexico). Recombinant clones were screened by RFLP and representative dsrAB, mcrA and pmoA genes were sequenced. The dsrAB sequences grouped primarily within the orders Desulfobacterales, Syntrophobacterales and the Gram-positive order Clostridales. Cold-seep mcrA sequences were distributed among the ANME-2c, -2d and -2e groups, which were previously shown to be associated with the anaerobic oxidation of methane. This study also reports the first mcrA sequences from a high-temperature, black smoker chimney (Logatchev) to group within the ANME-2e subgroup. The majority of the remaining hydrothermal vent mcrA sequences were primarily related to thermophilic members of the anaerobic, methanogenic order Methanococcales. A shift in the dominant ANME-2 group with depth in the sediment for both Florida Escarpment and Blake Ridge mcrA libraries was detected. ANME-2d related clones were detected in the top zones of both cores, with the frequency of ANME-2e related clones increasing with depth. All pmoA sequences retrieved from the cold-seep sites were found to be related to Type I methanotrophic members of the ?-proteobacteria, and were primarily distributed among three major clusters of sequences. No Type II pmoA sequences related to methanotrophic members of the ?-proteobacteria were detected, suggesting that the methanotrophic communities in these cold-seep areas are dominated by Type I ?-proteobacteria.

Reed, Andrew J.; Dorn, Ruth; Van Dover, Cindy L.; Lutz, Richard A.; Vetriani, Costantino

2009-09-01

202

Life expectancies of cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in the United States.  

PubMed

This research employs the National Health Interview and the National Mortality Followback Surveys to calculate life expectancies by age and sex for white nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers in the United States in 1986. In general, life expectancies are higher for never smokers than for former smokers, and higher for former smokers than for current smokers. Heavy smokers have lower life expectancies than persons with all other smoking statuses; indeed, compared to never smokers, heavy smokers at age 25 can expect at least a 25% shorter life. Gender differences in life expectancies were found to persist even with the elimination of smoking. Differences in life expectancy by sex thus appear to be due, in part, to cigarette smoking, but also to occupational, environmental, and sociodemographic factors. PMID:2068598

Rogers, R G; Powell-Griner, E

1991-01-01

203

Secondhand smoke in outdoor settings: smokers’ consumption, non-smokers’ perceptions, and attitudes towards smoke-free legislation in Spain  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe where smokers smoke outdoors, where non-smokers are exposed outdoors to secondhand smoke (SHS), and attitudes towards smoke-free outdoor areas after the implementation of national smoke-free legislation. Design This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 (n=1307 participants). Setting Barcelona, Spain. Participants Representative, random sample of the adult (?16?years) population. Primary and secondary outcomes Proportion of smoking and prevalence of exposure to SHS in the various settings according to type of enclosure. Percentages of support for outdoor smoke-free policies according to smoking status. Results Smokers reported smoking outdoors most in bars and restaurants (54.8%), followed by outdoor places at work (46.8%). According to non-smokers, outdoor SHS exposure was highest at home (42.5%) and in bars and restaurants (33.5%). Among non-smoking adult students, 90% claimed exposure to SHS on university campuses. There was great support for banning smoking in the majority of outdoor areas, which was stronger among non-smokers than smokers. Over 70% of participants supported smoke-free playgrounds, school and high school courtyards, and the grounds of healthcare centres. Conclusions Extending smoking bans to selected outdoor settings should be considered in further tobacco control interventions to protect non-smokers from SHS exposure and to establish a positive model for youth. The majority of public support for some outdoor smoke-free areas suggests that it is feasible to extend smoking bans to additional outdoor settings. PMID:25854974

Sureda, Xisca; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; López, María J; Martínez, Cristina; Saltó, Esteve

2015-01-01

204

Natural killer cell activity in cigarette smokers and asbestos workers  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure on cellular immunity, the authors tested a group of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers for natural killer (NK) activity in the peripheral blood. The mean NK activity in cigarette smokers was lower than in normal subjects (13.7 +/- 1.6 versus 29.0 +/- 3%; p less than 0.05). As a group, the mean NK activity for the asbestos-exposed group was also reduced compared with that of the nonsmoking control group (22.6 +/- 3.2%; p less than 0.05). When divided according to the smoking status, the asbestos workers who were nonsmokers or ex-smokers showed similar decreases in NK activity compared with normal subjects (19.5 +/- 6.2 and 21.2 +/- 4.5%, respectively; p less than 0.05). A subgroup of asbestos-exposed subjects who currently smoked showed no decrease in NK activity. The data show that NK activity is reduced in the peripheral blood of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers. The relatively normal NK activity found in asbestos workers who also smoked is unexplained. Impairment of NK activity is a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of infection and cancer in smokers and neoplasia in asbestos workers.

Ginns, L.C.; Ryu, J.H.; Rogol, P.R.; Sprince, N.L.; Oliver, L.C.; Larsson, C.J.

1985-06-01

205

Menthol Preference Among Smokers: Association With TRPA1 Variants  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Preference for smoking menthol cigarettes differs from individual to individual and population to population in ways that may provide higher levels of nicotine intake and contribute to smoking’s morbidity and mortality. Menthol acts at sites that include the transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 channel that is expressed by nociceptors in the lung and airways, suggesting that individual and population differences in TRPA1 sequences might contribute to observed differences in menthol preference among smokers. Methods: We have thus sought association between menthol preference and common variants in the TRPA1 gene in heavier and lighter European-American smokers. Smokers were recruited for studies of smoking cessation in North Carolina and of substance abuse genetics in Maryland. Results: A common TRPA1 haplotype is defined by 1 missense and 10 intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms that display significant (.006 < p < .05; ?2) association with preference for mentholated cigarettes in heavy smokers (odds ratio ca. 1.3). There are smaller trends in the same direction in lighter smokers. Conclusions: This TRPA1 haplotype provides a novel biological basis for individual differences in menthol preference and possibly for actions of other agents that act at TRPA1. PMID:21719896

Walther, Donna; Behm, Frederique M.; Rose, Jed E.

2011-01-01

206

Health care institutions should not exclude smokers from employment.  

PubMed

Some health care institutions, including academic health centers, have adopted policies excluding smokers from employment. Claims advanced on behalf of these policies include financial savings from reduced health costs and absenteeism as well as advantages consonant with their message of healthy living. The authors suggest that the institutional savings from these policies are speculative and unproven. Also, in settings where large medical schools operate, it is likely to be the poor, including members of minority groups, who, under an employee smoker ban, will lose the opportunity to work for an employer that offers health insurance and other benefits. In response to the incentives created by such bans, some will quit smoking, but most will not. Thus, at the community level, employee smoker bans are more likely to be harmful than beneficial.Although private businesses may rightly choose not to hire smokers in the 19 states where such policies are legal, health care institutions, including academic health centers, should consider hiring choices in light of the values they profess. The traditional values of medicine include service to all persons in need, even when illness results from addiction or unsafe behavior. Secular academic communities require a shared dedication to discovery without requiring strict conformity of private behavior or belief. The authors conclude that for health care institutions, policies of hiring smokers and helping them to quit are both prudent and expressive of the norms of medical care, such as inclusion, compassion, and fellowship, that academic health professionals seek to honor. PMID:24871233

Huddle, Thomas S; Kertesz, Stefan G; Nash, Ryan R

2014-06-01

207

Adult Smokers' Responses to “Corrective Statements” Regarding Tobacco Industry Deception  

PubMed Central

Background To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate “corrective statements” (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. Purpose To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Methods Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280–281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Results Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. Conclusions This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco–related health disparities. PMID:24746372

Kollath-Cattano, Christy L.; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Thrasher, James F.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J.; Krugman, Dean M.; Berg, Carla J.; Hardin, James W.

2014-01-01

208

E-Cigarette Use among Smokers with Serious Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Background We examined electronic cigarette (EC) use, correlates of use, and associated changes in smoking behavior among smokers with serious mental illness in a clinical trial. Methods Adult smokers were recruited during acute psychiatric hospitalization (N?=?956, 73% enrollment among approached smokers) in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2009–2013. At baseline, participants averaged 17 (SD?=?10) cigarettes per day for 19 (SD?=?14) years; 24% intended to quit smoking in the next month. Analyses examined frequency and correlates of EC use reported over the 18-month trial and changes in smoking behavior by EC use status. Findings EC use was 11% overall, and by year of enrollment, increased from 0% in 2009 to 25% in 2013. In multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of EC use was significantly greater with each additional year of recruitment, for those aged 18–26, and for those in the preparation versus precontemplation stage of change, and unlikely among Hispanic participants. EC use was unrelated to gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and measures of tobacco dependence at baseline. Further, over the 18-month trial, EC use was not associated with changes in smoking status or, among continued smokers, with reductions in cigarettes per day. Interpretation Within a clinical trial with smokers with serious mental illness, EC use increased over time, particularly among younger adults and those intending to quit tobacco. EC use was unrelated to changes in smoking. The findings are of clinical interest and warrant further study. PMID:25419703

Prochaska, Judith J.; Grana, Rachel A.

2014-01-01

209

Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette smokers: a case–control study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of the lung function profiles of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Males aged 35–60 living in Sousse, Tunisia, who have been smoking narghile exclusively for more than 10 narghile-years (n=36) or cigarettes exclusively for more than 10 pack-years (n=106) were recruited to participate in this case–control study. The anthropometric and plethysmographic data were measured according to international recommendations using a body plethysmograph (ZAN 500 Body II, Me?greräte GmbH, Germany). Large-airway-obstructive-ventilatory-defect (LAOVD) was defined as: first second forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) below the lower-limit-of-normal (LLN). Restrictive-ventilatory-defect (RVD) was defined as total lung capacity < LLN. Lung hyperinflation was defined as residual volume > upper-limit-of-normal. Student t-test and ?2 test were used to compare plethysmographic data and profiles of the two groups. Results The subjects in the ENS and ECS groups are well matched in age (45±7 vs. 47±5 years) and height (1.73±0.06 vs. 1.72±0.06 m) and used similar quantities of tobacco (36±22 narghile-years vs. 35±19 pack-years). Compared to the ENS group, the ECS group had significantly lower FEV1 (84±12 vs. 60±21%), FVC (90±12 vs. 76±18%), and FEV1/FVC (99±7 vs. 83±17%). The two groups had similar percentages of RVD (31 vs. 36%), while the ECS group had a significantly higher percentage of LAOVD (8 vs. 58%) and lung hyperinflation (36 vs.57%). Conclusion Chronic exclusive narghile smoking has less adverse effects on pulmonary function tests than chronic exclusive cigarette smoking. PMID:24382307

Saad, Helmi Ben; Khemiss, Mehdi; Nhari, Saida; Essghaier, Mejda Ben; Rouatbi, Sonia

2013-01-01

210

Microbial ecology of hydrothermal biotypes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal environments, whether terrestrial or marine, provide a window into potentially thriving ecosystems on other solar bodies. If such extraterrestrial biotopes do exist, they might be inhabited by extremophilic microorganisms, perhaps related to hyperthermophiles (optimal growth temperature > 80°C) previously characterized from geothermal sites on this planet. Study of the physiological and metabolic patterns in hyperthermophiles will shed light on microbial lifestyles consistent with putative hydrothermal niches on other planets and moons.

Montero, Clemente I.; Conners, Shannon B.; Johnson, Matthew R.; Pysz, Marybeth A.; Shockley, Keith R.; Kelly, Robert M.

2004-02-01

211

Mechanisms Linking Socioeconomic Disadvantage and BMI in Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate a conceptual model of the psychosocial pathways linking socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI) among smokers. Methods A latent variable modeling approach was used to evaluate the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect, and BMI among smokers recruited from the Houston metropolitan area (N = 424). Results A total of 42.4% of participants were obese, with the highest prevalence of obesity among Latinos followed by African Americans. Across all racial/ethnic groups, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect functioned as pathways linking socioeconomic status and BMI. Conclusions Findings indicate the need for interventions that target obesity among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers and provide potential intervention targets for the prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:23985281

Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Castro, Yessenia; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

2014-01-01

212

Prevalence of trial of snus products among adult smokers.  

PubMed

A 2008 survey assessed the proportion of smokers in 8 geographic areas who reported trying snus. In test markets, 10% of smokers had tried snus in the past year. Among young adult men, the trial rate was 29%. Trial was more likely among Whites than among minorities, among respondents with lower education than among those with higher education, and among those without immediate plans to quit smoking than among those intending to quit in the next 30 days. The association between trial and low cessation motivation is an important target for research. PMID:21330582

Biener, Lois; McCausland, Kristen; Curry, Laurel; Cullen, Jennifer

2011-10-01

213

Use of contraband cigarettes among adolescent daily smokers in Canada  

PubMed Central

Current tobacco-control strategies seek to inhibit and reduce smoking among adolescents. However, such strategies are probably undermined by the contraband tobacco market. Using data from Canada’s 2006/2007 Youth Smoking Survey, we found that 13.1% of respondents who were daily smokers reported that contraband cigarettes were their usual brand. They consumed significantly more cigarettes than respondents who smoked other brands. Contraband cigarettes accounted for about 17.5% of all cigarettes smoked by adolescent daily smokers in Canada overall, and for more than 25% in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. PMID:19737829

Callaghan, Russell C.; Veldhuizen, Scott; Leatherdale, Scott; Murnaghan, Donna; Manske, Steve

2009-01-01

214

Comparison of Barriers to Cessation among Arab American Smokers of Cigarettes and Waterpipe  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional study examined the differences in barriers to cessation and reasons for quitting smoking among dual smokers of cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco, exclusive cigarette smokers and exclusive waterpipe smokers. Participants were Arab American adults residing in Richmond, Virginia, who were recruited from Middle Eastern grocery stores, restaurants/lounges and faith and charity organizations. The study yielded several key findings: (1) Exclusive cigarette and waterpipe smokers had similar mean barriers to quitting and were more concerned about their health than dual smokers. (F(2, 150) = 5.594, p = 0.0045). This implies that barriers to smoking and health concerns could be a function of the individual who smokes rather than the modality of smoking itself. (2) Exclusive cigarette or waterpipe smokers and dual smokers may have different reasons for quitting, since they have different reasons for smoking. The proportion of smokers who endorsed smoking as a messy habit as the reason among exclusive cigarette smokers was 0.37, whereas the proportion among exclusive waterpipe smokers was 0.04 and among dual smokers 0.39. The difference in proportions is significant, ?2 (df = 2, N = 154) = 13.17, p = 0.0014. In summary, this study supports the need to further investigate dual cigarette and waterpipe smokers, as the study results indicate greater barriers to smoking cessation in this group. Recognition and understanding of these barriers among dual tobacco users would be important for any future tobacco intervention among waterpipe smokers. PMID:25226410

Haddad, Linda; El-Shahawy, Omar; Ghadban, Roula

2014-01-01

215

Probing Hydrothermal Organic Reaction Mechanisms with Hydrothermal Photochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most hydrothermal organic experiments the emphasis is on reaction product distributions and kinetic measurements, with mechanistic information or the direct evidence of proposed reaction intermediates rare or lacking. We believe that greater mechanistic insight will yield greater predictive power. Previously, we studied the reactions of a model ketone, dibenzylketone (DBK) in aqueous media at 300°C and 700 bars for durations up to several days [1], and found that many of the reaction products arise from coupling of benzyl and related radicals generated through homolytic bond cleavage of DBK. In the present work, we find that in situ photochemical generation of the radicals can provide independent evidence for radical intermediates in the hydrothermal reaction of DBK, yielding valuable insights into the thermal reactions. Hydrothermal photochemical experiments of DBK were conducted in water in sealed fused silica glass tubes at 300°C and 86 bars under UV irradiation for minutes. The short timescale of the experiments allows the primary radical coupling products of DBK to be generated and identified, and their follow-up reactions to be monitored directly. The primary hydrothermal photolysis products include toluene, bibenzyl, a three-benzene-ring product (with isomers), and two four-benzene-ring products (with isomers), which represent a much simpler version of the products obtained through thermal reactions under similar conversions. Most of the observed photolysis products were identical to the ones in the thermal reactions, and those not observed in thermal reactions were found to be the short-lived precursors of the thermal products. As an example, the transformation of one four-ring product to the other was attained and monitored by experiments in which hydrothermal photolysis of DBK was followed by thermolysis at 300°C for a further few hours. The transformation steps included dehydration and isomerization, which were known to be thermodynamically favorable and rapid at hydrothermal conditions [1]. These results show that several relatively stable hydrothermal products from DBK are derived from the radical-coupled intermediates, and that these intermediates can be successfully captured using the tool of hydrothermal photolysis. Analysis of the product distributions and the quantum yields for the hydrothermal photolysis also provides convincing evidence for the previously proposed radical cleavage mechanism for the thermal reactions of DBK. [1] Yang et al. (2012) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 98, 48-65.

Yang, Z.; Gould, I.; Shock, E.

2013-12-01

216

Down-Regulation of the Canonical Wnt ?-Catenin Pathway in the Airway Epithelium of Healthy Smokers and Smokers with COPD  

PubMed Central

Background The Wnt pathway mediates differentiation of epithelial tissues; depending on the tissue types, Wnt can either drive or inhibit the differentiation process. We hypothesized that key genes in the Wnt pathway are suppressed in the human airway epithelium under the stress of cigarette smoking, a stress associated with dysregulation of the epithelial differentiated state. Methodology/Principal Findings Microarrays were used to assess the expression of Wnt-related genes in the small airway epithelium (SAE) obtained via bronchoscopy and brushing of healthy nonsmokers, healthy smokers, and smokers with COPD. Thirty-three of 56 known Wnt-related genes were expressed in the SAE. Wnt pathway downstream mediators ?-catenin and the transcription factor 7-like 1 were down-regulated in healthy smokers and smokers with COPD, as were many Wnt target genes. Among the extracellular regulators that suppress the Wnt pathway, secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), was up-regulated 4.3-fold in healthy smokers and 4.9-fold in COPD smokers, an observation confirmed by TaqMan Real-time PCR, Western analysis and immunohistochemistry. Finally, cigarette smoke extract mediated up-regulation of SFRP2 and down-regulation of Wnt target genes in airway epithelial cells in vitro. Conclusions/Significance Smoking down-regulates the Wnt pathway in the human airway epithelium. In the context that Wnt pathway plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial tissues, the down-regulation of Wnt pathway may contribute to the dysregulation of airway epithelium differentiation observed in smoking-related airway disorders. PMID:21490961

Wang, Rui; Ahmed, Joumana; Wang, Guoqing; Hassan, Ibrahim; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Hackett, Neil R.; Crystal, Ronald G.

2011-01-01

217

The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Methods Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Results All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they ‘ought’ to quit as opposed to ‘wanted’ to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be considerable in order to influence motivation. Highly motivated smokers expressed more willingness to visit Stop Smoking Services, although none had done so. Conclusion Continuing smokers’ attitudes towards smoking and quitting suggests that research and policy need to focus on increasing smokers’ implicit motivation to quit smoking, even for those who classified themselves as having high motivation to quit. Targeted information and further education about Stop Smoking Services is required to increase uptake. PMID:23641875

2013-01-01

218

Daily patterns of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.  

PubMed

Timeline followback (TLFB) methodology was used to assess the daily use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in adolescent cigarette smokers and nonsmokers over the prior 30 days. Adolescent smokers reported more frequent daily use of both alcohol and marijuana than nonsmokers did. Of those smokers and nonsmokers who drank alcohol and used marijuana, smokers reported more frequent daily use of alcohol, but not marijuana. In examining daily use patterns, there were very few instances when adolescent smokers used alcohol but did not smoke cigarettes, and smokers used marijuana alone on more days than alcohol alone. One-fifth of the adolescent smokers used all three substances on the same day in the past month. There were no significant differences in the patterns of alcohol and marijuana use between female and male smokers, regardless of age. Implications for clinical interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:15621398

Duhig, Amy M; Cavallo, Dana A; McKee, Sherry A; George, Tony P; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

2005-02-01

219

EFFECTIVENESS OF COUGH FOR ENHANCING MUCUS CLEARANCE IN ASYMPTOMATIC SMOKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Using monodisperse aerosols radiolabeled with 99mTc, we studied the effectiveness of ough and rapid inhalations for clearing mucus in en asymptomatic smokers. On three eparate study days, each subject breathed 5 um (MMAD) 99mTc-iron oxide particles under ontrolled breathing condi...

220

The subgingival microbiome of clinically healthy current and never smokers  

PubMed Central

Dysbiotic oral bacterial communities have a critical role in the etiology and progression of periodontal diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which smoking increases risk for disease by influencing the composition of the subgingival microbiome in states of clinical health. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 200 systemically and periodontally healthy smokers and nonsmokers. 16S pyrotag sequencing was preformed generating 1?623?713 classifiable sequences, which were compared with a curated version of the Greengenes database using the quantitative insights into microbial ecology pipeline. The subgingival microbial profiles of smokers and never-smokers were different at all taxonomic levels, and principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clustering of the microbial communities based on smoking status. Smokers demonstrated a highly diverse, pathogen-rich, commensal-poor, anaerobic microbiome that is more closely aligned with a disease-associated community in clinically healthy individuals, suggesting that it creates an at-risk-for-harm environment that is primed for a future ecological catastrophe. PMID:25012901

Mason, Matthew R; Preshaw, Philip M; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Dabdoub, Shareef M; Rahman, Anis; Kumar, Purnima S

2015-01-01

221

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Attentional bias toward cigarette cues in active smokers  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Attentional bias toward cigarette cues in active smokers Vicki W. Chanon-related sensory cues. For example, smoking urges may be triggered by the sight of cigarettes, smoking et al. 2000; Lubman et al. 2000), caffeine (Yeomans et al. Electronic supplementary material

Boettiger, Charlotte A.

222

Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.  

PubMed

Robust associations have been identified between impulsive personality characteristics and cigarette smoking during adolescents, indicating that impulsive behavior may play an important role in the initiation of cigarette smoking. The present study extended this research by using laboratory behavioral assessments to explore relationships between three specific dimensions of impulsive behavior (impulsive decision-making, inattention, and disinhibition) and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants were male and female adolescent smokers (n = 50) and nonsmokers (n = 50). Adolescent smokers were more impulsive on a measure of decision-making; however, there were significant smoking status by gender interaction effects for impulsive inattention and disinhibition. Male smokers were most impulsive on the measure of inattention, but male smokers were least impulsive on the measure of disinhibition. Correlations between biomarkers of smoking and impulsive inattention and disinhibition were found for females but not males. The current findings, coupled with previous findings (Reynolds et al., 2007), indicate there may be robust gender difference in associations between certain types of impulsive behavior and cigarette smoking during adolescence. PMID:19803629

Fields, Sherecce; Collins, Christine; Leraas, Kristen; Reynolds, Brady

2009-10-01

223

Putting It on the Line: Telephone Counseling for Adolescent Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present an adolescent counseling intervention used by the California Smokers' Helpline and test in the largest randomized trials to date. In this study, more than 1,400 teen clients were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received telephone counseling…

Tedeschi, Gary J.; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Anderson, Christopher M.; Cummins, Sharon; Ribner, Neil G.

