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1

Black Smokers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Black Smokers explains the phenomena of deep-sea hydrothermal vents that occur under oceans within mid-ocean ridge volcanoes. The site describes deep-sea hydrothermal vent life forms, the ocean floor, and the mid-ocean ridge system. Teacher resources include games and lesson plans about the human impact on black smoker environments, the debate on human versus robotic expeditions, tools and engineering for black smoker expeditions, and how oceanic crust forms and ages. There are reports from expeditions studying black smokers and information on the research vessels and other underwater tools of the expeditions.

2

The Sound Generated by Mid-Ocean Ridge Black Smoker Hydrothermal Vents  

PubMed Central

Hydrothermal flow through seafloor black smoker vents is typically turbulent and vigorous, with speeds often exceeding 1 m/s. Although theory predicts that these flows will generate sound, the prevailing view has been that black smokers are essentially silent. Here we present the first unambiguous field recordings showing that these vents radiate significant acoustic energy. The sounds contain a broadband component and narrowband tones which are indicative of resonance. The amplitude of the broadband component shows tidal modulation which is indicative of discharge rate variations related to the mechanics of tidal loading. Vent sounds will provide researchers with new ways to study flow through sulfide structures, and may provide some local organisms with behavioral or navigational cues. PMID:17205137

Crone, Timothy J.; Wilcock, William S.D.; Barclay, Andrew H.; Parsons, Jeffrey D.

2006-01-01

3

'Black Smokers' WebQuest: An Internet WebQuest on Hydrothermal Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a black smokers WebQuest where students in groups investigate one aspect of the science of black smokers. The WebQuest provides a separate list of links for each research role, including geochemist, biologist, oceanographer, and geologist. Upon completing their specialist research, the students work in groups to get a better understanding of black smokers and the issues by presenting a position on whether to protect black smokers or continue research on the black smokers for possible benefits. The webpage is divided into the following sections: introduction, the task, the process and resources, conclusion, and hypertext dictionary. This site provides a wealth of information relevant to black smokers with current information, many images, videos, animations, and first hand accounts.

Science, Uniserve

4

Black Smokers: A Huge but Untapped Mineral Storehouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting article, appearing in the online journal Mining Engineer (free registration required through Engineer Live), discusses mineral mining potentials of black smokers. Black smokers are hydrothermal vents emitting mineral bearing fluids from the deep ocean floor. This article gives an overview of how black smokers form geologically, sulfur-reducing bacteria and other organisms living on hydrothermal vents, and how ores are deposited at these vents. The overview is followed by suggested mining strategies and instruments for trace mineral detection.

5

High-resolution surveys along the hot spot-affected Gálapagos Spreading Center: 3. Black smoker discoveries and the implications for geological controls on hydrothermal activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explore effects of hot spots on mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems, we conducted nested sonar, hydrothermal plume, and near-bottom photographic surveys along the portion of the Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC) influenced by the Galápagos hot spot, from longitude 95°-89.5°W. We report the first active high-temperature black smokers to be found on the GSC, at longitudes 94°4.5'W and 91°56.2'-54.3'W; describe two areas of recently inactive smokers, at longitudes 91°23.4'-23.7'W and 91°13.8'W; and document an older inactive site, at longitude 90°33.4'W. All imaged vents issue either from dike-induced fissures along linear axial volcanic ridges and collapses or from a caldera. Magmatic control of hydrothermal systems also is revealed by spatial clustering of plumes within the topographically elevated middles of volcanic ridge segments with inferred centralized melt supply. In searched areas, smokers are more typical than diffuse flow vents, but total GSC plume incidence is half of that expected from the spreading rate. Why? Dike-fed fissures provide permeable pathways for efficient hydrothermal extraction of magmatic heat, but cones without calderas do not. Among many point-source cones surveyed, only the two with calderas had detectable plumes. Possibly, dominance of point-source over linear-source melt delivery on the GSC decreases plume incidence. Also, similar maturities of observed vents and their host lava flows indicate that hydrothermally active volcanic segments along the western GSC are contemporaneously in a waning phase of volcanic-hydrothermal activity. Perhaps ridge/hot spot interaction produces melt pulses that drive near-synchronous volcanic-hydrothermal activity on the volcanic segments spanning the hot spot. During active periods, hydrothermally active dike-fed fissures and calderas may be more abundant than we currently observe.

Haymon, Rachel M.; White, Scott M.; Baker, Edward T.; Anderson, Peter G.; MacDonald, Ken C.; Resing, Joseph A.

2008-12-01

6

Microearthquakes in the black smoker hydrothermal field, East Pacific Rise at 21/sup 0/N  

SciTech Connect

In July and August 1980, an array of five ocean bottom seismographs was deployed within 3 km of the 350 /sup 0/C hydrothermal vents at the Rivera submersible experiment (RISE) site at 21/sup 0/N, on the East Pacific Rise. Two of these instruments were placed within 600 m of the vents, using a transponder navigation network. The array detected four basic types of events. The first type consisted of local, very small microearthquakes. Locations obtained for 11 of these events place three within 1 km of the vents, with the others elsewhere along the rise crest. They appear to originate either from movement on the faults in the area or from the hydrothermal system beneath this area. A study of the S-P times of this type indicates a maximum hypocentral depth of 2-3 km, implying a similar limit to the depth of hydrothermal circulation and brittle fracturing in the vicinity of the vents. The second type of event found consisted of emergent earthquakes that have many of the characteristics of volcanic harmonic tremor. The frequency of these events falls in the 1-5 Hz range and are similar in appearance to those seen at Mount St. Helens prior to and during its May 1980 eruption. They may be either hydrothermal or volcanic in origin. The third type of event produced a very monochromatic, high-frequency seismogram, with the energy concentrated at 20 Hz. These events also appear to have a local origin.

Riedesel, M.; Orcutt, J.A.; MacDonald, K.C.; McClain, J.S.

1982-12-10

7

Thermoelasticity and the formation of black smokers  

SciTech Connect

Darcy's Law flow in a permeable medium, consisting of uniform parallel evenly spaced fractures, is used to elucidate how thermoelastic effects may modify the permeability and flow in fracture-controlled hydrothermal systems. Some simple permeability models are then used to investigate whether black smoker venting can result from focussing of low velocity porous flow into fractures at shallow depths ({approx equal} 100 m.). The models indicate that: (a) thermoelastic processes may be important in controlling the temporal evolution of hydrothermal upflow zones; (b) permeability structure, not just the bulk value of the permeability, may be critical for the formation of black smokers; (c) a small zone extending to a depth of {approx equal} 100 m containing a few fractures a factor of 2 or more wider than average may be sufficient to focus upflow into discrete vents provided thermoelastic and chemical effects seal parts of the upper crust.

Lowell, R.P. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (USA))

1990-05-01

8

Black smokers and the Tree of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular biology revolution has turned the classification of life on its head. Is Whittaker's five-kingdom scheme for the classification of living things no longer relevant to life science education? Coupled with this is the discovery that most microscopic life cannot yet be brought into culture. One of the key organisms making this knowledge possible is Methanococcus jannishi a microorganism found in black smokers. This workshop presents the development of the Universal Tree of Life in a historical context and then links together major concepts in the New South Wales senior science programs of Earth and Environmental Science and Biology by examining the biological and geological aspects of changes to black smokers over geological time.

Linich, Michael

9

Distribution of Archaea in a Black Smoker Chimney Structure  

PubMed Central

Archaeal community structures in microhabitats in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney structure were evaluated through the combined use of culture-independent molecular analyses and enrichment culture methods. A black smoker chimney was obtained from the PACMANUS site in the Manus Basin near Papua New Guinea, and subsamples were obtained from vertical and horizontal sections. The elemental composition of the chimney was analyzed in different subsamples by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, indicating that zinc and sulfur were major components while an increased amount of elemental oxygen in exterior materials represented the presence of oxidized materials on the outer surface of the chimney. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that a shift in archaeal ribotype structure occurred in the chimney structure. Through sequencing of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clones from archaeal rDNA clone libraries, it was demonstrated that the archaeal communities in the chimney structure consisted for the most part of hyperthermophilic members and extreme halophiles and that the distribution of such extremophiles in different microhabitats of the chimney varied. The results of the culture-dependent analysis supported in part the view that changes in archaeal community structures in these microhabitats are associated with the geochemical and physical dynamics in the black smoker chimney. PMID:11472939

Takai, Ken; Komatsu, Tetsushi; Inagaki, Fumio; Horikoshi, Koki

2001-01-01

10

Particulate DNA in smoker fluids: Evidence for existence of microbial populations in hot hydrothermal systems  

SciTech Connect

As part of an interdisciplinary study of hydrothermal vents on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, we used the submersible ALVIN to collect 57 fluid samples from 17 different hot vents (smokers and flanges) and their environs for the purpose of extracting particulate DNA. Particulate material concentrated from these samples was lysed enzymatically (enz) and by a combination of enzyme and French press treatment (fp). Concentrations of partially purified DNA recovered from these lysates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Ambient seawater surrounding the vents was found to contain low DNA concentrations, 0.18 to 0.32 ng of DNA per ml, while low-temperature vent samples yielded significantly higher concentrations of 0.37 to 2.12 ng of DNA per ml. Although DNA recovery values from superheated (210 to 345{degree}C) flange samples were not significantly different from ambient seawater values, most of the superheated (174 to 357{degree}C) smoker fluid samples contained particulate DNA in concentrations too high to be attributable to entrained seawater. Detailed sampling at one smoker site demonstrated not only the existence of significant levels of particulate DNA in the superheated smoker fluids but also the presence of an elevated microbial population in the buoyant plume 20 to 100 m above the smoker. These results underscore the heterogeneity of smoker environments within a given hydrothermal vent fluid and indicate that microorganisms exist in some superheated fluids.

Straube, W.L.; Colwell, R.R. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA) Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (USA)); Deming, J.W.; Baross, J.A. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Somerville, C.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))

1990-05-01

11

Discovery of a black smoker vent field and vent fauna at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge  

PubMed Central

The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) represents one of the most slow-spreading ridge systems on Earth. Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting, as well as the provenance of vent fauna at this northern and insular termination of the global ridge system, have been unsuccessful. Here, we report the first discovery of a black smoker vent field at the AMOR. The field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) and is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting and long-lived hydrothermal systems exist at ultraslow-spreading ridges, despite their strongly reduced volcanic activity. The vent field hosts a distinct vent fauna that differs from the fauna to the south along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The novel vent fauna seems to have developed by local specialization and by migration of fauna from cold seeps and the Pacific. PMID:21119639

Pedersen, Rolf B.; Rapp, Hans Tore; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.; Baumberger, Tamara; Flesland, Kristin; Fonseca, Rita; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Jorgensen, Steffen L.

2010-01-01

12

Microbial diversity of Loki's Castle black smokers at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge  

E-print Network

Microbial diversity of Loki's Castle black smokers at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge A. JAESCHKE,1 * S to investigate the microbial diversity in black smoker chimneys from the newly discovered Loki's Castle microbial diversity with numerous so far uncul- tivated organisms thriving in these extreme and unstable

Gilli, Adrian

13

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (IV) Interpretations of Black Smoker Fluid Compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One scientific goal of the IDDP is to understand high-temperature reaction zones such as those that feed hydrothermal fluids to active mid-ocean ridge black smoker vents. Smoker fluids emerge from a reservoir of composition, pressure and temperature resembling those expected in a supercritical IDDP well in the Reykjanes geothermal system. We have reconstructed black smoker fluids based on published analyses, and then computed mineral saturation indices, log(Q/K), for a wide range of P-T conditions, from which we identify a pressure and temperature where a group of probable alteration minerals equilibrated with the fluid. The estimated reservoir conditions commonly reflect approximately 60°C of cooling at the vent in excess of that from adiabatic decompression. Saturation index surfaces distinctly converge to zero in a narrow range of pressure and temperature, but the small angle of intersection of most curves yield substantial uncertainty, especially in pressure. Feldspars, quartz, garnet, actinolite, wairakite and chlorite have a stronger pressure dependence than do others, so they become the principal indicators of pressure, which is especially reflected in pH and silica solubility. An accurate reconstructed in situ pH is essential. In reconstructing fluids, we recompute pH to high P-T starting from the pH measured on shipboard in cooled fluid samples. Aside from temperature effects, the pH in such samples is elevated by mixing with cold seawater and lowered by precipitation of vent sulfides. To examine our understanding of pH, we scrutinized the saturation states of sulfides in the reconstructed vent fluids. For example, in 21°N EPR HG vent, we find that sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite are approximately saturated at the vent conditions (350°C, 260bar), and that pyrite is supersaturated and bornite is undersaturated. The former three are common vent sulfides. In the same fluid, silicates indicate reservoir conditions of approximately 450°C and 600 bar, at which conditions the sulfides are substantially undersaturated. These findings indicate that pH and concentrations of metals and sulfide measured in vent fluids are depressed by sulfide precipitation at and near the vent, thus an accurate estimate of the reservoir fluid properties requires a 're-dissolution' of metals and sulfide into the fluid, limited by saturation at reservoir P and T with sphalerite, chalcopyrite and pyrite, which are common accessory minerals in seafloor-altered basalts.

Reed, M. H.; Palandri, J. L.; Elders, W.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2008-12-01

14

Differences in Quit Attempts Between non-Hispanic Black and White Daily Smokers: The Role of Smoking Motives  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence of smoking across racial/ethnic groups has declined over the years, yet racial health disparities for smoking persist. Studies indicate that non-Hispanic Black smokers attempt to quit smoking more often compared to non-Hispanic White smokers but are less successful at doing so. Research suggests that motives to quit smoking differ by race, however, less is known about the role of motives to smoke in explaining racial differences in attempts to quit smoking. Methods This study examined whether smoking motives accounted for the differential rates in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black (n=155) and non-Hispanic White (n=159) smokers. Data were culled from a larger study of heavy-drinking smokers. The Wisconsin Index of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) assessed motives to smoke. Results As expected, Black and White smokers reported similar smoking patterns, yet Black smokers reported higher rates of failed attempts to quit smoking than White smokers. Findings indicated that Black, compared to White, smokers endorsed lower scores in the negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, and taste WISDM subscales and scores these subscales mediated the relationship between race and quit attempts. Conclusions In this study, Blacks, compared to Whites, endorsed lower motives to smoke, which are generally associated with successful quit attempts, yet they experienced more failed attempts to quit smoking. This study demonstrates racial health disparities at the level of smoking motives and suggests that Black smokers remain vulnerable to failed quit attempts despite reporting lower motives to smoke. PMID:25123344

Bacio, Guadalupe A.; Guzman, Iris Y.; Shapiro, Jenessa R.; Ray, Lara A.

2015-01-01

15

A Serpentinite-Hosted Ecosystem: The Lost City Hydrothermal Field  

E-print Network

of hydrothermal chimneys and black smoker vents driven by the cooling of magma beneath mid-ocean ridges and host hydrothermal vent systems. Many of these high-temperature systems are restricted to the axis of the global mid any hydrothermal system found to date, hosting diffusely venting carbonate monoliths towering tens

Gilli, Adrian

16

First Time Ever Retrieval of "Black Smokers" from Ocean Floor Reveals One of Earth's Strangest and Most Enigmatic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article features a black smoker retrieved by an expedition team on the Juan De Fuca Ridge, at a depth of more than one mile below the surface of the ocean. The article discusses the expedition, the black smoker's complex ecosystem, and the black smoker environment and lifeform implications for the possibility of life on other planetary bodies. To learn more about the expedition through logs and photographs, the site provides links to the American Museum of Natural History, the University of Washington, and PBS television. Additional University of Washington News articles may be accessed on site as well.

Hines, Sandra

17

First time ever retrieval of "black smokers" from ocean floor reveals one of Earth's strangest and most enigmatic ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article features a black smoker retrieved by an expedition team on the Juan De Fuca Ridge, at a depth of more than one mile below the surface of the ocean. The article discusses the expedition, the black smoker's complex ecosystem, and the black smoker environment and lifeform implications for the possibility of life on other planetary bodies. To learn more about the expedition through logs and photographs, the site provides links to the American Museum of Natural History, the University of Washington, and PBS television. Additional University of Washington News articles may be accessed on site as well.

Sandra Hines

18

Tidally-Forced Flow Variability Within Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems: Models and Measurement Techniques  

E-print Network

black smoker hydrothermal vents. The first technique I develop is based on passive acoustic measurementsTidally-Forced Flow Variability Within Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems: Models and Measurement of Washington Abstract Tidally-Forced Flow Variability Within Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems: Models

Crone, Timothy J.

19

Candy Chemosynthesis: Biochemistry of Hydrothermal Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will differentiate between requirements for life in extreme environments such as hydrothermal vents and other environments and will use soft candy as a model to create a visual image of chemicals involved in autotrophic nutrition. As they review the biochemistry of hydrothermal vents, they will discover what chemicals are used by autotrophs in extreme environments in the deep ocean and how these chemicals differ from those used by terrestrial autotrophs. They will also study a diagram showing how a hydrothermal vent (black smoker) acquires the elements and compounds that deep-sea autotrophs require.

20

Direct observation of the evolution of a seafloor ‘black smoker’ from vapor to brine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single hydrothermal vent, ‘F’ vent, occurring on very young crust at 9°16.8?N, East Pacific Rise, was sampled in 1991 and 1994. In 1991, at the measured temperature of 388°C and seafloor pressure of 258 bar, the fluids from this vent were on the two-phase curve for seawater. These fluids were very low in chlorinity and other dissolved species, and

K. L. Von Damm; L. G. Buttermore; S. E. Oosting; A. M. Bray; D. J. Fornari; M. D. Lilley; W SHANKSIII

1997-01-01

21

Discovery and Distribution of Black Smokers on the Western Galapagos Spreading Center: Implications for Spatial and Temporal Controls on High Temperature Venting at Ridge/Hotspot Intersections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though nearly one-fifth of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) lies on or near hotspots, it has been debated whether hotspots increase or decrease MOR hydrothermal flux, or affect vent biota. Despite hotspot enhancement of melt supply, high-temperature vent plumes are enigmatically sparse along two previously-surveyed ridge- hotspot intersections [Reykjanes Ridge (RR), Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR)]. This has been attributed to crustal thickening by excess volcanism. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, we conducted nested sonar, plume, and camera surveys along a 540 km-long portion of the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) where the ridge intersects the Galapagos hotspot at lon. 94.5 -89.5 deg. W. Although MOR hydrothermal springs were first found along the eastern GSC crest in 1977 near lon. 86 deg. W, the GalAPAGoS smokers are the first active high-temperature vents to be found anywhere along the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary. Active and/or recently-inactive smokers were located beneath plumes at 5 sites on the seafloor between lon. 91 deg. W and 94.5 deg. W (see Anderson et al., this session) during near-bottom, real-time fiber-optic Medea camera surveys. Smokers occur along eruptive seafloor fissures atop axial volcanic ridges near the middles of ridge segments, mainly in areas underlain by relatively shallow, continuous axial magma chamber (AMC) seismic reflectors. These findings (1) support magmatic, rather than tectonic, control of GSC smoker distribution; (2) demonstrate that thick crust at MOR-hotspot intersections does not prevent high-temperature hydrothermal vents from forming; and, (3) appear to be inconsistent with models suggesting that enhanced hydrothermal cooling causes abrupt deepening of the AMC and transition from non-rifted to rifted GSC morphology near lon. 92.7 deg. W. The widely-spaced smoker sites located on different GSC segments exhibit remarkably similar characteristics and seafloor settings. Most sites are mature or extinct, and are on lava flows of visually-similar ages (estimated to be tens-to-hundreds of years old). Possibly a volcanic pulse may have activated the hotspot- affected western GSC, and powered contemporaneous hydrothermal vents that now are waning. It may be that hotspots produce episodes of near-synchronous, extensive ridge volcanism and hydrothermal activity, followed by periods of quiescence. This idea is consistent with: the episodic eruption histories of Hawaii and Iceland; variably anomalous hydrothermal plume incidence (low on RR, SEIR, GSC; high on Mid-Atlantic Ridge near Azores hotspot); models of episodic melt extraction from mantle plumes; and evidence for magma propagation along hotspot-influenced ridges. Our hypothesis potentially can be tested by studies of gene flow between animal communities located on either side of the Galapagos hotspot, and by dating of GSC hydrothermal chimneys and the lava flows on which they are constructed.

Haymon, R. M.; Anderson, P. G.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; White, S. M.; MacDonald, K. C.

2006-12-01

22

Feeding biology of the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata at hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly described species of shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata Williams and Rona, 1986, dominates the megafaunal community at two hydrothermal vent sites on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Behavioral observations and gut-content analyses indicate, that these shrimp ingest large amounts of sulfide particles from black smoker chimneys. We found no evidence for chemoautotrophic endosymbionts in R. exoculata, based on analyses of morphology, stable

C. L. Dover; B. Fry; J. F. Grassle; S. Humphris; P. A. Rona

1988-01-01

23

Smoker's lung  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physicians can easily tell if you are a smoker by how your lungs look. Normal lungs are red or pink and fluid-looking. Smokers have blackened lungs that are drier than normal lungs. Tumors may develop from continued tobacco use-these appear as white masses.

John Hayman (None;)

2007-07-02

24

Submarine-hydrothermal exhalative ore layers in black shales from South China and associated fossils — insights into a Lower Cambrian facies and bio-evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early Cambrian (Tommotian) black shales in South China contain submarine-hydrothermal exhalative sulfide ore layers within an arc-parallel linear belt extending more than 1600km. Evidence for an Early Cambrian hydrothermal venting is given by the records of main and trace elements, rare earth elements (REE), sulfur isotopes and the petrological and geological investigations. Mass occurrences of arthropods, sponges and undetermined shelly

Michael Steiner; Eckart Wallis; Bernd-Dietrich Erdtmann; Yuanlong Zhao; Ruidong Yang

2001-01-01

25

Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such determinations rely on studies of pieces of deep oceanic crust uplifted by tectonic forces such as along the Southwest Indian Ridge, or more complete sections of oceanic crust called ophiolite sequences which are presently exposed on continents owing to tectonic emplacement. Much of what is thought to happen in submarine hydrothermal systems is inferred from studies of ophiolite sequences, and especially from the better-exposed ophiolites in Oman, Cyprus and North America. The focus of much that follows is on a few general features: pressure, temperature, oxidation states, fluid composition and mineral alteration, because these features will control whether organic synthesis can occur in hydrothermal systems.

Shock, Everett L.

1992-01-01

26

Drilling the Snake Pit hydrothermal sulfide deposit on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, lat 23/sup 0/22'N  

SciTech Connect

A major high-temperature hydrothermal area has been discovered in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley about 25 km south of the Kane Fracture Zone. The vent field consists of a wide area (> 40,000 m/sup 2/) of dark hydrothermal deposits, numerous sulfide chimneys and mounds, some up to 11 m high, and high-temperature black-smoker vents. Ten shallow holes, the first ever drilled in an active submarine hydrothermal area, recovered friable, unconsolidated Fe, Cu-Fe, and Zn sulfides and several large fragments of massive sulfide (mainly chalcopyrite) from the locally thick (> 13 m) hydrothermal deposits. The vents are also associated with an unusual biological community of smaller, more mobile organisms than reported from the East Pacific Rise.

Detrick, R.S.; Honnorez, J.; Adamson, A.C.; Brass, G.; Gillis, K.M.; Humphris, S.E.; Mevel, C.; Meyer, P.; Petersen, N.; Rautenschlein, M.; Shibata, T.; Staudigel, H.; Yamamoto, K.

1986-12-01

27

Effects of anhydrite precipitation on hydrothermal convection patterns at fast-spreading ridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in hydrothermal modeling capabilities have revealed the key thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic controls on hydrothermal convection patterns and vent temperatures at oceanic spreading centers. The observed upper limit to black smoker vent temperatures of approx. 400°C can be explained by the thermodynamic properties of water (Jupp and Schultz, 2000). Likewise, 3D models of hydrothermal flow at fast-spreading ridges show cylindrical upwellings with adjacent warm recharge flow (Coumou et al., 2008). This close relation between dis- and recharge flow implies that hydrothermal convection cells have a relatively short wavelength (~500m), which is difficult to reconcile with ideas on elongated along-axis convection cells proposed for the East Pacific Rise (Tolstoy et al., 2008) and with the irregular spacing of hydrothermal sites along ridge segments. One possible additional process controlling the spacing/wavelength of hydrothermal convection cells may be chemical precipitation reactions. A key reaction in hydrothermal systems is the precipitation of anhydrite. In recharge zones, heating of 1 kg of seawater to approx. 350°C results in the precipitation of roughly 1.4 g of anhydrite, which is buffered by the amount of calcium dissolved in seawater. More significant may be the precipitation of anhydrate when calcium-rich hydrothermal fluids mix with sulfate rich seawater. A consequence of anhydrite precipitation is the progressive clogging of pore space, which in turn affects permeability and thereby hydrothermal flow. We have implemented the above processes into 2D and 3D hydrothermal flow models and will present first results of how chemical reactions can affect hydrothermal flow patterns at fast-spreading ridges.

Ruepke, Lars; Hasenclever, Joerg

2014-05-01

28

Light at deep sea hydrothermal vents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We usually think of the bottom of the sea as a dark environment, lit only by flashes of bioluminescent light. Discovery of light associated with geothermal processes at deep sea hydrothermal vents forces us to qualify our textbook descriptions of the seafloor as a uniformly dark environment. While a very dim glow emitted from high temperature (350°) vents (black smokers) at mid-oceanic ridge spreading centers has been documented [Van Dover et al, 1988], the source of this light and its role, if any, in the evolution and adaptation of photobiochemical processes have yet to be determined. Preliminary studies indicate that thermal radiation alone may account for the “glow” ]Smith and Delaney, 1989] and that a novel photoreceptor in shrimp-colonizing black smoker chimneys may detect this “glow” [Van Dover et al., 1989; Pelli and Chamberlain, 1989]. A more controversial question, posed by C. L. Van Dover, J. R. Cann, and J. R. Delaney at the 1993 LITE Workshop at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, is whether there may be sufficient light of appropriate wavelengths to support geothermally driven photosynthesis by microorganisms.

Van Dover, Cindy Lee; Cann, J. R.; Cavanaugh, Colleen; Chamberlain, Steven; Delaney, John R.; Janecky, David; Imhoff, Johannes; Tyson, J. Anthony

29

Geology and hydrothermal evolution of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed characterization of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, the most southern and spatially extensive field on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, provides new insights into its geologic and hydrothermal development. Meter-scale bathymetry, side-scan sonar imagery, and direct dive observations show that Mothra is composed of six actively venting sulfide clusters spaced 40-200 m apart. Chimneys within each cluster have similar morphology and venting characteristics, and all clusters host a combination of active and extinct sulfide structures. Black smoker chimneys venting fluids above 300°C are rare, while more common lower-temperature, diffusely venting chimneys support dense colonies of macrofauna and bacterial mat. Hydrothermal sediment and extinct sulfide debris cover 10-15 m of the seafloor surrounding each vent cluster, obscuring the underlying basaltic substrate of light to moderately sedimented pillow, lobate, sheet, and chaotic flows, basalt talus, and collapse terrain. Extinct sulfide chimneys and debris between the clusters indicate that hydrothermal flow was once more widespread and that it has shifted spatially over time. The most prominent structural features in the axial valley at Mothra are regional (020°) trending faults and fissures and north-south trending collapse basins. The location of actively venting clusters within the field is controlled by (1) localization of fluid upflow along the western boundary fault zone, and diversion of these fluids by antithetic faults to feed vent clusters near the western valley wall, and (2) tapping of residual magmatic heat in the central part of the axial valley, which drives flow beneath vent clusters directly adjacent to the collapse basins 70-90 m east of the western valley wall. These processes form the basis for a model of axial valley and hydrothermal system development at Mothra, in which the field is initiated by an eruptive-diking episode and sustained through intense microseismicity and non-eruptive diking events.

Glickson, Deborah A.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Delaney, John R.

2007-06-01

30

COPD in Never Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background: Never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of patients with COPD. Their characteristics and possible risk factors in this population are not yet well defined. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 countries that participated in the international, population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study. Participants were aged ? 40 years and completed postbronchodilator spirometry testing plus questionnaires about respiratory symptoms, health status, and exposure to COPD risk factors. A diagnosis of COPD was based on the postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio, according to current GOLD (Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease) guidelines. In addition to this, the lower limit of normal (LLN) was evaluated as an alternative threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Results: Among 4,291 never smokers, 6.6% met criteria for mild (GOLD stage I) COPD, and 5.6% met criteria for moderate to very severe (GOLD stage II+) COPD. Although never smokers were less likely to have COPD and had less severe COPD than ever smokers, never smokers nonetheless comprised 23.3% (240/1,031) of those classified with GOLD stage II+ COPD. This proportion was similar, 20.5% (171/832), even when the LLN was used as a threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Predictors of COPD in never smokers include age, education, occupational exposure, childhood respiratory diseases, and BMI alterations. Conclusion: This multicenter international study confirms previous evidence that never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of individuals with COPD. Our data suggest that, in addition to increased age, a prior diagnosis of asthma and, among women, lower education levels are associated with an increased risk for COPD among never smokers. PMID:20884729

McBurnie, Mary Ann; Vollmer, William M.; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Welte, Tobias; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa; Studnicka, Michael; Bateman, Eric; Anto, Josep M.; Burney, Peter; Mannino, David M.; Buist, Sonia A.

2011-01-01

31

A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem: the Lost City hydrothermal field.  

PubMed

The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from <40 degrees to 90 degrees C at pH 9 to 11, and carbonate chimneys 30 to 60 meters tall. A low diversity of microorganisms related to methane-cycling Archaea thrive in the warm porous interiors of the edifices. Macrofaunal communities show a degree of species diversity at least as high as that of black smoker vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but they lack the high biomasses of chemosynthetic organisms that are typical of volcanically driven systems. PMID:15746419

Kelley, Deborah S; Karson, Jeffrey A; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Yoerger, Dana R; Shank, Timothy M; Butterfield, David A; Hayes, John M; Schrenk, Matthew O; Olson, Eric J; Proskurowski, Giora; Jakuba, Mike; Bradley, Al; Larson, Ben; Ludwig, Kristin; Glickson, Deborah; Buckman, Kate; Bradley, Alexander S; Brazelton, William J; Roe, Kevin; Elend, Mitch J; Delacour, Adélie; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Lilley, Marvin D; Baross, John A; Summons, Roger E; Sylva, Sean P

2005-03-01

32

[Smell perception in smokers].  

PubMed

The author studied the changes of olfactory function in smokers. He established the fact that the threshold of the perception of smell increases in smokers. By studying the subjective experience of the intensity of smell he established an appearance which he named olfactory recruitment, the increased growth of smelling sensitivity, which points out the changes, not only on the olfactive mucous membranes, but on the olfactive paths as well. The author concludes that smoking influences the decrease of the function of smell and emphasizes the necessity of advising the stopping of smoking in the treatment of all types of smelling disorders, as one of the important elements of treatment. PMID:2215392

Fiser, A

1990-01-01

33

Hydrothermal systems: A decade of discovery in slow spreading environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although much of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is unexplored, investigations this past decade show that it hosts a rich diversity of hydrothermal systems with fluid chemistries and biogeographic heterogeneity that span much greater compositional ranges than those within intermediate and fast spreading mid-ocean ridge systems. Extreme attenuation of the crust and formation of detachment faults are now known to be key to this diversity, resulting in three classes of hydrothermal systems. Type 1 systems host high-temperature, black smokers driven by heat extracted from cooling magma and/or proximal gabbroic crust. Acidic vent fluids are enriched in magmatically derived carbon dioxide, with variable concentrations of methane, hydrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. Type II fields host black smokers driven by cooling of variable mixtures of gabbroic and ultramafic material. Fluids are enriched in carbon dioxide, reflecting the magmatic-gabbroic influence, but they also contain elevated concentrations of methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons: hallmarks of serpentinization reactions. Type III systems are low-temperature, peridotite-hosted environments where fluid circulation is driven predominantly by cooling of mantle material. Carbon dioxide is absent, but fluids are enriched in methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons of abiogenic origin. There are now more than 225 endemic species inhabiting slow spreading ridges with full species diversity ranging from ˜30 to >100 species within a given site. The fundamental drivers of vent faunal community structure are considered to be a function of geologic setting, composition, and variability of the resulting vent fluid chemistry, differences in depth, life history strategies of individual species, and the great geographic distance typically separating vent sites on slow spreading ridges.

Kelley, Deborah S.; Shank, Timothy M.

34

No Effect of Consumption of Green and Black Tea on Plasma Lipid and Antioxidant Levels and on LDL Oxidation in Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intake of flavonoids is associated with a reduced cardiovascular risk. Oxidation of LDL is a major step in atherogenesis, and antioxidants may protect LDL from oxidation. Because tea is an important source of flavonoids, which are strong antioxidants, we have assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled study the effect of consumption of black and green tea and of intake of isolated

Hans M. G. Princen; Wim van Duyvenvoorde; Rien Buytenhek; Cor Blonk; Lilian B. M. Tijburg; Jacqueline A. E. Langius; A. Edo Meinders; Hanno Pijl

35

Hydrothermal Activity on the Mid-Cayman Rise: ROV Jason sampling and site characterization at the Von Damm and Piccard hydrothermal fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In January 2012 our multi-national and multi-disciplinary team conducted a series of 10 ROV Jason dives to conduct first detailed and systematic sampling of the Mid Cayman Rise hydrothermal systems at the Von Damm and Piccard hydrothermal fields. At Von Damm, hydrothermal venting is focused at and around a large conical structure that is approximately 120 m in diameter and rises at least 80m from the surrounding, largely sedimented seafloor. Clear fluids emitted from multiple sites around the flanks of the mound fall in the temperature range 110-130°C and fall on a common mixing line with hotter (>200°C) clear fluids emitted from an 8m tall spire at the summit which show clear evidence of ultramafic influence. Outcrop close to the vent-site is rare and the cone itself appear to consist of clay minerals derived from highly altered host rock. The dominant fauna at the summit of Von Damm are a new species of chemosynthetic shrimp but elsewhere the site also hosts two distinct species of chemosynthetic tube worm as well as at least one species of gastropod. The adjacent Piccard site, at ~5000m depth comprises 7 distinct sulfide mounds, 3 of which are currently active: Beebe Vents, Beebe Woods and Beebe Sea. Beebe Vents consists of 5 vigorous black smoker chimneys with maximum temperatures in the range 400-403°C while at Beebe Woods a more highly colonized thicket of up to 8m tall chimneys includes predominantly beehive diffusers with rare black smokers emitting fluids up to 353°C. Beebe Sea a diffuse site emitting fluids at 38°C Tmax, is the largest of the currently active mounds and immediately abuts a tall (8m) rift that strikes NE-SW bisecting the host Axial Volcanic Ridge. The fauna at Piccard are less diverse than at Von Damm and, predominantly, comprise the same species of MCR shrimp, a distinct gastropod species and abundant anemones.

German, C. R.

2012-12-01

36

Hydrothermal Processing  

SciTech Connect

This chapter is a contribution to a book on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass being edited by Prof. Robert Brown of Iowa State University. It describes both hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal gasification of biomass to fuels.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2011-03-11

37

Propidium Monoazide-based Method for Identifying Phylogenetic Association of Necromass Near Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black Smoker hydrothermal systems are geologically driven systems located near subduction zones and spreading centers associated with plate margins. The high temperature and low pH of fluids that are often associated with basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems select for unique microbial communities primarily comprised of prokaryotes capable of S and Fe cycling. High temperature fluids, where temperatures exceed 300° C, are likely to have a lethal effect on transient deep water planktonic communities and, over long temporal scales, may influence the molecular composition of pelleted necromass aggregates near the chimney system. We have developed a method for discriminative sequencing permitting intra vs. extracellular 16S rDNA sequencing to reveal community differences between biologically-relevant and necromass-associated DNA. This method has only recently been applied to marine environments and, here, we propose its use as relevant tool for studying the molecular ecology of high temperature hydrothermal systems, as physical drivers of massive transient community die offs and associated detrital 16S rDNA community shifts. Ultimately, we aim to understand the fraction of 16S rDNA communities that do not represent living taxa, or the information-containing fraction of total necromass pool, to better frame ecological hypotheses regarding environmental biogeochemical cycling in hydrothermal system environments.

Ramírez, Gustavo; Edwards, Katrina

2014-05-01

38

Discovery of hydrothermal plumes at the Rodoriguez segment, Mid-Indian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical surveys for the Rodriguez Segment of the Central Indian Ridge have been quite few so far. One of the principal objectives of this cruise is to locate hydrothermally active sites along the plate spreading center of the segments 15 and 16 of the Central Indian Ridge. We conducted water column observations using a CTDT (a package of Conductivity, Temperature, Depth, and light transmission sensors) + CMS (Carousel Multi-Sampling system) attached with an in situ Mn analyzer GAMOS (Okamura et al., 2001) in order to detect any anomalies due to hydrothermal plumes. Summary of some highlighted results: (1) Two typical hydrothermal active stations have been recognized; one is located east of East Brigitte Protrusion in the Roger Plateau (on the segment 15), and the other is close to Beak Rocks on the Great Dodo Lava Plain (on the segment 16). (2) Both sites are characterized by light transmission (LT) anomalies of ˜0.2 % at maximum, suggesting the existence of black (or white) smoker activity. (3) While the DMn(nM)/DLT(%) at the former station is ˜100, in a similar trend as that observed during KH-93-3 cruise (Kairei Field), the ratio at the latter station is only 10, an order of magnitude lower than that at station 20. There may be a significant difference in hydrothermal fluid chemistry at these two locations.

Okamura, K.; Gamo, T.; Kiyota, K.; Kawagucci, S.; Connelly, D.; Boulart, C.; Poonyth, A.; Ura, T.; Sakamaki, T.; Nagahashi, K.; Tamaki, K.

2007-12-01

39

Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Fluids in South Mariana Backarc Spreading Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid samples were collected from active hydrothermal sites along the south Mariana backarc spreading center, during dive programs with SHINKAI6500 (JAMSTEC) / Yokosuka (YK03-09 cruise) in Oct. 2003, and with ROPOS (CSSF) / Thomas G. Thompson (TN167A cruise) in March 2004. Fluid geochemistry shows diversity among three sites, probably reflecting their geological settings. High temperature fluid (T=315° C) from black smokers at the top of an off-axis seamount (Pika site: 12° 55.1'N, 143° 38.9'E, depth=2830m) shows metal-rich signature and high Cl concentration (=600mM). Modest high temperature fluid (T=213° C) from giant sulfide structure of a few ten meters high (Archaean Site: 12° 56.3'N, 143° 38.0'E, depth=2990m) shows slight K-rich from ridge-type fluids and low Cl concentration (=470mM). On the other hand, along the spreading axis, only shimmering venting directly from basaltic seafloor was observed (Fryer site: 12° 57.2'N, 143° 37.2'E, depth=2880m). Although temperature of the venting fluid were reported as 240° C when this site was discovered at May 2003, it has decreased to 110° C at Oct. 2003, and to 70° C at March 2004. Based on fluid chemistry composition, the shimmering fluid is considered as formed by mixing between hydrothermal fluid endmember (Mg=0) with seawater, and hydrothermal contribution has diminished for this one year. We also successfully collected fluid samples venting from the casing pipes which had been drilled by BMS at January 2004. The fluid (T=30° C) from APM01 located in the vicinity of Fryer site showed chemistry well explained by mixing of the same hydrothermal fluid endmember with seawater. Under the framework of Achaean Park Project, samples for microbiological studies were collected simultaneously, and these geochemical data provides basic information for them.

Ishibashi, J.; Yamanaka, T.; Kimura, H.; Hirota, A.; Toki, T.; Tsunogai, U.; Gamo, T.; Utsumi, M.; Roe, K.; Miyabe, S.; Okamura, K.

2004-12-01

40

Microbial mediated formation of low-temperature hydrothermal barite chimneys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-temperature (20 degrees C) venting area with numerous active and extinct barite chimneys (up to 1 m tall) are located on the eastern flank of the hydrothermal mound of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the Mohns-Knipovich bend of the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. The active barite chimneys are covered by white mats containing abundant microbial cells and extracellular material with attached barite crystals. Within the chimneys microbial cells are partly embedded in barite and crystals are covered by extracellular material. These observations indicate that the microbial material serve as a substrate for nucleation and precipitation of barite with the potential of having an important control on the construction of the chimneys. In addition, the presence of framboidal pyrite in black interior flow channels and in the underlying hydrothermal sediment further suggests that the chimney formation is linked to microbial sulphate reduction (MSR). To further investigate the relationship between chimney growth and microbial activity we used a combination of biomolecular and isotope analyses. Pyrosequencing of PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA followed by taxonomic classification revealed that sulphide oxidizers (Sulfurimonas) within the Epsilonproteobacteria dominate the microbial mats and the white barite of the chimney wall. In the black interior flow channel a more diverse microbial community was observed indicating methane, sulphur and ammonia oxidation as well as heterotrophic processes. Multiple isotope analyses (?18O, ?34S, ?33S) reveal that the barite chimneys precipitated from a fluid that was modified by subseafloor MSR in the sulphide mound. This is supported by the sulphur isotope signature of the framboidal pyrite, pore water, and mono- and disulphides extracted from the hydrothermal sediment as well as the biomolecular data. We suggest that the MSR was triggered by mixing of the H2 and CH4 rich high-temperature (320 degrees C) fluids and percolating seawater, which resulted in remobilization of hydrothermal barite deposited as debris and plume fall out in the mound. The combined results strongly suggest that the formation of the barite chimneys is a result of complex seafloor and subseafloor geobio-interactions.

Thorseth, I. H.; Steen, I. H.; Eickmann, B.; Dahle, H.; Baumberger, T.; Peters, M.; Strauss, H.; Pedersen, R. B.

2012-12-01

41

Hydrothermal regime of the Iheya-North hydrothermal field inferred from surface heat flow data and, IODP Expedition 331 drilling results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Okinawa trough is a backarc basin, located between the Ryukyu arc-trench system and the Asian continent. It is considered to be in a rifting stage of the continental lithosphere. The trough contains both hemipelagic and volcanic sediments, and numerous hydrothermal sites have been discovered inside the trough. Iheya-North hydrothermal field is surrounded by the Iheya-North knolls in the middle Okinawa trough. Active chimneys as well as diffuse venting area has been located and studied in detail through various geological and geophysical surveys. To clarify the spatial scale of the hydrothermal circulation system, intensive heat flow measurements were carried out and 78 heat flow data were obtained from 2002 to 2008 in and around the knolls. In 2010, drilling study was carried out during the IODP Expedition 331, and new subbottom temperature data were obtained around the hydrothermal site. Three distinct zones are identified with different heat flow values which we termed the high-heat-flow zone (>1 W/m^2; HHZ), moderate-heat-flow zone (1-0.1 W/m^2; MHZ), and low-heat-flow zone (<0.1 W/m^2) within 3 km from the active hydrothermal field. In the HHZ located near the western edge of the basin, extremely high and widely scattered heat flow values were measured within ~500 m of the active hydrothermal mounds, venting black smoker fluid of maximum 311 °C. With increasing distance east of the HHZ, heat flow gradually decreases towards MHZ and LHZ. We suggest that such anomalously low heat flow can be explained by the recharge of seawater into the formation, and that hydrothermal vents or diffuse flow in the HHZ can dribe this kilometer-scale hydrothermal circulation. During IODP Expedition 331, we carried out coring and in-situ temperature measurements in the HHZ and LHZ. We could not obtain enough core (less than 1 % core recovery). In the HHZ, the temperature data showed over 55 °C only few meters below the seafloor. After drilling, the temperature in the bore hole at HHZ recorded around 300 °C, which is consistent with temperatures of black smokers. Hemipelagic sediment including pumiceous layer were found in the LHZ. The temperature at 37 m below seafloor (mbsf), was 6 °C. Between 70 and 90 mbsf, the coarser sediments were cored, and temperature increases from 25 °C to 40 °C. At the maximum drilled depth of 151 mbsf, the temperature was 90±5 °C, which was measured with thermoseal strips. Low thermal gradient in the upper 40 m supports the downward fluid flow. Seismic reflection data indicate a couple of horizontal layers continuously below MHZ. these layers could inhibit vertical fluid flux. Thus we assume that vertically-impermeable surface layers serve to generate kilometer scale hydrothermal circulation. In order to estimate permeability structure below HHZ through LHZ, we conducted a 2-dimensional numerical simulation, and the results will be shown.

Masaki, Y.; Takai, K.; Mottl, M. J.; Hartnett, H. E.; Kinoshita, M.; IODP Expedition 331 scientists

2011-12-01

42

Barite in hydrothermal environments as a recorder of subseafloor processes: a multiple-isotope study from the Loki's Castle vent field.  

PubMed

Barite chimneys are known to form in hydrothermal systems where barium-enriched fluids generated by leaching of the oceanic basement are discharged and react with seawater sulfate. They also form at cold seeps along continental margins, where marine (or pelagic) barite in the sediments is remobilized because of subseafloor microbial sulfate reduction. We test the possibility of using multiple sulfur isotopes (?34S, ?33S, ?36S) of barite to identify microbial sulfate reduction in a hydrothermal system. In addition to multiple sulfur isotopes, we present oxygen (?18O) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes for one of numerous barite chimneys in a low-temperature (~20 °C) venting area of the Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultraslow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). The chemistry of the venting fluids in the barite field identifies a contribution of at least 10% of high-temperature black smoker fluid, which is corroborated by 87Sr/86 Sr ratios in the barite chimney that are less radiogenic than in seawater. In contrast, oxygen and multiple sulfur isotopes indicate that the fluid from which the barite precipitated contained residual sulfate that was affected by microbial sulfate reduction. A sulfate reduction zone at this site is further supported by the multiple sulfur isotopic composition of framboidal pyrite in the flow channel of the barite chimney and in the hydrothermal sediments in the barite field, as well as by low SO4 and elevated H2S concentrations in the venting fluids compared with conservative mixing values. We suggest that the mixing of ascending H2- and CH4-rich high-temperature fluids with percolating seawater fuels microbial sulfate reduction, which is subsequently recorded by barite formed at the seafloor in areas where the flow rate is sufficient. Thus, low-temperature precipitates in hydrothermal systems are promising sites to explore the interactions between the geosphere and biosphere in order to evaluate the microbial impact on these systems. PMID:24725254

Eickmann, B; Thorseth, I H; Peters, M; Strauss, H; Bröcker, M; Pedersen, R B

2014-07-01

43

Black smokers and the Tree of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular biology revolution has turned the classification of life on its head. Is Whittaker's five-kingdom scheme for the classification of living things no longer relevant to life science education? Coupled with this is the discovery that most microscopic life cannot yet be brought into culture. One of the key organisms making this knowledge possible is Methanococcus jannishi a microorganism

Michael Linich

2002-01-01

44

Diversity of Ultramafic Hosted Hydrothermal Deposits on the Mid Atlantic Ridge: First Submersible Studies on Ashadze, Logatchev 2 and Krasnov Vent Fields During the Serpentine Cruise.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Serpentine cruise (March 2007) we have explored and sampled, using the ROV Victor, new ultramafic hydrothermal fields between 13°N and 17°N on the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The Serpentine cruise was part of a 4 years cooperation agreement between France and Russia. Targets were Ashadze1 and 2 (12°58"N), Logatchev 1 (14°45"N) and 2 (14°43"N) and Krasnov (16°38"N) fields localized after several surface cruises of the R/V professor Logatchev. A significant portion of the dives was dedicated to detailed microbathymetry, 50 m and 20 m above the seafloor, and simultaneous physical and chemical plume studies and magnetic surveys. High resolution (30cm) maps were further used for geological, biological, microbiological and fluid sampling operations. The cruise identified three new very active black smoker fields (Ashadze 1 and 2, Logatchev 2) on serpentinized peridotites. One extensive low temperature inactive deposit (dominantly birnessite) was discovered 1 km east of the Logatchev 1 field. The basaltic hosted Krasnov field was inactive. The Ashadze 1 site at 4080m of water depth is the deepest active black smoker field so far known in the ocean. Inactive and basalt hosted sulfide chimneys (Ashadze 4) were found at the base of the rift valley at 4530 m. Extensive gravity sliding related to the emplacement of the ultramafic rocks is evident at all ultramafic sites (see abstract by Ondreas et al.). Fluids, enriched in H2 and hydrocarbon, confirm the originality of ultramafic environments (see abstract by Charlou et al.). Logatchev 2 is venting low salinity black smoker fluids indicating phase separation. In addition, its position 12 km off axis, moves from 8 (Logatchev 1) to 12 km the possibility to have off axis black smokers long the MAR. Basaltic hosted deposits are dominated by pyrite and silica at Krasnov (Fe:39%, Si:11%, Cu:2.2%, Zn:0.14%) and by sphalerite and pyrite at Ashadze 4 (Fe:24%, Si:1.5%, Cu:0.15%, isocubanite. Ashadze 1 (Fe:33%, Si:1.3%, Cu:14%, Zn:14%) and Logatchev 2 (Fe:20%, Si:3%, Cu:14%, Zn:23%) are enriched in sphalerite. New samples at Logatchev 1 confirm that copper is largely dominant at this site (Fe:29%, Si:3%, Cu:28%, Zn:4%). The Ashadze 2 field is unusual. A small active crater can be interpreted as a hydrothermal volcano built up with a mixture of carbonates and secondary copper sulfides and chlorides. Massive sulfide chimneys are associated with the active smokers at the center of the crater. Many inactive carbonates/sulfides mounds are also aligned along a N-S depression. Two types of hydrothermal deposits are observed: massive copper-rich sulfides associated with the black smokers and carbonate/sulfides chimneys. Average composition of hydrothermal deposits for the field is Fe:26%, Si:11%, Cu:11%, Zn:5%, Ca:8%. The dominant carbonate is aragonite, Mg-Calcite is rare, and talc is common. Comparisons with other ultramafic sites along the MAR will also bee presented.

