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Sample records for black smoker hydrothermal

  1. The Sound Generated by Mid-Ocean Ridge Black Smoker Hydrothermal Vents

    E-print Network

    Crone, Timothy J.

    The Sound Generated by Mid-Ocean Ridge Black Smoker Hydrothermal Vents Timothy J. Crone*, William S, Seattle, Washington, United States of America Hydrothermal flow through seafloor black smoker vents Generated by Mid-Ocean Ridge Black Smoker Hydrothermal Vents. PLoS ONE 1(1): e133. doi:10.1371/journal

  2. The Sound Generated by Mid-Ocean Ridge Black Smoker Hydrothermal Vents

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Timothy J.; Wilcock, William S.D.; Barclay, Andrew H.; Parsons, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrothermal flow through seafloor black smoker vents is typically turbulent and vigorous, with speeds often exceeding 1 m/s. Although theory predicts that these flows will generate sound, the prevailing view has been that black smokers are essentially silent. Here we present the first unambiguous field recordings showing that these vents radiate significant acoustic energy. The sounds contain a broadband component and narrowband tones which are indicative of resonance. The amplitude of the broadband component shows tidal modulation which is indicative of discharge rate variations related to the mechanics of tidal loading. Vent sounds will provide researchers with new ways to study flow through sulfide structures, and may provide some local organisms with behavioral or navigational cues. PMID:17205137

  3. Microearthquakes in the black smoker hydrothermal field, East Pacific Rise at 21/sup 0/N

    SciTech Connect

    Riedesel, M.; Orcutt, J.A.; MacDonald, K.C.; McClain, J.S.

    1982-12-10

    In July and August 1980, an array of five ocean bottom seismographs was deployed within 3 km of the 350 /sup 0/C hydrothermal vents at the Rivera submersible experiment (RISE) site at 21/sup 0/N, on the East Pacific Rise. Two of these instruments were placed within 600 m of the vents, using a transponder navigation network. The array detected four basic types of events. The first type consisted of local, very small microearthquakes. Locations obtained for 11 of these events place three within 1 km of the vents, with the others elsewhere along the rise crest. They appear to originate either from movement on the faults in the area or from the hydrothermal system beneath this area. A study of the S-P times of this type indicates a maximum hypocentral depth of 2-3 km, implying a similar limit to the depth of hydrothermal circulation and brittle fracturing in the vicinity of the vents. The second type of event found consisted of emergent earthquakes that have many of the characteristics of volcanic harmonic tremor. The frequency of these events falls in the 1-5 Hz range and are similar in appearance to those seen at Mount St. Helens prior to and during its May 1980 eruption. They may be either hydrothermal or volcanic in origin. The third type of event produced a very monochromatic, high-frequency seismogram, with the energy concentrated at 20 Hz. These events also appear to have a local origin.

  4. Distribution and solubility limits of trace elements in hydrothermal black smoker sulfides: An in-situ LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Viljoen, Fanus; Petersen, Sven; Vorster, Clarisa

    2015-06-01

    The key for understanding the trace metal inventory of currently explored VHMS deposits lies in the understanding of trace element distribution during the formation of these deposits on the seafloor. Recrystallization processes already occurring at the seafloor might liberate trace elements to later hydrothermal alteration and removement. To investigate the distribution and redistribution of trace elements we analyzed sulfide minerals from 27 black smoker samples derived from three different seafloor hydrothermal fields: the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the basaltic-hosted Turtle Pits field on the mid-atlantic ridge, and the felsic-hosted PACMANUS field in the Manus basin (Papua New Guinea). The sulfide samples were analyzed by mineral liberation analyser for the modal abundances of sulfide minerals, by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for As, Sb, Se, Te, and Au. The samples consist predominantly of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, galena and minor isocubanite as well as inclusions of tetrahedrite-tennantite. Laser ablation spectra were used to evaluate the solubility limits of trace elements in different sulfide minerals at different textures. The solubility of As, Sb, and Au in pyrite decreases with increasing degree of recrystallization. When solubility limits are reached these elements occur as inclusions in the different sulfide phases or they are expelled from the mineral phase. Most ancient VHMS deposits represent felsic or bimodal felsic compositions. Samples from the felsic-hosted PACMANUS hydrothermal field at the Pual ridge (Papua New Guinea) show high concentrations of Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Hg, and Te, which is likely the result of an additional trace element contribution derived from magmatic volatiles. Co-precipitating pyrite and chalcopyrite are characterized by equal contents of Te, while chalcopyrite that replaced pyrite (presumably during black smoker growth) is enriched in Te relative to pyrite. These higher Te concentrations may be related to higher fluid temperature.

  5. Thermoelasticity and the formation of black smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell, R.P. )

    1990-05-01

    Darcy's Law flow in a permeable medium, consisting of uniform parallel evenly spaced fractures, is used to elucidate how thermoelastic effects may modify the permeability and flow in fracture-controlled hydrothermal systems. Some simple permeability models are then used to investigate whether black smoker venting can result from focussing of low velocity porous flow into fractures at shallow depths ({approx equal} 100 m.). The models indicate that: (a) thermoelastic processes may be important in controlling the temporal evolution of hydrothermal upflow zones; (b) permeability structure, not just the bulk value of the permeability, may be critical for the formation of black smokers; (c) a small zone extending to a depth of {approx equal} 100 m containing a few fractures a factor of 2 or more wider than average may be sufficient to focus upflow into discrete vents provided thermoelastic and chemical effects seal parts of the upper crust.

  6. A role of sulfur in 'black smoker' sedimentary matter evolution. Illustration: the TAG and Broken Spur hydrothermal vent fields (Mid-Atlantic Ridge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusakov, V. Y.

    2006-05-01

    Numerous direct observations of known vents on the sea-bottom showed that formation of massive sulfide deposits has complicated and intricate story. We suggest that the matter, forming by direct contact between hydrothermal fluid and sea-water, gives useful information on genesis and evolution for ancient volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. In the Atlantic Ocean, hydrothermal particle matter collected by means of sediment traps near black smokers have been studied only within the Broken Spur [Lukashin et al., 1999] and TAG fields. Chemical and mineral composition of the particulate matter from the TAG field we discuss for the first time. Sediment traps are widely used for collecting free-sinking particles in the water column because of their design and easiness in operation. Besides, it is easy to calculate the flux if one knows the mass of trapped material, the aperture area of the trap, and the exposure time. In addition, this method makes it possible to sample the substance in the water column and to study it in the pure state (to determine mineral and chemical composition). In order to research the particulate matter and its flux near black smokers (the main problem is that the trap also collected some undesired material from another layers of the water column), our traps (KSL-400/1) were provided with special mechanism that protect a sample from "contamination" [Rusakov et al., 1996]. Two such traps were deployed with the help of manned submersible "MIR" on the sea- bottom at a distance 3 meters from basement of 'black smoker' chimney complex. First trap was near the Saracen's Head (the most massive 'black smoker' chimney of the Broken Spur field). Second one was on the top of the TAG Mound. Both fields have identical type of circulating system (axial circulating system of the low-spreading ridge) and identical source of chemical elements - toleitic basalts. Differences are concerned only the age of the vents. The results showed that the material in both cases has high contents of ore-forming chemical elements (Fe, Cu, Zn), as well as Se, As, Sb, Ba and P relatively to both pelagic sediments and basaltic rocks from that they were leached. 40 percent of particulate matter near more "old" vent on TAG field (40-50 kyr) consists of Fe-oxyhydroxide particles in contrast with the Broken Spur vent (< 1 kyr), where pyrrhotite is a dominant mineral. We propose that this difference is the result of sulfur deficit in hydrothermal fluid in older vent on the TAG field. That could be a result both decrease of sulfur content in oceanic crust and sulfur expenditure for mineralization within ore body. Higher enrichment factors for S, Se and Ca relatively to toleitic basalts for vent on the Broken Spur field may be explained by higher mobility of these elements, which were leached more intensively from rocks of reaction zone in early stages of the hydrothermal system evolution. Higher enrichment factors for Cu, Fe, Zn in the material of the TAG vent and, specially, for As and Si (in 3 and 5 times more than material from the Broken Spur vent, correspondingly), obviously, are the result of their lower mobility. It was showed in the Logachev I and II fields that hydrothermal iron may also be washed out from ore body as a result of substitution: Cu+Fe2+Fe3+S3 (isocubanite) - Cu+Fe3+S2 (chalcopyrite) - Cu5+Fe3+S4 (bornite) [Mozgova et al., 2005]. Besides, it was determined that about 67 tons of particulate iron are contained in plume body above the TAG vent field by volume about 6 km3, and 23.5 tons of particulate iron are contained in plume above the Broken Spur vent field by volume 8.24 km3 [Rusakov, 2006]. We speculate that such difference is the result of higher hydrothermal iron supply into the water column from the TAG vent.

  7. Near-field entrainment in black smoker plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. E.; Germanovich, L. N.; Lowell, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we study the entrainment rate of the ambient fluid into a plume in the extreme conditions of hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths that would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Specifically, we investigate the flow regime in the lower parts of three black smoker plumes in the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge discharging at temperatures of 249°C, 333°C, and 336°C and a pressure of 21 MPa. Such flow conditions are typical for ocean floor hydrothermal venting but would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. The centerline temperature was measured at several heights in the plume above the orifice. Using a previously developed turbine flow meter, we also measured the mean flow velocity at the orifice. Measurements were conducted during dives 4452 and 4518 on the submersible Alvin. Using these measurements, we obtained a range of 0.064 - 0.068 for values of the entrainment coefficient ?, which is assumed constant near the orifice. This is half the value of ? ? 0.12 - 0.13 that would be expected for plume flow regimes based on the existing laboratory results and field measurements in lower temperature and pressure conditions. In fact, ? = 0.064 - 0.068 is even smaller than the value of ? ? 0.075 characteristic of jet flow regimes and appears to be the lowest reported in the literature. Assuming that the mean value ? = 0.066 is typical for hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths, we then characterized the flow regimes of 63 black smoker plumes located on the Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Work with the obtained data is ongoing, but current results indicate that approximately half of these black smokers are lazy in the sense that their plumes exhibit momentum deficits compared to the pure plume flow that develops as the plume rises. The remaining half produces forced plumes that show the momentum excess compared to the pure plumes. The lower value of the entrainment coefficient has important implications for measurements of mass and heat output at mid-oceanic ridges. For example, determining heat output based on the maximum height of plume rise has become a common method of measuring heat flux produced by hydrothermal circulation at mid-oceanic ridges. The fundamental theory for the rise and spreading of turbulent buoyant plumes suggests that the heat output in this method is proportional to ?2 and is, therefore, sensitive to the value of ?. The considerably different entrainment rates in lazy and forced black smoker plumes may be important for understanding larvae transport mechanism in the life cycle of macrofauna near hydrothermal vents.

  8. Hydrothermal Fe fluxes during the Precambrian: Effect of low oceanic sulfate concentrations and low hydrostatic pressure on the composition of black smokers [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kump, Lee R.; Seyfried, William E.

    2005-07-01

    Modern mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems typically release vent fluids to the ocean with dissolved H 2S in excess of Fe. These fluids are the consequence of high-temperature interactions between sulfate-rich seawater and mid-ocean ridge basalt at conditions near the critical point for seawater. The precipitation of FeS and FeS 2 during venting titrates most of the Fe from the fluid, significantly reducing the net flux of Fe to the open ocean. Here we suggest that hydrothermal fluids emanating from Precambrian seafloor systems older than ˜1.8 Ga had Fe / H 2S ratios >> 1, and with fH 2 higher than today, because seawater lacked its primary oxidant, dissolved sulfate ion. This predominance of Fe over H 2S would have promoted the establishment of an iron-rich deep ocean and the deposition of banded iron formations (BIF). Accordingly, the end of BIF deposition at ˜1.8 Ga was the result of the buildup of sulfate in seawater from oxidative weathering, and its return at 750 Ma the result of reductions in seawater sulfate concentrations during Snowball Earth episodes, enhanced by elevated Fe concentrations during depressurization of hydrothermal systems by large eustatic sea-level falls. Moreover, Precambrian chemosynthetic vent communities may have been based on H 2 synthesis rather than on H 2S oxidation, as they largely are today.

  9. Distribution of Archaea in a Black Smoker Chimney Structure

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Ken; Komatsu, Tetsushi; Inagaki, Fumio; Horikoshi, Koki

    2001-01-01

    Archaeal community structures in microhabitats in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney structure were evaluated through the combined use of culture-independent molecular analyses and enrichment culture methods. A black smoker chimney was obtained from the PACMANUS site in the Manus Basin near Papua New Guinea, and subsamples were obtained from vertical and horizontal sections. The elemental composition of the chimney was analyzed in different subsamples by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, indicating that zinc and sulfur were major components while an increased amount of elemental oxygen in exterior materials represented the presence of oxidized materials on the outer surface of the chimney. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that a shift in archaeal ribotype structure occurred in the chimney structure. Through sequencing of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clones from archaeal rDNA clone libraries, it was demonstrated that the archaeal communities in the chimney structure consisted for the most part of hyperthermophilic members and extreme halophiles and that the distribution of such extremophiles in different microhabitats of the chimney varied. The results of the culture-dependent analysis supported in part the view that changes in archaeal community structures in these microhabitats are associated with the geochemical and physical dynamics in the black smoker chimney. PMID:11472939

  10. Particulate DNA in smoker fluids: Evidence for existence of microbial populations in hot hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Straube, W.L.; Colwell, R.R. Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore ); Deming, J.W.; Baross, J.A. ); Somerville, C.C. )

    1990-05-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary study of hydrothermal vents on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, we used the submersible ALVIN to collect 57 fluid samples from 17 different hot vents (smokers and flanges) and their environs for the purpose of extracting particulate DNA. Particulate material concentrated from these samples was lysed enzymatically (enz) and by a combination of enzyme and French press treatment (fp). Concentrations of partially purified DNA recovered from these lysates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Ambient seawater surrounding the vents was found to contain low DNA concentrations, 0.18 to 0.32 ng of DNA per ml, while low-temperature vent samples yielded significantly higher concentrations of 0.37 to 2.12 ng of DNA per ml. Although DNA recovery values from superheated (210 to 345{degree}C) flange samples were not significantly different from ambient seawater values, most of the superheated (174 to 357{degree}C) smoker fluid samples contained particulate DNA in concentrations too high to be attributable to entrained seawater. Detailed sampling at one smoker site demonstrated not only the existence of significant levels of particulate DNA in the superheated smoker fluids but also the presence of an elevated microbial population in the buoyant plume 20 to 100 m above the smoker. These results underscore the heterogeneity of smoker environments within a given hydrothermal vent fluid and indicate that microorganisms exist in some superheated fluids.

  11. Discovery of a black smoker vent field and vent fauna at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Rolf B.; Rapp, Hans Tore; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.; Baumberger, Tamara; Flesland, Kristin; Fonseca, Rita; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Jorgensen, Steffen L.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) represents one of the most slow-spreading ridge systems on Earth. Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting, as well as the provenance of vent fauna at this northern and insular termination of the global ridge system, have been unsuccessful. Here, we report the first discovery of a black smoker vent field at the AMOR. The field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) and is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting and long-lived hydrothermal systems exist at ultraslow-spreading ridges, despite their strongly reduced volcanic activity. The vent field hosts a distinct vent fauna that differs from the fauna to the south along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The novel vent fauna seems to have developed by local specialization and by migration of fauna from cold seeps and the Pacific. PMID:21119639

  12. Discovery of a black smoker vent field and vent fauna at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Rolf B; Rapp, Hans Tore; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Lilley, Marvin D; Barriga, Fernando J A S; Baumberger, Tamara; Flesland, Kristin; Fonseca, Rita; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Jorgensen, Steffen L

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) represents one of the most slow-spreading ridge systems on Earth. Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting, as well as the provenance of vent fauna at this northern and insular termination of the global ridge system, have been unsuccessful. Here, we report the first discovery of a black smoker vent field at the AMOR. The field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) and is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting and long-lived hydrothermal systems exist at ultraslow-spreading ridges, despite their strongly reduced volcanic activity. The vent field hosts a distinct vent fauna that differs from the fauna to the south along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The novel vent fauna seems to have developed by local specialization and by migration of fauna from cold seeps and the Pacific. PMID:21119639

  13. Upper Limit to Black Smoker Temperatures Not Yet in Sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devey, C. W.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C.

    2011-12-01

    The world's hottest-known black smoker vent field (Turtle Pits Field, 4°50'S, Mid-Atlantic Ridge) has previously been reported as showing transient venting temperatures up to 464°C (Koschinsky et al., 2008). The calculated Mg-free endmember fluid has low salinity (ca. 280 mM Cl) suggesting it is a separated vapour phase. This end-member chlorinity has remained constant over the period of 26 months during which samples were repeatedly collected. We present new data showing that venting at Turtle Pits has in fact reached measured exit temperatures of at least 524°C, that the measured temperature is related to where on the smoker samples are collected (with higher temperatures found near the base) and that sampling temperature and salinity are not correlated. These observations can be explained by a simple two-stage model consisting of (1) a stable, high-temperature vapour production region at depth and (2) a region of cooling of the vapours within the smoker structure at the seafloor by heat exchange with ambient seawater. Sub-seafloor vapour transport between these two regions must occur with negligible heat loss to the surrounding rock - deposition of high-temperature minerals (e.g., Cu-sulphides, anhydrite) may, however, occur. Future attempts to sample the vapour before heat exchange will demonstrate its true maximum temperature - there seems to be no a priori reason why it could not approach magmatic temperatures, however. From chemical and phase equilibrium constraints, the vapour production region must lie at pressures of >550 bars (the pressure at which a vapour of the measured salinity will be formed on the two-phase boundary at 524°C), in conflict with the 350 bars given by silica geobarometry of the fluids (Koschinsky et al., 2008). This discrepancy may be related to the absence of quartz in the reaction zone, the very high fluid temperatures (outside the 390-430°C validity region of the Si barometry calibration) or a lack of fluid/rock equilibrium resulting from high water/rock ratios and rapid fluid through-put. Ref.: Koschinsky, A. et al. (2008), Geology, 36, 615-618, doi: 10.1130/G24726A.1

  14. Tidally-Forced Flow Variability Within Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems: Models and Measurement Techniques

    E-print Network

    Crone, Timothy J.

    black smoker hydrothermal vents. The first technique I develop is based on passive acoustic measurementsTidally-Forced Flow Variability Within Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems: Models and Measurement of Washington Abstract Tidally-Forced Flow Variability Within Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems: Models

  15. Diversity of microbial communities of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeschke, A.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Früh-Green, G.