2005-01-01

224

The relevance of the health belief model to Australian smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Health Belief Model is one of the few models predicting health behavior which explicitly evaluates the role of cues to action from the doctor or others. Rarely have such cues to action been examined formally by the comparison of groups receiving different interventions. Initial and follow-up data covering a wide range of sociopsychological variables were gathered from typical smokers

Rosemary A. Knight; David A. Hay

1989-01-01

225

Motivating Smokers to Quit: The Role of Motivational Interviewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Have you experienced the frustration of an inability to convince someone to quit smoking? Your passion for helping, combined with your training and experience, has taught you that your medical treatments will be in vain unless your patient stops smoking. Watching a smoker's health deteriorate is like witnessing a shipwreck. The slow but inevitable decline in health that accompanies smoking

226

Willingness among College Students to Help a Smoker Quit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Between February and March 2003, the authors examined college students' willingness to help a smoker quit and assessed demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with willingness to help. Participants: Survey respondents were 701 college students (474 women, 227 men) aged 18 to 24 years who indicated there was someone close…

Thomas, Janet L.; Gerber, Tracy A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Patten, Christi A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Offord, Kenneth P.

2008-01-01

227

Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

Niaura, Raymond; And Others

1992-01-01

228

Smoking Intensity among Nigerian Secondary Schools Adolescent Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined smoking intensity among secondary school adolescent smokers. A total of 800 students, made up of 685 males and 115 females who have at least tasted a cigarette once, from twenty secondary schools (5 private and 15 public secondary schools) in Benin City, Nigeria participated in the study. A questionnaire was used in collecting…

Imhonde, Henry O.; Aluede, Oyaziwo

2007-01-01

229

[Smoking cessation in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].  

PubMed

One out of two smokers who smoke throughout their lifetime will die from a disease related to smoking. Tobacco smoking therefore represents a major global public health issue. Smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Projections for 2020 indicate that by then, COPD will have become the third cause of death and the fifth cause of disability worldwide. Stopping smoking reduces the risk of developing COPD and is an essential treatment for this inflammatory disease. Smoking cessation decreases the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, number of hospitalizations, and decline in FEV1, as well as exacerbation frequency and overall mortality. Among the patients, 38-77% with COPD are smokers. Their daily cigarette consumption and level of nicotine dependence are often high. The combination of high intensity behavioral interventions and medication treatments (nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, bupropion) is the most effective strategy for smokers with COPD. In contrast, behavioral interventions without medication are not more effective than simple advice to stop. Two factors seem to predict the success of the attempt to quit in smokers with COPD: a strong motivation to quit and the use of smoking cessation medications. PMID:25496790

Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G

2014-12-01

230

Striatal hyposensitivity to delayed rewards among cigarette smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Brain regions that track value (including the ventral striatum) respond more during the anticipation of immediate than delayed rewards, even when the delayed rewards are larger and equally preferred to the immediate. The anticipatory response to immediate vs. delayed rewards has not previously been examined in association with cigarette smoking. Methods Smokers (n=35) and nonsmokers (n=36) performed a modified monetary incentive functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) task (Knutson et al., 2000) that included opportunities to win either immediate or delayed rewards. The delayed rewards were larger and equally preferred to the immediate rewards. Results Across groups, greater activation was observed in regions previously shown to track value including bilateral ventral/dorsal striatum during anticipation of immediate relative to delayed rewards. This effect was significantly greater among smokers than nonsmokers within the right ventral striatum. This group difference was driven particularly by low striatal activation among smokers during delayed reward trials. Conclusions The general tendency for striatal reward anticipatory activity to be attenuated when rewards are delayed is exaggerated among smokers relative to comparison participants. Among possible explanations of this relationship are that 1) low anticipatory response to delayed rewards is a phenotypic risk factor for smoking, and 2) smoking-related neuroadaptations result in reduced recruitment during the anticipation of delayed rewards. PMID:21177048

Luo, Shan; Ainslie, George; Giragosian, Lisa; Monterosso, John R.

2010-01-01

231

Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

2007-01-01

232

Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal  

SciTech Connect

We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

Ross, D.S.

1989-12-21

233

Use of and Interest in Smoking Cessation Strategies Among Daily and Nondaily College Student Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine use of and interest in cessation strategies among nondaily and daily college student smokers. Participants: 800 undergraduate student smokers aged 18 to 25. Methods: The authors examined nondaily versus daily smoking in relation to use of and interest in cessation strategies using an online survey. Results: Nondaily (65.8%) versus daily smokers (34.3%) were more likely to have

Carla J. Berg; Erin L. Sutfin; Jennifer Mendel; Jasjit S. Ahluwalia

2012-01-01

234

Determining Smoker Status using Supervised and Unsupervised Learning with Lexical Features  

E-print Network

records for the smoker­status challenge, there is no single target word, and in fact the smoking statusDetermining Smoker Status using Supervised and Unsupervised Learning with Lexical Features Ted describes three University of Min- nesota, Duluth systems that participated in the I2B2 NLP smoker­status

Pedersen, Ted

235

Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

2014-01-01

236

Do cigarette smokers have unrealistic perceptions of their heart attack, cancer, and stroke risks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether perceived risks of heart attack, cancer, and stroke were higher among smokers than nonsmokers; whether smokers were more likely to underestimate these risks; and the demographic correlates of unrealistic risk estimation among smokers. Two thousand seven hundred eight-five patients from 12 North Carolina family practices completed a questionnaire including a health risk appraisal and questions concerning

Victor J. Strecher; Matthew W. Kreuter; Sarah C. Kobrin

1995-01-01

237

A Comparison of Mortality Rates in a Large Population of Smokers and Non-smokers: based on the Presence or Absence of Coronary Artery Calcification  

PubMed Central

Objectives To further study the interplay between smoking status, Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) and all-cause mortality. Background Prior studies have not directly compared the relative prognostic impact of CAC in smokers versus non-smokers. In particular, while zero CAC is a known favorable prognostic-marker, whether smokers without CAC have as good a prognosis as non-smokers without CAC is unknown. Given computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer appears effective in smokers, the relative prognostic implications of visualizing any CAC versus no CAC on such screening also deserve study. Methods Our study cohort consisted of 44,042 asymptomatic individuals referred for non-contrast cardiac CT (age 54±11 years, 54% males). Subjects were followed for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results Approximately 14% (n=6020) of subjects were active smokers at enrollment. There were 901 deaths (2.05%) overall, with increased mortality in smokers vs. non-smokers (4.3% vs. 1.7%, p<0.0001). Smoking remained a risk factor for mortality across increasing strata of CAC scores (1-100, 101-400, and >400). In multivariable analysis within these strata, we found mortality hazard ratios (HRs) of 3.8 (95% CI, 2.8-5.2), 3.5 (2.6-4.9), and 2.7 (2.1-3.5), respectively, in smokers compared to nonsmokers. At each stratum of elevated CAC score, mortality in smokers was consistently higher than mortality in non-smokers from the CAC stratum above. However, among the 19,898 individuals with CAC=0, the mortality HR for smokers without CAC was 3.6 (95% CI, 2.3-5.7), compared to non-smokers without CAC. Conclusion Smoking is a risk factor for death across the entire spectrum of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Smokers with any coronary calcification are at significantly increased future mortality risk than smokers without CAC. However, the absence of CAC may not be as useful a “negative risk factor” in active smokers; as this group has mortality rates similar to non-smokers with mild to moderate atherosclerosis. PMID:23058072

McEvoy, John W; Blaha, Michael J; Rivera, Juan J; Budoff, Matthew J; Khan, Atif N; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Raggi, Paolo; Min, James K; Rumberger, John A; Callister, Tracy Q; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Nasir, Khurram

2015-01-01

238

Vaginal cells of smokers are more resistant to human papillomavirus infection than that of non-smokers  

PubMed Central

To evaluate effect of HPV and smoking on DNA double-strand breaks in vaginal samples, vaginal specimens collected from participants (n=76) were classified based on HPV and smoking status and DNA double-strand breaks measured using comet assay. Mean tail length (31.2 +/? 18.7 ?m) and tail moment (2.4 +/? 2.8 arbitrary units) for HPV-positive patients were lower (p<0.001) compared with HPV-negative patients (61.7 +/? 22.6 ?m; 8.7 +/? 4.9). Never-smokers were found to have higher level (p<0.001) of double-strand breaks (57.7 +/? 24.5 ?m, 7.5 +/? 5.5 AU) compared with ever smokers (35.3 +/? 21.9 ?m; 3.4 +/? 3.7 AU). Among HPV infected patients, never-smokers have more double-strand breaks compared to smokers (p<0.001) which correlated with age (p<0.001). Highly differentiated vaginal epithelium may be resistant to DNA damage associated with HPV infection and smoking, which may be attributed to adoptive survival mechanisms of vaginal epithelium. PMID:23137616

Moktar, Afsoon; Ravoori, Srivani; Vadhanm, Manicka V.; Pan, Jianmin; Rai, Shesh N; Jenson, Alfred B.; Parker, Lynn P.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

2012-01-01

239

COMPARISON OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION IN NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS OBTAINED FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several studies have demonstrated that individuals who smoke have greater susceptibility to influenza infections, as well as other respiratory virus infections, than non-smokers, yet the role of airway epithelial cells in this response is not clear. To determine whether in vivo t...

240

Perceived Risks of Certain Types of Cancer and Heart Disease among Asian American Smokers and Non-Smokers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed Asian Americans' knowledge levels regarding the health risks of tobacco use. Surveys of Korean, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Cambodian smokers and nonsmokers indicated that most respondents recognized the association between smoking and increased risk for lung, mouth, throat, and esophageal cancer and heart disease. There were significant…

Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Feeley, Rosemary M.; Thomas, Priya

2002-01-01

241

Hydrothermal Systems Associated with Martian Impact Craters  

Microsoft Academic Search

With widespread evidence of both heat sources and water (either liquid or solid), hydrothermal systems are likely to have existed on Mars. We model hydrothermal systems in two sizes of fresh impact craters, one simple and one complex, and find that a hydrothermal system forms on the crater floor. In the larger complex craters with a substantial melt sheet, a

Julie A. Rathbun; Steven W. Squyres

2002-01-01

242

Hydrothermal Vents: Thar She Blows!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will discover how the proximity of hot magma to cold ocean water creates new rocky structures around hydrothermal vents. During this activity, students will demonstrate an understanding of how the processes that result in the formation of hydrothermal vents create new ocean floor and how the transfer of energy effects solids and liquids. This hands-on activity uses online data resources and includes: focus questions, learning objectives, teaching time, audio/visual materials needed, background information, learning procedures, evaluations, extensions, as well as resources and student handouts.

243

Differences between nicotine-abstinent smokers and non-smokers in terms of visuospatial attention and inhibition before and after single-blind nicotine administration.  

PubMed

The cholinergic system is implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, however the exact role is still unclear. Two key mechanisms in visuospatial attention are bias and disengagement. Bias refers to neuronal signals that enhance the sensitivity of the sensory cortex, disengagement is the decoupling of attention. Previous studies suggest that nicotine affects disengagement and (related) inhibition. However the exact relation is still unknown. Furthermore, nicotine-abstinence in 'healthy' smokers may resemble some anomalies of visuospatial attention and inhibition as seen in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Smokers and non-smokers (32 male students) performed in a visuospatial cueing (VSC) task, to assess bias and disengagement, and in a stop-signal task (SST) to assess inhibition. It was expected that nicotine abstinent smokers compared to non-smokers, would show poor disengagement (indicated by an enhanced validity effect) and poor inhibitory control (indicated by an enhanced stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)). It was expected that nicotine would positively affect disengagement and inhibition: hypothesis 1 stated that this effect would be larger in smokers as opposed to non-smokers, in terms of smoking-related deficient inhibitory control. Hypothesis 2 stated the exact opposite, in terms of drug-tolerance. Results indicated no baseline differences. Nicotine enhanced inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers. Integrating the results, nicotine-abstinent smokers do not seem to resemble ADHD patients, and do not seem to smoke in order to self-medicate a pre-existing deficit pertaining to mechanisms of visuospatial attention and inhibition. Nicotine may affect inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers, consistent with a drug-tolerance account. PMID:25050819

Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

2014-09-26

244

Black Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is a Black Eye? Tweet Black eye is a phrase used to describe bruising ... dark bruising in the tissue. What Is a Black Eye? Black Eye Symptoms What Causes a Black ...

245

Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of perovskite bismuth ferrite nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) nanoparticles were grown by hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The soaking time is effective in improving phase formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rietveld refinement reveals an orthorhombic structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed magnetism of the BFO crystallites is a consequence of particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HTMW is a genuine technique for low temperatures and short times of synthesis. -- Abstract: Hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline bismuth ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) nanoparticles (BFO) in the temperature of 180 Degree-Sign C with times ranging from 5 min to 1 h. BFO nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray analyses, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, TG-DTA and FE-SEM. X-ray diffraction results indicated that longer soaking time was benefit to refraining the formation of any impurity phases and growing BFO crystallites into almost single-phase perovskites. Typical FT-IR spectra for BFO nanoparticles presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. TG-DTA analyses confirmed the presence of lattice OH{sup -} groups, commonly found in materials obtained by HTMW process. Compared with the conventional solid-state reaction process, submicron BFO crystallites with better homogeneity could be produced at the temperature as low as 180 Degree-Sign C. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could be used as an alternative to obtain BFO nanoparticles in the temperature of 180 Degree-Sign C for 1 h.

Biasotto, G. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica (LIEC), Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)] [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica (LIEC), Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Simoes, A.Z., E-mail: alezipo@yahoo.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista-Unesp, Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Bairro Pedregulho, CEP 12516-410, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Foschini, C.R.; Zaghete, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica (LIEC), Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)] [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica (LIEC), Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

2011-12-15

246

2003 Geological Society of America. For permission to copy, contact Copyright Permissions, GSA, or editing@geosociety.org. Geology; February 2003; v. 31; no. 2; p. 119122; 4 figures. 119  

E-print Network

on ridge-crest hydrothermal venting and ridge-transform dynamics is investigated using a June 1­7, 2000 were deployed in black smoker chimneys at the Vent1 and Plume hydrothermal fields along the southern are not the only causes of change to hydrothermal systems. Keywords: hydrothermal vents, earthquakes, fluid

Chadwick, Bill

247

Experiments in Fluids manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

jet-like and plume-like behavior. Keywords Black smoker plumes · Hydrothermal vents · Optical expression of these hydrothermal systems are vent fields where hydrothermal fluids enter the ocean after in Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems Received: date / Accepted: date Abstract Evidence suggests that fluid flow

Crone, Timothy J.

248

When smokers move out and nonsmokers move in: Residential thirdhand smoke pollution and exposure  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined whether thirdhand smoke (THS) persists in smokers’ homes after they move out and nonsmokers move in, and whether new nonsmoking residents are exposed to THS in these homes. Methods Homes of 100 smokers and 50 nonsmokers were visited before the residents moved out. Dust, surfaces, and air and participants’ fingers were measured for nicotine and children’s urine samples were analyzed for cotinine. The new residents who moved into these homes were recruited if they were nonsmokers. Dust, surfaces, and air, and new residents’ fingers were examined for nicotine in 25 former smoker and 16 former nonsmoker homes. A urine sample was collected from the youngest resident. Results Smoker homes’ dust, surface, and air nicotine decreased after the change of occupancy (p<.001); yet dust and surfaces showed higher contamination levels in former smoker homes than former nonsmoker homes (p<.05). Nonsmoking participants’ finger nicotine was higher in former smoker homes compared to former nonsmoker homes (p<.05). Finger nicotine levels among nonsmokers living in former smoker homes were significantly correlated with dust and surface nicotine and urine cotinine. Conclusions These findings indicate that THS accumulates in smokers’ homes and persists when smokers move out even after homes remain vacant for two months and are cleaned and prepared for new residents. When nonsmokers move into homes formerly occupied by smokers, they encounter indoor environments with THS polluted surfaces and dust. Results suggest that nonsmokers living in former smoker homes are exposed to THS in dust and on surfaces. PMID:21037269

Matt, Georg E.; Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Zakarian, Joy M.; Fortmann, Addie L.; Chatfield, Dale A.; Hoh, Eunha; Uribe, Anna M.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2013-01-01

249

False promises: The tobacco industry, “low-tar” cigarettes, and older smokers  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging Baby Boomers. Methods Archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis utilizing iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Results Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. “Low tar” cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Conclusion Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing “low-tar” or “light” cigarettes to older smokers at risk at quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer; however, “light” cigarettes may actually make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers and families about the tobacco industry’s influence may decrease the tendency to “blame the victim,” thereby enhancing the likelihood of tobacco addiction treatment for older adults. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

Cataldo, Janine K.; Malone, Ruth E.

2009-01-01

250

Plagioclase and epidote buffering of cation ratios in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids: Experimental results in and near the supercritical region  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been performed with Na-Ca-K-Cl fluids of seawater chlorinity and diabase, basalt, and plagioclase bearing mineral mixtures at 350-425{degree}C and 250-400 bars to help constrain hydrothermal alteration processes at mid-ocean ridges. Dissolved Ca, Na, and pH for all experiments responded systematically to differences in dissolved SiO{sub 2} concentrations and the compositions of plagioclase reactants. Diabase alteration at low fluid/rock mass ratios (0.5 to 1) produces fluids undersaturated with respect to quartz during hydration of primary olivine and orthopyroxene, whereas basalt alteration under similar conditions yields fluids slightly supersaturated with respect to quartz during breakdown of glass to smectite and amphibole. Fluid chemistry in all experiments appears to approach a partial equilibrium state with the albite and anorthite components in plagioclase and approaches a pH consistent with plagioclase alteration to epidote. Trace element data from vent fluids, specifically B and Sr, together with major element chemistry, provides evidence that the reaction zone for black-smoker fluids at mid-ocean ridges is composed of only slightly altered diabase and is characterized by small amounts of epidote, nearly fresh plagioclase and clinopyroxene, and partially to completely hydrated olivine and orthopyroxene. Using equilibrium between plagioclase, the dominant reactant, and epidote, the dominant reaction product in experiments, the authors estimate that temperatures in reaction zones are in excess of 375{degree}C for most vent systems. These temperatures are higher than measured vent temperatures, suggesting that hot spring fluids commonly loose heat during ascent to the sea floor.

Berndt, M.E.; Seyfried, W.E. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA)); Janecky, D.R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (USA))

1989-09-01

251

Project IMPACT: A pharmacotherapy pilot trial investigating the abstinence and treatment adherence of Latino light smokers  

PubMed Central

Light smoking is particularly prevalent among Latino smokers. Nicotine replacement (NRT) and varenicline are effective medications for smoking cessation for moderate-heavy smokers, but have not been tested in light smokers and thus there are no treatment guidelines for use with light smokers. This pilot trial tested the efficacy of NRT and varenicline in increasing smoking abstinence among Latino light smokers. A 3-group (NRT, varenicline, varenicline-placebo) randomized design was used and Latino light smokers (?10 cpd) received 12 weeks of treatment which included a culturally-informed behavioral health session and ongoing medication management visits. At follow-up, there were no abstinent participants in the placebo and NRT groups. However, 30% of participants in the varenicline group were abstinent at the 3, 4, and 6 month follow-up. This study represents the only investigation that specifically targets Latino light smokers using these treatments and characterizing their treatment adherence. PMID:22377389

de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stanton, Cassandra; Audet, Daniel A.; Stein, Michael

2012-01-01

252

The role of the non-smoker in enforcing smoke-free laws.  

PubMed

Compliance with laws making certain environments smoke free has focused mainly on smokers' behavior, while the role of non-smokers has scarcely been investigated. Our cross-sectional study interviewed 4043 adults (2037 smokers and 2006 non-smokers) in the general population of Greece during April 2009. Non-smokers reported that they would actively work for compliance with the law. The non-smokers were older, more educated (odds ratio, OR 1.4), and were more likely to be annoyed by the smell of environmental tobacco smoke (OR 2.4) or report that it irritates their eyes (OR 1.8). Policymakers should evaluate how non-smokers could actively support smoke-free laws through reporting of violations using media campaigns that inform them of their rights, and other measures. PMID:21150943

Vardavas, Constantine I; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Schoretsaniti, Sotiria; Patelarou, Evridiki; Filippidis, Filippos T; Connolly, Gregory N; Tountas, Yiannis

2011-02-01

253

Hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers,  

SciTech Connect

This book examines research on the description and interpretation of hydrothermal and associated phenomena at seafloor spreading centers. An interdisciplinary overview of the subject is presented, including geological, geophysical, geochemical, and biological discoveries. The implications of the discoveries for understanding the earth's heat transfer, geochemical mass balances and cycles, mineralization, and biological adaptation are discussed. Topics considered include geologic setting (e.g., the four dimensions of the spreading axis, geological processes of the mid-ocean ridge), hydrothermal convection (e.g., oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies, the basic physics of water penetration into hot rock), Iceland and oceanic ridges (e.g., chemical evidence from Icelandic geothermal systems, the physical environment of hydrothermal systems), mass balances and cycles (e.g., reduced gases and bacteria in hydrothermal fluids, the effects of hydrothermal activity on sedimentary organic matter), ferromanganese deposits, hydrothermal mineralization, and the biology of hydrothermal vents.

Rona, P.A.; Bostrom, K.; Laubier, L.; Smith, K.L.

1983-01-01

254

Smokers have less dense bones and fewer teeth.  

PubMed

Women and men who smoke are more slender than their non-smoking counterparts and have a bone density appropriate to their degree of slenderness. As a result, they are more likely to sustain a fracture than their non-smoking counterparts. The lower bone density found in smokers may arise because of less stress and strain imposed on the skeleton by a slim physique. Smokers have poorer oral hygiene and less teeth than their non-smoking counterparts. The relationship between smoking and tooth pathology remains unclear: smoking may either act via a direct mechanism based on the toxicity of tobacco smoke or indirectly through body weight (ie the effect on teeth is part of a wider effect on bone structure). PMID:7844791

Johnston, J D

1994-10-01

255

Beliefs, Experience, and Interest in Pharmacotherapy among Smokers with HIV  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine beliefs, prior use, and interest in using pharmacotherapy among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods Cross-sectional survey of smokers in a midwestern HIV clinic. Results The sample (N = 146) included 69% men, 82% African American, 45% were in precontemplation for quitting, and 46% were interested in using pharmacotherapy. Primary reasons for non-use included cost and a belief that they would be able to quit on their own. Physician’s assistance was the strongest correlate of prior use. Perceived benefits and self-efficacy were the strongest correlates of willingness to use pharmacotherapy. Conclusions Future interventions should address misconceptions, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy for using cessation aids. Physicians should offer pharmacotherapy to all smokers. PMID:24629557

McQueen, Amy; Shacham, Enbal; Sumner, Walton; Overton, E. Turner

2014-01-01

256

Imaging-based assessment of dyspnea in cigarette smokers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patients with pulmonary fibrosis frequently smoke cigarettes. The cause of dyspnea in these patients is often complex because of the coexistence of multiple disease processes. We investigated 10 cigarette smokers with pulmonary fibrosis who were referred for evaluation of new onset or worsening dyspnea. Chest radiographs and pulmonary function tests were obtained in addition to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). In those patients with HRCT evidence of both diseases, spirometry and lung volumes were most often normal. Although plain films provided a reasonable assessment of fibrosis, they underestimated the severity of emphysema. Quantitation of both emphysema and fibrosis by HRCT was reproducible and correlated with key pulmonary function tests. Our findings indicate that the HRCT scan is a useful diagnostic test in patients with pulmonary fibrosis who are also cigarette smokers.