Fouquet, Y.; Cherkashov, G.; Charlou, J.; Ondreas, H.; Cannat, M.; Bortnikov, N.; Silantiev, S.; Etoubleau, J.; Scientific Party Of The Serpentine Cruise

2007-12-01

45

Direct Measurements of Hydrothermal Heat Output at Juan de Fuca Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat output and fluid flow are key parameters for characterizing seafloor hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers. In particular, they are essential for examining partition of heat and geochemical fluxes between discrete and diffuse flow components. Hydrothermal heat output also constrains permeability of young oceanic crust and thickness of the conductive boundary layer separating hydrothermal circulation from the underlying magmatic heat source. Over the past several years, we have deployed a number of relatively simple devices to make direct measurements of focused and diffuse flow. Most recently, we have used cup anemometer and turbine flow meters to measure fluid flow and heat flux at individual high-temperature vents and diffuse flow sites. The turbine flow meter (Figure 1) includes a titanium rotor assembly housed within a stainless steel tube and supported by sapphire bearings. The device can be used at different seafloor settings for measurements of both diffuse and focused flow. The spin of the rotor blades is videotaped to acquire the angular velocity, which is a function of the flow rate determined through calibration. We report data obtained during four cruises to the Main Endeavor and High Rise vent fields, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR), between 2007 and 2009. Overall more than 50 successful measurements of heat flow have been made on a variety of high-, medium-, and low-temperature hydrothermal sites on the Endeavor, Mothra, and High Rise structures. For example, the velocity of diffuse flow at Endeavor ranged from ~1 to ~10 cm/sec. The flow velocity from black smokers varied from ~10 cm/sec to ~1 m/sec, which appears to be similar to EPR 9°N. Typical measurements of heat flux obtained at JdFR ranged from ~1 kW for diffuse flow to ~1 MW for black smokers. Although it is difficult to extrapolate the data and obtain the integrated heat output for a vent field on JdFR, the data are used to characterize the heat fluxes from individual vent structures such as Hulk, Dante, and Godzilla. Figure 1. Turbine flow meter deployed on Fairy Castle structure at the High Rise vent field (6-26-09, Alvin dive 4526).

Germanovich, L. N.; di Iorio, D.; Genc, G.; Hurt, R. S.; Lowell, R. P.; Holden, J. F.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.

2009-12-01

46

Rare earth elements as indicators of hydrothermal processes within the East Scotia subduction zone system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East Scotia subduction zone, located in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, hosts a number of hydrothermal sites in both back-arc and island-arc settings. High temperature (>348 °C) ‘black smoker’ vents have been sampled at three locations along segments E2 and E9 of the East Scotia back-arc spreading ridge, as well as ‘white smoker’ (<212 °C) and diffuse (<28 °C) hydrothermal fluids from within the caldera of the Kemp submarine volcano. The composition of the endmember fluids (Mg = 0 mmol/kg) is markedly different, with pH ranging from <1 to 3.4, [Cl-] from ?90 to 536 mM, [H2S] from 6.7 to ?200 mM and [F-] from 35 to ?1000 ?M. All of the vent sites are basalt- to basaltic andesite-hosted, providing an ideal opportunity for investigating the geochemical controls on rare earth element (REE) behaviour. Endmember hydrothermal fluids from E2 and E9 have total REE concentrations ranging from 7.3 to 123 nmol/kg, and chondrite-normalised distribution patterns are either light REE-enriched (LaCN/YbCN = 12.8-30.0) with a positive europium anomaly (EuCN/Eu?CN = 3.45-59.5), or mid REE-enriched (LaCN/NdCN = 0.61) with a negative Eu anomaly (EuCN/Eu?CN = 0.59). By contrast, fluids from the Kemp Caldera have almost flat REE patterns (LaCN/YbCN = 2.1-2.2; EuCN/Eu?CN = 1.2-2.2). We demonstrate that the REE geochemistry of fluids from the East Scotia back-arc spreading ridge is variably influenced by ion exchange with host minerals, phase separation, competitive complexation with ligands, and anhydrite deposition, whereas fluids from the Kemp submarine volcano are also affected by the injection of magmatic volatiles which enhances the solubility of all the REEs. We also show that the REE patterns of anhydrite deposits from Kemp differ from those of the present-day fluids, potentially providing critical information about the nature of hydrothermal activity in the past, where access to hydrothermal fluids is precluded.

Cole, Catherine S.; James, Rachael H.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Hathorne, Ed C.

2014-09-01

47

Transfer and partitioning of energy and mass through seafloor hydrothermal systems: comparative studies at the Ridge2000 Integrated Study Sites (ISS) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seafloor hydrothermal systems are major players in the transfer of mass and energy from the mantle and crust to the ocean and biosphere. Over the past thirty years, much has been learned about this transfer to the ocean, but considerably less is known about the transfer to the biosphere. Study of hydrothermal systems in a diverse range of geologic settings has shown relationships between spreading rate and hydrothermal heat flux, substrate composition (including rock geochemistry, presence/absence of sediment) and hydrothermal fluid composition, and magmatic/tectonic events and temporal variability of fluid composition (e.g., German and Von Damm, Treatise On Geochemistry, 2004; Baker et al. AGU Monograph Series 91, 1995). Studies in arc and back-arc settings are documenting the effects of magmatic acid volatiles on fluid-rock reaction and fluid and vent deposit compositions (e.g., Ishibashi and Urabe, Backarc Basins: Tectonics and Magmatism, 1995). These comparative studies in a wide range of geologic settings, including at the three Ridge2000 ISS, have provided a fairly good understanding of the flux of heat and many elements to the ocean associated with high temperature seafloor hydrothermal systems. Considerably less is known, however, about the partitioning of heat and mass (particularly metals and sulfur) in hydrothermal systems. The deposits that form at vent sites are intimately linked within paths of energy and mass transport from the mantle and crust to the oceans. Transport differs greatly through different types of deposits (e.g., black smokers, white smokers/diffusers, flanges). Estimates of heat flux from measured temperatures of flow (unless integrated over and around an entire vent field) require an understanding of the partitioning of flow between focused black smokers and more diffuse flow from diffusers, flanges, and surfaces of deposits, and from the igneous substrate. Estimates of mass flux into the ocean require an understanding of the temperature-composition paths taken by fluids, and the extent to which some elements (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn, Ba, S) are partitioned between deposits and plumes. Precipitation efficiency differs depending on the vigor of venting and fluid composition (e.g., pH), which (in part) determines the prevalence of black smoker activity versus flow through diffusers and flanges (e.g., review in Tivey, Oceanography, 2007). Quantification of this partitioning is further complicated by apparent differences in ages of accumulated deposits in different vent fields. An unknown at many vent fields is the length of time and duration of activity responsible for forming the existing deposits, and the extent to which large size is a result of efficient precipitation versus time. For biota, the different styles of fluid flow through the substrate and different parts of deposits affect thermal and chemical environments in plumes, as well as on, and just inside, deposit exteriors. As with our understanding of mass and energy transfer to the ocean, we can make significant advances in our understanding of this partitioning of energy and mass through comparative studies of hydrothermal systems in a diverse range of geologic settings (e.g., at the three Ridge2000 ISS).

Tivey, M. K.

2010-12-01

48

Cheap Natural Compound May Help Smokers Quit  

MedlinePLUS

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49

Continuing Evolution of the Hydrothermal System at the RIDGE2000 ISS, 9-10° N EPR: 1991-2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been studying the evolution of the chemical composition of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal system on the East Pacific Rise from 9° 46-51'N since it was impacted by volcanic eruptions in 1991/2. We have been using the chemical and temperature data to infer the processes that are occurring subseafloor in the upper oceanic crust. As of March 2004, the chemical compositions of the vent fluids from this site have not yet stabilized. This observation is helping us to better understand not only the impact of magmatic events on these systems, but also the time scales on which they occur. Centered at the RIDGE2000 ISS "bull's-eye" at 9° 50'N we have noted a striking increase in the number of hydrothermal vents as well as in their measured fluid temperatures beginning after ~2000. In November 2003 we first noted the formation of a black smoker vent at the Tica site (measured T=342° C). In March 2004 we identified another new area of robust flow near the Bio9 vents at 9° 50'N, the 'Alvinellid Mat,' that we anticipate will form an additional black smoker to the three currently active at this site. In March 2004 we measured temperatures of 388° C in fluids from both the Bio9 and Bio9' smokers, putting them essentially on the two phase curve for seawater at this depth. For all of the Bio9 vents, as well as Tica, the fluids contain less than 300 mmoles/kg of Cl, approximately half the local seawater concentration. These high temperature and low Cl concentrations are accompanied by unusually low Si concentrations, <9.5 mmoles/kg. These data suggest a relatively shallow depth of reaction for the fluids, within a few hundred meters of the seafloor. These are the hottest temperatures measured in the Bio9 vents since the eruption in 1992. In contrast, the temperatures at P vent, about 60m south have cooled by ˜15° C since 2002. About 400m south, the chlorinity of the fluids from Ty and Io vents have increased, and Tube Worm Pillar, about 400m further south has become inactive. Therefore the changes in the vent fluids vary widely and often in opposite senses, over ˜1.5km of very hydrothermally active ridge. A more complete discussion of the changes and our interpretation of their implications for processes occurring subseafloor will be presented.

von Damm, K. L.; Parker, C. M.; Beers, K. A.; Hyde, A. A.

2004-12-01

50

Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa Trough: Mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Seafloor hydrothermal activity at Jade has resulted in extensive alteration of the host epiclastic sediments and pumiceous tuffs, forming mica, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite), Mg-rich chlorite, talc, montmorillonite, and a mixed-layer mineral of dioctahedral chlorite and montmorillonite (Chl/Mont). Clay mineral assemblages show a vertical variation, which reflects variable amounts of cold seawater incorporated into hot hydrothermal fluids in subsurface sediments and tuff. However, mixing alone cannot explain the occurrence of abundant kaolin minerals at Jade. The formation of kaolin minerals requires much more acidic fluid than expected from simple mixing of hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Low pH values are likely attained by oxidation of H{sub 2}S either dissolved in the hydrothermal fluid or released from the fluid during decompression. The fluid reaching the seafloor is discharged into cold seawater, which caused precipitation of sulfides close to vents and native sulfur and barite at the margins of the vent areas. Halloysite, barite and anhydrite show Sr isotope compositions similar to marine Sr, indicating the derivation of marine Sr directly from seawater or by the dissolution of calcareous nannoplanktons. At Jade, there is only one black smoker actively discharging high temperature ({approximately}320 C) fluid, but there are many fossil sulfide chimneys and mounds in the area. The mineralogy and high Au and Cu in these precipitates suggest highly metalliferous hydrothermal activity in the past. These activities likely resulted in discharge of hydrothermal plumes and fall-outs of sulfides and sulfates on the seafloor. These fall-outs were incorporated in sediments far from the vent areas. They are now recorded as high metal contents in sediments with no petrographic and mineralogical evidence of in-situ hydrothermal activity. Some are high as 8,100 ppm for Cu, 12,500 ppm for Zn, 1,000 ppm for As, 100 ppm for Ag and 21,000 ppm for Pb. Detrital grains of montmorillonite in such sediments are coated with Fe-oxyhydroxides during the suspension in seawater before settling on the seafloor. The depths of such metal anomalies in sediments suggest high levels of metalliferous hydrothermal activities from 1,800 to 300 ybp.

Marumo, Katsumi; Hattori, K.H.

1999-09-01

51

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent Epsilonproteobacteria encode a conserved and widespread nitrate reduction pathway (Nap).  

PubMed

Despite the frequent isolation of nitrate-respiring Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents, the genes coding for the nitrate reduction pathway in these organisms have not been investigated in depth. In this study we have shown that the gene cluster coding for the periplasmic nitrate reductase complex (nap) is highly conserved in chemolithoautotrophic, nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Furthermore, we have shown that the napA gene is expressed in pure cultures of vent Epsilonproteobacteria and it is highly conserved in microbial communities collected from deep-sea vents characterized by different temperature and redox regimes. The diversity of nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria was found to be higher in moderate temperature, diffuse flow vents than in high temperature black smokers or in low temperatures, substrate-associated communities. As NapA has a high affinity for nitrate compared with the membrane-bound enzyme, its occurrence in vent Epsilonproteobacteria may represent an adaptation of these organisms to the low nitrate concentrations typically found in vent fluids. Taken together, our findings indicate that nitrate reduction is widespread in vent Epsilonproteobacteria and provide insight on alternative energy metabolism in vent microorganisms. The occurrence of the nap cluster in vent, commensal and pathogenic Epsilonproteobacteria suggests that the ability of these bacteria to respire nitrate is important in habitats as different as the deep-sea vents and the human body. PMID:24430487

Vetriani, Costantino; Voordeckers, James W; Crespo-Medina, Melitza; O'Brien, Charles E; Giovannelli, Donato; Lutz, Richard A

2014-07-01

52

Sound field near hydrothermal vents on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

High-quality acoustic noise measurements were obtained by two hydrophones located 3 m and 40 m from an active hydrothermal vent on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an effort to determine the feasibility of monitoring hydrothermal vent activity through flow noise generation. Most of the measured noise field could be attributed to ambient ocean noise sources of microseisms, distant shipping, and weather, punctuated by local ships and biological sources. Long-period, low-velocity, water/rock interface waves were detected with high amplitudes which rapidly decayed with distance from the seafloor. Detection of vent signals was hampered by unexpected spatial nonstationarity due to the shadowing effects of the calders wall. No continuous vent signals were deemed significant based on a criterion of 90% probability of detection and 5% probability of false alarm. However, a small signal near 40 Hz, with a power level of 0.0001 Pa sq/Hz was noticed on two records taken within 3 m of the Inferno black smoker. The frequency of this signal is consistent with predictions, and the power level suggests the occurrence of jet noise amplification due to convected density inhomogeneities. Keywords: Seamounts; Flow noise; Underwater acoustics; Acoustic measurement; Geothermy/noise; Ocean ridges; Underwater sound signals; Reprints; North Pacific Ocean. (EDC).

Little, S.A.; Stolzenbach, K.D.; Purdy, G.M.

1990-08-10

53

Hydrothermal Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater (after C. A. Stein and S. Stein, 1994). The first geochemical evidence for the existence of hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor came in the mid-1960s when investigations in the Red Sea revealed deep basins filled with hot, salty water (40-60 °C) and underlain by thick layers of metal-rich sediment (Degens and Ross, 1969). Because the Red Sea represents a young, rifting, ocean basin it was speculated that the phenomena observed there might also prevail along other young MOR spreading centers. An analysis of core-top sediments from throughout the world's oceans ( Figure 2) revealed that such metalliferous sediments did, indeed, appear to be concentrated along the newly recognized global ridge crest (Boström et al., 1969). Another early indication of hydrothermal activity came from the detection of plumes of excess 3He in the Pacific Ocean Basin (Clarke et al., 1969) - notably the >2,000 km wide section in the South Pacific ( Lupton and Craig, 1981) - because 3He present in the deep ocean could only be sourced through some form of active degassing of the Earth's interior, at the seafloor. (62K)Figure 2. Global map of the (Al+Fe+Mn):Al ratio for surficial marine sediments. Highest ratios mimic the trend of the global MOR axis (after Boström et al., 1969). One area where early heat-flow studies suggested hydrothermal activity was likely to occur was along the Galapagos Spreading Center in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (Anderson and Hobart, 1976). In 1977, scientists diving at this location found hydrothermal fluids discharging chemically altered seawater from young volcanic seafloor at elevated temperatures up to 17 °C ( Edmond et al., 1979). Two years later, the first high-temperature (380±30 °C) vent fluids were found at 21° N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) (Spiess et al., 1980) - with fluid compositions remarkably close to those predicted from the lower-temperature Galapagos findings ( Edmond et al., 1979). Since that time, hydrothermal activity has been found at more than 40 locations throughout the Pacific, North Atlanti

German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

2003-12-01

54

Discovery of hydrothermally active and extinct talc mounds on the Mid-Cayman Rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1977, hydrothermal vents have been the subject of intense scientific interest due to their role in cooling the oceanic crust and global geochemical cycles. Until now, two types of hydrothermal system have been identified: one, driven by magmatic heat extruding ';black smoker' fluids; and another, involving serpentinisation of ultramafic rocks and the precipitation of carbonate/brucite chimneys. Here, we present details of a new, off-axis type of hydrothermal system consisting of mounds of predominately botryoidal talc (a magnesium-silicate) with accessory silica and copper sulphides, and chimneys exhaling fluids of moderate temperature and pH. Discovered on the Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR) in 2010, the Von Damm Vent Field (VDVF) features a NNW-ESE-trending line of four overlapping cones, the largest of which is 75 m high by 150 m in diameter. The VDVF is hosted in the gabbroic footwall of the Mount Dent Oceanic Core Complex (MDOCC), which includes serpentinised peridotite at depth. The largest cone vents clear fluids from two main orifices at its summit, with primary temperatures of 215°C. Elsewhere, both focussed and diffuse flow areas emit fluids with temperatures of up to 150°C. The surrounding ~1 m thick pelagic sediment contains abundant pockmarks that emit methane-rich fluids at temperatures of less than 10°C. During the return to the MCR in early 2013, several other talc mounds were discovered within a kilometre of the active VDVF. These inactive mounds also comprise an assemblage of botryoidal talc, silica, disseminated sulphides (including chalcopyrite) and sulphates. One of these mounds (Mystic Mount) is double the volume of the active VDVF. The unique dominance of talc as the major mineral forming the hydrothermal structures indicates unusual vent fluid compositions that are able to carry both copper (at high-temperatures) and precipitate magnesium silicate. Thermodynamic modelling indicates that talc precipitates on mixing a moderately acidic, silica rich fluid (e.g. the primary VDVF fluids) with only 2% of seawater. At lower pH (e.g. typical ';black smoker' fluids), the ratio jumps to over 90% while at high pH (e.g. ';Lost City' fluids) brucite and carbonate dominate. Estimates using recently measured vent temperatures and fluid fluxes indicate a heat flux of ~800 MW for the active VDVF. Assuming the primary vent fluid has remained largely unchanged, the VDVF could have grown in under 1000 years and Mystic Mount in ~2000 years. Both the hydrothermal mounds and faults in the surrounding gabbro share a NNW-ESE orientation that is consistent with a brittle structural control imposed by the flexural curvature of the MDOCC in response to the uplift of the lower oceanic crust along a low-angle detachment fault. We propose that these flexural faults provide pathways for fluids to ingress deep into the MDOCC where they react with both mafic rocks (producing high-temperature, low pH, sulphide and copper-bearing fluids), peridotites and carbonates (increasing the pH) resulting in a moderate pH, silica-rich fluid that precipitates talc on mixing with seawater. The presence of further, inactive, talc mounds within 1 km of the VDVF indicates hydrothermal activity on OCCs has been widespread and represents a significant but hitherto overlooked mechanism of crustal heat loss and chemical interaction with the ocean at slow-spreading ridges.

Hodgkinson, M.; Murton, B. J.; Roberts, S.

2013-12-01

55

Complex hydrothermal alteration and illite K-Ar ages in Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Variscan Badenweiler-Lenzkirch suture zone, Black Forest, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-collisional Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Badenweiler-Lenzkirch Zone reveal by microscopy of thin sections different degrees of hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and mica particles, and XRD, IR and XRF data of the <2 µm fractions show illitic material as the dominant clay mineral consisting of a mixture of 1M and 2M1 polytypes. Moreover, small amounts of illite/smectite mixed-layer minerals of R1-ordering are proved in the granites. In the separates, two illite mixing lines with different Fe + Mg contents are verified between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and detrital illite in the molasse sediments, as well as between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and altered mica flakes in the granites. Fe-rich detrital chlorite is present within the molasse sediments, while mixtures of high aluminous Fe-poor dioctahedral/di-trioctahedral chlorite with randomly interstratified chlorite/smectite mixed-layer minerals are formed from feldspar alteration in the granites. Illite K-Ar dating of the <2 and <0.63 µm fractions yields hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and partial resetting of the K-Ar system of detrital illite and mica flakes in the molasse sediments at ?200 °C during Upper Permian to Middle Triassic times, while the granites in the eastern part of the study area were not altered contemporaneously. In contrast, hydrothermal activity at ?200 °C during Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous times occurred in the granites, whereas these temperatures were too low for resetting the older `Permo-Triassic' illite K-Ar ages in the molasse rocks. Within both K-Ar age clusters, the data are seen to decrease with grain size and portion of illite 2M1 polytype. The alteration phenomena indicate multiple hydrothermal episodes in the study area, and they match those from the Central and Western European crust as fluid supply was controlled geodynamically by episodic break up of Pangea.

Brockamp, Olaf; Schlegel, Andreas; Wemmer, Klaus

2015-01-01

56

Integrated Fe- and S-isotope study of seafloor hydrothermal vents at East Pacific Rise 9-10°N  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study, we report on coupled Fe- and S-isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids and sulfide deposits from the East Pacific Rise at 9–10°N to better constrain processes affecting Fe-isotope fractionation in hydrothermal environments. We aim to address three fundamental questions: (1) Is there significant Fe-isotope fractionation during sulfide precipitation? (2) Is there significant variability of Fe-isotope composition of the hydrothermal fluids reflecting sulfide precipitation in subsurface environments? (3) Are there any systematics between Fe- and S-isotopes in sulfide minerals? The results show that chalcopyrite, precipitating in the interior wall of a hydrothermal chimney displays a limited range of ?56Fe values and ?34S values, between ? 0.11 to ? 0.33‰ and 2.2 to 2.6‰ respectively. The ?56Fe values are, on average, slightly higher by 0.14‰ relative to coeval vent fluid composition while ?34S values suggest significant S-isotope fractionation (? 0.6 ± 0.2‰) during chalcopyrite precipitation. In contrast, systematically lower ?56Fe and ?34S values relative to hydrothermal fluids, by up to 0.91‰ and 2.0‰ respectively, are observed in pyrite and marcasite precipitating in the interior of active chimneys. These results suggest isotope disequilibrium in both Fe- and S-isotopes due to S-isotopic exchange between hydrothermal H2S and seawater SO42? followed by rapid formation of pyrite from FeS precursors, thus preserving the effects of a strong kinetic Fe-isotope fractionation during FeS precipitation. In contrast, ?56Fe and ?34S values of pyrite from inactive massive sulfides, which show evidence of extensive late-stage reworking, are essentially similar to the hydrothermal fluids. Multiple stages of remineralization of ancient chimney deposits at the seafloor appear to produce minimal Fe-isotope fractionation. Similar affects are indicated during subsurface sulfide precipitation as demonstrated by the lack of systematic differences between ?56Fe values in both high-temperature, Fe-rich black smokers and lower-temperature, Fe-depleted vents.

Rouxel, O.; Shanks, W. C., III; Bach, W.; Edwards, K.J.

2008-01-01

57

The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for Biogeography  

PubMed Central

Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than previously recognised. PMID:22235194

Rogers, Alex D.; Tyler, Paul A.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jon T.; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D.; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A.; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearce, David A.; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; German, Christopher R.; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Alker, Belinda J.; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A.; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J. J.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D. K.; Roterman, Christopher N.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

2012-01-01

58

Geology of a vigorous hydrothermal system on the Endeavour segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge  

SciTech Connect

A high-precision, high-resolution geologic map explicitly documents relationships between tectonic features and large steep-sided, sulfide-sulfate-silica deposits in the vigorously venting Endeavour hydrothermal field near the northern end of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Location of the most massive sulfide structures appears to be controlled by intersections of ridge-parallel normal faults and other fracture-fissure sets that trend oblique to, and perpendicular to the overall structural fabric of the axial valley. As presently mapped, the field is about 200 by 400 m on a side and contains at least 15 large (> 1,000 m[sup 3]) sulfide edifices and many tens of smaller, commonly inactive, sulfide structures. The larger sulfide structures are also the most vigorously venting features in the field; they are commonly more than 30 m in diameter and up to 20 m in height. Maximum venting temperatures of 375[degrees]C are associated with the smaller structures in the northern portion of the field are consistently 20[degrees]-30[degrees]C lower. Hydrothermal output from individual active sulfide features varies from no flow in the lower third of the edifice to vigorous output from fracture-controlled black smoker activity near the top of the structures. Two types of diffuse venting in the Endeavour field include a lower temperature 8[degrees]-15[degrees]C output through colonies of large tubeworms and 25[degrees]-50[degrees]C vent fluid that seems to percolate through the tops of overhanging flanges. The large size and steep-walled nature of these structures evidently results from sustained venting in a mature hydrothermal system, coupled with dual mineral depositional mechanisms involving vertical growth by accumulation of chimney sulfide debris and lateral growth by means of flange development.

Delaney, J.R.; Robigou, V.; McDuff, R.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Tivey, M.K. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States))

1992-12-10

59

The Case against a Smoker's License  

PubMed Central

Background to the debate Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a “smoker's license” and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic—the tobacco industry—and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor. PMID:23152727

Collin, Jeff

2012-01-01

60

The Case for a Smoker's License  

PubMed Central

Background to the debate Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a “smoker's license” and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic—the tobacco industry—and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor. PMID:23152726

Chapman, Simon

2012-01-01

61

Temporal variability and tidal modulation of hydrothermal exit-fluid temperatures at the Lucky Strike deep-sea vent field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

deployed autonomous temperature sensors at black smoker chimneys, cracks, and diffuse flow areas at the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, ~37°17'N) between summer 2009 and summer 2012 and contemporaneously measured tidal pressures and currents as part of the long-term MoMAR experiment to monitor hydrothermal activity. We classify the temperature data according to the hydrogeologic setting of the measurement sites: a high-temperature regime (>190°C) representing discharge of essentially unmixed, primary hydrothermal fluids through chimneys, an intermediate-temperature regime (10-100°C) associated with mixing of primary fluids with cold pore fluids discharging through cracks, and a low-temperature regime (<10°C) associated with a thermal boundary layer forming over bacterial mats associated with diffuse outflow of warm fluids. Temperature records from all the regimes exhibit variations at semi-diurnal tidal periods, and cross-spectral analyses reveal that high-temperature discharge correlates to tidal pressure while low-temperature discharge correlates to tidal currents. Intermediate-temperature discharge exhibits a transitional behavior correlating to both tidal pressure and currents. Episodic perturbations, with transient temperature drops of up to ~150°C, which occur in the high-temperature and intermediate-temperature records, are not observed on multiple probes (including nearby probes at the same site), and they are not correlated with microearthquake activity, indicating that the perturbation mechanism is highly localized at the measurement sites within the hydrothermal structures. The average temperature at a given site may increase or decrease at annual time scales, but the average temperature of the hydrothermal field, as a whole, appears to be stable over our 3 year observation period.

Barreyre, Thibaut; Escartín, Javier; Sohn, Robert A.; Cannat, Mathilde; Ballu, Valérie; Crawford, Wayne C.

2014-04-01

62

Hydrothermal calderas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard model of caldera formation is related to the emptying of a magma chamber and ensuing roof collapse during large eruptions or subsurface withdrawal. Although this model works well for numerous volcanoes, it is inappropriate for many basaltic volcanoes (with the notable exception of Hawaii), as these have eruptions that involve volumes of magma that are small compared to the collapse. Many arc volcanoes also have similar oversized depressions, such as Poas (Costa Rica) and Aoba (Vanuatu). In this article, we propose an alternative caldera model based on deep hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks in the central part of the edifice. Under certain conditions, the clay-rich altered and pressurized core may flow under its own weight, spread laterally, and trigger very large caldera-like collapse. Several specific mechanisms can generate the formation of such hydrothermal calderas. Among them, we identify two principal modes: mode 1: ripening with summit loading and flank spreading and mode II: unbuttressing with flank subsidence and flank sliding. Processes such as summit loading or flank subsidence may act simultaneously in hybrid mechanisms. Natural examples are shown to illustrate the different modes of formation. For ripening, we give Aoba (Vanuatu) as an example of probable summit loading, while Casita (Nicaragua) is the type example of flank spreading. For unbuttressing, Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas) is our example for flank subsidence and Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion) is our example of flank sliding. The whole process is slow and probably needs (a) at least a few tens of thousands of years to deeply alter the edifice and reach conditions suitable for ductile flow and (b) a few hundred years to achieve the caldera collapse. The size and the shape of the caldera strictly mimic that of the underlying weak core. Thus, the size of the caldera is not controlled by the dimensions of the underlying magma reservoir. A collapsing hydrothermal caldera could generate significant phreatic activity and trigger major eruptions from a coexisting magmatic complex. As the buildup to collapse is slow, such caldera-forming events could be detected long before their onset.

Merle, Olivier; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

2010-03-01

63

Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa trough: Mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seafloor hydrothermal activity at Jade has resulted in extensive alteration of the host epiclastic sediments and pumiceous tuffs, forming mica, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite), Mg-rich chlorite, talc, montmorillonite, and a mixed-layer mineral of dioctahedral chlorite and montmorillonite (Chl/Mont). Clay mineral assemblages show a vertical variation, which reflects variable amounts of cold seawater incorporated into hot hydrothermal fluids in subsurface sediments and tuff. However, mixing alone cannot explain the occurrence of abundant kaolin minerals at Jade. The formation of kaolin minerals requires much more acidic fluid than expected from simple mixing of hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Low pH values are likely attained by oxidation of H 2S either dissolved in the hydrothermal fluid or released from the fluid during decompression. The fluid reaching the seafloor is discharged into cold seawater, which caused precipitation of sulfides close to vents and native sulfur and barite at the margins of the vent areas. Halloysite, barite and anhydrite show Sr isotope compositions similar to marine Sr, indicating the derivation of marine Sr directly from seawater or by the dissolution of calcareous nannoplanktons. The isotopic compositions of kaolinite (? 18O = +7.4‰, ?D = -23‰), Chl/Mont (? 18O = +7.0‰, ?D = -32‰), and mica (? 18O = +5.4 to +9.9‰, ?D = -30 to -26‰) suggest fluids of a heated seawater origin. The O isotopic data yielded formation temperatures of 170°C for kaolinite, 61 to 110°C for halloysite, and 145 to 238°C for mica. Barite ? 34S values (+21.0 to +22.5‰) are very similar to the marine sulfate value, confirming that the barite formation took place due to mixing of Ba-bearing hydrothermal fluids and sulfate-rich seawater. Native sulfur shows a large variation in ? 34S in one hand specimen probably because of rapid disequilibrium precipitation of S during fluid exhalation on the seafloor. Sulfur in hydrothermal fluids is usually consumed to form metal sulfides. Therefore, abundant native sulfur at Jade suggests high H 2S/metals ratios of the hydrothermal fluids. The alteration assemblages and isotopic data of hydrothermal minerals from Jade are very similar to those of Kuroko-type barite deposits of middle Miocene age, which formed from fluids of high S/metals ratios at less than 200°C. At Jade, there is only one black smoker actively discharging high temperature (˜320°C) fluid, but there are many fossil sulfide chimneys and mounds in the area. The mineralogy and high Au and Cu in these precipitates suggest highly metalliferous hydrothermal activity in the past. These activities likely resulted in discharge of hydrothermal plumes and fall-outs of sulfides and sulfates on the seafloor. These fall-outs were incorporated in sediments far from the vent areas. They are now recorded as high metal contents in sediments with no petrographic and mineralogical evidence of in-situ hydrothermal activity. Some are high as 8,100 ppm for Cu, 12,500 ppm for Zn, 1,000 ppm for As, 100 ppm for Ag and 21,000 ppm for Pb. Detrital grains of montmorillonite in such sediments are coated with Fe-oxyhydroxides during the suspension in seawater before settling on the seafloor. The depths of such metal anomalies in sediments suggest high levels of metalliferous hydrothermal activities from 1,800 to 300 ybp.

Marumo, Katsumi; Hattori, Kéiko H.

1999-09-01

64

[Lung age in smokers, past smokers anid non second-hand smoke].  

PubMed

"Lung age" calculated from the height, sex, and 1-second forced expiratory volume is a new index to express the respiratory function. We assessed the differences in the lung age among smokers, past smokers, and non-smokers. The subjects comprised 886 Japanese who visited the Shimbashi Medical Checkup Office at Jikei University Hospital. The smokers (n=215), past smokers (n=300), and non-smokers (n=371) were classified. In the smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked per day was 19.7+/-9.8, and the period of smoking was 27.5+/-9.4 years. The non-smokers were divided into those in the presence or absence of second-hand smoke. The lung age added to the calendar age was 9.8+/-14.7 years in smokers, 4.8+/-17.8 years in past smokers, and -0.8+/-14.0 years in non-smokers. These data showed significant differences(p= 0.0003). The smoking index was calculated from smoking years multiplied by the cigarette number per day. The lung age with a smoking index >or=600 was 13.2+/-14.9 years, being significantly higher than that (7.2 +/-14.0 years) with a smoking index <600 (p=0.003). In the non-smokers, the lung age was -0.5+/-12.8 years in the presence and -1.0+/-14.1 in the absence of second-hand smoke. In conclusion, smoking increases the lung age. PMID:20077814

Wada, Takashi

2009-12-01

65

Characteristics of Alcoholic Smokers, Nonsmokers, and Former Smokers: Personality, Negative Affect, Alcohol Involvement, and Treatment Participation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Previous research has indicated that smoking behavior in the general population is linked to personality traits such as behavioral undercontrol and negative emotionality, but it is unknown whether these traits pertain to alcoholic smokers. Further, prior research has not established whether alcoholic smokers differ from their nonsmoking counterparts in terms of alcohol involvement severity and treatment participation. Exploration of these associations is important, given the high prevalence of cigarette smoking among alcoholics. Methods: Treatment-seeking alcoholics were categorized into daily cigarette smokers (n = 76), nonsmokers (n = 34), and former smokers (n = 33). These groups were compared on personality traits, negative affect, alcohol involvement, and alcohol outpatient treatment participation. Results: All three groups scored similarly on a variety of personality traits (e.g., extraversion and neuroticism), and on most aspects of negative affect, with the exception of anxiety (smokers scored higher than nonsmokers and former smokers). In terms of alcohol involvement, alcoholic smokers reported greater negative drinking consequences and alcohol physical dependence relative to former smokers, even considering that alcoholic smokers had relatively more abstinent days. Finally, alcoholic smokers attended considerably fewer alcohol outpatient treatment sessions relative to both nonsmokers and former smokers. Conclusions: Common risk factors for both alcoholism and smoking behavior, such as personality traits and negative affect, may obscure personality differences between smokers and nonsmokers in an alcohol treatment sample. Furthermore, findings suggest that current nicotine use among alcoholics is associated with greater anxiety and severity of alcoholism than among their former-smoking counterparts. PMID:22573729

Walitzer, Kimberly S.; Dearing, Ronda L.

2013-01-01

66

"Withdrawal symptoms" in adolescents: a comparison of former smokers and never-smokers.  

PubMed

Since the early 1980s, investigators have been reporting that adolescent smokers felt "dependent" on cigarettes and that adolescents trying to quit smoking experienced the same withdrawal symptoms observed in adult quitters, including restlessness, insomnia, increased appetite and weight gain, irritability or anger, depression, craving for cigarettes, and trouble concentrating. We hypothesized that most of these symptoms might be attributed to adolescence itself. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined the prevalence of these seven "adult" withdrawal symptoms in a population of adolescent former smokers and never-smokers. Participants were high school students in Houston, Texas, participating in a nested, group-randomized control group study designed to estimate the impact of a CD-ROM intervention for smoking prevention and cessation. We measured differences in symptoms frequency between never-smokers and former smokers, matched in a 2:1 ratio on sex and race/ethnicity, and differences in symptoms among former smokers as a function of time since final quit attempt and prior level of smoking. Only former heavy smokers have shown significantly higher prevalence of withdrawal symptoms compared with never-smokers. Of the seven symptoms assessed, only craving incrementally increased with the intensity of smoking. Overall the individual withdrawal symptoms did not effectively differentiate between 112 never-smokers and 34 former lighter smokers (persons who used to smoke less than "a few cigarettes on most days"). Withdrawal symptoms can reliably differentiate former heavy smokers from light smokers and never-smokers, among adolescents. Because most adolescents tend to be lighter smokers, future tobacco use and cessation studies should interpret adult withdrawal symptoms among adolescents with caution. PMID:16298726

Prokhorov, Alexander V; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Cinciripini, Paul M; Marani, Salma

2005-12-01

67

Lung Cancer in Never Smokers  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) has lately been recognized as a unique disease based on rapidly gained knowledge from genomic changes to treatment responses. The focus of this article is on current knowledge and challenges with regard to LCINS expanded from recent reviews highlighting five areas: (1) distribution of LCINS by temporal trends, geographic regions, and populations; (2) three well-recognized environmental risk factors; (3) other plausible environmental risk factors; (4) prior chronic lung diseases and infectious diseases as risk factors; and (5) lifestyles as risk or protective factors. This article will also bring attention to recently published literature in two pioneering areas: (1) histological characteristics, clinical features with emerging new effective therapies, and social and psychological stigma; and (2) searching for susceptibility genes using integrated genomic approaches. PMID:21500120

Yang, Ping

2012-01-01

68

Methanococcus jannaschii sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic methanogen from a submarine hydrothermal vent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new extremely thermophilic methane-producing bacterium was isolated from a submarine hydrothermal vent sample collected by a research team from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution using the manned submersible ALVIN. The sample was obtained from the base of a “white smoker” chimney on the East Pacific Rise at 20° 50' N latitude and 109° 06' W longitude at a depth

W. J. Jones; J. A. Leigh; F. Mayer; C. R. Woese; R. S. Wolfe

1983-01-01

69

The Chemistry of Hydrothermal Plumes Along the Galapagos Spreading Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, we conducted nested sonar, plume, and camera surveys along a 300 n.m.-long portion of the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) where the ridge intersects the Galapagos hotspot between 94.5° and 89.5°W. Hydrothermal plumes were located by placing a variety of sensors on the clump weight of the DSL-120, which was towed approximately 100 m above the seafloor. These sensors included the vents in situ analyzer (nee SUAVE), which measured Fe, Mn, and pH; a redox potential (Eh) sensor; an optical backscatter sensor; a METs methane analyzer; and a CTD. These sensors were uploaded in real time allowing us to monitor for plumes during the tow. In addition, the tow line of the DSL-120 carried a vertical array of optical backscatter sensors (MAPRs). Almost all of the plumes found were identified solely from the data uploaded to the ship in real time and were confirmed from the vertical MAPR array. The MAPR array provided information on the rise height and vertical extent of the plumes. Many plumes were then also located and sampled by vertical and towed CTD hydrocasts. The CTD hydrocast samples were sampled for Fe, Mn, pH, helium isotopes, methane, and total suspended matter composition. Many of the plumes were characterized by fairly low amounts of total dissolved metals and variable Fe:Mn ratios. Plumes over the discovered black smoker vents carried elevated total dissolved metals and Fe:Mn ratios typical of other midocean ridge plumes. Data will be presented on the chemical makeup of the plumes from the sensors on the DSL-120 clump weight and from the CTD hydrocast samples.

Resing, J.; Baker, E.; Lebon, G.; Walker, S.; Haymon, R.; Nakamura, K.; Lupton, J.

2006-12-01

70

Smoker Identity and Smoking Escalation Among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated whether there is a positive, unique relation between smoker identity and smoking escalation. Methods Adolescents from the Chicago area (n = 1263) completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires and in-person interviews at baseline, 6 months, 15 months, and 24 months of a longitudinal study. Smoking behavior, smoker identity, nicotine dependence, smoking expectancies, smoking motives, and novelty seeking were assessed. Results There was a unique relation between smoker identity and smoking escalation. The more that adolescents thought smoking was a defining aspect of who they were, the more likely their smoking escalated. Conclusions The findings suggest that smoker identity could be targeted for preventing escalation. Research on its development is needed. PMID:22775236

Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

2013-01-01

71

[Functional and health conditions of elderly smokers].  

PubMed

Research conducted for many years, on smoking harm has revealed a connection between using nicotine and numerous disorders affecting human beings. Nowadays 33% of Poles smoke, 11-25% of the elderly smoke. There are plentiful anti-smoking campaigns aimed at the young and those in their reproductive years. Such campaigns addressed to the elderly are a seldom occurrence. The aim of this work was to analyze the actual functioning and health of smokers aged 65 and more living in various surroundings. The research involved a group of 300 individuals aged more than 65: older people home residents--100 individuals, veteran home residents--100 individuals and the University of the Third Age students--100 individuals. The tool utilized in the course of the research was a questionnaire concerning smoking, diseases affecting the subjects, medication taken and personal information. Assessment of a functional state, physical activity, mental state and health was carried out with the help of General Geriatric Assessment questionnaires. In the researched group, the frequency of smoking was 11.3%, 18.1% among men, 9.2% among women. The average age of the smokers was 70.6 +/- 5.6, the average age of the non-smokers was 75.5 +/- 7.0 .The average number of cigarettes smoked was 11.3 +/- 7.3 a day. The older the subjects of the research, the smaller percentage of the smokers among them as well as the fewer cigarettes smoked. The smokers indicated a substantially higher MMSE result, Tinetti, lower BMI, lower percentage of fat, lower frequency of being affected by cataract or urinary incontinence and a larger number of lung conditions. In the researched groups both in the older people home and veteran home residents, the smokers are younger, better educated, more fit, better nourished, possessing a larger mental capacity and hand strength as compared to the other members of a given community. Among the University of the Third Age students no significant differences between the smokers and non-smokers were observed. The smallest percentage of the smokers is among the University of the Third Age students (9%), the largest among the older people home residents (14%). The most cigarettes are smoked by the University of the Third Age students, the fewest by the older people home and the veteran home residents. Women smokers constitute majority among the University of the Third Age students whereas there are more men smokers among the older people home and the veteran home residents. There is a distinct need of organizing anti-smoking campaigns aimed at the elderly taking into account the area of their functioning. PMID:20301887

Jachimowicz, Violetta; Kostka, Tomasz

2009-01-01

72

Evidence for deep sea hydrothermal fluid-mineral equilibrium from multiple S isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multiple sulfur isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids and associated sulfide mineral deposits collected in 2006 in the eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea, provide an opportunity to better understand the processes of mineral precipitation, pore fluid composition, chemosynthetic energy sources, and metal-rich ore deposition in a felsic-hosted back arc hydrothermal system. Recent advances in multiple-stable isotope analytical techniques now enable the precise determination of all four stable isotopes of sulfur in hydrothermal vent fluids and co-precipitated sulfide mineral deposits, which may be used as a tracer to distinguish between sulfide derived from igneous rock, microbial sulfate reduction, and thermochemical reduction of seawater sulfate [1]. Multiple-stable isotopes of sulfur may also help constrain the relative contribution of sulfur derived by degassing of magmatic SO2 and sedimentary sulfide mineral inputs, as either process could generate the isotopically light ?34S (< 0‰) observed in some vent fluids, chalcopyrite chimney linings, and native sulfur collected at Manus Basin. We have analyzed the sulfur isotopic composition of high temperature black smoker vent fluid and associated chalcopyrite lining the inner walls of active conduits from two vent fields within the Manus Basin, including PACMANUS, located on the neovolcanic Pual ridge, and vents on discrete volcanic domes at SuSu Knolls. Preliminary results yield vent fluid ?34SH2S values ranging from -4.89 ± 0.02 to 5.41 ± 0.01, which closely match coexisting inner wall ?34Schalcopyrite values, ranging from -4.43 ± 0.01 to 5.64 ± 0.01. These results contrast with previous studies that report systematic differences in vent fluid ?34SH2S and sulfide minerals from the inner conduits of chimney structures [1, 2, 3]. The ?33SH2S values of vent fluids range from -0.031 ± 0.027 to 0.011 ± 0.016, and those of chalcopyrite range from -0.042 ± 0.012 to 0.012 ± 0.010. Preliminary results in 7 out of 8 fluid-mineral pairs show <1‰ difference between fluid and chalcopyrite, with most chalcopyrite showing slightly enriched ?34S, consistent with equilibrium fluid-mineral sulfur isotope exchange at 300-400°C during precipitation [4]. Negative ?34S in fluid-mineral pairs from SuSu Knolls may be a consequence of both magmatic volatile and sedimentary sulfide mineral input, an assertion supported by observations of very high CH4 concentrations in the black smoker fluids and low temperature acid sulfate fluids emanating from the dome flanks. Additional analyses are being conducted on more SuSu Knolls vents, as well as fluid-mineral pairs from Lau Basin vent fields. [1] Ono et al. (2007) GCA 71, 1170-1182. [2] Shanks (2001) Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 43, 469-525. [3] Woodruff and Shanks (1988) J. Geophy. Res. 93, 4562-4572. [4] Ohmoto and Goldhaber (1997) Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits, Third Edition, pp. 517-611.

McDermott, J. M.; Ono, S.; Tivey, M. K.; Seewald, J.

2010-12-01

73

Excess injury mortality among smokers: a neglected tobacco hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the mortality risks from injuries for smokers and ex-smokers and to quantify the mortality burden of smoking from injury in Taiwan.Methods: Smokers’ (and ex-smokers’) mortality risks from injuries were compared with that of non-smokers in a merged cohort from Taiwan. A total of 64 319 male subjects were followed up for 12–18 years. Relative risks (RR) (adjusted

C P Wen; S P Tsai; T Y Cheng; H T Chan; W S I Chung; C J Chen

2005-01-01

74

Cigarette Smokers, Never-Smokers, and Transitions: Implications for Successful Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the social identities held by people is defined by whether or not they smoke cigarettes. Although this identity can and does change for many people over the course of their lives, most research has not examined the effects of transitioning from a smoker to a non-smoker. Using a life span perspective, our analyses contrasted the extent to…

Pruchno, Rachel; Hahn, Sarah; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen

2012-01-01

75

Discovering New Mantle-Hosted Submarine Ecosytems: The Lost City Hydrothermal Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April-May 2003, the Lost City Hydrothermal Field was investigated during 19 Alvin dives and 17 missions with the autonomous vehicle ABE to examine the linkages among geological, chemical and biological processes associated with a submarine hydrothermal system hosted on mantle material. In concert, these two programs resulted in 1) delineation of the geologic features that control hydrothermal flow in this area; 2) an extremely high-resolution bathymetric map (meter scale) of the field and adjacent areas of the Atlantis Massif; 3) interdisciplinary sampling of 10 individual venting sites within the field; and 4) documentation of a nearly continuous zone of deformation at the top of the massif that is very likely the surface expression of a long-lived detachment fault that caps the massif. This hydrothermal system, which is driven by exothermic serpentinization reactions beneath the Atlantis Massif, is unlike any known field examined to date. It is hosted on 1-2 my old variably altered mantle material, it contains more than 30 carbonate chimneys that reach up to 60 m in height, and generation of diffusely venting 40-90C fluids with pH 9-11 that are enriched in methane, hydrogen and other hydrocarbons support dense microbial communities. ABE bathymetry shows that a linear array of the largest structures within the field is controlled by an E-W trending, 200 m long lineament intersected by a N-S trending fault. Mapping of the near vertical cliffs adjacent to the field indicates that much of the subsurface flow within this area is controlled by very gently west-dipping faults that result in a nearly horizontal, sheet-like style of flow. Venting of diffuse fluids directly from the near vertical walls forms perpendicular growths of carbonate flanges, and results in the formation of vertical spires, and massive, shingled deposits that cascade down the cliff faces. The plumbing system within this area is very different from the vertical conduits that typify black smoker environments. The large surface areas exposed to hydrothermal fluids along the gently dipping faults may provide important environments for microbiological communities within the subsurface. Stockwork systems and variably cemented breccias preserved along the steep walls immediately adjacent to the field are reminiscent of ancient ophicalcite deposits preserved in ophiolitic rocks since the Archean. The Lost City Field is an astounding, intensely beautiful area that hosts numerous composite chimneys that extend over an area >350 m in length. Many structures contain an array of delicate flanges, multiple pinnacles, and beehive deposits. The complex structure Poseidon dominates the field: it is over 60 m in height, >40 m in length and it hosts multiple active and inactive towers, smaller pinnacles, and flanges. It is unlikely that hydrothermal systems like Lost City are unique along the global mid-ocean ridge spreading network; where massifs similar to those at the Atlantis Fracture Zone are common. In these environments, intense long-lived faulting and seismic activity, coupled with serpentinization reactions act depth serve to promote hydrothermal flow.

Kelley, D. S.; Karson, J. A.; Yoerger, D.; Fruh-Green, G. L.; Butterfield, D. A.; Lilley, M.

2003-12-01

76

Nicotine concentrations in urine and saliva of smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed Central

Nicotine concentrations were measured in saliva and urine samples collected from 82 smokers and 56 non-smokers after a morning at work. Each subject answered a series of questions related to their recent intentional or passive exposure to tobacco smoke. All non-smokers had measurable amounts of nicotine in both saliva and urine. Those non-smokers who reported recent exposure to tobacco smoke had significantly higher nicotine concentrations (p less than 0.001) than those who had not been exposed; their concentrations overlapped those of smokers who had smoked up to three cigarettes before sampling had the greatest influence on nicotine concentrations (r=0.62 for saliva and r=0.51 for urine). Neither the nicotine for yield of cigarettes nor the self-reported degree of inhalation had any significant effect on nicotine concentrations. PMID:6802384

Feyerabend, C; Higenbottam, T; Russell, M A

1982-01-01

77

Insights into Spatial Sulfur Variation within the Modified Gill-Chamber of the Epibiont-Colonized Hydrothermal Vent Shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rimicaris exoculata dominates the megafaunal biomass at numerous Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents. Within the gill chamber of the shrimp exists a rich epibiotic community. These shrimp swarm around active black smoker chimneys at the Snake Pit vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and have been hypothesized to utilize the mixing zone between ambient seawater and hydrothermal fluid to supply these epibionts with a redox environment suitable for the promotion of chemoautotrophic growth. Investigation of the oxidation state, distribution, and concentration of sulfur of different compartments within the shrimp's gill chamber was conducted using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy. Principle component analysis of point XANES spectra yielded four reference components indentified as elemental sulfur, sulfate, monosulfide (likely iron sulfide), and an organosulfur thiol compound. Energy specific micro-XRF mapping of these reference components in both the modified mouthparts and inner lining of the carapace enclosing the gill chamber displayed spatial heterogeneity in sulfur oxidation state and coordination. Sulfate, organosulfur thiol compounds, and phosphate tended to correlate with chitin structural features, while elemental sulfur was concentrated in areas where epibionts were observed. DNA extraction and sequencing from epibiont populations within each of the modified mouthparts and carapace was conducted to provide insight into the community structure at each of these distinct areas of the gill chamber. Here we demonstrate the complexity of sulfur speciation and mineralization in association with the host epibiont community composition.

Rempfert, K. R.; Sievert, S. M.; Hansel, C. M.; Webb, S. M.; Thomas, F.

2013-12-01

78

Effect of beta-blockers on ventilatory function in smokers and non smokers.  