    2010-12-01

    Here we present an organic geochemical study of Loki’s Castle, a black smoker field recently discovered at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around 73.2°N. Located at the Mohn-Knipovich Ridge, which is one of the slowest spreading ridge segments on Earth, Loki’s Castle is the most northerly major hydrothermal vent field known to date. The vent field is composed of five actively venting (320°C) black-smoker chimneys that tower on top of a large mound of hydrothermal sulfide deposits. Loki’s Castle is a basalt-hosted hydrothermal system, but high methane and ammonium contents in the vent fluids strongly indicate a sedimentary component below the volcanic ridge. In 2009, another site of low-temperature hydrothermal venting hosting numerous barite chimneys was discovered in the vicinity of the black smokers, which probably results from subsurface mixing of diffuse hydrothermal fluid with seawater. In our study, variations in microbial communities associated with the formation of actively venting, sulfide and sulfate chimneys in this essentially unexplored ultraslow spreading ridge system are assessed based on biomarker lipid and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses. Lipid extracts from an active, high-temperature sulfide chimney yielded abundant archaeal di- and tetraether lipids as well as irregular isoprenoidal hydrocarbons (PMIs) that are associated with archaeal methanogens and methanotrophs. Predominant archaeal biomarker lipids include archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as well as glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) containing 0-4 cyclopentyl moieties. In addition, GDGTs with an additional covalent bond between the isoprenoid hydrocarbon chains, so-called H-shaped GDGTs, containing 0-4 cyclopentyl rings were also found to be abundant components and are indicative of hyperthermophilic methanogens. Biomarkers characteristic of eukaryotes (sterols) and bacteria (fatty acids and hopanoids) were less prevalent in the sulfide chimney samples indicating a predominance of archaeal communities within the warmer interior zones of the chimney walls that are dominated by the iron sulfides sphalerite and pyrrhotite. The SiO2-bearing cooler outer parts of a chimney revealed predominantly bacterial fatty acids, whereas archaeal GDGTs were detected only to a minor extent. In contrast, the low-temperature barite-bearing vents located at the slope of the massive sulfide mound revealed the dominance of a range of unusual branched and unsaturated fatty acids that are specific for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). PMIs, archaeol, and sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as typically observed in methanogenic and methanotrophic archaea (AOM) have also been detected, although in much lower abundances. Ongoing compound-specific ?13C analyses will give additional information about carbon sources and metabolism of microbial consortia inhabiting actively venting sulfide and barite chimneys at Loki’s castle.

  16. Geomicrobiological exploration and characterization of novel deep-sea hydrothermal activities accompanying with extremely acidic white smokers and elemental sulfur chimneys at the TOTO caldera in the Mariana Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Hirayama, H.; Kosaka, A.; Tsunogai, U.; Gamo, T.; Nealson, K. H.; Horikoshi, K.

    2004-12-01

    Novel hydrothermal activities accompanying effluent white smokers and elemental sulfur chimney structures at the northeast lava dome of the TOTO caldera depression in the Mariana Volcanic Arc were explored by the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. The white smoker hydrothermal fluids were observed in the potential hydrothermal activity center of the field and represented a maximal temperature of 172 degree C and a lowest pH of 1.59, that was the lowest pH of the hydrothermal fluid ever recorded. The chimney structures consisting all of elemental sulfur (sulfur chimney) were also peculiar to the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field in the world. The geochemical characterization strongly suggested that the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field was a novel system driven by subseafloor mixing between the oxygenated seawater and the superheated volcanic gasses. Microbial community structures in a sulfur chimney structure and its formation hydrothermal fluid with a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (15 mM) were investigated by culture-dependent and _|independent analyses. Ribosomal rRNA gene clone analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that epsilon-Proteobacteria, specifically classified into Group G and Group B, dominated the microbial communities in the sulfur chimney structure and formed a dense microbial mat covering the sulfur chimney surface. Archaeal phylotypes were consistently minor components in the communities and related to the genera Thermococcus, Pyrodictium, Aeropyrum, and the uncultivated archaeal group of Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeotal Group. Cultivation analysis suggested that the microbial components inhabiting in the sulfur chimney structure might be entrained by hydrothermal fluids from the potential subsurface habitats

  17. Characteristics of Cu isotopes from chalcopyrite-rich black smoker chimneys at Brothers volcano, Kermadec arc, and Niuatahi volcano, Lau basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E. J.; Paul, B. T.; Gemmell, J. B.

    2015-02-01

    We analysed primary chalcopyrite from modern seafloor `black smoker' chimneys to investigate high-temperature hydrothermal Cu isotope fractionation unaffected by metamorphism. Samples came from nine chimneys collected from Brothers volcano, Kermadec arc, and Niuatahi volcano, Lau backarc basin. This is the first known study of Cu isotopes from submarine intraoceanic arc/backarc volcanoes, with both volcanoes discharging significant amounts of magmatic volatiles. Our results (n = 22) range from ?65Cu = -0.03 to 1.44 ± 0.18 ‰ (2 sd), with the majority of samples between ˜0.00 and 0.50 ‰. We interpret this cluster (n = 17) of lower ?65Cu values as representing a mantle source for the chimney Cu, in agreement with ?65Cu values for mantle rocks. The few higher ?65Cu values (>0.90 ‰) occur (1) within the same chimneys as lower values, (2) randomly distributed within the chimneys (i.e. near the top and bottom, interior and exterior), and (3) within chalcopyrite of approximately the same age (<1 year). This suggests the higher ?65Cu values are not related to oxidation by mixing with ambient seawater, but to isotopic variation within the vent fluids over a relatively short time. Theoretical studies demonstrate significant isotopic fractionation can occur between aqueous and vapourous complexing species. When combined with evidence for periodic release of magmatic volatiles at Brothers, we believe vapour transport of Cu is responsible for the observed isotopic fractionation. When compared to global ?65Cu data for primary chalcopyrite, volcanic arc chimneys are most similar to porphyry copper deposits that also form from magmatic-hydrothermal processes in convergent tectonic settings.

  18. Characteristics of Cu isotopes from chalcopyrite-rich black smoker chimneys at Brothers volcano, Kermadec arc, and Niuatahi volcano, Lau basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E. J.; Paul, B. T.; Gemmell, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    We analysed primary chalcopyrite from modern seafloor `black smoker' chimneys to investigate high-temperature hydrothermal Cu isotope fractionation unaffected by metamorphism. Samples came from nine chimneys collected from Brothers volcano, Kermadec arc, and Niuatahi volcano, Lau backarc basin. This is the first known study of Cu isotopes from submarine intraoceanic arc/backarc volcanoes, with both volcanoes discharging significant amounts of magmatic volatiles. Our results ( n = 22) range from ?65Cu = -0.03 to 1.44 ± 0.18 ‰ (2 sd), with the majority of samples between ˜0.00 and 0.50 ‰. We interpret this cluster ( n = 17) of lower ?65Cu values as representing a mantle source for the chimney Cu, in agreement with ?65Cu values for mantle rocks. The few higher ?65Cu values (>0.90 ‰) occur (1) within the same chimneys as lower values, (2) randomly distributed within the chimneys (i.e. near the top and bottom, interior and exterior), and (3) within chalcopyrite of approximately the same age (<1 year). This suggests the higher ?65Cu values are not related to oxidation by mixing with ambient seawater, but to isotopic variation within the vent fluids over a relatively short time. Theoretical studies demonstrate significant isotopic fractionation can occur between aqueous and vapourous complexing species. When combined with evidence for periodic release of magmatic volatiles at Brothers, we believe vapour transport of Cu is responsible for the observed isotopic fractionation. When compared to global ?65Cu data for primary chalcopyrite, volcanic arc chimneys are most similar to porphyry copper deposits that also form from magmatic-hydrothermal processes in convergent tectonic settings.

  19. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-Il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2015-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N?=?944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99 %) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96 % of Blacks (p?Blacks (p?Blacks (mean?=?25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; p?Blacks, advertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (p?Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy. PMID:25503053

  20. Direct observation of the evolution of a seafloor 'black smoker' from vapor to brine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Damm, K. L.; Buttermore, L.G.; Oosting, S.E.; Bray, A.M.; Fornari, D.J.; Lilley, M.D.; Shanks, Wayne C., III

    1997-01-01

    A single hydrothermal vent, 'F' vent, occurring on very young crust at 9??16.8???N, East Pacific Rise, was sampled in 1991 and 1994. In 1991, at the measured temperature of 388??C and seafloor pressure of 258 bar, the fluids from this vent were on the two-phase curve for seawater. These fluids were very low in chlorinity and other dissolved species, and high in gases compared to seawater and most sampled seafloor hydrothermal vent fluids. In 1994, when this vent was next sampled, it had cooled to 351??C and was venting fluids ???1.5 times seawater chlorinity. This is the first reported example of a single seafloor hydrothermal vent evolving from vapor to brine. The 1991 and 1994 fluids sampled from this vent are compositionally conjugate pairs to one another. These results support the hypothesis that vapor-phase fluids vent in the early period following a volcanic eruption, and that the liquid-phase brines are stored within the oceanic crust, and vent at a later time, in this case 3 years. These results demonstrate that the venting of brines can occur in the same location, in fact from the same sulfide edifice, where the vapor-phase fluids vented previously.

  1. Major off-axis hydrothermal activity on the northern Gorda Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rona, Peter A.; Denlinger, Roger P.; Fisk, M. R.; Howard, K. J.; Taghon, G. L.; Klitgord, Kim D.; McClain, James S.; McMurray, G. R.; Wiltshire, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    The first hydrothermal field on the northern Gorda Ridge, the Sea Cliff hydrothermal field, was discovered and geologic controls of hydrothermal activity in the rift valley were investigated on a dive series using the DSV Sea Cliff. The Sea Cliff hydrothermal field was discovered where predicted at the intersection of axis-oblique and axis-parallel faults at the south end of a linear ridge at mid-depth (2700 m) on the east wall. Preliminary mapping and smpling of the field reveal: a setting nested on nearly sediment-free fault blocks 300 m above the rift valley floor 2.6 km from the axis; a spectrum of venting types from seeps to black smokers; high conductive heat flow estimated to be equivalent to the convective flux of multiple black smokers through areas of the sea floor sealed by a caprock of elastic breccia primarily derived from basalt with siliceous cement and barite pore fillings; and a vent biota with Juan de Fuca Ridge affinites. These findings demonstrate the importance of off-axis hydrothermal activity and the role of the intersection of tectonic lineations in controlling hydrothermal sites at sea-floor spreading centers.

  2. Hydrothermal activity at the Arctic mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Rolf B.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Nygård, Tor Eivind; Lilley, Marvin D.; Kelley, Deborah S.

    Over the last 10 years, hydrothermal activity has been shown to be abundant at the ultraslow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridges (AMOR). Approximately 20 active and extinct vent sites have been located either at the seafloor, as seawater anomalies, or by dredge sampling hydrothermal deposits. Decreasing spreading rates and decreasing influence of the Icelandic hot spot toward the north along the AMOR result in a north-south change from a shallow and magmatically robust to a deep and magmatically starved ridge system. This contrast gives rise to large variability in the ridge geology and in the nature of the associated hydrothermal systems. The known vent sites at the southern part of the ridge system are either low-temperature or white smoker fields. At the deep, northern parts of the ridge system, a large black smoker field has been located, and seawater anomalies and sulfide deposits suggest that black smoker-type venting is common. Several of these fields may be peridotite-hosted. The hydrothermal activity at parts of the AMOR exceeds by a factor of 2 to 3 what would be expected by extrapolating from observations on faster spreading ridges. Higher fracture/fault area relative to the magma volume extracted seems a likely explanation for this. Many of the vent fields at the AMOR are associated with axial volcanic ridges. Strong focusing of magma toward these ridges, deep rifting of the ridges, and subsequent formation of long-lived detachment faults that are rooted below the ridges may be the major geodynamic mechanisms causing the unexpectedly high hydrothermal activity.

  3. Volcanic and Hydrothermal Activity of the North Su Volcano: New Insights from Repeated Bathymetric Surveys and ROV Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thal, J.; Bach, W.; Tivey, M.; Yoerger, D.

    2013-12-01

    Bathymetric data from cruises in 2002, 2006, and 2011 were combined and compared to determine the evolution of volcanic activity, seafloor structures, erosional features and to identify and document the distribution of hydrothermal vents on North Su volcano, SuSu Knolls, eastern Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea). Geologic mapping based on ROV observations from 2006 (WHOI Jason-2) and 2011 (MARUM Quest-4000) combined with repeated bathymetric surveys from 2002 and 2011 are used to identify morphologic features on the slopes of North Su and to track temporal changes. ROV MARUM Quest-4000 bathymetry was used to develop a 10 m grid of the top of North Su to precisely depict recent changes. In 2006, the south slope of North Su was steeply sloped and featured numerous white smoker vents discharging acid sulfate waters. These vents were covered by several tens of meters of sand- to gravel-sized volcanic material in 2011. The growth of this new cone changed the bathymetry of the south flank of North Su up to ~50 m and emplaced ~0.014 km3 of clastic volcanic material. This material is primarily comprised of fractured altered dacite and massive fresh dacite as well as crystals of opx, cpx, olivine and plagioclase. There is no evidence for pyroclastic fragmentation, so we hypothesize that the fragmentation is likely related to hydrothermal explosions. Hydrothermal activity varies over a short (~50 m) lateral distance from 'flashing' black smokers to acidic white smoker vents. Within 2 weeks of observation time in 2011, the white smoker vents varied markedly in activity suggesting a highly episodic hydrothermal system. Based on ROV video recordings, we identified steeply sloping (up to 30°) slopes exposing pillars and walls of hydrothermal cemented volcaniclastic material representing former fluid upflow zones. These features show that hydrothermal activity has increased slope stability as hydrothermal cementation has prevented slope collapse. Additionally, in some places, hydrothermal crusts cover loose volcaniclastic material on the steep slopes and stabilize them.

  4. Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-02-01

    In the past 3 decades, hydrothermal vents on the deep seafloor have captivated our imagination. The otherworldly vistas of vent ecosystems with chemosynthetic bacteria, animals new to science, billowing black smokers, and brightly colored polymetallic sulphide mineral deposits have changed our perception of the ocean's depths. In the new AGU monograph Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges, editors Peter A. Rona, Colin W. Devey, Jérôme Dyment, and Bramley J. Murton and participating authors take readers to the exciting exploration frontier of seafloor hydrothermal research on the slow spreading half of the 55,000-kilometer-long ocean ridge that spans the Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic oceans. In this interview, Eos talks with Peter Rona.

  5. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such determinations rely on studies of pieces of deep oceanic crust uplifted by tectonic forces such as along the Southwest Indian Ridge, or more complete sections of oceanic crust called ophiolite sequences which are presently exposed on continents owing to tectonic emplacement. Much of what is thought to happen in submarine hydrothermal systems is inferred from studies of ophiolite sequences, and especially from the better-exposed ophiolites in Oman, Cyprus and North America. The focus of much that follows is on a few general features: pressure, temperature, oxidation states, fluid composition and mineral alteration, because these features will control whether organic synthesis can occur in hydrothermal systems.

  6. 32P Postlabelling analysis of urinary mutagens from smokers of black tobacco implicates 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) as a major DNA-damaging agent.

    PubMed

    Peluso, M; Castegnaro, M; Malaveille, C; Friesen, M; Garren, L; Hautefeuille, A; Vineis, P; Kadlubar, F; Bartsch, H

    1991-04-01

    When mutagens extracted from the urine of two smokers of black tobacco were reacted with DNA in vitro in the presence of a metabolic activation system, several DNA adducts were detected by 32P-postlabelling analysis. Some of these adducts were also visible, but only faintly, on the autoradiogram for a non-smoker's urine. DNA adducts produced in vitro by 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[3,5-b]pyridine could not account for the adduct pattern produced by the urinary mutagens. However, three or four 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-related DNA adducts were present among the five or six adducts observed for smokers in the autoradiograms of urinary mutagen-adducted nucleotides. Mutagenicity testing combined with HPLC fractionation of urinary extracts also supported the postlabelling data which implicates PhIP as a mutagen in the urine of smokers of black tobacco. PMID:2013135

  7. A large body of evidence indicates that fluid flow rates within mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems may be highly variable [e.g. Baker, 1994; Fornari et al., 1998; Lilley et al., 2003]. And recent studies show that flow within these systems may be strong

    E-print Network

    Crone, Timothy J.

    . Parsons (In Press) The sound generated by mid-ocean ridge black smoker vents. PLoS One. Fornari, D. J., TA large body of evidence indicates that fluid flow rates within mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal a wide variety of processes occurring at mid-ocean ridges may be strongly linked through flow variability

  8. Energetics of hydrothermal convection in heterogeneous ocean crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruepke, Lars; Hasenclever, Joerg; Andersen, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in hydrothermal flow modeling have revealed the key thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic controls on hydrothermal convection and vent temperatures at oceanic spreading centers. The observed upper limit to black smoker vent temperatures of approx. 400°C can be explained by the thermodynamic properties of water (Jupp and Schultz, 2000). Likewise, 3D models of hydrothermal flow at fast-spreading ridges show cylindrical upwellings with closely interwoven recharge flow (Coumou et al., 2008, Hasenclever et al., 2014). While these studies provide a robust theoretical basis for hydrothermal flow observations at fast-spreading ridges, the situation at slow-spreading ridges is different. The slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge produces highly heterogeneous crust along its tectonic and magmatic segments with significant permeability contrasts across structural and lithological interfaces. The sub-seafloor permeability structure has a strong control on vent field location such that off-axis hydrothermal systems are apparently consistently located at outcropping fault zones. We have recently shown that preferential flow along high-permeability conduits inevitably leads to the entrainment of cold ambient seawater (Andersen et al., 2014), which causes a temperature drop that is difficult to reconcile with fault-related high-temperature venting. A fundamental question is therefore how hydrothermal fluids can maintain their high temperature while flowing kilometers from a driving heat source through highly heterogeneous crust to a vent site at the seafloor? We address this question by exploring the energetics of hydrothermal convection in heterogeneous ocean crust using 2D and 3D flow simulations. In our analysis we focus on the energy balance of rising hydrothermal plumes and on mixing processes at permeability boundaries, with the aim to establish a more robust theoretical framework for hydrothermal flow through highly heterogeneous seafloor.

  9. Steady state and a singular event observed at the TAG hydrothermal mound by a long-term monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, K.; Aoki, M.; Mitsuzawa, K.; Kato, K.; Kinoshita, M.; Nishizawa, A.