Galvin, Jeffrey R.; Chang, Paul J.; Schwartz, David A.; Hunninghake, Gary W.; Helmers, Richard; Mori, Masaki

1994-05-01

257

Up-regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in menthol cigarette smokers  

PubMed Central

One-third of smokers primarily use menthol cigarettes and usage of these cigarettes leads to elevated serum nicotine levels and more difficulty quitting in standard treatment programmes. Previous brain imaging studies demonstrate that smoking (without regard to cigarette type) leads to up-regulation of ?2*-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We sought to determine if menthol cigarette usage results in greater nAChR up-regulation than non-menthol cigarette usage. Altogether, 114 participants (22 menthol cigarette smokers, 41 non-menthol cigarette smokers and 51 non-smokers) underwent positron emission tomography scanning using the ?4?2* nAChR radioligand 2-[18F]fluoro-A-85380 (2-FA). In comparing menthol to non-menthol cigarette smokers, an overall test of 2-FA total volume of distribution values revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from menthol smokers having 9–28% higher ?4?2* nAChR densities than non-menthol smokers across regions. In comparing the entire group of smokers to non-smokers, an overall test revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from smokers having higher ?4?2* nAChR levels in all regions studied (36–42%) other than thalamus (3%). Study results demonstrate that menthol smokers have greater up-regulation of nAChRs than non-menthol smokers. This difference is presumably related to higher nicotine exposure in menthol smokers, although other mechanisms for menthol influencing receptor density are possible. These results provide additional information about the severity of menthol cigarette use and may help explain why these smokers have more trouble quitting in standard treatment programmes. PMID:23171716

Brody, Arthur L; Mukhin, Alexey G; La Charite, Jaime; Ta, Karen; Farahi, Judah; Sugar, Catherine A.; Mamoun, Michael S.; Vellios, Evan; Archie, Meena; Kozman, Maggie; Phuong, Jonathan; Arlorio, Franca; Mandelkern, Mark A.

2013-01-01

258

Preliminary results from Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 - NE Lau: First explorations of hydrothermally active volcanoes across the supra-subduction zone and a return to the West Mata eruption site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several expeditions in the past few years have shown that the NE Lau basin has one of the densest concentrations of volcanically and hydrothermally active volcanoes on the planet. In 2008 two active submarine volcanic eruptions were discovered during a one week period and subsequent dives with the Jason remotely operated vehicle at one of the sites (West Mata) revealed an active boninite eruption taking place at 1200 m depth. Two dives at the other revealed evidence for recent eruption along the NE Lau Spreading Center. Several more expeditions in 2010-11 discovered additional evidence about the extent and types of hydrothermal activity in this area. Data from CTDO (conductivity, temperature, depth, optical) vertical casts, tow-yos, and towed camera deployments revealed more than 15 hydrothermal sites at water depths from ~800 to 2700 m that include sites from the magmatic arc, the "rear arc," and the back arc spreading centers. These sites range from high temperature black smoker sulfide-producing systems to those dominated by magmatic degassing. Dives by remotely operated vehicle (Quest 4000) in September 2012 will explore these sites and return samples for chemical, biological and geologic studies. One of the dives will be a return visit to West Mata volcano, the site of the deepest submarine eruption yet observed (in 2009). Recent multibeam data reveal large changes in West Mata's summit, suggesting that the nature of the eruption and the location of the erupting vents may have changed. In addition to the preliminary results from the science team, we will also discuss our use and experience with continuous live video transmission (through the High Definition video camera on the Quest 4000) back to shore via satellite and through the internet. Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 Science Team: Bradley Tebo, Bill Chadwick, Ed Baker, Ken Rubin, Susan Merle, Timothy Shank, Sharon Walker, Andra Bobbitt, Nathan Buck, David Butterfield, Eric Olson, John Lupton, Richard Arculus, Fabio Caratori-Tontini, Rick Davis, Kevin Roe, Edward Mitchell, Paula Keener-Chavis Carolyn Sheehan, Peter Crowhurst, Simon Richards,and Volker Ratmeyer along with the Quest-4000 team. .

Resing, J.; Embley, R. W.

2012-12-01

259

Change in Smoking, Diet, and Walking for Exercise in Blacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive changes in one health behavior may be accompanied by other constructive health behavior changes. Thus, the authors investigated the association of smoking reduction and cessation to changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and engaging in walking for exercise. This study included 539 Black light smokers ([less than or equal to]10…

Berg, Carla J.; Thomas, Janet L.; An, Lawrence C.; Guo, Hongfei; Collins, Tracie; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2012-01-01

260

Anxiety Sensitivity Cognitive Concerns Predict Suicidality among Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety along with anxiety-related risk factors is receiving increased attention in regard to its role in elevated suicidality. One such risk factor, anxiety sensitivity (AS), refers to a fear of anxiety-related symptoms. Emerging research indicates that components of AS, particularly the AS subfactor focused on cognitive arousal concerns, are significantly associated with elevated suicidality in samples of diverse clinical outpatients, clinical outpatients with PTSD symptoms, and Air Force cadets undergoing a stressful life experience. Cigarette smokers represent another relevant population for this line of research due to recent reports indicating that cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence may be related to elevated suicidality. Methods Study 1 examined the role of AS and the AS subfactors in a large sample (n = 343) of community adult smokers. Study 2 examined the role of AS and AS subfactors in a sample of “pack-a-day” adult smokers (n = 78) who were seeking outpatient treatment for substance abuse issues. Results Study 1 results were consistent with our a priori hypothesis that AS cognitive concerns would be significantly associated with suicidality. Additionally, after covarying for relevant substance use variables, Study 2 results were also consistent with our hypothesis that AS cognitive concerns were significantly associated with suicidality. Limitations Limitations included the use of suicide related outcomes, not death by suicide, and cross-sectional design. Conclusions These findings suggest that suicide potential in cigarette smokers may be related to AS cognitive concerns and add to the emerging literature suggesting AS cognitive concerns are a risk factor for suicidality. PMID:22370063

Capron, Daniel W.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Medley, Amanda N.; Lewis, Sarah; Feldner, Matthew T.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

2012-01-01

261

Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total\\u000a of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of\\u000a cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic\\u000a analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9%

Abdul-latif Hamdan; Abla Sibai; Dima Oubari; Jihad Ashkar; Nabil Fuleihan

2010-01-01

262

Smokers Ages 50+: Who Gets Physician Advice to Quit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Smoking-related morbidity and mortality, and benefits associated with quitting, extend across the life span. Health care provider interventions enhance quitting. The present study examined perceived influence of physician advice to quit and characteristics of subjects receiving this advice.Methods. Subjects were 1,454 smokers ages 50+ with at least one physician visit in the past year. Subjects were surveyed at baseline

Deborah J. Ossip-Klein; Scott McIntosh; Christopher Utman; Kathi Burton; Jean Spada; Joseph Guido

2000-01-01

263

‘The missing picture’: tobacco use through the eyes of smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe use of visual methodologies has gained increased prominence among health researchers working with socially marginalised populations, including those studying tobacco and other types of substance use.ObjectivesThis article draws from two separate studies combining qualitative and photographic methods to illustrate the unique insights that visual research with smokers can generate for tobacco control.MethodsA purposeful selection of photographs and captions produced

Rebecca J Haines; John L Oliffe; Joan L Bottorff; Blake D Poland

2010-01-01

264

Chromosomal alterations in lung adenocarcinoma from smokers and nonsmokers.  

PubMed

The etiology of lung tumors arising in nonsmokers remains unclear. Although mutations in the K-ras and p53 genes have been reported to be significantly higher in smoking-related lung carcinomas, in the present study we performed a more comprehensive analysis in search of additional genetic changes between lung adenocarcinoma from tobacco- and non-tobacco-exposed patients. We selected a matched cohort of 18 lifetime nonsmoking and 27 smoking patients diagnosed with primary adenocarcinoma of the lung and searched for chromosomal alterations in each tumor by testing normal and tumor tissue with 54 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers located on 28 different chromosomal arms. Allelic losses or gains at chromosomal arms 3p (37 versus 6%), 6q (46 versus 12%), 9p (65 versus 22%), 16p (28 versus 0%), 17p (45 versus 11%), and 19p (58 versus 16%) were present significantly more often in adenocarcinomas from smokers than from nonsmokers. Chromosomal arms showing allelic imbalance in lung tumors from nonsmokers were rare but occurred more often at 19q (22%), 12p (22%), and 9p (22%). The FAL (fractional allelic loss or gain) is defined as the percentage of chromosomal arm losses/gains among the total informative chromosomal arms. Tumors from smokers harbored higher levels of FAL (13 (48%) of 27 showed FAL > or = 0.3) compared with the lung tumors from the nonsmoker patients (2 (11%) of 18 showed FAL > or = 0.3; P = 0.02; odds ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.79). Our data demonstrate that widespread chromosomal abnormalities are frequent in lung adenocarcinoma from smokers, whereas these abnormalities are infrequent in such tumors arising in nonsmokers. These observations support the notion that lung cancers in nonsmokers arise through genetic alterations distinct from the common events observed in tumors from smokers. PMID:11245426

Sanchez-Cespedes, M; Ahrendt, S A; Piantadosi, S; Rosell, R; Monzo, M; Wu, L; Westra, W H; Yang, S C; Jen, J; Sidransky, D

2001-02-15

265

The ‘considerate’ smoker in public space: the micro-politics and political economy of ‘doing the right thing’  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the discourse of ‘interactions’ as applied to the interpersonal management of smoking in public places (and to accounts thereof). Empirical data from a qualitative study of smokers and non-smokers in metropolitan Toronto, Ontario (Canada) are used to illustrate how smokers and non-smokers define and claim to operationalize ‘consideration’ in their daily lives. Drawing on the work of

Blake D Poland

2000-01-01

266

Smoking Patterns and Stimulus Control in Intermittent and Daily Smokers  

PubMed Central

Intermittent smokers (ITS) – who smoke less than daily – comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4–27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5–30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n?=?21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n?=?26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or “indulgent” smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS. PMID:24599056

Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Ferguson, Stuart G.

2014-01-01

267

Male smoker and non-smoker responses to television advertisements on the harms of secondhand smoke in China, India and Russia.  

PubMed

Mass media campaigns can play an important role in strengthening support for smoke-free policies and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Identifying anti-SHS advertisements that are effective in diverse cultural contexts may allow for resource sharing in low- and middle-income countries. A convenience sample of 481 male cigarette smokers and non-smokers in three high tobacco burden and culturally dissimilar countries (India, China and Russia) viewed and rated five anti-SHS ads. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 'Message Acceptance', 'Negative Emotion', 'Perceived Effectiveness' and 'Behavioral Intentions'. Smokers and non-smokers in all countries consistently rated the strong graphic, health harm ads as the most effective, and the 'informational' ad as the least effective overall: the graphic ad 'Baby Alive' was at least 1.8 times more likely than the informational ad 'Smoke-free works' to receive positive ratings on all four outcomes (all P < 0.001). Graphic, health harm messages about SHS exposure have the greatest universal appeal and are the most effective in motivating changes in behavioral intentions. Similarity in reactions between smokers and non-smokers, and across countries, suggests that resource sharing and the use of a single graphic ad targeted at smokers and non-smokers would be cost-efficient strategies. PMID:25122618

Murukutla, Nandita; Bayly, Megan; Mullin, Sandra; Cotter, Trish; Wakefield, Melanie

2015-02-01

268

Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey  

PubMed Central

Background In an attempt to minimize the pack design avenue of communication between tobacco producers and smokers and potential smokers, several jurisdictions, including Norway, have considered regulations on cigarette pack design. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how package design affects young people’s perceptions of typical smokers of some pre-chosen cigarette brands and brand varieties. Methods Based on data from a web survey among 1022 15–22 year-olds, possible effects of plain packaging of cigarettes on adolescents’ views about typical cigarette smokers were investigated. The data collection had a between-subjects design, in which participants were allocated to one of three groups, and asked to typify the smokers of selected cigarette packs either in branded, plain or plain with descriptor versions. The sample included boys and girls, and smokers and non-smokers. The smoker characteristics included in the investigation were: gender, glamour, stylishness, popularity, coolness, sophistication and slimness. Results After creating sum-scores within and across packs and pack versions, analyses indicated that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging would result in a reduction in positive user images related to smoking among adolescents and young adults. For girls, this effect held up after controlling for confounders. Conclusions To the extent that plain packaging contributes to making smoking images less positive, it can potentially be an efficient aid in reducing smoking uptake among adolescents. PMID:24156515

2013-01-01

269

Cigarette smoking and bronchial carcinoma: dose and time relationships among regular smokers and lifelong non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 20-year prospective study on British doctors, smoking habits were ascertained by questionnaire and lung cancer incidence was monitored. Among cigarette smokers who started smoking at ages 16-25 and who smoked 40 or less per day, the annual lung cancer incidence in the age range 40-79 was:0.273X10(-12). (cigarettes\\/day+6)2. (age--22.5)4.5. The form of the dependence on dose in this relationship

R Doll; R Peto

1978-01-01

270

Pulmonary function responses to ozone in smokers with a limited smoking history.  

PubMed

In non-smokers, ozone (O3) inhalation causes decreases in forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and dead space (VD) and increases the slope of the alveolar plateau (SN). We previously described a population of smokers with a limited smoking history that had enhanced responsiveness to brief O3 boluses and aimed to determine if responsiveness to continuous exposure was also enhanced. Thirty smokers (19M, 11F, 24±4 years, 6±4 total years smoking,4±2 packs/week) and 30 non-smokers (17M, 13F, 25±6 years) exercised for 1h on a cycle ergometer while breathing 0.30ppm O3. Smokers and non-smokers were equally responsive in terms of FEV1 (-9.5±1.8% vs -8.7±1.9%). Smokers alone were responsive in terms of VD (-6.1±1.2%) and SN (9.1±3.4%). There was no difference in total delivered dose. Dead space ventilation (VD/VT) was not initially different between the two groups, but increased in the non-smokers (16.4±2.8%) during the exposure, suggesting that the inhaled dose may be distributed more peripherally in smokers. We also conclude that these cigarette smokers retain their airway responsiveness to O3 and, uniquely, experience changes in VD that lead to heterogeneity in airway morphometry and an increase in SN. PMID:24747805

Bates, Melissa L; Brenza, Timothy M; Ben-Jebria, Abdellaziz; Bascom, Rebecca; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Ultman, James S

2014-07-01

271

Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8), with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5), females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5), White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4) or Black people (0.90, 0.73-1.10, n = 4). Estimates for current and ever smokers are similar. The combined estimate for long-term use (0.95, 0.80-1.13, n = 4) again suggests no effect of mentholation. Conclusion Higher lung cancer rates in Black males cannot be due to their greater preference for mentholated cigarettes. While some study weaknesses exist, the epidemiological evidence is consistent with mentholation having no effect on the lung carcinogenicity of cigarettes. PMID:21501470

2011-01-01

272

Zinc stannate nanostructures: hydrothermal synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured binary semiconducting metal oxides have received much attention in the last decade owing to their unique properties rendering them suitable for a wide range of applications. In the quest to further improve the physical and chemical properties, an interest in ternary complex oxides has become noticeable in recent times. Zinc stannate or zinc tin oxide (ZTO) is a class of ternary oxides that are known for their stable properties under extreme conditions, higher electron mobility compared to its binary counterparts and other interesting optical properties. The material is thus ideal for applications from solar cells and sensors to photocatalysts. Among the different methods of synthesizing ZTO nanostructures, the hydrothermal method is an attractive green process that is carried out at low temperatures. In this review, we summarize the conditions leading to the growth of different ZTO nanostructures using the hydrothermal method and delve into a few of its applications reported in the literature.

Baruah, Sunandan; Dutta, Joydeep

2011-02-01

273

Microbial Geochemistry in Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are far more ubiquitous than generally recognized. Approximately 50-60 systems are currently known, occurring world-wide in areas of high heat flow, such as, volcanic island arcs, near-surface mid-ocean ridges, and intraplate oceanic volcanoes. In contrast to deep-sea systems, shallow- sea vent fluids generally include a meteoric component, they experience phase separation near the sediment- water interface, and they discharge into the photic zone (<200 m). They also are characterized by wide ranges in chemical composition, hundreds of redox disequilibria that translate to potential metabolisms, and broad phylogenetic diversity among the thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Perhaps because deep-sea smokers and continental hot springs are visually more stunning, shallow-sea systems are often overlooked study sites. We will discuss their particular features that afford unique opportunities in microbial geochemistry. Two of the better studied examples are at Vulcano Island (Italy) and Ambitle Island (Papua New Guinea). The vents and sediment seeps at Vulcano are the "type locality" for numerous cultured hyperthermophiles, including the bacteria Aquifex and Thermotoga, the crenarchaeon Pyrodictium, and the Euryarchaeota Archaeoglobus and Pyrococcus. Isotope-labeled incubation experiments of heated sediments and an array of culturing studies have shown that simple organic compounds are predominantly fermented or anaerobically respired with sulfate. 16S rRNA gene surveys, together with fluorescent in situ hybridization studies, demonstrated the dominance of key thermophilic bacteria and archaea (e.g., Aquificales, Thermotogales, Thermococcales, Archaeoglobales) in the sediments and the presence of a broad spectrum of mostly uncultured crenarchaeota in several vent waters, sediment samples, and geothermal wells. Thermodynamic modeling quantified potential energy yields from aerobic and anaerobic respiration reactions and fermentation reactions. In contrast to their deep-sea counterparts, shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are often characterized by high arsenic concentrations of more than 500-times seawater levels. The arsenic, generally present as arsenite (As^{III}) in the vent fluid, feeds local biogeochemical arsenic cycles. Thus, shallow sites are excellent hunting grounds for novel extremophiles that may gain metabolic energy by catalyzing arsenic redox reactions. Particularly the Ambitle site, where hydrothermal fluids contain up to 1,000 ?g/L arsenite, has proven to be exceptional. There, the arsenic has a wide-ranging impact on micro-, meio-, and macro-fauna.

Amend, J. P.; Pichler, T.

2006-12-01

274

Alterations in the cellular-mediated immune responsiveness of chronic marihuana smokers.  

PubMed

Chronic marihuana smokers and matched nonsmokers were compared with respect to several aspects of both their humoral and cellular immune system. Immunoglobulin and complement levels, SMA 12 and hematologic values from marihuana smokers did not differ significantly from those obtained from nonsmokers. However, the number of T-lymphocytes with respect to the ratio of T and B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood was lowered in marihuana smokers. In addition, phytohemagglutinin stimulation of lymphocytes was apparently less effective in smokers. The polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PNM) from the blood of smokers contained fewer cells capable of phagocytizing yeast cells than did PMN from nonsmokers. While marihuana smoking does appear to affect immune mechanisms at no time in these studies were any deleterious physiological effects that could be directly associated with the alterations in the immune system observed in the marihuana smokers. PMID:1083548

Petersen, B H; Lemberger, L; Graham, J; Dalton, B

1975-01-01

275

Iron isotope fractionation in sulfides: constraints on mechanisms of sulfide formations in hydrothermal and magmatic systems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on non-traditional stable isotope fractionations (e.g., Fe, Cu) provide further insight into mechanisms of sulfide mineralization. Correct interpretation of these data is impossible without knowledge on equilibrium isotopic fractionation factors of sulfides. We present data on iron isotope fractionation factors (?-factors) of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and mackinawite (FeS). Iron ?-factors for chalcopyrite were derived from synchrotron experimental data on inelastic nuclear resonant x-ray scattering (INRXS) [1] using the method described elsewhere [2,3]. The ?-factors for mackinawite were found from the Moessbauer second-order Doppler shift data [4] by the method presented in [5]. The temperature dependence of the iron ?-factors are fitted by following third-order polynomials: 103ln?cpy = 0.82560x - 0.01298x2 + 0.0005246x3 103ln?mcw = 0.2542x - 0.0001847x2 + 2.072×103x3 where x=106/T2 Using these data along with ?-factors for pyrite and troilite [3,6], we compared iron isotope fractionation between pyrite and chalcopyrite in hydrothermal and magmatic conditions. Rouxel et al. [7] studied iron isotope of seafloor of hydrothermal vents in detail. They found that pyrite is enriched in light iron isotope relative to chalcopyrite in the case of black smoker Bio 9. This result evidences absence of iron isotope equilibrium between pyrite and chalcopyrite, because in equilibrium pyrite is enriched in heavy iron isotope (?py > ?cpy). Quantitatively, iron isotope fractionation between chalcolpyrite and pyrite is very close to equilibrium iron isotope fractionation between chalcolpyrite and FeS phase (mackinawite or troilite). This agrees the mechanism of pyrite formation through intermidient FeS phase if to assume isotopic equilibrium between the FeS phase and dissolved iron and no isotopic effect in the final stage of conversion FeS to FeS2 (pyrite). Another iron isotope fractionation was observed between pyrite and chalcopyrite in the case of the Cu-Au porphyry deposit of Crasberg igneous complex (GIC) [8]. In this case, pyrite is enriched in heavy iron isotope relative to chalcopyrite that is in agreement with direction of iron isotope fractionation in equilibrium. Using these data [8] and appropriate iron ?-factors obtained from INRXS- and Moessbauer experiments, we estimated temperatures of pyrite and chalcopyrite formation. We obtained reasonable temperatures varying between 180 and 650oC for different intrusions of GIC, which are in agreement with other estimations [9,10] Conclusions: Iron ?-factors for chalcopyrite CuFeS2 were calculated from 57Fe PDOS obtained in INRXS synchrotron radiation experiments [1]. Iron ?-factors for mackinawite were calculated from the Moessbauer SOD shift based on experiments [4]. Using new value of chalcopyrite and mackinawite and/or troilite iron ?-factors, it was shown that isotope composition of pyrite in hydrothermal seafloor processes is controlled by equilibrium isotope fractionation between FeS phase (pyrite precursor) and hydrothermal fluid. Fe isotope equilibrium between pyrite and chalcopyrite may be attained in magmatic processes. References: Kobayashi H., Umemura J., Kazekami Y. and Sakai N. Phys. Rev. B. (2007) 76, 134108. Polyakov V. B., Mineev S. D., Clayton R. N., Hu G. and Mineev K. S. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2005) 69, 5531-5536. Polyakov V. B., Clayton R. N., Horita J. and Mineev S.D. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2007) 71, 3833-3846. Bertaut E. F., Burlet P. and Chappert J. Solid State Comm. (1965) 3, 335 - 338. Polyakov V. B. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (1997)61, 4213 - 4217. Polyakov V.B. and Mineev S. D. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2000) 64, 849 - 865 Rouxel O., Shanks III W. C., Bach W. and Edwards K. J. Chem. Geol. (2008) 252, 214 - 227 Graham S., Pearson N., Jackson S., Griffin W. and O'Reilly S. Y. Chem. Geol. (2004) 204, 147 - 169 Heinrich C. A. Mineralium Deposita (2005) 39, 864-889 Pollard P.J. and Taylor R.G. Mineralium Deposita (2004) 37, 117-136. .