PubMed

Twenty healthy nonsmokers, 20 asymptomatic mild smokers and 20 asymptomatic moderate smokers were assessed for ventilatory functions, before and after equipotent dosages of atenolol, propranolol and oxprenolol in a single blind longitudinal study. The basal spirometric values were significantly lower in smokers than non smokers. After propranolol significant reduction was seen from basal values in FEV1, FEF 75%, MMFR, FEF 200-1200 in all the three groups. After oxprenolol significant difference was seen only with MMFR in the moderate smokers. With atenolol the variation was not significant in any group. Intercomparison of values after the drugs in each group was done. The values after propranolol was significantly lower than values after atenolol or oxprenolol for FEF 75%, MMFR and FEF 200-1200 in both the smoker groups whereas values after oxprenolol and Atenolol did not differ significantly from each other. Thus, in smokers atenolol offers a safe choice. If propranolol is to be used, the possibility of significant bronchospasm should be considered. PMID:7905874

Shah, P K; Lakhotia, M; Gupta, A; Mehta, S; Borana, G; Gupta, S K

1993-09-01

79

Patterns in Global Hydrothermal  

E-print Network

) High-T vents High = hydrothermal discharge Low = active or inactive discharge sites B. Davy, GNS NZ #12Patterns in Global Hydrothermal Activity noaa ocean exploration Presenter: Edward T. Baker #12;First vents discovered in the S Atl. First hi-T vents discovered on ultra-slow ridge Eruption discovered

80

Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically

Douglas C

2010-01-01

81

How do smokers control their cigarette expenditures?  

PubMed

When faced with high cigarette prices, smokers can potentially control cigarette expenditures by limiting consumption or seeking cheaper cigarettes. The present study examined both these options and whether the use of price-minimizing strategies (the second option) could counteract a further price increase without smokers having to reduce consumption. Data for 5,109 smokers who purchased manufactured cigarettes were from the 2002 cross-sectional, population-based, random-digit-dialed California Tobacco Survey. We used logistic regression to examine which smokers used consumption-limiting or price-minimizing strategies, and multiple linear regression to determine how much price-minimizing strategies reduced the average price paid per pack. Overall, 32.3% of California smokers said they limited consumption and 74.1% used at least one of the five price-minimizing strategies identified: choosing cheaper retail outlets (61.1%), using promotional offers (35.2%), choosing cheaper brands (28.7%), purchasing by the carton (27.7%), and using low-tax or nontaxed sources (6.3%). Different groups of smokers used different strategies. Except for the use of promotional offers, all price-minimizing strategies significantly reduced the price paid per pack. Carton purchasers saved 1.01 US dollars/pack, and those buying from low-tax or nontaxed sources saved 1.23 US dollars/pack. However, pack buyers were reluctant to purchase cartons, mostly because they thought they might smoke too much, or because they considered the upfront cost unaffordable. The average California smoker could potentially save 0.33-0.66 US dollars/pack or 6.00-12.00 US dollars/month by using other price-minimizing strategies. Reducing consumption by 3 cigarettes/day could save a smoker 18.00 US dollars/month. Whereas price-minimizing strategies appeared to save money, cutting consumption could save even more. Thus further substantial tax increases would likely have the desired effect. PMID:16085532

White, Victoria M; Gilpin, Elizabeth A; White, Martha M; Pierce, John P

2005-08-01

82

Smoker, ex-smoker or non-smoker? The validity of routinely recorded smoking status in UK primary care: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate how smoking status is recorded in UK primary care; to evaluate whether appropriate multiple imputation (MI) of smoking status yields results consistent with health surveys. Setting UK primary care and a population survey conducted in the community. Participants We identified 354?204 patients aged 16 or over in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) primary care database registered with their general practice 2008–2009 and 15?102 individuals aged 16 or over in the Health Survey for England (HSE). Outcome measures Age-standardised and age-specific proportions of smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers in THIN and the HSE before and after MI. Using information on time since quitting in the HSE, we estimated when ex-smokers are typically recorded as non-smokers in primary care records. Results In THIN, smoking status was recorded for 84% of patients within 1?year of registration. Of these, 28% were smokers (21% in the HSE). After MI of missing smoking data, the proportion of smokers was 25% (missing at random) and 20% (missing not at random). With increasing age, more were identified as ex-smokers in the HSE than THIN. It appears that those who quit before age 30 were less likely to be recorded as an ex-smoker in primary care than people who quit later. Conclusions Smoking status was relatively well recorded in primary care. Misclassification of ex-smokers as non-smokers is likely to occur in those quitting smoking at an early age and/or a long time ago. Those with no smoking status information are more likely to be ex-smokers or non-smokers than smokers. PMID:24760355

Marston, Louise; Carpenter, James R; Walters, Kate R; Morris, Richard W; Nazareth, Irwin; White, Ian R; Petersen, Irene

2014-01-01

83

Some Expert Tips to Help Smokers Finally Quit in 2015  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Some Expert Tips to Help Smokers Finally Quit in 2015 It's never too ... American Lung Association has some tips that might help smokers make 2015 the year to really kick ...

84

Many Smokers Quick to Accept Plainly Packaged Cigarettes, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... Smokers Quick to Accept Plainly Packaged Cigarettes, Study Finds Research in Australia -- where such packaging is mandated -- ... published online recently in the journal Tobacco Control finds that many Australian smokers have quickly accepted and ...

85

A variety of Microbial Mats cover the Chimney Walls of the Loki's Castle Hydrothermal Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active vent chimneys of the Loki’s castle hydrothermal field at 73°N are the most northerly black smokers ever located. Vent fluids reach temperatures of >300°C, have a pH of around 5.5 and high concentrations of reduced compounds representing important energy sources for microbial life. Particularly they are extremely rich in methane (13.5 mM) and hydrogen (4.9 mM) while hydrogen sulphide concentrations are more typical for black smoker fluids (4.1 mM). Another characteristic of Loki’s castle is the unusually high abundance of microbial mats on the exterior of the chimneys. During a cruise in 2009 we used a ROV equipped with a hydraulic sampling cylinder (biosyringe) to collect samples of five mats varying in color and texture. Pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences yielded 9000 - 25000 reads per sample. Although all mats were dominated by a relatively low number of OTUs, we observed large differences in microbial composition, richness, and evenness of the mats. Also, the most dominating metabolic process occurring in each mat seemed to vary considerably. Two of the mats were largely dominated (60-90% of the reads) by relatives of mesophilic sulfur oxidizing ?-Proteobacteria (e.g. Sulfurovum) while another mat was dominated (48 % of the reads) by organisms affiliated with methanotrophic Methylococcales. In the last two mats we found a high abundance ( >20% - >40% of the reads) of organisms clustering among thermophilic organisms such as Thermodesulfobacteriales, Archaeoglobales, Thermococcales, Thermotogales, and Aquificales. The observed variation of the microbial composition between the different mats is possibly linked to variations in temperature and chemistry of fluids diffusely venting from the chimney. The study was supplemented by pyrosequencing of environmental cDNA from three of the samples (totally 1 100 000 reads). This dataset, which is currently being analyzed, will provide more information about the most active phylotypes in the microbial mats, and give further insight about the major in situ microbial processes occurring in these environments.

Dahle, H.; Roalkvam, I.; Jørgensen, S. L.; Stokke, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Steen, I.

2010-12-01

86

Modeling the Growth of Hyperthermophiles in Deep-sea Hydrothermal Diffuse Fluids and Sulfide Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2008 and 2009, 534 hydrothermal fluid samples and 5 actively-venting black smoker chimneys were collected using Alvin for correlative microbiological and chemical analyses as part of the Endeavour Segment and Axial Volcano Geochemistry and Ecology Research (EAGER) program. Hyperthermophilic, autotrophic Fe(III) oxide reducers, methanogens, and sulfur-reducing heterotrophs were enriched for at 85 and 95°C using most-probable-number estimates from 28 diffuse fluid and 8 chimney samples. Heterotrophs were the most abundant of the three groups in both diffuse fluids and black-smoker chimneys. Iron reducers were more abundant than methanogens, and more abundant in sulfide-hosted vents than in basalt-hosted vents. Fluid chemistry suggests that there is net biogenic methanogenesis at the Marker 113/62 diffuse vent at Axial Volcano but nowhere else sampled. The growth of hyperthermophilic methanogens and heterotrophs was modeled in the lab using pure cultures. Methanocaldococcus jannaschii grew at 82°C in a 2-liter reactor with continuous gas flow at H2 concentrations between 20 and 225 µM with a H2 km of 100 µM. Correlating H2 end-member mixing curves from vent fluids and seawater with our laboratory modeling study suggests that H2 concentrations are limiting for Methanocaldococcus growth at most Mothra, Main Field, and High Rise vent sites at Endeavour but sufficient to support growth at some Axial Volcano vents. Therefore, hyperthermophilic methanogens may depend on H2 syntrophy at low H2 sites. Twenty-one pure hyperthermophilic heterotroph strains each grew on ?-1,4 and ?-1,4 linked sugars and polypeptides with concomitant H2 production. The H2 production rate (cell-1 doubling-1) for Pyrococcus furiosus at 95°C without sulfur was 29 fmol, 36 fmol, and 53 fmol for growth on ?-1,4 sugars, ?-1,4 sugars, and peptides, respectively. The CH4 production rate for M. jannaschii was 390 fmol cell-1 doubling-1; therefore, we estimate that it would take approximately 40 heterotroph cells to provide all of the H2 necessary to support the growth of a single methanogen. In contrast to methanogens, autotrophic Fe(III) oxide reducers consume far less H2 during growth and reach cell concentrations similar to methanogens in pure culture. Thermodynamic predictions suggest that they would grow at H2 concentrations lower than those needed by methanogens.

Ver Eecke, H. C.; Oslowski, D. M.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Holden, J. F.

2009-12-01

87

Teens' images of smoking and smokers.  

PubMed Central

The authors used qualitative and quantitative data to identify and interpret specific images teens have about smoking and smokers. Qualitative data were collected in 1996 from 793 teenagers participating in 125 focus groups at eight different sites across the United States. Most focus groups were homogeneous with respect to gender, ethnicity, and smoking status. Ages ranged from 12 to 18 years, and about half of the participants were female. The majority of participants (62%) were white and African American, the remainder (38%) were Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian/Pacific Islander. Groups were comprised of smoking and nonsmoking teens. Focus group activities were used to elicit image-related discussions about attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of smoking. Investigators identified seven consistent and distinctive image themes: Appearance (smoking is dirty and unattractive), Activity (nonsmokers have busy, active lives), Drugs and sex (smokers are substance abusers and are sexually active), Rebellion (smokers belong to rebellious groups), Affect (smokers are depressed, angry, and stressed-out), In control (nonsmokers have self-control and are independent), and Pride (nonsmokers are proud of themselves, their families, and their heritage). A large scale, multi-site qualitative research approach can increase understanding of teen smoking. The identification of distinctive images of smoking can help researchers develop more sophisticated models of the processes of teen smoking than currently exist. PMID:11889285

Luke, D.; Allen, P.; Arian, G.; Crawford, M.; Headen, S.; Spigner, A. C.; Tassler, P.; Ureda, J.

2001-01-01

88

Cardiac autonomic function in healthy young smokers.  

PubMed

The present study examined the heart rate turbulence (HRT) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters in healthy young smokers (<40 years) to assess the effects of smoking on cardiac autonomic function. The study included 75 smokers with a history of habitual smoking for at least 1 year (41 males and 34 females; mean age, 29.3 ± 7.3 years) and 30 nonsmokers (hospital staff; 16 males and 14 females; mean age, 29.0 ± 6.1 years). Addiction to smoking was evaluated using the modified Fagerström test for nicotine-dependence index (NDI). HRT, HRV, basic clinical and echocardiographic, and Holter test parameters were compared between groups. No significant differences between the two groups were found in the basic clinical and echocardiographic variables. Turbulence onset (TO) was significantly higher in the smoking group than in the controls, and turbulence slope was significantly lower in the smokers, than in the controls (p < 0.05). Standard deviation of all normal-to-normal (NN) interval index (SDNNI) was the only HRV parameter that was significantly different between the smoking and control groups (p < 0.05). The NDI was positively correlated with the TO (p < 0.05). Smoking impairs the baroregulatory function in healthy young smokers, particularly the HRT parameters and SDNNI. Our findings highlight the importance of complete smoking cessation. PMID:23235997

Erdem, Alim; Ayhan, Suzi Selim; Öztürk, Serkan; Özlü, Mehmet Fatih; Alcelik, Aytekin; Sahin, Safak; Tosun, Mehmet; Erdem, Fatma Hizal; Gumustekin, Kenan; Yazici, Mehmet

2015-01-01

89

Variations in Lung Cancer Risk Among Smokers  

Cancer.gov

Variations in Lung Cancer Risk Among Smokers Peter B. Bach, Michael W. Kattan, Mark D. Thornquist, Mark G. Kris, Ramsey C. Tate, Matt J. Barnett, Lillian J. Hsieh, Colin B. Begg Institutions: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Fred

90

GENOMIC LANDSCAPE OF NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER IN SMOKERS AND NEVER SMOKERS  

PubMed Central

Summary We report the results of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples from 17 patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We identified 3,726 point mutations and over 90 indels in the coding sequence, with an average mutation frequency more than 10-fold higher in smokers than in never-smokers. Novel alterations in genes involved in chromatic modification and DNA repair pathways were identified along with DACH1, CFTR, RELN, ABCB5, and HGF. Deep digital sequencing revealed diverse clonality patterns in both never smokers and smokers. All validated EFGR and KRAS mutations were present in the founder clones, suggesting possible roles in cancer initiation. Analysis revealed 14 fusions including ROS1 and ALK as well as novel metabolic enzymes. Cell cycle and JAK-STAT pathways are significantly altered in lung cancer along with perturbations in 54 genes that are potentially targetable with currently available drugs. PMID:22980976

Govindan, Ramaswamy; Ding, Li; Griffith, Malachi; Subramanian, Janakiraman; Dees, Nathan D.; Kanchi, Krishna L.; Maher, Christopher A.; Fulton, Robert; Fulton, Lucinda; Wallis, John; Chen, Ken; Walker, Jason; McDonald, Sandra; Bose, Ron; Ornitz, David; Xiong, Donghai; You, Ming; Dooling, David J.; Watson, Mark; Mardis, Elaine R.

2013-01-01

91

Adolescents Discriminate between Types of Smokers and Related Risks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies concerning cigarette smoking and smoking-related outcomes among adolescents use categories such as "casual" or "regular" smoker to define different types of smokers. It is not clear whether adolescents themselves differentiate between different types of smokers. The present study sought to examine whether and how adolescents…

Rubinstein, Mark L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Millstein, Susan G.

2003-01-01

92

Effect of Nicotine on Negative Affect Among More Impulsive Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that nicotine would provide greater relief from negative affect for more impulsive smokers than for less impulsive smokers. Euthymic adult smokers (N = 70) participated in 2 laboratory sessions, during which they underwent a negative mood induction (music + autobiographical memory), then smoked either a nicotinized or de-nicotinized cigarette. Mixed-effects regression

Neal Doran; Dennis McChargue; Bonnie Spring; Joe VanderVeen; Jessica Werth Cook; Malia Richmond

2006-01-01

93

Subseafloor Microbial Life in Venting Fluids from the Mid Cayman Rise Hydrothermal System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In hard rock seafloor environments, fluids emanating from hydrothermal vents are one of the best windows into the subseafloor and its resident microbial community. The functional consequences of an extensive population of microbes living in the subseafloor remains unknown, as does our understanding of how these organisms interact with one another and influence the biogeochemistry of the oceans. Here we report the abundance, activity, and diversity of microbes in venting fluids collected from two newly discovered deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the ultra-slow spreading Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR). Fluids for geochemical and microbial analysis were collected from the Von Damm and Piccard vent fields, which are located within 20 km of one another, yet have extremely different thermal, geological, and depth regimes. Geochemical data indicates that both fields are highly enriched in volatiles, in particular hydrogen and methane, important energy sources for and by-products of microbial metabolism. At both sites, total microbial cell counts in the fluids ranged in concentration from 5 x 10 4 to 3 x 10 5 cells ml-1 , with background seawater concentrations of 1-2 x 10 4 cells ml-1 . In addition, distinct cell morphologies and clusters of cells not visible in background seawater were seen, including large filaments and mineral particles colonized by microbial cells. These results indicate local enrichments of microbial communities in the venting fluids, distinct from background populations, and are consistent with previous enumerations of microbial cells in venting fluids. Stable isotope tracing experiments were used to detect utilization of acetate, formate, and dissolve inorganic carbon and generation of methane at 70 °C under anaerobic conditions. At Von Damm, a putatively ultra-mafic hosted site located at ~2200 m with a maximum temperature of 226 °C, stable isotope tracing experiments indicate methanogenesis is occurring in most fluid samples. No activity was detected in Piccard vent fluids, a basalt-hosted black smoker site located at ~4950 m with a maximum temperature of 403 °C. However, hyperthermophilic and thermophilic heterotrophs of the genus Thermococcus were isolated from Piccard vent fluids, but not Von Damm. These obligate anaerobes, growing optimally at 55-90 °C, are ubiquitous at hydrothermal systems and serve as a readily cultivable indicator organism of subseafloor populations. Finally, molecular analysis of vent fluids is on-going and will define the microbial population structure in this novel ecosystem and allow for direct comparisons with other deep-sea and subsurface habitats as part of our continuing efforts to explore the deep microbial biosphere on Earth.

Huber, J. A.; Reveillaud, J.; Reddington, E.; McDermott, J. M.; Sylva, S. P.; Breier, J. A.; German, C. R.; Seewald, J.

2012-12-01

94

3-Hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene in the urine of smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The people studied were male volunteers without occupational and dietary exposure to PAH: 27 smokers (10 cigarettes or more) and 27 non-smokers matched for age and socio-professional category. For each person, all the 24h voided urine samples were reassembled in a single sample. 1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHPy) and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OHBaP) were then determined by automated column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography.Urinary 1-OHPy ranged from

M. Lafontaine; C. Champmartin; P. Simon; P. Delsaut; C. Funck-Brentano

2006-01-01

95

Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker’s saliva  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPH-Spectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers’ instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37°C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher’s protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker’s or nonsmoker’s saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group. PMID:20155506

Oguri, Makoto; O’Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M.; Marshall, Grayson W.

2010-01-01

96

Comparative study of serum MDA and vitamin C levels in non-smokers, chronic smokers and chronic smokers with acute myocardial infarction in men  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: It is a well-known fact that there is increased oxidative stress and decreased serum antioxidant levels in smokers than in non-smokers. In this study, the aim was to compare the serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation product and vitamin C, an antioxidant, between non- smokers (Group A) and chronic smokers (Group B) and also between chronic smokers (Group B) and chronic smokers with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (Group C). METHODS: Thirty six non-smokers and 36 chronic smokers appropriately matched with AMI patients were selected. Thirty six smokers with AMI were selected from Hanagal Kumareshwara hospital, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India. Fasting blood sample was collected in group A and group B. In AMI patients, blood sample was collected before any intervention. Serum levels of MDA and vitamin C were estimated. Statistical analysis was done by t test using SPSS version 11. The p< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. All the results were expressed as mean ± SD. RESULTS: The MDA and vitamin C were compared between Group A and Group B and also between Group B and Group C. There was a significant rise in MDA (p<0.0001) and significant decrease in vitamin C (p<0.01) in Group B compared to Group A. There was a significant rise in MDA (p<0.0001) and significant decrease in vitamin C (p<0.001) in Group C compared to Group B. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in serum MDA level and decrease in vitamin C was found in chronic smokers compared to non-smokers. It was also found that there is increase in serum MDA and decrease in vitamin C in smokers with AMI compared with smokers without AMI, and the reason for this inter-subject variability of MDA and vitamin C levels may be due to gene-environmental factors. PMID:22279473

Kashinakunti, Sanaappa Virupaxappa; Kollur, Pampareddy; Kallaganada, Gurupadappa Shantappa; Rangappa, Manjula; Ingin, Jagadish Basavaraj

2011-01-01

97

Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

2013-01-01

98

Distribution of Archaea in a Black Smoker Chimney Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Guinea, and subsamples were obtained from vertical and horizontal sections. The elemental composition of the chimney was analyzed in different subsamples by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, indicating that zinc and sulfur were major components while an increased amount of elemental oxygen in exterior materials represented the presence of oxidized materials on the outer surface of the

KEN TAKAI; TETSUSHI KOMATSU; FUMIO INAGAKI; KOKI HORIKOSHI

2001-01-01

99

Distribution of Particulates in Hydrothermal Plumes of the Endeavour Axial Valley: Preliminary Results from the Sea Breeze Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal vent plumes provide zones for chemical reactions between vent fluids and seawater, potential habitats for anaerobic bacteria and zooplankton, and a probable mechanism for the dispersal of vent larvae. Within the Endeavour Integrated Study Site are five known vent fields situated along the axial valley of the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (N.E. Pacific Ocean). Each of these fields has a particle rich neutrally buoyant plume above it almost constantly, a common characteristic of vent systems worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine 1) how plume particle distribution varies along the Endeavour segment axial valley; 2) whether a correlation exists between vent activity and particle density in the surrounding water, and 3) if the peak signals in backscatter and light transmission fall within a consistent range of potential density values along the axial valley. Light transmission and backscatter data were collected from vertically oscillating CTD casts at 21 stations along the axial valley covering the fields of Mothra, Main Endeavour, High Rise, Salty Dawg, and Sasquatch during the Sea Breeze - REVEL 2004 seagoing program. Plume particle density within ocean water was measured using a Wetlabs transmissometer and a Seapoint turbidity sensor. Preliminary results indicate a positive correlation between "black smoker" activity and signal strength in backscatter and light transmission. Main Endeavour and High Rise, known to exhibit the most rigorous hydrothermal activity, show correspondingly high amplitude signals in both backscatter and light transmission. Predicted diurnal currents seem to effect lateral plume particle movement away from vent sources, greatly impacting the particle density in surrounding areas. Peak signals in backscatter and light transmission occur in less dense water moving northward from Mothra to Salty Dawg.

Nassif, T. H.; McDuff, R. E.; Robigou, V.; Stahr, F.

2004-12-01

100

Zinc, copper, and lead in mid-ocean ridge basalts and the source rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The contents of Zn, Cu, and Pb in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and the MORB source-rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits are examined. The values of Zn, Cu, and Pb for submarine mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are, respectively (in ppm): average MORB-75, 75, and 0.7; West Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR)-87, 64, and 0.5; southern JFR-120 and 0.5; and 21??N, East Pacific Rise (EPR)-73, 78, and 0.5. Values of Zn/Pb range from about 100-240 and Cu/ Pb from 100-156. In this study, Zn is found to correlate positively with TiO2 + FeO (mean square of weighted deviates, MSWD, of 1.6 for JFR basalt), and inversely with Mg number (MSWD of 3.5). Therefore, contrary to statements in the literature that Zn should be compatible in MORB, Zn is a mildly incompatible element and must be enriched in the glass phase relative to olivine as Zn does not fit into the other major phenocryst phase, plagioclase. In the source of MORB, Zn likely is most enriched in oxides: spinel, magnetite, and titanomagnetite. Copper generally does not correlate well with other elements in most MORB data examined. When differentiation is dominated by olivine, Cu has a tendency to behave incompatibly (e.g., at Mg numbers > 70), but, overall, Cu shows some tendency towards being a compatible element, particularly along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a behavior presumably due to separation of sulfides in which Cu (but not Zn) is markedly enriched. Copper thus may be in dispersed sulfides in the source of MORB. Ocean ridges provide important data on source-rock controls for sulfide deposits because, in sediment-starved ridges, much is known about the possible source rocks and mineralization is presently occurring. In contrast to Zn/Pb ~5 in continental hot Cl-rich brines, Zn/Pb in the hottest sediment-starved ridge black smoker hydrothermal fluids at 21 ??N, EPR is about 110, similar to local MORB (145), but Cu/Pb is closer to 30, possibly due to subsurface deposition of Cu. At the JFR, the best value of Zn/Pb in the hydrothermal fluids is about 175, again similar to local MORB (240), but Cu is very low in the fluids that are at temperatures less than 300??C. The large MORB-like Zn/Pb in the hottest black-smoker fluids suggests a source-rock control for the metals that prohibits significant galena in the black-smoker deposits of sediment-starved ridges. In contrast, exhalative deposits on sediment-swamped ridges have significant galena; its presence is suggestive of Pb derivation from sediments, an origin supported by Pb isotope studies of LeHuray and colleagues in 1988. ?? 1994.

Doe, B.R.

1994-01-01

101

Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions such as leukoplakia and hairy tongue. Controversy exists in the literature, however, about the prevalence of oral lesions in smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral lesions in male smokers compared with nonsmokers in Hamadan. A total of 516 male participants were assessed, 258 of whom were smokers and 258 of whom were healthy nonsmokers. The prevalence of lesions was evaluated by clinical observation and biopsy. We found that the most prevalent lesions among smokers were gingival problems and coated tongue; smokers had significantly more lesions than did nonsmokers. Malignant and premalignant lesions were found in a higher age range. Among all participants in our study, we found a large number of oral mucosal lesions in smokers that had a strong correlation with smoking. Dental services need to implement care and health education for smokers to promote health. PMID:24010068

Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Hayati, Zahra; Rezaei, Farzad

2013-01-01

102

Hydrothermal synthesis map of bismuth titanates  

SciTech Connect

The hydrothermal synthesis of four bismuth titanate materials from common bismuth and titanium precursors under hydrothermal conditions is described. Reaction of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and anatase TiO{sub 2} in concentrated NaOH solution at 240 Degree-Sign C is shown to produce perovskite and sillenite phases Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20}, depending on the ratio of metal precursors used. When KOH solution is used and a 1:1 ratio of the same precursors, a pyrochlore Bi{sub 1.43}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 0.29}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.66} is formed. The use of a mixture of HNO{sub 3} and NaOH is shown to facilitate the formation of the Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}. The phases have been isolated separately as phase-pure powders and profile refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data allows comparisons with comparable materials reported in the literature. Analysis of Bi L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the materials shows the oxidation state of bismuth is +3 in all of the hydrothermally derived products. - Graphical abstract: Use of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} as reagents under hydrothermal conditions allows the phase-pure preparation of four crystalline bismuth titanate materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NaBiO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} under hydrothermal conditions allow formation of bismuth titanates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of four distint phases has been mapped. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi LIII-edge XANES shows Bi is reduced to oxidation state +3 in all materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new hydrated bismuth titanate pyrochlore has been isolated.

Sardar, Kripasindhu [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Walton, Richard I., E-mail: r.i.walton@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2012-05-15

103

Recent Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation of recent hydrothermal systems, especially the understanding of their development and structure, is one of the main fields of application of reactive transport simulation models. The aim of numerical studies of recent hydrothermal systems is to set-up or evaluate conceptual models of geothermal areas which are able to describe the processes of fluid flow and heat transfer as well as to explain the formation of observed alteration products. This is the preliminary stage to the application of reactive transport simulation for reservoir management (compare Chap. 7) where evaluated models are used for parameter estimation in response to the exploitation of a hydrothermal system. Within the first part of this chapter typical, currently published numerical studies of recent hydrothermal systems are summarized. The published case studies describe sophisticated numerical simulations contributing new insights to the understanding of the structure and development of hydrothermal systems. The following second part is a detailed case study of the shallow hydrothermal system of Waiwera (New Zealand). The case study evaluates the proposed conceptual model of the geothermal field and the derived natural state is used for history matching of the exploitation since 1863. Under consideration of the current conditions reservoir development is estimated until the year 2018.

Kühn, Michael

104

Probing the characteristics of metal- and sulfide-binding proteins in hydrothermal vent polychaetes using HPLC/IES-MS  

SciTech Connect

Alvinellids polychaetes colonizing the surfaces of black smokers from Eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents occupy extreme environments with high levels of heavy metals and sulfide. Investigations of mechanisms that enable them to tolerate these extreme conditions indicate sulfide-binding capacity in the blood serum of Paralvinella palmiformis and accumulation of heavy metals in their tissues. A need to characterize metal-binding proteins lead the authors to improve purification and separation of metallothioneins (MTs) by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on-line with electrospray mass spectrometry (ES/MS). A first separation step of small proteins from crude homogenates of worm tissues is performed on a size exclusion column following by accurate molecular weight identification with on-line LC-MS. This powerful technique has refined separation of isoform MT standards and weight characterization, and has provided an analytical tool to analyze metal-binding proteins from vent polychaetes. The authors are also applying this technique to separation of sulfide-binding proteins in blood serum and to identify ligands involved in sulfide detoxication and transport.

Martineu, P.; Juniper, S.K. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Ikonomou, M.G.; Thompson, J. [Inst. of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia (Canada). Ocean Chemistry Div.

1995-12-31

105

Distinct SNP Combinations Confer Susceptibility to Urinary Bladder Cancer in Smokers and Non-Smokers  

PubMed Central

Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified and validated genetic variations associated with urinary bladder cancer (UBC). However, it is still unknown whether the high-risk alleles of several SNPs interact with one another, leading to an even higher disease risk. Additionally, there is no information available on how the UBC risk due to these SNPs compare to the risk of cigarette smoking and to occupational exposure to urinary bladder carcinogens, and whether the same or different SNP combinations are relevant in smokers and non-smokers. To address these questions, we analyzed the genotypes of six SNPs, previously found to be associated with UBC, together with the GSTM1 deletion, in 1,595 UBC cases and 1,760 controls, stratified for smoking habits. We identified the strongest interactions of different orders and tested the stability of their effect by bootstrapping. We found that different SNP combinations were relevant in smokers and non-smokers. In smokers, polymorphisms involved in detoxification of cigarette smoke carcinogens were most relevant (GSTM1, rs11892031), in contrast to those in non-smokers with MYC and APOBEC3A near polymorphisms (rs9642880, rs1014971) being the most influential. Stable combinations of up to three high-risk alleles resulted in higher odds ratios (OR) than the individual SNPs, although the interaction effect was less than additive. The highest stable combination effects resulted in an OR of about 2.0, which is still lower than the ORs of cigarette smoking (here, current smokers' OR: 3.28) and comparable to occupational carcinogen exposure risks which, depending on the workplace, show mostly ORs up to 2.0. PMID:23284801

Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Marchan, Rosemarie; Ickstadt, Katja

2012-01-01

106

Determination of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in urine of smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed

Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA) include 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB) and N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) and are found in tobacco and tobacco smoke. TSNA are of interest for biomonitoring of tobacco-smoke exposure as they are associated with carcinogenesis. Both NNK and NNN are classified by IARC as Group 1 carcinogens. Samples of 24 h urine collections (n = 108) were analysed from smokers and non-smokers, using a newly developed and validated LC-MS/MS method for determining total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL, the major metabolite of NNK), and total NNN, NAB and NAT. TSNA levels in smokers' urine were significantly higher than in non-smokers. In smokers, urinary excretion of total TSNA correlated significantly (r > 0.5) with markers of smoking dose, such as daily cigarette consumption, salivary cotinine and urinary nicotine equivalents and increased with the ISO tar yield of cigarettes smoked. The correlation between urinary total NNN and the smoking dose was weaker (r = 0.4-0.5). In conclusion, this new method is suitable for assessing tobacco use-related exposure to NNK, NNN, NAB and NAT. PMID:19747086

Kavvadias, Dominique; Scherer, Gerhard; Cheung, Francis; Errington, Graham; Shepperd, Jim; McEwan, Mike

2009-12-01

107

Geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids at the Hatoma Knoll in Okinawa Trough  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hatoma knoll is a caldera volcano which exists in the southern part of Okinawa Trough, and the hydrothermal field was discovered in the caldera in 1999. A lava dome exists in the center part of the caldera, and clear smokers up to 324.5°C, benthic organism colony and liquid CO2, and CO2 hydrate have been observed around the dome. Since 2000, the investigation cruise (NT00-06, YK07-04, NT07-12, NT08-13, and NT09-10) by "Shinkai2000", "Shinkai6500" and the "HYPER-DOLPHIN 3K" has been carried out. Hydrothermal fluid samples were taken from the hydrothermal system, and chemical and isotopic compositions of the hydrothermal fluid samples were investigated. The chemical composition of hydrothermal fluid has high pH compared with the hydrothermal fluid in the mid-ocean ridge, and ammonium concentration is high, suggesting that the sediments covered the Okinawa Trough contribute to the chemical composition of hydrothermal fluid. The end-members of hydrothermal fluid show a variation, but the ratios of the end-members are consistent with each other, suggesting that the hydrothermal system has a single source and subcritical phase separation occurs below the seafloor. The equilibrium temperature with the quartz based on Si concentration was 350-400°C at 1-2 km below the seafloor. CO2 concentration in hydrothermal fluid showed the high-level value in the hydrothermal system in the world. The origin of the abundant CO2 is the carbonate on the subducting plate and the sediment in the Okinawa Trough based on the carbon isotope and the helium isotope. Methane is also the high-level concentration in the hydrothermal system in the world. Most of methane is generated through methanogenesis based on the carbon isotope ratio. Sr isotopic ratio in the hydrothermal fluid suggests the influence of sediment. However, the knoll surface was covered by rhyolite, the influence of sediment would occur in the recharge zone of the hydrothermal system. The methane would be microbially produced in the sediment of the recharge zone, and entrained by the hydrothermal fluid.

Toki, T.; Shinjo, R.; Ishibashi, J.; Tsunogai, U.; Sano, Y.; Takahata, N.; Yamanaka, T.; Kawagucci, S.; Ueno, Y.; Nunoura, T.; Takai, K.

2012-12-01

108

A family consultation intervention for health-compromised smokers  

PubMed Central

Although spousal support predicts the success of a smoker's cessation efforts, “social-support” interventions based on teaching partners better support skills have had consistently disappointing results. We examined the potential utility of a family consultation (FAMCON) intervention based on family-systems principles in a treatment–development project involving 20 couples in which one partner (the primary smoker) continued to smoke despite having or being at significant risk for heart or lung disease. The 50% rate of stable abstinence achieved by primary smokers over at least 6 months exceeds benchmark success rates reported in the literature for other comparably intensive interventions, suggesting that a couple-focused intervention different in concept and format from social-support interventions tested in the past may hold promise for health-compromised smokers. The FAMCON approach appeared particularly well suited to female smokers and smokers whose partner also smoked—two subgroups at high risk for relapse. PMID:17084793

Shoham, Varda; Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Trost, Sarah E.; Muramoto, Myra

2009-01-01

109

Low virulent oral Candida albicans strains isolated from smokers.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that tabagism is a predisposing factor to oral candidosis and cumulate data suggest that cigarette compounds may increase candidal virulence. To verify if enhanced virulence occurs in Candida albicans from chronic smokers, a cohort of 42 non-smokers and other of 58 smokers (all with excellent oral conditions and without signs of candidosis) were swabbed on tong dorsum and jugal mucosa. Results showed that oral candidal loads do not differ between smoker and non-smokers. Activities of secreted aspartyl-protease (Sap), phospholipase, chondroitinase, esterase-lipase, and haemolysin secretions were screened for thirty-two C. albicans isolates. There were detected significant increments in phospholipasic and chondroitinasic activities in isolates from non-smokers. For other virulence factors, no differences between both cohorts were achieved. PMID:21924704

de Azevedo Izidoro, Ana Claudia Santos; Semprebom, Andressa Marafon; Baboni, Fernanda Brasil; Rosa, Rosimeire Takaki; Machado, Maria Angela Naval; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro

2012-02-01

110

Water-Rock Reaction, Substrate Composition, Magmatic Degassing, and Mixing as Major Factors Controlling Vent Fluid Compositions in Manus Basin Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major objective of cruise MGLN06MV to the Manus Basin, north of Papua New Guinea, was the use of vent fluid chemistry as a guide to sub-seafloor processes occurring within four major areas of hydrothermal activity. A broad spectrum of high and low temperature fluids were sampled using gas-tight and syringe style "major" samplers from black smoker chimneys, white smoker spires, and igneous and sediment substrates. The majority of fluids exhibit salinities lower or higher than seawater, consistent with phase separation having occurred at or below the seafloor. Preliminary shipboard analyses of 273 to 285C vent fluids at the basalt- hosted Vienna Woods system (Manus Spreading Center) indicate that black/grey smoker fluids are characterized by compositions and pH similar to fluids sampled from other basalt-hosted (e.g., mid-ocean ridge (MOR)) systems. In contrast, the majority of fluids sampled from felsic-hosted hydrothermal systems in the eastern Manus Basin exhibit substantially lower pH and greater compositional variability within an individual vent field. High temperature fluids from four different areas of venting at the PACMANUS (Papua New Guinea Australia Canada Manus) vent field exhibit temperatures from 271 to 356C, pH from 2.3 to 2.8, H2 from 8 to 325 umol/l, H2S from 2.5 to 26 mmol/l, and CH4 from 8 to 39 umol/l. The low pH of these fluids (relative to MOR fluids) may reflect water-rock reaction with felsic rocks, input of magmatic volatiles (as proposed for the Mariner Field on the Valu Fa Ridge), and subsurface deposition of metal sulfides. Lower temperature fluids (80 to 180C) at PACMANUS exhibit higher pH (4.9 to 3.4). White smoker fluids (70 to 115C) collected at the DESMOS Caldera, were extraordinarily acidic (pH = 1.0 to 1.5), with very low H2S and CH4 concentrations. The composition of these fluids supports the hypothesis of Gamo et al. (Geology 25, 1997) that they reflect a mixture of magmatic volatiles and heated seawater. Fluids collected from vent fields within the SuSu Knolls area exhibited the largest range in properties. For example, on the lower flanks of the North Su vent field, extremely acidic fluids (pH = 0.87 to 1.8) were recovered from cracks within volcaniclastic debris with measured temperatures of 48 to 215C. These fluids are CH4 and H2S poor, with salinities identical to that of seawater, and, as at DESMOS, likely represent a mix of magmatic volatiles and heated seawater. Further up the flanks of the North Su vent field, high temperature fluids (300 to 325C) exhibit more moderate pH (2.8 to 3.5), higher H2S abundances (5.3 to 7.7 umol/l) and very high CH4 concentrations (91 to 566 umol/l). High temperature fluids recovered from the Suzette vent fields also contained high concentrations of CH4 (90 to 503 umol/l). Elevated CH4 concentrations in fluids from the SuSu Knolls area may reflect entrainment of CH4 generated by thermal alteration of organic sediments or biomass.

Seewald, J.; Reeves, E.; Saccocia, P.; Rouxel, O.; Walsh, E.; Price, R.; Tivey, M.; Bach, W.; Tivey, M.

2006-12-01

111

Skeletal muscle capillarization and oxidative metabolism in healthy smokers.  

PubMed

We investigated whether the lower fatigue resistance in smokers than in nonsmokers is caused by a compromised muscle oxidative metabolism. Using calibrated histochemistry, we found no differences in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, myoglobin concentration, or capillarization in sections of the vastus lateralis muscle between smokers and nonsmokers. The relationship between fatigue resistance and SDH activity in nonsmokers (r = 0.93; p = 0.02) is absent in smokers. This indicates that the lower muscle fatigue resistance of smokers can likely be attributed to causes other than differences in oxidative metabolism and capillarization. PMID:19088783

Wüst, Rob C I; Jaspers, Richard T; van der Laarse, Willem J; Degens, Hans

2008-12-01

112

Provider Smoking Cessation Advice Among California Asian-American Smokers  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine proportions of provider advice to quit smoking for Asian-American smokers and to describe factors that may affect the provision of such advice. Design Secondary data analysis of population-based survey. Setting California. Subjects Current smokers from the California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese-Americans (n = 2117, participation rate = 52%), Korean-Americans (n = 2545, participation rate 5 48%), and Vietnamese-Americans (n = 2179, participation rate = 63.5%). Measures Sociodemographics including insurance status, smoking frequency, provider visit in past year, and provider advice to quit. Analysis Multivariate logistic regression models examined dependent outcomes of (1) provider visit in past year and (2) provider advice to quit. Results Less than a third (30.5%) of smokers in our study reported both seeing a provider (50.8%) and then receiving advice to quit (60.1%). Factors associated with provider visits included being female, being 45 years or older, having health insurance, and being Vietnamese. Among smokers who saw a provider, factors associated with provider advice to quit included having health insurance and being a daily smoker. Conclusions Asian-American smokers reported low proportions of provider advice to quit in the past year, largely because only half of smokers saw a provider. Providers who see such smokers may need greater awareness that several effective cessation treatments do not require health insurance, and that intermittent smokers need advice to quit. PMID:21510790

Tong, Elisa K.; Tang, Hao; Chen, Moon S.; McPhee, Stephen J.

2014-01-01

113

Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.  

PubMed

Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly. PMID:22829798

Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

2012-06-01

114

Loneliness in HIV-infected smokers.  

PubMed

Loneliness is common in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Lonely people smoke at higher rates than the general population, and loneliness is a likely contributor to the ongoing smoking epidemic among PLWH. We explored factors associated with loneliness in a cohort of 272 PLWH smokers enrolled in two separate tobacco treatment trials. Loneliness was independently associated with lack of a spouse or partner, lower educational attainment, "other or unknown" HIV exposure category, depression, anxiety, recent alcohol consumption, and higher daily cigarette consumption. Referral to group therapy reduced loneliness, whereas referral to an individual web-based tobacco treatment did not. PMID:25298196

Stanton, Cassandra A; Moadel, Alyson B; Kim, Ryung S; Weinberger, Andrea H; Shuter, Jonathan

2015-02-01

115

Effects of nicotine gum on psychomotor performance in smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of nicotine on human performance. In the first study six smokers, who had been allowed to smoke normally prior to testing, completed a battery of psychometric tests (choice reaction time, memory scanning, tracking and flicker fusion threshold) at set points over 4 h after chewing 0, 2, or 4 mg nicotine polacrilex

Ian Hindmarch; John S. Kerr; Neil Sherwood

1990-01-01

116

Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking: a study of smokers and former smokers*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. METHODS: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. RESULTS: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking. PMID:24068268

Afonso, Maria Fernanda Besteiro; Alves, Maria Graça Pereira

2013-01-01

117

Hydrothermal Reactivity of Amines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reactivity of aqueous amines depends on temperature, pH, and redox state [1], all of which are highly variable in hydrothermal systems. Temperature and pH affect the ratio of protonated to unprotonated amines (R-NH2 + H+ = R-NH3+), which act as nucleophiles and electrophiles, respectively. We hypothesize that this dual nature can explain the pH dependence of reaction rates, and predict that rates will approach a maximum at pH = pKa where the ratio of protonated and unprotonated amines approaches one and the two compounds are poised to react with one another. Higher temperatures in hydrothermal systems allow for more rapid reaction rates, readily reversible reactions, and unique carbon-nitrogen chemistry in which water acts as a reagent in addition to being the solvent. In this study, aqueous benzylamine was used as a model compound to explore the reaction mechanisms, kinetics, and equilibria of amines under hydrothermal conditions. Experiments were carried out in anoxic silica glass tubes at 250°C (Psat) using phosphate-buffered solutions to observe changes in reaction rates and product distributions as a function of pH. The rate of decomposition of benzylamine was much faster at pH 4 than at pH 9, consistent with the prediction that benzylamine acts as both nucleophile and an electrophile, and our estimate that the pKa of benzylamine is ~5 at 250°C and Psat. Accordingly, dibenzylamine is the primary product of the reaction of two benzylamine molecules, and this reaction is readily reversible under hydrothermal conditions. Extremely acidic or basic pH can be used to suppress dibenzylamine production, which also suppresses the formation of all other major products, including toluene, benzyl alcohol, dibenzylimine, and tribenzylamine. This suggests that dibenzylamine is the lone primary product that then itself reacts as a precursor to produce the above compounds. Analog experiments performed with ring-substituted benzylamine derivatives and chiral methylbenzylamine suggest an SN2 mechanism for the formation of dibenzylamine. These results show the interdependence of pH and speciation with amine reaction rates. We predict the distribution of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary amines in hydrothermal solutions can be used to solve for the pH of subsurface reaction zones in hydrothermal systems. [1] McCollom, T.M. (2013) The influence of minerals on decomposition of the n-alkyl-?-amino acid norvaline under hydrothermal conditions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 104, 330-357.

Robinson, K.; Shock, E.; Hartnett, H. E.; Williams, L. B.; Gould, I.

2013-12-01

118

A modeling approach of the influence of local hydrodynamic conditions on larval dispersal at hydrothermal vents.  

PubMed

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent animal communities along oceanic ridges are both patchy and transient. Larval dispersal is a key factor in understanding how these communities function and are maintained over generations. To date, numerical approaches simulating larval dispersal considered the effect of oceanic currents on larval transportation over hundreds of kilometers but very seldom looked at the effect of local conditions within meters around chimneys. However, small scale significant variations in the hydrodynamics may influence larval fate in its early stages after release, and hence have a knock-on effect on both dispersal and colonization processes. Here we present a new numerical approach to the study of larval dispersal, considering small scales within the range of the biological communities, called "bio-hydrodynamical" scale, and ranging from a few centimeters to a few meters around hydrothermal sources. We use a physical model for the vent based on jet theory and compute the turbulent velocity field around the smoker. Larvae are considered as passive particles whose trajectories are affected by hydrodynamics, topography of the vent chimney and larval biological properties. Our model predicts that bottom currents often dominate all other factors either by entraining all larvae away from the vent or enforcing strong colonization rates. When bottom currents are very slow (<1 mms(-1)), general larvae motion is upwards due to entrainment by the main smoker jet. In this context, smokers with vertical slopes favor retention of larvae because larval initial trajectory is nearly parallel to the smoker wall, which increases the chances to settle. This retention phenomenon is intensified with increasing velocity of the main smoker jet because entrainment in the high velocity plume is preceded by a phase when larvae are attracted towards the smoker wall, which occurs earlier with higher velocity of the main jet. Finally, the buoyancy rate of the larvae, measured to be in the range of 0.01 mms(-1), is generally irrelevant unless hydrodynamic conditions are balanced, i.e. if the buoyancy rate is comparable to both the bottom current speed and the local water velocity due to entrainment by close smokers. Overall, our model evidences the strong effect of the release point of larvae on their future entrainment within local fluxes. Larvae released from smoker walls might have an entirely different fate than those released further away in the water column. The latter are not, or less, affected by near-chimney hydrodynamics. PMID:18834891

Bailly-Bechet, Marc; Kerszberg, Michel; Gaill, Françoise; Pradillon, Florence

2008-12-01

119

Cue Reactivity in Smokers: An Event-Related Potential Study  

PubMed Central

Drugs-of-abuse may increase the salience of drug cues by sensitizing the dopaminergic (DA) system (Robinson & Berridge, 1993), leading to differential attention to smoking stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to assess attention to smoking cues but not using an ERP component associated with DA-mediated salience evaluation. In this study the DA-related P2a and the P3, were compared in smokers (N=21) and non-smokers (N=21) during an attention selection cue exposure task including both cigarette and neutral images. We predicted that both the P2a and P3 would be larger to targets than non-targets, but larger to non-target cigarette images than non-target neutral images only in the smokers, reflecting smokers’ evaluation of smoking stimuli as relevant even when they were not targets. Results indicated that smokers showed behavioral cue reactivity, with more false alarms to cigarette images (responding to cigarette images when they were not targets) than non-smokers; however, both smokers and non-smokers had a larger P2a and P3 to cigarette images. Thus, while smokers showed behavioral evidence of differential salience evaluation of the cigarette images, this group difference was not reflected in differential brain activity. These findings may reflect characteristics of the ERPs (both ERP components were smaller in the smokers), the smoking sample (they were not more impulsive, i.e. reward sensitive, than the non-smokers, in contrast to prior studies) and the design (all participants were aware that the aim of the study was related to smoking). PMID:23958866

Bloom, Erika Litvin; Potts, Geoffrey F.; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

2013-01-01

120

Telomerase mutations in smokers with severe emphysema.  

PubMed

Mutations in the essential telomerase genes TERT and TR cause familial pulmonary fibrosis; however, in telomerase-null mice, short telomeres predispose to emphysema after chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Here, we tested whether telomerase mutations are a risk factor for human emphysema by examining their frequency in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Across two independent cohorts, we found 3 of 292 severe COPD cases carried deleterious mutations in TERT (1%). This prevalence is comparable to the frequency of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency documented in this population. The TERT mutations compromised telomerase catalytic activity, and mutation carriers had short telomeres. Telomerase mutation carriers with emphysema were predominantly female and had an increased incidence of pneumothorax. In families, emphysema showed an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, along with pulmonary fibrosis and other telomere syndrome features, but manifested only in smokers. Our findings identify germline mutations in telomerase as a Mendelian risk factor for COPD susceptibility that clusters in autosomal dominant families with telomere-mediated disease including pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25562321

Stanley, Susan E; Chen, Julian J L; Podlevsky, Joshua D; Alder, Jonathan K; Hansel, Nadia N; Mathias, Rasika A; Qi, Xiaodong; Rafaels, Nicholas M; Wise, Robert A; Silverman, Edwin K; Barnes, Kathleen C; Armanios, Mary

2015-02-01

121

Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least

Brad Rodu; William T Godshall

2006-01-01

122

Internet and Mobile Phone Text Messaging Intervention for College Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors developed a smoking cessation program using mobile phone text messaging to provide tailored and stage-specific messages to college smokers. Participants and Methods: The authors recruited 31 daily smokers who desired to quit from a college campus and asked them to use an Internet and mobile phone text messaging program to…

Riley, William; Obermayer, Jami; Jean-Mary, Jersino

2008-01-01

123

Identification of Early Interstitial Lung Disease in Smokers from the  

E-print Network

interstitial lung disease (ILD) on chest computed tomographic (CT) scans. Materials and Methods: The CT scans: Early interstitial lung disease; CT scan; smoker. ªAUR, 2010 I diopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPFIdentification of Early Interstitial Lung Disease in Smokers from the COPDGene Study George R

124

Faculty and Student Views of College Student Smokers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventy-two nonsmoker and four smoker college faculty/staff members and 160 nonsmoker and 52 smoker college students from a small liberal arts college in a suburban area in the Northeast United States completed a 15-item survey concerning views of smoking. Participants were asked to rate "when you watch someone else smoke, how do they appear?" on…

Authier, Charlene; Hodges, Jilda; Srebro, Karen; Chambliss, Catherine

125

Do Early Experiences with Cannabis vary in Cigarette Smokers?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION We examine whether regular cigarette smokers were more likely to be exposed to and use cannabis at an earlier age, and further, upon initiation, whether their initial experiences with cannabis varied from those reported by never/non-regular cigarette smokers. METHOD A sample of 3797 Australian twins and siblings aged 21–46 years was used. Survival analyses examined whether cigarette smokers were at increased likelihood of early opportunity to use cannabis and early onset of cannabis use. Logistic regression examined whether cigarette smokers reported greater enjoyment of their cannabis experience, inhaling on the first try, differing positive and negative initial subjective reactions, smoked cigarettes with cannabis the first time and were more likely to try cannabis again within a week. RESULTS Regular cigarette smokers were more likely to report an earlier opportunity to use cannabis and early onset of cannabis use. Regular cigarette smokers were also considerably more likely to have enjoyed their first experience with cannabis and reported higher rates of positive initial reactions. They were more likely to report inhaling on the first try and smoking cigarettes with cannabis. Potentially negative subjective reactions were also elevated in regular cigarette smokers. Importantly, cigarette smokers were at 1.87 increased odds of smoking cannabis within a week of their initial use. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that the well-known overlap in cannabis and cigarette smoking behaviors may evolve as early as opportunity to use and extend through the course of the substance use trajectory. PMID:23010290

Agrawal, Arpana; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Lynskey, Michael T.