    2005-12-01

    The steady state variability and occasional O`randomO_L event of hydrothermal activity were observed by several long-term monitoring systems deployed on the TAG hydrothermal mound and observed by submersible video and still cameras in the Mid Atlantic Ridge 26 N. We measured current direction and velocity, visibility, temperature, and salinity of sea water as well as observed newly formed black smokers by video and still camera system. Heat flow measurement system and an OBSH were also deployed around the central black smoker and newly formed black smokers for more than two weeks. Steady state change of the temperature, current direction and velocity, visibility and pressure change by hydrophone show a regular semidiurnal periodic variation, which may be caused by ocean, and earth tides. A singular event occurred during our research at the TAG hydrothermal mound. Small earthquakes beneath the TAG mound were followed by a huge slope failure, which apparently caused by a debris flow, killing swimming eel-like fish. A thin bed of the dead shrimps may be related to a nearly simultaneous increase of hot water flux from vent.

  10. Methanotorris formicicus sp. nov., a novel extremely thermophilic, methane-producing archaeon isolated from a black smoker chimney in the Central Indian Ridge.

    PubMed

    Takai, Ken; Nealson, Ken H; Horikoshi, Koki

    2004-07-01

    A novel extremely thermophilic, methane-producing archaeon was isolated from a black smoker chimney at the Kairei field in the Central Indian Ridge. Cells of this isolate were irregular cocci with several flagella; motility was not observed. Growth was observed between 55 and 83 degrees C (optimum of 75 degrees C; 30 min doubling time) and between pH 6.0 and 8.5 (optimum of pH 6.7). The isolate was a strictly anaerobic, methanogenic autotroph capable of using hydrogen and carbon dioxide as sole energy and carbon sources. Formate was utilized as an alternative energy source. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 33.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate was most closely related to Methanotorris igneus strain Kol 5T. The isolate, however, could be genetically differentiated from this species by DNA-DNA hybridization analysis and on the basis of its physiological properties. The name Methanotorris formicicus sp. nov. is proposed for this isolate; the type strain is Mc-S-70T (=JCM 11930T=ATCC BAA-687T). PMID:15280275

  11. Hydrothermal Alteration Processes in the Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, H.

    2003-12-01

    Hydrothermal alteration processes occurring in oceanic crust impact the physical, chemical, and biological processes of the Earth system. These hydrothermal systems are manifested in vents ranging from 350 °C black smokers, found exclusively in the axial zone of some ridge segments, to 20 °C low-temperature vents at the ridge axis or flanks. Collectively, these systems are responsible for ˜20% of Earth's total heat loss (11 TW; C. A. Stein and S. Stein (1994a, b)) and have major impact on ocean and solid earth chemistry. Elderfield and Schultz (1996) estimate black-smoker water fluxes to be ˜3.5×1012 kg yr-1 and low-temperature fluxes to be ˜6.4×1014 kg yr-1 (at 20 °C). These hydrothermal fluxes also carry substantial elemental flux between seawater and the oceanic crust. Combined with ocean-crust generation and recycling, these processes produce a two-way geochemical pathway between the oceans and the mantle. Recycling of altered oceanic crust into the mantle is likely to produce some of the mantle's chemical heterogeneity (e.g., Hofmann, 1988; see Chapter 2.04) and the delivery of mantle-derived materials to seawater through hydrothermal systems has profound effects on seawater chemistry (e.g., Wheat and Mottl, 2000; Chapters 3.15 and 6.07). Hydrothermal vents in mid-ocean ridges offer a unique habitat for very diverse biological communities that derive much of their energy needs from chemical energy in vent fluids (Jannasch and Mottl, 1985; Jannasch, 1995). The interior of the oceanic crust is likely to host a deep-ocean biosphere that reaches to at least 500 m depth ( Furnes and Staudigel, 1999).It is important to quantify hydrothermal chemical fluxes because they bear on the chemical and biological evolution of the Earth, the chemical composition of seawater, geochemical mass balance at arcs, and the heterogeneity of the mantle. Hydrothermal fluxes can be independently determined by analyzing the composition of hydrothermal fluids or by analyzing the alteration-related chemical changes in the oceanic crust. Ideally these two methods should yield the same results, but a comparison of data shows that there are major discrepancies between these types of estimates (e.g., Hart and Staudigel, 1982; Chapter 3.15). Reconciling these discrepancies is important for improving our understanding of this central theme in Earth system sciences.This review focuses on chemical flux estimates derived from studies of the oceanic crust, exploring in detail how such estimates are made, and the underlying assumptions and uncertainties. Three main themes will be covered. The first focuses the role of the original igneous characteristics of the crust in determining the nature of hydrothermal alteration processes. This includes how primary lithology and composition influence alteration, and difficulties encountered in determining an unaltered "fresh-rock" baseline composition for any particular ocean-crust section. The second theme focuses on the methods by which the bulk-altered oceanic composition is determined, and the attendant uncertainties. These include the difficulty of determining an average composition of a very heterogeneous medium by the analyses of rather small samples, and the limitations imposed by an incomplete sampling process on the ocean floor. Finally, hydrothermal fluxes inferred from ocean-crust data are compared to fluxes from hydrothermal vent studies and the reasons behind their differences are explored.

  12. Drilling the Snake Pit hydrothermal sulfide deposit on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, lat 23/sup 0/22'N

    SciTech Connect

    Detrick, R.S.; Honnorez, J.; Adamson, A.C.; Brass, G.; Gillis, K.M.; Humphris, S.E.; Mevel, C.; Meyer, P.; Petersen, N.; Rautenschlein, M.; Shibata, T.; Staudigel, H.; Yamamoto, K.

    1986-12-01

    A major high-temperature hydrothermal area has been discovered in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley about 25 km south of the Kane Fracture Zone. The vent field consists of a wide area (> 40,000 m/sup 2/) of dark hydrothermal deposits, numerous sulfide chimneys and mounds, some up to 11 m high, and high-temperature black-smoker vents. Ten shallow holes, the first ever drilled in an active submarine hydrothermal area, recovered friable, unconsolidated Fe, Cu-Fe, and Zn sulfides and several large fragments of massive sulfide (mainly chalcopyrite) from the locally thick (> 13 m) hydrothermal deposits. The vents are also associated with an unusual biological community of smaller, more mobile organisms than reported from the East Pacific Rise.

  13. Extensive hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau basin revealed by ROV dives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embley, R. W.; Resing, J. A.; Tebo, B.; Baker, E. T.; Butterfield, D. A.; Chadwick, B.; Davis, R.; de Ronde, C. E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Merle, S. G.; Rubin, K. H.; Shank, T. M.; Walker, S. L.; Arculus, R. J.; Bobbitt, A. M.; Buck, N. J.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Crowhurst, P. V.; Mitchell, E.; Olson, E. J.; Ratmeyer, V.; Richards, S.; Roe, K. K.; Kenner-Chavis, P.; Martinez-Lyons, A.; Sheehan, C.; Brian, R.

    2014-12-01

    Dives with the QUEST 4000 ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) in September 2012 discovered nine hydrothermal sites in the arc and rear-arc region of the NE Lau Basin in 1150 m to 2630 m depth. These sites, originally detected by water column and seafloor surveys conducted in 2008-2011, include: (1) a paired sulfur-rich/black smoker field on the summit of a tectonically deformed magmatic arc volcano (Niua), (2) fracture-controlled black smoker venting on several small en echelon seamounts (north Matas) that lie between the magmatic arc and the backarc spreading center and (3) a magmatic degassing site on the summit of a dacite cone within a large (~12 km diameter) caldera volcano (Niuatahi). Dives at West Mata Seamount, which was undergoing strombolian volcanic activity and effusive rift-zone eruptions from 2008 to 2010, revealed a dormant volcanic phase in September 2012, with continued low-temperature diffuse venting. The high-temperature venting is likely driven by magmatic heat indicative of underlying partial melt zones and/or melt pockets distributed through the region. The occurrence of the youngest known boninite eruptions on the Mata volcanoes is consistent with subduction fluid flux melting extending into the rear-arc zone. Extension related to the transition from subduction to strike-slip motion of the northern Tonga Arc over the active Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault probably contributes to the enhanced volcanism/hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau Basin. Chemosynthetic ecosystems at these sites range from mostly motile, lower diversity ecosystems at the eruptive/magmatically-degassing sites to higher diversity ecosystems with less mobile faunal components at the black-smoker systems. The wide range of fluid chemistry, water depth and geologic settings of the hydrothermal systems in this area provides an intriguing template to study the interaction of hydrothermal fluid chemistry, chemosynthetic habitats and their geologic underpinning within an arc/backarc setting.

  14. Two hydrothermal active vents were found at 13.2°S and 14°S of South Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, C.; Li, H.; Yang, Y.; Ni, J.; Cui, R.; Chen, Y. J.; Li, J.; He, Y.; Huang, W.; Gai, Y.; Wang, Y.; Su, Y.; Cheng, Z.; Lu, Y.; Wu, Z.; Li, J.; Zhang, R.; He, L.; Chen, S.; Zhang, D.; Lei, J.; Wang, Y.; Dy115-21 Leg 4 Scientific Party

    2010-12-01

    During Nov. to Dec. 2009, the Leg 4 of the Chinese DY115-21 cruise has been launched on 13°S -14°S MAR by R/V DAYANGYIHAO, aimed to investigate hydrothermal activity in the region. Two active hydrothermal vents have been found at 13.2°S and 14°S, which are the southernmost hydrothermal fields known so far on the MAR. Samples including the sulfide chimney and basalt have been successfully collected by TV-Grab at the 13.2°S field. Evidence of sulfide video and hydrothermal anomalies indicated the existence of the 14°S hydrothermal field. The 13.2°S hydrothermal vent is located at 14.41°W 13.28°S at depth of about 2,288m. This venting field lies on an N-S fissure belt in the axial uplift. Black smoker was video recorded while no hydrothermal fauna was found. According to the X-ray diffraction analysis, the sulfides collected by TV-Grab mainly consist of sphalerite and marcasite. The 14°S hydrothermal field is located on the slop of the volcano, which lies on the inside corner between the ridge axial and transform fault, at depth of about 2,900m.

  15. Seafloor Hydrothermal Activity at the Galapagos Triple Junction, East Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Yu, Z.; Zhang, G.; Tao, C.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Since the first discovery of black smokers on the Gaplapgaos spreading center, over 500 hydrothermal sites have been confirmed on the mid-ocean ridge, arc and back-arc settings (Beaulieu et al., 2013). However, the hydrothermal activity at triple-junction has not received much attention. Consequently, there are outstanding questions regarding the features of the hydrothermal system, and the effect of the hydrothermal circulation on the tectonic activity of the triple-junction. In 2009, the Chinese Dayang Cruise 21 discovered the Precious Stone field (PSF) on the Dietz Semount at the southern flank of the Galapagos triple junction (GTJ). Most studies of the GTJ focus on the topographictectonic and stresssimulation, which suggest that the GTJ had complex evoluation(Smith et al., 2011, 2013; Mitchell et al., 2011,Schouten et al., 2012). Water anomay were clear detected and samples of hydrothermal deposit and rocks were collected by TV-Grab (Figure.1). This study aims to understand the geological features of the PSF related hydrothermal activity. Hydrothermal mineralization Three types of sedimentary hydrothermal deposits representing three different hydrothermal activity stages (Figure 1)are confirmed in the PSF: 1) sediments with native sulfur and pyrite clasts(Type I), 2) Fe—Mn oxides (Type II), and 3) clay minerals mainlynontronite(Type III). Type II sedimentsprecipitate early and the source comprises of clasts of distal hydrothermal plume. The nontronite-rich sediments propably derive from the low-temperature alteration of Fe—Mn oxides. Type 1 sediments are found on the active hydrothermal venting field. Hydrothermal plume Water anomaly were detected at the southewestern PSF. We observed widespreadsedimentary hydrothermal depositsin the western PSF, but no water anomaly. According to the results of five water anomaly dectection lines, we predicted the existence of three hydrothermal vents in the PSF. Seafloor type inversion Multi-beam backscatter data were used to study the seafloor type and distribution of the PSF. The results indicate that sedimentary hydrothermal deposits are widespread at the western PSF. Basalt makes up of the seafloor of the active hydrothermal vents. The results mentioned above suggest that the hydrothemal activity at the PSF is multi-stage, long-lived and wildspread.

  16. Optimization of continuous hydrothermal treatment for improving the dehulling of black gram (Vigna mungo L).

    PubMed

    Jerish Joyner, J; Yadav, B K

    2015-12-01

    Black gram kernels with three initial moisture contents (10, 14 & 18 % w.b.) were steam treated in a continuous steaming unit at three inlet steam pressures (2, 3 & 4 kg/cm(2)) for three grain residence times (2, 4 & 6 min) in order to determine best treatment condition for maximizing the dhal yield while limiting the colour change in acceptable range. The dhal yield, dehulling loss and the colour difference (Delta E*) of the dehulled dhal were found to vary respectively, from 56.4 to 78.8 %, 30.8 to 8.6 % and 2.1 to 9.5 with increased severity of treatment. Optimization was done in order to obtain higher dhal yield while limiting the colour difference (Delta E*) within acceptable range i.e. 2.0 to 3.5 using response surface methodology. The best condition was obtained with the samples having 13.1 % initial moisture treated with 4 kg/cm(2) for about 6 min to achieve a dhal yield of 71.2 % and dehulling loss of 15.5 %. PMID:26604354

  17. VERY High Temperature Hydrothermal Record in Plagioclase of BLACK Gabbros in Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudier, F. I.; Mainprice, D.; Nicolas, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The lower crustal section in Oman ophiolite includes 'black gabbros' that have escaped the common medium-low temperature hydrous alteration. Their plagioclases are totally fresh, but contain in their mass, nebulous inclusions most times below the resolution of optical microscope, or expressed as solid silicate phases clinopyroxene and pargasitic amphibole, up to 10 µm sized, having T equilibrium above 900°C with their host plagioclase. These gabbros have a well-expressed magmatic foliation, relayed by plastic strain marked by stretched olivine crystals, and pinching twins in plagioclase. In addition to major elements analyses, the crystallographic relationships of these Mg silicate inclusions to their host plagioclase are explored by Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD) processing. - Diopsidic clinopyroxene inclusions are dominant over pargasitic amphibole that tend to locate close to the margins of host plagioclase (Fig 1). Some inclusions are mixed clinopyroxene-amphibole, separated by a non-indexed phase that could represent a pyribole-type structure, suggesting transformation from clinopyroxene to amphibole during cooling. High chlorine content in the amphibole sign the seawater contamination at least during the development of this phase. - Preliminary statistical pole figures (Fig. 2) in the six joined plagioclase grains studied, show that both plagioclase and diopside inclusions have a strong crystal preferred orientation (CPO) connected such that the strong [010]pl maximum coincide with the strong [100]di. In addition, a coincidence appears between three sub-maxima of [100]pl and [001]di. These interesting relationships are refined. It is inferred that clinopyroxene developed through corrosion of the plagioclase by a Mg-bearing hydrous fluid, penetrating possibly via twin interface and diffusing at T~1100°C, upper limit of clinopyroxene stability in hydrous conditions. Development of pargasite implies increasing hydration during cooling.

  18. Control of fault geometry and permeability contrast on fault-related hydrothermal fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Christine; Rüpke, Lars; Hasenclever, Jörg; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Petersen, Sven

    2015-04-01

    High-temperature black smoker systems along slow-spreading ridges such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) are frequently related to tectonic fault zones and therefore are commonly found off axis. While preferential flow of hot fluids along highly permeable, fractured rocks seems intuitive, such efficient flow leads to the entrainment of cold ambient seawater resulting in a drastic decrease in vent temperatures. This temperature drop is difficult to reconcile with high-temperature black smoker activity observed at outcropping fault zones. In our recent study we aim to resolve this apparent contradiction by combining newly acquired seismological data (Grevemeyer et al., 2013) from the high-temperature, off-axis Logatchev 1 hydrothermal field (LHF1) along the MAR with 2D hydrothermal flow modeling. The seismic data shows intense off-axis seismicity with focal mechanisms suggesting a fault zone dipping from LHF1 toward the ridge axis. In order to explain fault-related high-temperature hydrothermal discharge as observed at LHF1, our simulations predict that fault zones need to be just permeable and wide enough to capture and redirect hydrothermal plumes rising from depth but, because they are not isolated conduits, must not be too wide or permeable in order to prevent cooling through mixing with ambient colder fluids. The two controlling parameters fault width and permeability contrast between fault and surrounding rock can be expressed as a single term, the relative transmissibility of the fault zone, which is defined by the product of the two. Low relative fault transmissibility leads to plumes that cross the fault and vent above the heat source rather than at the fault termination at the seafloor. High relative fault transmissibility leads to significantly lower vent exit temperatures than those observed at black smoker systems. Our findings further illustrate the intrinsic relationship between permeability, mass flux and upflow temperature: the higher the permeability, the higher the mass flux and the lower the vent temperature. The common occurrence of fault-linked high-temperature vent fields strongly points at a not-yet-quantified self-adjusting permeability that depends on pore space-clogging reactions between hydrothermal and ambient cold fluids. Furthermore, the temperature drop associated with any high permeability zone in heterogeneous crust may well explain the sparse high-temperature vent fields along the MAR and why the heterogeneous crust of the Atlantic, with its strong permeability contrasts, is predominantly cooled by lower-temperature fluid flow.

  19. COPD in Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    McBurnie, Mary Ann; Vollmer, William M.; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Welte, Tobias; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa; Studnicka, Michael; Bateman, Eric; Anto, Josep M.; Burney, Peter; Mannino, David M.; Buist, Sonia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of patients with COPD. Their characteristics and possible risk factors in this population are not yet well defined. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 countries that participated in the international, population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study. Participants were aged ? 40 years and completed postbronchodilator spirometry testing plus questionnaires about respiratory symptoms, health status, and exposure to COPD risk factors. A diagnosis of COPD was based on the postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio, according to current GOLD (Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease) guidelines. In addition to this, the lower limit of normal (LLN) was evaluated as an alternative threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Results: Among 4,291 never smokers, 6.6% met criteria for mild (GOLD stage I) COPD, and 5.6% met criteria for moderate to very severe (GOLD stage II+) COPD. Although never smokers were less likely to have COPD and had less severe COPD than ever smokers, never smokers nonetheless comprised 23.3% (240/1,031) of those classified with GOLD stage II+ COPD. This proportion was similar, 20.5% (171/832), even when the LLN was used as a threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Predictors of COPD in never smokers include age, education, occupational exposure, childhood respiratory diseases, and BMI alterations. Conclusion: This multicenter international study confirms previous evidence that never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of individuals with COPD. Our data suggest that, in addition to increased age, a prior diagnosis of asthma and, among women, lower education levels are associated with an increased risk for COPD among never smokers. PMID:20884729

  20. Archaeal Community in the Hydrothermal System at Suiyo Seamount on the Izu-Ogasawara Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, A.; Hara, K.; Itahashi, S.; Kasai, H.; Teramura, T.; Kakegawa, T.; Maruyama, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Marumo, K.; Urabe, T.