Polyakov, Veniamin; Soultanov, Dilshod

2010-05-01

276

Mystery of the Megaplume: Hydrothermal Vent Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will investigate hydrothermal vents to see how the chemistry of the water they emit provides clues to the location of the vents. They should be able to describe hydrothermal vents and characterize vent plumes in terms of physical and chemical properties; describe data gathering operations in which a towed instrument package ("tow-yo") measures conductivity, temperature, and depth; and interpret temperature anomaly data to recognize a plume emanating from a hydrothermal vent.

277

Cell Recovery in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Smokers Is Dependent on Cumulative Smoking History  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking is a risk factor for various lung diseases in which BAL may be used as a part of a clinical investigation. Interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity is however difficult due to high variability, in particular among smokers. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of smoking on BAL cellular components in asymptomatic smokers. The effects of smoking cessation, age and gender were also investigated in groups of smokers and exsmokers. Methods We performed a retrospective review of BAL findings, to our knowledge the largest single center investigation, in our department from 1999 to 2009. One hundred thirty two current smokers (48 males and 84 females) and 44 ex-smokers (16 males and 28 females) were included. A group of 295 (132 males and 163 females) never-smokers served as reference. Result The median [5–95 pctl] total number of cells and cell concentration in current smokers were 63.4 [28.6–132.1]×106 and 382.1 [189.7–864.3]×106/L respectively and correlated positively to the cumulative smoking history. Macrophages were the predominant cell type (96.7% [90.4–99.0]) followed by lymphocytes (2% [0.8–7.7]) and neutrophils (0.6% [0–2.9]). The concentration of all inflammatory cells was increased in smokers compared to never smokers and ex-smokers. BAL fluid recovery was negatively correlated with age (p<0.001). Smoking men had a lower BAL fluid recovery than smoking women. Conclusion Smoking has a profound effect on BAL fluid cellularity, which is dependent on smoking history. Our results performed on a large group of current smokers and ex-smokers in a well standardized way, can contribute to better interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity in clinical context. PMID:22479573

Karimi, Reza; Tornling, Göran; Grunewald, Johan; Eklund, Anders; Sköld, C. Magnus

2012-01-01

278

Predisposing genes and increased chromosome aberrations in lung cancer cigarette smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotoxic effects linking cigarette smoking with lung cancer have not been consistently demonstrated, therefore claims for the cause–effect relationships are vigorously contested. Using matched populations of 22 lung cancer patients who have been cigarette smokers (LCP), 22 non-cancerous cigarette smokers (SC) and 13 non-smokers (NSC), we have applied the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tandem probe assay to elucidate the

Nivea Conforti-Froes; Randa El-Zein; Sherif Z Abdel-Rahman; Joseph B Zwischenberger; William W Au

1997-01-01

279

Prefrontal hemodynamic changes during cigarette smoking in young adult smokers with and without ADHD?  

PubMed Central

Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have elevated smoking prevalence and reduced cessation rates compared to the general population. However, the effects of cigarette smoking on underlying brain activity in smokers with ADHD are not well characterized. Non-invasive Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to characterize how cigarette smoking affects prefrontal brain hemodynamics in smokers with and without ADHD. Prefrontal changes of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin (HbO2 and HHb) were measured in six male adult smokers with ADHD and six age- and gender-matched control smokers. NIRS measurements were separated into four sequential time intervals, i.e., before smoking, during smoking, after smoking, and during a breath hold. Prefrontal HbO2 was lower during smoking in smokers with ADHD compared to control smokers. More specifically, smokers with ADHD showed decreased prefrontal HbO2 during smoking compared to breath hold, before and after smoking periods. In contrast, control smokers showed increased prefrontal HbO2 from before smoking to breath hold. Decreased prefrontal HbO2 in smokers with ADHD may reflect a smoking-induced change in prefrontal brain activity and microvasculature, which is not found in smokers without ADHD. The lower prefrontal HbO2 may be a biomarker for increased susceptibility to tobacco smoke in smokers with ADHD. Smoking in individuals with ADHD may increase vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries in the prefrontal cortex, which may contribute to a reduction in HbO2. The findings highlight the importance of smoking cessation, in particular in those smokers who use nicotine to self-medicate ADHD symptoms. PMID:24125785

Gehricke, Jean-G.; Polzonetti, Chiara; Caburian, Cyrus; Gratton, Enrico

2013-01-01

280

Hydrothermal vent complexes associated with sill intrusionsin sedimentarybasins  

E-print Network

Hydrothermal vent complexes associated with sill intrusionsin sedimentarybasins BJIbRNJAMTVEIT1 sedimentarybasinscause strongthermal perturbations and frequentlycause extensivehydrothermalactivity.Hydrothermal vent strata surrounding a central vent complex. comprisingmultiplesandstone dykes, pipes, and hydrothermal

Podladchikov, Yuri

281

Time to First Cigarette Predicts Cessation Outcomes in Adolescent Smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This study examined the relationship between the time to the first cigarette (TTFC) of the morning with quit status among adolescent smokers at the completion of a school-based smoking cessation program. Among those who did not quit, the relationship of TTFC with changes in cigarettes/day (CPD) was also examined. Methods: A total of 1,167 adolescent smokers (1,024 nonquitters and 143 quitters) from 4 states participating in efficacy and effectiveness studies of the Not-On-Tobacco (N-O-T) cessation program were assessed prior to entry into the program and again 3 months later at the end of treatment. Linear and logistic regression analyses determined the influence of treatment condition, age, gender, motivation to quit, confidence in quitting ability, baseline CPD, and TTFC on quit status and end-of-treatment CPD. Results: Adolescents with a TTFC of >30min of waking were twice as likely to quit at end of treatment. Additionally, among those who did not quit at end of treatment (n = 700 for TTFC ?30min and n = 324 for TTFC for >30min), those with a TTFC within 30min of waking smoked a greater number of CPD. The relationships of TTFC with both of these outcomes remained when controlling for all other predictor variables. Conclusions: Identifying adolescent smokers who smoke their first cigarette of the day within the first 30min of waking prior to a quit attempt may help to classify those individuals as having a greater risk for cessation failure. Thus, TTFC may be a behavioral indicator of nicotine dependence in adolescents. PMID:23811009

Branstetter, Steven A.; Muscat, Joshua E.; Horn, Kimberly A.

2013-01-01

282

Cue-Reactivity in the Natural Environment of Cigarette Smokers  

PubMed Central

The cue reactivity paradigm has been used extensively in laboratory settings to study cue-specific craving responses to drug-related cues. However, this procedure has been used in only one study to assess craving in the drug user’s natural environment (Warthen & Tiffany, 2009). The present study combined cue-reactivity with ecological momentary assessment (CREMA) to evaluate smokers’ cue reactions in natural environments as a further validation and extension of this procedure. A total of 66 daily cigarette smokers carried a personal digital assistant (PDA) and had the opportunity to respond to 32 cue reactivity sessions across eight days. Cues were presented through in vivo and photographic modes. During in vivo sessions, participants handled and looked at a cigarette or neutral object, while during photographic sessions, participants looked at a smoking related or neutral photograph on the PDA. Craving and mood were assessed before and after cue presentations. Cues were also presented in the laboratory both before (Lab I) and after (Lab II) the eight-day CREMA procedure. Participants completed over 90% of cue-reactivity sessions delivered with the CREMA procedure. Analyses revealed robust cue-reactivity in the natural environment and laboratory across both modes of presentation. Photographic cues elicited significantly stronger cue-reactivity effects than in vivo cues across all sessions. The CREMA procedure has been shown to elicit robust cue-reactivity effects across multiple modes of cue presentation. Results support the use of the CREMA procedure for examining cue-specific craving in the natural environment of smokers. PMID:21553947

Wray, Stimuli Jennifer M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Tiffany, Stephen T.

2011-01-01

283

Lung disease with chronic obstruction in opium smokers in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Fifty-four opium smokers with chronic obstructive lung disease were studied for two-and-a-half years. Forty-eight patients had a cough for at least two years before the onset of inappropriate exertional dyspnoea. Fine, bubbling adventitious sounds suggesting small airway disease were heard on auscultation over the middle and lower lobes in 38 patients. The prevalence of inflammatory lung disease and chronic respiratory failure in this series is suggested as the main cause for the frequent finding of right ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. Physiological studies revealed moderate to severe airways obstruction with gross over-inflation and, in 32 patients, an additional restrictive defect probably due to peribronchiolar fibrosis. Radiological evidence of chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis was observed in 45 patients, `pure' chronic bronchiolitis in six patients, and `widespread' emphysema in 25 patients respectively. Necropsy examinations in nine patients, however, showed destructive emphysema of variable severity in all. Chronic bronchiolitis often associated with striking bronchiolectasis was present in six cases. More severe bronchiolar rather than bronchial inflammation was noted. The heavy opium smokers had characteristic nodular shadows on chest radiography, sometimes associated with a striking reticular pattern not seen in `pure' cigarette smokers. This was due to gross pigmented dust (presumably carbon) deposition in relation to blood vessels, lymphatics, and bronchioles, and also within the alveoli. It is speculated that the initial lesion is an acquired bronchiolitis. Opium smoking induces an irritative bronchopathy favouring repeated attacks of acute bronchiolitis and eventually resulting in obliterative bronchiolitis, peribronchiolar fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and destructive emphysema. Images PMID:5134057

Da Costa, J. L.; Tock, E. P. C.; Boey, H. K.

1971-01-01

284

Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers  

PubMed Central

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist consumers in distinguishing real health threats from spurious health claims. As this report documents, there is a strong scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction, and it shows great potential as a public health strategy to help millions of smokers. PMID:17184539

Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

2006-01-01

285

Preliminary Study of Buprenorphine and Bupropion for Opioid Dependent Smokers  

PubMed Central

In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, bupropion (BUPRO, 300 mg/day) was compared to placebo (PBO) for concurrent treatment of opioid and tobacco addiction in 40 opioid-dependent smokers stabilized on buprenorphine (BUPRE, 24 mg/day). Participants received contingent, monetary reinforcement for abstinence from smoking, illicit opioids, and cocaine. Significant differences in treatment retention were observed (BUPRE+BUPRO, 58%; BUPRE+PBO, 90%). BUPRO treatment was not more effective than placebo for abstinence from tobacco, opioids, or cocaine in BUPRE stabilized patients. These preliminary findings do not support the efficacy of BUPRO, in combination with BUPRE, for concurrent treatment of opioid and tobacco addiction. PMID:18612883

Mooney, Marc E.; Poling, James; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Gonsai, Kishor; Kosten, Thomas; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

2008-01-01

286

Interaction between naltrexone and oral THC in heavy marijuana smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Rationale. Studies in non-human animals suggest that opioid antagonists block the reinforcing effects of cannabinoids.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective. The present studies in humans investigated how naltrexone modulates (1) the subjective and physiological effects of oral\\u000a THC in comparison to methadone, (2) the reinforcing effects of oral THC, and (3) plasma levels of oral THC.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. In study 1, marijuana smokers (n=9)

Margaret Haney; Adam Bisaga; Richard W. Foltin

2003-01-01

287

Aging-Related Systemic Manifestations in COPD Patients and Cigarette Smokers  

PubMed Central

Rationale Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with age-related systemic abnormalities that adversely affect the prognosis. Whether these manifestations are linked to the lung alterations or are independent complications of smoking remains unclear. Objectives To look for aging-related systemic manifestations and telomere shortening in COPD patients and smokers with minor lung destruction responsible for a decline in the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) corrected for alveolar volume (KCO). Methods Cross-sectional study in 301 individuals (100 with COPD, 100 smokers without COPD, and 101 nonsmokers without COPD). Measurements and Main Results Compared to control smokers, patients with COPD had higher aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV), lower bone mineral density (BMD) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMMI), and shorter telomere length (TL). Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were similar between control smokers and COPD patients. Smokers did not differ from nonsmokers for any of these parameters. However, smokers with normal spirometry but low KCO had lower ASMMI values compared to those with normal KCO. Moreover, female smokers with low KCO, had lower BMD and shorter TL compared to those with normal KCO. Conclusions Aging-related abnormalities in patients with COPD are also found in smokers with minor lung dysfunction manifesting as a KCO decrease. Decreased KCO might be useful, particularly among women, for identifying smokers at high risk for aging-related systemic manifestations and telomere shortening. PMID:25785739

Boyer, Laurent; Marcos, Elisabeth; Margarit, Laurent; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Vervoitte, Laetitia; Hamidou, Leila; Frih, Lamia; Audureau, Etienne; Covali-Noroc, Ala; Andujar, Pascal; Saakashvili, Zakaria; Lino, Anne; Ghaleh, Bijan; Hue, Sophie; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Housset, Bruno; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Boczkowski, Jorge; Maitre, Bernard; Adnot, Serge

2015-01-01

288

Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed. PMID:24155189

Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

2015-04-01

289

Testing the transtheoretical model in predicting smoking relapse among Malaysian adult smokers receiving assistance in quitting.  

PubMed

The role of The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) in predicting relapse is limited. We aimed to assess whether this model can be utilised to predict relapse during the action stage. The participants included 120 smokers who had abstained from smoking for at least 24 hours following two Malaysian universities' smoking cessation programme. The smokers who relapsed perceived significantly greater advantages related to smoking and increasing doubt in their ability to quit. In contrast, former smokers with greater self-liberation and determination to abstain were less likely to relapse. The findings suggest that TTM can be used to predict relapse among quitting smokers. PMID:23725134

Yasin, Siti Munira; Retneswari, Masilamani; Moy, Foong Ming; Taib, Khairul Mizan; Isahak, Marzuki; Koh, David

2013-01-01

290

Increased Genetic Vulnerability to Smoking at CHRNA5 in Early-Onset Smokers  

PubMed Central

Context Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. Objective To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. Data Sources Primary data. Study Selection Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. Data Extraction Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94 050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ?10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33 348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ?16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. Data Synthesis Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR]=1.45; 95% CI, 1.36–1.55; n=13 843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21–1.33, n = 19 505) (P = .01). Conclusion These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers. PMID:22868939

Hartz, Sarah M.; Short, Susan E.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert; Chen, LiShiun; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Coon, Hilary; Han, Younghun; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sun, Juzhong; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef; Geller, Frank; Gu?bjartsson, Daniel; Hansel, Nadia N.; Jiang, Chenhui; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Liu, Zhen; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Michel, Martha; Rawal, Rajesh; Hum, Sc; Rosenberger, Albert; Scheet, Paul; Shaffer, John R.; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, John R.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Wheeler, William; Xiao, Xiangjun; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Aggen, Steven H.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Beaty, Terri; Bennett, Siiri; Bergen, Andrew W.; Boyd, Heather A.; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cichon, Sven; Couper, David; Cucca, Francesco; Dick, Danielle M.; Foroud, Tatiana; Furberg, Helena; Giegling, Ina; Gu, Fangyi; Hall, Alistair S.; Hällfors, Jenni; Han, Shizhong; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Lic, Phil; Hewitt, John K.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jensen, Majken K.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaakinen, Marika; Kittner, Steven J.; Konte, Bettina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Leppert, Mark; Levy, Steven M.; Mathias, Rasika A.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Muley, Thomas; Murray, Tanda; Nauck, Matthias; North, Kari; Pergadia, Michele; Polasek, Ozren; Ramos, Erin M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Risch, Angela; Ruczinski, Ingo; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Styrkársdóttir, Unnur; Terracciano, Antonio; Uda, Manuela; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wu, Xifeng; Abecasis, Goncalo; Barnes, Kathleen; Bickeböller, Heike; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caporaso, Neil; Duan, Jubao; Edenberg, Howard J.; Francks, Clyde; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gelernter, Joel; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Hops, Hyman; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F.; Marazita, Mary L.; Marchini, Jonathan; Melbye, Mads; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Raitakari, Olli; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sanders, Alan R.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shete, Sanjay; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret; Stefansson, Kari; Swan, Gary E.; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Völzke, Henry; Wei, Qingyi; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Amos, Christopher I.; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S.; Ehringer, Marissa; Grucza, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Heath, Andrew; Johnson, Eric O.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stitzel, Jerry A.; Weiss, Robert B.; Kraft, Peter; Bierut, Laura J.

2012-01-01

291

Nicotine Dependence, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior among Adult Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background: Research has previously demonstrated an inverse association between smoking status and physical activity; however, few studies have examined the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity or sedentary behavior. Aim: This study examined the association between nicotine dependence and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Materials and Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used. A total of 851 adult (?20 years) smokers wore an accelerometer for ?4 days and completed the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scale. Regression models were used to examine the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity/sedentary behavior. Results: After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, hypertension, emphysema, bronchitis, body mass index (BMI), cotinine, and accelerometer wear time, smokers 50 + years of age with greater nicotine dependence engaged in more sedentary behavior (? = 11.4, P = 0.02) and less light-intensity physical activity (? = ?9.6, P = 0.03) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; ? = ?0.14, P = 0.003) than their less nicotine dependent counterparts. Conclusion: Older adults who are more nicotine dependent engage in less physical activity (both MVPA and light-intensity) and more sedentary behavior than their less nicotine dependent counterparts.

Loprinzi, Paul D.; Walker, Jerome F.

2015-01-01

292

Gender and racial Differences in Smoking of Long/Ultra-long and King size Cigarettes among U.S. adult Smokers, NHANES 1999–2012  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette rod length as a design feature may play a specific role in harm perception and tobacco use. Internal tobacco industry documents have shown targeting of females with long/ultra-long cigarettes. This study assessed trends and differences in smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes among U.S. smokers aged ?20 years during 1999 through 2012. Methods Data were obtained from the 1999/2000 through 2011/2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The proportion of current smokers who reported using long/ultra-long cigarettes during each survey year was calculated and compared using ?2 statistics. Linear and quadratic trends during 1999 through 2012 were assessed using binary logistic regression (p<0.05). Multi-variable analyses were performed to assess current disparities in smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes. Results Despite overall declines in current smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes during the 1999 through 2012 period (p<0.001 for both linear and quadratic trends), the proportion of smokers of long/ultra-long brands increased in recent years, with over a third (38.7%) of current smokers reporting smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes during 2011/2012. Current smokers of long/ultra-long cigarettes were more likely to be female compared to males (aOR=3.09; 95%C.I:2.09–4.58), of black race compared to whites (aOR=2.07; 95%C.I:1.30–3.28), or aged 45–64, or ?65 years (aOR=2.39 and 5.27 respectively), compared to 18–24 year olds. Conclusions Specific gender, age and race/ethnic characteristics of smokers of long/ultra-long cigarettes were noted, hence potentially contributing to the widening of health disparities. Cigarette rod length should be considered an important aspect of cigarette engineering/design in regulatory efforts to reduce the burden of tobacco-related disease. PMID:24417962

Agaku, Israel T.; Vardavas, Constantine I.; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.; Alpert, Hillel R.; Connolly, Gregory N.

2014-01-01

293

Molecular ecology of hydrothermal vent microbial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the structure and diversity of hydrothermal vent microbial communities has long been restricted to the morphological description of microorganisms and the use of enrichment culture-based techniques. Until recently the identification of the culturable fraction required the isolation of pure cultures followed by testing for multiple physiological and biochemical traits. However, peculiar inhabitants of the hydrothermal ecosystem such

Christian Jeanthon

2000-01-01

294

AUTOMATED PLANNING FOR HYDROTHERMAL VENT PROSPECTING USING  

E-print Network

AUTOMATED PLANNING FOR HYDROTHERMAL VENT PROSPECTING USING AUVS by ZEYN A SAIGOL A thesis submitted of searching the ocean floor for hydrothermal vents, using autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). This is a hard problem because the AUV's sensors cannot directly measure the range or bearing to vents

Yao, Xin

295

Radioisotopic studies of submarine hydrothermal vents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems has been recognized for their role in the regulation of ocean and sediment chemistry, as well as for providing a chemosynthetic source of carbon which drives a unique population of animals found at hydrothermal vents. Despite the importance of these systems the rates, length, and depth scale of submarine hydrothermal processes are not precisely known because they are, for the most part, inaccessible to observational tools. We must therefore rely on indirect methods to quantify these processes. One way of investigating the rates, or timescales, of processes in a hydrothermal (or any natural) system is through the study and modeling of naturally occurring radioisotopes. Disequilibria among the naturally occurring radioactive decay series in vent fluids, associated mineral deposits, and overlying effluent plume have provided geochemical tools to investigate the rates of various processes occurring in submarine hydrothermal systems. Because the half-lives of the radioisotopes vary from days to many years, processes which encompass a wide range of spatial and temporal scales can be studied. This paper presents a review of methods that estimate the residence time of hydrothermal fluids in the ocean crust, establish the geochronology of seafloor sulfide deposits, investigate the rates of chemical reactions within hydrothermal effluent plumes, and derive the heat and mass flux from seafloor hydrothermal areas.

Kadko, David

1996-08-01

296

Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

2013-03-01

297

Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal hydrothermal vents  

SciTech Connect

The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.

Stein, J.L.

1984-02-17

298

Black Voices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"A television show by blacks for blacks--coupled with a program of training for black television technicians--was the basic concept of the Black Voices" series aired over KTCA-TV and KTCI-TV in Minneapolis and St. Paul during the 1968-1969 television season. The series was designed to provide understanding among blacks of the Twin Cities as well…

McGowan, Jr., Martin J.