2012-01-01

126

Serum mineral status of long-term cigarette smokers.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to investigate comparatively some serum mineral levels of cigarette smokers. A total of 25 nonsmokers (control group) and 50 long-term cigarette smokers (smoking for at least 15 years; smoker group) were participated in the study. Subjects were between 25 and 40 years old. Control and smoker groups were matched for age, sex and body mass index status. The blood samples were taken from smokers and nonsmokers after 12 h of fasting period. The levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), chlorine (Cl), sodium (Na) and phosphorus (P) were measured by autoanalyzer using commercial kits. Student's t test was used to compare the control and smoker groups, and p < 0.05 indicated a significant difference. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to demonstrate the relationship among parameters in smoker and control groups. Although there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) between the groups regarding the levels of K, P, Mg, Na, Cl, Zn, Fe, Ca and Cu, some positive correlations were observed in controls but not in smokers. Therefore, it was concluded that smoking does not affect the serum mineral levels. However, it may negatively affect some important positive correlations among minerals observed in healthy individuals. PMID:23293133

Meral, Ismail; Akdemir, Fazile Nur Ekinci

2015-01-01

127

Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…

Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

2013-01-01

128

Thrombopoietin contributes to enhanced platelet activation in cigarette smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a humoral growth factor that primes platelet activation in response to several agonists. We recently showed that TPO enhances platelet activation in unstable angina and sepsis. Aim of this study was to investigate the role of TPO in platelet function abnormalities described in cigarette smokers. Methods: In a case–control study we enrolled 20 healthy cigarette smokers

Enrico Lupia; Ornella Bosco; Alberto Goffi; Cesare Poletto; Stefania Locatelli; Tiziana Spatola; Alessandra Cuccurullo; Giuseppe Montrucchio

2010-01-01

129

Lung cancer in never smokers Epidemiology and risk prediction models  

PubMed Central

In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model. PMID:22882894

McCarthy, William J.; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh

2012-01-01

130

Clinical and microbiological characteristics of smokers with early onset periodontitis.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is a potential risk factor which has recently been associated with periodontal disease progression. The objective of this study was to compare the microbial profile of smokers and non-smokers in a group of patients with early onset periodontitis. The study population consisted of 60 healthy individuals, 40 males and 20 females aged 22 to 35 yr, exhibiting early onset periodontitis. Thirty patients were smokers (30.9 cigarettes/d) and 30 non-smokers. Smokers had a higher proportion of deep pockets (PD >5 mm), especially in the maxilla anterior and premolar regions (p < 0.001) and presented a significantly greater mean probing depth and attachment loss (p <0.05) in diseased sites and a significantly greater alveolar bone loss (p <0.01) compared to non-smokers. Two pooled bacterial samples were obtained from each patient. Samples were collected from the deepest periodontal pockets of each quadrant. The samples were cultured anaerobically and in 10% CO2 plus air for bacterial isolation using selective and non-selective media. Isolates were characterized to species level by conventional biochemical tests and various identification kits. Smokers harboured a greater number of bacteria in total. Analysis of bacterial counts using the ANOVA (Mann-Whitney U-test) showed that Staphylococcus aureus, Peptostreptococcus micros, Campylobacter concisus, Escherichia coli, Bacteroides forsythus, C. gracilis, C. rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Selenomonas sputigena, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus were found in significantly higher numbers and more frequently in smokers while Streptococcus intermedius, A. naeslundii, A. israelii and Eubacterium lentum were detected more frequently and in significantly higher proportions in non-smokers. The isolation of bacteria belonging to the exogenous flora such as E. coli, C. albicans, A. fumigatus and S. aureus in smokers' microbiota underscores the importance of the host that is adversely affected by cigarette smoking. PMID:10086883

Kamma, J J; Nakou, M; Baehni, P C

1999-01-01

131

"I Smoke but I Am Not a Smoker": Phantom Smokers and the Discrepancy between Self-Identity and Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article presents the development of a new smoking status, the "phantom smokers," who do not view themselves as smokers but report smoking cigarettes. Participants: Students from 2 universities in Michigan (N = 899; October 2005) and Florida (N = 1,517; May 2006) participated in surveys. Methods: Respondents in Michigan completed…

Choi, Youjin; Choi, Sejung Marina; Rifon, Nora

2010-01-01

132

Vitamins E, C and lipid peroxidation in plasma and arterial tissue of smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants is operative in atherosclerosis. Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor of atherosclerosis and has been reported to contain large amounts of oxidants. We assessed arterial (internal mammary artery) and plasma levels of vitamins E and C and lipid peroxides in 48 male patients, 24 smokers and 24 non-smokers, undergoing coronary bypass surgery. Lipid

Andrea Mezzetti; Domenico Lapenna; Sante D. Pierdomenico; Antonio M. Calafiore; Fabrizio Costantini; Giuseppe Riario-Sforza; Tiziana Imbastaro; Matteo Neri; Franco Cuccurullo

1995-01-01

133

Chemical processes in buoyant hydrothermal plumes on the East Pacific Rise near 21°N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal plume water containing suspended particles of precipitated black "smoke" has been sampled from three hydrothermal vent fields on the East Pacific Rise near 21°N. The samples were taken within the lower 22 m of the buoyant plumes, directly above 273-350°C black smoker vents, using Go-flo bottles mounted on the submersible Alvin. Based on Li as a conservative tracer of the high-temperature endmember solution, mixing ratios of 10 2 to 10 4 g seawater/g vent water are achieved within the lower 22 m of the plumes. The particle concentrations sampled in the lower 13 m of the plumes are much larger than predicted for these mixing ratios, suggesting that the particles are settling within the lower part of the plume. The major minerals in the smoke are pyrrhotite, Fe-rich sphalerite, pyrite, unidentified Fe - S ± Si and Fe - Si ± S phases, chalcopyrite, amorphous silica, sulfur, Fe-oxyhydroxides (including goethite) and anhydrite. Present in trace quantities are barite, isocubanite, wurtzite, covellite, marcasite(?), and unidentified silicates and Alsilicates. Organic matter is common. The composition of the plume solutions indicates that 35 ± 25% of the hydrothermally injected Fe remains in dissolved form (i.e., < 0.45 ?m) within the lower 22 m of the plume, in spite of a 3- to 9-fold excess of H 2S in the vent solutions. Nearly all of the Mn and Si and most of the Ba also remain in solution. H 2S, by contrast, has been largely (70-100%) removed - by precipitation as Sulfides and sulfur, but mainly by oxidation to dissolved species with intermediate oxidation states. Its early removal implies that 50 ± 30% of the injected Fe will eventually precipitate as primary oxides rather than as Sulfides and that Fe can be fractionated from the other chalcophile metals during sulfide precipitation. Compared with the vent water, the particles are enriched in Cu, Co, Ag, Cd, Al, Zn, Pb, and Ni by factors of 4 to 20 relative to Fe and depleted in Ba, S, Si, and Mn. Scavenging from seawater may play a role in Co and Cu enrichment at the NGS field, and for Ag, Cd, and Ni at all three fields, but is negligible for Pb and Zn. These results indicate that two distinct metalliferous components are delivered to the distal regions of a plume as a result of reactions in the lower part of the buoyant plume: 1) a dissolved component that includes about half the Fe and all of the Mn and will eventually precipitate as oxides, and 2) a particulate component consisting of fine-grained sulfide minerals that are enriched in ore metals by factors of 4 to 20.

Mottl, Michael J.; McConachy, Timothy F.

1990-07-01

134

Smoker Characteristics and Smoking-Cessation Milestones  

PubMed Central

Background Contextual variables often predict long-term abstinence, but little is known about how these variables exert their effects. These variables could influence abstinence by affecting the ability to quit at all, or by altering risk of lapsing, or progressing from a lapse to relapse. Purpose To examine the effect of common predictors of smoking-cessation failure on smoking-cessation processes. Methods The current study (N = 1504, 58% female, 84% Caucasian; recruited from January 2005 to June 2007; data analyzed in 2009) uses the approach advocated by Shiffman et al., (2006), which measures cessation outcomes on three different cessation milestones (achieving initial abstinence, lapse risk, and the lapse-relapse transition) to examine relationships of smoker characteristics (dependence, contextual and demographic factors) with smoking-cessation process. Results High nicotine dependence strongly predicted all milestones: not achieving initial abstinence, and a higher risk of both lapse and transitioning from lapse to complete relapse. Numerous contextual and demographic variables were associated with higher initial cessation rates and/or decreased lapse risk at 6 months post-quit (e.g., ethnicity, gender, marital status, education, smoking in the workplace, number of smokers in the social network, and number of supportive others). However, aside from nicotine dependence, only gender significantly predicted the risk of transition from lapse to relapse. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that: (1) higher nicotine dependence predicted worse outcomes across every cessation milestone; (2) demographic and contextual variables are generally associated with initial abstinence rates and lapse risk and not the lapse-relapse transition. These results identify groups who are at risk for failure at specific stages of the smoking-cessation process, and this may have implications for treatment. PMID:21335259

Japuntich, Sandra J.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Piper, Megan E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Roberts, Linda J.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

2011-01-01

135

Subgingival microflora in smokers with early onset periodontitis.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is a potent risk factor which has recently been associated with periodontal disease progression. The objective of this study was to detect the microbial profile of early onset periodontitis in smokers and compare it to that of non-smokers. The study population consisted of 50 systemically healthy individuals aged 25 to 38 years, exhibiting early onset periodontitis. 25 patients were smokers (> 20 cigarettes/day) and 25 non-smokers. Two pooled bacterial samples comprised of four periodontal sites with probing depth > 5 mm each, were collected from each individual. The samples were cultured aerobically and anaerobically for bacterial isolation using selective and non-selective media. Isolates were characterized to species level by conventional biochemical tests and various identification kits. The differences in bacterial counts using the Mann Whitney U test were statistically significant for Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter concisus, Eikenella corrodens, Escherichia coli, Bacteroides forsythus, Bacteroides gracilis, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Selenomonas sputigena and Candida albicans in smokers. Statistically significant differences for Peptostreptococcus micros, Actinomyces naeslundii, Eubacterium lentum and Capnocytophaga gingivalis were detected in non-smokers. The isolation of bacteria belonging to the exogenous flora like E. coli, C. albicans and S. aureus in smokers microflora underscores the importance of the host which is adversely affected by cigarette smoking. PMID:16887581

Kamma, J J; Nakou, M

1997-01-01

136

Reduced executive and default network functional connectivity in cigarette smokers.  

PubMed

Altered functional connectivity has been associated with acute and chronic nicotine use. Connectivity alterations, specifically in the right and left executive control networks (RECN/LECN) and the default mode network (DMN), may contribute to the addiction cycle. The objective of this study was to determine if executive control network (ECN) and DMN connectivity is different between non-smokers and smokers and whether reductions in connectivity are related to chronic cigarette use. The RECN, LECN, and DMN were identified in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 650 subjects. Analyses tested for group differences in network connectivity strength, controlling for age and alcohol use. There was a significant group effect on LECN and DMN connectivity strength with smokers (n?=?452) having lower network strengths than non-smokers (n?=?198). Smokers had lower connectivity than non-smokers associated with key network hubs: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and parietal nodes within ECNs. Further, ECN connectivity strength was negatively associated with pack years of cigarette use. Our data suggest that chronic nicotine use negatively impacts functional connectivity within control networks that may contribute to the difficulty smokers have in quitting. Hum Brain Mapp 36:872-882, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25346448

Weiland, Barbara J; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Calhoun, Vince D; Welsh, Robert C; Hutchison, Kent E

2015-03-01

137

Hydrothermal Mineralization Along the Volcanically Active Mariana Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In March and April, 2004, ROPOS ROV dives took place from the R/V T.G. Thompson along the volcanically active Mariana arc to ground truth CTD data collected a year earlier that indicated hydrothermal activity. Dives took place on seven volcanoes, six of which showed hydrothermal activity. We present data on samples collected from NW Rota-1 (14° , 36'N, 144° , 46'E), E. Diamante (15° , 56'N, 145° , 41'E), and NW Eifuku (21° , 29'N, 144° , 03'E), the three sites most studied. All the hydrothermal systems found are associated with volcano summits, or with resurgent domes inside a caldera. Brimstone vent at NW Rota-1 provided a dramatic display of thick, bellowing, yellow plumes that contained ash and molten sulfur. This site occurs at 500 m water depth and clearly shows closely associated magmatic-hydrothermal discharge. Sulfur was the dominant hydrothermal mineral deposited around the vent and occurs as spheres in the surrounding volcaniclastic sediment, fracture fill and veins, and massive deposits. The Black Forest vent field at E Diamante consists of a sulfide-sulfate chimney system developed at about 650 m water depth. This is the only mature system discovered and consists of numerous tall (up to 9 m) chimneys. The measured fluid temperature of 240° C produces boiling at the depth of the vents. The chimneys and mounds are composed of varying amounts of pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, barite, and anhydrite. Hydrothermal Mn oxides occur on the surface of inactive chimneys. This mineralogy contrasts with the other two systems, which deposit sulfur as the dominant hydrothermal product. The Cu-Zn-Fe-Ba mineralization is perhaps largely controlled by water/rock interaction. A unique hydrothermal field (Champagne field) was found at NW Eifuku where liquid CO2 is discharging from focused- and diffuse-flow vents at 1600 m water depth. The focused-flow vents consist of small chimneys and mounds up to a meter high that are composed of sulfur and yet to be identified minerals. Sulfides were not recovered from this site. At Champagne, sulfur also occurs as crusts on the surface of sediment in areas of diffuse-flow venting, as fracture fill and veins, and as massive deposits. The dominant characteristics of the hydrothermal mineralization along the Mariana arc are shallow-water systems, highly permeable rocks, gas (SO2, H2S, CO2)-rich discharge, and magmatic-hydrothermal systems controlled by the depth-to-boiling-point curve. These characteristics result predominantly in the subsurface deposition of sulfide mineralization, with E Diamante being the exception.

de Ronde, C. E.; Hein, J. R.; Embley, R. W.; Stern, R. J.

2004-12-01

138

Alterations in leukocyte oxidative metabolism in cigarette smokers.  

PubMed

The polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of lung disease associated with cigarette smoking. To investigate its potential for oxidant-mediated lung injury in cigarette smokers, we studied PMN oxidative metabolism in asymptomatic cigarette smokers and nonsmoking control subjects. We found a marked increase in oxidant release in a group of cigarette smokers. After stimulation by phorbol myristate acetate, release of superoxide anion (O-2) by PMN in smokers with white blood counts (WBC) greater than 9,000 was 50% greater than in nonsmokers with similar WBC or smokers and nonsmokers with WBC less than 9,000. Abstinence from smoking did not affect the alterations in O-2 release nor did a serum factor appear responsible. The changes appeared to be part of a generalized increase in oxidative metabolism, as there was greater oxidation of glucose (1-14C) and chemiluminescence by PMN from smokers with WBC greater than 9,000. A further estimate of lung oxidant load was determined by evaluating the marginated pool of PMN. Smokers with WBC greater than 9,000 showed a 70% increase in WBC after epinephrine, and PMN oxidative metabolism remained increased in this group. This study demonstrates that cigarette smokers with elevated WBC have increased release of potentially toxic oxygen metabolites. These cigarette smokers also demonstrated increased oxidant release from the marginated PMN pool. Because leukocyte-generated oxygen metabolites are highly reactive and can cause tissue injury, these findings may have important implications in the pathogenesis of smoking-related lung disease. PMID:6295222

Ludwig, P W; Hoidal, J R

1982-12-01

139

Predictors, Indicators, and Validated Measures of Dependence in Menthol Smokers  

PubMed Central

This article presents a comprehensive review of the menthol cigarette dependence-related literature and results from an original analysis of the Total Exposure Study (TES), which included 1,100 menthol and 2,400 nonmenthol adult smokers. The substantial scientific evidence available related to age of first cigarette, age of regular use, single-item dependence indicators (smoking frequency, cigarettes per day, time to first cigarette, night waking to smoke), smoking duration, numerous validated and widely accepted measures of nicotine/cigarette dependence, and our analysis of the TES do not support that menthol smokers are more dependent than nonmenthol smokers or that menthol increases dependence. PMID:24738914

Muhammad-Kah, Raheema; Rimmer, Lonnie; Liang, Qiwei

2014-01-01

140

Expression of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in central airways of smokers and non-smokers  

PubMed Central

Background: Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a transmembrane G protein coupled receptor preferentially activated by trypsin and tryptase. The protease activated receptors play an important role in most components of injury responses including cell proliferation, migration, matrix remodelling, and inflammation. Cigarette smoking causes an inflammatory process in the central airways, peripheral airways, lung parenchyma, and adventitia of pulmonary arteries. Methods: To quantify the expression of PAR-2 in the central airways of smokers and non-smokers, surgical specimens obtained from 30 subjects undergoing lung resection for localised pulmonary lesions (24 with a history of cigarette smoking and six non-smoking control subjects) were examined. Central airways were immunostained with an antiserum specific for PAR-2 and PAR-2 expression was quantified using light microscopy and image analysis. Results: PAR-2 expression was found in bronchial smooth muscle, epithelium, glands, and in the endothelium and smooth muscle of bronchial vessels. PAR-2 expression was similar in the central airways of smokers and non-smokers. When smokers were divided according to the presence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow limitation, PAR-2 expression was increased in smooth muscle (median 3.8 (interquartile range 2.9–5.8) and 1.4 (1.07–3.4) respectively); glands (33.3 (18.2–43.8) and 16.2 (11.5–22.2), respectively); and bronchial vessels (54.2 (48.7–56.8) and 40.0 (36–40.4), respectively) of smokers with symptoms of chronic bronchitis with normal lung function compared with smokers with chronic airflow limitation (COPD), but the increase was statistically significant (p<0.005) only for bronchial vessels. Conclusions: PAR-2 is present in bronchial smooth muscle, glands, and bronchial vessels of both smokers and non-smokers. An increased expression of PAR-2 was found in bronchial vessels of patients with bronchitis compared with those with COPD. PMID:11828045

Miotto, D; Hollenberg, M; Bunnett, N; Papi, A; Braccioni, F; Boschetto, P; Rea, F; Zuin, A; Geppetti, P; Saetta, M; Maestrelli, P; Fabbri, L; Mapp, C

2002-01-01

141

Page 1 of 1 Statement of  

E-print Network

surface in a fashion analogous to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, often called "black-smokers" for their appearance of venting black smoke underwater (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrothermal_vent). Hydrothermal to the size of the container) and emphasize its similarity to naturally occurring hydrothermal vents

Hickey, Barbara

142

Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the carbohydrate structures as they have been further reacted to phenolic Aldol condensation products. The bio-oil

Elliott, Douglas C.

2010-12-10

143

Correlation between nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual (water pipe) smokers among Arab Americans  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence suggests that dual cigarette and water pipe use is growing among minority groups, particularly among Arab Americans. Differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to smoking cessation among such dual smokers have not been previously examined in this population. We examined potential differences that might exist between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers (cigarette and water pipe) pertaining to nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation among Arab Americans. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of self-identified Arab immigrant smokers (n=131) living in the Richmond, VA metropolitan area. Data were collected using four questionnaires: Demographic and Cultural Information questionnaire, Tobacco Use questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) questionnaire, and Barriers to Cessation questionnaire. We examined differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers of cigarettes and water pipe. Furthermore, we explored the correlations of these measures with select variables. Results There was a significant difference in the FTND scores between the exclusive cigarette smokers (mean M=2.55, standard deviation [SD] =2.10) and dual smokers (M=3.71, SD =2.42); t(129) = (2.51), P=0.0066. There was also a significant difference in the Barriers to Cessation scores between exclusive cigarette smokers (M=38.47, SD =13.07) and dual smokers (M=45.21, SD =9.27); t(129) = (2.56), P=0.0058. Furthermore, there was a highly significant correlation among FTND scores, Barriers to Cessation scores, and past quit attempts among dual smokers. Conclusion Water pipe tobacco smoking seems to be both adding to the dependence potential of cigarette smoking and enhancing barriers to cessation in our study sample. However, the high correlation between quit attempts, FTND, and barriers to cessation needs further investigation to ascertain the possible reasons behind it. This preliminary study utilized a cross-sectional survey among participants of a rather small convenience sample, especially in the dual smokers group. Thus, there is a need to examine these differences via a longitudinal design in a larger sample. PMID:25674035

El-Shahawy, Omar; Haddad, Linda

2015-01-01

144

Cigarette Access Behaviours among Underage Canadian Youth Smokers.  

E-print Network

??Objective: The main objective was to examine characteristics associated with cigarette access behaviours among underage current youth smokers. Methods: This cross-sectional study used self-reported data… (more)

Vu, Mary

2011-01-01

145

Acceptance of mandatory packaging of cigarettes grows among smokers.  

PubMed

Support for plain packaging of cigarettes - with branding replaced by explicit warnings about the dangers of smoking - has increased among smokers in Australia since the government implemented a mandatory policy in 2012. PMID:25492765

2014-12-10

146

Treating Lung Cancer in Nonsmokers and Former Light Smokers  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, previously untreated non-small cell lung cancer patients who never smoked or are former light smokers will be treated with either erlotinib alone or erlotinib in combination with the drugs carboplatin and paclitaxel.

147

Airway inflammation in young marijuana and tobacco smokers  

E-print Network

Forty healthy young subjects, ages 20 to 49 yr, underwent videobronchoscopy, mucosal biopsy, and bronchial lavage to evaluate the airway inflammation produced by habitual smoking of marijuana and/or tobacco. Videotapes were graded in a blinded manner for central airway erythema, edema, and airway secretions using a modified visual bronchitis index. The bronchitis index scores were significantly higher in marijuana smokers (MS), tobacco smokers (TS), and in combined marijuana/tobacco smokers (MTS), than in nonsmokers (NS). As a pathologic correlate, mucosal biopsies were evaluated for the presence of vascular hyperplasia, submucosal edema, inflammatory cell infiltrates, and goblet cell hyperplasia. Biopsies were positive for two of these criteria in 97 % of all smokers and for three criteria in 72%. By contrast, none of the biopsies from NS exhibited greater than one positive finding. Finally, as a measure of distal airway inflammation, neutrophil counts and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentrations were determined in bronchial lavage fluid. The percentage of neutrophils correlated

Michael D. Roth; Ashim Arora; Sanford H. Barsky; Eric C. Kleerup; Michael Simmons; Donald P. Tashkin

1998-01-01

148

Effect of nicotine on negative affect among more impulsive smokers.  

PubMed

In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that nicotine would provide greater relief from negative affect for more impulsive smokers than for less impulsive smokers. Euthymic adult smokers (N=70) participated in 2 laboratory sessions, during which they underwent a negative mood induction (music + autobiographical memory), then smoked either a nicotinized or de-nicotinized cigarette. Mixed-effects regression yielded a significant Impulsivity x Condition (nicotinized vs. de-nicotinized) x Time interaction. Simple effects analyses showed that heightened impulsivity predicted greater negative affect relief after smoking a nicotinized cigarette but not after smoking a de-nicotinized cigarette. These data suggest that nicotine may be a disproportionately powerful negative reinforcer for highly impulsive smokers, promoting higher levels of nicotine dependence and inhibiting smoking cessation. PMID:16893271

Doran, Neal; McChargue, Dennis; Spring, Bonnie; VanderVeen, Joe; Cook, Jessica Werth; Richmond, Malia

2006-08-01

149

Bronchial diverticula in smokers on thin-section CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to determine the prevalence of bronchial diverticula in smokers on thin-section CT and the relationship\\u000a to clinical and other morphological features on CT. Thin-section CT images of 503 cigarette smokers were assessed for the\\u000a profusion and location of diverticula in the major airways. The extent of the bronchial diverticula was recorded as follows:\\u000a grade 0, none; grade

Nicola Sverzellati; Anna Ingegnoli; Elisa Calabrò; Giorgia Randi; Carlo La Vecchia; Alfonso Marchianò; Jan-Martin Kuhnigk; David M. Hansell; Maurizio Zompatori; Ugo Pastorino

2010-01-01

150

Nicotine intake and smoking topography in smokers with bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Objectives Cigarette smoking behavior in bipolar disorder (BPD), including the effects of mood-stabilizing medications, has not been well characterized. Methods We compared serum nicotine, nicotine metabolite levels, and smoking topography in 75 smokers with BPD to 86 control smokers (CON). For some comparisons, an additional control group of 75 smokers with schizophrenia (SCZ) were included. Results There were no differences between the BPD and CON groups in baseline smoking characteristics or serum nicotine or cotinine levels. Fifty-one smokers with BPD (68.9%) were taking one of the following mood stabilizers: valproic acid, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, lithium, or topiramate. The 3-hydroxycotinine-to-cotinine ratio, a marker of cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) metabolic activity, was significantly higher in BPD versus CON and versus SCZ (0.68 versus 0.49 versus 0.54; p = 0.002). The difference between groups, however, was no longer significant when the analysis was repeated with those taking hepatic enzyme-inducing drugs (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate) included as a covariate. The time between puffs, or interpuff interval (IPI), was shorter in BPD versus CON by an average of 3.0 sec (p < 0.05), although this was no longer significant when we removed smokers from the analysis of those taking hepatic enzyme inducers. Conclusions Smokers with BPD are not different from CON on most measures of nicotine intake and smoking topography. We found an increased rate of nicotine metabolism in smokers taking mood stabilizers that are hepatic enzyme inducers, including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate. Smokers with rapid nicotine metabolism might be expected to smoke more intensely to compensate for the more rapid disappearance of nicotine from the blood and brain, and may have more difficulty in quitting smoking, although this requires further study. PMID:22938167

Williams, Jill M; Gandhi, Kunal K; Lu, Shou-En; Steinberg, Marc L; Benowitz, Neal L

2013-01-01

151

Health-Related Behavior and Beliefs of Pregnant Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the association of smoking with other health-compromising behavior and beliefs during pregnancy, a cross-sectional survey of 1,203 women in the United Kingdom assessed smoking status, stage of change, fetal health locus of control, alcohol consumption, folic acid intake, and use of vitamin and iron supplements. Twenty percent were current smokers, and 33% were alcohol users. Pregnant smokers (especially

Cheryl Haslam; Wendy Lawrence

2004-01-01

152

Altered affective response in marijuana smokers: an FMRI study.  

PubMed

More than 94 million Americans have tried marijuana, and it remains the most widely used illicit drug in the nation. Investigations of the cognitive effects of marijuana report alterations in brain function during tasks requiring executive control, including inhibition and decision-making. Endogenous cannabinoids regulate a variety of emotional responses, including anxiety, mood control, and aggression; nevertheless, little is known about smokers' responses to affective stimuli. The anterior cingulate and amygdala play key roles in the inhibition of impulsive behavior and affective regulation, and studies using PET and fMRI have demonstrated changes within these regions in marijuana smokers. Given alterations in mood and perception often observed in smokers, we hypothesized altered fMRI patterns of response in 15 chronic heavy marijuana smokers relative to 15 non-marijuana smoking control subjects during the viewing of masked happy and fearful faces. Despite no between-group differences on clinical or demographic measures, smokers demonstrated a relative decrease in both anterior cingulate and amygdalar activity during masked affective stimuli compared to controls, who showed relative increases in activation within these regions during the viewing of masked faces. Findings indicate that chronic heavy marijuana smokers demonstrate altered activation of frontal and limbic systems while viewing masked faces, consistent with autoradiographic studies reporting high CB-1 receptor density in these regions. These data suggest differences in affective processing in chronic smokers, even when stimuli are presented below the level of conscious processing, and underscore the likelihood that marijuana smokers process emotional information differently from those who do not smoke, which may result in negative consequences. PMID:19656642

Gruber, Staci A; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

2009-11-01

153

Smokers’ Expectancies for Abstinence: Preliminary Results from Focus Groups  

PubMed Central

Smokers’ expectancies regarding the effects of cigarette use are powerful predictors of smoking motivation and behavior. However, studies have not investigated the consequences that smokers expect when they attempt to quit smoking: abstinence-related expectancies. The primary goal of this qualitative study was to gain initial insight into smokers’ expectancies for abstinence. Eight focus groups were conducted with 30 smokers diverse with respect to age, gender, and ethnoracial background. Content analyses indicated that smokers anticipate a variety of outcomes from abstinence. The most frequently reported expectancies included pharmacologic withdrawal symptoms, behavioral withdrawal symptoms, decreased monetary expense, and immediate improvement of certain aspects of physical functioning and health. Additional expectancies concerned weight gain, improved attractiveness, enhanced social functioning/self-esteem, long-term health outcomes, and loss of relationships. Finally, a number of relatively unheralded expectancies were revealed. These involved NRT effectiveness, alcohol and other drug use, vigilance to cue reactivity, cessation-related social support, aversion to smoking, and “political process” implications. This study provides a preliminary step in understanding smokers’ expectancies for abstinence from cigarettes. PMID:19586157

Hendricks, Peter S.; Wood, Sabrina B.; Hall, Sharon M.

2010-01-01

154

Nicotine vaccines: Will smokers take a shot at quitting?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A vaccine against nicotine may soon be available to smokers who want to quit. The vaccine stimulates the production of antibodies that bind to nicotine, thereby impeding nicotine from crossing the blood-brain barrier and exerting psychoactive effects. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate intentions to try a nicotine vaccine if one were to become available among a nationally representative sample of smokers. The secondary purpose was to assess whether information about genetic susceptibility to nicotine addiction had an effect on smokers’ interest in receiving the vaccine. Methods: Four hundred and twenty-seven adults were randomized to read one of two versions of a short description about the vaccine. One version framed addiction as genetically influenced, while the other framed it as environmentally influenced. Smokers were then asked about their intentions to use a nicotine vaccine if one were to become available in the future. Results: Across both groups, 53% indicated that they would be likely or very likely to try the vaccine. Using multivariate linear regression, the strongest predictors of vaccination intention were having a favorable attitude toward a nicotine vaccine (? = .41) and having a favorable attitude toward vaccination in general (? = .22). There were no significant effects of the framing conditions on intention to receive the vaccine. Discussion: Intentions to try a nicotine vaccine as a cessation method are relatively high among smokers. If the vaccine becomes available, specific groups of smokers may be more interested than others; education and recruitment efforts could be targeted appropriately. PMID:20185516

Lerman, Caryn; Cappella, Joseph N.

2010-01-01

155

The visibility of 350 degrees C black-body radiation by the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata and man.  

PubMed

The eye of the 'eyeless' shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is unusual in having no image-forming optics and a high concentration of rhodopsin. The shrimps swarm around 350 degrees C hydrothermal 'black smoker' vents in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. There is no other known source of visible light in the shrimp's environment. The spectral sensitivity of rhodopsin is well matched to typical spectra of bioluminescence of organisms found at lesser depths, but other animals detect such emissions without the unusual features of the R. exoculata eye. These two features are most easily understood as an adaptation for the detection of extremely faint sources of light. Physical calculations presented here indicate that the shrimp could see the black-body radiation of the 350 degrees C vents, even though these sources are practically invisible to the human eye. This would be useful to the shrimp as it feeds on sulphide-loving bacteria very near to the vents but must avoid the lethal 350 degrees C vents themselves. PMID:15726721

Pelli, D G; Chamberlin, S C

1989-02-01

156

Thermococcus Thioreducens sp. nov., A Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel hyperthermophilic organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P(sup T), was isolated from 'black smoker' chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2 N; 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P(sup T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed to occur within the pH range 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), NaCl concentration range 1-5 % (w/v) (optimum 3 %), and temperature range 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). Novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent from elemental sulfur as electron acceptor, but it cannot reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, iron (III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products that can be utilized as substrates during sulfur-reduction are: peptone, bactotryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G+C content of DNA is 57.1 mol% . Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is most closely related to Thermococcus celer and 'T. barossii', but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-394(sup T) = DSM 1498(sup T)).

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Bej, Asim K.; Garriott, Owen

2003-01-01

157

Thermococcus sulfurophilus sp. nov., a New Hyperthermophilic, Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon Isolated from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P, was isolated from "black smoker" chimney material at the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site in the Atlantic Ocean (36.2 N; 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P have irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth occurs within pH range of 5.5-8.2 (optimal at pH 7.0-7.2), salinity range of 1-5% NaCl (optimal concentration 3% NaCl wt/vol), and temperature range of +55 C to +94 C (optimal growth at +83 C to +85 C). Strain OGL-20P is resistant to freezing (at -20 C). New isolate is strictly anaerobic with sulfur-type of respiration. A limited number of compounds are utilized as electron donors, including peptone, becto-tryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract but does not grow with separate amino acids. Sulfur and Iron can be used as electron acceptors; but not sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate or nitrate. Strain OGL-20P is resistant to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin. Growth of str. OGL20P is inhibited by tetracyclin but not by Na2MoO4. The G+C content of DNA is 57.2 mol%. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis allows one to classify strain OGL-20P as a representative of a now species of Thermococcus genus. The name Thermococcus sulfurophilus op. nov., was suggested for the new isolate, type strain OGL-20P (sup T) (= ATCC BAA_394 (sup T) = DSM...(supT)).

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Whitman, William B.; Marsic, Damien; Garriott, Owen; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

158

Distribution, structure and temporal variability of hydrothermal outflow at a slow-spreading hydrothermal field from seafloor image mosaics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lucky Strike hydrothermal site, located South of the Azores along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, is one of the largest and best-known active hydrothermal fields along the ridge system. This site within the MoMAR area is also the target for the installation in 2010 of a pilot deep-sea observatory with direct telemetry to land, to be part of the European Seafloor Observatory Network (ESONET). The Lucky Strike hydrothermal site has seen extensive high-resolution, near-bottom geophysical surveys in 1996 (Lustre'96), 2006 (Momareto06), 2008 (MOMAR08) and 2009 (Bathyluck09). Vertically acquired black-and-white electronic still camera images have been projected and georeferenced to obtain 3 image mosaics covering the zone of active venting, extending ~ 700x800 m2, and with full image resolution (~10 mm pixels). These data allow us to study how hydrothermal outflow is structured, including the relationships between the zones of active high-temperature venting, areas of diffuse outflow, and the geological structure (nature of the substrate, faults and fissures, sediments, etc.). Hydrothermal outflow is systematically associated with bacterial mats that are easily identified in the imagery, allowing us to study temporal variability at two different scales. Over the 13-year period we can potentially track changes in both the geometry and intensity of hydrothermal activity throughout the system; our preliminary study of the Eiffel Tower, White Castle and Mt Segur indicate that activity has been sustained in recent times, with small changes in the detailed geometry of the diffuse outflow and its intensity. At longer times scales (hundreds to 1000 years?) imagery also shows evidence of areas of venting that are no longer active, often associated with the active structures. In combination with the high-resolution bathymetry, the imagery data thus allow us to characterize the shallow structure of hydrothermal outflow at depth, the structural and volcanic control, and ultimately quantify the heat flux associates with this hydrothermal outflow. Image mosaics are also key for the installation of instrumentation required by temporal studies, and for the infrastructure of the ESONET pilot seafloor observatory. This type of survey techniques and studies can also be extended to other areas of interest, such as hydrothermal fields, cold seeps, etc.

Barreyre, Thibaut; Escartin, Javier; Cannat, Mathilde; Garcia, Rafael; Science Party, Momar'08; Science Party, Bathyluck'09

2010-05-01

159

A Retrievable Mineral Microcosm for Examining Microbial Colonization and Mineral Precipitation at Seafloor Hydrothermal Vents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although seafloor hydrothermal vent environments are known to support thriving ecosystems, the microscale physical and chemical environment suitable for microbial colonization and the identity of pioneering organisms is unknown. Because of the fragility of young chimneys and their ephemeral nature, novel methods for sample retrieval and analysis are required. The mineral microcosm consists of four titanium mesh chambers containing crushed minerals mounted on a titanium base that allows for fluid flow through the chambers. The chambers can be filled with different minerals or mineral mixtures (or no minerals) to supply different substrates for microbial colonization and different local microenvironments as minerals react with the surrounding fluids. The device sets on top of an active hydrothermal vent for a period of days to weeks to allow colonization and mineral reaction. The mineral microcosm was deployed during the Atlantis/Alvin Extreme 2001 Cruise (Oct.- Nov.,2001) to 9° 50'N on the East Pacific Rise a total of three times, for ~ 24, ~ 96, and ~ 48 hours each. It was deployed in two different environments, twice in lower temperature (<300°C), diffuse-flow environments and once (for ~96 hours) in a higher temperature black smoker environment (>350°C).Seed minerals included sulfides, sulfates, magnetite, apatite, and quartz, both individually and in mixtures. In the first 24-hour deployment, dissolution of anhydrite but not sulfide minerals within the chambers indicated high temperatures in chamber interiors and rapid reaction rates. Temperatures measured on chamber exteriors before retrieval ranged from 4° -98°C. The 96-hour deployment on a hot vent (fluid ~370°C before deployment) resulted in extensive mineral precipitation and chimney growth inside the mineral chambers, on the outer surfaces of the chambers, and on the platform as a whole, creating micro-chimneys several centimeters tall. The young chimneys were mainly composed of pyrite with lesser amounts of chalcopyrite and sphalerite and with thin veneers of anhydrite on exterior surfaces in contact with seawater. Bulk trace element analyses of the newly formed chimneys show concentrations of Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, and Pb (up to ~200 ppm) but a lack of As, Sn, U, and W. On the last deployment in a polychaete-rich, diffuse-flow area (vent temperature ~300°C), the microcosm was covered with biofilm and polychaete tubes had formed on the surface during the ~48 hours on the vent. Temperatures at chamber exteriors had decreased to 16- 20°C, suggesting that the vent was not vigorous enough to maintain a large flow through the chambers. Although no evidence for microbial colonization was obtained in these initial deployments, the device can simulate the mineralogy and temperature gradients of a natural hydrothermal chimney. Young chimney samples of known age (~96 hours) obtained from the second deployment were analyzed by synchrotron X-ray computed tomography for porosity and mineralogy and compared with existing chimneys at these sites (see companion abstract by Ashbridge, et al.).

Dunn, E. E.; Holloway, J. R.; Cary, S.; Voglesonger, K. M.; Ashbridge, D. A.; O'Day, P. A.

2002-12-01

160

Hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers,  

SciTech Connect

This chapter discusses the initial entry of hydrothermal seawater into deep levels of the oceanic crust, the effectiveness of hydrothermal circulation in cooling the crust, the geometry of hydrothermal circulation, the relationship between the hydrothermal circulation and the magma chamber, the reaction of the oceanic crust with the seawater, and the identification of the hydrothermal fluid which alters a rock sample. Topics considered include the crack front, observation relevant to the crack front, the limitations of the crack front hypothesis, the observed pattern of hydrothermal alteration, the nature of the hydrothermal fluid, the physics of large scale convection, and convection through crack zones. Knowledge of hydrothermal circulation at the ridge axis is based on sampling of the hydrothermal fluid, indirect geophysical measurements of the oceanic crust, and studies of rocks which are believed to have undergone hydrothermal alteration at the ridge axis. Includes 2 drawings.

Sleep, N.H.

1983-01-01

161

Acetonitrile and benzene in the breath of smokers and non-smokers investigated by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzene and acetonitrile are both present in greater concentrations in the breath of smokers than in non-smokers. The concentrations of these neutrals can be readily detected in the gas phase by their proton transfer reactions with H3O+. The concentration of benzene in the breath of smokers rapidly decreases with the time since the last cigarette was smoked, declining to values

A. Jordan; A. Hansel; R. Holzinger; W. Lindinger

1995-01-01

162

nanotubes via hydrothermal method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red long-lasting phosphor Y2O2S:Eu3+, Zn2+, Ti4+ nanotubes were prepared by hydrothermal method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence and thermoluminescence spectra (TL) were used to characterize the long-lasting phosphor. XRD investigation revealed that the product synthesised under 750 °C for 6 h was a pure phase of Y2O2S. SEM observation showed that the sulfuretted phosphor inherited the tube-like shape from the precursor. Under 325 nm UV excitation, the result indicated the strongest red-emission lines at 627 nm, corresponded to the transition from 5D0 to 7F2 level of Eu3+ ion. Both the afterglow decay curves and TL curves revealed that the phosphor had efficient luminescent and excellent long-lasting properties.

Huang, Ping; Liu, Dan; Cui, Cai E.; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Guowei

2014-08-01

163

Simulating smokers' acceptance of modifications in a cessation program.  

PubMed Central

Recent research has underscored the importance of assessing barriers to smokers' acceptance of cessation programs. This paper illustrates the use of computer simulations to gauge smokers' response to program modifications which may produce barriers to participation. It also highlights methodological issues encountered in conducting this work. Computer simulations were based on conjoint analysis, a consumer research method which enables measurement of smokers' relative preference for various modifications of cessation programs. Results from two studies are presented in this paper. The primary study used a randomly selected sample of 218 adult smokers who participated in a computer-assisted phone interview. Initially, the study assessed smokers' relative utility rating of 30 features of cessation programs. Utility data were used in computer-simulated comparisons of a low-cost, self-help oriented program under development and five other existing programs. A baseline version of the program under development and two modifications (for example, use of a support group with a higher level of cost) were simulated. Both the baseline version and modifications received a favorable response vis-à-vis comparison programs. Modifications requiring higher program costs were, however, associated with moderately reduced levels of favorable consumer response. The second study used a sample of 70 smokers who responded to an expanded set of smoking cessation program features focusing on program packaging. This secondary study incorporate in-person, computer-assisted interviews at a shopping mall, with smokers viewing an artist's mock-up of various program options on display. A similar pattern of responses to simulated program modifications emerged, with monetary cost apparently playing a key role. The significance of conjoint-based computer simulation as a tool in program development or dissemination, salient methodological issues, and implications for further research are discussed. PMID:1738813

Spoth, R

1992-01-01

164

Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%). Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy. PMID:25429684

Kolar, Stephanie K.; Rogers, Brooke G.; Webb Hooper, Monica

2014-01-01

165

Gene expression subtraction of non-cancerous lung from smokers and non-smokers with adenocarcinoma, as a predictor for smokers developing lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in developed countries. Adenocarcinoma is becoming the most common form of lung cancer. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for lung cancer. Long-term cigarettes smoking may be characterized by genetic alteration and diffuse injury of the airways surface, named field cancerization, while cancer in non-smokers is usually clonally derived.

David Stav; Ilan Bar; Judith Sandbank

2008-01-01

166

Natural killer cell activity in cigarette smokers and asbestos workers  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure on cellular immunity, the authors tested a group of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers for natural killer (NK) activity in the peripheral blood. The mean NK activity in cigarette smokers was lower than in normal subjects (13.7 +/- 1.6 versus 29.0 +/- 3%; p less than 0.05). As a group, the mean NK activity for the asbestos-exposed group was also reduced compared with that of the nonsmoking control group (22.6 +/- 3.2%; p less than 0.05). When divided according to the smoking status, the asbestos workers who were nonsmokers or ex-smokers showed similar decreases in NK activity compared with normal subjects (19.5 +/- 6.2 and 21.2 +/- 4.5%, respectively; p less than 0.05). A subgroup of asbestos-exposed subjects who currently smoked showed no decrease in NK activity. The data show that NK activity is reduced in the peripheral blood of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers. The relatively normal NK activity found in asbestos workers who also smoked is unexplained. Impairment of NK activity is a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of infection and cancer in smokers and neoplasia in asbestos workers.

Ginns, L.C.; Ryu, J.H.; Rogol, P.R.; Sprince, N.L.; Oliver, L.C.; Larsson, C.J.

1985-06-01

167

Proactive recruitment of health plan smokers into telephone counseling.  

PubMed

We tested whether a 3-month beneficial effect of telephone counseling as an adjunct to the use of medications for smoking cessation was maintained through 12 months. Health plan members filling a prescription for cessation medications were randomized either to a no-contact control group or to proactive recruitment into telephone counseling. An increased point-prevalence quit rate at 3 months (33.1% vs. 27.4%, p<.05) among smokers randomized to proactive recruitment for telephone counseling was not maintained. Although at 12 months smokers in the proactive recruitment arm were more likely to report a 24-hr quit attempt, compared with control group smokers (86.7% vs. 80.8%, p = .027), we found no differences between the groups in repeated (3-month and 12-month) 7-day point-prevalence quit rates. In an analysis of predictors of quitting, age, marital status, making a lifestyle change, and the presence of household smokers were associated with repeated 3-month and 12-month point-prevalence abstinence. Offering telephone counseling to insured smokers who have filled prescriptions for cessation medications did not increase long-term quit rates. Although other variations of this approach might be tested, we suspect that it might be more useful to test innovative ways to influence the factors we identified as being most strongly predictive of lack of successful quitting. PMID:17454714

Boyle, Raymond G; Solberg, Leif I; Asche, Stephen E; Maciosek, Michael V; Boucher, Jackie L; Pronk, Nicolaas P

2007-05-01

168

Association of serum cotinine levels and hypertension in never smokers.  

PubMed

Hypertension is a major public health problem. Identifying novel risk factors for hypertension, including widely prevalent environmental exposures, is therefore important. Active smoking is a well-known risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine, and high blood pressure among never smokers. We examined 2889 never smokers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008. Our exposure of interest was secondhand smoke exposure among never smokers, estimated by serum cotinine level, and our main outcome was hypertension (n=1004). We found that in never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with hypertension. In comparison with those with serum cotinine levels ? 0.025 ng/mL, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension among those with serum cotinine levels ? 0.218 ng/mL was 1.44 (1.01-2.04). In addition, higher serum cotinine was positively associated with mean change in systolic blood pressure (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.24 [0.86-5.63]; P=0.0061). However, no association was present with diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, in never smokers, higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with systolic blood pressure and hypertension independent of age, sex, ethnicity, education, alcohol drinking, body mass index, glycohemoglobin, total cholesterol, and other confounders. PMID:23184382

Alshaarawy, Omayma; Xiao, Jie; Shankar, Anoop

2013-02-01

169

Assessment of tobacco dependence in waterpipe smokers in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Summary Setting Waterpipe smoking is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, little is known about nicotine dependence in tobacco smokers who use waterpipes. Objective To assess evidence of dependence among non-cigarette smoking waterpipe smokers in Egypt. Methods A total of 154 male exclusive current waterpipe smokers were enrolled for the present study. We adapted the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence and the Reasons for Smoking (RFS) scales and related these to smoking behavior. Results The mean age of the subjects was 47 ± 14 years, the mean age at smoking initiation was 22 ± 9 years, and average daily consumption was 4 ± 8 hagars (tobacco units). The time to the first smoke of the day (P < 0.001), smoking even when ill (P = 0.003), time to tobacco craving (P < 0.001), and hating to give up the first smoke of the day (P = 0.033) were each significantly associated with the number of hagars smoked per day. The RFS subscales of addictive smoking, smoking to relieve negative affect, and smoking for stimulation were also associated with these variables. Conclusion The overall findings suggest that waterpipe smokers exhibit many of the same features of nicotine dependency attributed to cigarette smokers. PMID:22236859

Auf, R. A.; Radwan, G. N.; Loffredo, C. A.; El Setouhy, M.; Israel, E.; Mohamed, M. K.

2013-01-01

170

Adult Smokers' Responses to “Corrective Statements” Regarding Tobacco Industry Deception  

PubMed Central

Background To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate “corrective statements” (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. Purpose To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Methods Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280–281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Results Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. Conclusions This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco–related health disparities. PMID:24746372

Kollath-Cattano, Christy L.; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Thrasher, James F.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J.; Krugman, Dean M.; Berg, Carla J.; Hardin, James W.

2014-01-01

171

Genome-wide unmasking of epigenetically silenced genes in lung adenocarcinoma from smokers and never smokers.  

PubMed

Lung cancer in never smokers (NS) shows striking demographic, clinicopathological and molecular distinctions from the disease in smokers (S). Studies on selected genetic and epigenetic alterations in lung cancer identified that the frequency and profile of some abnormalities significantly differ by smoking status. This study compared the transcriptome of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from S (n = 3) and NS (n = 3) each treated with vehicle (control), histone deacetylation inhibitor (trichostatin A) or DNA methylation inhibitor (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine). Among 122 genes reexpressed following 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine but not trichostatin A treatment in two or more cell lines (including 32 genes in S-only and 12 NS-only), methylation was validated for 80% (98/122 genes). After methylation analysis of 20 normal tissue samples and 14 additional non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (total 20), 39 genes frequently methylated in normal (>20%, 4/20) and 21 genes rarely methylated in non-small cell lung cancer (?10%, 2/20) were excluded. The prevalence for methylation of the remaining 38 genes in lung adenocarcinomas from S (n = 97) and NS (n = 75) ranged from 8-89% and significantly differs between S and NS for CPEB1, CST6, EMILIN2, LAYN and MARVELD3 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, methylation of EMILIN2, ROBO3 and IGDCC4 was more prevalent in advanced (Stage II-IV, n = 61) than early (Stage I, n = 110) tumors. Knockdown of MARVELD3, one of the novel epigenetically silenced genes, by small interfering RNA significantly reduced anchorage-independent growth of lung cancer cells (P < 0.001). Collectively, this study has identified multiple, novel, epigenetically silenced genes in lung cancer and provides invaluable resources for the development of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. PMID:24398667

Tessema, Mathewos; Yingling, Christin M; Liu, Yushi; Tellez, Carmen S; Van Neste, Leander; Baylin, Stephen S; Belinsky, Steven A

2014-06-01

172

Middle Archean island arc volcano-hydrothermal sequence: 3.2-Ga Dixon Island Formation, coastal Pilbara terrane, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3.2-Ga Dixon Island Formation in the Cleaverville Group of the coastal Pilbara terrane, Australia, is one of the most complete and best-preserved examples of middle Archean oceanic stratigraphy. Field observations and geochemical evidence suggest that this formation contains a low-temperature hydrothermal-vent system with a biogenic microbial colony from the Archean ocean. The Dixon Island Formation is approximately 350 m thick and consists of the Rhyolite Tuff, Black Chert and Varicolored Chert members, in ascending order. The Rhyolite Tuff Member contains many vein swarms, such as fine quartz vein and two black-chert veins with in highly altered rhyolite tuff layers. This vein rich and highly altered vein zones are identified as an underground bypass zone for circulating hydrothermal fluid. The Black Chert Member, which is 10 - 15 m thick, is composed of massive black chert, laminated black chert, dark greenish siliceous shale, stromatolite-like biomat bed and tuffaceous laminated chert. The absence of detrital sediment of continental origin and the many vein injections imply that this sedimentary facies represents a pelagic hydrothermal environment at about 500 - 2000 m in paleodepth, and may have been on the slope of an immature island arc. More then 500 samples of detail chemical anarysis from black chert veins and black chert bed suggest that the total organic carbon (TOC) value of massive black chert in the lower part of the Black Chert Member is higher (TOC=0.15-0.45%) than that of the overlying laminated chert section (TOC=0.02-0.15%) and the black chert vein (TOC=0.1-0.13). The carbon isotope (delta13C) values of this lithology (-33 - -27 per mil) are also lighter than for the black-chert veins (-29--26 per mill) and the laminated black chert in the upper part of the Black Chert Member and the Vari-colored Chert Member (-27 - -13 per mil). Especially, -40 per mill carbon isotope identified near the biomat beds. These evidences suggest that the carbonaceous grains bearing massive black chert in the lower part of the Black Chert Member is identified as directory from the black chert vein. On the other hand, biogenic materials, biomat bed and very low carbon isotope suggest the biogenic activity formed above a low-temperature hydrothermal vent. The microbial colony may have been rapidly fossilized by silicification related to hydrothermal activity. Laminated black chert in the upper part of the Black Chert and the Varicolored Chert members may have formed by cyanobacterial sedimentation from the ocean surface.