    2002-12-01

    Archaeal communities in extreme environment have been analyzed by phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA gene and fluorescent whole cell in situ hybridization method. These culture-independent methods revealed archaeal communities with much higher diversities than those found by conventional culture methods. In this work we have extended the culture-independent method to the analysis of microbial diversity in a deep-sea hydrothermal system at Suiyo Seamount. In the Archaean Park Project supported by Special Coordination Fund, several holes were bored and cased in the crater of the Suiyo seamount on the Izu-Ogasawara arc (about 1,400 depth) in 2001 and 2002. Hydrothermal fluids form these cased holes and black smoker chimneys were sampled at various sites on Suiyo seamount. The fluids were filtered to collect the microbial cells. Filters and black smoker chimney samples were crushed and DNA was extracted and purified. The DNA was used to amplify archaeal 16S rDNA fragments by PCR using an archaea specific primer set. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. Archaeal PCR clones of different samples will be compared.

  1. A Serpentinite-Hosted Ecosystem: The Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Deborah S.; Karson, Jeffrey A.; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Yoerger, Dana R.; Shank, Timothy M.; Butterfield, David A.; Hayes, John M.; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Olson, Eric J.; Proskurowski, Giora; Jakuba, Mike; Bradley, Al; Larson, Ben; Ludwig, Kristin; Glickson, Deborah; Buckman, Kate; Bradley, Alexander S.; Brazelton, William J.; Roe, Kevin; Elend, Mitch J.; Delacour, Adélie; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Baross, John A.; Summons, Roger E.; Sylva, Sean P.

    2005-03-01

    The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from <40° to 90°C at pH 9 to 11, and carbonate chimneys 30 to 60 meters tall. A low diversity of microorganisms related to methane-cycling Archaea thrive in the warm porous interiors of the edifices. Macrofaunal communities show a degree of species diversity at least as high as that of black smoker vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but they lack the high biomasses of chemosynthetic organisms that are typical of volcanically driven systems.

  2. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem: the Lost City hydrothermal field.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Deborah S; Karson, Jeffrey A; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Yoerger, Dana R; Shank, Timothy M; Butterfield, David A; Hayes, John M; Schrenk, Matthew O; Olson, Eric J; Proskurowski, Giora; Jakuba, Mike; Bradley, Al; Larson, Ben; Ludwig, Kristin; Glickson, Deborah; Buckman, Kate; Bradley, Alexander S; Brazelton, William J; Roe, Kevin; Elend, Mitch J; Delacour, Adélie; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Lilley, Marvin D; Baross, John A; Summons, Roger E; Sylva, Sean P

    2005-03-01

    The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from <40 degrees to 90 degrees C at pH 9 to 11, and carbonate chimneys 30 to 60 meters tall. A low diversity of microorganisms related to methane-cycling Archaea thrive in the warm porous interiors of the edifices. Macrofaunal communities show a degree of species diversity at least as high as that of black smoker vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but they lack the high biomasses of chemosynthetic organisms that are typical of volcanically driven systems. PMID:15746419

  3. Hydrothermal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2011-03-11

    This chapter is a contribution to a book on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass being edited by Prof. Robert Brown of Iowa State University. It describes both hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal gasification of biomass to fuels.

  4. Classifying a Smoker Scale in Adult Daily and Nondaily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smoker identity, or the strength of beliefs about oneself as a smoker, is a robust marker of smoking behavior. However, many nondaily smokers do not identify as smokers, underestimating their risk for tobacco-related disease and resulting in missed intervention opportunities. Assessing underlying beliefs about characteristics used to classify smokers may help explain the discrepancy between smoking behavior and smoker identity. This study examines the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Classifying a Smoker scale among a racially diverse sample of adult smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered through an online panel survey service to 2,376 current smokers who were at least 25 years of age. The sample was stratified to obtain equal numbers of 3 racial/ethnic groups (African American, Latino, and White) across smoking level (nondaily and daily smoking). Results: The Classifying a Smoker scale displayed a single factor structure and excellent internal consistency (? = .91). Classifying a Smoker scores significantly increased at each level of smoking, F(3,2375) = 23.68, p < .0001. Those with higher scores had a stronger smoker identity, stronger dependence on cigarettes, greater health risk perceptions, more smoking friends, and were more likely to carry cigarettes. Classifying a Smoker scores explained unique variance in smoking variables above and beyond that explained by smoker identity. Conclusions: The present study supports the use of the Classifying a Smoker scale among diverse, experienced smokers. Stronger endorsement of characteristics used to classify a smoker (i.e., stricter criteria) was positively associated with heavier smoking and related characteristics. Prospective studies are needed to inform prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:24297807

  5. An off-axis hydrothermal vent field near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 30 degrees N.

    PubMed

    Kelley, D S; Karson, J A; Blackman, D K; Früh-Green, G L; Butterfield, D A; Lilley, M D; Olson, E J; Schrenk, M O; Roe, K K; Lebon, G T; Rivizzigno, P

    2001-07-12

    Evidence is growing that hydrothermal venting occurs not only along mid-ocean ridges but also on old regions of the oceanic crust away from spreading centres. Here we report the discovery of an extensive hydrothermal field at 30 degrees N near the eastern intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Atlantis fracture zone. The vent field--named 'Lost City'--is distinctly different from all other known sea-floor hydrothermal fields in that it is located on 1.5-Myr-old crust, nearly 15 km from the spreading axis, and may be driven by the heat of exothermic serpentinization reactions between sea water and mantle rocks. It is located on a dome-like massif and is dominated by steep-sided carbonate chimneys, rather than the sulphide structures typical of 'black smoker' hydrothermal fields. We found that vent fluids are relatively cool (40-75 degrees C) and alkaline (pH 9.0-9.8), supporting dense microbial communities that include anaerobic thermophiles. Because the geological characteristics of the Atlantis massif are similar to numerous areas of old crust along the Mid-Atlantic, Indian and Arctic ridges, these results indicate that a much larger portion of the oceanic crust may support hydrothermal activity and microbial life than previously thought. PMID:11449263

  6. Propidium Monoazide-based Method for Identifying Phylogenetic Association of Necromass Near Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Gustavo; Edwards, Katrina

    2014-05-01

    Black Smoker hydrothermal systems are geologically driven systems located near subduction zones and spreading centers associated with plate margins. The high temperature and low pH of fluids that are often associated with basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems select for unique microbial communities primarily comprised of prokaryotes capable of S and Fe cycling. High temperature fluids, where temperatures exceed 300° C, are likely to have a lethal effect on transient deep water planktonic communities and, over long temporal scales, may influence the molecular composition of pelleted necromass aggregates near the chimney system. We have developed a method for discriminative sequencing permitting intra vs. extracellular 16S rDNA sequencing to reveal community differences between biologically-relevant and necromass-associated DNA. This method has only recently been applied to marine environments and, here, we propose its use as relevant tool for studying the molecular ecology of high temperature hydrothermal systems, as physical drivers of massive transient community die offs and associated detrital 16S rDNA community shifts. Ultimately, we aim to understand the fraction of 16S rDNA communities that do not represent living taxa, or the information-containing fraction of total necromass pool, to better frame ecological hypotheses regarding environmental biogeochemical cycling in hydrothermal system environments.

  7. The origin of life near deep-sea hydrothermal systems during the Cambrian explosion: data from the Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Terleev, Alexander; Safonova, Inna; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey; Tokarev, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    On Earth the solar radiation and the hydrothermal circulation both affect life evolution. Recent extensive studies of the World Ocean have shown that the biodiversity of Earth is linked with hydrothermal activity on the oceanic floor. These deep-sea ecosystems use chemical energy, not solar radiation. In the last quarter of the XX century, a new type of hydrothermal systems, so-called black smokers, was discovered in mid-oceanic ridges. As black smokers form sulfide ores and are surrounded by abundant bio-oases or symbioses, identification of their analogues in ancient orogenic belts is necessary for studying life origin and evolution. Of special importance are problems of life associated with deep-sea hydrothermal systems acted at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary - the time of Cambrian explosion (Maruyama et al., 2013). During that explosion life significantly evolved and diversified due to dramatic changes of Earth's environment. Consequently, the early Cambrian - late Precambrian Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit of East Tuva in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is of special interest. This deposit was formed on the bottom of ancient back-arc deep-sea basin as a result of black smoker hydrothermal activity and is hosted by volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks altered by the high temperature solutions. The altered Kyzyl Tashtyg basalts have an amygdules (filled by albite, epidote and carbonates), contain brown-green microfossils, often attached to their walls. The microfossils are thin tubes 5 to 25 microns in diameter and 500 microns long. This tubes are empty and have straight, curved or branching shape. Chemically, the tube material is close to epidote. In consideration of microscopic dimensions, simple morphology and similarity with modern tubular microorganisms, the studied tube-shaped microfossils can be related to cyanobacteria. Almost the same fossils, associated with oceanic basalt complexes, were described earlier (Furnes et al., 2007; Mcloughlin et al., 2007). Our studies of fluid inclusions in minerals of amygdules showed that basalts, which contain microfossils, were altered by hydrothermal solutions heated up to 120-180 C and compositionally close to the sea water. The Kyzyl Tashtyg sedimentary complexes include hydrothermal quartz-hematite constructions. Ferriferous-siliceous rocks from these structures contain different types of ancient biota: monocyatea, cyanobacteria, cribricyatea and sponge spicules. Thus, our study of early Cambrian - late Precambrian volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks determine different types of ancient biota, which natural occurrence was connected with deep-sea hydrothermal ore-forming black smoker systems of the Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit. Some part of these hydrothermal solutions were suppliers of energy and nutritive elements for microfossils in closed spaces of amygdules in altered basalts, where cyanobacteria evolved without light and depend on chemosynthesis only. Presence of fossils in the ferriferous-siliceous rocks, formed on the bottom of the ancient deep-sea basin, was connected with biota growth during formation of quartz-hematite constructions as a result of hydrothermal system activity.

  8. Sulphur Cycling at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Isotopic Evidence From the Logatchev and Turtle Pits Hydrothermal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickmann, B.; Strauss, H.; Koschinsky, A.; Kuhn, T.; Petersen, S.; Schmidt, K.

    2005-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridges and associated hydrothermal vent systems represent a unique scenario in which the interaction of hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere and the related element cycling can be studied. Sulphur participates in inorganic and microbially driven processes and plays, thus, an important role at these vent sites. The sulphur isotopic compositions of different sulphur-bearing minerals as well as dissolved sulphur compounds provide a tool for identifying the sulphur source and pertinent processes of sulphur cycling. Here, we present sulphur isotope data from an ongoing study of the Logatchev hydrothermal field at 14°45' N and the Turtle Pits hydrothermal field at 4°48' S. The former is located in 2900 to 3060 m water depth, hosted by ultramafic rocks, while the latter is situated in 2990 m water depth, hosted by basaltic rocks. Different metal sulphides (chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, various copper sulphides), either particles from the emanating hot fluid itself or pieces of active and inactive black smokers, display ?34S values between +2 and +9 ‰. So far, no significant difference is discernible between mineral precipitates from both hydrothermal fields. However, differences exist between different generations of sulphide precipitates. Based on respective data from other sites of hydrothermal activity at mid-ocean ridges, this sulphur isotope range suggests that sulphur in the hydrothermal fluid and mineral precipitates represents a mixture between mantle sulphur and reduced seawater sulphate. Anhydrite precipitates from hydrothermal chimneys, located inside sulphide conduits, and obvious late stage gypsum needles from voids, yielded sulphur isotope values between +17.5 and +20.0 ‰. This clearly identifies seawater sulphate as the principal sulphur source. Variable, but generally low abundances of sulphide and sulphate in differently altered mafic and ultramafic rocks point to a complex fluid-rock interaction. Sulphur isotope values for total sulphur range between 0.6 and +18.7 ‰, again reflecting a mixing between two principal end-members: seawater sulphate and mantle sulphur.

  9. Geology, sulfide geochemistry and supercritical venting at the Beebe Hydrothermal Vent Field, Cayman Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Alexander P.; Roberts, Stephen; Murton, Bramley J.; Hodgkinson, Matthew R. S.

    2015-09-01

    The Beebe Vent Field (BVF) is the world's deepest known hydrothermal system, at 4960 m below sea level. Located on the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre, Caribbean, the BVF hosts high temperature (˜401°C) "black smoker" vents that build Cu, Zn and Au-rich sulfide mounds and chimneys. The BVF is highly gold-rich, with Au values up to 93 ppm and an average Au:Ag ratio of 0.15. Gold precipitation is directly associated with diffuse flow through "beehive" chimneys. Significant mass-wasting of sulfide material at the BVF, accompanied by changes in metal content, results in metaliferous talus and sediment deposits. Situated on very thin (2-3 km thick) oceanic crust, at an ultraslow spreading centre, the hydrothermal system circulates fluids to a depth of ˜1.8 km in a basement that is likely to include a mixture of both mafic and ultramafic lithologies. We suggest hydrothermal interaction with chalcophile-bearing sulfides in the mantle rocks, together with precipitation of Au in beehive chimney structures, has resulted in the formation of a Au-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit. With its spatial distribution of deposit materials and metal contents, the BVF represents a modern day analogue for basalt hosted, Au-rich VMS systems.

  10. Functional interactions among filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent biofilm.

    PubMed

    Stokke, Runar; Dahle, Håkon; Roalkvam, Irene; Wissuwa, Juliane; Daae, Frida Lise; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Pedersen, Rolf B; Steen, Ida Helene

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about how lithoautotrophic primary production is connected to microbial organotrophic consumption in hydrothermal systems. Using a multifaceted approach, we analysed the structure and metabolic capabilities within a biofilm growing on the surface of a black smoker chimney in the Loki's Castle vent field. Imaging revealed the presence of rod-shaped Bacteroidetes growing as ectobionts on long, sheathed microbial filaments (>?100??m) affiliated with the Sulfurovum genus within Epsilonproteobacteria. The filaments were composed of a thick (>?200?nm) stable polysaccharide, representing a substantial fraction of organic carbon produced by primary production. An integrated -omics approach enabled us to assess the metabolic potential and in situ metabolism of individual taxonomic and morphological groups identified by imaging. Specifically, we provide evidence that organotrophic Bacteroidetes attach to and glide along the surface of Sulfurovum filaments utilizing organic polymers produced by the lithoautotrophic Sulfurovum. Furthermore, in situ expression of acetyl-CoA synthetase by Sulfurovum suggested the ability to assimilate acetate, indicating recycling of organic matter in the biofilm. This study expands our understanding of the lifestyles of Epsilonproteobacteria in hydrothermal vents, their metabolic properties and co-operative interactions in deep-sea hydrothermal vent food webs. PMID:26147346

  11. Lung Cancer in Never Smokers.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Gabriel Alberto; Wakelee, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is predominantly associated with cigarette smoking; however, a substantial minority of patients with the disease have never smoked. In the US it is estimated there are 17,000-26,000 annual deaths from lung cancer in never smokers, which as a separate entity would be the seventh leading cause of cancer mortality. Controversy surrounds the question of whether or not the incidence of lung cancer in never-smokers is increasing, with more data to support this observation in Asia. There are several factors associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer in never smokers including second hand smoke, indoor air pollution, occupational exposures, and genetic susceptibility among others. Adenocarcinoma is the most common histology of lung cancer in never smokers and in comparison to lung cancer in smokers appears less complex with a higher likelihood to have targetable driver mutations. PMID:26667338

  12. Barite in hydrothermal environments as a recorder of subseafloor processes: a multiple-isotope study from the Loki's Castle vent field.

    PubMed

    Eickmann, B; Thorseth, I H; Peters, M; Strauss, H; Bröcker, M; Pedersen, R B

    2014-07-01

    Barite chimneys are known to form in hydrothermal systems where barium-enriched fluids generated by leaching of the oceanic basement are discharged and react with seawater sulfate. They also form at cold seeps along continental margins, where marine (or pelagic) barite in the sediments is remobilized because of subseafloor microbial sulfate reduction. We test the possibility of using multiple sulfur isotopes (?34S, ?33S, ?36S) of barite to identify microbial sulfate reduction in a hydrothermal system. In addition to multiple sulfur isotopes, we present oxygen (?18O) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes for one of numerous barite chimneys in a low-temperature (~20 °C) venting area of the Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultraslow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). The chemistry of the venting fluids in the barite field identifies a contribution of at least 10% of high-temperature black smoker fluid, which is corroborated by 87Sr/86 Sr ratios in the barite chimney that are less radiogenic than in seawater. In contrast, oxygen and multiple sulfur isotopes indicate that the fluid from which the barite precipitated contained residual sulfate that was affected by microbial sulfate reduction. A sulfate reduction zone at this site is further supported by the multiple sulfur isotopic composition of framboidal pyrite in the flow channel of the barite chimney and in the hydrothermal sediments in the barite field, as well as by low SO4 and elevated H2S concentrations in the venting fluids compared with conservative mixing values. We suggest that the mixing of ascending H2- and CH4-rich high-temperature fluids with percolating seawater fuels microbial sulfate reduction, which is subsequently recorded by barite formed at the seafloor in areas where the flow rate is sufficient. Thus, low-temperature precipitates in hydrothermal systems are promising sites to explore the interactions between the geosphere and biosphere in order to evaluate the microbial impact on these systems. PMID:24725254

  13. The Acoustic Signature of High-Temperature Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crone, T. J.; Wilcock, W. S.; Parsons, J. D.; Barclay, A. H.

    2005-12-01

    Motivated by a desire to find new measurements that might be sensitive to flow rate variations within mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems, we have conducted field studies to collect passive acoustic measurements at black smoker hydrothermal vents using two versions of a simple dual-hydrophone recording device capable of collecting continuous acoustic data for about one week at sampling rates of 1000--2000 Hz. We deployed the first-generation instrument on the Sully sulfide structure in the Main Endeavour Field of the Juan de Fuca Ridge during September of 2004. We were able to collect approximately 48 hours of data before the instrument was partially destroyed by venting fluid. We are in the process of obtaining additional measurements in the same vent field with a second-generation instrument. For the 2004 deployment, the venting fluid produced an acoustic signal that was far above the background level at all measured frequencies. The acoustic spectrum contains a broadband signal that is weighted toward the low frequencies and extends to the Nyquist frequency at 500 Hz. The spectrum also contains several sharp peaks below 150 Hz. The signal is variable in time, with the broadband and peak amplitudes fluctuating by ~20 dB, and the frequencies of the sharp spectral peaks fluctuating by ~1--3 Hz. The complex nature of the acoustic signal suggests that more than one sound production mechanism is operating within the vent. The sharp peaks suggest the presence of a resonant mechanism such as pipe resonance excited by turbulent flow. The high level of the broadband signal is not predicted by theoretical investigations of low Mach number jet acoustics. It is likely that another broadband sound source is present, which could be related to phase separation or to the mixing of different density fluids. More observations will be required to fully understand the basic mechanisms of sound production within black smoker chimneys.