1969-01-01

299

Lower expressions of the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R in smokers: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the fact that smokers have deficit in detecting taste, particularly bitter taste, no study has investigated its biological correlate. Methods In this context, we compared the expression of the bitter taste receptor gene, taste 2 receptor (TAS2R) in the tongues of smokers and non-smokers. Tissue samples were collected from the lateral portion of the tongues of 22 smokers and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (19 males and three females) with no history of smoking. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the expression of TAS2R in the two groups, and the effect of aging on TAS2R expression was also assessed. Results TAS2R expression was significantly lower among smokers than non-smokers (t?=?6.525, P?smokers vs. smokers). Further, a positive correlation between age and expression of TAS2R was observed in non-smokers (r?=?.642, P?=?.001), but not smokers (r?=?.124, P?=?.584). This correlation difference was significant (Z?=?1.96, P?=?.0496). Conclusions Smokers showed a significantly lower expression of the bitter taste receptor gene than non-smokers, which is potentially caused by their inability to acquire such receptors with age because of cigarette smoking, in contrast to non-smokers. PMID:25152706

2014-01-01

300

The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) in the Middle East region and worldwide is increasing. There is evidence to indicate both short term and long term health effects of WTS, resulting in the issuance of an advisory note by the World Health Organization. Methods This research aimed at gaining an in-depth understanding of the factors contributing to the rise in WTS in Lebanon. Qualitative focus groups (25) and in-depth interviews (9) were conducted with adults in Lebanon in 2007. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, gender, age groups and urban/rural residence. The interviews and focus groups were thematically analyzed, and recurrent themes noted and summarized. Results The main themes identified were availability, affordability, innovation, influence of media, lack of a policy framework, and the sensory characteristics evoked from WTS. Men and women, smokers and non-smokers, and younger and older participants differed in their emphases on the above themes. These themes, though specific to waterpipe, are similar to themes manipulated by the cigarette industry, and eventually controlled through tobacco control policies. Conclusions Understanding reasons behind the rise in waterpipe tobacco use is important if appropriate prevention, cessation, and policy interventions are to be formulated. Strict adherence to the FCTC is warranted, with careful and vigilant attention that all tobacco products are covered by laws in both high as well as middle to lower income countries. PMID:21569577

2011-01-01

301

Evaluation of taste after underlay technique myringoplasty using whole-mouth gustatory test: smokers versus non-smokers.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective non-randomized study was to evaluate the alterations in taste sensation after myringoplasty and to investigate the influence of smoking on taste. Ninety-six patients who underwent myringoplasty and 43 healthy controls were examined. Whole-mouth gustatory test solutions were sucrose (sweet); sodium chloride (salty taste); citrate (sour) taste; and quinine hydrochloride (bitter). Sucrose, citric acid, and sodium chloride recognition thresholds were high in the early postoperative period; however, they were regressed to the preoperative status in course of time. No difference was found between preoperative, early/late postoperative taste recognition thresholds of smoker and non-smoker patients. Underlay myringoplasty has little but transient effect on taste recognition in the early postoperative period. This impairment is completely recovered within 6 months. Furthermore, smoking has no effect on the taste recognition of patients with permanent tympanic membrane perforation and has no influence on the alterations in taste recognition thresholds after myringoplasty. We believe that this study will supply some additional aspects in the scope of taste disturbances due to ear surgery and smoking. PMID:19002478

Karatayli-Ozgursoy, Selmin; Ozgursoy, Ozan B; Muz, Engin; Kesici, Gokcen; Akiner, Metin N

2009-07-01

302

Airway Epithelial Expression of Toll-like Receptor 5 is Down-regulated in Healthy Smokers and Smokers with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

The toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the respiratory epithelium host innate defense, enabling the airway surface to recognize and respond to a variety of insults in inhaled air. Based on the knowledge that smokers are more susceptible to pulmonary infection and that the airway epithelium of smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by bacterial colonization and acute exacerbation of airway infections, we assessed whether smoking alters expression of TLRs in human small airway epithelium, the primary site of smoking-induced disease. Microarrays were used to survey the TLR family gene expression in small airway (10th–12th order) epithelium from healthy nonsmokers (n=60), healthy smokers (n=73) and smokers with COPD (n=36). Using the criteria of detection call of present in ?50%, 6 of 10 TLRs (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8) were expressed. Compared to nonsmokers, the most striking change was for TLR5, which was down-regulated in healthy smokers (1.4-fold, p<10?10) and smokers with COPD (1.6-fold, p<10?11). TaqMan RT-PCR confirmed these observations. Bronchial biopsy immunofluorescence studies showed that TLR5 was expressed mainly on the apical side of the epithelium and was decreased in healthy smokers and smokers with COPD. In vitro, the level of TLR5 downstream genes, IL-6 and IL-8, were highly induced by flagellin in TLR5 high-expressing cells compared to TLR5 low-expressing cells. In the context that TLR5 functions to recognize pathogens and activate innate immune responses, the smoking-induced down-regulation of TLR5 may contribute to smoking-related susceptibility to airway infection, at least for flagellated bacteria. PMID:22855713

Wang, Rui; Ahmed, Joumana; Wang, Guoqing; Hassan, Ibrahim; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Salit, Jacqueline; Mezey, Jason; Crystal, Ronald G.

2012-01-01

303

Adverse Reaction to Nicotine Gum in Malay Female Smoker: A Case Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are prescribed in smoking cessation programmes to help smokers stop smoking. The ideal dosage of NRT should control cravings and withdrawal symptoms but avoid adverse reactions. This report describes a case of adverse reaction to nicotine gum in a female Malay smoker. Assays taken 2 h after the gum, showed that…

Noorzurani, Md Haris Robson; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

2008-01-01

304

Bronchodilatory Effect of the PPAR-? Agonist Rosiglitazone in Smokers With Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smokers with asthma show a reduced response to inhaled corticosteroids. We hypothesized that a peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonist would be superior for the clinical treatment of these asthma patients. Forty-six smokers with asthma were randomized to inhaled beclometasone dipropionate (200 µg per day) or rosiglitazone (8 mg per day) for 4 weeks. Rosiglitazone produced improvements in lung function (forced

M Spears; I Donnelly; L Jolly; M Brannigan; K Ito; C McSharry; J Lafferty; R Chaudhuri; G Braganza; P Bareille; L Sweeney; IM Adcock; PJ Barnes; S Wood; NC Thomson

2009-01-01

305

Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

2013-01-01

306

LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS  

PubMed Central

More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the U.S. in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10–15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000–24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U.S. if considered to be a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accompanying article, lung cancers that occur in never smokers differ from those that occur in smokers in their molecular profile and response to targeted therapy. These recent laboratory and clinical observations highlight the importance of defining the genetic and environmental factors responsible for the development of lung cancer in never-smokers. This article summarizes available data on the clinical epidemiology of lung cancer in never smokers, and the several environmental risk factors that population-based research has implicated in the etiology of these cancers. Primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in never smokers include exposure to known and suspected carcinogens including radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, and other indoor air pollutants. Several other exposures have been implicated. However, a large fraction of lung cancers occurring in never-smokers cannot be definitively associated with established environmental risk factors, highlighting the need for additional epidemiologic research in this area. PMID:19755391

Samet, Jonathan M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Boffetta, Paolo; Hannan, Lindsay M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Thun, Michael J.; Rudin, Charles M.

2011-01-01

307

Marijuana Use Among Daily Tobacco Smokers: Relationship to Anxiety-Related Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation evaluated the incremental validity of regular marijuana use and frequency of such use in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and perceived health among young adult tobacco smokers (n = 202). Approximately 72% of the sample were current marijuana smokers, using this drug on an average of 7.6 (SD = 9.2) times per week. As expected, after

Marcel O. Bonn-Miller; Michael J. Zvolensky; Ellen W. Leen-Feldner; Matthew T. Feldner; Andrew R. Yartz

2005-01-01

308

Difference between diabetic and nondiabetic smokers in the pituitary response to physical exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth hormone (GH), cortisol, and arginine vasopressin (AVP) responses to bicycle ergometry (with increasing workload until exhaustion) were measured in 20 patients affected by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) (10 habitual smokers and 10 nonsmokers) and 20 nondiabetic subjects (normal controls) (10 habitual smokers and 10 nonsmokers). Cardiorespiratory parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, ventilation, frequency of breathing, tidal

V. Coiro; G. Saccani Jotti; R. Volpi; M. G. Magotti; P. Galli; L. Finardi; M. L. Maffei; P. Chiodera; A. Casti

2004-01-01

309

Attenuated adrenocortical and blood pressure responses to psychological stress in ad libitum and abstinent smokers.  

PubMed

Chronic smoking may alter physiological systems involved in the stress response. This study was designed to examine the effects of ad libitum smoking and abstinence on adrenocortical and cardiovascular responses to acute psychological stress in dependent cigarette smokers. We evaluated differences among abstinent smokers, smokers who continued to smoke at their normal rate, and nonsmokers in salivary cortisol concentrations, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and mood reports. Measurements were obtained during rest and in response to acute psychological stress (public speaking) in one session (stress session) and during continuous rest in a control session. Thirty-eight smokers (21 women) and 32 nonsmokers (18 women) participated. Smokers were assigned to either abstain from smoking the night prior to and the day of each session, or to continue smoking at their normal rate before each session. All groups showed significant stress-induced changes in BP and HR. Smokers, regardless of their assigned condition, showed attenuated systolic BP responses to the public-speaking stressor when compared to nonsmokers. While resting cortisol levels were greater among smokers than nonsmokers, no cortisol response to the acute stressor was demonstrated in either ad libitum or abstinent smokers. These results indicate that chronic smoking diminishes adrenocortical and cardiovascular responses to stress, and that short-term abstinence does not correct these alterations. PMID:12479961

al'Absi, Mustafa; Wittmers, Lorentz E; Erickson, Jonathan; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Crouse, Byron

2003-01-01

310

A low dose of subcutaneous nicotine improves information processing in non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have found that cigarette smoking or nicotine improves mental functioning in abstinent smokers. An unresolved issue is whether this improvement is due primarily to a direct facilitation of performance or to relief of the impairment caused by nicotine withdrawal. We evaluated the performance of 12 non-smokers before and twice (15 and 45 min) after a subcutaneous injection of

Jacques Le Houezec; Roy Halliday; Neal L. Benowitz; Enoch Callaway; Hilary Naylor; Karen Herzig

1994-01-01

311

Policy Compliance of Smokers on a Tobacco-Free University Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To explore factors influencing compliance with campus tobacco policies and strategies to increase compliance. Participants: Sixty tobacco smokers (April 2012). Methods: A 22-item intercept-interview with closed-and open-ended questions was conducted with smokers in adjacent compliant and noncompliant areas at 1 university with a 100%…

Russette, Helen C.; Harris, Kari Jo; Schuldberg, David; Green, Linda

2014-01-01

312

A Qualitative Study of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices among 40 Undergraduate Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Because little is known about college-age smokers, the authors conducted a qualitative study to better understand this population. Participants: Forty college student smokers from 12 Pacific Northwest colleges participated in the study. Methods: The authors identified themes and built models to ascertain important factors related to…

Thompson, Beti; Thompson, L. Anne; Hymer, Jennifer; Zbikowsi, Susan; Halperin, Abigail; Jaffe, Robert

2007-01-01

313

Targeting African American Nonsmokers to Motivate Smokers to Quit: A Qualitative Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African Americans bear a disproportionate health burden from smoking but are less likely than other populations to engage in cessation treatment. Intervening on adult nonsmokers residing with a smoker might represent an innovative approach to motivate smokers to engage in smoking behavior change. Twelve focus groups were conducted with African…

Thomas, Janet L.; Scherber, Robyn M.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2010-01-01

314

Peer Influence, Images of Smokers, and Beliefs about Smoking among Preadolescent Nonsmokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to test whether perceived peer influence is related to image of a typical smoker, and whether image of a typical smoker is associated with beliefs about the effects of smoking among preadolescent nonsmokers. Two hundred and ninety-two preadolescents completed a survey indicating their perceptions of the…

Tragesser, Sarah L.; Aloise-Young, Patricia A.; Swaim, Randall C.

2006-01-01

315

Decreased blood flow but unaltered insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle of chronic smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with dysfunction of the vascular endothelium. Smokers have also been shown to be insulin-resistant, at least in some studies. Since insulin-induced vasodilation is dependent on endothelial cell nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, we tested the hypothesis that decreased skeletal muscle blood flow causes insulin resistance in smokers. We studied 37 young normotensive normolipidemic nondiabetic men, of

E. M. Rönnemaa; T. Rönnemaa; T. Utriainen; M. Raitakari; H. Laine; T. Takala; O.-P. Pitkänen; O. Kirvelä; J. Knuuti; P. Nuutila

1999-01-01

316

Dopamine function in cigarette smokers: an [¹?F]-DOPA PET study.  

PubMed

Tobacco addiction is a global public health problem. Addiction to tobacco is thought to involve the effects of nicotine on the dopaminergic system. Only one study has previously investigated dopamine synthesis capacity in cigarette smokers. This study, exclusively in male volunteers, reported increased dopamine synthesis capacity in heavy smokers compared with non-smokers. We sought to determine whether dopamine synthesis capacity was elevated in a larger sample of cigarette smokers that included females. Dopamine synthesis capacity was measured in 15 daily moderate smokers with 15 sex- and age-matched control subjects who had never smoked tobacco. Dopamine synthesis capacity (indexed as the influx rate constant K(i)(cer)) was measured with positron emission tomography and 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[(18)F]-fluoro-l-phenylalanine. There was no significant group difference in dopamine synthesis capacity between smokers and non-smoker controls in the whole striatum (t28=0.64, p=0.53) or any of its functional subdivisions. In smokers, there were no significant relationships between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and dopamine synthesis capacity in the whole striatum (r=-0.23, p=0.41) or any striatal subdivision. These findings indicate that moderate smoking is not associated with altered striatal dopamine synthesis capacity. PMID:24718373

Bloomfield, Michael A P; Pepper, Fiona; Egerton, Alice; Demjaha, Arsime; Tomasi, Gianpaolo; Mouchlianitis, Elias; Maximen, Levi; Veronese, Mattia; Turkheimer, Federico; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Howes, Oliver D

2014-09-01

317

Correcting Media Mis-Education: The Portrayal of Smokers and Smoking in Top Grossing Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given that young people are extremely concerned with how they appear socially, beguiling and glamorous portrayals of smokers in recent films may be contributing to the continual rise in college student smoking. The pervasive positive depiction of smokers as attractive and appealing easily preys on young people who lack confidence and self esteem.…

Bartlett, Alyssa; Brackin, Taryn; Chubb, Jamie; Covata, Sandy; Ferguson, Liz; Hinckley, Adele; Hodges, Jilda; Liberati, Cheryl; Tornetta, Jonette; Chambliss, Catherine

318

Airway epithelial gene expression in the diagnostic evaluation of smokers with suspect lung cancer  

E-print Network

Airway epithelial gene expression in the diagnostic evaluation of smokers with suspect lung cancer, Timothy Anderson6, Norman Gerry7, Joseph Keane4, Marc E Lenburg7 & Jerome S Brody1 Lung cancer smokers with suspicion of lung cancer could be used as a lung cancer biomarker. Using a training set (n

Cai, Long

319

Effects of Smoking Cessation on Lung Function and Airway Inflammation in Smokers with Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Active smoking in asthma is associated with worsening of symptoms, accelerated decline in lung function, and impaired response to corticosteroids. Objectives: To examine the short-term effects of smoking cessation on lung function, airway inflammation, and corticosteroid respon- siveness in smokers with asthma. Methods and Measurements: Smokers with asthma were given the optiontoquitorcontinuesmoking.Bothgroupsunderwentspirom- etry and induced sputum at baseline and

Rekha Chaudhuri; Eric Livingston; Alex D. McMahon; Jane Lafferty; Iona Fraser; Mark Spears; Charles P. McSharry; Neil C. Thomson

2006-01-01

320

Mood Management Intervention for College Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This pilot study examined smoking reduction and cessation among college smokers with elevated depressive symptomatology participating in a group-based behavioral counseling, mood management, and motivational enhancement combined intervention (CBT). Participants and Methods: Fifty-eight smokers (smoked 6 days in the past 30) were…

Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Campbell, Duncan G.; Harrar, Solomon W.

2012-01-01

321

Lung Diffusion Capacity can Predict Maximal Exercise in Apparently Healthy Heavy Smokers  

PubMed Central

Chronic exposure to tobacco smoking may damage lung and heart function. The aim of this study was to assess maximal exercise capacity and its relationship with lung function in apparently healthy smokers. We recruited 15 heavy smokers (age 47 years ± 7, BMI 25 kg/m2 ± 3, pack/years 32 ± 9) without any cardiovascular or pulmonary signs and symptoms. Fifteen healthy non smoking subjects were enrolled as a control group. All subjects underwent pulmonary function tests, electrocardiograms at rest and graded cycle exercise tests. In smokers and controls, resting lung and cardiac function parameters were in the normal range, apart from diffusing lung capacity (TLCO) values which were significantly lower in smokers (p < 0.05). As compared to controls, smokers presented lower maximal exercise capacity with lower values at peak of exercise of oxygen uptake (peak VO2), workload, oxygen uptake/watt ratio and oxygen pulse (p < 0.05) and higher dyspnoea perception (p < 0.05). Moreover, peak VO2, maximal workload and oxygen pulse at peak exercise were related to and predicted by TLCO (p < 0. 05). Our study confirms that maximal exercise capacity is reduced in apparently healthy heavy smokers, and shows that TLCO explains some of the variance in maximal exercise. Key pointsChronic exposure to tobacco smoking may damage lung and heart function.Smokers present lower diffusion capacity and maximal exercise capacity.In smokers maximal exercise capacity can be predicted by resting diffusion lung capacity. PMID:24149454

Tzani, Panagiota; Aiello, Marina; Colella, Marco; Verduri, Alessia; Marangio, Emilio; Olivieri, Dario; Chetta, Alfredo

2008-01-01

322

Lymphocyte population and apoptosis in the lungs of smokers and their relation to emphysema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphocyte population and apoptosis in the lungs of smokers and their relation to emphysema. J. Majo, H. Ghezzo, M.G. Cosio. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Previously, it had been shown that T-lymphocytes are the predominant inflammatory cells found in the alveolar wall of smokers and their numbers correlated with the extent of emphysema. However, the phenotype of these cells was

J. Majo; H. Ghezzo; M. G. Cosio

2001-01-01

323

Subjective and cardiovascular responses to nicotine combined with alcohol in male and female smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine and alcohol are often consumed concurrently by smokers. Each drug alone produces significant subjective and cardiovascular responses, but the effects of the two drugs in combination have rarely been examined. Smokers who were moderate alcohol drinkers (n = 18, 9 males and 9 females) participated in four sessions, involving acute administration of nicotine\\/placebo and alcohol\\/no alcohol. Subjects abstained overnight

K. A. Perkins; J. E. Sexton; A. DiMarco; J. E. Grobe; A. Scierka; R. L. Stiller

1995-01-01

324

Evaluation of Systemic Markers Related To Anemia of Chronic Disease in the Peripheral Blood of Smokers and Non-Smokers with Chronic Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on clinical parameters and signs anemia of chronic disease in chronic periodontitis patients. Methods The study base consisted of 88 patients with chronic periodontitis including 45 volunteer current smokers with age range of 30–69 (45.5±8.5) and 43 volunteer non-smokers with age range of 32–61 years (45.8±7.9). The clinical parameters including plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL) were recorded and several red blood cell parameters were determined from peripheral blood samples. Results In smokers, PI, PD and CAL were significantly higher than non-smokers (P<.05). The number of erythrocytes and the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and iron were lower in smokers compared to non-smokers (P<.05). Conclusions In the present study, it is concluded that cigarette smoking may be effective on the signs of anemia of chronic disease in patients with chronic periodontitis. PMID:19212519

Erdemir, Ebru Olgun; Nalcaci, Rana; Caglayan, Osman

2008-01-01

325

The Analysis of Protein-Bound Thiocyanate in Plasma of Smokers and Non-Smokers as a Marker of Cyanide Exposure  

PubMed Central

When cyanide is introduced into the body, it quickly transforms through a variety of chemical reactions, normally involving sulfur donors, to form more stable chemical species. Depending on the nature of the sulfur donor, cyanide may be transformed into free thiocyanate, the major metabolite of cyanide transformation, 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid or protein-bound thiocyanate (PB-SCN) adducts. Because protein adducts are generally stable in biological systems, it has been suggested that PB-SCN may have distinct advantages as a marker of cyanide exposure. In this study, plasma was analyzed from 25 smokers (chronic low-level cyanide exposure group) and 25 non-smokers for PB-SCN. The amount of PB-SCN found in the plasma of smokers, 1.35 µM, was significantly elevated (p < 0.0001) when compared to non-smokers, 0.66 µM. Differences in sub-groups of smokers and non-smokers were also evaluated. The results of this study indicate the effectiveness of analyzing PB-SCN in determining instances of chronic cyanide exposure with possible extension to confirmation of acute cyanide exposure. PMID:22474215

Youso, Stephanie L.; Rockwood, Gary A.; Logue, Brian A.

2012-01-01

326

Ongoing hydrothermal activities within Enceladus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of sodium-salt-rich ice grains emitted from the plume of the Saturnian moon Enceladus suggests that the grains formed as frozen droplets from a liquid water reservoir that is, or has been, in contact with rock. Gravitational field measurements suggest a regional south polar subsurface ocean of about 10 kilometres thickness located beneath an ice crust 30 to 40 kilometres thick. These findings imply rock-water interactions in regions surrounding the core of Enceladus. The resulting chemical `footprints' are expected to be preserved in the liquid and subsequently transported upwards to the near-surface plume sources, where they eventually would be ejected and could be measured by a spacecraft. Here we report an analysis of silicon-rich, nanometre-sized dust particles (so-called stream particles) that stand out from the water-ice-dominated objects characteristic of Saturn. We interpret these grains as nanometre-sized SiO2 (silica) particles, initially embedded in icy grains emitted from Enceladus' subsurface waters and released by sputter erosion in Saturn's E ring. The composition and the limited size range (2 to 8 nanometres in radius) of stream particles indicate ongoing high-temperature (>90 °C) hydrothermal reactions associated with global-scale geothermal activity that quickly transports hydrothermal products from the ocean floor at a depth of at least 40 kilometres up to the plume of Enceladus.

Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Postberg, Frank; Sekine, Yasuhito; Shibuya, Takazo; Kempf, Sascha; Horányi, Mihály; Juhász, Antal; Altobelli, Nicolas; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masaki, Yuka; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Tachibana, Shogo; Sirono, Sin-Iti; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Srama, Ralf

2015-03-01

327

Ongoing hydrothermal activities within Enceladus.  

PubMed

Detection of sodium-salt-rich ice grains emitted from the plume of the Saturnian moon Enceladus suggests that the grains formed as frozen droplets from a liquid water reservoir that is, or has been, in contact with rock. Gravitational field measurements suggest a regional south polar subsurface ocean of about 10 kilometres thickness located beneath an ice crust 30 to 40 kilometres thick. These findings imply rock-water interactions in regions surrounding the core of Enceladus. The resulting chemical 'footprints' are expected to be preserved in the liquid and subsequently transported upwards to the near-surface plume sources, where they eventually would be ejected and could be measured by a spacecraft. Here we report an analysis of silicon-rich, nanometre-sized dust particles (so-called stream particles) that stand out from the water-ice-dominated objects characteristic of Saturn. We interpret these grains as nanometre-sized SiO2 (silica) particles, initially embedded in icy grains emitted from Enceladus' subsurface waters and released by sputter erosion in Saturn's E ring. The composition and the limited size range (2 to 8 nanometres in radius) of stream particles indicate ongoing high-temperature (>90 °C) hydrothermal reactions associated with global-scale geothermal activity that quickly transports hydrothermal products from the ocean floor at a depth of at least 40 kilometres up to the plume of Enceladus. PMID:25762281

Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Postberg, Frank; Sekine, Yasuhito; Shibuya, Takazo; Kempf, Sascha; Horányi, Mihály; Juhász, Antal; Altobelli, Nicolas; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masaki, Yuka; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Tachibana, Shogo; Sirono, Sin-iti; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Srama, Ralf

2015-03-12

328

Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction  

PubMed Central

This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA. PMID:25506057

Chen, Xue; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Yawen; Ding, Weina; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xu, Jianrong; Du, Yasong

2014-01-01

329

Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications  

PubMed Central

The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme—under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness—as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

Chapman, S; Liberman, J

2005-01-01

330

Reduced expression IRF7 in nasal epithelial cells from smokers as a potential mechanism mediating enhanced susceptibility to influenza  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Smokers are more susceptible to viral infections, including influenza virus, yet the mechanisms mediating this effect are not known. Methods: We have established an in vitro model of differentiated nasal epithelial cells from smokers, which maintain enhanced levels...