Kiyokawa, S.; Katagami, A.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Kitajima, F.

2005-12-01

173

A study of carboxyhaemoglobin levels of cigarette and sheesha smokers in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed Central

A single carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) estimation of late evening blood sample among non-smokers, cigarette smokers, and sheesha smokers was evaluated among Saudis. The COHb level in smokers of 15 to 40 cigarettes a day ranged between 0.7 and 10.3 with a mean value of 6.1 +/- 2.58 COHb. Values among sheesha smokers ranged between 6.5 and 13.9 with a mean value of 8.8 +/- 1.83, significantly higher than those of cigarette smokers (P less than 0.001) for a given degree of exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:7091464

Zahran, F; Yousef, A A; Baig, M H

1982-01-01

174

Comparison of Barriers to Cessation among Arab American Smokers of Cigarettes and Waterpipe  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional study examined the differences in barriers to cessation and reasons for quitting smoking among dual smokers of cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco, exclusive cigarette smokers and exclusive waterpipe smokers. Participants were Arab American adults residing in Richmond, Virginia, who were recruited from Middle Eastern grocery stores, restaurants/lounges and faith and charity organizations. The study yielded several key findings: (1) Exclusive cigarette and waterpipe smokers had similar mean barriers to quitting and were more concerned about their health than dual smokers. (F(2, 150) = 5.594, p = 0.0045). This implies that barriers to smoking and health concerns could be a function of the individual who smokes rather than the modality of smoking itself. (2) Exclusive cigarette or waterpipe smokers and dual smokers may have different reasons for quitting, since they have different reasons for smoking. The proportion of smokers who endorsed smoking as a messy habit as the reason among exclusive cigarette smokers was 0.37, whereas the proportion among exclusive waterpipe smokers was 0.04 and among dual smokers 0.39. The difference in proportions is significant, ?2 (df = 2, N = 154) = 13.17, p = 0.0014. In summary, this study supports the need to further investigate dual cigarette and waterpipe smokers, as the study results indicate greater barriers to smoking cessation in this group. Recognition and understanding of these barriers among dual tobacco users would be important for any future tobacco intervention among waterpipe smokers. PMID:25226410

Haddad, Linda; El-Shahawy, Omar; Ghadban, Roula

2014-01-01

175

Comparison of barriers to cessation among Arab American smokers of cigarettes and waterpipe.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study examined the differences in barriers to cessation and reasons for quitting smoking among dual smokers of cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco, exclusive cigarette smokers and exclusive waterpipe smokers. Participants were Arab American adults residing in Richmond, Virginia, who were recruited from Middle Eastern grocery stores, restaurants/lounges and faith and charity organizations. The study yielded several key findings: (1) Exclusive cigarette and waterpipe smokers had similar mean barriers to quitting and were more concerned about their health than dual smokers. (F(2, 150) = 5.594, p = 0.0045). This implies that barriers to smoking and health concerns could be a function of the individual who smokes rather than the modality of smoking itself. (2) Exclusive cigarette or waterpipe smokers and dual smokers may have different reasons for quitting, since they have different reasons for smoking. The proportion of smokers who endorsed smoking as a messy habit as the reason among exclusive cigarette smokers was 0.37, whereas the proportion among exclusive waterpipe smokers was 0.04 and among dual smokers 0.39. The difference in proportions is significant, ?2 (df = 2, N = 154) = 13.17, p = 0.0014. In summary, this study supports the need to further investigate dual cigarette and waterpipe smokers, as the study results indicate greater barriers to smoking cessation in this group. Recognition and understanding of these barriers among dual tobacco users would be important for any future tobacco intervention among waterpipe smokers. PMID:25226410

Haddad, Linda; El-Shahawy, Omar; Ghadban, Roula

2014-09-01

176

Postprandial Oxidative Stress in Exercise Trained and Sedentary Cigarette Smokers  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smokers experience an exaggerated triglyceride (TAG) and oxidative stress response to high fat feeding. Exercise training may serve to attenuate the rise in these variables, by improving TAG clearance and antioxidant defense. We compared blood TAG, antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress biomarkers in exercise trained (>2 hrs per wk) and untrained smokers matched for age, in response to a high fat test meal. We report here that low volume exercise training can attenuate postprandial lipid peroxidation, but has little impact on blood TAG and other markers of oxidative stress. Higher volumes of exercise may be needed to allow for clinically meaningful adaptations in postprandial lipemia and oxidative stress. PMID:19440401

Bloomer, Richard J.; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H.

2009-01-01

177

Mg/Ca and isotopic high resolution record of deep-sea hydrothermal barnacles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barnacles are crustaceans adapted to a sessile existence and cemented to a substrate by a protein complex. Most of the known species inhabit shallow marine environment, less than 2% of the species are found at depths between 100 and 2500 m. The shell of barnacles has a great adaptive significance, the shell of some barnacle species have been already investigated for microstructure. In this study we investigated the shell microstructure as well as the Mg/Ca and stable isotope distribution of barnacles found at a depth of around 2500m at a black smoker from the Manus Spreading centre, north-east of Papua New Guinea. The shell consists of three substructures: an outer layer with pores and aragonite crystals, a massive interior mass and an inner layer with pores. The shell shows grown lines and the outer layer exhibits longitudinal striation from base to apex. The pores have a medium size of 0.8 microns. The size of the calcitic microcrystals are in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 microns, beside, larger aragonite crystals, with size of c. 10 microns are present. The massive interior mass has a compact structure, no pores or channels could be observed. Oxygen stable isotope data of barnacle shell were performed from the centre to the border of the calcitic shells, along profiles. Within one shell, the isotope values show variations of max. 0.6 ‰. The calculated temperatures from the stable isotope data consistently indicate that the barnacles populate sites with low temperature values, up to a few °C. The calculated temperatures from the isotope data are also in agreement with the reported habitat from the North Fiji and Lau Basins, where temperatures of max. 6°C were measured at sites populated by barnacles. Both calculated and measured temperatures of a few degrees indicate that at the sites where barnacles live, hydrothermal fluid input is present, as ambient temperature is around 1.5°C. Electron-microbeam analyses were done along the interior layer of the shell. The shell consists of a low-Mg calcite. The magnesium content varies between 0.1 and 0.85 wt.%.

Bojar, A.-V.; Bojar, H.-P.; Tufar, W.

2012-04-01

178

Young adult smoking: What factors differentiate ex-smokers, smoking cessation treatment seekers and nontreatment seekers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated demographic and psychosocial correlates of smoking status and predictors of smoking cessation among young adults, ages 18–30years old. Young adults (n=294) completed a self-report survey regarding their health habits and smokers were offered the opportunity to enroll in a smoking cessation program. Substitute reinforcers were greater among ex-smokers compared to nontreatment-seeking smokers, treatment-seeking smokers who did

Janet Audrain-McGovern; Daniel Rodriguez; Leonard H. Epstein; Kelli Rodgers; Jocelyn Cuevas; E. Paul Wileyto

2009-01-01

179

The subgingival microbiome of clinically healthy current and never smokers.  

PubMed

Dysbiotic oral bacterial communities have a critical role in the etiology and progression of periodontal diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which smoking increases risk for disease by influencing the composition of the subgingival microbiome in states of clinical health. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 200 systemically and periodontally healthy smokers and nonsmokers. 16S pyrotag sequencing was preformed generating 1?623?713 classifiable sequences, which were compared with a curated version of the Greengenes database using the quantitative insights into microbial ecology pipeline. The subgingival microbial profiles of smokers and never-smokers were different at all taxonomic levels, and principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clustering of the microbial communities based on smoking status. Smokers demonstrated a highly diverse, pathogen-rich, commensal-poor, anaerobic microbiome that is more closely aligned with a disease-associated community in clinically healthy individuals, suggesting that it creates an at-risk-for-harm environment that is primed for a future ecological catastrophe. PMID:25012901

Mason, Matthew R; Preshaw, Philip M; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Dabdoub, Shareef M; Rahman, Anis; Kumar, Purnima S

2015-01-01

180

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Attentional bias toward cigarette cues in active smokers  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Attentional bias toward cigarette cues in active smokers Vicki W. Chanon-related sensory cues. For example, smoking urges may be triggered by the sight of cigarettes, smoking et al. 2000; Lubman et al. 2000), caffeine (Yeomans et al. Electronic supplementary material

Boettiger, Charlotte A.

181

Willingness among College Students to Help a Smoker Quit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Between February and March 2003, the authors examined college students' willingness to help a smoker quit and assessed demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with willingness to help. Participants: Survey respondents were 701 college students (474 women, 227 men) aged 18 to 24 years who indicated there was someone close…

Thomas, Janet L.; Gerber, Tracy A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Patten, Christi A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Offord, Kenneth P.

2008-01-01

182

Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

Niaura, Raymond; And Others

1992-01-01

183

Factors in Nonadherence to Quitline Services: Smoker Characteristics Explain Little  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Quitlines offer evidence-based, multisession coaching support for smoking cessation in the 50 U.S. states, Canada, and several other countries. Smokers who enroll in quitline services have, "ipso facto," shown readiness to attempt to quit, but noncompletion of coaching services appears widespread and has not been widely investigated.…

Burns, Emily K.; Levinson, Arnold H.; Deaton, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

184

Reduced Response to Reward in Smokers and Cannabis Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs. Reduced neural and behavioral reactions to reward have been demonstrated in other forms of addiction, as expressed by reduced mood reactivity and lack of striatal activation to rewards, but this effect has not yet been investigated in cannabis users. Methods: We hypothesized that cannabis users and tobacco smokers would

Chantal Martin-Soelch; Maja Kobel; Markus Stoecklin; Tanja Michael; Simone Weber; Bigna Krebs; Klaus Opwis

2009-01-01

185

Smokers vs. Nonsmokers: Toward an Understanding of Their Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was conducted to contribute to the general knowledge concerning differences between smokers and nonsmokers. The data were obtained from a major epidemiologic study conducted in 1973 in the southeastern United States. A survey instrument composed of 403 questions and administered to 2029 randomly selected adults was designed to elicit…

Buhl, Joanne M.; Bell, Roger A.

186

Pancreatic Cancer Linked to Insulin Resistance in Male Smokers  

Cancer.gov

A new study, led by researchers at the NCI, shows for the first time that male smokers with the highest insulin levels are twice as likely to develop pancreatic cancer as men with the lowest levels. Similarly, men with glucose levels in the range of clinical diabetes were twice as likely to develop the cancer as men with normal glucose levels.

187

The subgingival microbiome of clinically healthy current and never smokers  

PubMed Central

Dysbiotic oral bacterial communities have a critical role in the etiology and progression of periodontal diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which smoking increases risk for disease by influencing the composition of the subgingival microbiome in states of clinical health. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 200 systemically and periodontally healthy smokers and nonsmokers. 16S pyrotag sequencing was preformed generating 1?623?713 classifiable sequences, which were compared with a curated version of the Greengenes database using the quantitative insights into microbial ecology pipeline. The subgingival microbial profiles of smokers and never-smokers were different at all taxonomic levels, and principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clustering of the microbial communities based on smoking status. Smokers demonstrated a highly diverse, pathogen-rich, commensal-poor, anaerobic microbiome that is more closely aligned with a disease-associated community in clinically healthy individuals, suggesting that it creates an at-risk-for-harm environment that is primed for a future ecological catastrophe. PMID:25012901

Mason, Matthew R; Preshaw, Philip M; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Dabdoub, Shareef M; Rahman, Anis; Kumar, Purnima S

2015-01-01

188

A displacement and reconditioning technique for compulsive smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for reducing total anxiety in chronic smokers while ostensibly directed toward permissive alteration of the smoking pattern is presented. In light trance the motivated patient is taught: (a) elementary respiratory relaxation (natural sigh), (b) displacement of emphasis from inhaling smoke to exhaling clean fresh air, (c) enhancement of satisfaction from other pleasurable factors-touch, shape, color, aroma, flame, smoke

Calvert Stein

1964-01-01

189

CD8 1 T-Lymphocytes in Peripheral Airways of Smokers with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether the inflammatory process in peripheral airways is different in smokers who develop symptoms of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow limitation and in asymptomatic smokers who do not develop chronic airflow limitation, we examined surgical specimens obtained from 16 smokers undergoing lung resection for localized pulmonary lesions. Nine had symptoms of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow limitation and

MARINA SAETTA; ANTONINO D I STEFANO; GRAZIELLA TURATO; FABRIZIO M. FACCHINI; LAURA CORBINO; CRISTINA E. MAPP; PIERO MAESTRELLI; ADALBERTO CIACCIA; LEONARDO M. FABBRI

1998-01-01

190

Severity of Airflow Limitation Is Associated with Severity of Airway Inflammation in Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationship between airflow limitation and airway inflammation in smokers, we examined paraffin-embedded bronchial biopsies obtained from 30 smokers: 10 with severe airflow limitation, eight with mild\\/moderate airflow limitation, and 12 control smokers with normal lung function. Histochemical and immunohistochemical methods were performed to assess the number of inflammatory cells in the subepithelium and the expression of CC

ANTONINO DI STEFANO; ARMANDO CAPELLI; MIRCO LUSUARDI; PIERO BALBO; CINZIA VECCHIO; PIERO MAESTRELLI; CRISTINA E. MAPP; LEONARDO M. FABBRI; CLAUDIO F. DONNER; MARINA SAETTA

1998-01-01

191

Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

2014-01-01

192

Discounting of delayed health gains and losses by current, never- and ex-smokers of cigarettes.  

PubMed

Recent evidence implicates steep discounting of delayed outcomes as an important feature of drug dependence. We determined discounting rates for health gains and health losses in current cigarette smokers (n = 23), never-smokers (n = 22) and ex-smokers (n = 21). Participants indicated preference for immediate vs. delayed hypothetical health gains and for immediate vs. delayed hypothetical health losses in a titration procedure that determined indifference points at a range of delays. The degree of discounting was estimated using two nonlinear decay models: an exponential model and a hyperbolic model. The hyperbolic equation generally provided better fits to the data than the exponential equation did. Current smokers discounted delayed health gains and health losses more steeply than never-smokers did. Discounting by ex-smokers was generally intermediate to that of current smokers and never-smokers, although not statistically different from either. Current smokers and ex-smokers discounted delayed health losses more steeply than they did health gains. Never-smokers did not discount gains and losses differently. Cigarette smokers show rapid loss of value for delayed health outcomes, emphasizing the need for smoking-cessation treatments that provide relatively immediate consequences for abstinence. PMID:12215238

Odum, Amy L; Madden, Gregory J; Bickel, Warren K

2002-08-01

193

Young Adult Smoking: What factors differentiate ex-smokers, smoking cessation treatment seekers and nontreatment seekers?  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated demographic and psychosocial correlates of smoking status and predictors of smoking cessation among young adults, ages 18–30 years old. Young adults (n=294) completed a self-report survey regarding their health habits and smokers were offered the opportunity to enroll in a smoking cessation program. Substitute reinforcers were greater among ex-smokers compared to nontreatment seeking smokers, treatment seeking smokers who did participate in a smoking cessation program and treatment seeking smokers who did not subsequently participate in a smoking cessation program. Greater complementary reinforcers and delay discounting rates differentiated nontreatment seeking smokers from ex-smokers and treatment seeking smokers who subsequently attended a smoking cessation program. Nontreatment seekers were less likely to have higher depression symptoms than ex-smokers. Treatment seekers who did not attend a smoking cessation program tended to live in a household with another smoker, to not be college educated, and to be non-white. Young adult smokers who increased their substitute reinforcers across treatment were almost two times more likely to be quit at treatment end. These results highlight variables that may be important to consider in recruitment strategies and treatment components for smoking cessation interventions for young adult smokers. PMID:19619948

Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel; Epstein, Leonard H.; Rodgers, Kelli; Cuevas, Jocelyn; Wileyto, E. Paul

2009-01-01

194

Geothermal study of the southwest part of the Black Rock Desert and its geothermal areas; Washoe, Pershing, and Humboldt Counties, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several hydrothermal systems were explored in northwestern Nevada in parts of Washoe, Pershing, and Humboldt Counties. These hydrothermal systems included the Great Boiling springs and Mud springs at Gerlach, the Fly Ranch hot springs in Hualapai Flat, Double Hot and Black Rock springs at the southern end of the Black Rock Range, Trego hot spring, Soldier Meadows hot springs, and

1978-01-01

195

Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers.  

PubMed

The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9% were males. The average age was 30.02 +/- 9.48 years and the average number of years of smoking was 8.09 +/- 6.45 years. Three subjects had dysphonia at the time of examination. The incidence of benign lesions of the vocal folds in the hubble-bubble group was 21.5%, with edema being the most common at 16.7% followed by cyst at 4.8%. The incidence of laryngeal findings was significantly higher in the hubble-bubble group compared to controls. In the cigarette-smoking group, the most common finding was vocal fold cyst in 14.8% followed by polyps in 7.4%, and edema, sulcus vocalis and granuloma. These findings were not significantly different from the hubble-bubble group except for the thick mucus, which was significantly higher in the latter. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between hubble-bubble smokers and controls except for the VTI and MPT, which were significantly lower in the hubble-bubble group. In comparison with the cigarette-smoking group, hubble-bubble smokers had significantly higher Fundamental frequency and habitual pitch (p value 0.042 and 0.008, respectively). The laryngeal findings in hubble-bubble smokers are comparable to cigarette smokers. These laryngeal findings are not translated acoustically, as all the acoustic parameters are within normal range compared to controls. PMID:20480370

Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Sibai, Abla; Oubari, Dima; Ashkar, Jihad; Fuleihan, Nabil

2010-10-01

196

Adolescent nicotine metabolism: ethnoracial differences among dependent smokers.  

PubMed

Variations in nicotine metabolism are thought to contribute to differences in cigarette consumption between African Americans and Caucasian adult smokers. To investigate the potential mechanism of previously documented lower smoking rates among African-American adolescent smokers seeking cessation treatment, we measured nicotine metabolite ratios as markers of the metabolic disposition of nicotine, which is generally considered to be under the influence of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6. Plasma ratios of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC) to cotinine (COT) were examined in 92 cessation treatment-seeking adolescents (mean age 15.2 years, standard deviation [SD] 1.3, 69% female, 31% African American, mean Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence [FTND] 6.5, SD 1.6, mean years smoked 2.6, SD 1.6). Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, and mean FTND score. Analysis with independent t tests revealed significantly lower number of cigarettes per day (CPD) (15.1, SD 7.6 vs 19.6, SD 8.0, P=.013) and nicotine metabolite ratios (0.27, SD 0.15 vs 0.35, SD 0.16, P=.026) in African-American compared to Caucasian adolescent smokers. Consistent with metabolic variation, mean COT/CPD ratio was significantly higher in African-American compared to Caucasian adolescents. Results remained statistically significant when comparing menthol smokers by ethnicity. These findings are consistent with those found among adult smokers and provide a putative mechanism for reported ethnoracial differences in adolescent cigarette consumption. Our results underscore the need for measures independent of consumption for determining degree of nicotine dependence and treatment selection across ethnicities, even among youths. PMID:16599377

Moolchan, Eric T; Franken, Frederick H; Jaszyna-Gasior, Maria

2006-01-01

197

Hydrothermal Systems Associated with Martian Impact Craters  

Microsoft Academic Search

With widespread evidence of both heat sources and water (either liquid or solid), hydrothermal systems are likely to have existed on Mars. We model hydrothermal systems in two sizes of fresh impact craters, one simple and one complex, and find that a hydrothermal system forms on the crater floor. In the larger complex craters with a substantial melt sheet, a

Julie A. Rathbun; Steven W. Squyres

2002-01-01

198

Hydrothermal Vents: Thar She Blows!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will discover how the proximity of hot magma to cold ocean water creates new rocky structures around hydrothermal vents. During this activity, students will demonstrate an understanding of how the processes that result in the formation of hydrothermal vents create new ocean floor and how the transfer of energy effects solids and liquids. This hands-on activity uses online data resources and includes: focus questions, learning objectives, teaching time, audio/visual materials needed, background information, learning procedures, evaluations, extensions, as well as resources and student handouts.

199

Experiments in Fluids manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

jet-like and plume-like behavior. Keywords Black smoker plumes · Hydrothermal vents · Optical expression of these hydrothermal systems are vent fields where hydrothermal fluids enter the ocean after in Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems Received: date / Accepted: date Abstract Evidence suggests that fluid flow

Crone, Timothy J.

200

COMPARISON OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION IN NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS OBTAINED FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several studies have demonstrated that individuals who smoke have greater susceptibility to influenza infections, as well as other respiratory virus infections, than non-smokers, yet the role of airway epithelial cells in this response is not clear. To determine whether in vivo t...

201

Differences between nicotine-abstinent smokers and non-smokers in terms of visuospatial attention and inhibition before and after single-blind nicotine administration.  

PubMed

The cholinergic system is implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, however the exact role is still unclear. Two key mechanisms in visuospatial attention are bias and disengagement. Bias refers to neuronal signals that enhance the sensitivity of the sensory cortex, disengagement is the decoupling of attention. Previous studies suggest that nicotine affects disengagement and (related) inhibition. However the exact relation is still unknown. Furthermore, nicotine-abstinence in 'healthy' smokers may resemble some anomalies of visuospatial attention and inhibition as seen in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Smokers and non-smokers (32 male students) performed in a visuospatial cueing (VSC) task, to assess bias and disengagement, and in a stop-signal task (SST) to assess inhibition. It was expected that nicotine abstinent smokers compared to non-smokers, would show poor disengagement (indicated by an enhanced validity effect) and poor inhibitory control (indicated by an enhanced stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)). It was expected that nicotine would positively affect disengagement and inhibition: hypothesis 1 stated that this effect would be larger in smokers as opposed to non-smokers, in terms of smoking-related deficient inhibitory control. Hypothesis 2 stated the exact opposite, in terms of drug-tolerance. Results indicated no baseline differences. Nicotine enhanced inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers. Integrating the results, nicotine-abstinent smokers do not seem to resemble ADHD patients, and do not seem to smoke in order to self-medicate a pre-existing deficit pertaining to mechanisms of visuospatial attention and inhibition. Nicotine may affect inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers, consistent with a drug-tolerance account. PMID:25050819

Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

2014-09-26

202

Plagioclase and epidote buffering of cation ratios in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids: Experimental results in and near the supercritical region  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been performed with Na-Ca-K-Cl fluids of seawater chlorinity and diabase, basalt, and plagioclase bearing mineral mixtures at 350-425{degree}C and 250-400 bars to help constrain hydrothermal alteration processes at mid-ocean ridges. Dissolved Ca, Na, and pH for all experiments responded systematically to differences in dissolved SiO{sub 2} concentrations and the compositions of plagioclase reactants. Diabase alteration at low fluid/rock mass ratios (0.5 to 1) produces fluids undersaturated with respect to quartz during hydration of primary olivine and orthopyroxene, whereas basalt alteration under similar conditions yields fluids slightly supersaturated with respect to quartz during breakdown of glass to smectite and amphibole. Fluid chemistry in all experiments appears to approach a partial equilibrium state with the albite and anorthite components in plagioclase and approaches a pH consistent with plagioclase alteration to epidote. Trace element data from vent fluids, specifically B and Sr, together with major element chemistry, provides evidence that the reaction zone for black-smoker fluids at mid-ocean ridges is composed of only slightly altered diabase and is characterized by small amounts of epidote, nearly fresh plagioclase and clinopyroxene, and partially to completely hydrated olivine and orthopyroxene. Using equilibrium between plagioclase, the dominant reactant, and epidote, the dominant reaction product in experiments, the authors estimate that temperatures in reaction zones are in excess of 375{degree}C for most vent systems. These temperatures are higher than measured vent temperatures, suggesting that hot spring fluids commonly loose heat during ascent to the sea floor.

Berndt, M.E.; Seyfried, W.E. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA)); Janecky, D.R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (USA))

1989-09-01

203

Change in Smoking, Diet, and Walking for Exercise in Blacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive changes in one health behavior may be accompanied by other constructive health behavior changes. Thus, the authors investigated the association of smoking reduction and cessation to changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and engaging in walking for exercise. This study included 539 Black light smokers ([less than or equal to]10…

Berg, Carla J.; Thomas, Janet L.; An, Lawrence C.; Guo, Hongfei; Collins, Tracie; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2012-01-01

204

Mesozoic hydrothermal alteration associated with gold mineralization in the Mercur district, Utah  

SciTech Connect

K/Ar dates and chemical data show that a Mesozoic gold-bearing hydrothermal system altered black shales of the Mississippian Great Blue Limestone throughout an area encompassing the Mercur gold district, Utah. K/Ar dates of illite veins and illite-rich, clay-sized separates of altered shales that are enriched in Au, As, Hg, Sc, and other heavy metals indicate that hydrothermal activity occurred from 193 to 122 Ma. Several ages from within the Mercur district cluster near 160 Ma and may date the minimum age of gold mineralization.

Wilson, P.N.; Parry, W.T. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (USA))

1990-09-01

205

A new hydrothermal blackening technology for Fe 3O 4 coatings of carbon steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new blackening technology for growing magnetite (Fe 3O 4) coating on surface of carbon steel. Dense black coating composed of Fe 3O 4 ultrafine particles could be successfully prepared by hydrothermal treatment of the carbon steel substrate in the N 2H 4·H 2O-FeSO 4-NaOH solution at 150 °C. Electrochemical analysis, including Tafel and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, indicated that the anodic dissolution reaction was effectively limited and the corrosion resistance increased by the Fe 3O 4 coating. The key factors and growth mechanism for the hydrothermal formation of the Fe 3O 4 coating are also discussed.

Zhu, Hongliang; Cao, Fahe; Zuo, Diantai; Zhu, Luming; Jin, Dalai; Yao, Kuihong

2008-07-01

206

Using motives for smoking to distinguish between different college student smoker typologies.  

PubMed

Relatively little is known about how to categorize different types of smokers, especially occasional smokers. Because of the prevalence of occasional smoking among college students, the current study aimed to gain an understanding of the different typologies of smokers on campus. To accomplish this, a latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted using 17 motives for smoking items (N = 327). The LCA revealed that four smoker groups were present: (1) addicted smokers who endorsed smoking due to pleasure and habit/addiction; (2) stress smokers, who endorsed smoking to relax, to reduce levels of stress, and to regulate mood; (3) social smokers, who endorsed smoking because of social factors such as to fit in or because friends smoke; and (4) nonendorsing smokers, who had a low endorsement for all the items. An additional LCA with covariates revealed that age of initiation, current smoking patterns, smoker self-classification, and quit likelihood differentiated these groups of smokers whereas current age and alcohol use did not. These typologies should be considered when designing interventions for occasional smokers. PMID:25528054

Rosa, Juliana Da Rocha; Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Henry, Kimberly L

2014-12-01

207

When smokers move out and nonsmokers move in: Residential thirdhand smoke pollution and exposure  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined whether thirdhand smoke (THS) persists in smokers’ homes after they move out and nonsmokers move in, and whether new nonsmoking residents are exposed to THS in these homes. Methods Homes of 100 smokers and 50 nonsmokers were visited before the residents moved out. Dust, surfaces, and air and participants’ fingers were measured for nicotine and children’s urine samples were analyzed for cotinine. The new residents who moved into these homes were recruited if they were nonsmokers. Dust, surfaces, and air, and new residents’ fingers were examined for nicotine in 25 former smoker and 16 former nonsmoker homes. A urine sample was collected from the youngest resident. Results Smoker homes’ dust, surface, and air nicotine decreased after the change of occupancy (p<.001); yet dust and surfaces showed higher contamination levels in former smoker homes than former nonsmoker homes (p<.05). Nonsmoking participants’ finger nicotine was higher in former smoker homes compared to former nonsmoker homes (p<.05). Finger nicotine levels among nonsmokers living in former smoker homes were significantly correlated with dust and surface nicotine and urine cotinine. Conclusions These findings indicate that THS accumulates in smokers’ homes and persists when smokers move out even after homes remain vacant for two months and are cleaned and prepared for new residents. When nonsmokers move into homes formerly occupied by smokers, they encounter indoor environments with THS polluted surfaces and dust. Results suggest that nonsmokers living in former smoker homes are exposed to THS in dust and on surfaces. PMID:21037269

Matt, Georg E.; Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Zakarian, Joy M.; Fortmann, Addie L.; Chatfield, Dale A.; Hoh, Eunha; Uribe, Anna M.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2013-01-01

208

Differential use of other tobacco products among current and former cigarette smokers by income level.  

PubMed

With the declining sales of cigarettes, the tobacco industry has been promoting other forms of combustible and smokeless tobacco to current and former cigarette smokers. Exposure to the promotion of tobacco products has been shown to vary by income level. We combined the 2006 through 2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health to compare the prevalence and patterns of other tobacco use (cigar, snuff, and chewing tobacco) between current and former cigarette smokers by income level. Other tobacco use was minimal among females and among male non-smokers. Approximately a third of both current and former male cigarette smokers reported past-year other tobacco use. Overall, current smokers were more likely than former smokers to have used cigars (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.50-1.92) or snuff (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28) in the past year. The association of smoking status with other tobacco use differed by income level (interaction term p-value<0.001). Among lower income groups, current smokers were more likely to use cigars and snuff compared to former smokers. Among the highest income group, former smokers were just as likely to use smokeless tobacco as current smokers. The differing patterns of use of other tobacco between current and former smokers by income level highlight a need for studies to understand the motivations for the use of these products and their role in smoking cessation. PMID:24930053

Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Pierce, John P; White, Martha; Messer, Karen

2014-10-01

209

Preliminary results from Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 - NE Lau: First explorations of hydrothermally active volcanoes across the supra-subduction zone and a return to the West Mata eruption site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several expeditions in the past few years have shown that the NE Lau basin has one of the densest concentrations of volcanically and hydrothermally active volcanoes on the planet. In 2008 two active submarine volcanic eruptions were discovered during a one week period and subsequent dives with the Jason remotely operated vehicle at one of the sites (West Mata) revealed an active boninite eruption taking place at 1200 m depth. Two dives at the other revealed evidence for recent eruption along the NE Lau Spreading Center. Several more expeditions in 2010-11 discovered additional evidence about the extent and types of hydrothermal activity in this area. Data from CTDO (conductivity, temperature, depth, optical) vertical casts, tow-yos, and towed camera deployments revealed more than 15 hydrothermal sites at water depths from ~800 to 2700 m that include sites from the magmatic arc, the "rear arc," and the back arc spreading centers. These sites range from high temperature black smoker sulfide-producing systems to those dominated by magmatic degassing. Dives by remotely operated vehicle (Quest 4000) in September 2012 will explore these sites and return samples for chemical, biological and geologic studies. One of the dives will be a return visit to West Mata volcano, the site of the deepest submarine eruption yet observed (in 2009). Recent multibeam data reveal large changes in West Mata's summit, suggesting that the nature of the eruption and the location of the erupting vents may have changed. In addition to the preliminary results from the science team, we will also discuss our use and experience with continuous live video transmission (through the High Definition video camera on the Quest 4000) back to shore via satellite and through the internet. Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 Science Team: Bradley Tebo, Bill Chadwick, Ed Baker, Ken Rubin, Susan Merle, Timothy Shank, Sharon Walker, Andra Bobbitt, Nathan Buck, David Butterfield, Eric Olson, John Lupton, Richard Arculus, Fabio Caratori-Tontini, Rick Davis, Kevin Roe, Edward Mitchell, Paula Keener-Chavis Carolyn Sheehan, Peter Crowhurst, Simon Richards,and Volker Ratmeyer along with the Quest-4000 team. .

Resing, J.; Embley, R. W.

2012-12-01

210

Hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers,  

SciTech Connect

This book examines research on the description and interpretation of hydrothermal and associated phenomena at seafloor spreading centers. An interdisciplinary overview of the subject is presented, including geological, geophysical, geochemical, and biological discoveries. The implications of the discoveries for understanding the earth's heat transfer, geochemical mass balances and cycles, mineralization, and biological adaptation are discussed. Topics considered include geologic setting (e.g., the four dimensions of the spreading axis, geological processes of the mid-ocean ridge), hydrothermal convection (e.g., oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies, the basic physics of water penetration into hot rock), Iceland and oceanic ridges (e.g., chemical evidence from Icelandic geothermal systems, the physical environment of hydrothermal systems), mass balances and cycles (e.g., reduced gases and bacteria in hydrothermal fluids, the effects of hydrothermal activity on sedimentary organic matter), ferromanganese deposits, hydrothermal mineralization, and the biology of hydrothermal vents.

Rona, P.A.; Bostrom, K.; Laubier, L.; Smith, K.L.

1983-01-01

211

Compounds enhanced in a mass spectrometric profile of smokers' exhaled breath versus non-smokers as determined in a pilot study using PTR-MS.  

PubMed

A pilot study has been carried out to define typical characteristics of the trace gas compounds in exhaled breath of non-smokers and smokers to assist interpretation of breath analysis data from patients who smoke with respiratory diseases and lung cancer. Exhaled breath was analyzed using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for 370 volunteers (81 smokers, 210 non-smokers, 79 ex-smokers). Volatile organic compounds corresponding to product ions at seven mass-to-charge ratios (m/z 28, 42, 69, 79, 93, 97, 123) in the PTR-MS spectra differentiated between smokers and non-smokers. The Youden index (= maximum of sensitivity + specificity - 1, YI) as a measure for differentiation between smokers and non-smokers was YI = 0.43 for ions at the m/z values 28 (tentatively identified as HCN), YI = 0.75 for m/z = 42 (tentatively identified as acetonitrile) and YI = 0.53 for m/z = 79 (tentatively identified as benzene). No statistically significant difference between smokers and non-smokers was observed for the product ions at m/z = 31 and 33 (compounds tentatively identified as formaldehyde and methanol). When interpreting the exhaled breath of lung cancer or COPD patients, who often smoke, compounds appearing at the above-mentioned seven mass-to-charge ratios should be considered with appropriate care to avoid misdiagnosis. Validation studies in larger numbers of patients with more precise delineation of their smoking behavior and using additional analytical techniques such as GC/MS and SIFT-MS should be carried out. PMID:21383443

Kushch, Ievgeniia; Schwarz, Konrad; Schwentner, Lukas; Baumann, Bettina; Dzien, Alexander; Schmid, Alex; Unterkofler, Karl; Gastl, Günter; Span?l, Patrik; Smith, David; Amann, Anton

2008-06-01

212

Effects of Nicotine Deprivation on Craving Response Covariation in Smokers  

PubMed Central

Most models of craving propose that when cravings are strong, diverse responses—thought to index an underlying craving state— covary. Previous studies provided weak support for this hypothesis. The authors tested whether nicotine deprivation affects degree of covariation across multiple measures related to craving. Heavy and light smokers (N = 127) were exposed to smoking cues while either nicotine deprived or nondeprived. Measures included urge ratings, affective valence, a behavioral choice task assessing perceived reinforcement value of smoking, and smoking-related judgment tasks. Results indicated higher correlations in the nicotine-deprived than in nondeprived group. The measures principally responsible for this effect loaded onto a single common Craving factor for nicotine-deprived but not nondeprived smokers. These findings suggest that, under certain conditions, measures of craving-related processes covary. PMID:12653419

Sayette, Michael A.; Martin, Christopher S.; Hull, Jay G.; Wertz, Joan M.; Perrott, Michael A.

2009-01-01

213

Smoking typology profiles of chippers and regular smokers.  

PubMed

This study examined smoking patterns among chippers--light, nondependent cigarette smokers--by contrasting their smoking motives (Russell's Reasons for Smoking) and patterns (McKennell's Smoking Occasions) with those of a matched group of regular smokers. Differences between group profiles were initially confounded by differences in overall level of item endorsement, which obscured meaningful interpretation of group differences in smoking patterns. Group differences were clarified by correcting for profile elevation and scatter, as suggested by Cronbach and Gleser (1953). As expected, chippers' subscale profiles deemphasized pharmacological and addiction-related motives such as craving and habit, while emphasizing appetitive and sensory motives such as handling and pleasurable smoking. Social motives for smoking were also more prominent in chippers' smoking profiles. PMID:8081107

Shiffman, S; Kassel, J D; Paty, J; Gnys, M; Zettler-Segal, M

1994-01-01

214

Smokers’ Decision Making: More than Mere Risk Taking  

PubMed Central

The fact that smoking is bad for people’s health has become common knowledge, yet a substantial amount of people still smoke. Previous studies that sought to better understand this phenomenon have found that smoking is associated with the tendency to take risk in other areas of life as well. The current paper explores factors that may underlie this tendency. An experimental analysis shows that smokers are more easily tempted by immediate high rewards compared to nonsmokers. Thus the salience of risky alternatives that produce large rewards most of the time can direct smokers to make bad choices even in an abstract situation such as the Iowa Gambling Task. These findings suggest that the risk taking behavior associated with smoking is not related to the mere pursuit of rewards but rather reflects a tendency to yield to immediate temptation. PMID:23844156

Ert, Eyal; Yechiam, Eldad; Arshavsky, Olga

2013-01-01

215

Comparison of clinical features between non-smokers with COPD and smokers with COPD: a retrospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, the similarities and differences in clinical presentation between smokers and nonsmokers are not fully described in patients with COPD. This study was designed to address this issue in a general teaching hospital in the People’s Republic of China. Methods The medical records of patients hospitalized with a lung mass for further evaluation at Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, from January 2006 to December 2010 were reviewed and the data of interest were collected. The definition of COPD was according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometric criteria. Participants who had a previous exacerbation within 4 weeks of admission, airflow limitation due to abnormalities in the large airways, or with other pulmonary diseases were excluded. Included subjects were divided into nonsmokers with COPD and smokers with COPD by a cutoff of a 5 pack-year smoking history. Results A total of 605 subjects were included in the final analysis. The average age was 64.8±8.5 years and 62.0% (375/605) were smokers. Eighty percent of the patients had mild to moderate disease (GOLD grade 1–2). Age and years with COPD were comparable between the two groups. Compared with smokers with COPD, nonsmokers with COPD were more likely to be female, reported less chronic cough and sputum, have less emphysema on radiologic examination, and higher measures of forced expiratory volume in the first second percent predicted (FEV1), forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC%) percent predicted, maximal voluntary ventilation percent predicted, diffusing capacity of lung (DLCO) percent predicted, and DLCO/alveolar volume percent predicted, with lower levels of residual volume percent predicted and residual volume/total lung capacity percent predicted. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to distribution of disease severity, vital capacity percent predicted, total lung capacity percent predicted, PaO2, PaCO2, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea score, wheezing, airway reversibility, and comorbidities. Smoking amount (pack-years) was correlated negatively with FEV1 percent predicted, FEV1/FVC% percent predicted, inspiratory capacity percent predicted, inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity percent predicted, and DLCO percent predicted, and correlated positively with GOLD grade and symptoms. Conclusion Non-smokers with COPD had less impairment in airflow limitation and gas exchange, and a lower prevalence of emphysema, chronic cough, and sputum compared with their smoking counterparts. Tobacco cessation is warranted in smokers with COPD. PMID:24426780

Zhang, Jing; Lin, Xin-feng; Bai, Chun-xue

2014-01-01

216

‘The missing picture’: tobacco use through the eyes of smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe use of visual methodologies has gained increased prominence among health researchers working with socially marginalised populations, including those studying tobacco and other types of substance use.ObjectivesThis article draws from two separate studies combining qualitative and photographic methods to illustrate the unique insights that visual research with smokers can generate for tobacco control.MethodsA purposeful selection of photographs and captions produced

Rebecca J Haines; John L Oliffe; Joan L Bottorff; Blake D Poland

2010-01-01

217

Comparison of the Respiratory Microbiome in Healthy Nonsmokers and Smokers  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Results from 16S rDNA-encoding gene sequence–based, culture-independent techniques have led to conflicting conclusions about the composition of the lower respiratory tract microbiome. Objectives: To compare the microbiome of the upper and lower respiratory tract in healthy HIV-uninfected nonsmokers and smokers in a multicenter cohort. Methods: Participants were nonsmokers and smokers without significant comorbidities. Oral washes and bronchoscopic alveolar lavages were collected in a standardized manner. Sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding genes was performed, and the neutral model in community ecology was used to identify bacteria that were the most plausible members of a lung microbiome. Measurements and Main Results: Sixty-four participants were enrolled. Most bacteria identified in the lung were also in the mouth, but specific bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus, Methylobacterium, and Ralstonia species were disproportionally represented in the lungs compared with values predicted by the neutral model. Tropheryma was also in the lung, but not the mouth. Mouth communities differed between nonsmokers and smokers in species such as Porphyromonas, Neisseria, and Gemella, but lung bacterial populations did not. Conclusions: This study is the largest to examine composition of the lower respiratory tract microbiome in healthy individuals and the first to use the neutral model to compare the lung to the mouth. Specific bacteria appear in significantly higher abundance in the lungs than would be expected if they originated from the mouth, demonstrating that the lung microbiome does not derive entirely from the mouth. The mouth microbiome differs in nonsmokers and smokers, but lung communities were not significantly altered by smoking. PMID:23491408

Beck, James M.; Schloss, Patrick D.; Campbell, Thomas B.; Crothers, Kristina; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Flores, Sonia C.; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Ghedin, Elodie; Huang, Laurence; Jablonski, Kathleen; Kleerup, Eric; Lynch, Susan V.; Sodergren, Erica; Twigg, Homer; Young, Vincent B.; Bassis, Christine M.; Venkataraman, Arvind; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Weinstock, George M.

2013-01-01

218

Glycerol particle cigarettes: a less harmful option for chronic smokers.  

PubMed Central

In 20 smokers who switched to a new type of virtually tar free cigarette for three days, average nicotine intake was reduced by 44%, carbon monoxide intake increased by 19%, while estimated tar intake was reduced by about 90%. Such cigarettes pose substantially less risk of cancer and chronic obstructive lung disease than conventional cigarettes, and their acceptability and safety could be improved by increasing nicotine yield, reducing carbon monoxide yield, and improving the flavour. PMID:8511737

Sutherland, G; Russell, M A; Stapleton, J A; Feyerabend, C

1993-01-01

219

Cognitive Deficits Specific to Depression-Prone Smokers During Abstinence  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoking is associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms and individuals with elevated symptoms of depression have more difficulty quitting smoking. Depression is accompanied by cognitive deficits similar to those observed during nicotine withdrawal. Depressed smokers may smoke to alleviate these cognitive symptoms, which are exacerbated upon smoking abstinence. We hypothesized that following overnight abstinence, depression-prone smokers (DP+; past history and current depression symptoms; n = 34) would exhibit deficits in short-term and working memory, and experience greater attentional bias for affective stimuli, compared with smokers with no history or current symptoms of depression (DP?; n = 34). All participants underwent two laboratory sessions, once while smoking abstinent and once while smoking ad libitum (order counterbalanced, abstinence biochemically verified). Smokers completed measures of short-term memory (STM; word recognition task), working memory (N-back task), and attentional bias (Emotional Stroop task). The DP+ group showed declines in STM during abstinence compared with smoking, whereas the DP? group did not (interaction p = .02). There were small decrements in working memory accuracy during abstinence (p = .05), but this did not interact with depression status. During the Emotional Stroop task, the DP+ group showed an attentional bias toward positive versus neutral stimuli during abstinence compared with smoking (interaction p = .01). This study provides initial evidence that depressive symptoms may moderate abstinence-induced deficits in STM and shift attentional bias toward emotionally salient stimuli during abstinence. These cognitive changes may prompt relapse and may help identify novel targets for nicotine dependence treatment aimed at attenuating these deficits to improve cessation rates. PMID:24932895

Ashare, Rebecca; Strasser, Andrew A.; Wileyto, E. Paul; Cuevas, Jocelyn; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

2014-01-01

220

Anxiety Sensitivity Cognitive Concerns Predict Suicidality among Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety along with anxiety-related risk factors is receiving increased attention in regard to its role in elevated suicidality. One such risk factor, anxiety sensitivity (AS), refers to a fear of anxiety-related symptoms. Emerging research indicates that components of AS, particularly the AS subfactor focused on cognitive arousal concerns, are significantly associated with elevated suicidality in samples of diverse clinical outpatients, clinical outpatients with PTSD symptoms, and Air Force cadets undergoing a stressful life experience. Cigarette smokers represent another relevant population for this line of research due to recent reports indicating that cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence may be related to elevated suicidality. Methods Study 1 examined the role of AS and the AS subfactors in a large sample (n = 343) of community adult smokers. Study 2 examined the role of AS and AS subfactors in a sample of “pack-a-day” adult smokers (n = 78) who were seeking outpatient treatment for substance abuse issues. Results Study 1 results were consistent with our a priori hypothesis that AS cognitive concerns would be significantly associated with suicidality. Additionally, after covarying for relevant substance use variables, Study 2 results were also consistent with our hypothesis that AS cognitive concerns were significantly associated with suicidality. Limitations Limitations included the use of suicide related outcomes, not death by suicide, and cross-sectional design. Conclusions These findings suggest that suicide potential in cigarette smokers may be related to AS cognitive concerns and add to the emerging literature suggesting AS cognitive concerns are a risk factor for suicidality. PMID:22370063

Capron, Daniel W.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Medley, Amanda N.; Lewis, Sarah; Feldner, Matthew T.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

2012-01-01

221

Distress Tolerance Treatment for Early-Lapse Smokers  

PubMed Central

A significant percentage of individuals attempting smoking cessation lapse within a matter of days, and very few are able to recover to achieve long-term abstinence. This observation suggests that many smokers may have quit-attempt histories characterized exclusively by early lapses to smoking following quit attempts. Recent negative-reinforcement conceptualizations of early lapse to smoking suggest that individuals' reactions to withdrawal and inability to tolerate the experience of these symptoms, rather than withdrawal severity itself, may represent an important treatment target in the development of new behavioral interventions for this subpopulation of smokers. This article presents the theoretical rationale and describes a novel, multicomponent distress-tolerance treatment for early-lapse smokers that incorporates behavioral and pharmacological elements of standard smoking-cessation treatment, whereas drawing distress-tolerance elements from exposure-based and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy–based treatment approaches. Preliminary data from a pilot study (N = 16) are presented, and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:18391050

Brown, Richard A.; Palm, Kathleen M.; Strong, David R.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Hayes, Steven C.; Wilson, Kelly G.; Gifford, Elizabeth V.

2008-01-01

222

Smoking during the night: prevalence and smoker characteristics.  

PubMed

We report on the smoking patterns and characteristics of individuals who smoke at night. We also explore the relationship between night smoking, nicotine dependence, and cessation outcomes. Participants (N = 691) were heavy smokers enrolled in cessation research clinics. Data were from three studies. Using ecological momentary assessment, participants monitored their smoking (ad libitum, day and night) on electronic diaries (EDs) during a 2-week baseline period and for 4 weeks following a target quit day. A total of 41% of smokers recorded at least one episode of night smoking. Within this group, night smoking occurred on 26% of nights, averaging two episodes per night. ED data correlated with a single self-report item assessing the frequency of night smoking. Night smoking was associated with greater nicotine dependence and daily caffeine consumption. It also predicted risk for lapsing beyond traditional measures of nicotine dependence. Night smoking is common, is associated with nicotine dependence, and it represents additional risk for cessation failure. People who smoke at night may need nicotine replacement therapy overnight. Future research should determine whether treatments that improve sleep quality also improve cessation outcomes in night smokers. PMID:18188757

Scharf, Deborah M; Dunbar, Michael S; Shiffman, Saul

2008-01-01

223

Smoking Patterns and Stimulus Control in Intermittent and Daily Smokers  

PubMed Central

Intermittent smokers (ITS) – who smoke less than daily – comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4–27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5–30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n?=?21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n?=?26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or “indulgent” smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS. PMID:24599056

Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Ferguson, Stuart G.

2014-01-01

224

Cigarette-smoke-induced priming of neutrophils from smokers and non-smokers for increased oxidative burst response is mediated by TNF-?.  