  14. Stereotyping the smoker: adolescents' appraisals of smokers in film

    PubMed Central

    McCool, J; Cameron, L; Petrie, K

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relation between demographic factors and film smoking stereotypes in adolescents and the potential influence of smoker stereotypes on smoking susceptibility. Design: A cross sectional questionnaire survey of school students (n = 3041) aged 12–13 and 16–17 years who were asked to describe the personal characteristics of female and male smokers in films. Setting: 15 primary or intermediate schools and 10 secondary schools in Auckland, New Zealand. Results: Appraisals of smokers in film were strongly influenced by age and sex with younger adolescents and males more likely to see female smokers as sexy, intelligent and healthy whereas older students and females more often appraised female smokers as stressed bored and depressed. Overall, image stereotypes (sexy, stylish) were more likely to be significantly associated with smoking susceptibility than emotional sensitivity stereotypes (stressed, depressed etc). Conclusions: Adolescents differ significantly in their appraisal of smokers in films; however, image based stereotypes, rather than emotional sensitivity stereotypes, are significantly associated with smoking susceptibility. PMID:15333889

  15. Direct Measurements of Hydrothermal Heat Output at Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, L. N.; di Iorio, D.; Genc, G.; Hurt, R. S.; Lowell, R. P.; Holden, J. F.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.

    2009-12-01

    Heat output and fluid flow are key parameters for characterizing seafloor hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers. In particular, they are essential for examining partition of heat and geochemical fluxes between discrete and diffuse flow components. Hydrothermal heat output also constrains permeability of young oceanic crust and thickness of the conductive boundary layer separating hydrothermal circulation from the underlying magmatic heat source. Over the past several years, we have deployed a number of relatively simple devices to make direct measurements of focused and diffuse flow. Most recently, we have used cup anemometer and turbine flow meters to measure fluid flow and heat flux at individual high-temperature vents and diffuse flow sites. The turbine flow meter (Figure 1) includes a titanium rotor assembly housed within a stainless steel tube and supported by sapphire bearings. The device can be used at different seafloor settings for measurements of both diffuse and focused flow. The spin of the rotor blades is videotaped to acquire the angular velocity, which is a function of the flow rate determined through calibration. We report data obtained during four cruises to the Main Endeavor and High Rise vent fields, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR), between 2007 and 2009. Overall more than 50 successful measurements of heat flow have been made on a variety of high-, medium-, and low-temperature hydrothermal sites on the Endeavor, Mothra, and High Rise structures. For example, the velocity of diffuse flow at Endeavor ranged from ~1 to ~10 cm/sec. The flow velocity from black smokers varied from ~10 cm/sec to ~1 m/sec, which appears to be similar to EPR 9°N. Typical measurements of heat flux obtained at JdFR ranged from ~1 kW for diffuse flow to ~1 MW for black smokers. Although it is difficult to extrapolate the data and obtain the integrated heat output for a vent field on JdFR, the data are used to characterize the heat fluxes from individual vent structures such as Hulk, Dante, and Godzilla. Figure 1. Turbine flow meter deployed on Fairy Castle structure at the High Rise vent field (6-26-09, Alvin dive 4526).

  16. Transfer and partitioning of energy and mass through seafloor hydrothermal systems: comparative studies at the Ridge2000 Integrated Study Sites (ISS) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivey, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems are major players in the transfer of mass and energy from the mantle and crust to the ocean and biosphere. Over the past thirty years, much has been learned about this transfer to the ocean, but considerably less is known about the transfer to the biosphere. Study of hydrothermal systems in a diverse range of geologic settings has shown relationships between spreading rate and hydrothermal heat flux, substrate composition (including rock geochemistry, presence/absence of sediment) and hydrothermal fluid composition, and magmatic/tectonic events and temporal variability of fluid composition (e.g., German and Von Damm, Treatise On Geochemistry, 2004; Baker et al. AGU Monograph Series 91, 1995). Studies in arc and back-arc settings are documenting the effects of magmatic acid volatiles on fluid-rock reaction and fluid and vent deposit compositions (e.g., Ishibashi and Urabe, Backarc Basins: Tectonics and Magmatism, 1995). These comparative studies in a wide range of geologic settings, including at the three Ridge2000 ISS, have provided a fairly good understanding of the flux of heat and many elements to the ocean associated with high temperature seafloor hydrothermal systems. Considerably less is known, however, about the partitioning of heat and mass (particularly metals and sulfur) in hydrothermal systems. The deposits that form at vent sites are intimately linked within paths of energy and mass transport from the mantle and crust to the oceans. Transport differs greatly through different types of deposits (e.g., black smokers, white smokers/diffusers, flanges). Estimates of heat flux from measured temperatures of flow (unless integrated over and around an entire vent field) require an understanding of the partitioning of flow between focused black smokers and more diffuse flow from diffusers, flanges, and surfaces of deposits, and from the igneous substrate. Estimates of mass flux into the ocean require an understanding of the temperature-composition paths taken by fluids, and the extent to which some elements (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn, Ba, S) are partitioned between deposits and plumes. Precipitation efficiency differs depending on the vigor of venting and fluid composition (e.g., pH), which (in part) determines the prevalence of black smoker activity versus flow through diffusers and flanges (e.g., review in Tivey, Oceanography, 2007). Quantification of this partitioning is further complicated by apparent differences in ages of accumulated deposits in different vent fields. An unknown at many vent fields is the length of time and duration of activity responsible for forming the existing deposits, and the extent to which large size is a result of efficient precipitation versus time. For biota, the different styles of fluid flow through the substrate and different parts of deposits affect thermal and chemical environments in plumes, as well as on, and just inside, deposit exteriors. As with our understanding of mass and energy transfer to the ocean, we can make significant advances in our understanding of this partitioning of energy and mass through comparative studies of hydrothermal systems in a diverse range of geologic settings (e.g., at the three Ridge2000 ISS).

  17. Sister chromatid exchanges in smokers and smokers with alcohol habit

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J Vijay; Saraswathi, TR; Ranganathan, K; Umadevi, KM; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rooban, T

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test is a sensitive, biomarker of genotoxic substances. The present study was conducted to observe the frequency of SCEs in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 30 males with and without the habit of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Materials and Methods: Subjects for this study were males aged between 25-50 years and were selected from the students, employees and the patients attending the outpatient department of Ragas dental college and Hospital, Chennai. Results: Controls, smokers, and smokers with alcohol habit were divided into two age groups as ?30 years and ?30 years. In controls the mean frequency of SCEs/cell in ?30 years and ?30 year's age group was 5.80 and 6.05, respectively. In Smokers SCEs/cell in ?30 years and ?30 year's age group was 7.7 and 8.8, respectively. In Smokers with alcohol habit SCEs/cell in ?30 years and ?30 years age group was 10.1 and 12.8, respectively. Conclusions: In this study, the duration of the smoking habit has shown a positive correlation with the mean SCE frequency. Whereas, frequency of the habit did not show any influence on the SCE levels. In smokers with alcohol habit, both the duration and frequency of their smoking habit has shown a significant effect on the SCE levels suggesting a synergistic effect of alcohol and smoking leading to excessive DNA damage. PMID:23248461

  18. PGE fractionation in seafloor hydrothermal systems: examples from mafic- and ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal fields at the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pašava, Jan; Vymazalová, Anna; Petersen, Sven

    2007-04-01

    The distribution of platinum group elements (PGEs) in massive sulfides and hematite-magnetite±pyrite assemblages from the recently discovered basalt-hosted Turtle Pits hydrothermal field and in massive sulfides from the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev vent field both on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was studied and compared to that from selected ancient volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) deposits. Cu-rich samples from black smoker chimneys of both vent fields are enriched in Pd and Rh (Pd up to 227 ppb and Rh up to 149 ppb) when compared to hematite-magnetite-rich samples from Turtle Pits (Pd up to 10 ppb, Rh up to 1.9 ppb). A significant positive correlation was established between Cu and Rh in sulfide samples from Turtle Pits. PGE chondrite-normalized patterns (with a positive Rh anomaly and Pd and Au enrichment), Pd/Pt and Pd/Au ratios close to global MORB, and high values of Pd/Ir and Pt/Ir ratios indicate mafic source rock and seawater involvement in the hydrothermal system at Turtle Pits. Similarly shaped PGE chondrite-normalized patterns and high values of Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios in Cu-rich sulfides at Logatchev likely reflect a similar mechanism of PGE enrichment but with involvement of ultramafic source rocks.

  19. Geological context and vents morphology of the ultramafic-hosted Ashadze hydrothermal areas (Mid-Atlantic Ridge 13°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OndréAs, HéLèNe; Cannat, Mathilde; Fouquet, Yves; Normand, Alain

    2012-11-01

    Recent ROV dives and high-resolution bathymetric data acquired over the Ashadze fields on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (13°N) allow us to derive constraints on the regional and local geological setting of ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal fields. The active vent fields of Ashadze hydrothermal fields are located in the western axial valley wall, downslope from the termination of a prominent corrugated surface and in a transitional domain with respect to ridge segmentation. The study of the shipboard and ROV bathymetry shows that decameter (100 m by 60 m) to kilometer-scaled rockslides shape the axial valley wall slopes in this region. The Ashadze 1 vent field occurs on a coherent granular landslide rock mass that is elongated in an E-W direction. The Ashadze 1 vent field comprises hundreds of active and inactive sulfide chimneys. The Ashadze 2 vent field is located in a NNE-trending linear depression which separates outcrops of gabbros and serpentinized peridotites. Active black smokers in the Ashadze 2 field are located on ultramafic substratum in a 40-m diameter crater, 5-m deep. This crater recalls similar structures described at some vents of the Logatchev hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge 15°N). We discuss the mode of formation for these craters, as well as that for a breadcrust-like array of radial fissures identified at Ashadze 1. We propose that hydrothermalism at Ashadze can be an explosive phenomena associated with geyser-like explosions. Our study also constrains the geological and geophysical context of the ultramafic-hosted Ashadze hydrothermal system that may use the oceanic detachment fault as a preferred permeability conduit.

  20. First Discovery and Investigation of a High-Temperature Hydrothermal Vent Field on the Ultra- Slow Spreading Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, C.; Lin, J.; Guo, S.; Chen, Y. J.; Wu, G.; Han, X.; German, C. R.; Yoerger, D. R.; Zhu, J.; Zhou, N.; Su, X.; Baker, E. T.; Party, S.

    2007-12-01

    Two recent cruises on board the Chinese research vessel Dayang Yihao have successfully investigated the first active hydrothermal vent field to be located along the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) and collected hydrothermal sulfide deposit samples. The newly discovered hydrothermal vent field is located on the western end of a magmatically robust spreading segment immediately west of the Gallieni transform fault. Preliminary evidence of strong turbidity anomalies was first measured during a Nov. 2005 cruise on board Dayang Yihao (InterRidge News, vol. 15, pp. 33-34, 2006). Color video footages of the seafloor in the vent-field area were first obtained by a deep-towed video camera in February 2007 during DY115-19 Leg 1, when significant water column turbidity anomalies, noticeable temperature anomalies and methane anomalies were also measured. The vent field was then precisely located, mapped, and photographed in great detail in February- March 2007 during the DY115-19 Leg 2, using the autonomous underwater vehicle ABE of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. A high-resolution bathymetric map, more than 5,000 near-bottom color photos, and several types of water column data were all obtained during three phases of ABE dives. Within the approximately 120-m-long by 100-m-wide hydrothermal field, three groups of active high-temperature vents were identified and color images of black smokers and associated biological communities were obtained from ABE, flying 5 m above the seafloor. Hydrothermal sulfide deposits were then successfully obtained using a TV-guided grab.

  1. First Discovery and Investigation of a High-Temperature Hydrothermal Vent Field on the Ultra- Slow Spreading Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, C.; Lin, J.; Guo, S.; Chen, Y. J.; Wu, G.; Han, X.; German, C. R.; Yoerger, D. R.; Zhu, J.; Zhou, N.; Su, X.; Baker, E. T.; Party, S.

    2004-12-01

    Two recent cruises on board the Chinese research vessel Dayang Yihao have successfully investigated the first active hydrothermal vent field to be located along the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) and collected hydrothermal sulfide deposit samples. The newly discovered hydrothermal vent field is located on the western end of a magmatically robust spreading segment immediately west of the Gallieni transform fault. Preliminary evidence of strong turbidity anomalies was first measured during a Nov. 2005 cruise on board Dayang Yihao (InterRidge News, vol. 15, pp. 33-34, 2006). Color video footages of the seafloor in the vent-field area were first obtained by a deep-towed video camera in February 2007 during DY115-19 Leg 1, when significant water column turbidity anomalies, noticeable temperature anomalies and methane anomalies were also measured. The vent field was then precisely located, mapped, and photographed in great detail in February- March 2007 during the DY115-19 Leg 2, using the autonomous underwater vehicle ABE of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. A high-resolution bathymetric map, more than 5,000 near-bottom color photos, and several types of water column data were all obtained during three phases of ABE dives. Within the approximately 120-m-long by 100-m-wide hydrothermal field, three groups of active high-temperature vents were identified and color images of black smokers and associated biological communities were obtained from ABE, flying 5 m above the seafloor. Hydrothermal sulfide deposits were then successfully obtained using a TV-guided grab.

  2. Characteristics of the cultivable bacteria from sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents in Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-Lei; Wang, Ming-Qing; Sun, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this study, different culture-dependent methods were used to examine the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in the sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents (named HV1 and HV2) located at Iheya Ridge and Iheya North in Okinawa Trough. The two vents differed in morphology, with HV1 exhibiting diffuse flows while HV2 being a black smoker with a chimney-like structure. A total of 213 isolates were identified by near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Of these isolates, 128 were from HV1 and 85 were from HV2. The bacterial community structures were, in large parts, similar between HV1 and HV2. Nevertheless, differences between HV1 and HV2 were observed in one phylum, one class, 4 orders, 10 families, and 20 genera. Bioactivity analysis revealed that 25 isolates belonging to 9 different genera exhibited extracellular protease activities, 21 isolates from 11 genera exhibited extracellular lipase activities, and 13 isolates of 8 genera displayed antimicrobial activities. This is the first observation of a large population of bacteria with extracellular bioactivities existing in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, the results of this study provide new insights into the characteristics of the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems. PMID:26410427

  3. Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa Trough: Mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Marumo, Katsumi; Hattori, K.H.

    1999-09-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal activity at Jade has resulted in extensive alteration of the host epiclastic sediments and pumiceous tuffs, forming mica, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite), Mg-rich chlorite, talc, montmorillonite, and a mixed-layer mineral of dioctahedral chlorite and montmorillonite (Chl/Mont). Clay mineral assemblages show a vertical variation, which reflects variable amounts of cold seawater incorporated into hot hydrothermal fluids in subsurface sediments and tuff. However, mixing alone cannot explain the occurrence of abundant kaolin minerals at Jade. The formation of kaolin minerals requires much more acidic fluid than expected from simple mixing of hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Low pH values are likely attained by oxidation of H{sub 2}S either dissolved in the hydrothermal fluid or released from the fluid during decompression. The fluid reaching the seafloor is discharged into cold seawater, which caused precipitation of sulfides close to vents and native sulfur and barite at the margins of the vent areas. Halloysite, barite and anhydrite show Sr isotope compositions similar to marine Sr, indicating the derivation of marine Sr directly from seawater or by the dissolution of calcareous nannoplanktons. At Jade, there is only one black smoker actively discharging high temperature ({approximately}320 C) fluid, but there are many fossil sulfide chimneys and mounds in the area. The mineralogy and high Au and Cu in these precipitates suggest highly metalliferous hydrothermal activity in the past. These activities likely resulted in discharge of hydrothermal plumes and fall-outs of sulfides and sulfates on the seafloor. These fall-outs were incorporated in sediments far from the vent areas. They are now recorded as high metal contents in sediments with no petrographic and mineralogical evidence of in-situ hydrothermal activity. Some are high as 8,100 ppm for Cu, 12,500 ppm for Zn, 1,000 ppm for As, 100 ppm for Ag and 21,000 ppm for Pb. Detrital grains of montmorillonite in such sediments are coated with Fe-oxyhydroxides during the suspension in seawater before settling on the seafloor. The depths of such metal anomalies in sediments suggest high levels of metalliferous hydrothermal activities from 1,800 to 300 ybp.