331

High Resolution Mapping of the Ashadze and Logachev Hydrothermal Fields, Mid Atlantic Ridge 13-15°N.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the SERPENTINE cruise (feb 25 to apr. 5, 2007) on board the french research vessel Pourquoi Pas? a new multibeam bathymetric system (RESON 7125 echo sounder) was used on the ROV Victor 6000 to gather real time fine-scale bathymetry. The resolution is 5% of the altitude above the seafloor (h), and the footprint at the seafloor is 0.2% of h. The Ashadze and Logachev hydrothermal fields are located in the 13-15°N region of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, on outcrops of serpentinized mantle-derived peridotite with interspeded gabbroic bodies. Maps at 50 m above the seafloor were done to investigate the relationships between the vent fields and their tectonic/volcanic environnement. Higher resolution mapping, 20 m above the seafloor, was done at the scale of the vent fields. These maps, which have resolutions of a few tens of centimetres, are unique tools to understand the local geological control on the vents. Our observations also emphasize the role of slope failure, and spreading-parallel or oblique structural lineaments on the fine scale topography of MAR axial valley walls. Ashadze area comprises two active vent fields located at two different levels on the western wall of the axial valley near 13°N. The Ashadze1 and 2 sites, 5 km apart, are respectively 4 km and 9 km off-axis. Active vents at Azhadze1 (4100 m) are distributed over an area about 150 m-long, along an EW-trending south-facing scarp. High resolution mapping at 20 m (450x450 m area) reveals the fine structure of sulfide mounds, as well as complex fissure arrays near the vents. Away from the vents, topography appears dominated by slope failure, with prominent landslides. Black smokers at Ashadze 2 (3260 m) are located in a crater-shaped depression, about 25 m in diameter, which lies in a narrow (about 70 m), N-S trending trough. On the high resolution maps at Ashadze 2 (800x450 m) the N-S trending trough appears bounded to the east by a faulted gabbroic body. To the west, it is limited by a narrow N-S trending ridge, 20 to 50 m-high, that bears numerous extinct hydrothermal chimneys. Logachev comprises two active vent fields located east of the ridge near 14°45"N. Logachev 1 and 2 sites, 5 km apart, are located 8 km and 12 km off-axis. We only mapped Logatchev 1, which is a large and well studied vent field on the eastern axial valley wall. It comprises many vents in a NW-trending elongated area about 400 m-long. High resolution mapping at 20m (550X750 m) reveals the circular shape of the main sulfide mounds, as well as complex arrays of scarps and fissures, oriented predominantly E-W, and NE- SW. Numerous lens-shaped slump features are also revealed near the vents.

Ondreas, H.; Cannat, M.; Cherkashov, G.; Fouquet, Y.; Normand, A.; Serpentine Scientific Party, A.

2007-12-01

332

Smoking risk and the likelihood of quitting among African-American female light and heavy smokers.  

PubMed

While African-American females are more likely to be light smokers compared to their counterparts of other racially classified social groups (RCSGs), they are more likely to carry a heavier burden of smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is critical that African-American female light smokers are targeted to engage in smoking cessation. Research has revealed that African-American women are less likely to have a successful quit attempt following a cessation intervention than females from other RCSGs. It has been postulated that the low smoking cessation rates among African-American female light smokers may be due to the lack of appropriate psychosocioculturally tailored cessation interventions that address issues of stress and coping that explain why they smoke and continue to smoke that may differ from their heavy smoker counterparts. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether African-American female light smokers differed from their heavy smoker counterparts on psychosociocultural stress and coping factors. Findings revealed no differences in the sociodemographic variables of age, income, education and BMI; in the psychosociocultural measures of acculturative stress, race-related stress and coping; or in the smoking characteristics of menthol smoking status, cotinine level and CYP2A6 metabolic functioning between light and heavy smokers. However, the study found that African-American female light smokers take longer to smoke their first cigarette of the day, have a lower smoking risk, are more likely to quit, and exhibit lower carbon monoxide levels than African-American female heavy smokers. The current study suggests that other than the obvious factors of greater likelihood of quitting, lower smoking risk, longer latency to smoke and lower carbon monoxide levels, specific smoking cessation programs may not need to be differentially psychosocio-culturally tailored for African-American female light smokers compared to their heavy-smoking counterparts. PMID:18942282

Fernander, Anita; Schumacher, Mitzi; Wei, Xiaochen; Crooks, Peter; Wedlund, Peter

2008-10-01

333

Brain activity and emotional processing in smokers treated with varenicline.  

PubMed

Prior evidence suggests that varenicline, an effective smoking cessation treatment, may relieve negative affective signs of nicotine withdrawal. We examined varenicline effects on emotional processing in 25 abstinent smokers after 13 days of varenicline and placebo using a within-subject cross-over design. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired while subjects completed a face emotion identification task. Results showed a significant drug effect, characterized by decreased BOLD signal in dorsal anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortex, occipital cortex and thalamus. Increased BOLD signal was observed in the middle temporal gyrus. Varenicline improved correct response time; however, neither BOLD signal nor performance effects were moderated by emotion type. An exploratory region of interest analysis suggests that varenicline reduced amygdala activity independent of emotional valence. Taken together, these results suggest that observed drug effects on brain activity do not reflect affective changes but rather enhanced early processing of perceptual features of facial stimuli. PMID:21507156

Loughead, James; Ray, Riju; Wileyto, E Paul; Ruparel, Kosha; O'Donnell, Gregory P; Senecal, Nicole; Siegel, Steven; Gur, Ruben C; Lerman, Caryn

2013-07-01

334

Predictors of smoking cessation in a sample of Italian smokers.  

PubMed

In this study we identify several pretreatment characteristics which predict abstinence at 6 months. Moreover, the persistence of withdrawal discomfort and of an increased frequency of night awakenings during the first month of abstinence, together with a tendency to "slip" during Weeks II-IV, strongly predicted relapse. Our results suggest that: 1) Predictors of outcome cannot be automatically extended from one cultural context to another; 2) a careful assessment of certain variables, made while the patient is still under treatment, provides significant prognostic hints; 3) ex-smokers' sleeping and dreaming function has been ignored by the literature, whereas they may well be involved into the maintenance of the drug-free state. PMID:1612820

Persico, A M

1992-06-01

335

Comparison of end tidal carbon monoxide (eCO) levels in shisha (water pipe) and cigarette smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Measuring eCo is rapid, non-invasive and inexpensive tool and correlate correctly with carboxyhemoglobin levels in blood. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the increase in end tidal carbon monoxide (eCO) levels in exhaled breath of passive smokers and healthy smokers after cigarette and shisha smoking. Findings In a cross sectional study eCO levels were measured in 70 subjects (24 cigarette smokers, 20 shisha smoker, 26 passive smokers) by use of portable device. Smokers were asked to smoke shisha for 30 mins in shisha cafe or to smoke 5 cigarettes in 30 mins in a restaurant. eCo levels were measured at baseline (30 mins), 35 mins, 60 mins and 90 mins in all groups after entry to the venue. The baseline mean eCO level among cigarette smokers was 3.5 +/- 0.6 ppm (part per million), passive cigarette smokers 3.7+/-1.0 ppm, shisha smokers 27.7+/-4.9 ppm and passive shisha smokers 18.3+/-8.4 ppm .The mean increase in eCO after 90 min among smokers was 9.4+/-4.6 (p?smokers 3.5+/-2.5 (p?smokers 57.9+/-27.4 (p <0.005) and passive shisha smokers 13.3+/-4.6 (p?=?0.03). Conclusion Exposure to shisha smoke is a cause of elevated eCO in smokers and passive smokers and due to in-door pollution, sitting in shisha bar causes significant increase in eCO levels. PMID:25206319

2014-01-01

336

Dietary intake after smoking cessation among weight concerned women smokers  

PubMed Central

Weight gain typically accompanies smoking cessation, and women smokers concerned about postcessation weight gain are prone to substantial gain. Little is known about the ways in which cessation affects dietary composition. Understanding postcessation changes in dietary composition may inform the design of smoking cessation interventions to address postcessation weight gain. Participants were women smokers concerned about postcessation weight gain enrolled in a randomized trial and assigned to either bupropion or placebo, and either standard cessation intervention or standard intervention plus components to address weight concerns. Women completed three, 24-hour food recall interviews at baseline, and at 1 and 6 months following a targeted quit date. At 6 months, 22% of women were abstinent and had gained 3.6 (±2.7) kg, compared to 0.91 (±2.0) kg for women who continued to smoke, p = 0.42. Abstinent women reported significantly higher energy intake and consumed a smaller percentage of fat across assessment points than did those who continued to smoke. Intervention was not associated with differential weight gain, or change in percent of calories from protein, fat or carbohydrates. This study is the first documentation of energy and macronutrient intake during smoking cessation treatment using a validated 24-hour dietary recall methodology. Although cessation was associated with overall increases in energy intake among women, neither bupropion nor weight concerns treatment affected energy or macronutrient intake. Future research to understand the relation between cessation and dietary intake needs to replicate and extend these findings to elucidate how, if at all, smoking cessation affects dietary intake. PMID:22799893

Levine, Michele D.; Cheng, Yu; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Perkins, Kenneth A.; Marcus, Marsha D.

2012-01-01

337

[Methods and results of smoking cessation in cancer smoker's].  

PubMed

Tobacco prevention is the most effective prevention of cancer. Daily smoking promotes tumor progression, increases the risk of second cancer and decreases survival. The diagnosis of smoking and support for cessation and preventing recurrence is an integral part of cancer treatment. Smoking increases side effects of chemotherapy and surgery and reduces the effectiveness of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Smokers with cancer do not smoke by life-style choice but because they are highly addicted and are suffering from a chronic relapsing disease: tobacco dependence, which justifies intensive medical management. The oncologist himself may perform this support or coordinate with other physicians in charge of the patient or with a tobacco cessation clinic, but patients are often unable to stop alone, as evidenced by the continued to use tobacco despite a cancer diagnosis. Treatment will always include a therapeutic education, compartmental behavioral therapy and medication. The patches and oral nicotine replacement or varenicline are the two most effective treatments that can be prescribed to smokers suffering of cancer, without including those with any motivation to quit. Smoking reducing occurred in a few days or weeks on treatment will allow them to reconsider the judgment. The full stop is always the goal for the doctor, even if it is not the patient initial goal. After stopping, the patient is not cured but still a patient with tobacco dependence who does not smoke. The risk of relapse in the year being 50%. The cancer patient management will use every visit to the point tobacco dependence and prevent relapse, alone or with assistance of a specialist. There is a lack of data on smoking cessation in cancer patients, but no item calls for a three-month quit rate of 50% as observed in the general population after an optimal management of tobacco cessation. PMID:23131278

Dautzenberg, Bertrand

2012-11-01

338

Field occurrence and lithology of Archean hydrothermal systems in the 3.2Ga Dixon Island Formation, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphic transition of black chert to iron-rich sedimentary rocks above volcanic sequences with hydrothermal systems is common and characteristic feature of Archean greenstone belts. The 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation, exposed along the northern coast of Dixon Island located in the coastal Pilbara terrane, Western Australia, is one of such units and the focus of our study. We introduce field occurrence and lithology of the Dixon Island Formation that preserves features of paleohydrohermal environment in the Mesoarchean ocean. The Dixon Island Formation is composed of the following three members (in ascending order): Komatiite-Rhyolite Tuff, Black Chert, and Varicolored Chert members (Kiyokawa and Taira, 1998). Here we focus on the Komatiite-Rholite Tuff member. It preserves two cycles of highly altered komatiite lavas and well-stratified rhyolite tuff. Komatiite lavas include dendritic crystals of chrome spinel and ghosts of spinifex, euhedral and sheet-like olivines and pyroxenes. These rocks are now composed of granular microcrystalline quartz with chromian muscovite, chrome spinel and chrorite that formed by intense silicification. Its upper part contains hydrothermal veining and alteration (i.e., many vein swarms composed of veins of quartz and organic carbon-rich black chert). Most black chert veins intrude vertically into overlying layers, and contain barite, pyrite, monazite and clay minerals which were least affected by silicificatio. Based on the cross-cutting relationship seen in the outcrops, we recognized two generations of black chert veins (type 1 and type 2 veins; Kiyokawa et al., 2006). Type 1 veins are mainly composed of carbonaceous peloids in a microcrystalline quartz matrix. Euhedral and xenocrystic tourmaline are found only in Type1 veins. Type 2 veins are organic carbon-poor and contain fragments of black chert and siliceous volcanic breccia (Kiyokawa et al., 2006). Intense silicification of komatiitic volcaniclastics and lava, enriched in Si and K and depleted in Mg, occurred earlier than the formation of black chert veins and probably during sedimentation of the overlying Black Chert member. Petrographycally, tourmaline in Type1 veins formed by hydrothermal processes and can be used to infer physicochemical conditions of the hydrothermal activity. Fragmentation of black chert and volcanic rocks within Type 2 veins was probably due to high pressure caused by hydrothermal activity.

Aihara, Y.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Horie, K.; Sakamoto, R.; Miki, T.

2013-12-01

339

Fabrication of hollow mesoporous NiO hexagonal microspheres via hydrothermal process in ionic liquid  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors were synthesized in ionic liquid and water solution by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were prepared by thermal treatment of Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were self-assembled by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals with high specific surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mesoporous structure is stable at 773 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic liquid absorbed on the O-terminate surface of the crystals to form hydrogen bond and played key roles in determining the final shape of the NiO novel microstructure. -- Abstract: The novel NiO hexagonal hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by annealing Ni(OH){sub 2}, which was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the hollow NiO microstructures are self-organized by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals. The mesoporous structure possessed good thermal stability and high specific surface area (ca. 83 m{sup 2}/g). The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF{sub 4}]) was found to play a key role in controlling the morphology of NiO microstructures during the hydrothermal process. The special hollow mesoporous architectures will have potential applications in many fields, such as catalysts, absorbents, sensors, drug-delivery carriers, acoustic insulators and supercapacitors.

Zhao, Jinbo, E-mail: zhaojinb@gmail.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China) [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); Wu, Lili, E-mail: wulili@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China) [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); Zou, Ke, E-mail: zouk2005@163.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China) [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China)

2011-12-15

340

Formation of hydrothermal deposits at Kings Triple Junction, northern Lau back-arc basin, SW Pacific: The geochemical perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inactive hydrothermal field was discovered near Kings Triple Junction (KTJ) in northern Lau back-arc basin during 19th cruise of R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 1990. The field consisted of a large elongated basal platform 'the pedestal' with several 'small' chimneys on its periphery and one 'main mound' superposed over it. The surrounding region is carpeted with lava pillows having ferromanganese 'precipitate' as infillings. The adjoining second field consisted of small chimney like growths termed as 'Christmas Tree' Field. The basal pedestal, the peripheral chimneys and small 'Christmas Tree' like growths (samples collected by MIR submersibles), though parts of the same hydrothermal field, differ significantly in their mineralogy and elemental composition indicating different history of formation. The pedestal slab consisting of chalcopyrite and pyrite as major minerals and rich in Cu is likely to have formed at higher temperatures than sphalerite dominated peripheral chimney. Extremely low concentration of high field strength elements (e.g. Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta) and enrichment of light REE in these sulfides indicate prominent influence of aqueous arc-magma, rich in subduction components. The oxide growths in the 'Christmas Tree' Field have two distinct layers, Fe rich orange-red basal part which seems to have formed at very low temperature as precipitates from diffused hydrothermal flows from the seafloor whereas Mn rich black surface coating is formed from hydrothermal fluids emanated from the seafloor during another episode of hydrothermal activity. Perhaps this is for the first time such unique hydrothermal oxide growths are being reported in association with hydrothermal system. Here, we discuss the possible processes responsible for the formation of these different hydrothermal deposits based on their mineralogy and geochemistry.

Paropkari, Anil L.; Ray, Durbar; Balaram, V.; Surya Prakash, L.; Mirza, Imran H.; Satyanarayana, M.; Gnaneshwar Rao, T.; Kaisary, Sujata

2010-04-01

341

Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

2014-01-01

342

Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

2014-09-01

343

Predictive Microbiology in Hydrothermal Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metabolisms of high-temperature microorganisms are not revealed by molecular phylogenies, but, if known, could connect microbial and geochemical processes in hydrothermal ecosystems. Disequilibria among oxidation-reduction reactions, established by kinetic barriers to electron-transfer reactions, provide energy, and life provides the catalyst. In more-or-less closed systems, such as slowly-accumulating detrital sediments, life taps as much energy as conversion efficiency will allow, and many redox couples are driven to near-equilibrium states. In contrast, open systems like hot springs maintain persistent states of redox disequilibria that support highly diverse communities of microorganisms. In Yellowstone National Park hot springs, the magnitude of these redox disequilibria can be predicted based solely on pH, guided by past measurements of hot spring geochemistry. Geochemical diversity at Yellowstone National Park produces hydrothermal ecosystems over a pH range from less than 2 to greater than 8, with associated major and trace element concentration changes. We have assessed the supply of chemical energy in the form of redox reactions that are far from equilibrium in the Fe-S-C-O-H-N system. Field measurements of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total sulfide, nitrate, nitrite, total ammonia, ferrous iron, and bicarbonate alkalinity are combined with lab analyses of sulfate, iron mineralogy, and gas composition (hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide) in a thermodynamic analysis of the state of redox disequilibria in more than 50 hot spring habitats. Initial results (using only inorganic forms of C) yield nearly 200 reactions that are out of redox equilibrium, and which could supply energy if catalyzed. Some of these reactions, such as hydrogen oxidation, are pH independent, and the energy supply is nearly constant at about 24 kcal per mole of electrons over the entire pH range. Other reactions, which are pH dependent, show greater or lesser variations in energy supply as pH changes. As an example, the oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron to goethite varies from 26 kcal per mole of electrons (more energy-yielding than hydrogen oxidation) near pH 8, to 10 kcal per mole of electrons at pH 2. Taken together, these trends provide the first comprehensive framework for predicting which thermophilic metabolisms will prevail in which hydrothermal environments. Merging molecular microbiological methods with this type of predictive geochemical data will produce a new integrated biogeochemical approach to solving problems in microbial ecology.

Shock, E. L.; Holland, M. E.; Meyer-Dombard, D.; Amend, J. P.

2004-12-01

344

Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

2013-12-01

345

Oceanography Vol.23, No.1148 MouNtaiNs iN the se a  

E-print Network

, from black smokers rich in sulfur to cooler, diffuse, iron-rich hydrothermal vents. As such, seamounts are often sites of high-temperature hydrothermal venting and host many chemoauto- trophic microbes; however processes. The importance of hydrothermal vents associated with deep ocean crustal spreading centers

Moyer, Craig

346

Black Saturn  

E-print Network

Using the inverse scattering method we construct an exact stationary asymptotically flat 4+1-dimensional vacuum solution describing Black Saturn: a spherical black hole surrounded by a black ring. Angular momentum keeps the configuration in equilibrium. Black saturn reveals a number of interesting gravitational phenomena: (1) The balanced solution exhibits 2-fold continuous non-uniqueness for fixed mass and angular momentum; (2) Remarkably, the 4+1d Schwarzschild black hole is not unique, since the black ring and black hole of black saturn can counter-rotate to give zero total angular momentum at infinity, while maintaining balance; (3) The system cleanly demonstrates rotational frame-dragging when a black hole with vanishing Komar angular momentum is rotating as the black ring drags the surrounding spacetime. Possible generalizations include multiple rings of saturn as well as doubly spinning black saturn configurations.

Henriette Elvang; Pau Figueras

2007-04-03

347

What Defines a Separate Hydrothermal System  

SciTech Connect

Separate hydrothermal systems can be defined in a variety of ways. Criteria which have been applied include separation of heat source, upflow, economic resource and geophysical anomaly. Alternatively, connections have been defined by the effects of withdrawal of economically useful fluid and subsidence, effects of reinjection, changes in thermal features, or by a hydrological connection of groundwaters. It is proposed here that: ''A separate hydrothermal system is one that is fed by a separate convective upflow of fluid, at a depth above the brittle-ductile transition for the host rocks, while acknowledging that separate hydrothermal systems can be hydrologically interconnected at shallower levels''.

Lawless, J.V.; Bogie, I.; Bignall, G.

1995-01-01

348

Dive and Discover's Deeper Discovery: Hydrothermal Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dive and Discover is an interactive distance learning web site designed to immerse you in the excitement of discovery and exploration of the deep seafloor. On this particular website, Dive and Discover takes you on a deeper discovery of hydrothermal vents. This site features an introduction to hydrothermal vent systems, including vent basics, vents around the world, chemistry, boiling points, interactive diagrams, videos, a quiz, and links to selected Dive and Discover hydrothermal vent-related seafloor expeditions. This web page also provides links to other Deeper Discovery topics, Dive and Discover seafloor expeditions, a teacher's page, and further Dive and Discover information.

349

Catastrophic volcanic collapse: relation to hydrothermal processes.  

PubMed

Catastrophic volcanic collapse, without precursory magmatic activity, is characteristic of many volcanic disasters. The extent and locations of hydrothermal discharges at Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, suggest that at many volcanoes collapse may result from the interactions between hydrothermal fluids and the volcanic edifice. Rock dissolution and hydrothermal mineral alteration, combined with physical triggers such as earth-quakes, can produce volcanic collapse. Hot spring water compositions, residence times, and flow paths through faults were used to model potential collapse at Ruiz. Caldera dimensions, deposits, and alteration mineral volumes are consistent with parameters observed at other volcanoes. PMID:17793659

López, D L; Williams, S N

1993-06-18

350

Modeling methane production by iron-bearing carbonate minerals in hydrothermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured methane and other major volatiles in fluid inclusions from gold deposits such as Lone Tree, Getchell, Twin Creeks, and Pipeline Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada by bulk analysis using quadrupole mass spectrometry. Ore-stage fluids are characterized by CO2/CH4 ratios that typically are < 10. Fluid inclusion methane concentrations generally are between 0.1 and 0.5 mol.%; other gaseous species show much wider ranges in composition. Also we commonly measure CO2/CH4 ratios of 10 or less in geothermal fluid inclusions. Similar ratios are reported in some black smokers. Few geothermal systems in production have CH4 in other than trace amounts. Giggenbach (1997) demonstrates that CO2/CH4 ratio in geothermal fluids in equilibrium with granite should vary positively with temperature, but we see no such variation and some fluid inclusion CO2/CH4 in granite-hosted inclusions ratios are an order of magnitude higher than calculated by Giggenbach (1997). This raises the question about the fluid inclusion gas measurements. We have looked at explanations for measurement of fluid inclusion methane that include preferential trapping of hydrocarbon compounds, concentration of methane by boiling, and contamination, but none can explain in all cases the methane concentrations measured. Hence we have modeled geothermal fluid rock reactions using Geochemists Workbench to demonstrate that methane can be a result of fluid-rock reactions. For gold ore wall rocks, we assume that wall rock includes iron-bearing carbonate minerals, epidote, and biotite. For geothermal systems, we assumed fluids with 1 mol.% CO2 and salinity of 1 %. We modeled the reaction of iron-bearing carbonate minerals, epidote, and biotite with the fluid between 100 and 300 °C. The reaction released ferrous iron, and the released ferrous iron is oxidized and precipitated as hematite or magnetite. The precipitation of hematite or magnetite produced acid and the acid dissolved calcite increasing CO2 concentration. The oxidation of ferrous iron produced hydrogen gas and the produced hydrogen reacted with CO2 producing methane. The equilibrium between magnetite and other ferrous-iron bearing minerals controlled the hydrogen fugacity and the hydrogen fugacity controlled the ratio of CO2 and methane. When the hydrogen fugacity was controlled by the equilibrium of magnetite and iron-bearing calcite, the modeled CO2/CH4 was about 10 and the ratio did not significantly vary between 100 and 300 °C. The reaction occurred over a wide range of pH conditions. At a low pH, the modeled ferrous iron concentration in the fluid was higher than that of higher pH. The modeled result suggests that the methane trapped in fluid inclusion can be produced by water-rock interaction in hydrothermal systems.