PubMed

In vitro treatment of human peripheral blood neutrophils from smokers and non-smokers with an aqueous cigarette smoke (CS) extract resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in surface expression of CD11b and CD66b and a corresponding decrease of CD62L, together with a concentration-dependent release of MMP-8, MMP-9, and lactoferrin, indicating considerable activation and degranulation. However, the burst response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) was unchanged in CS-stimulated neutrophils from both smokers and non-smokers. When supernatants from CS-treated monocytic MonoMac-6 (MM6) cells were used for activation of neutrophils, concentration-dependent changes in surface marker expression, granule protein release, and the oxidative burst response to fMLP were observed, again with no major differences between smokers and non-smokers. CS-treated MM6 cells released significant amounts of IL-8 and TNF-? into the culture supernatant. However, antibody blocking experiments showed that only TNF-? mediated the increased burst response in neutrophils. These data show that, in the presence of secondary cells, CS is able to prime neutrophils for an increased burst response to fMLP which is mediated by TNF-?, released from the secondary cells in response to CS. Following stimulation with priming agents, peripheral blood neutrophils from healthy smokers show an equal burst response compared to those from non-smokers. PMID:24997298

Friedrichs, Bärbel; Neumann, Ute; Schüller, Jutta; Peck, Michael J

2014-10-01

225

Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey  

PubMed Central

Background In an attempt to minimize the pack design avenue of communication between tobacco producers and smokers and potential smokers, several jurisdictions, including Norway, have considered regulations on cigarette pack design. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how package design affects young people’s perceptions of typical smokers of some pre-chosen cigarette brands and brand varieties. Methods Based on data from a web survey among 1022 15–22 year-olds, possible effects of plain packaging of cigarettes on adolescents’ views about typical cigarette smokers were investigated. The data collection had a between-subjects design, in which participants were allocated to one of three groups, and asked to typify the smokers of selected cigarette packs either in branded, plain or plain with descriptor versions. The sample included boys and girls, and smokers and non-smokers. The smoker characteristics included in the investigation were: gender, glamour, stylishness, popularity, coolness, sophistication and slimness. Results After creating sum-scores within and across packs and pack versions, analyses indicated that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging would result in a reduction in positive user images related to smoking among adolescents and young adults. For girls, this effect held up after controlling for confounders. Conclusions To the extent that plain packaging contributes to making smoking images less positive, it can potentially be an efficient aid in reducing smoking uptake among adolescents. PMID:24156515

2013-01-01

226

Serum ?-carotene and ?-tocopherol in smokers and non-smokers—associations with food sources and supplemental intakes. A report from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

High blood concentrations of ?-carotene (BC) and ?-tocopherol (AT) are markers of lower risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, it is not clear how well they serve as markers of food consumption in a general population setting, in a country with a traditionally low vegetable consumption, or if they work equally well in smokers and non-smokers. We performed a

Peter Wallström; Elisabet Wirfält; Irene Mattisson; Bo Gullberg; Lars Janzon; Göran Berglund

2003-01-01

227

Male smoker and non-smoker responses to television advertisements on the harms of secondhand smoke in China, India and Russia.  

PubMed

Mass media campaigns can play an important role in strengthening support for smoke-free policies and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Identifying anti-SHS advertisements that are effective in diverse cultural contexts may allow for resource sharing in low- and middle-income countries. A convenience sample of 481 male cigarette smokers and non-smokers in three high tobacco burden and culturally dissimilar countries (India, China and Russia) viewed and rated five anti-SHS ads. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 'Message Acceptance', 'Negative Emotion', 'Perceived Effectiveness' and 'Behavioral Intentions'. Smokers and non-smokers in all countries consistently rated the strong graphic, health harm ads as the most effective, and the 'informational' ad as the least effective overall: the graphic ad 'Baby Alive' was at least 1.8 times more likely than the informational ad 'Smoke-free works' to receive positive ratings on all four outcomes (all P < 0.001). Graphic, health harm messages about SHS exposure have the greatest universal appeal and are the most effective in motivating changes in behavioral intentions. Similarity in reactions between smokers and non-smokers, and across countries, suggests that resource sharing and the use of a single graphic ad targeted at smokers and non-smokers would be cost-efficient strategies. PMID:25122618

Murukutla, Nandita; Bayly, Megan; Mullin, Sandra; Cotter, Trish; Wakefield, Melanie

2015-02-01

228

Synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide by single-step soft hydrothermal method  

SciTech Connect

Lithium cobalt double oxide LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized at 220 Degree-Sign C by soft hydrothermal method using Co(OH){sub 2} and LiOH as precursors, LiOH/NaOH as mineralizers and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The soft hydrothermal synthesis method offers the dual advantage of a much lower synthesis time and a higher purity in comparison with other synthesis methods. The compound was identified by X-ray diffraction and its purity was checked by magnetic and electron magnetic resonance measurements. The grain morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and an exponential growth of particle size with synthesis time was observed. - Graphical abstract: Concave cuboctohedrons obtained after 60 h reaction time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimized soft hydrothermal method for a fast synthesis of high purity LiCoO{sub 2} compound is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both lamellar and cuboctahedral particles could be stabilized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary phases content is lower than 0.1%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close to surface defects were evidenced using EMR.

Kumar Bokinala, Kiran [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania) [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania); CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara (Romania); Pollet, M., E-mail: pollet@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Artemenko, A. [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France)] [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Miclau, M., E-mail: marinela.miclau@gmail.com [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania); Grozescu, I [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania) [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania); Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara (Romania)

2013-02-15

229

Discovery and drilling of on- and off-axis hydrothermal sites in backarc spreading center of southern Mariana Trough, Western Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mariana Trough is an actively spreading backarc basin that is located along the eastern margin of Philippine Sea Plate. GPS monitoring indicates that the rate of spreading is about 45 mm/yr in the southern section (Kato et al., 2003). No transform fault offsets exist despite significant changes in the trend of the spreading center. Fryer et al. (1998) pointed out the close proximity of submarine arc volcanoes to the spreading center and tectonic fabric that is at a high angle to the trend of the spreading center on the eastern flank. Three hydrothermal sites were discovered along such tectonic lineament in southern Mariana Trough (12o55-57'N, 143o37-39'E). On-axis site (so-called Fryer site, depth: 2,850 m) consists of a hydrothermal mound about 20 m in diameter that develops on pillow lava of a segment center of the spreading axis. The segment is characterized by highly variable rock composition (up to 68% SiO2). Repeated temperature measurements revealed rapid cooling of the hydrothermal system from 240oC in April 2003, through 112oC in October 2003 to 69oC in March 2004. On the other hand, two off-axis sites seem to have longevity of life: The Archaean site which locates about 2 km off-axis on the eastern (arc side) skirt is characterized by its huge sulfide spire; 50 m in height and 20 m in diameter. It is composed of pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite, and is emanating hydrothermal fluids up to 220oC. In the third site (Pika site), active black smokers (max. temp. = 330oC), numerous dead chimneys and sulfide mounds were found on a basaltic seamount about 5 km off-axis. These lines of evidence support the idea of Fryer et al. (1998) that the backarc magma is replenished by arc/off-axis magma along the tectonic lineation. The first and third sites been drilled and cased using a tethered, submarine rock-drill system BMS (Benthic Multi-coring System) on-board the R/V Hakurei-Maru # 2 as a part of Archaean Park Project*. Rocks from two holes (7.5 m and 4.1 m) in the Fryer site are porous basaltic lava with frequent fractures. Fluid 76oC was discharged from one of the holes. The Pika site has two holes; one hole (5.61 m) is entirely composed of massive sulfides (pyrite-sphalerite) beneath thin manganese oxide cover. The other (4.61 m) shares common features with those of Fryer site. No venting was witnessed during the drilling but the latter hole was found venting fluid (10.1oC) month later during the ROPOS/ Thompson cruise when extensive sampling and monitoring were done on these holes. * Funded by MEXT through the Special Coordination Fund.

Urabe, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Maruyama, A.; Marumo, K.; Seama, N.; Utsumi, M.

2004-12-01

230

Association between the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and cardiovascular disease in male smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Consumption of fruit and vegetables (F&V) is associated with a lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Smoking may affect the strength of this association. The objective of this study was to compare the relationship between the frequency of F&V intake and CVD risk in male current, former and never smokers.Subjects\\/Methods:A prospective study in men (n=8060) aged 50–59 years who were recruited

L Dauchet; M Montaye; J-B Ruidavets; D Arveiler; F Kee; A Bingham; J Ferrières; B Haas; A Evans; P Ducimetière; P Amouyel; J Dallongeville

2010-01-01

231

Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8), with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5), females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5), White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4) or Black people (0.90, 0.73-1.10, n = 4). Estimates for current and ever smokers are similar. The combined estimate for long-term use (0.95, 0.80-1.13, n = 4) again suggests no effect of mentholation. Conclusion Higher lung cancer rates in Black males cannot be due to their greater preference for mentholated cigarettes. While some study weaknesses exist, the epidemiological evidence is consistent with mentholation having no effect on the lung carcinogenicity of cigarettes. PMID:21501470

2011-01-01

232

Microbial Geochemistry in Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are far more ubiquitous than generally recognized. Approximately 50-60 systems are currently known, occurring world-wide in areas of high heat flow, such as, volcanic island arcs, near-surface mid-ocean ridges, and intraplate oceanic volcanoes. In contrast to deep-sea systems, shallow- sea vent fluids generally include a meteoric component, they experience phase separation near the sediment- water interface, and they discharge into the photic zone (<200 m). They also are characterized by wide ranges in chemical composition, hundreds of redox disequilibria that translate to potential metabolisms, and broad phylogenetic diversity among the thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Perhaps because deep-sea smokers and continental hot springs are visually more stunning, shallow-sea systems are often overlooked study sites. We will discuss their particular features that afford unique opportunities in microbial geochemistry. Two of the better studied examples are at Vulcano Island (Italy) and Ambitle Island (Papua New Guinea). The vents and sediment seeps at Vulcano are the "type locality" for numerous cultured hyperthermophiles, including the bacteria Aquifex and Thermotoga, the crenarchaeon Pyrodictium, and the Euryarchaeota Archaeoglobus and Pyrococcus. Isotope-labeled incubation experiments of heated sediments and an array of culturing studies have shown that simple organic compounds are predominantly fermented or anaerobically respired with sulfate. 16S rRNA gene surveys, together with fluorescent in situ hybridization studies, demonstrated the dominance of key thermophilic bacteria and archaea (e.g., Aquificales, Thermotogales, Thermococcales, Archaeoglobales) in the sediments and the presence of a broad spectrum of mostly uncultured crenarchaeota in several vent waters, sediment samples, and geothermal wells. Thermodynamic modeling quantified potential energy yields from aerobic and anaerobic respiration reactions and fermentation reactions. In contrast to their deep-sea counterparts, shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are often characterized by high arsenic concentrations of more than 500-times seawater levels. The arsenic, generally present as arsenite (As^{III}) in the vent fluid, feeds local biogeochemical arsenic cycles. Thus, shallow sites are excellent hunting grounds for novel extremophiles that may gain metabolic energy by catalyzing arsenic redox reactions. Particularly the Ambitle site, where hydrothermal fluids contain up to 1,000 ?g/L arsenite, has proven to be exceptional. There, the arsenic has a wide-ranging impact on micro-, meio-, and macro-fauna.

Amend, J. P.; Pichler, T.

2006-12-01

233

Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers  

PubMed Central

Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc.), prepared between 1 and 4 times a day with a quantity of up to 120 g of a tobacco-molasses mixture each (i.e. the tobacco weight equivalent of up to 60 cigarettes of 1 g each) and consumed in 1 to 8 sessions. Methods Enhanced chemiluminescent immunometric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in serum samples from 59 exclusive male smokers with age ranging from 20–80 years (mean = 58.8 ± 14.7 years) and 8–65 years of smoking (mean = 37.7 ± 16.8). 36 non-smokers served as controls. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the number of preparations; the number of sessions and the total daily smoking time: Light (1; 1; ? 20 minutes); Medium (1–3; 1–3; >20 min to ? 2 hrs) and Heavy smokers (2–4; 3–8; >2 hrs to ? 6 hrs). Because of the nature of distribution of CEA levels among our individuals, Wilcoxon's rank sum two-sample test was applied to compare the variables. Results The overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers (mean: 3.58 ± 2.61 ng/ml; n = 59) were not significantly different (p ? 0.0937) from the levels in non-smokers (2.35 ± 0.71 ng/ml). Mean levels in light, medium and heavy smokers were: 1.06 ± 0.492 ng/ml (n = 5); 2.52 ± 1.15 ng/ml (n = 28) and 5.11 ± 3.08 ng/ml (n = 26) respectively. The levels in medium smokers and non-smokers were also not significantly different (p ? 0.9138). In heavy smokers, the CEA levels were significantly higher than in non-smokers (p ? 0.0001567). Conclusion Overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers were low compared to cigarette smokers. However, heavy hookah smoking substantially raises CEA levels. Low-nitrosamines smokeless tobacco of the SNUS Swedish type could be envisaged as an alternative to smoking for this category of users and also, in a broad harm reduction perspective, to the prevalent low-quality moist snuff called naswar. PMID:18501010

Sajid, Khan Mohammad; Chaouachi, Kamal; Mahmood, Rubaida

2008-01-01

234

Mystery of the Megaplume: Hydrothermal Vent Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will investigate hydrothermal vents to see how the chemistry of the water they emit provides clues to the location of the vents. They should be able to describe hydrothermal vents and characterize vent plumes in terms of physical and chemical properties; describe data gathering operations in which a towed instrument package ("tow-yo") measures conductivity, temperature, and depth; and interpret temperature anomaly data to recognize a plume emanating from a hydrothermal vent.

235

Gender Differences in Quit Support by Partners of Health-Compromised Smokers  

PubMed Central

In a study of spousal support for smoking cessation, 34 couples in which one partner continued to smoke despite having a heart or lung problem used an adaptation of Cohen & Lichtenstein’s (1990) Partner Interaction Questionnaire to describe the spouse’s attempts to help the primary (ill) smoker quit. Female smokers received less support for quitting from their spouse or partner than male smokers did, regardless of whether the support was positive or negative, whether the partner also smoked, or whether the smoker or partner rated the partner’s support behavior Female patients in a treatment sub-sample were also less likely than men to achieve stable 1-year cessation if the couple had rated partner support at baseline as coercive or unhelpful. Given known gender differences in relapse risk, cessation interventions for health-compromised female smokers might profitably include partners in addition to the smokers themselves. PMID:19907672

Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Shoham, Varda; Dempsey, Catherine L.

2009-01-01

236

An Evidence-based Cessation Strategy Using Rural Smokers’ Experiences with Tobacco  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Although tobacco use remains the single most preventable cause of death in the US, little is known about the most effective population-based strategies to reach rural smokers and motivate them to quit. The purpose of this study was to describe the personal narratives of current and former smokers living in an economically distressed, rural area of Appalachian Kentucky. Personal narratives were obtained from focus groups with smokers/former smokers (N=21). Data were analyzed using Atlas.ti 6 Three categories of nine themes emerged: personal motivators to quit smoking, external influences, pride of place. Capturing personal narratives represents an evidence-based, data-rich strategy for development of culturally sensitive, population-based interventions aimed at rural smokers. Such strategies may be effective in reaching rural smokers and motivating them to quit, thereby reducing tobacco-related disease and premature death in rural, economically distressed communities. PMID:22289396

Butler, Karen M.; Hedgecock, Susan; Record, Rachael A.; Derifield, Stephanie; McGinn, Carolyn; Murray, Deborah; Hahn, Ellen J.

2012-01-01

237

Differential cigarette-related startle cue reactivity among light, moderate, and heavy smokers  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined the relationship between the level of daily cigarette consumption and the startle response to affective and cigarette-related cues among treatment-seeking smokers. Before receiving any behavioral or pharmacological treatment, 136 smokers attended a baseline laboratory session, during which we recorded their reflexive eyeblink responses to acoustic startle probes while they were viewing pleasant, unpleasant, neutral, and cigarette-related pictures. We found that 1) cigarette-related and pleasant pictures similarly reduced the startle magnitude compared to neutral pictures; 2) the magnitude of startle modulation rendered by pleasant or unpleasant pictures did not differ among light, moderate, and heavy smokers; and 3) startle attenuation by cigarette-related pictures was greater in heavy smokers than in light smokers. These results suggest that similar to pleasant stimuli, cigarette-related cues are motivationally salient for smokers, and that this salience increases with nicotine dependence. PMID:22571920

Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D.; Versace, Francesco; Lam, Cho Y.; Minnix, Jennifer A.; Karam-Hage, Maher; Dani, John A.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Wetter, David W.; Brown, Victoria L.; Cinciripini, Paul M.

2012-01-01

238

Hydrothermal vent complexes associated with sill intrusionsin sedimentarybasins  

E-print Network

Hydrothermal vent complexes associated with sill intrusionsin sedimentarybasins BJIbRNJAMTVEIT1 sedimentarybasinscause strongthermal perturbations and frequentlycause extensivehydrothermalactivity.Hydrothermal vent strata surrounding a central vent complex. comprisingmultiplesandstone dykes, pipes, and hydrothermal

Podladchikov, Yuri

239

Response to nicotine dependence treatment in smokers with current and past alcohol problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking prevalence among alcoholics is high, and evidence indicates that smokers with a history of alcohol abuse may have\\u000a more difficulty quitting cigarette smoking. This study is a post hoc analysis comparing the smoking cessation rates of smokers\\u000a with active or past alcohol problems to the rates in smokers with no history of alcohol problems who were participants in\\u000a a

J. Taylor Hays; Darrell R. Schroeder; Kenneth P. Offord; Ivana T. Croghan; Christi A. Patten; Richard D. Hurt; Douglas E. Jorenby; Michael C. Fiore

1999-01-01

240

Adherence to nicotine replacement therapy versus quitting smoking among Chinese smokers: a preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleThere are over 300 million Chinese smokers, but use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is rare. On the other hand, data on the factors associated with quitting and adherence to NRT use are scarce in the East.ObjectivesTo describe adherence and other predictors of quitting smoking at the 12-month follow-up amongst Chinese smokers in Hong Kong.MethodsChinese smokers (1186) who attended the

Tai-Hing Lam; Abu Saleh M. Abdullah; Sophia S. C. Chan; Anthony J. Hedley

2005-01-01

241

Prefrontal hemodynamic changes during cigarette smoking in young adult smokers with and without ADHD.  

PubMed

Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have elevated smoking prevalence and reduced cessation rates compared to the general population. However, the effects of cigarette smoking on underlying brain activity in smokers with ADHD are not well characterized. Non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to characterize how cigarette smoking affects prefrontal brain hemodynamics in smokers with and without ADHD. Prefrontal changes of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin (HbO2 and HHb) were measured in six male adult smokers with ADHD and six age- and gender-matched control smokers. NIRS measurements were separated into four sequential time intervals, i.e., before smoking, during smoking, after smoking, and during a breath hold. Prefrontal HbO2 was lower during smoking in smokers with ADHD compared to control smokers. More specifically, smokers with ADHD showed decreased prefrontal HbO2 during smoking compared to breath hold, before and after smoking periods. In contrast, control smokers showed increased prefrontal HbO2 from before smoking to breath hold. Decreased prefrontal HbO2 in smokers with ADHD may reflect a smoking-induced change in prefrontal brain activity and microvasculature, which is not found in smokers without ADHD. The lower prefrontal HbO2 may be a biomarker for increased susceptibility to tobacco smoke in smokers with ADHD. Smoking in individuals with ADHD may increase vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries in the prefrontal cortex, which may contribute to a reduction in HbO2. The findings highlight the importance of smoking cessation, in particular in those smokers who use nicotine to self-medicate ADHD symptoms. PMID:24125785

Gehricke, Jean-G; Polzonetti, Chiara; Caburian, Cyrus; Gratton, Enrico

2013-11-01

242

Prefrontal hemodynamic changes during cigarette smoking in young adult smokers with and without ADHD?  

PubMed Central

Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have elevated smoking prevalence and reduced cessation rates compared to the general population. However, the effects of cigarette smoking on underlying brain activity in smokers with ADHD are not well characterized. Non-invasive Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to characterize how cigarette smoking affects prefrontal brain hemodynamics in smokers with and without ADHD. Prefrontal changes of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin (HbO2 and HHb) were measured in six male adult smokers with ADHD and six age- and gender-matched control smokers. NIRS measurements were separated into four sequential time intervals, i.e., before smoking, during smoking, after smoking, and during a breath hold. Prefrontal HbO2 was lower during smoking in smokers with ADHD compared to control smokers. More specifically, smokers with ADHD showed decreased prefrontal HbO2 during smoking compared to breath hold, before and after smoking periods. In contrast, control smokers showed increased prefrontal HbO2 from before smoking to breath hold. Decreased prefrontal HbO2 in smokers with ADHD may reflect a smoking-induced change in prefrontal brain activity and microvasculature, which is not found in smokers without ADHD. The lower prefrontal HbO2 may be a biomarker for increased susceptibility to tobacco smoke in smokers with ADHD. Smoking in individuals with ADHD may increase vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries in the prefrontal cortex, which may contribute to a reduction in HbO2. The findings highlight the importance of smoking cessation, in particular in those smokers who use nicotine to self-medicate ADHD symptoms. PMID:24125785

Gehricke, Jean-G.; Polzonetti, Chiara; Caburian, Cyrus; Gratton, Enrico

2013-01-01

243

Molecular evidence for microorganisms participating in Fe, Mn, and S biogeochemical cycling in two low-temperature hydrothermal fields at the Southwest Indian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined two low-temperature hydrothermal deposits rich in Fe-Si-Mn collected from the recently discovered hydrothermal fields at the Southwest Indian Ridge using mineralogical, geochemical, and molecular biological techniques. The mineralogical and geochemical analyses indicated that the low-temperature hydrothermal fields would provide a warm and chemical species-rich habitat for chemosynthetic-based hydrothermal ecosystems. Analyses of 16S rRNA sequences showed that ?-Proteobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, Leptothrix, and Pseudomonas were potential Fe and Mn oxidizers in the low-temperature hydrothermal environments, but they were not present in equal abundance among the subniches. Some potential Fe and Mn reducers were also recovered; they were more commonly found in the exterior black Fe-Mn oxides. The difference between the exterior black Fe-Mn oxides and the interior Opal-A could be related to differences in in situ physicochemical conditions. We also identified microbial players that may participate in sulfur (S) geochemical cycling in these low-temperature hydrothermal environments via analyses of 16S rRNA sequences and the aprA functional gene. The results indicated that members of ?-Proteobacteria and ?-Proteobacteria were involved in the S oxidation process, while members of ?-Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Firmicutes, and Archaea might participate in the S reduction process. Fe, Mn, and S oxidizers and reducers might actively participate in hydrothermal biogeochemical processes, which could influence the transfer of chemical species and the formation of biogenic minerals.

Li, Jiwei; Peng, Xiaotong; Zhou, Huaiyang; Li, Jiangtao; Sun, Zhilei

2013-06-01

244

Smoking and the bandit: A preliminary study of smoker and non-smoker differences in exploratory behavior measured with a multi-armed bandit task  

PubMed Central

Advantageous decision-making is an adaptive trade-off between exploring alternatives and exploiting the most rewarding option. This trade-off may be related to maladaptive decision-making associated with nicotine dependence; however, explore/exploit behavior has not been previously investigated in the context of addiction. The explore/exploit trade-off is captured by the multi-armed bandit task, in which different arms of a slot machine are chosen to discover the relative payoffs. The goal of this study was to preliminarily investigate whether smokers differ from non-smokers in their degree of exploratory behavior. Smokers (n = 18) and non-smokers (n = 17) completed a six-armed bandit task as well as self-report measures of behavior and personality traits. Smokers were found to exhibit less exploratory behavior (i.e. made fewer switches between slot machine arms) than non-smokers within the first 300 trials of the bandit task. The overall proportion of exploratory choices negatively correlated with self-reported measures of delay aversion and nonplanning impulsivity. These preliminary results suggest that smokers make fewer initial exploratory choices on the bandit task. The bandit task is a promising measure that could provide valuable insights into how nicotine use and dependence is associated with explore/exploit decision-making. PMID:23245198

Addicott, Merideth A.; Pearson, John M.; Wilson, Jessica; Platt, Michael L.; McClernon, F. Joseph

2014-01-01

245

Decreased single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity in cocaine freebase smokers.  

PubMed

The authors performed pulmonary function tests on 10 chronic cocaine freebase smokers. Testing occurred at least 2 weeks after stopping cocaine use. Mean single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCOSB) was significantly reduced (P less than 0.05) in the cocaine smokers when compared with a control group of non-smokers and non-drug users. All other parameters of lung function were normal. Since most of the cocaine smokers also smoked tobacco, the observed abnormality may have been due to an additive effect of the 2 substances. The authors conclude that smoking cocaine may damage the gas exchange surface of the lung. PMID:3595450

Weiss, R D; Tilles, D S; Goldenheim, P D; Mirin, S M

1987-05-01

246

Glutathione and nitrite levels in induced sputum at COPD patients and healthy smokers  

PubMed Central

Objectives The role of oxidative stress at the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is known. The aim of this study is to investigate the oxidative stress with sputum induction that is a simple method in COPD patients and healthy smokers. Methods Sputum induction was performed in 21 COPD patients (10 stable, 11 acute exacerbations), nine healthy smokers, and ten healthy non-smokers. Glutathione, NO2– levels, and cell counts at sputum, and plasma NO2– contents were evaluated in all subjects. Results Mean sputum glutathione and NO2– levels were significantly higher in acute exacerbations with COPD patients than healthy smokers (P=0.007 and P<0.001 respectively), and non-smokers (P<0.001 and P<0.001 respectively). On the other hand, sputum glutathione and NO2– levels did not show significant differences between stable and acute exacerbations with COPD patients. Although, sputum glutathione levels were higher in stable COPD patients than healthy smokers’, no statistically significant difference was established. In addition, sputum glutathione levels were significantly higher in healthy smokers than non-smokers (P<0.001). Conclusions As a result, we can say that oxidative stress increases not only in COPD patients but also in healthy smokers. In addition, sputum induction that is a simple method can be used to demonstrate to show oxidative stress. PMID:24977001

?lhan, Nevin; Deveci, Figen; Akpolat, Nusret; Erden, Ersin ?ükrü; Muz, M. Hamdi

2014-01-01

247

Weight Concerns Among Finnish Ever-Smokers: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Concern over weight gain after smoking cessation has been hypothesized to discourage quit attempts and consequently reduce smoking cessation rates. The aim of this study was to examine the association between smoking status and weight concerns among a population-based sample of Finnish ever-smokers. Methods: Data were collected in conjunction with the National FINRISK 2007 Study from a population-based sample of 25- to 74-yearold Finns. These analyses were based on a subsample of 1,614 ever-smokers. Participants were divided into 4 groups (daily smokers, occasional smokers, recent quitters, and former smokers) based on the self-reported smoking status. Weight concerns were analyzed as a sum score including 6 items (range 0–24). Regression analyses were used to examine the association between smoking status and weight concerns, while adjusting for multiple confounders. Results: Smoking status was significantly associated with weight concerns, current daily smokers reporting the highest levels of weight concerns. After adjusting for potential confounders (age, gender, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and health behavior), the weight concerns of daily smokers remained significantly higher in comparison with all other groups. Although women were more concerned about their weight than men, no gender-specific associations were found between weight concerns and smoking status. Conclusions: Current daily smokers are more concerned about their weight than recent quitters, as well as former and occasional smokers. Weight concerns should be taken into account in tobacco dependence treatment. PMID:23547276

2013-01-01

248

Increased Genetic Vulnerability to Smoking at CHRNA5 in Early-Onset Smokers  

PubMed Central

Context Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. Objective To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. Data Sources Primary data. Study Selection Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. Data Extraction Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94 050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ?10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33 348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ?16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. Data Synthesis Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR]=1.45; 95% CI, 1.36–1.55; n=13 843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21–1.33, n = 19 505) (P = .01). Conclusion These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers. PMID:22868939

Hartz, Sarah M.; Short, Susan E.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert; Chen, LiShiun; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Coon, Hilary; Han, Younghun; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sun, Juzhong; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef; Geller, Frank; Gu?bjartsson, Daniel; Hansel, Nadia N.; Jiang, Chenhui; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Liu, Zhen; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Michel, Martha; Rawal, Rajesh; Hum, Sc; Rosenberger, Albert; Scheet, Paul; Shaffer, John R.; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, John R.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Wheeler, William; Xiao, Xiangjun; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Aggen, Steven H.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Beaty, Terri; Bennett, Siiri; Bergen, Andrew W.; Boyd, Heather A.; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cichon, Sven; Couper, David; Cucca, Francesco; Dick, Danielle M.; Foroud, Tatiana; Furberg, Helena; Giegling, Ina; Gu, Fangyi; Hall, Alistair S.; Hällfors, Jenni; Han, Shizhong; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Lic, Phil; Hewitt, John K.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jensen, Majken K.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaakinen, Marika; Kittner, Steven J.; Konte, Bettina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Leppert, Mark; Levy, Steven M.; Mathias, Rasika A.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Muley, Thomas; Murray, Tanda; Nauck, Matthias; North, Kari; Pergadia, Michele; Polasek, Ozren; Ramos, Erin M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Risch, Angela; Ruczinski, Ingo; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Styrkársdóttir, Unnur; Terracciano, Antonio; Uda, Manuela; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wu, Xifeng; Abecasis, Goncalo; Barnes, Kathleen; Bickeböller, Heike; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caporaso, Neil; Duan, Jubao; Edenberg, Howard J.; Francks, Clyde; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gelernter, Joel; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Hops, Hyman; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F.; Marazita, Mary L.; Marchini, Jonathan; Melbye, Mads; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Raitakari, Olli; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sanders, Alan R.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shete, Sanjay; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret; Stefansson, Kari; Swan, Gary E.; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Völzke, Henry; Wei, Qingyi; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Amos, Christopher I.; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S.; Ehringer, Marissa; Grucza, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Heath, Andrew; Johnson, Eric O.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stitzel, Jerry A.; Weiss, Robert B.; Kraft, Peter; Bierut, Laura J.

2012-01-01

249

Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers  

PubMed Central

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist consumers in distinguishing real health threats from spurious health claims. As this report documents, there is a strong scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction, and it shows great potential as a public health strategy to help millions of smokers. PMID:17184539

Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

2006-01-01

250

Tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in smokers in the United States: NHANES 2007-2008.  

PubMed

The tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a metabolite of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), has been measured in urine samples from all participants aged 6 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008. Participants with a serum cotinine concentration of ? 10 ng/mL were identified as tobacco users, primarily cigarette smokers. Regression models were developed to calculate geometric mean NNAL concentrations adjusted for serum cotinine, urinary creatinine, cigarettes per day, and Federal Trade Commission tar values of the cigarettes smoked. Significant differences were found by gender (p=0.003) and race/ethnicity (p=0.022 for non-Hispanic white versus non-Hispanic black smokers), but not by menthol type of the cigarettes. Females and non-Hispanic white smokers had the highest adjusted means for urinary NNAL (353 and 336 pg/mL, respectively). The results from this study demonstrated significant relationships between NNAL concentrations and serum cotinine (p<0.001) and urine creatinine (p<0.001). The joint effect of linear and quadratic terms for number of cigarettes smoked per day was also statistically significant (p=0.001). In addition to addressing current NNK exposure levels, these results will form a baseline for future estimates of tobacco users' exposure to this carcinogen. PMID:21114376

Xia, Yang; Bernert, John T; Jain, Ram B; Ashley, David L; Pirkle, James L

2011-03-01

251

Genes associated with MUC5AC expression in small airway epithelium of human smokers and non-smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Mucus hypersecretion contributes to the morbidity and mortality of smoking-related lung diseases, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which starts in the small airways. Despite progress in animal studies, the genes and their expression pattern involved in mucus production and secretion in human airway epithelium are not well understood. We hypothesized that comparison of the transcriptomes of the small airway epithelium of individuals that express high vs low levels of MUC5AC, the major macromolecular component of airway mucus, could be used as a probe to identify the genes related to human small airway mucus production/secretion. Methods Flexible bronchoscopy and brushing were used to obtain small airway epithelium (10th to 12th order bronchi) from healthy nonsmokers (n=60) and healthy smokers (n=72). Affymetrix HG-U133 plus 2.0 microarrays were used to assess gene expression. Massive parallel sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to verify gene expression of small airway epithelium from 5 nonsmokers and 6 smokers. Results MUC5AC expression varied 31-fold among the healthy nonsmokers. Genome-wide comparison between healthy nonsmokers (n?=?60) grouped as “high MUC5AC expressors” vs “low MUC5AC expressors” identified 528 genes significantly up-regulated and 15 genes significantly down-regulated in the high vs low expressors. This strategy identified both mucus production and secretion related genes under control of a network composed of multiple transcription factors. Based on the literature, genes in the up-regulated list were used to identify a 73 “MUC5AC-associated core gene” list with 9 categories: mucus component; mucus-producing cell differentiation-related transcription factor; mucus-producing cell differentiation-related pathway or mediator; post-translational modification of mucin; vesicle transport; endoplasmic reticulum stress-related; secretory granule-associated; mucus secretion-related regulator and mucus hypersecretory-related ion channel. As a validation cohort, we assessed the MUC5AC-associated core gene list in the small airway epithelium of an independent set of healthy smokers (n?=?72). There was up-regulation of MUC5AC in the small airway epithelium of smokers (2.3-fold, p?smokers (p?smokers. Deep sequencing of small airway epithelium RNA confirmed these observations. This finding will be useful in identifying th

2012-01-01

252

Hydrothermal synthesis of vanadium oxides  

SciTech Connect

The use of mild hydrothermal methods to synthesize vanadium oxides is reviewed, with particular emphasis on those with layer and 3-dimensional structures. A wide range of studies have been performed predominantly in the past decade to grow new materials that might have interesting electrochemical and magnetic properties. Most emphasis has been placed on vanadium oxides that contain organic species or simple cations such as the alkali metals, alkaline earths, zinc and copper. The key parameters determining the structures formed are reviewed, including pH and the organic structure-directing ion. Some initial electrochemical studies are described.

Chirayil, T.; Zavalij, P.Y.; Whittingham, M.S. [State Univ. of New York, Binghamton, NY (United States)] [State Univ. of New York, Binghamton, NY (United States)

1998-10-01

253

Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal hydrothermal vents  

SciTech Connect

The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.

Stein, J.L.

1984-02-17

254

AUTOMATED PLANNING FOR HYDROTHERMAL VENT PROSPECTING USING  

E-print Network

AUTOMATED PLANNING FOR HYDROTHERMAL VENT PROSPECTING USING AUVS by ZEYN A SAIGOL A thesis submitted of searching the ocean floor for hydrothermal vents, using autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). This is a hard problem because the AUV's sensors cannot directly measure the range or bearing to vents

Yao, Xin

255

Molecular ecology of hydrothermal vent microbial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the structure and diversity of hydrothermal vent microbial communities has long been restricted to the morphological description of microorganisms and the use of enrichment culture-based techniques. Until recently the identification of the culturable fraction required the isolation of pure cultures followed by testing for multiple physiological and biochemical traits. However, peculiar inhabitants of the hydrothermal ecosystem such

Christian Jeanthon

2000-01-01

256

Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

2013-03-01

257

Hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures.  

PubMed

Because of their unique chemical and physical properties, inorganic semiconducting nanostructures have gradually played a pivotal role in a variety of research fields, including electronics, chemical reactivity, energy conversion, and optics. A major feature of these nanostructures is the quantum confinement effect, which strongly depends on their size, shape, crystal structure and polydispersity. Among all developed synthetic methods, the hydrothermal method based on a water system has attracted more and more attention because of its outstanding advantages, such as high yield, simple manipulation, easy control, uniform products, lower air pollution, low energy consumption and so on. Precise control over the hydrothermal synthetic conditions is a key to the success of the preparation of high-quality inorganic semiconducting nanostructures. In this review, only the representative hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures are selected and discussed. We will introduce the four types of strategies based on exterior reaction system adjustment, namely organic additive- and template-free hydrothermal synthesis, organic additive-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and substrate-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. In addition, the two strategies based on exterior reaction environment adjustment, including microwave-assisted and magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, will be also described. Finally, we conclude and give the future prospects of this research area. PMID:23563082

Shi, Weidong; Song, Shuyan; Zhang, Hongjie

2013-07-01

258

TUNABLE HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS OF BAMNO3 NANOCRYSTALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although synthesis of nanooxides has been attempted by many different and innovative chemical approaches, further research is still needed to develop inexpensive and mass- production methods capable to provide pure products and thus make nanocrystals' technological applications viable. Hydrothermal synthesis matches these requirements. Under hydrothermal conditions, where an aqueous reaction mixture is heated above 100 ºC in a sealed reaction

Ana Querejeta; Marina Parras; Aurea Varela; Jose González-Calbet

259

Hydrothermal metamorphism in the Larderello Geothermal Field  

SciTech Connect

The various tectonic units underlying the Larderello-Travale geothermal region have undergone hydrothermal metamorphism. The hydrothermal mineral assemblages are generally consistent with the temperatures now measured in the wells, leading to the hypothesis that solid phases deposited from a liquid medium during a hot-water stage that preceded the vapor-dominated one. 61 refs.

Cavarretta, G.; Gianelli, G.; Puxeddu, M.

1980-01-01

260

Adherence to nicotine replacement therapy among pregnant smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This secondary analysis examined the association between adherence to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and smoking cessation among pregnant smokers enrolled in Baby Steps, an open-label randomized controlled trial testing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) versus CBT plus NRT. Method: The analysis included only women who received NRT for whom we had complete data (N?=?104). Data came from daily calendars created from recordings of counseling sessions and from telephone surveys at baseline and 38 weeks gestation. Results: Overall, 29% of the 104 women used NRT for the recommended 6 weeks and 41% used NRT as directed in the first 48 hr after a quit attempt. Ordinal logistic regression modeling indicated that using NRT as directed in the first 48 hr and having made a previous quit attempt were the strongest predictors of longer NRT use. Univariate analyses suggested that primigravid women and women who used NRT longer were more likely to report quitting at 38 weeks gestation. Discussion: Findings indicated that adherence to NRT is low among pregnant smokers, but adherence was a predictor of cessation. Future trials should emphasize adherence, particularly more days on NRT, to promote cessation during pregnancy. PMID:19351783

Peterson, Bercedis L.; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Lyna, Pauline; Oncken, Cheryl A.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Myers, Evan R.; Pletsch, Pamela K.; Pollak, Kathryn I.

2009-01-01

261

Conditioned cues for smoking elicit preparatory responses in healthy smokers  

PubMed Central

Rationale Smoking cues are theorized to be conditioned stimuli (CSs) formed by repeated pairing with drug. Smoking paraphernalia can elicit subjective and physiological responses in smokers, indicative of positive affect and motivation to consume. Although these responses are probably the result of conditioning, direct evidence from human conditioning studies with physiological measures of motivational valence is rare. Objective The present study investigated the motivational properties of experimentally conditioned cues for smoking. Methods Thirty-nine smokers completed a differential conditioning protocol. Abstract pictures were used as CSs and single puffs on a cigarette as unconditioned stimulus (US). Skin conductance responses and facial electromyography of the zygomatic, corrugator, and orbicularis oris muscles were measured during conditioning. Results The conditioned cue for smoking (CS+) elicited stronger skin conductance responses and more activity of the zygomatic and orbicularis oris muscles than the CS?. Conclusions These results support the notion that through pairing with smoking, neutral stimuli acquire the ability to elicit preparatory physiological responses, which are assumed to play an important role in the maintenance of addiction and relapse in the natural environment. PMID:20953588

Winkler, Markus H.; Weyers, Peter; Mucha, Ronald F.; Stippekohl, Bastian; Stark, Rudolf

2010-01-01

262

Lower expressions of the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R in smokers: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the fact that smokers have deficit in detecting taste, particularly bitter taste, no study has investigated its biological correlate. Methods In this context, we compared the expression of the bitter taste receptor gene, taste 2 receptor (TAS2R) in the tongues of smokers and non-smokers. Tissue samples were collected from the lateral portion of the tongues of 22 smokers and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (19 males and three females) with no history of smoking. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the expression of TAS2R in the two groups, and the effect of aging on TAS2R expression was also assessed. Results TAS2R expression was significantly lower among smokers than non-smokers (t?=?6.525, P?smokers vs. smokers). Further, a positive correlation between age and expression of TAS2R was observed in non-smokers (r?=?.642, P?=?.001), but not smokers (r?=?.124, P?=?.584). This correlation difference was significant (Z?=?1.96, P?=?.0496). Conclusions Smokers showed a significantly lower expression of the bitter taste receptor gene than non-smokers, which is potentially caused by their inability to acquire such receptors with age because of cigarette smoking, in contrast to non-smokers. PMID:25152706

2014-01-01

263

Analysis of circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in tobacco smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: IGF-1 and the major serum IGF-1 binding protein, IGFBP-3, are under extensive investigation as potential prognostic markers of specific malignancies and vascular diseases. However, there is conflicting evidence that tobacco smoking may influence systemic concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Serum concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were measured in 20 smokers and 20 non-smokers, matched for age

RM Palmer; RF Wilson; PY Coward; DA Scott

2003-01-01

264

Airway Epithelial Expression of Toll-like Receptor 5 is Down-regulated in Healthy Smokers and Smokers with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

The toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the respiratory epithelium host innate defense, enabling the airway surface to recognize and respond to a variety of insults in inhaled air. Based on the knowledge that smokers are more susceptible to pulmonary infection and that the airway epithelium of smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by bacterial colonization and acute exacerbation of airway infections, we assessed whether smoking alters expression of TLRs in human small airway epithelium, the primary site of smoking-induced disease. Microarrays were used to survey the TLR family gene expression in small airway (10th–12th order) epithelium from healthy nonsmokers (n=60), healthy smokers (n=73) and smokers with COPD (n=36). Using the criteria of detection call of present in ?50%, 6 of 10 TLRs (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8) were expressed. Compared to nonsmokers, the most striking change was for TLR5, which was down-regulated in healthy smokers (1.4-fold, p<10?10) and smokers with COPD (1.6-fold, p<10?11). TaqMan RT-PCR confirmed these observations. Bronchial biopsy immunofluorescence studies showed that TLR5 was expressed mainly on the apical side of the epithelium and was decreased in healthy smokers and smokers with COPD. In vitro, the level of TLR5 downstream genes, IL-6 and IL-8, were highly induced by flagellin in TLR5 high-expressing cells compared to TLR5 low-expressing cells. In the context that TLR5 functions to recognize pathogens and activate innate immune responses, the smoking-induced down-regulation of TLR5 may contribute to smoking-related susceptibility to airway infection, at least for flagellated bacteria. PMID:22855713

Wang, Rui; Ahmed, Joumana; Wang, Guoqing; Hassan, Ibrahim; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Salit, Jacqueline; Mezey, Jason; Crystal, Ronald G.

2012-01-01

265

Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors in the airways of smokers with chronic bronchitis.  

PubMed

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide involved in the regulation of airway mucus secretion. The biological functions of VIP are mediated through two receptors, the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type 1 (VPAC1R) and type 2 (VPAC2R). The aim of this study was to quantify the expression of both VPAC1R and VPAC2R in the central airways of smokers with chronic bronchitis. Surgical specimens were obtained from 33 smokers undergoing thoracotomy for localised pulmonary lesions: 23 smokers with symptoms of chronic bronchitis and 10 asymptomatic smokers with normal lung function. By using immunohistochemical and microscopic analysis, an increased expression of VPAC1R, but not VPAC2R, was found in bronchial epithelium, bronchial glands and vessels of smokers with symptoms of chronic bronchitis compared with asymptomatic smokers. Smokers with symptoms of chronic bronchitis also had an increased number of mononuclear cells positive for both VPAC1R and VPAC2R in the bronchial submucosa. In conclusion, the expression of type 1 and type 2 vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors is increased in the central airways of smokers with chronic bronchitis, suggesting their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of chronic bronchitis. PMID:15572539

Miotto, D; Boschetto, P; Bononi, I; Zeni, E; Cavallesco, G; Fabbri, L M; Mapp, C E

2004-12-01

266

Policy Compliance of Smokers on a Tobacco-Free University Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To explore factors influencing compliance with campus tobacco policies and strategies to increase compliance. Participants: Sixty tobacco smokers (April 2012). Methods: A 22-item intercept-interview with closed-and open-ended questions was conducted with smokers in adjacent compliant and noncompliant areas at 1 university with a 100%…

Russette, Helen C.; Harris, Kari Jo; Schuldberg, David; Green, Linda

2014-01-01

267

Use of and Interest in Smoking Cessation Strategies among Daily and Nondaily College Student Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine use of and interest in cessation strategies among nondaily and daily college student smokers. Participants: 800 undergraduate student smokers aged 18 to 25. Methods: The authors examined nondaily versus daily smoking in relation to use of and interest in cessation strategies using an online survey. Results: Nondaily (65.8%)…

Berg, Carla J.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mendel, Jennifer; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2012-01-01

268

Mood Management Intervention for College Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This pilot study examined smoking reduction and cessation among college smokers with elevated depressive symptomatology participating in a group-based behavioral counseling, mood management, and motivational enhancement combined intervention (CBT). Participants and Methods: Fifty-eight smokers (smoked 6 days in the past 30) were…

Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Campbell, Duncan G.; Harrar, Solomon W.

2012-01-01

269

A Qualitative Study of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices among 40 Undergraduate Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Because little is known about college-age smokers, the authors conducted a qualitative study to better understand this population. Participants: Forty college student smokers from 12 Pacific Northwest colleges participated in the study. Methods: The authors identified themes and built models to ascertain important factors related to…

Thompson, Beti; Thompson, L. Anne; Hymer, Jennifer; Zbikowsi, Susan; Halperin, Abigail; Jaffe, Robert

2007-01-01

270

Young smokers' attitudes about methods for quitting smoking: Barriers and benefits to using assisted methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently little information about how smokers choose a particular method to stop smoking. Young adult smokers rated likelihood of success as the most important criteria for choosing a stop-smoking method but saw only a small difference in likelihood of success between common assisted and unassisted methods. They rated cost, convenience, and quitting on own as other important criteria.

David Hines

1996-01-01

271

Peer Influence, Images of Smokers, and Beliefs about Smoking among Preadolescent Nonsmokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to test whether perceived peer influence is related to image of a typical smoker, and whether image of a typical smoker is associated with beliefs about the effects of smoking among preadolescent nonsmokers. Two hundred and ninety-two preadolescents completed a survey indicating their perceptions of the…

Tragesser, Sarah L.; Aloise-Young, Patricia A.; Swaim, Randall C.

2006-01-01

272

Tobacco Use by College Students: A Comparison of Daily and Nondaily Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To explore demographics, contextual factors, and health risk behaviors associated with nondaily smoking by college students. Methods: In fall 2005, a random sample of 4100 students completed an online survey. Results: Of those surveyed, 29% reported current smoking; of that 29%, 70% were nondaily smokers. Compared to daily smokers,…

Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Berg, Carla J.; Champion, Heather; Helme, Donald W.; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Wolfson, Mark

2012-01-01

273

LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS  

PubMed Central

More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the U.S. in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10–15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000–24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U.S. if considered to be a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accompanying article, lung cancers that occur in never smokers differ from those that occur in smokers in their molecular profile and response to targeted therapy. These recent laboratory and clinical observations highlight the importance of defining the genetic and environmental factors responsible for the development of lung cancer in never-smokers. This article summarizes available data on the clinical epidemiology of lung cancer in never smokers, and the several environmental risk factors that population-based research has implicated in the etiology of these cancers. Primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in never smokers include exposure to known and suspected carcinogens including radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, and other indoor air pollutants. Several other exposures have been implicated. However, a large fraction of lung cancers occurring in never-smokers cannot be definitively associated with established environmental risk factors, highlighting the need for additional epidemiologic research in this area. PMID:19755391

Samet, Jonathan M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Boffetta, Paolo; Hannan, Lindsay M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Thun, Michael J.; Rudin, Charles M.

2011-01-01

274

Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

2013-01-01

275

Characteristics of Psychopathy in Adolescent Nonsmokers and Smokers: Relations to Delay Discounting and Self Reported Impulsivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research compared impulsive behavior in adolescent nonsmokers with low ratings of psychopathy (n = 25) and daily smokers with low (n = 25) and high (n = 25) ratings of psychopathy. Assessments of impulsive behavior included question-based and real-time measures of delay discounting and a self report assessment of impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-Adolescent). Smokers with low psychopathy ratings discounted

Shane Melanko; Kristen Leraas; Christine Collins; Sherecce Fields; Brady Reynolds

2009-01-01

276

Effects of transdermal nicotine on prose memory and attention in smokers and nonsmokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research investigating cognitive effects of nicotine has produced mixed findings partly due to the use of abstaining smokers and cigarettes as a delivery system. The present study examined effects of nicotine delivered via a transdermal patch on prose memory and sustained attention in male smokers (n=25) and nonsmokers (n=22), who were randomly assigned to either a placebo or a

D. V. Poltavski; T. Petros

2005-01-01

277

Moderate Drug Use and Delay Discounting: A Comparison of Heavy, Light, and Never Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delay discounting was examined in light smokers (10 or fewer cigarettes per day) and compared with previously published delay discounting data for heavy and never smokers. Participants evaluated several hypothetical outcomes: money gains and loses ($10, $100, and $1,000), health gains and losses (durations of improved and impoverished health subjectively equivalent to $1,000), cigarette gains and losses (amounts subjectively equivalent

Matthew W. Johnson; Warren K. Bickel; Forest Baker

2007-01-01

278

Black Saturn  

E-print Network

Using the inverse scattering method we construct an exact stationary asymptotically flat 4+1-dimensional vacuum solution describing Black Saturn: a spherical black hole surrounded by a black ring. Angular momentum keeps the configuration in equilibrium. Black saturn reveals a number of interesting gravitational phenomena: (1) The balanced solution exhibits 2-fold continuous non-uniqueness for fixed mass and angular momentum; (2) Remarkably, the 4+1d Schwarzschild black hole is not unique, since the black ring and black hole of black saturn can counter-rotate to give zero total angular momentum at infinity, while maintaining balance; (3) The system cleanly demonstrates rotational frame-dragging when a black hole with vanishing Komar angular momentum is rotating as the black ring drags the surrounding spacetime. Possible generalizations include multiple rings of saturn as well as doubly spinning black saturn configurations.

Henriette Elvang; Pau Figueras

2007-01-04

279

Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications  

PubMed Central

The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme—under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness—as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

Chapman, S; Liberman, J

2005-01-01

280

A multi-dimensional analysis of cue-elicited craving in heavy smokers and tobacco chippers  

PubMed Central

Aims This research examined the performance of a broad range of measures posited to relate to smoking craving. Design Heavy smokers and tobacco chippers, who were either deprived of smoking or not for 7 hours, were exposed to both smoking (a lit cigarette) and control cues. Participants Smokers not currently interested in trying to quit smoking (n = 127) were recruited. Heavy smokers (n = 67) averaged smoking at least 21 cigarettes/day and tobacco chippers (n = 60) averaged 1–5 cigarettes on at least 2 days/week. Measurements Measures included urge rating scales and magnitude estimations, a rating of affective valence, a behavioral choice task that assessed perceived reinforcement value of smoking, several smoking-related judgement tasks and a measure of cognitive resource allocation. Findings Results indicated that both deprivation state and smoker type tended to affect responses across these measurement domains. Conclusions Findings support the use of several novel measures of craving-related processes in smokers. PMID:11571061

SAYETTE, MICHAEL A.; MARTIN, CHRISTOPHER S.; WERTZ, JOAN M.; SHIFFMAN, SAUL; PERROTT, MICHAEL A.