  4. Hydrothermal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater (after C. A. Stein and S. Stein, 1994). The first geochemical evidence for the existence of hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor came in the mid-1960s when investigations in the Red Sea revealed deep basins filled with hot, salty water (40-60 °C) and underlain by thick layers of metal-rich sediment (Degens and Ross, 1969). Because the Red Sea represents a young, rifting, ocean basin it was speculated that the phenomena observed there might also prevail along other young MOR spreading centers. An analysis of core-top sediments from throughout the world's oceans ( Figure 2) revealed that such metalliferous sediments did, indeed, appear to be concentrated along the newly recognized global ridge crest (Boström et al., 1969). Another early indication of hydrothermal activity came from the detection of plumes of excess 3He in the Pacific Ocean Basin (Clarke et al., 1969) - notably the >2,000 km wide section in the South Pacific ( Lupton and Craig, 1981) - because 3He present in the deep ocean could only be sourced through some form of active degassing of the Earth's interior, at the seafloor. (62K)Figure 2. Global map of the (Al+Fe+Mn):Al ratio for surficial marine sediments. Highest ratios mimic the trend of the global MOR axis (after Boström et al., 1969). One area where early heat-flow studies suggested hydrothermal activity was likely to occur was along the Galapagos Spreading Center in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (Anderson and Hobart, 1976). In 1977, scientists diving at this location found hydrothermal fluids discharging chemically altered seawater from young volcanic seafloor at elevated temperatures up to 17 °C ( Edmond et al., 1979). Two years later, the first high-temperature (380±30 °C) vent fluids were found at 21° N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) (Spiess et al., 1980) - with fluid compositions remarkably close to those predicted from the lower-temperature Galapagos findings ( Edmond et al., 1979). Since that time, hydrothermal activity has been found at more than 40 locations throughout the Pacific, North Atlanti

  5. Serum Metabolite Biomarkers Discriminate Healthy Smokers from COPD Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiuying; Deeb, Ruba S.; Ma, Yuliang; Staudt, Michelle R.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Gross, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is defined by a fixed expiratory airflow obstruction associated with disordered airways and alveolar destruction. COPD is caused by cigarette smoking and is the third greatest cause of mortality in the US. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is the only validated clinical marker of COPD, but it correlates poorly with clinical features and is not sensitive enough to predict the early onset of disease. Using LC/MS global untargeted metabolite profiling of serum samples from a well-defined cohort of healthy smokers (n = 37), COPD smokers (n = 41) and non-smokers (n = 37), we sought to discover serum metabolic markers with known and/or unknown molecular identities that are associated with early-onset COPD. A total of 1,181 distinct molecular ions were detected in 95% of sera from all study subjects and 23 were found to be differentially-expressed in COPD-smokers vs. healthy-smokers. These 23 putative biomarkers were differentially-correlated with lung function parameters and used to generate a COPD prediction model possessing 87.8% sensitivity and 86.5% specificity. In an independent validation set, this model correctly predicted COPD in 8/10 individuals. These serum biomarkers included myoinositol, glycerophopshoinositol, fumarate, cysteinesulfonic acid, a modified version of fibrinogen peptide B (mFBP), and three doubly-charged peptides with undefined sequence that significantly and positively correlate with mFBP levels. Together, elevated levels of serum mFBP and additional disease-associated biomarkers point to a role for chronic inflammation, thrombosis, and oxidative stress in remodeling of the COPD airways. Serum metabolite biomarkers offer a promising and accessible window for recognition of early-stage COPD. PMID:26674646

  6. Insights From Magnesium Isotopic Compositions on the Oceanic Hydrothermal Circulation: Is Seamount Weathering the Solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, A.; Carder, E.; Elderfield, H.

    2006-12-01

    It has been long recognised that the input of Mg in the ocean by river is removed by precipitation of Mg-rich bearing phases, either directly from the ocean such as dolomite or through hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust. The sampling of hydrothermal fluids demonstrated the efficiency of Mg consumption by the alteration of the oceanic crust, even at temperatures as low as 15°. For high-temperature fluids vented through black or white smokers in the vicinity of the ridge, the Mg concentration is up to 50 time lower than in seawater, and the close relationship between chlorine and Mg led to the idea that seawater was feeding the hydrothermal system and that Mg is quantitatively removed from it during high-T° alteration, the so called zero Mg hypothesis. Despite some hint for a non zero Mg hydrothermal end-member for a handful sites, the low concentration of Mg in oceanic hydrothermal fluids (around 1 mmol/l) has been mainly attributed to contamination by seawater during the sampling. Here we present Mg isotopic composition of 14 seawater samples from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Mediterranean and Red Seas and covering a range of depth of almost 5km and 26 hydrothermal fluids from 7 sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with temperature from 15° to 380°C. We find the magnesium isotope composition of seawater to be constant, with a ?^{26}Mg = -0.82±0.10 ‰ relative to the DSM3 standard. This value is consistent with a long residence time for Mg in seawater. In addition, out of the 26 hydrothermal fluids studied, more than 58% differ from seawater for their Mg isotopic composition by more than 2?. This number rises up to 88% at 2?mean level and the shift is systematic with the fluids being either indistinguishable from seawater or enriched in light isotopes by up to 2.4‰ in ?^{26}Mg. This clearly demonstrates that fluids having low Mg concentrations are not solely bearing Mg added by contamination during sampling. The isotopic and concentration data are consistent with the preferential incorporation of heavy isotopes of Mg during the weathering and already similar to the mechanisms found in soil (Tipper et al., 2006a, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.04.033). The fractionation factor (?) is around 1.001 for the high-T° fluids, while the low temperature fluids, samples off axis during the ODP Leg 168 (Est of Juan de Fuca Ridge), requires a more variable and higher ? of 1.001 to 1.003. At low temperature, the ? is somehow greater that the estimate made from the soil formation but the T-? relationship is consistent with the expected behaviour for an equilibrium isotopic fractionation. However, such a large ? implies that the significant flux of the low-T component of the hydrothermal circulation required to fulfil the heat budget of the oceanic lithosphere would buffer any isotopic mass balance calculation of the oceanic Mg to an unsustainable value (e.g. Tipper et al., 2006b, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.07.037). Therefore, either the low-T hydrothermal circulation leaves the Mg unaffected, or the off axis fluids from the ODP Leg 168 are not representative of the global low-T hydrothermal circulation. Given that Mg gets significantly re-incorporated in soil processes, we favour the later hypothesis and propose that a significant part of the low-T hydrothermal circulation is occurring around relief of the oceanic floor, including seamounts, with a different residence-time and chemistry than what have been described in the ODP Leg 168 setting.

  7. Sound field near hydrothermal vents on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, S.A.; Stolzenbach, K.D.; Purdy, G.M.

    1990-08-10

    High-quality acoustic noise measurements were obtained by two hydrophones located 3 m and 40 m from an active hydrothermal vent on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an effort to determine the feasibility of monitoring hydrothermal vent activity through flow noise generation. Most of the measured noise field could be attributed to ambient ocean noise sources of microseisms, distant shipping, and weather, punctuated by local ships and biological sources. Long-period, low-velocity, water/rock interface waves were detected with high amplitudes which rapidly decayed with distance from the seafloor. Detection of vent signals was hampered by unexpected spatial nonstationarity due to the shadowing effects of the calders wall. No continuous vent signals were deemed significant based on a criterion of 90% probability of detection and 5% probability of false alarm. However, a small signal near 40 Hz, with a power level of 0.0001 Pa sq/Hz was noticed on two records taken within 3 m of the Inferno black smoker. The frequency of this signal is consistent with predictions, and the power level suggests the occurrence of jet noise amplification due to convected density inhomogeneities. Keywords: Seamounts; Flow noise; Underwater acoustics; Acoustic measurement; Geothermy/noise; Ocean ridges; Underwater sound signals; Reprints; North Pacific Ocean. (EDC).

  8. Are college student smokers really a homogeneous group? A latent class analysis of college student smokers

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Wolfson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: College smokers are often considered to be one homogenous group, those reporting smoking on at least one of the past 30 days. However, considerable heterogeneity exists among college students who report current smoking. The aim of this paper is to characterize disparate patterns of smoking among college students using latent class analysis (LCA). Methods: The sample consisted of 1,102 past-month smokers from 10 colleges in North Carolina who completed a Web-based survey. LCA was used to create homogeneous groups of smokers with similar patterns defined by multiple indicators of smoking behavior, including quantity and frequency of smoking, smoking contexts, and weekly patterns of smoking. Results: Five subclasses of smokers were identified: “heavy smokers” (28%), moderate smokers (22%), social smokers (19%), puffers (26%), and no-context smokers (4%). Demographic characteristics that varied among these subgroups were year in school, Greek membership, and residence location. Puffers were more likely to be younger students than heavy and social smokers, suggesting a transition from experimentation to regular use over time. Social smokers and puffers were more likely to be involved in Greek organizations than were heavy and moderate smokers. Moderate and social smokers were more likely to be current drinkers and to have engaged in binge drinking in the past month than were heavy smokers. This finding suggests that, for moderate and social smokers, a strong relationship exists between alcohol and tobacco use. Discussion: The results highlight the heterogeneity of college student smokers and underscore the need for targeted interventions. PMID:19264866

  9. Hydrothermal plumes over spreading ridges and related deposits in the northeast Pacific Ocean: The East Pacific Rise near 11 degrees north and 21 degrees north, Explorer Ridge and J. Tuzo Wilson Seamounts

    SciTech Connect

    McConachy, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrothermal plumes emanating from hot springs over spreading ridges in the north east Pacific Ocean have been mapped and sampled using the submersible ALVIN and equipment deployed from surface ships. The geologic setting and polymetallic sulfides of the vent field producing the hydrothermal plume at 11{degree}N have also been examined. At 11{degree}N, two distinct metalliferous components are delivered to the intermediate to far-field from high temperature black smoker discharge as a result of the physical and chemical processes that occur in the lower 32 m of the plume. About 60 volume % of this material is estimated to settle within a 6-km-radius of the vent field, based on the results of SEM-IPS grain-size analyses and their application to a published particle settling model. The second component delivered to the far-field consists of the remaining 40 volume % of fine-grained sulfides and non-sulfides, 10% of dissolved Fe which will eventually precipitate as oxyhydroxides, and {>=} 80% of the hydrothermally injected Mn, Si, and probably Ba. At 21{degree} N by contrast, only 20 volume % of the smoke particles is conservatively estimated to settle within a 8-km-radius of the NGS vent due to their finer grain size and a higher terminal height of the buoyant hydrothermal plume.

  10. Discovery of hydrothermally active and extinct talc mounds on the Mid-Cayman Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, M.; Murton, B. J.; Roberts, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since 1977, hydrothermal vents have been the subject of intense scientific interest due to their role in cooling the oceanic crust and global geochemical cycles. Until now, two types of hydrothermal system have been identified: one, driven by magmatic heat extruding ';black smoker' fluids; and another, involving serpentinisation of ultramafic rocks and the precipitation of carbonate/brucite chimneys. Here, we present details of a new, off-axis type of hydrothermal system consisting of mounds of predominately botryoidal talc (a magnesium-silicate) with accessory silica and copper sulphides, and chimneys exhaling fluids of moderate temperature and pH. Discovered on the Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR) in 2010, the Von Damm Vent Field (VDVF) features a NNW-ESE-trending line of four overlapping cones, the largest of which is 75 m high by 150 m in diameter. The VDVF is hosted in the gabbroic footwall of the Mount Dent Oceanic Core Complex (MDOCC), which includes serpentinised peridotite at depth. The largest cone vents clear fluids from two main orifices at its summit, with primary temperatures of 215°C. Elsewhere, both focussed and diffuse flow areas emit fluids with temperatures of up to 150°C. The surrounding ~1 m thick pelagic sediment contains abundant pockmarks that emit methane-rich fluids at temperatures of less than 10°C. During the return to the MCR in early 2013, several other talc mounds were discovered within a kilometre of the active VDVF. These inactive mounds also comprise an assemblage of botryoidal talc, silica, disseminated sulphides (including chalcopyrite) and sulphates. One of these mounds (Mystic Mount) is double the volume of the active VDVF. The unique dominance of talc as the major mineral forming the hydrothermal structures indicates unusual vent fluid compositions that are able to carry both copper (at high-temperatures) and precipitate magnesium silicate. Thermodynamic modelling indicates that talc precipitates on mixing a moderately acidic, silica rich fluid (e.g. the primary VDVF fluids) with only 2% of seawater. At lower pH (e.g. typical ';black smoker' fluids), the ratio jumps to over 90% while at high pH (e.g. ';Lost City' fluids) brucite and carbonate dominate. Estimates using recently measured vent temperatures and fluid fluxes indicate a heat flux of ~800 MW for the active VDVF. Assuming the primary vent fluid has remained largely unchanged, the VDVF could have grown in under 1000 years and Mystic Mount in ~2000 years. Both the hydrothermal mounds and faults in the surrounding gabbro share a NNW-ESE orientation that is consistent with a brittle structural control imposed by the flexural curvature of the MDOCC in response to the uplift of the lower oceanic crust along a low-angle detachment fault. We propose that these flexural faults provide pathways for fluids to ingress deep into the MDOCC where they react with both mafic rocks (producing high-temperature, low pH, sulphide and copper-bearing fluids), peridotites and carbonates (increasing the pH) resulting in a moderate pH, silica-rich fluid that precipitates talc on mixing with seawater. The presence of further, inactive, talc mounds within 1 km of the VDVF indicates hydrothermal activity on OCCs has been widespread and represents a significant but hitherto overlooked mechanism of crustal heat loss and chemical interaction with the ocean at slow-spreading ridges.

  11. Integrated Fe- and S-isotope study of seafloor hydrothermal vents at East Pacific Rise 9-10°N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rouxel, O.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Bach, W.; Edwards, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we report on coupled Fe- and S-isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids and sulfide deposits from the East Pacific Rise at 9–10°N to better constrain processes affecting Fe-isotope fractionation in hydrothermal environments. We aim to address three fundamental questions: (1) Is there significant Fe-isotope fractionation during sulfide precipitation? (2) Is there significant variability of Fe-isotope composition of the hydrothermal fluids reflecting sulfide precipitation in subsurface environments? (3) Are there any systematics between Fe- and S-isotopes in sulfide minerals? The results show that chalcopyrite, precipitating in the interior wall of a hydrothermal chimney displays a limited range of ?56Fe values and ?34S values, between ? 0.11 to ? 0.33‰ and 2.2 to 2.6‰ respectively. The ?56Fe values are, on average, slightly higher by 0.14‰ relative to coeval vent fluid composition while ?34S values suggest significant S-isotope fractionation (? 0.6 ± 0.2‰) during chalcopyrite precipitation. In contrast, systematically lower ?56Fe and ?34S values relative to hydrothermal fluids, by up to 0.91‰ and 2.0‰ respectively, are observed in pyrite and marcasite precipitating in the interior of active chimneys. These results suggest isotope disequilibrium in both Fe- and S-isotopes due to S-isotopic exchange between hydrothermal H2S and seawater SO42? followed by rapid formation of pyrite from FeS precursors, thus preserving the effects of a strong kinetic Fe-isotope fractionation during FeS precipitation. In contrast, ?56Fe and ?34S values of pyrite from inactive massive sulfides, which show evidence of extensive late-stage reworking, are essentially similar to the hydrothermal fluids. Multiple stages of remineralization of ancient chimney deposits at the seafloor appear to produce minimal Fe-isotope fractionation. Similar affects are indicated during subsurface sulfide precipitation as demonstrated by the lack of systematic differences between ?56Fe values in both high-temperature, Fe-rich black smokers and lower-temperature, Fe-depleted vents.

  12. Complex hydrothermal alteration and illite K-Ar ages in Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Variscan Badenweiler-Lenzkirch suture zone, Black Forest, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockamp, Olaf; Schlegel, Andreas; Wemmer, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Post-collisional Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Badenweiler-Lenzkirch Zone reveal by microscopy of thin sections different degrees of hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and mica particles, and XRD, IR and XRF data of the <2 µm fractions show illitic material as the dominant clay mineral consisting of a mixture of 1M and 2M1 polytypes. Moreover, small amounts of illite/smectite mixed-layer minerals of R1-ordering are proved in the granites. In the separates, two illite mixing lines with different Fe + Mg contents are verified between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and detrital illite in the molasse sediments, as well as between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and altered mica flakes in the granites. Fe-rich detrital chlorite is present within the molasse sediments, while mixtures of high aluminous Fe-poor dioctahedral/di-trioctahedral chlorite with randomly interstratified chlorite/smectite mixed-layer minerals are formed from feldspar alteration in the granites. Illite K-Ar dating of the <2 and <0.63 µm fractions yields hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and partial resetting of the K-Ar system of detrital illite and mica flakes in the molasse sediments at ?200 °C during Upper Permian to Middle Triassic times, while the granites in the eastern part of the study area were not altered contemporaneously. In contrast, hydrothermal activity at ?200 °C during Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous times occurred in the granites, whereas these temperatures were too low for resetting the older `Permo-Triassic' illite K-Ar ages in the molasse rocks. Within both K-Ar age clusters, the data are seen to decrease with grain size and portion of illite 2M1 polytype. The alteration phenomena indicate multiple hydrothermal episodes in the study area, and they match those from the Central and Western European crust as fluid supply was controlled geodynamically by episodic break up of Pangea.

  13. The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for Biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Alex D.; Tyler, Paul A.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jon T.; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D.; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A.; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearce, David A.; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; German, Christopher R.; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Alker, Belinda J.; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A.; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J. J.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D. K.; Roterman, Christopher N.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than previously recognised. PMID:22235194

  14. The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alex D; Tyler, Paul A; Connelly, Douglas P; Copley, Jon T; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D; Pearce, David A; Polunin, Nicholas V C; German, Christopher R; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H; Alker, Belinda J; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J J; Graham, Alastair G C; Green, Darryl R H; Hawkes, Jeffrey A; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D K; Roterman, Christopher N; Sweeting, Christopher J; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than previously recognised. PMID:22235194

  15. Geology of a vigorous hydrothermal system on the Endeavour segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, J.R.; Robigou, V.; McDuff, R.E. ); Tivey, M.K. )

    1992-12-10

    A high-precision, high-resolution geologic map explicitly documents relationships between tectonic features and large steep-sided, sulfide-sulfate-silica deposits in the vigorously venting Endeavour hydrothermal field near the northern end of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Location of the most massive sulfide structures appears to be controlled by intersections of ridge-parallel normal faults and other fracture-fissure sets that trend oblique to, and perpendicular to the overall structural fabric of the axial valley. As presently mapped, the field is about 200 by 400 m on a side and contains at least 15 large (> 1,000 m[sup 3]) sulfide edifices and many tens of smaller, commonly inactive, sulfide structures. The larger sulfide structures are also the most vigorously venting features in the field; they are commonly more than 30 m in diameter and up to 20 m in height. Maximum venting temperatures of 375[degrees]C are associated with the smaller structures in the northern portion of the field are consistently 20[degrees]-30[degrees]C lower. Hydrothermal output from individual active sulfide features varies from no flow in the lower third of the edifice to vigorous output from fracture-controlled black smoker activity near the top of the structures. Two types of diffuse venting in the Endeavour field include a lower temperature 8[degrees]-15[degrees]C output through colonies of large tubeworms and 25[degrees]-50[degrees]C vent fluid that seems to percolate through the tops of overhanging flanges. The large size and steep-walled nature of these structures evidently results from sustained venting in a mature hydrothermal system, coupled with dual mineral depositional mechanisms involving vertical growth by accumulation of chimney sulfide debris and lateral growth by means of flange development.

  16. Temporal variability and tidal modulation of hydrothermal exit-fluid temperatures at the Lucky Strike deep-sea vent field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreyre, Thibaut; Escartín, Javier; Sohn, Robert A.; Cannat, Mathilde; Ballu, Valérie; Crawford, Wayne C.