Park, J.; Norman, D.

2005-12-01

351

Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope  

DOEpatents

A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

2003-07-01

352

Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope  

DOEpatents

A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

2002-01-01

353

Hydrothermal Occurrences in Gusev Crater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploration of the Gusev crater landing site by the Spirit rover has revealed for the first time, in situ evidence of hydrothermal activity on Mars. Most compelling are eroded outcrops of opaline silica found adjacent to "Home Plate" [1], an eroded stack of volcaniclastic deposits stratigraphically overlain by a vesicular basalt unit [2]. Recent work [3] demonstrates that the silica outcrops occur in a stratiform unit that possibly surrounds Home Plate. The outcrops are dominated by opal-A with no evidence for diagenesis to other silica phases. No other hydrous or alteration phases have been identified within the outcrops; most notable is a lack of sulfur phases. The outcrops have porous and in some cases, brecciated microtextures. Taken together, these observations support the interpretation that the opaline silica outcrops were produced in a hot spring or perhaps geyser environment. In this context, they are silica sinter deposits precipitated from silica-rich hydrothermal fluids, possibly related to the volcanism that produced the Home Plate volcanic rocks. On Earth, debris aprons in which sinter is brecciated, reworked, and cemented, are common features of hot springs and geysers and are good analogs for the Martian deposits. An alternative hypothesis is that the silica resulted from acid-sulfate leaching of precursor rocks by fumarolic steam condensates. But stratigraphic, textural, and chemical observations tend to diminish this possibility [3]. We are conducting extensive laboratory and field investigations of silica from both hot spring/geyser and fumarole environments to understand the full range of mineralogical, chemical, textural, and morphological variations that accompany its production, in order to shed more light on the Home Plate occurrence. The recent discovery of abundant Mg-Fe carbonate (16-34 wt%) in outcrops named Comanche provides possible evidence for additional hydrothermal activity in Gusev [4]. However, the carbonate is hosted by olivine-rich (~40 wt%) volcaniclastic rocks that show no other phases indicative of significant alteration, such as phyllosilicates. Even the presence of so much olivine in the outcrops attests to minimal alteration. This suggests that the carbonate was not derived from hydrothermal alteration of the local rock. Instead, carbonate-bearing solutions sourced from elsewhere in the region may have precipitated carbonate as cement within the olivine-rich host rock [4]. An alternative hypothesis by [5] suggests that Comanche carbonate resulted from direct precipitation of evaporating brine, perhaps related to the putative ancient lake in Gusev crater, which infiltrated the host rock. In either case, the presence of outcrops of abundant carbonate and opaline silica demonstrates a rich and varied aqueous history in Gusev crater. [1] Squyres, S. W., et al. (2008), Science, 320, 1063-1067. [2] Squyres, S. W., et al. (2007), Science, 316, 738-742. [3] Ruff, S. W., et al. (2011), J. Geophys. Res., 116, E00F23, 10.1029/2010JE003767. [4] Morris, R. V., et al. (2010), Science, 329, 5990, 421-424, 10.1126/science.1189667. [5] Ruff, S. W. (2011), Lunar Planet. Sci., XLII, abstract #2708.

Ruff, S. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Milliken, R.; Mills, V. W.; Shock, E.

2011-12-01

354

Hydrothermal carbonization of lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermochemical conversion process to convert lignocellulosic biomass into value-added products. HTC processes were studied using two different biomass feedstocks: corn stalk and Tamarix ramosissima. The treatment brought an increase of the higher heating values up to 29.2 and 28.4 MJ/kg for corn stalk and T. ramosissima, respectively, corresponding to an increase of 66.8% and 58.3% as compared to those for the raw materials. The resulting lignite-like solid products contained mainly lignin with a high degree of aromatization and a large amount of oxygen-containing groups. Liquid products extracted with ethyl acetate were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified degradation products were phenolic compounds and furan derivatives, which may be desirable feedstocks for biodiesel and chemical production. Based on these results, HTC is considered to be a potential treatment in a lignocellulosic biomass refinery. PMID:22698445

Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

2012-08-01

355

Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2008-05-06

356

Unique Relationships between Facets of Mindfulness and Eating Pathology among Female Smokers  

PubMed Central

Female smokers often have higher levels of eating disorder symptoms than non-smokers, and concerns about eating and weight might interfere with smoking cessation. Thus, it is critical to identify factors to promote healthier eating and body image in this population. Initial research suggests that specific aspects of trait mindfulness predict lower body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among non-smokers. However, these relationships are unknown among smokers. The current study examined associations between facets of trait mindfulness and eating disorder symptoms in 112 college female smokers (83% Caucasian; mean age 20 years, SD = 1.69). After controlling for relevant sociodemographic variables, Describing and Nonjudging facets of mindfulness predicted lower bulimic symptoms and body dissatisfaction (ps < .05), while Acting with Awareness predicted lower bulimic and anorexic symptoms, ps < .05. Observing predicted higher anorexic symptoms, p < .05. These results suggest that specific mindfulness facets are related to lower eating disorder symptoms among smokers, whereas other facets are not associated or have a positive relationship with these symptoms. Mindfulness-based interventions focusing on Describing, Nonjudging, and Acting with Awareness may help to reduce eating pathology among female smokers, which could potentially improve smoking cessation rates in this population. PMID:23121795

Adams, Claire E.; McVay, Megan Apperson; Kinsaul, Jessica; Benitez, Lindsay; Vinci, Christine; Stewart, Diana W.; Copeland, Amy L.

2013-01-01

357

Smokers' reactions to FDA regulation of tobacco products: Findings from the 2009 ITC United States survey  

PubMed Central

Background On June 22, 2009, the US FDA was granted the authority to regulate tobacco products through the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA). The intent is to improve public health through regulations on tobacco product marketing and tobacco products themselves. This manuscript reports baseline data on smokers' attitudes and beliefs on specific issues relevant to the FSPTCA. Method Between November 2009 and January 2010, a telephone survey among a nationally representative sample of n = 678 smokers in the US was performed as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States Survey. Participants answered a battery of questions on their attitudes and beliefs about aspects of the FSPTCA. Results Most smokers were unaware of the new FDA tobacco regulations. Smokers indicated support for banning cigarette promotion and nearly a quarter supported requiring tobacco companies to sell cigarettes in plain packaging. Seventy two percent of smokers supported reducing nicotine levels to make cigarettes less addictive if nicotine was made easily available in non-cigarette form. Conclusion Most smokers were limited in their understanding of efforts to regulate tobacco products in general. Smokers were supportive of efforts to better inform the public about health risks, restrict advertising, and make tobacco products less addictive. PMID:22177316

2011-01-01

358

Effects of Intravenous Nicotine on Prepulse Inhibition in Smokers and Nonsmokers: Relationship with Familial Smoking  

PubMed Central

Rationale The reinforcing properties of nicotine may be, in part, derived from its ability to enhance certain forms of cognitive processing. Several animal and human studies have shown that nicotine increases prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex. However, it remains unclear whether these effects are related to smoking susceptibility. Objectives The current study examined the effects of intravenously delivered nicotine on PPI in smokers and nonsmokers, as well as its association with a quantitative index of familial smoking. Methods The sample consisted of 30 non-smokers and 16 smokers, who completed an initial assessment, followed on a separate day by a laboratory assessment of PPI prior to and following each of two intravenous nicotine infusions. Separate doses were used in smoker and non-smoker samples. Results Analyses indicated that both nicotine infusions acutely enhanced PPI among non-smokers, and this enhancement was positively related to the degree of smoking among first and second-degree relatives. Smokers also displayed PPI enhancement after receiving the first infusion, but this effect was unrelated to familial smoking. Conclusions These data suggest that the PPI paradigm may have utility as an endophenotype for cognitive processes which contribute to smoking risk. PMID:23624809

Drobes, David J.; MacQueen, David A.; Blank, Melissa D.; Saladin, Michael E.; Malcolm, Robert J.

2013-01-01

359

Products of 5-lipoxygenase and myeloperoxidase activities are increased in young male cigarette smokers.  

PubMed

The significance of 5-lipoxygenase and myeloperoxidase activities has not been extensively studied among young male smokers. Leukotriene B(4), 20-hydroxy-leukotriene B(4), 20-carboxy-leukotriene B(4) and 3-chlorotyrosine were measured in plasma and urinary samples of young male smokers at 8 hours following cigarette abstinence and an hour after cigarette smoking. Leukotriene B(4) and 3-chlorotyrosine were determined in neutrophils isolated from these individuals. The levels of these markers were compared with those of age-matched controls. In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the production of leukotriene B(4) and 3-chlorotyrosine from human neutrophils following exposure to nicotine and cotinine. Thirty male smokers (mean age, 27.4 years) and 28 male non-smokers (mean age, 28.7 years) were studied. Plasma levels of leukotriene B(4), 20-carboxy-leukotriene B(4) and 3-chlorotyrosine were higher in smokers than in non-smokers; leukotriene B(4) and 20-carboxy-leukotriene B(4) levels increased further an hour after cigarette smoking. Peripheral neutrophils isolated from smokers showed greater expressions of myeloperoxidase and 5-lipoxygenase activities compared with non-smokers, while plasma leukotriene B(4) and 3-chlorotyrosine were correlated significantly with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and plasma nicotine concentrations. Exposure of human neutrophils to nicotine and cotinine resulted in a higher production of leukotriene B(4) and 3-chlorotyrosine. To conclude, leukotriene B(4) and 3-chlorotyrosine levels are increased in young male cigarette smokers. These results suggest that cigarette smoking aggravates neutrophil-mediated inflammation by modulating the activities of myeloperoxidase and 5-lipoxygenase pathways. PMID:22690830

Loke, Wai Mun; Lam, Karen Mary-Jane; Chong, Wan Ling; Chew, Soh Eng; Quek, Amy Ml; Lim, Erle Ch; Seet, Raymond Cs

2012-10-01

360

Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers.  

PubMed

A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The present study compared neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure in current smokers, ex-smokers, and those who had never smoked in a large community sample. Salivary cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and frequency components of systolic blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured at rest and during exposure to a battery of three standardized stress tasks in 480 male and female participants from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study. Current smokers had significantly lower cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate reactions to stress. They also exhibited smaller changes in the low frequency band of blood pressure variability compared to ex- and never smokers. There were no group differences in stress related changes in overall heart rate variability as measured by the root mean square of successive interbeat interval differences or in the high frequency band of heart rate variability. In all cases, effects remained significant following statistical adjustment for a host of variables likely to be associated with reactivity and/or smoking. In secondary analyses, there were no significant associations between lifetime cigarette consumption or current consumption and stress reactivity. In conclusion, compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers, current smokers exhibited attenuated neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Among smokers and ex-smokers, there is no evidence that lifetime exposure was associated with physiological reactions to acute stress, nor that current levels of cigarette consumption were associated with reactivity. It is possible, then, that attenuated stress reactivity may be a marker for an increased susceptibility to take up and/or maintain smoking behaviour once initiated. PMID:24997350

Ginty, Annie T; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R

2014-10-01

361

Integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier and alveolar surfactant system in smokers.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier to technetium-99m labelled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (99mTc DTPA) is known to be greatly increased in smokers, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Abnormal permeability of the alveolar epithelium as well as impaired surfactant function has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to examine transudation of urea and albumin into the alveoli and alveolar surfactant function in smokers and non-smokers and to relate these variables to the rate of alveolar-capillary transfer of 99mTc DTPA. METHODS: Standardised bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the yield of urea and albumin measured in the lavage fluid. The integrity of the alveolar surfactant system was assessed by measurement of the surface activity and of the yield of phospholipids in alveolar lavage fluid. RESULTS: The mean decay constant for the pulmonary clearance of 99mTc DTPA was 0.028/min in the smokers and 0.009/min in the non-smokers. The recovery of albumin and urea in alveolar lavage fluid was very similar in the two groups. The surface activity of alveolar lavage fluid was lower in smokers than in non-smokers (minimum surface tension 37.9 versus 28.6 mN/m) and the yield of phospholipids was reduced (2.08 versus 3.86 mg). The rate constant for the pulmonary clearance of 99mTc DTPA correlated with the yield of phospholipids at bronchoalveolar lavage. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that increased alveolar-capillary transfer of 99mTc DTPA in smokers is not accompanied by increased transudation of small or large molecules into the alveoli. The findings support the hypothesis that increased clearance of 99mTc DTPA in smokers is related to surfactant dysfunction. PMID:1412116

Schmekel, B; Bos, J A; Khan, A R; Wohlfart, B; Lachmann, B; Wollmer, P

1992-01-01

362

Differential Effect of Active Smoking on Gene Expression in Male and Female Smokers  

PubMed Central

Smoking is the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Cohort epidemiological studies have demonstrated that women are more vulnerable to cigarette-smoking induced diseases than their male counterparts, however, the molecular basis of these differences has remained unknown. In this study, we explored if there were differences in the gene expression patterns between male and female smokers, and how these patterns might reflect different sex-specific responses to the stress of smoking. Using whole genome microarray gene expression profiling, we found that a substantial number of oxidant related genes were expressed in both male and female smokers, however, smoking-responsive genes did indeed differ greatly between male and female smokers. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) against reference oncogenic signature gene sets identified a large number of oncogenic pathway gene-sets that were significantly altered in female smokers compared to male smokers. In addition, functional annotation with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified smoking-correlated genes associated with biological functions in male and female smokers that are directly relevant to well-known smoking related pathologies. However, these relevant biological functions were strikingly overrepresented in female smokers compared to male smokers. IPA network analysis with the functional categories of immune and inflammatory response gene products suggested potential interactions between smoking response and female hormones. Our results demonstrate a striking dichotomy between male and female gene expression responses to smoking. This is the first genome-wide expression study to compare the sex-specific impacts of smoking at a molecular level and suggests a novel potential connection between sex hormone signaling and smoking-induced diseases in female smokers. PMID:25621181

Paul, Sunirmal; Amundson, Sally A

2015-01-01

363

Biomass reforming processes in hydrothermal media  

E-print Network

While hydrothermal technologies offer distinct advantages in being able to process a wide variety of biomass feedstocks, the composition of the feedstock will have a large effect on the processing employed. This thesis ...

Peterson, Andrew A

2009-01-01

364

Magmatic intrusions and hydrothermal systems on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are continuing our investigation of Martian hydrothermal systems and the formation of fluvial valleys on Mars. Here we present our initial numerical modeling results of hydrothermal systems associated with magmatic intrusions on Mars. To model such hydrothermal systems, we consider single, cylindrical intrusions of 4 km height 2 km below the surface. Our preliminary results of modeling hydrothermal systems associated with magmatic intrusions in the Martian environment suggest that such systems, if associated with intrusions of several 10(exp 2) km(exp 3) or larger, in the presence of permeable, water-rich subsurface should be able to provide adequate discharges of water over the time periods needed to form fluvial valleys. However, it is important to note that the amount of water ultimately available for erosion also depends on the surface and subsurface lithology.

Gulick, V. C.

1992-01-01

365

Proteomic Analysis of Whole Human Saliva Detects Enhanced Expression of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist, Thioredoxin and Lipocalin-1 in Cigarette Smokers Compared to Non-Smokers  

PubMed Central

A gel-based proteomics approach was used to screen for proteins of differential abundance between the saliva of smokers and those who had never smoked. Subjecting precipitated proteins from whole human saliva of healthy non-smokers to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) generated typical profiles comprising more than 50 proteins. While 35 of the proteins were previously established by other researchers, an additional 22 proteins were detected in the 2-DE saliva protein profiles generated in the present study. When the 2-DE profiles were compared to those obtained from subjects considered to be heavy cigarette smokers, three saliva proteins, including interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, thioredoxin and lipocalin-1, showed significant enhanced expression. The distribution patterns of lipocalin-1 isoforms were also different between cigarette smokers and non-smokers. The three saliva proteins have good potential to be used as biomarkers for the adverse effects of smoking and the risk for inflammatory and chronic diseases that are associated with it. PMID:21151451

Jessie, Kala; Pang, Wei Wei; Haji, Zubaidah; Rahim, Abdul; Hashim, Onn Haji

2010-01-01

366

Effects of short-term treatment with atorvastatin in smokers with asthma - a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The immune modulating properties of statins may benefit smokers with asthma. We tested the hypothesis that short-term treatment\\u000a with atorvastatin improves lung function or indices of asthma control in smokers with asthma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Seventy one smokers with mild to moderate asthma were recruited to a randomized double-blind parallel group trial comparing\\u000a treatment with atorvastatin (40 mg per day) versus placebo for

Georgina Braganza; Rekha Chaudhuri; Charles McSharry; Christopher J Weir; Iona Donnelly; Lisa Jolly; Jane Lafferty; Suzanne M Lloyd; Mark Spears; Frances Mair; Neil C Thomson

2011-01-01

367

Exploring Smokers' Knowledge and Expectations Toward Nicotine Vaccination: A Qualitative Study.  

PubMed

Knowledge and expectations toward smoking cessation therapies may influence effectiveness. Nicotine vaccination is a novel and promising new therapy for smoking cessation. This qualitative study explored smokers' knowledge and expectations toward nicotine vaccination as well as varenicline and counseling for smoking cessation. We conducted focus group discussions and interviews in 25 smokers at Maastricht University, the Netherlands, in 2010. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Participants had serious misconceptions about the purpose of nicotine vaccination, particularly the belief that nicotine vaccines reduce craving. Expectations toward counseling were highest. These results underline misconceptions smokers can have about cessation therapies. PMID:23924241

Hoogsteder, Philippe; van Merrebach, Martijn; Otters, Marjanneke; van Schayck, Onno; Kotz, Daniel

2013-08-01

368

Identification of Heavy Smokers through Their Intestinal Microbiota by Data Mining Analysis  

PubMed Central

The intestinal microbiota compositions of 92 Japanese men were identified following consumption of identical meals for 3 days, and collected feces were analyzed through terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The obtained operational taxonomic units and smoking habits of subjects were analyzed by a data mining software. The constructed decision tree was able to identify explicitly the groups of smokers and nonsmokers. In particular, 4 smokers, who smoked 20 cigarettes/day, i.e., heavy smokers, were gathered in the same group of the decision tree and were clearly identified. Related operational taxonomic unit were traced to understand the species of bacteria, but all were found to be uncultured bacteria. PMID:24936365

Kobayashi, Toshio; Fujiwara, Kenji

2013-01-01

369

Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

Not Available

1982-05-01

370

Hydrothermal crystallization of iron(III) hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystallization of amorphous iron(III) hydroxide during hydrothermal treatment in aqueous suspensions was studied by x-ray\\u000a diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that, by varying the hydrothermal synthesis conditions\\u000a (pH, temperature, duration, nature and amount of additives), one can control the phase composition, shape, and size of the\\u000a forming particles. Factors that increase the concentration of soluble iron(III)

V. V. Popov; A. I. Gorbunov

2006-01-01

371

Rare earth element systematics in hydrothermal fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earth element concentrations have been measured in hydrothermal solutions from geothermal fields in Italy, Dominica, Valles Caldera, Salton Sea and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The measured abundances show that hydrothermal activity is not expected to affect the REE balance of either continental or oceanic rocks. The REE enrichment of the solutions increases when the pH decreases. High-temperature solutions (>230°C) percolating

Annie Michard

1989-01-01

372

The Third Dimension of an Active Back-arc Hydrothermal System: ODP Leg 193 at PACMANUS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This first sub-seafloor examination of an active hydrothermal system hosted by felsic volcanics, at a convergent margin, obtained drill core from a high-T "smoker" site (penetrated to sim200 mbsf) and a low-T site of diffuse venting (~400mbsf). We aimed to delineate the lateral and vertical variability in mineralisation and alteration patterns, so as to understand links between volcanological, structural and hydrothermal phenomena and the sources of fluids, and to establish the nature and extent of microbial activity within the system. Technological breakthroughs included deployment of a new hard-rock re-entry system, and direct comparison in a hardrock environment of structural images obtained by wireline methods and logging-while-drilling. The PACMANUS hydrothermal site, at the 1700m-deep crest of a 500m-high layered sequence of dacitic lavas, is notable for baritic massive sulfide chimneys rich in Cu, Zn, Au and Ag. Below an extensive cap 5-40m thick of fresh dacite-rhyodacite, we found unexpectedly pervasive hydrothermal alteration of vesicular and flow-banded precursors, accompanied by variably intense fracturing and anhydrite-pyrite veining. Within what appears one major hydrothermal event affecting the entire drilled sequence, there is much overprinting and repetition of distinctly allochemical argillaceous (illite-chlorite), acid-sulfate (pyrophyllite-anhydrite) and siliceous assemblages. The alteration profiles include a transition from metastable cristobalite to quartz at depth, and are similar under low-T and high-T vent sites but are vertically condensed in a manner suggesting higher thermal gradients beneath the latter. The altered rocks are surprisingly porous (average 25%). Retention of intergranular pore spaces and open vesicles at depth implies elevated hydrothermal pressures, whereas evidence from fluid inclusions and hydrothermal brecciation denotes local or sporadic phase separation. A maximum measured temperature of 313 degC measured 8 days after drilling (360 mbsf at the diffuse venting site), if indicative of thermal gradient, suggests the presence of a very shallow ( ~1.5 km below seafloor) magmatic heat source. While isotopic characteristics of anhydrite suggest an irregularly varying component of magmatic fluid, the abundance of this mineral implies a substantial role for circulating seawater within the subsurface hydrothermal system. Other than the near-ubiquitous, fine grained disseminated pyrite in altered rocks, we found little sulfide mineralisation. Pyritic vein networks and breccias are extensive in the rapidly penetrated, but poorly recovered, interval down to 120 mbsf within our "high-T end-member" hole spudded on a mound surmounted by active (280 degC) chimneys. Anhydrite and open cavities possibly dominate this interval, from which a possible example of subhalative semi-massive sulfide containing chalcopyrite and some sphalerite was recovered near 30 mbsf. At the low-T and high-T vent sites respectively, anaerobic microbes were recorded by direct counting at depths down to 99 and 78 mbsf, and in 90 degC cultivation experiments at 69-107 and 99-129 mbsf. >http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/prelim/193

Binns, R.; Barriga, F.; Miller, D.