2009-01-01

281

"It's all we got left". Why poor smokers are less sensitive to cigarette price increases.  

PubMed

In France, between 2000 and 2008, concurrently to the increase in cigarette price, we observed an increasing social differentiation of cigarette smoking: smoking prevalence decreased among executive managers and professional occupations, it remained stable among manual workers, and it increased among the unemployed. Poor smokers were heavier smokers, they were more frequently tobacco-dependent, and they were more prone to smoke automatically or to reduce "negative feelings". In-depth interviews provided a more comprehensive insight into poor smokers' motivations: they were aware of their addiction, but they also talked about the pleasure they get from smoking, and they highlighted the essential needs satisfied by smoking: stress relief, cheap leisure, compensation for loneliness, break-up or redundancy... Acknowledging the functional aspects of smoking experienced by poor smokers helps to understand why increasing the cigarette price is unlikely to deter many poor smokers from smoking. PMID:19440404

Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Constance, Jean

2009-02-01

282

Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications.  

PubMed

The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme-under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness-as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

Chapman, S; Liberman, J

2005-08-01

283

Reduced expression IRF7 in nasal epithelial cells from smokers as a potential mechanism mediating enhanced susceptibility to influenza  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Smokers are more susceptible to viral infections, including influenza virus, yet the mechanisms mediating this effect are not known. Methods: We have established an in vitro model of differentiated nasal epithelial cells from smokers, which maintain enhanced levels...

284

Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

2014-09-01

285

Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

2014-01-01

286

Oceanography Vol.23, No.1148 MouNtaiNs iN the se a  

E-print Network

, from black smokers rich in sulfur to cooler, diffuse, iron-rich hydrothermal vents. As such, seamounts are often sites of high-temperature hydrothermal venting and host many chemoauto- trophic microbes; however processes. The importance of hydrothermal vents associated with deep ocean crustal spreading centers

Moyer, Craig

287

Airways obstruction, chronic expectoration, and rapid decline of FEV1 in smokers are associated with increased levels of sputum neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Smoking may cause inflammation of the airways and impairment of lung function. To determine the relationship between the type and degree of airways inflammation and the decline in lung function, leucocytes in the sputum of smokers and ex-smokers were examined. METHODS: Forty six smokers and ex-smokers of median age 64 years (25%; 75% percentiles 62;66) with a smoking history

D St?nescu; A Sanna; C Veriter; S Kostianev; P G Calcagni; L M Fabbri; P Maestrelli

1996-01-01

288

Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

2013-12-01

289

Black holes  

PubMed Central

Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

2001-01-01

290

Comparison of tests used to distinguish smokers from nonsmokers.  

PubMed Central

Questionnaire and biochemical measures of smoking were studied in 211 hospital outpatients. Eleven different tests of smoke intake were compared for their ability to categorize smokers and nonsmokers correctly. The concentration of cotinine, whether measured in plasma, saliva, or urine, was the best indicator of smoking, with sensitivity of 96-97 per cent and specificity of 99-100 per cent. Thiocyanate provided the poorest discrimination. Carbon monoxide measured as blood carboxyhaemoglobin or in expired air gave sensitivity and specificity of about 90 per cent. Sensitivities of the tests were little affected by the presence among the claimed nonsmokers of a group of 21 "deceivers" who concealed their smoking. It is concluded that cotinine is the measure of choice, but for most clinical applications carbon monoxide provides an acceptable degree of discrimination and is considerably cheaper and simpler to apply. PMID:3661797

Jarvis, M J; Tunstall-Pedoe, H; Feyerabend, C; Vesey, C; Saloojee, Y

1987-01-01

291

Appalachian Teen Smokers: Not On Tobacco 15 Months Later  

PubMed Central

High school smokers from 2 central Appalachian states received the American Lung Association’s 10-session Not On Tobacco (N-O-T) program or a 15-minute brief self-help intervention. Our study compared the efficacy of N-O-T with that of the brief intervention by examining group differences in the 15-month-postbaseline (12-month-postprogram) smoking quit rates. N-O-T youths had higher overall quit rates. Review of end-of-program (3-month-postbaseline) and 3-month-postprogram (6-month-postbaseline) follow-up data showed state-level differences and positive cessation trends over time, regardless of treatment intensity. Quit rates were lower than rates found in other N-O-T studies of nonrural youths, suggesting that Appalachian youths are a recalcitrant smoking sample. Findings suggest that N-O-T is one option for long-term smoking cessation among rural teens. PMID:14759924

Horn, Kimberly A.; Dino, Geri A.; Kalsekar, Iftekhar D.; Fernandes, Ancilla W.

2004-01-01

292

Assessment of Depression among African American Light Smokers  

PubMed Central

Given the relationship between depression and smoking, we compared the two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) and 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) in assessing depressive symptoms among African American light smokers in a clinical trial of bupropion. Of 539 participants, 21.3 percent reported significant depressive symptoms on the PHQ-2, 31.0 percent screened positive per CESD-10, 36.8 percent reported symptoms on either, and 15.6 percent screened positive on both (r = 0.47, p < .001). Having depressive symptoms was associated with less education, decreased positive affect and social support, and greater levels of negative affect and perceived stress. Cessation treatment should assess depression and address these symptoms. PMID:21775497

Berg, Carla J.; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Choi, Won S.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Krebill, Ron; Bronars, Carrie A.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2014-01-01

293

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Loessial Mesoporous Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to sustain the inherent porous properties of loess, hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous materials from loess was carried out under saturated steam pressure at 100-200 °C for up to 24h. The experimental results showed that the curing temperature and time exerted a positive influence on the strength development, which was believed to be due to tobermorite formation. Moreover, during the hydrothermal process, a huge number of new mesopores could be formed within the matrix. Therefore a tough and mesoporous material could be produced from loess hydrothermally, which is expected to provide a good humidity regulating property.

Lu, L.; Jing, Z.; Wang, Z.; Pan, X.; Ishida, E. H.

2010-11-01

294

Dive and Discover's Deeper Discovery: Hydrothermal Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dive and Discover is an interactive distance learning web site designed to immerse you in the excitement of discovery and exploration of the deep seafloor. On this particular website, Dive and Discover takes you on a deeper discovery of hydrothermal vents. This site features an introduction to hydrothermal vent systems, including vent basics, vents around the world, chemistry, boiling points, interactive diagrams, videos, a quiz, and links to selected Dive and Discover hydrothermal vent-related seafloor expeditions. This web page also provides links to other Deeper Discovery topics, Dive and Discover seafloor expeditions, a teacher's page, and further Dive and Discover information.

2010-04-12

295

Anti and pro-oxidant factors and endothelial dysfunction in chronic cigarette smokers with coronary heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEndothelial dysfunction in cigarette smokers has been ascribed to increased oxidative damage. The aims of the present study were to compare the endothelial function of normotensive smokers with that of non-smokers and to examine its relation to some parameters representative of oxidative damage and of antioxidant capacity.

E. Rocchi; F. Bursi; P. Ventura; A. Ronzoni; C. Gozzi; G. Casalgrandi; L. Marri; R. Rossi; M. G. Modena

2007-01-01

296

Prevalence of chronic cough and phlegm among male cigar and pipe smokers: results of the Scottish Heart Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--Previous studies investigating the effect of cigar or pipe smoking on the occurrence of chronic cough and chronic phlegm have reported prevalences among cigar and pipe smokers lying between those of non-smokers and current cigarette smokers. This study uses data on previous cigarette consumption, current cigar or pipe consumption, and biochemical markers of smoking to provide a detailed analysis of

C A Brown; M Woodward; H Tunstall-Pedoe

1993-01-01

297

Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope  

DOEpatents

A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

2002-01-01

298

Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope  

DOEpatents

A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

2003-07-01

299

Hydrothermal carbonization of lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermochemical conversion process to convert lignocellulosic biomass into value-added products. HTC processes were studied using two different biomass feedstocks: corn stalk and Tamarix ramosissima. The treatment brought an increase of the higher heating values up to 29.2 and 28.4 MJ/kg for corn stalk and T. ramosissima, respectively, corresponding to an increase of 66.8% and 58.3% as compared to those for the raw materials. The resulting lignite-like solid products contained mainly lignin with a high degree of aromatization and a large amount of oxygen-containing groups. Liquid products extracted with ethyl acetate were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified degradation products were phenolic compounds and furan derivatives, which may be desirable feedstocks for biodiesel and chemical production. Based on these results, HTC is considered to be a potential treatment in a lignocellulosic biomass refinery. PMID:22698445

Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

2012-08-01

300

Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2008-05-06

301

IgG subclasses in smokers with chronic bronchitis and recurrent exacerbations  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Tobacco smokers have lower serum levels of IgG than non-smokers. IgG subclass deficiency is common in patients with recurrent respiratory infections. Recurrent bronchial infections are common in smokers with chronic bronchitis (CB). We have investigated whether susceptibility to recurrent exacerbations in smokers with CB is associated with altered IgG subclass levels or IgG subclass deficiency.?METHODS—Serum levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgG subclasses 1-4 were determined by radial immunodiffusion in 100 subjects: 33 smokers with stable CB and recurrent exacerbations, 24 asymptomatic smokers, and 43 healthy never smokers. Systemic tobacco exposure was verified and excluded using a serum cotinine ELISA. Immunoglobulin data were log transformed to enable use of parametric statistical methods.?RESULTS—Compared with never smokers, both patients with CB and asymptomatic smokers had significantly lower levels of IgG (median 9.7 g/l (range 5.6-15.2) and 9.9 (6.1-12.1) g/l v 12.0 (6.9-18.5) g/l) and IgG2 (2.8 (0.9-5.9) g/l and 2.5 (1.0-6.3) g/l v 4.0 (1.7-10.2) g/l). The estimated ratio of median values between the patients with CB and never smokers was 0.78 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69 to 0.89) for IgG and 0.65 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.83) for IgG2. The corresponding ratios between asymptomatic smokers and never smokers were 0.79 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.91) and 0.60 (95% CI 0.50to 0.83), respectively. There were no significant differences between the smoking groups.?CONCLUSIONS—Susceptibility to recurrent exacerbations in smokers with CB is not associated with lower levels of IgG subclasses than can be accounted for by smoking per se.?? PMID:11359959

Qvarfordt, I; Riise, G; Andersson, B; Larsson, S

2001-01-01

302

Macrofauna of shallow hydrothermal vents on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge at 71N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna and since their discovery in 1977, more than 400 species of animals have been described. Specialized vent fauna includes various animal phyla, but the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. We have investigated the fauna collected around newly discovered hydrothermal vents on the Mohns Ridge north of Jan Mayen. The venting fields are located at 71°N and the venting takes place within two main areas separated by 5 km. The shallowest vent area is at 500-550 m water depth and is located at the base of a normal fault. This vent field stretches approximately 1 km along the strike of the fault, and it is composed of 10-20 major vent sites each with multiple chimney constructions discharging up to 260°C hot fluids. A large area of diffuse, low- temperature venting occurs in the area surrounding the high-temperature field. Here, partly microbial mediated iron-oxide-hydroxide deposits are abundant. The hydrothermal vent sites do not show any high abundance of specialized hydrothermal vent fauna. Single groups (i.e. Porifera and Mollusca) have a few representatives but groups otherwise common in hydrothermal vent areas (e.g. vestimentifera, Alvinellid worms, mussels, clams, galathaeid and brachyuran crabs) are absent. Up until now slightly more than 200 species have been identified from the vent area. The macrofauna found in the vent area is, with few exceptions, an assortment of bathyal species known in the area. One endemic, yet undescribed, species of mollusc has been found so far, an gastropod related to Alvania incognita Warén, 1996 and A. angularis Warén, 1996 (Rissoidae), two species originally described from pieces of sunken wood north and south of Iceland. It is by far the most numerous mollusc species at the vents and was found on smokers, in the bacterial mats, and on the ferric deposits. A single specimen of an undescribed tanaidacean has also ben found. The crinoid Heliometra glacialis is dominating large areas surrounding the vent fields. Calcareous sponges were common in the area. Calcareous sponges normally represent only a minor fraction of the sponge fauna and it was therefore a big surprise that eight out of a total of 13 species reported here are calcareans. Annelids were the most speciose group with more than 80 identified species, followed by crustaceans. Possible explanations for the lack of typical vent fauna is discussed.

Schander, C.; Rapp, H. T.; Pedersen, R. B.

2007-12-01

303

Black Holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Anton Koekemoer; 1. Black holes, entropy, and information G. T. Horowitz; 2. Gravitational waves from black-hole mergers J. G. Baker, W. D. Boggs, J. M. Centrella, B. J. Kelley, S. T. McWilliams and J. R. van Meter; 3. Out-of-this-world physics: black holes at future colliders G. Landsberg; 4. Black holes in globular clusters S. L. W. McMillan; 5. Evolution of massive black holes M. Volonteri; 6. Supermassive black holes in deep multiwavelength surveys C. M. Urry and E. Treister; 7. Black-hole masses from reverberation mapping B. M. Peterson and M. C. Bentz; 8. Black-hole masses from gas dynamics F. D. Macchetto; 9. Evolution of supermassive black holes A. Müller and G. Hasinger; 10. Black-hole masses of distant quasars M. Vestergaard; 11. The accretion history of supermassive black holes K. Brand and the NDWFS Boötes Survey Teams; 12. Strong field gravity and spin of black holes from broad iron lines A. C. Fabian; 13. Birth of massive black-hole binaries M. Colpi, M. Dotti, L. Mayer and S. Kazantzidis; 14. Dynamics around supermassive black holes A. Gualandris and D. Merritt; 15. Black-hole formation and growth: simulations in general relativity S. L. Shapiro; 16. Estimating the spins of stellar-mass black holes J. E. McClintock, R. Narayan and R. Shafee; 17. Stellar relaxation processes near the Galactic massive black hole T. Alexander; 18. Tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes S. Gezari; 19. Where to look for radiatively inefficient accretion flows in low-luminosity AGN M. Chiaberge; 20. Making black holes visible: accretion, radiation, and jets J. H. Krolik.

Livio, Mario; Koekemoer, Anton M.

2011-02-01

304

Prediction equations for lung function in black industrial workers at Palabora Mining Company.  

PubMed

In the course of a study on the health effects of vermiculite, 653 black rural industrial workers had their lung function measured. Since the study revealed no health effects of their industrial environment, the group was used to determine prediction equations for black men. Vital capacity, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and peak flow were appreciably higher than the predicted values for blacks in the USA. The predicted values were, however, lower than those reported for white non-smokers but significantly higher than those reported for a non-smoking group of black miners in South West Africa/Namibia. PMID:2588084

Hessel, P A; Sluis-Cremer, G K

1989-11-18

305

Hydrothermal synthesis of cerium(IV) oxide  

SciTech Connect

CeO{sub 2} powders have been prepared from cerium(III) nitrate, cerium(IV) sulfate, and cerium(IV) ammonium sulfate under hydrothermal conditions at 120 to 200 C for 5 to 40 h. The effects of the starting cerium compounds, hydrothermal treatment temperature, and the concentration of the solutions on the crystal growth of CeO{sub 2} were investigated. CeO{sub 2} powders hydrothermally synthesized at 180 C for 5 h from cerium(IV) salts had very fine particle sizes (30 {angstrom}); on the other hand, the powder from the cerium(III) salt had a relatively coarse particle size (160 {angstrom}). Although the crystallite size of the powder synthesized from the cerium(IV) compounds depended on the treatment temperature, that from the cerium(III) compound was insensitive to the treatment temperature. The mechanisms for the growth of CeO{sub 2} particles under hydrothermal conditions are discussed.

Hirano, Masanori; Kato, Etsuro [Aichi Inst. of Tech., Toyota (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

1996-03-01

306

Effects of 7.5% carbon dioxide inhalation on anxiety and mood in cigarette smokers.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is associated with elevated risk of anxiety and mood disorder. Using the 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation model of anxiety induction, we examined the effects of smoking status and abstinence from smoking on anxiety responses. Physiological and subjective responses to CO2 and medical air were compared in smokers and non-smokers (Experiment One) and in overnight abstinent and non-abstinent smokers (Experiment Two). CO2 induced greater increases in blood pressure in non-smokers compared with smokers (ps < 0.043), and greater increases in anxiety (p = 0.005) and negative affect (p = 0.054) in non-abstinent compared with abstinent smokers. CO2 increased physiological and subjective indices of anxiety. There were differences across smoking groups indicating that the CO2 inhalation model is a useful tool for examining the relationship between smoking and anxiety. The findings suggested that both acute smoking and acute abstinence may protect against anxious responding. Further investigation is needed in long-term heavy smokers. PMID:24763184

Attwood, Angela S; Ataya, Alia F; Bailey, Jayne E; Lightman, Stafford L; Munafò, Marcus R

2014-04-24

307

Monodisperse spindle-like FeWO{sub 4} nanoparticles: Controlled hydrothermal synthesis and enhanced optical properties  

SciTech Connect

Monodisperse FeWO{sub 4} nanoparticles with specific spindle-like morphology have been synthesized in the presence of citric acid through hydrothermal process. In the synthesis route, citric acid played four roles such as the reducing agent, chelating regents, structure-directing agent and stabilizing agents. In addition, the morphology of FeWO{sub 4} was dramatically tuned by the pH value of the precursor medium. The optical properties of FeWO{sub 4} were investigated with UV-Vis spectra and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic experiments demonstrated that the decomposition efficiency of the monodisperse spindle-like FeWO{sub 4} nanoparticles is 74% after 30 min of UV irradiation, which displayed remarkable enhanced photodegradation activity compared with ordinary FeWO{sub 4} sample (57%) and normal TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts P-25 (56%). - Monodisperse spindle-like FeWO{sub 4} nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activities. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monodisperse spindle-like FeWO{sub 4} were synthesized with hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Citric acid plays key roles in the hydrothermal synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their morphology can be tuned with pH value of the precursor medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They show enhanced photocatalytic activities with irradiation of UV light.

Guo, Jinxue; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Lu, Yibin [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, No.53, Zhengzhou Road, People's Republic of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266042 (China)] [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, No.53, Zhengzhou Road, People's Republic of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266042 (China); Zhang, Xiao, E-mail: zhx1213@126.com [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, No.53, Zhengzhou Road, People's Republic of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266042 (China)] [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, No.53, Zhengzhou Road, People's Republic of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266042 (China); Kuang, Shaoping; Hou, Wanguo [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, No.53, Zhengzhou Road, People's Republic of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266042 (China)] [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, No.53, Zhengzhou Road, People's Republic of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266042 (China)

2012-12-15

308

Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

Not Available

1982-05-01

309

Rare earth element systematics in hydrothermal fluids  

SciTech Connect

Rare earth element concentrations have been measured in hydrothermal solutions from geothermal fields in Italy, Dominica, Valles Caldera, Salton Sea and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The measured abundances show that hydrothermal activity is not expected to affect the REE balance of either continental or oceanic rocks. The REE enrichment of the solutions increases when the pH decreases. High-temperature solutions (> 230{degree}C) percolating through different rock types may show similar REE patterns.

Michard, A. (Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France))

1989-03-01

310

Differential Effect of Active Smoking on Gene Expression in Male and Female Smokers  

PubMed Central

Smoking is the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Cohort epidemiological studies have demonstrated that women are more vulnerable to cigarette-smoking induced diseases than their male counterparts, however, the molecular basis of these differences has remained unknown. In this study, we explored if there were differences in the gene expression patterns between male and female smokers, and how these patterns might reflect different sex-specific responses to the stress of smoking. Using whole genome microarray gene expression profiling, we found that a substantial number of oxidant related genes were expressed in both male and female smokers, however, smoking-responsive genes did indeed differ greatly between male and female smokers. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) against reference oncogenic signature gene sets identified a large number of oncogenic pathway gene-sets that were significantly altered in female smokers compared to male smokers. In addition, functional annotation with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified smoking-correlated genes associated with biological functions in male and female smokers that are directly relevant to well-known smoking related pathologies. However, these relevant biological functions were strikingly overrepresented in female smokers compared to male smokers. IPA network analysis with the functional categories of immune and inflammatory response gene products suggested potential interactions between smoking response and female hormones. Our results demonstrate a striking dichotomy between male and female gene expression responses to smoking. This is the first genome-wide expression study to compare the sex-specific impacts of smoking at a molecular level and suggests a novel potential connection between sex hormone signaling and smoking-induced diseases in female smokers.

Paul, Sunirmal; Amundson, Sally A

2015-01-01

311

New Campaign, Featuring Smokers' Personal Stories, Encourages Tobacco Users to "Be a Quitter"  

Cancer.gov

Smokers and other tobacco users trying to quit will soon have a potent ally--fellow smokers. "Be a Quitter," a new initiative featuring the inspirational stories of people who want to quit smoking, was announced today. Now through October 27, 2006, 1-800-QUIT-NOW will accept submissions from cigarette smokers and other tobacco users explaining, in their own words, why they want to "Quit Smoking Now!" Interested participants can visit 1800quitnow.org for specific instructions on how to submit video entries. Winners will be announced on February 1, 2007.

312

Exploring Smokers' Knowledge and Expectations Toward Nicotine Vaccination: A Qualitative Study.  

PubMed

Knowledge and expectations toward smoking cessation therapies may influence effectiveness. Nicotine vaccination is a novel and promising new therapy for smoking cessation. This qualitative study explored smokers' knowledge and expectations toward nicotine vaccination as well as varenicline and counseling for smoking cessation. We conducted focus group discussions and interviews in 25 smokers at Maastricht University, the Netherlands, in 2010. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Participants had serious misconceptions about the purpose of nicotine vaccination, particularly the belief that nicotine vaccines reduce craving. Expectations toward counseling were highest. These results underline misconceptions smokers can have about cessation therapies. PMID:23924241

Hoogsteder, Philippe; van Merrebach, Martijn; Otters, Marjanneke; van Schayck, Onno; Kotz, Daniel

2013-08-01

313

Emotional disorders and smoking: Relations to quit attempts and cessation strategies among treatment-seeking smokers.  

PubMed

The cross-sectional associations between lifetime emotional disorder status (anxiety/depressive disorders) among smokers in relation to historical quit processes were examined. Adult treatment-seeking daily cigarette smokers (n=472) received structured psychiatric interviews and completed a survey that included in-depth questions on cessation history. Having a lifetime emotional disorder was significantly associated with a greater number of prior quit attempts and cessation strategies used, including increased use of both non-pharmacological and pharmacological quit methods. These smokers may still require complimentary specialty care to address their specific affective vulnerabilities given that their use of commonly-applied strategies did not result in lifetime abstinence. PMID:25260199

Zvolensky, Michael J; Farris, Samantha G; Leventhal, Adam M; Ditre, Joseph W; Schmidt, Norman B

2015-01-01

314

Proteomic analysis of whole human saliva detects enhanced expression of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, thioredoxin and lipocalin-1 in cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers.  

PubMed

A gel-based proteomics approach was used to screen for proteins of differential abundance between the saliva of smokers and those who had never smoked. Subjecting precipitated proteins from whole human saliva of healthy non-smokers to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) generated typical profiles comprising more than 50 proteins. While 35 of the proteins were previously established by other researchers, an additional 22 proteins were detected in the 2-DE saliva protein profiles generated in the present study. When the 2-DE profiles were compared to those obtained from subjects considered to be heavy cigarette smokers, three saliva proteins, including interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, thioredoxin and lipocalin-1, showed significant enhanced expression. The distribution patterns of lipocalin-1 isoforms were also different between cigarette smokers and non-smokers. The three saliva proteins have good potential to be used as biomarkers for the adverse effects of smoking and the risk for inflammatory and chronic diseases that are associated with it. PMID:21151451

Jessie, Kala; Pang, Wei Wei; Haji, Zubaidah; Rahim, Abdul; Hashim, Onn Haji

2010-01-01

315

The Third Dimension of an Active Back-arc Hydrothermal System: ODP Leg 193 at PACMANUS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This first sub-seafloor examination of an active hydrothermal system hosted by felsic volcanics, at a convergent margin, obtained drill core from a high-T "smoker" site (penetrated to sim200 mbsf) and a low-T site of diffuse venting (~400mbsf). We aimed to delineate the lateral and vertical variability in mineralisation and alteration patterns, so as to understand links between volcanological, structural and hydrothermal phenomena and the sources of fluids, and to establish the nature and extent of microbial activity within the system. Technological breakthroughs included deployment of a new hard-rock re-entry system, and direct comparison in a hardrock environment of structural images obtained by wireline methods and logging-while-drilling. The PACMANUS hydrothermal site, at the 1700m-deep crest of a 500m-high layered sequence of dacitic lavas, is notable for baritic massive sulfide chimneys rich in Cu, Zn, Au and Ag. Below an extensive cap 5-40m thick of fresh dacite-rhyodacite, we found unexpectedly pervasive hydrothermal alteration of vesicular and flow-banded precursors, accompanied by variably intense fracturing and anhydrite-pyrite veining. Within what appears one major hydrothermal event affecting the entire drilled sequence, there is much overprinting and repetition of distinctly allochemical argillaceous (illite-chlorite), acid-sulfate (pyrophyllite-anhydrite) and siliceous assemblages. The alteration profiles include a transition from metastable cristobalite to quartz at depth, and are similar under low-T and high-T vent sites but are vertically condensed in a manner suggesting higher thermal gradients beneath the latter. The altered rocks are surprisingly porous (average 25%). Retention of intergranular pore spaces and open vesicles at depth implies elevated hydrothermal pressures, whereas evidence from fluid inclusions and hydrothermal brecciation denotes local or sporadic phase separation. A maximum measured temperature of 313 degC measured 8 days after drilling (360 mbsf at the diffuse venting site), if indicative of thermal gradient, suggests the presence of a very shallow ( ~1.5 km below seafloor) magmatic heat source. While isotopic characteristics of anhydrite suggest an irregularly varying component of magmatic fluid, the abundance of this mineral implies a substantial role for circulating seawater within the subsurface hydrothermal system. Other than the near-ubiquitous, fine grained disseminated pyrite in altered rocks, we found little sulfide mineralisation. Pyritic vein networks and breccias are extensive in the rapidly penetrated, but poorly recovered, interval down to 120 mbsf within our "high-T end-member" hole spudded on a mound surmounted by active (280 degC) chimneys. Anhydrite and open cavities possibly dominate this interval, from which a possible example of subhalative semi-massive sulfide containing chalcopyrite and some sphalerite was recovered near 30 mbsf. At the low-T and high-T vent sites respectively, anaerobic microbes were recorded by direct counting at depths down to 99 and 78 mbsf, and in 90 degC cultivation experiments at 69-107 and 99-129 mbsf. >http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/prelim/193

Binns, R.; Barriga, F.; Miller, D.

2001-12-01

316

Black tea  

MedlinePLUS

... depression (Tricyclic antidepressants)Black tea contains chemicals called tannins. Tannins can bind to many medications and decrease how ... your health provider.PhenothiazinesBlack tea contains chemicals called tannins. Tannins can bind to many medications and decrease ...

317

Microbial interactions with hydrothermal fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When copious populations of animals clustering around deep-sea hydrothermal vents were first observed [Lonsdale, 1977, Ballard, 1977; Corliss et al., 1979], the foremost question concerned the origin of these unexpectedly high quantities of biomass. The deep sea has long been known as a desert-like environment, the input of energy for the heterotrophic production of biomass in the absence of light being limited to the sedimenting of particulate organic matter from the photosynthetically productive surface waters to the bottom. The decomposition and mineralization of this organic carbon occurs largely in the upper 200-300 m layers of the world oceans averaging at about 95% of their total primary productivity. Of the renaming 5% only about one fifth reaches the sea floor at greater depths in particulate form [e.g. Honjo and Manganini, 1993]. The scant benthic deep-sea animal populations, their diversity and feeding strategies reflect this limited particulate food source [Sanders et al., 1972]. Some of this particulate organic matter is replenished from dissolved organic carbon by microbial growth, the so-called "microbial loop".

Jannasch, Holger W.

318

Regulation of a Novel ?N-Catenin Splice Variant in Schizophrenic Smokers  

PubMed Central

The ?N-catenin (CTNNA2) gene represents a promising candidate gene for schizophrenia based upon previous genetic linkage, expression, and mouse knockout studies. CTNNA2 is differentially regulated by smoking in schizophrenic patients. In this report, the genomic structure of a primate-specific ?N-catenin splice variant (?N-catenin III) is described. A comparison of ?N-catenin III mRNA expression across postmortem hippocampi from schizophrenic and non-mentally ill smokers and non-smokers revealed a significant decrease in expression among patient non-smokers compared to all other groups. The recent evolutionary divergence of this gene, as well as the differences in gene expression in postmortem brain of schizophrenic non-smokers, supports the role of ?N-catenin III as a novel disease susceptibility gene. PMID:18163523

Mexal, Sharon; Berger, Ralph; Pearce, Lucy; Barton, Amanda; Logel, Judy; Adams, Catherine E.; Ross, Randal G.; Freedman, Robert; Leonard, Sherry

2008-01-01

319

Duke researchers find that combining treatments boosts some smokers’ ability to quit  

Cancer.gov

Combining two smoking cessation therapies is more effective than using just one for male and highly nicotine-dependent smokers who weren't initially helped by the nicotine patch, according to researchers at Duke Medicine.

320

Bacterial adherence to pharyngeal cells in smokers, nonsmokers, and chronic bronchitics.  

PubMed Central

Selective adherence to host mucosal surfaces is probably a requirement for colonization and infection by bacteria. Since pharyngeal colonization may be an important determinant in the pathogenesis of pneumonia, we studied the adherence of 10 different bacteria to pharyngeal cells obtained from nonsmokers, smokers, and chronic bronchitics. Various patterns of adherence among the different groups of subjects were found. Young healthy smokers had increased adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae type I and, to a lesser extent, S. pneumoniae type III and Staphylococcus aureus when compared with nonsmokers. Middle-aged smokers with a long history of chronic bronchitis had significantly increased adherence only of untypable Haemophilus influenzae when compared with age-matched nonsmokers. The acquisition of pneumococcal pneumonia by smokers and the role of nontypable Haemophilus species in chronic bronchitis may be determined, in part, by bacterial adherence to pharyngeal cells. PMID:40879

Fainstein, V; Musher, D M

1979-01-01

321

COMPARATIVE YIELDS OF MUTAGENS FROM CIGARETTE SMOKERS' URINE OBTAINED BY USING SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Urine from cigarette smokers was prepared for mutagenicity testing by extracting mutagens with solid phase extraction columns. ommercially available prepacked bonded silicas (cotadecyl, cyclohexyl, cyanopropyl) were compared for their efficiency and specificity in concentration o...

322

E-cigarettes can help smokers to safely cut down or quit.  

PubMed

The first Cochrane review of the emerging evidence on electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) suggests they can help smokers to stop or reduce their use of conventional cigarettes without serious adverse effects. PMID:25605085

2015-01-21

323

Patterns of mass media use among Hispanic smokers: implications for community interventions.  

PubMed

A relatively large percentage of Hispanics in the United States smoke. Yet a large proportion of Hispanics are light smokers, smoking ten or fewer cigarettes per day. Previous research has shown that most light smokers quit smoking on their own and that health education and an environment conducive to non-smoking can have a significant impact in reducing smoking rates. Given the current smoking patterns of Hispanics, culturally appropriate media-based community intervention to promote smoking cessation can have a significant impact. This study identified patterns of media use and language preference among a sample of 263 Hispanic smokers from the San Francisco Bay Area. Based on this study, recommendations to reach Hispanic smokers with a series of communication strategies are suggested. PMID:20841194

Alcalay, R; Sabogal, F; Marin, G; Perez-Stable, E; Van Oss Marin, B; Otero-Sabogal, R

1987-01-01

324

Abnormal White Matter Integrity in the Corpus Callosum among Smokers: Tract-Based Spatial Statistics  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we aimed to investigate the difference in white matter between smokers and nonsmokers. In addition, we examined relationships between white matter integrity and nicotine dependence parameters in smoking subjects. Nineteen male smokers were enrolled in this study. Eighteen age-matched non-smokers with no current or past psychiatric history were included as controls. Diffusion tensor imaging scans were performed, and the analysis was conducted using a tract-based special statistics approach. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers exhibited a significant decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) throughout the whole corpus callosum. There were no significant differences in radial diffusivity or axial diffusivity between the two groups. There was a significant negative correlation between FA in the whole corpus callosum and the amount of tobacco use (cigarettes/day; R?=?? 0.580, p?=?0.023). These results suggest that the corpus callosum may be one of the key areas influenced by chronic smoking. PMID:24516568

Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Yoshimura, Reiji; Kakeda, Shingo; Watanabe, Keita; Hayashi, Kenji; Nishimura, Joji; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Moriya, Junji; Ide, Satoru; Ueda, Issei; Hori, Hikaru; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Katsuki, Asuka; Atake, Kiyokazu; Abe, Osamu; Korogi, Yukunori; Nakamura, Jun

2014-01-01

325

Black Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

326

Black Magic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most non-permanent markers use inks that are made of mixtures of colored pigments and water. How does Black Magic work? Why do some black inks separate into many colors on a wet coffee filter? Why does mixing many colors of ink make black?

2010-01-01

327

Improvement of mucociliary transport in smokers by mucolytics.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of two mucolytic drugs with different mechanism of action on mucociliary transport (MCT). N-acetylcysteine (NAC-600 mg/day) and ambroxol (AMB-90 mg/day) were administered according to a double-blind cross-over scheme to 12 heavy smokers suffering from hypersecretory bronchitis and homogeneous reduction of the MCT. Placebo of both treatments was administered during an interval of ten days between the administrations of NAC and AMB. The entire treatment period was 30 days. The data were analyzed according to ANOVA for the two-period cross-over clinical trial. The results indicate that: NAC and AMB, administered both before and after placebo, produce a significant increase in MCT, NAC showed a slightly greater efficacy than AMB, but the differences are not statistically significant. The overall efficacy of NAC and AMB is consistently greater than that of placebo. The sequence of administration of the drugs does not influence their effect. PMID:3862608

Olivieri, D; Marsico, S A; Del Donno, M

1985-01-01

328

Winning and losing: differences in reward and punishment sensitivity between smokers and nonsmokers  

PubMed Central

Background Smokers show increased brain activation in reward processing regions in response to smoking-related cues, yet few studies have examined secondary rewards not associated with smoking (i.e., money). Inconsistencies exist in the studies that do examine secondary rewards with some studies showing increased brain activation in reward processing brain regions, while others show decreased activation or no difference in activation between smokers and nonsmokers. Aims The goal of the current study is to see if smokers process the evaluation and delivery of equally salient real world rewards similarly or differently than nonsmokers. Methods The current study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain responses in smokers and nonsmokers during the evaluation and delivery of monetary gains and losses. Results In comparison to nonsmokers, smokers showed increased activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex to the evaluation of anticipated monetary losses and the brain response. Moreover, smokers compared to nonsmokers showed decreased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus to the delivery of expected monetary gains. Brain activations to both the evaluation of anticipated monetary losses and the delivery of expected monetary gains correlated with increased self-reported smoking craving to relieve negative withdrawal symptoms and craving related to positive aspects of smoking, respectively. Discussion Together these results indicate that smokers are hyperresponsive to the evaluation of anticipated punishment and hyporesponsive to the delivery of expected rewards. Although further research is needed, this hypersensitivity to punishments coupled with increased craving may negatively impact quit attempts as smokers anticipate the negative withdrawal symptoms associated with quitting. PMID:25365800

Martin, Laura E; Cox, Lisa S; Brooks, William M; Savage, Cary R

2014-01-01

329

Motivating the unmotivated for health behavior change: a randomized trial of cessation induction for smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Many smokers remain unwilling or unable to make a quit attempt. For these smokers, novel strategies to induce quit attempts are necessary to achieve further reductions in smoking prevalence. Purpose This article describes the design and methods of an ongoing nationwide telephone-based clinical trial for cessation induction, the principal aim of which is to test the hypothesis that samples of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), can induce quit attempts among smokers otherwise unmotivated to quit. Methods Smokers are recruited proactively through online channels. A ‘behavioral filter’ is used to identify and separate motivated versus unmotivated smokers, the latter of whom (N = 750) are formally entered into the clinical trial. Participants are randomized to one of two treatment conditions designed to promote self-efficacy and motivation to quit: (1) practice quit attempt (PQA) or (2) PQA plus NRT sampling. The primary outcome measure tested over a 6-month follow-up is the incidence of additional quit attempts as well as hypothesized mediators of treatment effects. Results This study details the challenges of identifying and treating smokers who are unmotivated to quit. Strengths include a novel treatment approach, tested among a group of proactively recruited smokers nationwide, with a unique method of identifying cessation-resistant smokers. Limitations The omission of a true control group, testing the effect of the PQA itself, is an inherent limitation to the study design. Online recruitment presents additional study challenges, all of which are discussed in detail. Conclusions The study has translational potential to guide both clinical and policy recommendations for cessation induction. Further, while the focus is on smoking, this trial may serve as an example to researchers and clinicians who focus on other health behaviors, and who themselves are challenged with motivating people who are unmotivated for change. PMID:20338901

Carpenter, Matthew J; Alberg, Anthony J; Gray, Kevin M; Saladin, Michael E

2010-01-01

330

A comparison of daily and occasional smokers' implicit affective responses to smoking cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has not compared implicit affective responses to smoking-related stimuli in occasional (i.e., those who smoke less than one cigarette per day) and daily smokers (i.e., those who smoke at least once per day). In addition to assessing their motivations for smoking, implicit affective responses were measured using the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) in occasional (n=19) and daily smokers

John Haight; Cheryl L. Dickter; Catherine A. Forestell

331

Injury death excesses in smokers: a 1990–95 United States national cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives—Assess injury death relative risks (RR), dose-response, and attributable fractions for current cigarette smokers (smokers) in a recent representative sample of the United States population without and with adjustment for (a) demographic and (b) additional behavioral risk factors.Setting—United States.Methods—National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) adult (ages 18+ years) interviewees from 1990 or 1991 were followed through 1995. Referents had never smoked

B N Leistikow; D C Martin; S J Samuels

2000-01-01

332

Reactions to Framing of Cessation Messages: Insights From Dual-Smoker Couples  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Couples in which both members smoke (dual-smoker couples) have not been the explicit target of cessation interventions. Quit rates are lower and relapse rates are higher among individuals in dual-smoker couples. A potentially effective strategy to motivate dual-smoker couples to quit is to convey messages that highlight how the positive outcomes of quitting (gain frame) or the negative outcomes of continued smoking (loss frame) affect the couple rather than the individual smoker. We explored whether dual-smoker couples’ smoking behaviors (e.g., amount smoked) and desire to quit would differ as a function of message frame (gain vs. loss) or outcome focus (individual vs. couple). Methods: Dual-smoker couples (N = 40) completed a baseline survey and were then randomized to review gain- or loss-framed messages that varied whether the outcomes influenced the individual or the couple. Main outcomes were desire to quit after reading messages and smoking behaviors at a 1-month follow-up. Results: Couple-focused messages produced the strongest desire to quit and decreased amount of cigarettes smoked at follow-up. The latter effect was mediated by desire to quit. Loss-framed messages produced inconsistent effects on desire to quit. There were no significant interactions between outcome focus and message framing. Conclusions: Findings suggest that messages emphasizing how smoking affects both partners can motivate cessation among dual-smoker couples. Contrary to findings showing that gain-framed messages motivate cessation targeting individual smokers, results suggest that loss-framed messages may be more persuasive than gain-framed messages when the target of the outcome involves significant others. PMID:23943846

2013-01-01

333

Is snus the same as dip? Smokers’ perceptions of new smokeless tobacco advertising  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Since 2006, leading US cigarette companies have been promoting new snus products as line extensions of popular cigarette brands. These promotional efforts include direct mail marketing to consumers on cigarette company mailing lists. This study examines smokers’ reactions to this advertising and perceptions of the new snus products. METHODS Eight focus groups (n=65 participants) were conducted in San Francisco and Los Angeles in 2010 with smokers who received tobacco direct mail advertising. The focus group discussions assessed smokers’ perceptions of the new snus products. Focus group videos were transcribed and coded using Transana software to identify common themes. RESULTS Most participants were aware of snus advertising and many had tried free samples. Most were aware snus was supposed to be “different” from traditional chewing tobacco, but did not consistently know why. Participants willing to try snus still identified strongly as smokers and for some, trying snus reinforced their preference for smoking. Snus’ major benefits were use in smokefree environments and avoiding social stigma related to secondhand smoke. Participants were skeptical of the idea that snus was safer than cigarettes, and did not see it as an acceptable substitute for cigarettes or as a cessation aid. CONCLUSION Smokers repeated some messages featured in early snus advertising. Snus was not seen as an acceptable substitute for smoking or way to quit cigarettes. Current smoker responses to snus advertising are not consistent with harm reduction. PMID:21972063

Bahreinifar, Sareh; Sheon, Nicolas M.; Ling, Pamela

2013-01-01

334

Use of Consumer Survey Data to Target Cessation Messages to Smokers Through Mass Media  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We identified the mass media channels that reach the most cigarette smokers in an attempt to more effectively target smoking cessation messages. Methods. Reach estimates and index scores for smokers were taken from 2002–2003 ConsumerStyles and HealthStyles national surveys of adults (N=11660) to estimate overall and demographic-specific exposure measures for television, radio, newspapers, and magazines. Results. Smokers viewed more television, listened to more radio, and read fewer magazines and newspapers than did nonsmokers. Nearly one third of smokers were regular daytime or late-night television viewers. Selected cable television networks (USA, Lifetime, and Discovery Channel) and selected radio genres, such as classic rock and country, had high reach and were cost-efficient channels for targeting smokers. Conclusions. Certain mass media channels offer efficient opportunities to target smoking cessation messages so they reach relatively large audiences of smokers at relatively low cost. The approach used in this study can be applied to other types of health risk factors to improve health communication planning and increase efficiency of program media expenditures. PMID:17600264

Nelson, David E.; Gallogly, Meg; Pederson, Linda L.; Barry, Matthew; McGoldrick, Daniel; Maibach, Edward W.

2008-01-01

335

Not All Smokers Die Young: A Model for Hidden Heterogeneity within the Human Population  

PubMed Central

The ability of some individuals to reach extreme old age in the presence of clearly high exposure to damaging factors may signal an innate biological advantage. For this study we used data on 4,655 current and never smokers, ages 50 and above, from NHANES III to examine whether long-lived smokers represent a biologically resilient phenotype that could facilitate our understanding of heterogeneity in the aging process. Using a proportional hazards model, our results showed that while smoking significantly increased mortality in most age groups, it did not increase the mortality risk for those who were age 80 and over at baseline. Additionally when comparing the adjusted means of biomarkers between never and current smokers, we found that long-lived smokers (80+) had similar inflammation, HDL, and lung function levels to never smokers. Given that factors which allow some individuals to withstand smoking may also enable others to cope with everyday biological stressors, the investigation of long-lived smokers may eventually allow us to identify molecular and genetic mechanisms which enable longevity extension. PMID:24520332

Levine, Morgan; Crimmins, Eileen

2014-01-01

336

Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of 'light' cigarettes.  

PubMed

Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as 'light', 'ultra-light' and 'low tar' with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of 'light', 'mild' and 'low' on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Center in Philadelphia, PA, USA shortly after the ban went into effect to determine the extent of awareness of recent cigarette packaging changes among smokers of light cigarettes. In our sample of 266 smokers, 76 reported smoking light cigarettes, but fewer than half of these smokers reported noticing changes to their cigarette packaging. Simple removal of a few misleading terms may be too subtle of a change to register with consumers of so-called 'low tar' cigarettes; more comprehensive regulation of cigarette packaging design may be necessary to gain smokers' attention and minimize misperceptions associated with tobacco pack design characteristics and color. PMID:25492058

Falcone, M; Bansal-Travers, M; Sanborn, P M; Tang, K Z; Strasser, A A

2015-02-01

337

Hard-rock mining exposures affect smokers and nonsmokers differently. Results of a community prevalence study.  

PubMed

The physiologic consequences of occupational dust exposure, their relation to smoking, and their reversibility with cessation of exposure remain controversial. To address these questions, we studied a random sample of male residents of Leadville, Colorado when the major employer, a hard-rock mine, had been closed for 5 to 11 months. Subjects were interviewed for respiratory symptoms and occupational history, underwent plethysmographic measurements of lung volume and airflow, and performed a single breath diffusing capacity procedure. Dyspnea was the only respiratory symptom exacerbated by mining exposures. Cumulative dust exposure, estimated with historic respirable dust measurements for mining job titles and weighted by time at the job, was associated with decreases in maximal expiratory flow rates when controlled for smoking, age, and height. However, determinations of plethysmographic lung volume that allowed calculation of flow rates at equivalent absolute lung volume indicated that dust effects differed in never-smokers and smokers. In never-smokers, dust exposure was associated with decreased lung volume, increased flow rates, and increased DLCO/VA. In smokers, dust exposure was associated with increased lung volume, lower flow rates, and lower DLCO/VA than that accounted for by smoking. We suggest that hard-rock mining exposures result in irreversible pulmonary function changes of airflow limitation in smokers and of a restrictive nature in never-smokers. PMID:2786363

Kreiss, K; Greenberg, L M; Kogut, S J; Lezotte, D C; Irvin, C G; Cherniack, R M

1989-06-01

338

Predictors of smoking cessation medication use among nonobese and obese smokers.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify and compare the predictors of smoking cessation medication use among obese and nonobese adult smokers. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data (2008-2009). The study participants included smokers aged 18 years and older who self-reported their smoking status as smoker. The outcome variable was utilization of any Food and Drug Administration approved smoking cessation medication (varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapy). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. A total of 82.20 million (weighted sample size for two years) adult smokers were included; of which nearly 30% were obese-smokers. The use of smoking cessation medication was 2.66% and 5.17% among nonobese and obese smokers, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression results showed that race/ethnicity, health insurance coverage, prescription insurance coverage, usual source of health care, urban residence, region, Charlson comorbidity index, and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), were significant predictors of using smoking cessation medications. The overall smoking cessation medication use rate was low implying limited compliance to guideline. Predictors identified in this study should be taken into consideration in health promotion programs that are designed to optimize the utilization of these smoking cessation medications. PMID:24494623

Yang, Mo; Mehta, Hemalkumar B; Bhowmik, Debajyoti; Essien, Ekere James; Abughosh, Susan M

2014-05-01

339

Hydrothermal mineralization at seafloor spreading centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent recognition that metallic mineral deposits are concentrated by hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers constitutes a scientific breakthrough that opens active sites at seafloor spreading centers as natural laboratories to investigate ore-forming processes of such economically useful deposits as massive sulfides in volcanogenic rocks on land, and that enhances the metallic mineral potential of oceanic crust covering two-thirds of the Earth both beneath ocean basins and exposed on land in ophiolite belts. This paper reviews our knowledge of processes of hydrothermal mineralization and the occurrence and distribution of hydrothermal mineral deposits at the global oceanic ridge-rift system. Sub-seafloor hydrothermal convection involving circulation of seawater through fractured rocks of oceanic crust driven by heat supplied by generation of new lithosphere is nearly ubiquitous at seafloor spreading centers. However, ore-forming hydrothermal systems are extremely localized where conditions of anomalously high thermal gradients and permeability increase hydrothermal activity from the ubiquitous low-intensity background level (? 200°C) to high-intensity characterized by high temperatures ( > 200-c.400°C), and a rate and volume of flow sufficient to sustain chemical reactions that produce acid, reducing, metal-rich primary hydrothermal solutions. A series of mineral phases with sulfides and oxides as high- and low-temperature end members, respectively, are precipitated along the upwelling limb and in the discharge zone of single-phase systems as a function of increasing admixture of normal seawater. The occurrence of hydrothermal mineral deposits is considered in terms of spatial and temporal frames of reference. Spatial frames of reference comprise structural features along-axis (linear sections that are the loci of seafloor spreading alternating with transform faults) and perpendicular to axis (axial zone of volcanic extrusion and marginal zones of active extension) common to all spreading centers, regional tectonic setting determined by stage (early, advanced), and rate (slow, intermediate-to-fast) of opening of an ocean basin about a spreading center, and local tectonic sub-setting that incorporates anomalous structural and thermal conditions conducive to mineral concentration (thermal gradient, permeability, system geometry, leaky versus tight hydrothermal systems). Temporal frames of reference comprise the relation between mineral concentration and timing of regional plutonic, volcanic and tectonic cycles and of episodic local physical and chemical events (transient stress, fluctuating heat transfer, intrusion-extrusion, fracturing, sealing, etc.). Types of hydrothermal deposits are not uniquely associated with specific tectonic settings and subsettings. Similar types of hydrothermal deposits may occur in different tectonic settings as a consequence of convergence of physical and chemical processes of concentration. Local tectonic sub-settings with conditions conducive to hydrothermal mineralization at slow-spreading centers (half rate ? 2cm y -1; length c. 28,000 km), characterized by an estimated average convective heat transfer of 15.1·10 8 cal. cm -2, deep-level ( > 3 km), relative narrow (< 5 km wide at base) magma chambers, and high topographic relief (1-5 km) are: (1) basins along linear sections of the axial zone of volcanic extrusion near transform faults at an early stage of opening, represented by a large stratiform sulfide deposit (estimated 32.5·10 6 metric tons) of the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea; (2) the wall along linear sections of the rift valley in the marginal zone of active extension at an advanced stage of opening, represented by encrustations and layered deposits of manganese and iron oxides, hydroxides and silicates inferred to be underlain by stockwork sulfides at the TAG Hydrothermal Field at latitude 26°C on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; (3) transform faults, especially those with large ridge-ridge offset ( > 30 km), at an advanced stage of opening,

Rona, Peter A.

1984-01-01

340

Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

2008-01-01

341

Sample Return from Ancient Hydrothermal Springs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrothermal spring deposits on Mars would make excellent candidates for sample return. Molecular phylogeny suggests that that life on Earth may have arisen in hydrothermal settings [1-3], and on Mars, such settings not only would have supplied energy-rich waters in which martian life may have evolved [4-7] but also would have provided warm, liquid water to martian life forms as the climate became colder and drier [8]. Since silica, sulfates, and clays associated with hydrothermal settings are known to preserve geochemical and morphological remains of ancient terrestrial life [9-11], such settings on Mars might similarly preserve evidence of martian life. Finally, because formation of hydrothermal springs includes surface and subsurface processes, martian spring deposits would offer the potential to assess astrobiological potential and hydrological history in a variety of settings, including surface mineralized terraces, associated stream deposits, and subsurface environments where organic remains may have been well protected from oxidation. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data [12-14]. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel, and based on these new data, we have interpreted several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra as ancient hydrothermal springs [15, 16].

Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

2008-01-01

342

Evaluation of coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers: Cold pressor test using [(15)O]H(2)O PET.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate coronary endothelial dysfunction in young healthy smokers by measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) using [(15)O]H(2)O-PET. The study population was 18 young male volunteers consisted of 9 smokers (age: 23.8+/-1.1yr) and 9 non-smokers (age: 25.0+/-2.5yr). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 6.6+/-2.5 pack years. Myocardial [(15)O]H(2)O-PET was performed at rest, during cold (5 degrees C) pressor stimulation and during adenosine infusion. Left ventricular (LV) input function and tissue time-activity curves were obtained by drawing region of interest (ROI) on the LV blood pool and myocardium images obtained by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) of dynamic [(15)O]H(2)O-PET data, and MBF was calculated using these time-activity curves and single compartmental model. There were no significant difference in resting MBF between two groups (smokers: 1.43+/-0.41 and non-smokers: 1.37+/-0.41ml/g/min; P=NS). However, during cold pressor stimulation, MBF in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers (1.25+/-0.33 vs. 1.59+/-0.29ml/g/min; P=0.019). MBF changed to 90+/-24% of resting MBF in smokers and 122+/-28% in non-smokers. The difference in the ratio of cold pressor MBF to basal MBF between two groups was also significant (P=0.024). During adenosine infusion, however, hyperemic MBF did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers (5.81+/-1.99 vs. 5.03+/-1.27ml/g/min; P=NS). This study shows that [(15)O]H(2)O PET analysis can reveal that endothelial dysfunction occurs in even young smokers of about 6 pack years. PMID:19303784

Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Byeong-Il; Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo

2009-01-01

343

Cadmium in the blood and heart tissue of patients (smokers/non-smokers) with coronary heart disease  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human hypertension and arteriosclerotic heart disease. Various experiments showed that cadmium could influence the vasopressor-induced reactivity and the stress-strain characteristics of the blood vessel wall. Smoking is considered to be one of the risk factors in accumulating high amounts of cadmium in human organic tissue. Therefore, in the present study the cadmium content of the blood and the heart tissue was evaluated in smoking and non-smoking patients who suffered from coronary heart diseases and various vascular defects. Blood and heart tissue samples of 49 patients undergoing a heart operation were examined. The measurements were carried out with atomic absorption spectometry. Cadmium concentration in the blood was elevated significantly in smoking patients versus non-smokers. In the heart tissue samples of smoking patients cadmium was increased as well towards non-smoking patients. These data show that smoking influences the cadmium intake and it may support the opinion of different research groups that cadmium might have a toxic effect on the myocardium and that cadmium accumulation is another risk factor in the development of coronary heart disease. 10 references, 1 figure.

Spieker, C.; Bertram, H.P.; Stratmann, T.; Achatzy, R.; Kisters, K.; Zumkley, H.

1986-01-01

344

Marine diagenesis of hydrothermal sulfide  

SciTech Connect

An attempt is made to discuss the artificial and natural oxidation and hydrolysis of hydrothermal sulfide upon interaction with normal seawater. Synthetic and natural ferrosphalerite particles used in kinetic oxidation and hydrolysis studies in seawater develop dense, crystalline coatings consisting of ordered and ferrimagnetic delta-(Fe, Zn)OOH. Due to the formation of this reactive diffusion barrier, the release of Zn into solution decreases rapidly, and sulfide oxidation is reduced to a low rate determined by the diffusion of oxygen through the oxyhydroxide film. This also acts as an efficient solvent for ions such as Zn/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and possibly Cd/sup 2 +/, which contribute to the stabilization of the delta-FeOOH structure. The oxidation of sulfide occurs in many seafloor spreading areas, such as 21/sup 0/N on the East Pacific Ridge. In these areas the old surface of the sulfide chimneys are found to be covered by an orange stain, and sediment near the base of nonactive vents is also found to consist of what has been referred to as amorphous iron oxide and hydroxide. This thesis also discusses the exceedingly low solubility of zinc in seawater, from delta-(Fe, Zn)OOH and the analogous phase (zinc-ferrihydroxide) and the zinc exchange minerals, 10-A manganate and montmorillonite. The concentrations of all four are of the same magnitude (16, 36.4, and 12 nM, respectively) as the zinc concentration in deep ocean water (approx. 10 nM), which suggests that manganates and montmorillonite with iron oxyhydroxides control zinc concentration in the deep ocean.

Moammar, M.O.

1985-01-01

345

NOAA's VENTS program targets oceanic hydrothermal effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VENTS Program was established in 1984 to focus interdisciplinary research of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration on the oceanic effects of hydrothermal activity along seafloor spreading centers. Since then, the accelerating rate of discoveries in this area of research has resulted in increased recognition of the importance of seafloor hydrothermal venting as a fundamental process for transfer of mass and heat from the Earth's interior to its surface—a process that is active intermittently, but not uncommonly, along the entire 60,000 km-long global spreading-center system. As the nation's civilian ocean agency, NOAA undertakes research to understand processes that affect the ocean environment. The VENTS program's highest priority is studies that address large-scale hydrothermal chemical and thermal effects on the ocean, or the potential for such effects, that manifest themselves over relatively short time periods—from years to centuries.

Hammond, S.; Fox, C.; Embley, R.; Baker, E.; Bernard, E.; Massoth, G.; Feely, R.; Cannon, G.; Rona, P.

346

Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013  

DOE Data Explorer

A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

Scott Painter; Adam Atchley; Dylan Harp

347

The BGU/CERN solar hydrothermal reactor  

E-print Network

We describe a novel solar hydrothermal reactor (SHR) under development by Ben Gurion University (BGU) and the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. We describe in broad terms the several novel aspects of the device and, by extension, of the niche it occupies: in particular, enabling direct off-grid conversion of a range of organic feedstocks to sterile useable (solid, liquid) fuels, nutrients, products using only solar energy and water. We then provide a brief description of the high temperature high efficiency panels that provide process heat to the hydrothermal reactor, and review the basics of hydrothermal processes and conversion taking place in this. We conclude with a description of a simulation of the pilot system that will begin operation later this year.

Bertolucci, Sergio; Caspers, Fritz; Garb, Yaakov; Gross, Amit; Pauletta, Stefano

2014-01-01

348

Depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides under hydrothermal conditions.  

PubMed

Fucoidan and chondroitin sulfate, which are well known sulfated polysaccharides, were depolymerized under hydrothermal conditions (120-180°C, 5-60min) as a method for the preparation of sulfated polysaccharides with controlled molecular weights. Fucoidan was easily depolymerized, and the change of the molecular weight values depended on the reaction temperature and time. The degree of sulfation and IR spectra of the depolymerized fucoidan did not change compared with those of untreated fucoidan at reaction temperatures below 140°C. However, fucoidan was partially degraded during depolymerization above 160°C. Nearly the same depolymerization was observed for chondroitin sulfate. These results indicate that hydrothermal treatment is applicable for the depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides, and that low molecular weight products without desulfation and deformation of the initial glycan structures can be obtained under mild hydrothermal conditions. PMID:24361592

Morimoto, Minoru; Takatori, Masaki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Mori, Daiki; Takashima, Osamu; Yoshida, Shinichi; Sato, Kimihiko; Kawamoto, Hitoshi; Tamura, Jun-ichi; Izawa, Hironori; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

2014-01-30

349

Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)  

SciTech Connect

The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

2012-09-01

350

Hydrothermal pretreatment of bamboo and cellulose degradation.  

PubMed

A systematic hydrothermal pretreatment of bamboo chips had been conducted with an aim to trace the cellulose degradation. The results showed that cellulose chain cleavage basically occurred when the temperature exceeded 150°C. A slightly higher DP (degree of polymerization) than starting material had been observed at low temperature pretreatment. Treatment at higher temperature (? 170°C) caused severe cleavage of cellulose and therefore gave rise to low DP with more soluble species. DP of cellulose declined drastically without additional hemicelluloses dissolution when hemicelluloses removal reached to the limit level. Cellulose degradation under hydrothermal pretreatment generally followed the zero reaction kinetics with the activity energy of 121.0 kJ/mol. Besides, the increase of cellulose crystalline index and the conversion of I?-I? had also observed at the hydrothermal pretreatment. PMID:24077149

Ma, X J; Cao, S L; Lin, L; Luo, X L; Hu, H C; Chen, L H; Huang, L L

2013-11-01

351

Behavioural therapy for smoking cessation: The effectiveness of different intervention types for disadvantaged and affluent smokers?  

PubMed Central

Background Disadvantaged smokers are less likely to be successful when trying to stop smoking than more affluent smokers. In the UK, NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) provide a range of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support, delivered by advisors with a range of backgrounds. Whether the types of support provided and who provides it influence differences in quit rates amongst low SES smokers compared with high SES smokers has not previously been examined. Methods 202,084 records of smokers in England who attended a NHS Stop Smoking Service between July 2010 and June 2011 were acquired. Smokers were followed-up by services at four weeks post quit date. Multilevel logistic regression models of CO validated quits were employed. Disadvantage was explored through the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) and by eligibility for free prescriptions, an indicator of low income amongst adults aged between 19 and 59 in England. Results Affluent smokers were more likely to quit than disadvantaged smokers (OR 1.38 (1.35 to 1.42) for clients who paid for prescriptions compared to those eligible for free prescriptions). 80% of service clients received one-to-one counselling but open group forms of behavioural therapy were more successful (main effect OR 1.26 (1.12 to 1.41)) except amongst some of the most disadvantaged clients (long-term unemployed and prisoners). Closed groups were little deployed and they were not significantly more successful than one-to-one behavioural therapy after controls. Who delivered treatment did make a difference for some clients, with all but the most affluent less likely to be successful if they had been treated by a nurse compared with other types of advisers, including smoking cessation specialists (main effect OR 0.73 (0.65 to 0.83)). Conclusion This study provides further evidence that disadvantaged smokers find quitting more difficult even when they have attended a smoking cessation programme. The findings suggest that open groups should be promoted, although they may not be as effective as other forms of behavioural therapy for the long-term unemployed or prisoners. Further research is required to explore why most groups of smokers who attended services staffed by nurses were less likely to quit than those who received treatment from other types of advisors. PMID:23954946

Hiscock, Rosemary; Murray, Susan; Brose, Leonie S.; McEwen, Andy; Bee, Jo Leonardi; Dobbie, Fiona; Bauld, Linda

2013-01-01

352

Exposure and Kinetics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Cigarette Smokers  

PubMed Central

Study objectives were (1) to investigate the selectivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites for tobacco smoke exposure, and (2) to determine half-lives of PAH metabolites in smokers. There were 622 participants from the United States (US) and Poland, and of these 70% were smokers. All subjects provided spot urine samples and 125 smokers provided blood samples. Urinary PAH metabolite half-lives were determined in 8 smokers. In controlled hospital studies of 18 smokers, the associations between various measures of nicotine intake and urinary excretion of PAH metabolites were investigated. Plasma nicotine was measured by GC. LC-MS/MS was used to measure the plasma levels of cotinine and trans-3?-hydroxycotinine, and urine levels of nicotine and its metabolites, total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and PAH metabolites (2-naphthol, 1-, 2- and 3-hydroxyfluorenes, 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes, and 1-hydroxypyrene). Regardless of smoking status, PAH metabolite excretion was higher in Polish subjects than in US subjects (p-values<0.001). 1-Hydroxyfluorene exhibited the greatest difference between smokers and non-smokers, with a 5-fold difference in Polish subjects and a 25-fold difference in US subjects, followed by 3- and 2-hydroxyfluorenes, 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene. The differences for hydroxyphenanthrenes were small or non-significant. 1-Hydroxyfluorene had the highest correlation with urine nicotine equivalents (r=0.77) and urine NNAL (r=0.64). While the half-lives of PAH metabolites were <10 h in smokers, 1-hydroxyfluorene had the largest ratio of initial to terminal urine concentration (58.4±38.6, mean±SD) after smoking. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis of PAHs among Polish and US subjects further showed that hydroxyfluorenes are most highly discriminative of smokers from nonsmokers followed by 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene. In conclusion, hydroxyfluorenes, particularly 1-hydroxyfluorene, and 2-naphthol are more selective of tobacco smoke than 1-hydroxypyrene and hydroxyphenanthrenes. Characterization of hydroxyfluorene and 2-naphthol metabolites in urine may improve the characterization of PAHs from tobacco smoke and related disease risks among smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:22428611

St. Helen, Gideon; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Dempsey, Delia; Wilson, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

2012-01-01

353

Marijuana's dose-dependent effects in daily marijuana smokers.  

PubMed

Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose-response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (?5.5% ??-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana "strength," "high," "liking," "good effect," and "take again" were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana's cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose. PMID:23937597

Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D

2013-08-01

354

Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

355

Recent population expansion and connectivity in the hydrothermal shrimp  

E-print Network

-sea hydrothermal vents are unstable habitats that are both spatially and temporally fragmented. In vent species of the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata, which forms high-density local populations on hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic ridge. Location Deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Methods We used

Teixeira, Sara

356

Magma to Microbe: Modeling Hydrothermal Processes at Ocean Spreading Centers  

E-print Network

is very limited. Low-temperature diffuse vent fluids, ubiquitous at hydrothermal systems, provide one microorganisms from diffuse hydrothermal vent fluids and the subseafloor at basalt-hosted mid-ocean ridges hydrothermal fluids mix with oxygen-saturated seawater in the crust, creat- ing low-temperature diffuse vents

Holden, James F.

357

Discovery of abundant hydrothermal venting on the ultraslow-spreading  

E-print Network

............................................................................................................................................................................. Submarine hydrothermal venting along mid-ocean ridges is an important contributor to ridge thermal structure predicted that the incidence of hydrothermal venting would be extremely low on ultraslow-spreading ridgesPublishing Group #12;active hydrothermal venting on the Gakkel ridge, which is the slowest spreading (0.6­1.3 cm yr

Graham, David W.

358

Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise,  

E-print Network

Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5°­32.3°S E. T by a hydrothermal plume. Plume chemistry mostly reflected discharge from mature vent fields apparently unperturbed March/April 1998 we conducted detailed mapping and sampling of hydrothermal plumes along six segments

Bohnenstiehl, Delwayne

359

Ecology of deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article reviews studies of the past 15 years of active and inactive hydrothermal vents. The focus of the discussion is on the ecology of the biological communities inhabiting hydrothermal vents. These communities exhibit high densities and biomass, low species diversity, rapid growth rates, and high metabolic rates. The authors attempt to relate the biology of hydrothermal vent systems

Richard A. Lutz; Michael J. Kennish

1993-01-01

360

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ultra-diffuse hydrothermal venting supports  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ultra-diffuse hydrothermal venting supports Fe-oxidizing bacteria and massive University, Bellingham, WA, USA A novel hydrothermal field has been discovered at the base of Lo¯ihi Seamount seawater temperature, derives from a distal, ultra-diffuse hydrothermal source. FeMO Deep is expressed

Moyer, Craig

361

Automated Planning for Hydrothermal Vent Prospecting Using AUVs  

E-print Network

Automated Planning for Hydrothermal Vent Prospecting Using AUVs: RSMG Report 8 Zeyn A Saigol Thesis) to locate hydrothermal vents, which are superheated outgassings of water found on the ocean floor. Vents. Current methods for finding hydrothermal vents rely on manually defining an area for the AUV to perform

Yao, Xin

362

Belief Change Maximisation for Hydrothermal Vent Hunting Using Occupancy Grids  

E-print Network

Belief Change Maximisation for Hydrothermal Vent Hunting Using Occupancy Grids Zeyn Saigol floor for hydrothermal vents. The state of the art in these problems is information lookahead Vehicle (AUV) prospecting for hydrothermal vents, which are superheated outgassings of water found on mid

Yao, Xin

363

1 INRODUCTION The physico-chemical conditions in hydrothermal  

E-print Network

Submarine hydrothermal venting occurs at Tutum Bay (Figure 1) in shallow (5-10 m) water along the inner of venting are observed. (1) Focused discharge of a clear, hydrothermal fluid occurs at discrete ports, 10 Tutum Bay vents discharge and ultimately they are caused by changes in the hydrology of the hydrothermal

Pichler, Thomas

364

A hydrothermal hot-pressing method: Apparatus and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loose particles occurring in sediment are transformed into sedimentary rock by a process termed lithification, which is a chemical process that reduces the original porosity by compaction and cementation [1]. A hydrothermal hot-pressing method is intended for artificial lithification. In this study, silica powder including mineralizer solution is compressed under hydrothermal conditions from outside an autoclave for hydrothermal hot-pressing and

N. Yamasaki; K. Yanagisawa; M. Nishioka; S. Kanahara

1986-01-01

365

Geothermal reservoirs in hydrothermal convection systems  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal reservoirs commonly exist in hydrothermal convection systems involving fluid circulation downward in areas of recharge and upwards in areas of discharge. Because such reservoirs are not isolated from their surroundings, the nature of thermal and hydrologic connections with the rest of the system may have significant effects on the natural state of the reservoir and on its response to development. Conditions observed at numerous developed and undeveloped geothermal fields are discussed with respect to a basic model of the discharge portion of an active hydrothermal convection system. Effects of reservoir development on surficial discharge of thermal fluid are also delineated.

Sorey, M.L.

1982-01-01

366

Pulmonary responses in current smokers and ex-smokers following a two hour exposure at rest to clean air and fine ambient air particles  

PubMed Central

Background Increased susceptibility of smokers to ambient PM may potentially promote development of COPD and accelerate already present disease. Objectives To characterize the acute and subacute lung function response and inflammatory effects of controlled chamber exposure to concentrated ambient fine particles (CAFP) with MMAD???2.5 microns in ex-smokers and lifetime smokers. Methods Eleven subjects, aged 35–74 years, came to the laboratory 5 times; a training day and two exposure days separated by at least 3 weeks, each with a post-exposure visit 22 h later. Double-blind and counterbalanced exposures to “clean air” (mean 1.5?±?0.6 ?g/m3) or CAFP (mean 108.7?±?24.8 ?g/m3 ) lasted 2 h with subjects at rest. Results At 3 h post-exposure subjects’ DTPA clearance half-time significantly increased by 6.3 min per 100 ?g/m3 of CAFP relative to “clean air”. At 22 h post-exposure they showed significant reduction of 4.3% per 100 ?g/m3 in FEV1 and a significant DLCO decrease by 11.1% per 100 ?g/m3 of CAFP relative to “clean air”. At both 3 h and 22 h the HDL cholesterol level significantly decreased by 4.5% and 4.1%, respectively. Other blood chemistries and markers of lung injury, inflammation and procoagulant activity were within the normal range of values at any condition. Conclusions The results suggest that an acute 2 h resting exposure of smokers and ex-smokers to fine ambient particulate matter may transiently affect pulmonary function (spirometry and DLCO) and increase DTPA clearance half-time. Except for a post exposure decrease in HDL no other markers of pulmonary inflammation, prothrombotic activity and lung injury were significantly affected under the conditions of exposure. PMID:24245863

2013-01-01

367

Heterogeneity of pulmonary perfusion as a mechanistic image-based phenotype in emphysema susceptible smokers  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction and pathology of pulmonary vascular responses may serve as a precursor to smoking-associated emphysema. Although it is known that emphysematous destruction leads to vasculature changes, less is known about early regional vascular dysfunction which may contribute to and precede emphysematous changes. We sought to test the hypothesis, via multidetector row CT (MDCT) perfusion imaging, that smokers showing early signs of emphysema susceptibility have a greater heterogeneity in regional perfusion parameters than emphysema-free smokers and persons who had never smoked (NS). Assuming that all smokers have a consistent inflammatory response, increased perfusion heterogeneity in emphysema-susceptible smokers would be consistent with the notion that these subjects may have the inability to block hypoxic vasoconstriction in patchy, small regions of inflammation. Dynamic ECG-gated MDCT perfusion scans with a central bolus injection of contrast were acquired in 17 NS, 12 smokers with normal CT imaging studies (SNI), and 12 smokers with subtle CT findings of centrilobular emphysema (SCE). All subjects had normal spirometry. Quantitative image analysis determined regional perfusion parameters, pulmonary blood flow (PBF), and mean transit time (MTT). Mean and coefficient of variation were calculated, and statistical differences were assessed with one-way ANOVA. MDCT-based MTT and PBF measurements demonstrate globally increased heterogeneity in SCE subjects compared with NS and SNI subjects but demonstrate similarity between NS and SNI subjects. These findings demonstrate a functional lung-imaging measure that provides a more mechanistically oriented phenotype that differentiates smokers with and without evidence of emphysema susceptibility. PMID:20368443

Alford, Sara K.; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; McLennan, Geoffrey; Hoffman, Eric A.

2010-01-01

368

Desire versus Efficacy in Smokers’ Paradoxical Reactions to Pictorial Health Warnings for Cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs create aversive emotional reactions to smoking and induce thoughts about quitting; however, contrary to models of health behavior change, they do not appear to alter intentions to quit smoking. We propose and test a novel model of intention to quit an addictive habit such as smoking (the efficacy-desire model) that can explain this paradoxical effect. At the core of the model is the prediction that self-efficacy and desire to quit an addictive habit are inversely related. We tested the model in an online experiment that randomly exposed smokers (N?=?3297) to a cigarette pack with one of three increasing levels of warning intensity. The results supported the model’s prediction that despite the effects of warnings on aversion to smoking, intention to quit smoking is an inverted U-shape function of the smoker’s self-efficacy for quitting. In addition, smokers with greater (lesser) quit efficacy relative to smoking efficacy increase (decrease) intentions to quit. The findings show that previous failures to observe effects of pictorial warning labels on quit intentions can be explained by the contradictory individual differences that warnings produce. Thus, the model explains the paradoxical finding that quit intentions do not change at the population level, even though smokers recognize the implications of warnings. The model suggests that pictorial warnings are effective for smokers with stronger quit-efficacy beliefs and provides guidance for how cigarette warnings and tobacco control strategies can be designed to help smokers quit. PMID:23383006

Romer, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Strasser, Andrew A.; Langleben, Daniel

2013-01-01

369

Socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers’ ratings of plain and branded cigarette packaging: an experimental study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to test the potential impact of plain packaging for cigarettes on brand appeal among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers using the new design for cigarettes implemented in Australia, which combines plain packaging with larger health warning labels. Design A 2×2 factorial design trial embedded within a cross-sectional computer touchscreen survey. Data were collected between March and December 2012. Setting Socially disadvantaged welfare aid recipients were recruited through a large Social and Community Service Organisation in New South Wales, Australia. Participants N=354 smokers. The majority of the sample had not completed high school (64%), earned less than $A300/week (55%) and received their income from Government payments (95%). Interventions Participants were randomised to one of the four different pack conditions determined by brand name: Winfield versus Benson & Hedges, and packaging type: branded versus plain. Participants were required to rate their assigned pack on measures of brand appeal and purchase intentions. Results Plain packaging was associated with significantly reduced smoker ratings of ‘positive pack characteristics’ (p<0.001), ‘positive smoker characteristics’ (p=0.003) and ‘positive taste characteristics’ (p=0.033) in the Winfield brand name condition only. Across the four pack conditions, no main differences were found for ‘negative smoker characteristics’ (p=0.427) or ‘negative harm characteristics’ (p=0.411). In comparison to plain packaging, the presentation of branded packaging was associated with higher odds of smokers’ purchase intentions (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.54; p=0.002). Conclusions Plain packs stripped of branding elements, featuring larger health warning labels, were associated with reduced positive cigarette brand image and purchase intentions among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. PMID:24503299

Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; Durkin, Sarah; D'Este, Catherine

2014-01-01

370

Faster plasma vitamin E disappearance in smokers is normalized by vitamin C supplementation.  

PubMed

Vitamin E disappearance is accelerated in cigarette smokers due to their increased oxidative stress and is inversely correlated with plasma vitamin C concentrations. Therefore, we hypothesized that ascorbic acid supplementation (500 mg, twice daily; 2 weeks) would normalize smokers' plasma alpha- and gamma-tocopherol disappearance rates and conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover investigation in smokers (n=11) and nonsmokers (n=13) given a single dose of deuterium-labeled alpha- and gamma-tocopherols (50 mg each d6-RRR-alpha and d2-RRR-gamma-tocopheryl acetate). During the placebo trial, smokers, compared with nonsmokers, had significantly (P<0.05) greater alpha- and gamma-tocopherol fractional disappearance rates and shorter half-lives. Ascorbic acid supplementation doubled (P<0.0001) plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in both groups and attenuated smokers', but not nonsmokers', plasma alpha- and gamma-tocopherol (P<0.05) fractional disappearance rates by 25% and 45%, respectively. Likewise, smokers' plasma deuterium-labeled alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05) at 72 h during ascorbic acid supplementation compared with placebo. Ascorbic acid supplementation did not significantly change (P>0.05) time of maximal or maximal-labeled alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations. Smokers' plasma F2alpha-isoprostanes were approximately 26% higher than nonsmokers (P>0.05) and were not affected by ascorbic acid supplementation in either group (P>0.05). In summary, cigarette smoking increased plasma alpha- and gamma-tocopherol fractional disappearance rates, suggesting that the oxidative stress from smoking oxidizes tocopherols and that plasma ascorbic acid reduces alpha- and gamma-tocopheroxyl radicals to nonoxidized forms, thereby decreasing vitamin E disappearance in humans. PMID:16458200

Bruno, Richard S; Leonard, Scott W; Atkinson, Jeffery; Montine, Thomas J; Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar; Bray, Tammy M; Traber, Maret G

2006-02-15

371

Trait-impulsivity moderates the relationship between rumination and number of major depressive episodes among cigarette smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Despite the high prevalence of major depression among cigarette smokers, little is known about biobehavioral mechanisms that increase smokers' susceptibility to depression.Aims. The present study examined whether trait-impulsivity would moderate the relationship between rumination and number of past major depressive episodes (MDEs) among smokers (N = 128).Method. Data were derived from baseline screening questionnaires and structured diagnostic interviews of two studies

Dennis E. McChargue; Susan Drevo; María J. Herrera; Neal Doran; Silvina Salvi; Alicia K. Klanecky

2011-01-01

372

Black Body  

Microsoft Academic Search

A black body was first defined by Gustav R. Kirchhoff (1824–87) in 1859 as an object that absorbs all radiation falling upon\\u000a it. Such a conception of an ideal black body was crucial for understanding heat radiation and its laws. Since a completely\\u000a black body does not exist in nature, it had to be constructed. Kirchhoff had already suggested that

Dieter Hoffmann

373

Dysfunctional lipoproteins from young smokers exacerbate cellular senescence and atherogenesis with smaller particle size and severe oxidation and glycation.  

PubMed

Until now, there has been limited information on the effects of smoking on atherogenesis and senescence in the context of lipoprotein parameters, particularly in young smokers who have smoked fewer than 10 cigarettes per day for 3 years. In this study, lipoprotein profiles and functions were compared between smoker (n = 21) and control groups (n = 20). In the smoking group, ferric ion reduction abilities of serum and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fractions were significantly reduced, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was severely oxidized. All lipoprotein particles from the smoker group showed higher advanced glycated end products with more triglyceride (TG) content compared with the control group. Lipoproteins from smokers showed faster agarose gel electromobility as well as greater smear band intensity in SDS-PAGE due to oxidation and glycation. LDL from smokers was more sensitive to oxidation and promoted foam cell forma-tion in macrophages. Gel filtration column chromatography revealed that the protein and cholesterol peaks of VLDL and LDL were elevated in the smoker group, whereas those of HDL were reduced. Human dermal fibroblast cells from the smoker group showed severe senescence following treatment with HDL2 and HDL3. Although HDL from young smokers showed impaired antioxidant ability, smaller particle size, and increased TG content, cholesteryl ester transfer protein activities were greatly enhanced in the serum and HDL fractions of the smoker group. In conclusion, smoking can cause production of dysfunctional lipoproteins having a smaller particle size that exacerbate senescence and atherogenic progress due to oxidation and glycation. PMID:24798380

Park, Ki-Hoon; Shin, Dong-Gu; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

2014-07-01

374

Geology and hydrothermal evolution of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed characterization of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, the most southern and spatially extensive field on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, provides new insights into its geologic and hydrothermal development. Meter-scale bathymetry, side-scan sonar imagery, and direct dive observations show that Mothra is composed of six actively venting sulfide clusters spaced 40–200 m apart. Chimneys within each

Deborah A. Glickson; Deborah S. Kelley; John R. Delaney

2007-01-01

375

Stable isotopic compositions of hydrothermal vent organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotopic analyses were used to study trophic relationships in two communities of deep-sea hydrothermal vent organism in the Pacific Ocean. The community at Hanging Gardens on the East Pacific Rise (21°N), sampled in 1985, is dominated by two species of vestimentiferan tubeworms; communities at Alice Springs and Snail Pits on the Marianas Back Arc Spreading Center (western Pacific), sampled

C. L. Dover; B. Fry

1989-01-01

376

Are hydrothermal vent animals living fossils?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their discovery in 1977, hydrothermal vent communities have provided many surprises about life in the deep sea and in extreme environments. It has been suggested that vent communities contain many living fossils and that deep-sea chemosynthetic environments, such as vents and hydrocarbon seeps, are buffered from extinction events that affect the photic zone. This hypothesis is based on the

Crispin T. S. Little; Robert C. Vrijenhoek

2003-01-01

377

Hydrothermal solidification of inorganic waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

To create an environmently friendly community, the authors have investigated the recycling technology of inorganic, wastes to make high performance building materials and the stabilization technology of toxic heavy metals by using hydrothermal treatment. The inorganic waste materials used were bottom ash and fly ash from incinerated municipal waste, incinerated ash from sewage sludge, concrete waste, and construction sludge. These

Mikihiro Oida; H. Maenami; H. Shin; H. Kuno; Hideki Ishida

2001-01-01

378

Hydrothermal gasification of biomass and organic wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet biomass and organic wastes can be efficiently gasified under hydrothermal conditions to produce a hydrogen rich fuel gas. New experiments in two tubular flow reactors and in two batch autoclaves with carbohydrates, with aromatic compounds, with glycine as a model compound for proteins and with real biomass are reported for different residence times, temperatures and pressures. It was found

H. Schmieder; J. Abeln; N. Boukis; E. Dinjus; A. Kruse; M. Kluth; G. Petrich; E. Sadri; M. Schacht

2000-01-01

379

Hydrothermal Vent Animals: Distribution and Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal vent communities characterized by large clams, mussels, and vestimentiferan worms thrive on chemosynthetic microbial production. There are similarities in the animal distributions at vent communities from 20 degrees S to 46 degrees N on the Mid-Ocean Ridge in the Pacific Ocean and at cold sulfide seeps in the Gulf of Mexico. Vent communities, consisting of at least 16 previously

J. Frederick Grassle

1985-01-01

380

Physical balances in subseafloor hydrothermal convection cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a simplified model of convection in a porous medium to investigate the balances of mass and energy within a subseafloor hydrothermal convection cell. These balances control the steady state structure of the system and allow scalings for the height, permeability, and residence time of the “reaction zone” at the base of the cell to be calculated. The scalings

Tim E. Jupp; Adam Schultz

2004-01-01

381

Are smokers interested in genetic testing for smoking addiction? A socio-cognitive approach.  

PubMed

Genetic advances have made genetically tailored smoking cessation treatments possible. In this study, we examined whether smokers are interested in undergoing a genetic test to identify their genetic susceptibility to nicotine addiction. In addition, we aimed to identify socio-cognitive determinants of smokers' intention to undergo genetic testing. Following the protection motivation theory (PMT), we assessed the following constructs using an online survey among 587 smokers: threat appraisal (i.e. susceptibility and severity), fear, coping appraisal (i.e. response efficacy and self-efficacy), response costs and intention. In addition, knowledge, social norms and information-seeking behaviour were measured. Mean intention rates were 2.57 on a 5-point scale. Intention was significantly associated with threat appraisal and coping appraisal, as predicted by the PMT. Fear of the outcome was negatively associated with the intention to undergo genetic testing, but response costs, knowledge and social influence were not. Intention to undergo genetic testing in turn was positively related to seeking information about genetic testing and genetically tailored smoking cessation treatments. Smokers seem ambivalent or 'on the fence' with regard to undergoing a genetic test for smoking addiction. Socio-cognitive concepts such as susceptibility, severity, response efficacy and self-efficacy may be used to inform or educate smokers about the value of genetically tailored smoking cessation treatments. PMID:21678175

Smerecnik, Chris; Quaak, Marieke; van Schayck, Constant P; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan; de Vries, Hein

2011-08-01

382

Mu Opioid Receptor Binding Correlates with Nicotine Dependence and Reward in Smokers  

PubMed Central

The rewarding effects of nicotine are associated with activation of nicotine receptors. However, there is increasing evidence that the endogenous opioid system is involved in nicotine's rewarding effects. We employed PET imaging with [11C]carfentanil to test the hypotheses that acute cigarette smoking increases release of endogenous opioids in the human brain and that smokers have an upregulation of mu opioid receptors (MORs) when compared to nonsmokers. We found no significant changes in binding potential (BPND) of [11C]carfentanil between the placebo and the active cigarette sessions, nor did we observe differences in MOR binding between smokers and nonsmokers. Interestingly, we showed that in smokers MOR availability in bilateral superior temporal cortices during the placebo condition was negatively correlated with scores on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Also in smokers, smoking-induced decreases in [11C]carfentanil binding in frontal cortical regions were associated with self-reports of cigarette liking and wanting. Although we did not show differences between smokers and nonsmokers, the negative correlation with FTND corroborates the role of MORs in superior temporal cortices in nicotine addiction and provides preliminary evidence of a role of endogenous opioid signaling in frontal cortex in nicotine reward. PMID:25493427

Brasic, James R.; Contoreggi, Carlo; Cascella, Nicola; Mackowick, Kristen M.; Taylor, Richard; Rousset, Olivier; Willis, William; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Concheiro, Marta; Wand, Gary; Wong, Dean F.; Volkow, Nora D.

2014-01-01

383

COMT Val158Met modulates subjective responses to intravenous nicotine and cognitive performance in abstinent smokers  

PubMed Central

The COMT Val158Met polymorphism may be a risk factor for nicotine addiction. This study examined the influence of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on subjective, physiological, and cognitive effects of intravenous (IV) nicotine use in African American (AAs) (n=56) and European American (EAs) (n=68) smokers. Overnight abstinent smokers received saline followed by 0.5 and 1.0 mg/70 kg doses of nicotine, administered 30 minutes apart. Smokers with Val/Val genotype, compared to Met carriers, had greater negative subjective effects from IV nicotine and had more severe withdrawal severity following overnight abstinence from smoking. Women with Val/Val genotype reported greater difficulty concentrating and irritability than men with Val/Val or Met carrier genotypes. The Val/Val genotype was associated with better performance on the math task and in AA smokers it was associated with greater systolic blood pressure. These results support the rationale of pharmacologically inhibiting COMT to aid with smoking cessation among Val/Val genotype smokers. PMID:23459442

Herman, Aryeh I.; Jatlow, Peter I.; Gelernter, Joel; Listman, Jennifer B.; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

2013-01-01

384

Down modulation of IFN-{gamma} signaling in alveolar macrophages isolated from smokers  

SciTech Connect

The master cytokine, IFN-{gamma} possesses a wide spectrum of biological effects and is crucial for development of the highly activated macrophage phenotype characteristically found during inflammation. However, no data exists regarding the potential influence of cigarette smoke on the status of the expression of the cell surface receptor for IFN-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}R) on alveolar macrophages (AM) of smokers. Here in, we report reduction in the expression of the IFN-{gamma}R {alpha}-chain on AM of cigarette smokers, when compared with non-smokers. Ensuing from the loss of receptor expression on the AM of smokers there was a decrease in IFN-{gamma}-mediated cell signaling. This included a decrease in the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1 and induction of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1. Further, diminished activation/induction of transcription factors did not appear to result from induction of known members of the 'suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)' family. Decreased IFN-{gamma} signal transduction in AM from smokers may have an important implication regarding the use of therapeutic IFN-{gamma} in the lungs of patients that develop respiratory disorders as a result of tobacco use.

Dhillon, Navneet K. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas (United States); Murphy, William J.; Filla, Michael B. [Department of Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas (United States); Crespo, Ana J. [Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of University of Porto (IPATIMUP), Porto (Portugal); Latham, Heath A. [Department of Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas (United States); O'Brien-Ladner, Amy [Department of Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas (United States)], E-mail: aladner@kumc.edu

2009-05-15

385

Gold Standard Program for Heavy Smokers in a Real-Life Setting  

PubMed Central

Background: High-intensity smoking cessation programs generally lead to more continuous abstinence, however, lower rates of success have been reported among heavy smokers. The aim was to evaluate continuous abstinence among heavy smokers during the intensive 6-week Gold Standard Program (GSP) and to identify modifiable factors associated with continuous abstinence. Methods: In this nationwide clinical study based on 36,550 smokers attending an intensive cessation program in Denmark. Heavy smoking was defined as ?7 points in the Fagerström Nicotine Dependency Test, smoking ?20 cigarettes daily or ?20 pack-years. Results: Overall, 28% had a Fagerström score ?7 points, 58% smoked ?20 cigarettes daily and 68% smoked ?20 pack-years. Continuous abstinence was 33% in responders (6-months response rate: 78%); however, abstinence was approximately 1–6% lower in the heavy smokers than the overall population. Attending GSP with an individual format (vs. group/other, OR 1.23–1.44); in a hospital setting (vs. pharmacy/municipality services, OR 1.05–1.11); and being compliant (attending the planned meetings OR 4.36–4.89) were associated with abstinence. Abstinence decreased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing smoking severity. Conclusions: Abstinence after GSP was 1–6% lower in the heavy smokers than in the overall study population. Modifiable factors may be used for small improvements in continued abstinence. However attempts to improve compliance seemed especially promising. PMID:24022655

Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit L.; Tønnesen, Hanne

2013-01-01

386

A Qualitative Study of How Young Scottish Smokers Living in Disadvantaged Communities Get Their Cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Reducing access to cigarettes is an important element of youth smoking prevention strategies. This is particularly so in disadvantaged communities that have high rates of youth smoking. In 2010, Scotland banned proxy sales of tobacco products to under 18-year-olds who were getting older people to purchase cigarettes on their behalf. Methods: A qualitative study using 24 small single-sex friendship groups. Eighty young people, mostly aged 14–16, of whom 57 were smokers, were recruited in 2012 from community youth groups in 3 socially disadvantaged areas of Scotland. Results: Participants’ main sources of cigarettes were proxy sales, family, and peers and friends. Younger smokers were more likely to purchase single cigarettes from older smokers at school and to steal cigarettes from family members. Older and regular smokers were more likely to obtain cigarettes through proxy purchases. Proxy purchases were often facilitated by problem drug users who were willing to buy cigarettes for a small monetary reward. Direct purchases in shops were less commonly reported but appeared to involve complicit action by some retailers. Few reported that they bought blackmarket cigarettes, although they were available in these communities. Conclusions: Young people in areas of deprivation are still able to circumvent the age-of-sale legislation on selling cigarettes. Even though proxy sales have been banned, they are an important source of cigarettes for disadvantaged young smokers. PMID:23911845

2013-01-01

387

Hepatocyte Growth Factor Levels in the Saliva and Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Smokers with Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) production by oral fibroblasts is enhanced by various molecules that are induced during inflammatory conditions including periodontitis. HGF plays an important role in the progression of periodontitis, by stimulating intense growth of epithelial cells and preventing regeneration of connective tissue attachments. Smokers have a greater risk factor in the pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease. The objective of the study was to estimate the level of HGF in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in smokers with periodontitis and to compare these levels with that of nonsmokers with periodontitis and healthy controls. The HGF levels were found to be significantly high in the saliva and GCF of smokers with periodontitis compared to both never-smokers with periodontitis and the healthy control group. The elevated levels of HGF in the saliva and GCF in the study population could explain the intrinsic mechanism triggering the severity of the periodontitis in smokers. Further studies are necessary to validate the current observations and to establish a sensitive marker to predict periodontal disease activity. PMID:25389376

Anil, Sukumaran; Vellappally, Sajith; Preethanath, R. S.; Mokeem, Sameer A.; AlMoharib, Hani S.; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz A.

2014-01-01

388

Moderate Alcohol Consumption is Protective Against Colorectal Adenomas in Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Although some studies have shown an association between alcohol consumption and colorectal adenomas, the effect of moderate alcohol consumption is not well-defined, nor is the interaction between alcohol and smoking. Aim To investigate the relationship between different levels of alcohol consumption and colorectal adenomas and to determine whether smoking modifies this relationship. Methods Eligible patients who underwent a complete colonoscopy were included (179 cases and 466 controls). Alcohol consumption was obtained from a lifestyle questionnaire. Patients were divided into three groups: 1) Abstainers: 0 drinks/week; 2) Moderate drinkers: >0-<7 drinks/week; 3) Heavy drinkers: >=7 drinks/week. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using logistic regression, controlling for gender, age, body mass index, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications. Results were stratified by the number of years smoked. Results The proportion of patients with adenomas was 29.6% in abstainers, 22.1% in moderate drinkers, and 36.7% in heavy drinkers. There was significant modification of the relationship between alcohol consumption and colorectal adenomas by smoking. For individuals who had never smoked, heavy drinkers were at significantly increased odds of having an adenoma compared to moderate drinkers (OR 3.08; 95% CI: 1.50-6.32), while no difference was seen for abstainers (OR 0.99; 95% CI: 0.52-1.89). Similarly, among individuals who had smoked 1-14 years, heavy drinkers were at increased odds of having an adenoma compared to moderate drinkers (OR 2.61; 95% CI: 1.04-6.51), and no difference was seen for abstainers (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 0.33-3.10). Somewhat unexpectedly, among individuals who had smoked for 15 or more years, abstainers were at increased odds of having an adenoma compared to moderate drinkers (OR 2.04; 95% CI: 0.91-4.59), while heavy drinkers were not at increased odds of having an adenoma (OR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.27-1.97). Conclusions Consumption of less than seven alcohol drinks per week does not increase the risk of having a colorectal adenoma. We found evidence in this study that moderate alcohol consumption among long-term smokers may potentially decrease the risk of an adenoma compared to abstainers. PMID:17510802

Galanko, Joseph A.; Martin, Christopher F.; Sandler, Robert S.

2009-01-01

389

Experimental constraints on hydrothermal activities in Enceladus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most remarkable findings by the Cassini-Huygens mission is perhaps water-rich plumes erupting from the south-pole region of Enceladus [1]. Given such geological activity and the detection of sodium salts in the plume, the interior of Enceladus is highly likely to contain an interior ocean interacting with the rock core [2]. A primary question regarding astrobiology and planetary science is whether Enceladus has (or had) hydrothermal activities in the interior ocean. Because N2 might be formed by thermal dissociation of primordial NH3 [3], the presence of N2 in the plume may be a possible indicator for the presence of hydrothermal activities in Enceladus. However, the Cassini UVIS revealed that the plumes do not contain large amounts of N2 [4]. Although these observations may not support the presence of hydrothermal activities, whether NH3 dissociation proceeds strongly depends on the kinetics of hydrothermal reactions and interactions with the rock components, which remain largely unknown. Furthermore, the Cassini CDA recently showed that small amounts of SiO2 might have been included in the plume dusts [5]. Formation of amorphous SiO2 usually occurs when high-temperature and/or high-pH solution with high concentrations of dissolved SiO2 cools and/or is neutralized. Thus, the presence of SiO2 in the plume dusts may suggest the presence of a temperature and/or pH gradient in the ocean. However, no laboratory experiments have investigated what processes control pH and SiO2 concentrations in hydrothermal fluids possibly existing in Enceladus. Here, we show the results of laboratory experiments simulating hydrothermal systems on Enceladus. As the initial conditions, we used both aqueous solution of high concentrations (0.01-2%) of NH3 and NaHCO3 and powdered olivine as an analog for the rock components. Our experimental results show that formation of N2 from NH3 is kinetically and thermodynamically inhibited even under high temperature conditions (< 400°C). This is because NH3 decomposition proceeds inefficiently due to efficient H2 production via serpentinization. Our experimental results also suggest that SiO2 concentration dissolved in hydrothermal fluids simulating Enceladus' condition would be buffered by the serpentine-brucite system. The presence of NH3 in the hydrothermal conditions keeps pH of the solution high (pH 9-11). We suggest that under such conditions, SiO2 concentrations in the fluids would be 0.1 mmol/L or less for temperature < 350°C. Given the SiO2 solubility of 1-10 mmol/L at 0°C and pH 9-11, direct formation of amorphous SiO2 would not occur in Enceladus' hydrothermal systems. To produce amorphous SiO2, large-scale hydrothermal activities and subsequent concentration of dissolved SiO2 in the ocean (due to freezing and/or evaporation of liquid water) would be required, which is consistent with high concentrations of radiogenic Ar and sodium salts in the plume [2, 6]. [1] Porco et al., Science 311, 1393 (2006). [2] Postberg et al., Nature 459, 1098 (2009). [3] Matson et al., Icarus 187, 569 (2007). [4] Hansen t al., Geophs. Res. Lett. 38, L11202 (2011). [5] Hsu et al., EOS Trans. AGU, (2010). [6] Waite et al., Nature 460, 487 (2009).

Sekine, Y.; Shibuya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Kuwatani, T.

2012-12-01

390

Fungal colonization of an Ordovician impact-induced hydrothermal system  

PubMed Central

Impacts are common geologic features on the terrestrial planets throughout the solar system, and on at least Earth and Mars impacts have induced hydrothermal convection. Impact-generated hydrothermal systems have been suggested to possess the same life supporting capability as hydrothermal systems associated with volcanic activity. However, evidence of fossil microbial colonization in impact-generated hydrothermal systems is scarce in the literature. Here we report of fossilized microorganisms in association with cavity-grown hydrothermal minerals from the 458?Ma Lockne impact structure, Sweden. Based on morphological characteristics the fossilized microorganisms are interpreted as fungi. We further infer the kerogenization of the microfossils, and thus the life span of the fungi, to be contemporaneous with the hydrothermal activity and migration of hydrocarbons in the system. Our results from the Lockne impact structure show that hydrothermal systems associated with impact structures can support colonization by microbial life. PMID:24336641

Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Sturkell, Erik; Ormö, Jens; Siljeström, Sandra; van Zuilen, Mark; Bengtson, Stefan

2013-01-01

391

Fungal colonization of an Ordovician impact-induced hydrothermal system.  

PubMed

Impacts are common geologic features on the terrestrial planets throughout the solar system, and on at least Earth and Mars impacts have induced hydrothermal convection. Impact-generated hydrothermal systems have been suggested to possess the same life supporting capability as hydrothermal systems associated with volcanic activity. However, evidence of fossil microbial colonization in impact-generated hydrothermal systems is scarce in the literature. Here we report of fossilized microorganisms in association with cavity-grown hydrothermal minerals from the 458?Ma Lockne impact structure, Sweden. Based on morphological characteristics the fossilized microorganisms are interpreted as fungi. We further infer the kerogenization of the microfossils, and thus the life span of the fungi, to be contemporaneous with the hydrothermal activity and migration of hydrocarbons in the system. Our results from the Lockne impact structure show that hydrothermal systems associated with impact structures can support colonization by microbial life. PMID:24336641

Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Sturkell, Erik; Ormö, Jens; Siljeström, Sandra; van Zuilen, Mark; Bengtson, Stefan

2013-01-01

392

Hydrothermal systems in small ocean planets.  

PubMed

We examine means for driving hydrothermal activity in extraterrestrial oceans on planets and satellites of less than one Earth mass, with implications for sustaining a low level of biological activity over geological timescales. Assuming ocean planets have olivine-dominated lithospheres, a model for cooling-induced thermal cracking shows how variation in planet size and internal thermal energy may drive variation in the dominant type of hydrothermal system-for example, high or low temperature system or chemically driven system. As radiogenic heating diminishes over time, progressive exposure of new rock continues to the current epoch. Where fluid-rock interactions propagate slowly into a deep brittle layer, thermal energy from serpentinization may be the primary cause of hydrothermal activity in small ocean planets. We show that the time-varying hydrostatic head of a tidally forced ice shell may drive hydrothermal fluid flow through the seafloor, which can generate moderate but potentially important heat through viscous interaction with the matrix of porous seafloor rock. Considering all presently known potential ocean planets-Mars, a number of icy satellites, Pluto, and other trans-neptunian objects-and applying Earth-like material properties and cooling rates, we find depths of circulation are more than an order of magnitude greater than in Earth. In Europa and Enceladus, tidal flexing may drive hydrothermal circulation and, in Europa, may generate heat on the same order as present-day radiogenic heat flux at Earth's surface. In all objects, progressive serpentinization generates heat on a globally averaged basis at a fraction of a percent of present-day radiogenic heating and hydrogen is produced at rates between 10(9) and 10(10) molecules cm(2) s(1). PMID:18163874

Vance, Steve; Harnmeijer, Jelte; Kimura, Jun; Hussmann, Hauke; Demartin, Brian; Brown, J Michael

2007-12-01

393

Are black holes totally black?  

E-print Network

Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.

A. A. Grib; Yu. V. Pavlov

2014-10-21

394

Black America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The twenty-three contributors to this volume show that, despite racism, American blacks have independently developed some of their own cultural strengths. If these are correctly harnessed, they could provide important resources for the revitalization and development of the black community. The four parts of which this book is comprised are: (1)…

Szwed, John F., Ed.

395

Genes associated with succeptibility to lung adenocarcinoma among never smokers suggest the mechanism of disease.  

PubMed

Global statistics estimate that 15% of all cases of lung cancer in men and 53% in women are not attributable to smoking, and these data indicate that worldwide, approximately 25% of patients with lung cancer are never smokers. The etiology of lung cancer is disputed. The present study reviews the genes associated with susceptibility to lung cancer among never smokers and suggests possibilities for the involvement of metabolic syndrome. The environment appears to have changed the genes susceptible to lung cancer. Classical genes associated with lung cancer are decreasing and novel emerging genes may reflect changes in lifestyle. We provide evidence that the genes associated with susceptibility to lung cancer in never smokers are very similar to those reported in patients with metabolic syndrome, and that simply quitting smoking is not sufficient as the primary means of prev