    2014-04-01

    We deployed autonomous temperature sensors at black smoker chimneys, cracks, and diffuse flow areas at the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, ~37°17'N) between summer 2009 and summer 2012 and contemporaneously measured tidal pressures and currents as part of the long-term MoMAR experiment to monitor hydrothermal activity. We classify the temperature data according to the hydrogeologic setting of the measurement sites: a high-temperature regime (>190°C) representing discharge of essentially unmixed, primary hydrothermal fluids through chimneys, an intermediate-temperature regime (10-100°C) associated with mixing of primary fluids with cold pore fluids discharging through cracks, and a low-temperature regime (<10°C) associated with a thermal boundary layer forming over bacterial mats associated with diffuse outflow of warm fluids. Temperature records from all the regimes exhibit variations at semi-diurnal tidal periods, and cross-spectral analyses reveal that high-temperature discharge correlates to tidal pressure while low-temperature discharge correlates to tidal currents. Intermediate-temperature discharge exhibits a transitional behavior correlating to both tidal pressure and currents. Episodic perturbations, with transient temperature drops of up to ~150°C, which occur in the high-temperature and intermediate-temperature records, are not observed on multiple probes (including nearby probes at the same site), and they are not correlated with microearthquake activity, indicating that the perturbation mechanism is highly localized at the measurement sites within the hydrothermal structures. The average temperature at a given site may increase or decrease at annual time scales, but the average temperature of the hydrothermal field, as a whole, appears to be stable over our 3 year observation period.

  17. Black Endobronchial Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Samjot S; Harris, Kassem; Ylagan, Lourdes

    2015-10-01

    The infrequent bronchoscopic finding of black airway pigmentation due to a variety of causes has been labeled as "Black Bronchoscopy." Black bronchioalveolar lavage has been sometimes described in tobacco, marijuana, and crack cocaine smokers. To add to this interesting panorama of bronchoscopic findings, we describe cases of black endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspirates due to metastatic melanoma and anthracotic lymph nodes. PMID:26348692

  18. The Case for a Smoker's License

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background to the debate Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a “smoker's license” and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic—the tobacco industry—and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor. PMID:23152726

  19. Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter from Deep-sea Floor Hydrothermal Vents in South Mariana Backarc Spreading Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajima, F.; Yamanaka, T.

    2004-12-01

    In South Mariana Backarc Spreading Center, a few active hydrothermal fields are located. We investigated a characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from hydrothermal vents in this area, in order to clarify the biosphere beneath deep-sea floor. Hot water sample was collected from a drilled hole (APM01 located in Fryer site, 12o 55.22fN, 143o 37.16fE, depth 2850m) during the ROPOS/TN167A cruise in March 2004. The hole had been drilled during Hakurei-Maru 2 cruise in January 2004. Another hot water sample was collected from a natural black smoker located in Pika site (12o 55.15fN, 143o 36.96fE, depth 2773m) during YK03-09 cruise. In this investigation, we developed a standalone filtration system in order to collect and enrich dissolved organic matter of quite low concentration. This system was designed to be put near hydrothermal vents for at least 24h. This system has an ODS disk (EmporeTM High Performance Extraction Disk C18 90mm?) with a pre-filter (Whatman GMF 1 ?)m filter paper) to adsorb dilute organics. We collected DOM from the APM01 casing pipe for about 30h (Tmax = 25-30 o C, the estimated volume of filtrated water is max. 300L) using this filtration system. Adsorbed organics were eluted with methanol for 12h twice and toluene once using soxhlet extractor. Recovered amounts of methanol eluents are 72.8mg for APM01, and 89.7mg for the black smoker. Prior to GCMS analysis, we carried out high resolution 1 H-NMR measurement (400MHz), together with the DOM samples collected from the Suiyo Seamount in July-August 2001 and August 2002. Most of the samples show signals in the region of 3-4 ppm, and the samples from the vents of relatively low temperatures (APM01 and AP04: the natural vent at the Suiyo Seamount, temperature 8-48o C ) show signals also in the region of 0.8-1.6 ppm.

  20. Oral cytology in cannabis smokers.

    PubMed

    Darling, Mark R; Learmonth, Genevieve M; Arendorf, Trevor M

    2002-04-01

    The effects of cannabis/methaqualone/tobacco smoking on the epithelial cells of the tongue, buccal mucosa and floor of the mouth were examined. Oral mucosal smears for detection of cellular changes were taken from 4 sites in 16 patients. The tongue blade scraping technique was used. The sites sampled included the buccal mucosa (left and right sides), the posterior dorsum of the tongue and the anterior floor of the mouth. Tobacco smoking and non-smoking controls were also examined. The only significant difference between cannabis users and controls was the greater prevalence of bacterial cells in the smears taken from cannabis users. However, there were also greater numbers of degenerate and atypical squamous cells in cannabis smokers than in cigarette-smoking and non-smoking controls. Epithelial cells in smears taken from cannabis users and tobacco-smoking controls also showed koilocytic changes, which were not seen in smears taken from non-smoking controls. Koilocytosis is indicative of human papilloma virus infection, although no apparent lesions were seen in the patients from whom smears had been taken. It would appear that there is a greater tendency towards damaged and immature surface epithelial cells in cannabis smokers. PMID:12078330

  1. August 30, 2005 Habits: Menthol May Add a Danger for Smokers

    E-print Network

    Hunter, David

    suggests that the menthol in cigarettes popular with many black people play a role. The reports of the pattern among white smokers. Part of the explanation for the difference in health risks may lie in how menthol affects the way people smoke - especially when they are smoking cigarettes that are marketed

  2. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned). Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9) with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6%) reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions) for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker). Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go beyond providing knowledge on harmful effects of smoking to interventions that influence adolescents' social construct of smoking/smoker. PMID:21756343

  3. Unplanned Quitting in a Triethnic Sample of U.S. Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Resnicow, Ken; Zhou, Yan; Nollen, Nicole L.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers who report quitting without prior planning have been shown to report longer abstinence compared with those who planned. Little is known about unplanned quitting (UQ) among U.S. smokers, minorities, or nondaily and light smokers. Methods: Using an online panel, we recruited equal numbers of Black, White, and Latino nondaily, light daily, and moderate/heavy daily smokers. Of the 1,127 who reported a past-year quit attempt, we queried whether it was planned and the maximum number of days abstinent. Results: Overall, 38% reported that their last quit attempt was unplanned. The impact of planned versus unplanned quitting interacted with smoking level and race. Among White moderate/heavy smokers, mean days abstinent was 99 for those who reported an unplanned quit attempt compared with 60 days for those who reported a planned attempt (p = .02). Among Black moderate/heavy smokers, the mean days abstinent was higher among those whose last attempt was planned, 92 days, compared with 56 days among those whose last attempt was unplanned (p = .09). The pattern among Latinos resembled Whites but was not significant. Results remained after adjusting for confounds such as age, gender, education, income, time to first cigarette, and menthol use. There were no significant differences in abstinence by quit type for light or nondaily smokers. Conclusions: Future studies are needed to elucidate why UQ appears to have differential effectiveness across racial/ethnic groups and different levels of cigarette use. Research examining the impact of UQ on long-term quitting, which is not addressed here, is needed. PMID:24420329

  4. Food and nutrient intake differences between smokers and non-smokers in the US.

    PubMed Central

    Subar, A F; Harlan, L C; Mattson, M E

    1990-01-01

    Data from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to determine food and nutrient intake differences between current smokers (also categorized as light, moderate, and heavy smokers) and non-smokers. Smokers in several age-race-sex categories have lower intakes of vitamin C, folate, fiber, and vitamin A than non-smokers, and intake tended to decrease as cigarette consumption increased, particularly for vitamin C, fiber, and folate. Smokers were less likely to have consumed vegetables, fruits (particularly fruits and vegetables high in vitamins C and A), high fiber grains, low fat milk, and vitamin and mineral supplements than non-smokers. A negative linear trend was found between smoking intensity and intake of several categories of fruits and vegetables. These data suggest that the high cancer risk associated with smoking is compounded by somewhat lower intake of nutrients and foods which are thought to be cancer protective. PMID:2240298

  5. Lung Cancer in Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) has lately been recognized as a unique disease based on rapidly gained knowledge from genomic changes to treatment responses. The focus of this article is on current knowledge and challenges with regard to LCINS expanded from recent reviews highlighting five areas: (1) distribution of LCINS by temporal trends, geographic regions, and populations; (2) three well-recognized environmental risk factors; (3) other plausible environmental risk factors; (4) prior chronic lung diseases and infectious diseases as risk factors; and (5) lifestyles as risk or protective factors. This article will also bring attention to recently published literature in two pioneering areas: (1) histological characteristics, clinical features with emerging new effective therapies, and social and psychological stigma; and (2) searching for susceptibility genes using integrated genomic approaches. PMID:21500120

  6. Vent Plume Characteristics at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, D. A.; Nakamura, K.; Olson, E. J.; Larson, B.; Proskurowski, G.; Lilley, M. D.; Kelley, D. S.

    2003-12-01

    Lost City is a peridotite-hosted hydrothermal field driven by exothermic serpentinization reactions at depth. Venting of high pH (9-11), 40-90° C fluids and seawater promotes growth of carbonate structures that reach up to 60 m in height. To characterize the plume around this novel actively venting field and to investigate other potential venting sites, 14 CTD casts were completed in the vicinity of the field. In addition to potential temperature, conductivity, and oxygen, hydrocasts were also equipped with an Eh sensor to measure redox potential through the water column. Fluids from 11 of these casts were also sampled for hydrogen and methane, as these gases are byproducts of serpentinization reactions. To quantify the strongest hydrothermal signals, four casts were taken directly above and adjacent to Poseidon, the largest structure in the field (60 m tall, reaching to an elevation of 730 m). To place constraints on the extent of plume movement at Lost City, one cast was taken 125 m to the west, another 75 m to the east, and 2 were taken in a shallow depression that bounds the field 50-60 m to the north. Of the 9 casts proximal to the field, almost all showed a moderate to steep increase in Eh values 10-20 m off the bottom. Dramatic gradients in Eh occurred near bottom at all boundary stations as well. Hydrogen concentrations 100 times those of background ocean waters were measured near bottom at stations just north of the field and strong signals up to 20x background were measured near and to the east of Poseidon. Highly elevated methane concentrations were measured at the eastern boundary cast (180 nM), while other stations to the north and east of the main Lost City field had moderately elevated values (40-55 nM, up to 30x background). Higher concentrations of both hydrogen and methane were consistently found in the 750-800 m depth range. These data show that plumes derived solely from serpentinization reactions are characterized by steep gradients in Eh and elevated volatile concentrations very near bottom. In contrast to plumes associated with black smoker systems, the limited buoyancy of Lost City-like plumes and lack of particulate or strong thermal anomalies will make prospecting for other peridotite-hosted systems challenging.

  7. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (III) Hydrothermal Fluid Geobarometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, M. H.; Palandri, J. L.; Elders, W.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2007-12-01

    The IDDP wells will penetrate high pressure geothermal reservoirs where an understanding of the pressure effects on mineral equilibria is essential. The chemical compositions of fluids from active hydrothermal systems have long been applied to estimating reservoir temperature in subaerial geothermal systems at temperatures less than 300 °C and pressures along the H2O liquid/vapor P-T curve, where the pressures are low and the pressure effects on mineral equilibria are small. At pressures of hundreds of bars beneath mid-ocean ridge black smoker springs, the effect of pressure on mineral solubilities is substantial, and can be exploited to estimate pressure and temperature from fluid composition. In practice we compute mineral saturation indices, log(Q/K), for a given fluid for a wide range of P-T combinations, then plot log(Q/K) for alteration minerals against pressure at a series of temperatures so as to identify a possible "knot" in P-T-log(Q/K) space where a group of probable alteration minerals equilibrated with the fluid. We find that saturation index surfaces distinctly converge to zero in a narrow range of pressure and temperature. As an example, we estimate that for an East Pacific Rise 21 °N NGS fluid with a vent T=273 °C and vent P=260 bar, the reservoir conditions are likely T=370-420 °C and P=480-530 bar. To explore what aspect of the fluid chemistry causes the strong pressure effect on mineral solubilities, we computed the effect of pressure change on the activities of aqueous H+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and other significant species in the 21 °N NGS fluid. At 420 °C, pH changes from 8 to 5 as pressure changes from 200 to 700 bar, an effect resulting from dissociation of HCl with increasing pressure. Similarly, chloride complex dissociations yield approximately 10-fold increases in Ca2+, Na+, and K+ concentrations with a 200 to 700 bar pressure increase. In another series of calculations, we synthesized a seawater-like fluid that was equilibrated at 400 °C and 500 bar with clinopyroxene, chlorite, epidote, feldspars, and quartz, then treated the fluid as an "unknown" for estimating P-T. Even for small departures from equilibrium P-T (e.g. +/- 25 °C), the mineral saturation surfaces change markedly, thereby supporting the conclusion that pressure effects on fluid composition are large enough to enable meaningful pressure and temperature estimations in deep hydrothermal systems.

  8. Comparison of Physical Fitness among Smoker and Non-Smoker Men

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi-Haghighi, Farzaneh; Rezaei, Iman; Ghaffarinejad, Farahnaz; Lari, Reza; Pouya, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    Background It is well documented that cigarette smoking has negative impacts on body health, as well as social health, economy, culture, etc. Nowadays, there is a large body of evidence that smoking is the cause of numerous life-threatening diseases like cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases along with different kinds of cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the physical fitness of smokers and non smokers. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 64 non-sportsmen (34 non-smokers and 30 smokers) aging 19-27 years. Both groups were matched for age, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). The smokers used cigarettes at least 5 cigarettes a day for 2 years. None of them had a musculoskeletal disease. We used a questionnaire and physical fitness tests for data gathering. The tests were used to measure muscle strength, endurance, speed, agility and flexibility in both groups. Findings The muscle strength was significantly different in smokers and non-smokers (P = 0.012). Moreover, smokers had less agility (P = 0.004) and speed (P = 0.008) than non-smokers. However, although smokers were weaker than non- smokers, the differences in muscle endurance (P = 0.066) and flexibility (P = 0.095) were not the statistically significant. Conclusion According to these results, the smokers were less powerful than nonsmokers. In addition, physical activity skills in young smokers were decreased. Therefore, smoking will cause a gradual loss of physical strength and active personal and social power. PMID:24494112

  9. Subgingival microbiome in smokers and non-smokers in Korean chronic periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Moon, J-H; Lee, J-H; Lee, J-Y

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is a major environmental factor associated with periodontal diseases. However, we still have a very limited understanding of the relationship between smoking and subgingival microflora in the global population. Here, we investigated the composition of subgingival bacterial communities from the pooled plaque samples of smokers and non-smokers, 134 samples in each group, in Korean patients with moderate chronic periodontitis using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. A total of 17,927 reads were analyzed and classified into 12 phyla, 126 genera, and 394 species. Differences in bacterial communities between smokers and non-smokers were examined at all phylogenetic levels. The genera Fusobacterium, Fretibacterium, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Corynebacterium, TM7, and Filifactor were abundant in smokers. On the other hand, Prevotella, Campylobacter, Aggregatibacter, Veillonellaceae GQ422718, Haemophilus, and Prevotellaceae were less abundant in smokers. Among species-level taxa occupying > 1% of whole subgingival microbiome of smokers, higher abundance (? 2.0-fold compared to non-smokers) of seven species or operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was found: Fusobacterium nucleatum, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria oralis, Corynebacterium matruchotii, Veillonella dispar, Filifactor alocis, and Fretibacterium AY349371. On the other hand, lower abundance of 11 species or OTUs was found in smokers: Neisseria elongata, six Prevotella species or OTUs, Fusobacterium canifelinum, Aggregatibacter AM420165, Selenomonas OTU, and Veillonellaceae GU470897. Species richness and evenness were similar between the groups whereas diversity was greater in smokers than non-smokers. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that differences exist in the subgingival bacterial community between smoker and non-smoker patients with chronic moderate periodontitis in Korea, suggesting that cigarette smoking considerably affects subgingival bacterial ecology. PMID:25283067

  10. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Ways in which heat is useful in organic synthesis experiments are described, and experiments on the hydrothermal destruction and synthesis of organic compounds are discussed. It is pointed out that, if heat can overcome kinetic barriers to the formation of metastable states from reduced or oxidized starting materials, abiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions is a distinct possibility. However, carefully controlled experiments which replicate the descriptive variables of natural hydrothermal systems have not yet been conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis of hydrothermal organic systems.

  11. Barite chimneys from two hydrothermal sites along the slow-spreading Arctic Ridge system: Initial isotope and mineralogical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickmann, B.; van Zuilen, M. A.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    Two hydrothermal sites along the slow-spreading Arctic Ridge systems, the Jan Mayen vent fields (JMVFs) and the recently discovered Loki’s Castle hydrothermal field (LCHF) contains numerous barite chimneys partially covered by microbial mats. The JMVFs are located at 71°N on the south-western Mohns Ridge, approximately 50 km north of the Jan Mayen fracture zone. The LCHF is located at 73.5°N on an axial volcanic ridge where the Mohns Ridge transitions into the Knipovich Ridge and consists of two venting areas. Active hydrothermal venting at both sites is confirmed by elevated hydrogen sulphide concentrations and discharge of high-temperature fluids, reaching 270°C in the JMVFs and 317°C in the LCHF. Barite chimneys from the JMVFs are composed of barite, silica and abundant pyrite-dominated sulphide minerals that display a conspicuous concentric morphology. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the central regions of these concentric sulphide minerals points to the existence of mackinawite (FeS). Furthermore, the existence of greigite (Fe3S4) surrounding the mackinawite is suggested. This observation confirms the general conclusion of earlier experimental studies that these phases act as the metastable precursors of pyrite. In contrast, the barite chimneys of the LCHF consist mainly of pure barite with lesser amounts of sulphide minerals. The difference in the mineralogical composition between the two sites is also expressed in its sulphur isotopic composition. ?34Ssulphate values of the barite chimneys from the JMVFs are lower than ?34S of seawater sulphate (?34S = +21‰) and ?34Ssulphide values point to a magmatic sulphur source (?34S = 0‰). This implies that the JMHFs barite chimneys have been formed by a mixture of seawater and hydrothermal fluids, similar to the origin of black smokers. In contrast to the JMVFs, the ?34Ssulphate values from the LCHF barite chimneys are higher than ?34S values for seawater sulphate, but show remarkable differences between the surface of the chimneys and the interior. The highest ?34Ssulphate values have been found in the chimney interior, reaching ?34Ssulphate values up to +34.9‰. These high ?34Ssulphate values can be explained by various processes, including biogenic or thermogenic sulphate-reduction. The presence of twisted microstructures within the chimneys (reveiled by SEM) strongly suggests that biologic processes could have caused the observed sulphur isotope fractionation. Further mineralogical and isotope studies will provide more detailed insights on the formation of barite chimneys found in these hydrothermal sites along the slow-spreading Arctic ridge system.