2001-12-01

373

Improvement of mucociliary transport in smokers by mucolytics.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of two mucolytic drugs with different mechanism of action on mucociliary transport (MCT). N-acetylcysteine (NAC-600 mg/day) and ambroxol (AMB-90 mg/day) were administered according to a double-blind cross-over scheme to 12 heavy smokers suffering from hypersecretory bronchitis and homogeneous reduction of the MCT. Placebo of both treatments was administered during an interval of ten days between the administrations of NAC and AMB. The entire treatment period was 30 days. The data were analyzed according to ANOVA for the two-period cross-over clinical trial. The results indicate that: NAC and AMB, administered both before and after placebo, produce a significant increase in MCT, NAC showed a slightly greater efficacy than AMB, but the differences are not statistically significant. The overall efficacy of NAC and AMB is consistently greater than that of placebo. The sequence of administration of the drugs does not influence their effect. PMID:3862608

Olivieri, D; Marsico, S A; Del Donno, M

1985-01-01

374

Perceived Stress and Substance Use in Methadone-Maintained Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background In methadone maintenance treatment programs (MMTPs), 80–90% of participants smoke cigarettes. Patients in MMTPs are at particular risk for life stress, and nicotine, as well as other substances like alcohol, benzodiazepines, cocaine, marijuana, and opiates have been shown to reduce the effects of stress. Use of these addictive substances to cope with stress may precipitate illicit opiate relapse in MMTP patients. In the current study, we examined the relationship between perceived stress and substance abuse. Methods Participants were 315 cigarette smokers recruited from nine MMTPs for a smoking cessation study. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the adjusted association of perceived stress with dichotomous indicators of hazardous alcohol use and recent substance use at baseline. Results After controlling for demographic and smoking-related variables, perceived stress was associated positively and significantly with the likelihood of screening positive for hazardous drinking or alcohol-related problems (OR = 1.13, 95%CI 1.02; 1.25), with the likelihood of recent cocaine use (OR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.02; 1.37), and with the likelihood of recent benzodiazepine use (OR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.07). Conclusions Perceived stress may be a marker of patients’ risk for illicit substance use, a known risk factor for illicit opiate relapse. These findings indicate that cigarette use might not be sufficient in managing stress and methadone-maintained persons turn to other substances for relief. PMID:24011853

Moitra, Ethan; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

2013-01-01

375

2 of 3 Smokers Will Die Early If They Don't Quit  

MedlinePLUS

... a study conducted by the Sax Institute in Australia. The study is a long-term investigation of ... low rates of smoking that we have in Australia, we found that smokers have around threefold the ...

376

Duke researchers find that combining treatments boosts some smokers’ ability to quit  

Cancer.gov

Combining two smoking cessation therapies is more effective than using just one for male and highly nicotine-dependent smokers who weren't initially helped by the nicotine patch, according to researchers at Duke Medicine.

377

COMPARATIVE YIELDS OF MUTAGENS FROM CIGARETTE SMOKERS' URINE OBTAINED BY USING SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Urine from cigarette smokers was prepared for mutagenicity testing by extracting mutagens with solid phase extraction columns. ommercially available prepacked bonded silicas (cotadecyl, cyclohexyl, cyanopropyl) were compared for their efficiency and specificity in concentration o...

378

Do different styles of antismoking ads influence the types of smokers who call quitlines?  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between television antismoking advertisements and the proportion of smokers who call a smokers' quitline who are ready to quit or have high confidence in quitting. The primary data of interest came from completed intake interviews of smokers. Using a generalized linear model, we modeled the proportion of Quitline callers who are ready to quit and/or have high confidence in quitting. The primary explanatory variable was monthly target audience rating points (TARPs) for antismoking advertisements, a measure of broadcast media exposure, obtained from the state's media buyer. The proportions of callers ready to quit and with high confidence in quitting were negatively associated with total TARPs. This result, over all ad types, was driven by why to quit-graphic ads. These results suggest that why to quit-graphic ads influence smokers who are less ready to quit or have lower confidence they can quit, likely new quitters, to call the Quitline. PMID:22843327

Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C; Kamyab, Kian; MacMonegle, Anna J

2013-02-01

379

Cognitive Functions, Personality Traits, and Social Values in Heavy Marihuana Smokers and Nonsmoker Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the effect of chronic marihuana smoking on cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values, a group of heavy marihuana smokers was compared with a matched control group. (Author)

Weckowicz, Thaddeus E.; Janssen, Doug V.

1973-01-01

380

Caspase3 and VEGF immunopositivity in seminiferous tubule germ cells in cases of obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia in smokers versus non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To investigate immunostaining pattern of caspase-3, an apoptosis marker, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an\\u000a hypoxia marker in testis biopsy specimens collected either from smoking or non-smoking patients with azoospermia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Testis biopsy specimens were obtained from thirty seven non-smoker and thirty eight smoker patients. Using immunochemistry\\u000a technique, caspase-3 and VEGF were evaluated in all intratubular spermatogenic and interstitial Leydig

Sevtap Kilic; Nese Lortlar; Yesim Bardakci; Erkan Ozdemir; Beril Yuksel; Ufuk Ozturk; Gurer Budak; Muammer Dogan

2009-01-01

381

Relation of nicotine yield of cigarettes to blood nicotine concentrations in smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood nicotine and carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) concentrations were studied in 330 smokers (206 women and 124 men). Blood nicotine concentrations in individual smokers varied from 25 to 444 nmol\\/l (4 to 72 ng\\/ml). The average concentration, 203 nmol\\/l (33 ng\\/ml), was the same in the men and the women, although cigarette consumption was higher in the men. Despite large differences in

M A Russell; M Jarvis; R Iyer; C Feyerabend

1980-01-01

382

[The problem of the effectiveness of treatment of arterial hypertension in smokers].  

PubMed

In this review we give short characteristics of investigations devoted to assessment of effectiveness of cardiac drugs in patients who smoke. Basing on results of these investigations point of view is expressed that antihypertensive preparations of various classes differently affect smokers with arterial hypertension (AH). An opinion exists that drugs which improve endothelial function are preferable in smoking patients with AH. However special studies of comparative of efficacy of antihypertensive drugs from different classes in smokers are necessary. PMID:23098550

Nebieridze, D V; Ivanishina, T V; Safarian, A S; Vinnitskaia, N L

2012-01-01

383

Motivating the unmotivated for health behavior change: a randomized trial of cessation induction for smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Many smokers remain unwilling or unable to make a quit attempt. For these smokers, novel strategies to induce quit attempts are necessary to achieve further reductions in smoking prevalence. Purpose This article describes the design and methods of an ongoing nationwide telephone-based clinical trial for cessation induction, the principal aim of which is to test the hypothesis that samples of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), can induce quit attempts among smokers otherwise unmotivated to quit. Methods Smokers are recruited proactively through online channels. A ‘behavioral filter’ is used to identify and separate motivated versus unmotivated smokers, the latter of whom (N = 750) are formally entered into the clinical trial. Participants are randomized to one of two treatment conditions designed to promote self-efficacy and motivation to quit: (1) practice quit attempt (PQA) or (2) PQA plus NRT sampling. The primary outcome measure tested over a 6-month follow-up is the incidence of additional quit attempts as well as hypothesized mediators of treatment effects. Results This study details the challenges of identifying and treating smokers who are unmotivated to quit. Strengths include a novel treatment approach, tested among a group of proactively recruited smokers nationwide, with a unique method of identifying cessation-resistant smokers. Limitations The omission of a true control group, testing the effect of the PQA itself, is an inherent limitation to the study design. Online recruitment presents additional study challenges, all of which are discussed in detail. Conclusions The study has translational potential to guide both clinical and policy recommendations for cessation induction. Further, while the focus is on smoking, this trial may serve as an example to researchers and clinicians who focus on other health behaviors, and who themselves are challenged with motivating people who are unmotivated for change. PMID:20338901

Carpenter, Matthew J; Alberg, Anthony J; Gray, Kevin M; Saladin, Michael E

2010-01-01

384

What is behind smoker support for new smokefree areas? National survey data  

PubMed Central

Background Some countries have started to extend indoor smokefree laws to cover cars and various outdoor settings. However, policy-modifiable factors around smoker support for these new laws are not well described. Methods The New Zealand (NZ) arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project) derives its sample from the NZ Health Survey (a national sample). From this sample we surveyed adult smokers (n = 1376). Results For the six settings considered, 59% of smokers supported at least three new completely smokefree areas. Only 2% favoured smoking being allowed in all the six new settings. Support among Maori, Pacific and Asian smokers relative to European smokers was elevated in multivariate analyses, but confidence intervals often included 1.0. Also in the multivariate analyses, "strong support" by smokers for new smokefree area laws was associated with greater knowledge of the second-hand smoke (SHS) hazard, and with behaviours to reduce SHS exposure towards others. Strong support was also associated with reporting having smokefree cars (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.21 - 2.34); and support for tobacco control regulatory measures by government (aOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.32 - 2.01). There was also stronger support by smokers with a form of financial stress (not spending on household essentials). Conclusions Smokers from a range of population groups can show majority support for new outdoor and smokefree car laws. Some of these findings are consistent with the use of public health strategies to support new smokefree laws, such as enhancing public knowledge of the second-hand smoke hazard. PMID:20718985

2010-01-01

385

Plasma oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol correlates inversely with testosterone in young adult male smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction There are indications that oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (Ox-LDLC) may play an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. In most developing countries, the interplay between the different lipid fractions and cigarette smoking has not been studied. This study assessed the effect of cigarette smoking on the alterations in plasma lipid fractions and their associations with the gonadal hormone, testosterone (T). Methods One hundred and sixty male participants, consisting of eighty smokers and eighty apparently healthy non-smokers were recruited. Anthropometric indices and biochemical parameters were determined using standard procedures. Results Significant increases were obtained in plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDLC) and Ox-LDLC/TT ratio (p<0.001) in smokers compared with the non-smokers. Plasma high density cholesterol (HDLC) (p<0.001) was significantly reduced in smokers compared with the non-smokers. The plasma mean T result was not significantly different from the non-smokers, but inversely correlated with Ox-LDLC and significantly correlated with the lipids and lipoproteins. Significantly high plasma TC, TG and LDLC (p<0.001) and low HDLC (p<0.001) were also obtained in smokers when co-founding factors such as duration and number of cigarette smoked per day were applied. Conclusion This study showed an inverse correlation between Ox-LDLC and testosterone as well as strong association between the number of tobacco and cigarettes usage per day. These changes in part, could be major causes of premature CVD and decreased fertility in young adults.

Ebesunun, Maria Onomhaguan; Bankole, Olurakinyo Lanre; Oduwole, Olayiwola

2014-01-01

386

The need for new anti-smoking advertising strategies that do not provoke smoker defiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The misguided effort to change the smoking behavior of college students using the same anti-smoking messages created for young teens apparently stems from the misplaced marketing belief that ads designed to prevent young teens from smoking can also effectively encourage college-student smokers to quit. When college students were asked to respond to current anti-smoking messages, non-smokers championed the anti-smoking cause

Joyce M. Wolburg

2004-01-01

387

Talking “truth”: Predictors and Consequences of Conversations about a Youth Antismoking Campaign for Smokers and Nonsmokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the Legacy Media Tracking Survey II, this study investigated relations among youth's evaluations of the “truth” antismoking campaign, campaign-related interpersonal discussion, and campaign-relevant outcomes (n = 8,000). Regression analyses showed that smokers were less likely to have discussed the campaign than nonsmokers, and this effect was mediated by negative campaign evaluation. However, smokers with a negative evaluation of the

Sally M. Dunlop

2011-01-01

388

Quit attempts among African American teenage smokers seeking treatment: gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. African Americans experience disproportionate smoking-related mortality. Because established smoking during youth predisposes to adult smoking and serious health consequences, characterizing ethnic differences in adolescent smokers' self-quit attempts may inform ethnic-specific approaches to youth smoking cessation.Methods. African American and European American teenage smokers applying to a teenage smoking cessation study (2000–2003) provided smoking-related data, including characteristics of previous cessation attempts

Eric T. Moolchan; Jennifer R. Schroeder

2004-01-01

389

The use of cessation assistance among smokers from China: Findings from the ITC China Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Stop smoking medications significantly increase the likelihood of smoking cessation. However, there are no population-based studies of stop-smoking medication use in China, the largest tobacco market in the world. This study examined stop-smoking medication use and its association with quitting behavior among a population-based sample of Chinese smokers. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 4,627 smokers from six cities

Jilan Yang; David Hammond; Pete Driezen; Qiang Li; Hua-Hie Yong; Geoffrey T Fong; Yuan Jiang

2011-01-01

390

Determinants of intention to quit: Confirmation and extension of western theories in male chinese smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructs from the Health Beliefs Model and Social Cognitive theory were used to predict intentions to quit in three disparate sub-samples (medical workers, teachers and factory workers) of male Chinese smokers (n?=?631). The intention to quit smoking was directly predicted by the importance the smoker places in quitting (change incentive) and their self-efficacy (accounting for 74% of the variance). Self-efficacy,

Sonia H Q Wang; Ron Borland; Anna Whelan

2005-01-01

391

Shorter interpuff interval is associated with higher nicotine intake in smokers with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background People with schizophrenia are frequent and heavy smokers. Methods The objective of this study was to measure serum nicotine levels and ad libitum smoking behavior for 24 + 2h using the CReSS micro topography device in 75 smokers with schizophrenia (SCZ) and compare these to 86 control smokers (CON) without mental illness. Mean values of repeatedly measured topography variables were compared using three-level nested linear models to adjust for between subject differences and the double nested data. Results Smokers with SCZ smoked more cigarettes in the 24 h period and took an average of 2.8 more puffs per cigarette than CON (p < 0.001). The time between puffs, or interpuff interval (IPI), was shorter in SCZ by an average of 6.5 s (p < 0.001). The peak flow rate was higher in SCZ by an average of 4.9 ml/s (p < 0.05). Smokers with SCZ spent an average of 1.0 min less time smoking a single cigarette vs. CON (p < 0.001). Smokers with SCZ also had shorter IPI and more puffs per cigarette in an analysis of first cigarette of the day. For all subjects, a decrease in IPI by 1s was associated with an increase in serum nicotine of 0.19 ng/ml and in cotinine of 5.01 ng/ml (both p < 0.05). After controlling for diagnosis group, higher craving scores on QSU Factor 2 (urgent desire to smoke) were associated with shorter IPI. Discussion Smokers with schizophrenia demonstrate more intense cigarette puffing that is associated with greater nicotine intake. This pattern may provide insight into other heavily dependent smokers. PMID:21596491

Williams, Jill M.; Gandhi, Kunal K.; Lu, Shou-En; Kumar, Supriya; Steinberg, Marc L.; Cottler, Brett; Benowitz, Neal L.

2013-01-01

392

Injury death excesses in smokers: a 1990–95 United States national cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives—Assess injury death relative risks (RR), dose-response, and attributable fractions for current cigarette smokers (smokers) in a recent representative sample of the United States population without and with adjustment for (a) demographic and (b) additional behavioral risk factors.Setting—United States.Methods—National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) adult (ages 18+ years) interviewees from 1990 or 1991 were followed through 1995. Referents had never smoked

B N Leistikow; D C Martin; S J Samuels

2000-01-01

393

MD Anderson study shows new approach connecting smokers to quit lines increases smoking cessation treatment enrollment  

Cancer.gov

Self-identified smokers directly connected to a tobacco cessation quit line are 13 times more likely to enroll in a treatment program as compared to smokers who are handed a quit line referral card and encouraged to call on their own, according to a new study led by researchers at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and published online in JAMA Internal Medicine.

394

Awareness and impact of the ‘Bubblewrap’ advertising campaign among Aboriginal smokers in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAntismoking mass media campaigns have been shown to reduce smoking prevalence in the mainstream community, however there is little published research on their effect on Aboriginal Australian smokers.ObjectivesTo evaluate the awareness and impact of a mainstream mass media advertising campaign (the ‘Bubblewrap’ campaign) on Aboriginal smokers in the state of Western Australia.MethodsA personal intercept survey was conducted in July 2008

Terry Boyle; Carrington C. J. Shepherd; Glenn Pearson; Heather Monteiro; Daniel McAullay; Kristina Economo; Susan Stewart

2009-01-01

395

Winning and losing: differences in reward and punishment sensitivity between smokers and nonsmokers  

PubMed Central

Background Smokers show increased brain activation in reward processing regions in response to smoking-related cues, yet few studies have examined secondary rewards not associated with smoking (i.e., money). Inconsistencies exist in the studies that do examine secondary rewards with some studies showing increased brain activation in reward processing brain regions, while others show decreased activation or no difference in activation between smokers and nonsmokers. Aims The goal of the current study is to see if smokers process the evaluation and delivery of equally salient real world rewards similarly or differently than nonsmokers. Methods The current study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain responses in smokers and nonsmokers during the evaluation and delivery of monetary gains and losses. Results In comparison to nonsmokers, smokers showed increased activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex to the evaluation of anticipated monetary losses and the brain response. Moreover, smokers compared to nonsmokers showed decreased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus to the delivery of expected monetary gains. Brain activations to both the evaluation of anticipated monetary losses and the delivery of expected monetary gains correlated with increased self-reported smoking craving to relieve negative withdrawal symptoms and craving related to positive aspects of smoking, respectively. Discussion Together these results indicate that smokers are hyperresponsive to the evaluation of anticipated punishment and hyporesponsive to the delivery of expected rewards. Although further research is needed, this hypersensitivity to punishments coupled with increased craving may negatively impact quit attempts as smokers anticipate the negative withdrawal symptoms associated with quitting. PMID:25365800

Martin, Laura E; Cox, Lisa S; Brooks, William M; Savage, Cary R

2014-01-01

396

Hydrothermal carbonization of agricultural residues.  

PubMed

The work presented in this article addresses the application of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) to produce a solid fuel named HTC-Biochar, whose characteristics are comparable to brown coal. Several batch HTC experiments were performed using agricultural residues (AR) as substrates, commonly treated in farm-based biogas plants in Germany. Different AR were used in different combinations with other biomass residues. The biogas potential from the resulting process water was also determined. The combination of different AR lead to the production of different qualities of HTC-Biochars as well as different mass and energy yields. Using more lignocellulosic residues lead to higher mass and energy yields for the HTC-Biochar produced. Whilst residues rich in carbohydrates of lower molecular weight such as corn silage and dough residues lead to the production of a HTC-Biochar of better quality and more similar to brown coal. Process water achieved a maximum of 16.3 L CH4/kg FM (fresh matter). PMID:23735795

Oliveira, Ivo; Blöhse, Dennis; Ramke, Hans-Günter

2013-08-01

397

Smokers' knowledge and understanding of advertised tar numbers: health policy implications.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This article examines health policy implications of providing smokers with numerical tar yield information in cigarette advertising. METHODS. Results of a national probability telephone survey regarding smokers' knowledge and understanding of numerical tar yields and deliveries are reported. RESULTS. Few smokers knew the tar level of their own cigarettes (the exception being smokers of 1- to 5-mg tar cigarettes), and a majority could not correctly judge the relative tar levels of cigarettes. Smokers were unsure whether switching to lower-tar cigarettes would reduce their personal health risks. Many smokers relied on absolute numbers in making trade-offs between number of cigarettes smoked and their tar levels, thus confusion machine-rated tar-yields with actual amounts ingested. CONCLUSIONS. The wisdom of the present method of providing tar and nicotine numbers in ads and recommendations for modifying the test protocol are now under discussion. This research indicates that these tar numbers and their implications are poorly understood. The paper recommends revisions in tar ratings to make them more useful and a required statement on cigarette packages to more explicitly relate tar levels to major health risks. PMID:8561236

Cohen, J B

1996-01-01

398

Trends in alternative tobacco use among light, moderate, and heavy smokers in adolescence, 1999–2009?  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine trends in alternative tobacco product (ATP) use (smokeless tobacco, cigars, and bidis/cloves) among a national sample of adolescent cigarette smokers (light, moderate, and heavy) during 1999–2009. Method A secondary analysis of data from the 1999–2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey was performed to investigate the tobacco behaviors of 6th through 12th graders enrolled in public and private schools in the United States. Long-term trends in ATP use were analyzed using logistic regression – controlling for sex, grade, and race/ethnicity – and simultaneously assessing linear and higher order time effects and their interaction with cigarette smoking status. Results During 1999–2009, increases in smokeless tobacco use and decreases in bidis/cloves use were observed across all smoking groups. For cigars, declines were observed for heavy and moderate smokers, but levels returned to baseline levels in 2009. Cigar use among light smokers was less variable. Rates of any ATP were highest among heavy smokers and lowest among light smokers. Conclusion Trends in cigarette and SLT use increased dramatically in the past decade, and this increase is evident across all cigarette smoker types. Implications for tobacco surveillance, prevention and cessation programs, and tobacco control policies are discussed. PMID:22464872

Nasim, Aashir; Khader, Yousef; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

2013-01-01

399

A Population Based Study on the Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking and Smokers’ Characteristics at Osogbo, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette smoking has been linked to several cancers worldwide. The characteristics of smokers have not been well documented among Nigerians. Objective This study assessed the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smokers among the residents of Osogbo, in southwestern Nigeria. Method The study, a population based cross-sectional study of randomly selected consenting adult residents of Osogbo, was conducted in September of 2011. Data was collected using a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire on cigarette smoking. Results A total of 759 respondents were interviewed. Mean age was 42.1 ± 12.5 years. There were 364 (48%) males and 395 (52%) females. About 22% had ever smoked while 8.7% were current smokers, smoking an average of 22.9 ± 10.1 cigarettes per day. Males constituted the majority of current smokers. Most smokers (71%) were introduced to smoking by friends and ill health was the most often reported reason for quitting. Conclusion Cigarette smoking is commonly practiced among males in the studied population and awareness creation and advocacy should be conducted throughout the city in order to inform current smokers about the hazards and cumulative effects inherent in smoking.

Adepoju, Ebenezer G; Olowookere, Samuel A; Adeleke, Najemdeen A; Afolabi, Olusegun T; Olajide, Folakemi O; Aluko, Olufemi O

2013-01-01

400

Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of 'light' cigarettes.  

PubMed

Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as 'light', 'ultra-light' and 'low tar' with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of 'light', 'mild' and 'low' on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Center in Philadelphia, PA, USA shortly after the ban went into effect to determine the extent of awareness of recent cigarette packaging changes among smokers of light cigarettes. In our sample of 266 smokers, 76 reported smoking light cigarettes, but fewer than half of these smokers reported noticing changes to their cigarette packaging. Simple removal of a few misleading terms may be too subtle of a change to register with consumers of so-called 'low tar' cigarettes; more comprehensive regulation of cigarette packaging design may be necessary to gain smokers' attention and minimize misperceptions associated with tobacco pack design characteristics and color. PMID:25492058

Falcone, M; Bansal-Travers, M; Sanborn, P M; Tang, K Z; Strasser, A A

2015-02-01

401

Hydrothermal mineralization at seafloor spreading centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent recognition that metallic mineral deposits are concentrated by hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers constitutes a scientific breakthrough that opens active sites at seafloor spreading centers as natural laboratories to investigate ore-forming processes of such economically useful deposits as massive sulfides in volcanogenic rocks on land, and that enhances the metallic mineral potential of oceanic crust covering two-thirds of the Earth both beneath ocean basins and exposed on land in ophiolite belts. This paper reviews our knowledge of processes of hydrothermal mineralization and the occurrence and distribution of hydrothermal mineral deposits at the global oceanic ridge-rift system. Sub-seafloor hydrothermal convection involving circulation of seawater through fractured rocks of oceanic crust driven by heat supplied by generation of new lithosphere is nearly ubiquitous at seafloor spreading centers. However, ore-forming