  12. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers.

    PubMed

    Barros, Víviam Vargas; Kozasa, Elisa Harumi; Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Pereira, Laís Helena; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is defined as "paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally". Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181). The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR) and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB. PMID:26270556

  13. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Pereira, Laís Helena

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is defined as “paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally”. Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181). The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR) and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB. PMID:26270556

  14. Acoustic imaging, visualization, and quantification of buoyant hydrothermal plumes in the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, P. A.; Bemis, K. G.; Silver, D.; Jones, C. D.

    We develop and apply visualization and quantification methods to reconstruct hydrothermal plumes in 3D from acoustic images and to make the first direct measurements from the reconstructions of scalar properties that describe the behavior of two buoyant plumes discharging from adjacent black smoker chimneys. The actual behavior is then compared to that predicted by a classic simple buoyant plume model. The images are reconstructed as isointensity surfaces of backscatter from particulate matter suspended in the plumes. The measurements pertinent to the role of the plumes as agents of dispersal of heat and mass into the ocean include change with height of diameter, particle distribution, dilution, centerline attitude, surface protrusions, and connectivity. The protrusions are the surface expression of eddies and appear to follow a bifurcating helical flow pattern that resemble simulation of the naturally forced flow of coherent vortex rings as the eddies rise with the buoyant plume. These direct measurements and the derived entrainment coefficient are generally consistent with behavior predicted by the simple buoyant plume model and support engulfment by vortex shedding as a primary mechanism for entrainment of surrounding seawater. Deviations from predicted buoyant plume behavior are diagnostic of particle dynamics.

  15. Personal Fable: Optimistic Bias in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Masiero, Marianna; Lucchiari, Claudio; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several empirical studies have shown the attitude of smokers to formulate judgments based on distortion in the risk perception. This alteration is produced by the activation of the optimistic bias characterized by a set of the unrealistic beliefs compared to the outcomes of their behavior. This bias exposes individuals to adopt lifestyles potentially dangerous for their health, underestimate the risks and overestimate the immediate positive effects. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the relationship between optimistic bias and smoking habits. In particular, it was hypothesized that smokers develop optimistic illusions, able to facilitate the adoption and the maintenance over time of the unhealthy lifestyles, such as cigarette smoking, and the former smokers could acquire a belief system centered on own responsibility. Patients and Methods: The samples (n = 633, female = 345, male = 288) composed of smokers (35.7%), ex-smokers (32.2%) and nonsmokers (32.1%). Each participant filled out two questionnaires including The Fagerström test and the motivational questionnaire as well as a set of items measured on a Likert scales to evaluate health beliefs. Results: The results confirmed the presence of the optimistic bias in comparative judgments, and the attitude to overestimate the effectiveness of their preventive behaviors in the smokers. Conclusions: Cognitive bias in risk perception may influence health behaviors in negative way and reinforce cigarette smoking over the time. Future research should be conducted to identify the better strategies to overtake this cognitive bias to improve the quitting rate. PMID:25883917

  16. The Impact of Cigarette Excise Tax Increases on Purchasing Behaviors Among New York City Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Coady, Micaela H.; Chan, Christina A.; Mbamalu, Ijeoma G.; Kansagra, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between cigarette excise tax increases and tax-avoidant purchasing behaviors among New York City adult smokers. Methods. We analyzed data from the city’s annual Community Health Survey to assess changes in rates of tax avoidance over time (2003–2010) and smokers’ responses to the 2008 state cigarette tax increase. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified correlates of buying more cigarettes on the street in response to the increase. Results. After the 2002 tax increase, the percentage of smokers engaged in tax-avoidant behavior decreased with time from 30% in 2003 to 13% in 2007. Following the 2008 tax increase, 21% of smokers reported buying more cigarettes from another person on the street. Low-income, younger, Black, and Hispanic smokers were more likely than respondents with other sociodemographic characteristics to purchase more cigarettes on the street. Conclusions. To maximize public health impact, cigarette tax increases should be paired with efforts to limit the flow of untaxed cigarettes entering jurisdictions with high cigarette pack prices. PMID:23597382

  17. Identifying Subgroups among Hardcore Smokers: a Latent Profile Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Kleinjan, Marloes; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; Burk, William J.; van den Eijnden, Regina; van de Mheen, Dike

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hardcore smokers are smokers who have little to no intention to quit. Previous research suggests that there are distinct subgroups among hardcore smokers and that these subgroups vary in the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. Identifying these subgroups could help to develop individualized messages for the group of hardcore smokers. In this study we therefore used the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting to identify profiles among hardcore smokers. Methods A sample of 510 hardcore smokers completed an online survey on the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. We used these perceived pros and cons in a latent profile analysis to identify possible subgroups among hardcore smokers. To validate the profiles identified among hardcore smokers, we analysed data from a sample of 338 non-hardcore smokers in a similar way. Results We found three profiles among hardcore smokers. ‘Receptive’ hardcore smokers (36%) perceived many cons of smoking and many pros of quitting. ‘Ambivalent’ hardcore smokers (59%) were rather undecided towards quitting. ‘Resistant’ hardcore smokers (5%) saw few cons of smoking and few pros of quitting. Among non-hardcore smokers, we found similar groups of ‘receptive’ smokers (30%) and ‘ambivalent’ smokers (54%). However, a third group consisted of ‘disengaged’ smokers (16%), who saw few pros and cons of both smoking and quitting. Discussion Among hardcore smokers, we found three distinct profiles based on perceived pros and cons of smoking. This indicates that hardcore smokers are not a homogenous group. Each profile might require a different tobacco control approach. Our findings may help to develop individualized tobacco control messages for the particularly hard-to-reach group of hardcore smokers. PMID:26207829

  18. First hydrothermal active vent discovered on the Galapagos Microplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, C.; Li, H.; Wu, G.; Su, X.; Zhang, G.; Chinese DY115-21 Leg 3 Scientific Party

    2011-12-01

    The Galapagos Microplate (GM) lies on the western Gaplapagos Spreading Center (GSC), representing one of the classic Ridge-Ridge-Ridge (R-R-R) plate boundaries of the Nazca, Cocos, and Pacific plates. The presence of the 'black smoke' and hydrothermal vent community were firstly confirmed on the GSC. Lots of hydrothermal fields were discovered on the center and eastern GSC, while the western GSC has not been well investigated. During 17th Oct. to 9th Nov. 2009, the 3rd leg of Chinese DY115-21 cruise with R/V Dayangyihao has been launched along 2°N-5°S near equatorial East Pacific Rise (EPR). Two new hydrothermal fields were confirmed. One is named 'Precious Stone Mountain', which is the first hydrothermal field on the GM. The other is found at 101.47°W, 0.84°S EPR. The 'Precious Stone Mountain' hydrothermal field (at 101.49°W, 1.22°N) is located at an off-axial seamount on the southern GM boundary, with a depth from 1,450 to 1,700m. Hydrothermal fluids emitting from the fissures and hydrothermal fauna were captured by deep-tow video. Few mineral clasts of pyrite and chalcopyrite were separated from one sediment sample, but no sulfide chimney was found yet. Hydrothermal fauna such as alive mussels, crabs, shrimps, tubeworms, giant clams, as well as rock samples were collected by TV-Grab. The study of the seafloor classification with Simrad EM120 multi-beam echosounder has been conducted on the 'Precious Stone Mountain' hydrothermal field. The result indicates that seafloor materials around the hydrothermal field can be characterized into three types, such as the fresh lava, hydrothermal sediment, and altered rock.

  19. Increased risk of suicidal ideation in smokers and former smokers compared to never smokers: Evidence from the Baltimore ECA follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Diana E.; Eaton, William W.; Petronis, Kenneth R.; Ko, Jean Y.; Chatterjee, Anjan; Anthony, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The incidence rate of suicidal ideation amongst current and former smokers versus never smokers is not known. Main Findings The age-adjusted incidence of suicidal ideation was highest among current smokers, followed by former, and never smokers. The adjusted hazard for suicide ideation was 2.22 (95%CI=1.48, 3.33) and 1.19 (95%CI=0.78, 1.82) for current and former smokers respectively, compared to never smokers. Conclusion Current smokers have increased risks of suicidal ideation above and beyond the risk for never and former smokers regardless of age, gender, history of depressive disorder and/or anxiety symptoms, and alcohol abuse/dependence. Smoking cessation might be beneficial for some suicide prevention efforts. PMID:20822357

  20. Stressful Life Events and Psychosomatic Symptoms among Students Smokers and Non-smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodaj, Arta; Simic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the rate of stressful life events and psychosomatic symptoms among students smokers and non-smokers and examine the predictive contribution of stress and smoking to subjective health status. Methods were conducted on a convenience sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of…

  1. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyen, N. E.; Ganio, M. S.; Burchfield, J. M.; Tucker, M. A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dougherty, E. K.; Robinson, F. B.; Ridings, C. B.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for >4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature (T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p > 0.05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s-1) to 1.5 °C ?T C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s-1; p < 0.005), suggesting heat stress acutely increased central arterial stiffness. pPWV did not change with heating (grand mean: baseline = 691.9 ± 92.9 cm · s-1; 1.5 °C ?T C = 691.9 ± 79.5 cm · s-1; p > 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated (p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  2. Heart Rate Variability and Wavelet-based Studies on ECG Signals from Smokers and Non-smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, K.; Goel, R.; Champaty, B.; Samantray, S.; Tibarewala, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    The current study deals with the heart rate variability (HRV) and wavelet-based ECG signal analysis of smokers and non-smokers. The results of HRV indicated dominance towards the sympathetic nervous system activity in smokers. The heart rate was found to be higher in case of smokers as compared to non-smokers ( p < 0.05). The frequency domain analysis showed an increase in the LF and LF/HF components with a subsequent decrease in the HF component. The HRV features were analyzed for classification of the smokers from the non-smokers. The results indicated that when RMSSD, SD1 and RR-mean features were used concurrently a classification efficiency of > 90 % was achieved. The wavelet decomposition of the ECG signal was done using the Daubechies (db 6) wavelet family. No difference was observed between the smokers and non-smokers which apparently suggested that smoking does not affect the conduction pathway of heart.

  3. Borders of life: lessons from Microbiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieur, D.

    Thirty years ago, the deep-sea was known as a low density biotope due to coldness, darkness and famine-like conditions. The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Eastern Pacific in 1977 and the associated black smokers in 1979 considerably changed our views about life on Earth. For the first time, an ecosystem almost independent (at least for tens of years) of solar nergy was discovered. Besides the spectacular and unexpected communities of invertebrates based on symbiotic associations with chemo-litho-autotrophic bacteria, prokaryotic communities associated with high temperature black smokers fascinated microbiologists of extreme environments. Within mineral structures where temperature gradients may fluctuate from ambient seawater temperatures (2°C) up to 350°C, thermophilic (optimal growth above 60°C) and hyperthermophilic (optimal growth above 80°C) microorganisms thrived under very severe conditions due to elevated hydrostatic pressure, toxic compounds or strong ionizing radiations. These organisms belong to both domains of Bacteria and Archaea and live aerobically but mostly anaerobically, using a variety of inorganic and organic carbon sources, and a variety of electron donnors and acceptors as well. The most thermophilic organism known on Earth was isolated from a mid-Atlantic-Ridge hydrotermal vent: Pyrolobus fumarii grows optimally at 110°c and its upper temperature limit for life is 113°C. Such an organism survived to autoclaving conditions currently used for sterilization procedures. Many other hyperthermophilic organisms were isolated and described, including fermenters, sulphate and sulphur reducers, hydrogen oxidizers, nitrate reducers, methanogens, etc. Although most of anaerobes are killed when exposed to oxygen, several deep-sea hyperthermophiles appeared to survive to both oxygen and starvation exposures, indicating that they probably can colonize rather distant environments Because of elevated hydrostatic pressure that exists at deep-sea vents, hydrothermal fluids remain liquid at temperatures above 100°C (boiling water temperature under atmospheric pressure). If strictly barophilic thermophiles or hyperthermophiles have not been reported yet (the deepest vents known are 3500 m in depth), barophilic Bacteria and Archaea have been reported that grow much more faster when exposed to in situ (pressurized) conditions. Morover, they grow preferentially at pressures above those existing at captures depth, that may indicate that their natural habitat is situated below the sea floor. Recently, several studies reported that hyperthermophiles and particularly deep-sea organisms may resist to elevated doses of gamma ionizing radiations, as strong as 20 kGy, similarly to the famous radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. From these reports, it can be concluded that exploration of Earth is not already finished: novel biotopes, novel organisms with novel metabolic and physiologic properties are waiting for their discovery. Also, severe physio-chemical conditions allow for florishing living forms that use efficiently chemical energy sources. If these data do not allow to claim that life arose at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, they clearly extend physio-chemical and spatial borders of life and stimulate to further exploration of Earth and the solar system.

  4. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-05-31

    The term “hydrothermal” used here refers to the processing of biomass in water slurries at elevated temperature and pressure to facilitate the chemical conversion of the organic structures in biomass into useful fuels. The process is meant to provide a means for treating wet biomass materials without drying and to access ionic reaction conditions by maintaining a liquid water processing medium. Typical hydrothermal processing conditions are 523-647K of temperature and operating pressures from 4-22 MPa of pressure. The temperature is sufficient to initiate pyrolytic mechanisms in the biopolymers while the pressure is sufficient to maintain a liquid water processing phase. Hydrothermal gasification is accomplished at the upper end of the process temperature range. It can be considered an extension of the hydrothermal liquefaction mechanisms that begin at the lowest hydrothermal conditions with subsequent decomposition of biopolymer fragments formed in liquefaction to smaller molecules and eventually to gas. Typically, hydrothermal gasification requires an active catalyst to accomplish reasonable rates of gas formation from biomass.

  5. Perceptions of smokers influence nonsmoker attitudes and preferences for interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Amanda J.; Magnan, Renee E.; Köblitz, Amber R.; McCaul, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, we examined nonsmokers’ perceptions of smokers and consequences of the perceptions. In Study 1, smokers answered questions about their sense of self, dependence on smoking, and motivation to quit. Nonsmokers answered questions about their perceptions of these characteristics. Differences between smokers’ self-descriptions and nonsmokers’ perceptions were observed. Study 2 asked nonsmokers to judge two types of smokers for which the descriptions were based on Study 1 findings. Results showed that nonsmokers held a more negative attitude about and were less willing to engage in different close relationships with the smoker who was described in terms of nonsmokers’ perceptions rather than smokers’ reports. Attitude mediated the relationship between type of smoker and willingness to date a smoker. PMID:23734065

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis map of bismuth titanates

    SciTech Connect

    Sardar, Kripasindhu; Walton, Richard I.

    2012-05-15

    The hydrothermal synthesis of four bismuth titanate materials from common bismuth and titanium precursors under hydrothermal conditions is described. Reaction of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and anatase TiO{sub 2} in concentrated NaOH solution at 240 Degree-Sign C is shown to produce perovskite and sillenite phases Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20}, depending on the ratio of metal precursors used. When KOH solution is used and a 1:1 ratio of the same precursors, a pyrochlore Bi{sub 1.43}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 0.29}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.66} is formed. The use of a mixture of HNO{sub 3} and NaOH is shown to facilitate the formation of the Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}. The phases have been isolated separately as phase-pure powders and profile refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data allows comparisons with comparable materials reported in the literature. Analysis of Bi L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the materials shows the oxidation state of bismuth is +3 in all of the hydrothermally derived products. - Graphical abstract: Use of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} as reagents under hydrothermal conditions allows the phase-pure preparation of four crystalline bismuth titanate materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NaBiO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} under hydrothermal conditions allow formation of bismuth titanates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of four distint phases has been mapped. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi LIII-edge XANES shows Bi is reduced to oxidation state +3 in all materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new hydrated bismuth titanate pyrochlore has been isolated.

  7. Use of the current population survey to characterize subpopulations of continued smokers: a national perspective on the "hardcore" smoker phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Augustson, Erik; Marcus, Stephen

    2004-08-01

    The existence of "hardcore" smokers, those most likely to have substantial difficulty quitting, may have far reaching impact on how to best allocate cessation resources. It has been suggested that hardcore smokers make up only a small fraction of current smokers and therefore do not represent a significant public health problem. However, little is known about the prevalence and nature of this subgroup of smokers in the United States. Based on a national sample, the 1998-1999 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, we categorized, based on smoking pattern, groups of current smokers who were over age 25 years (N=33,568). We compared hardcore smokers with other groups of current smokers on demographic, environmental, and smoking variables to assess whether hardcore smokers represent a unique group. Hardcore smokers were defined as established daily smokers, consuming 15 or more cigarettes per day with no reported history of quit attempts. Hardcore smokers represent 13.7% of all current smokers and 17.6% of all established smokers. They are more likely to be male, unmarried, not in the work force, and have lower education. They also are more likely to have started smoking at a younger age, smoke more, and are less likely to report contact with smoking restrictions. This analysis suggests that hardcore smokers are distinct from other groups of smokers. These results also indicate that hardcore smokers account for a substantial proportion of smokers and as such may represent a significant public health challenge that needs to be addressed. PMID:15370158

  8. Differences in Risk Perception, and Quit Rates Among Hospitalized Veteran Pipe Smokers, Cigarette Smokers and Dual Users

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Devon; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined differences in perception of risk, hospitalization quit rates and 6 month quit rates between pipe smokers, cigarettes smokers, and those who smoke both in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Methods Prior to implementing the Tobacco Tactics intervention, baseline smoking quit rates were determined in three Midwestern hospitals (N=811) during 2006 – 2010. Smokers completed baseline measures and were sent a follow-up survey at six-months to assess spontaneous quit rates. Results Pipe smokers were less likely to believe that they needed to quit tobacco, that quitting would be difficult, and that quitting tobacco was important to their health. Eighty five percent of pipe smokers remained tobacco free throughout their hospital stay compared to 59% of dual smokers and 60% of cigarette smokers (p<0.10). Twenty-three percent of pipe smokers remained tobacco free at six months compared to 19% of dual users and 7% of cigarette smokers (p<0.10). Conclusion Even though pipe smokers had higher spontaneous quit rates than dual smokers and cigarette smokers, the perception of the risk of smoking was less among pipe smokers suggesting a need to expel the myths surrounding pipe smoking and increase cessation efforts. PMID:24905759

  9. Teens' images of smoking and smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Luke, D.; Allen, P.; Arian, G.; Crawford, M.; Headen, S.; Spigner, A. C.; Tassler, P.; Ureda, J.

    2001-01-01

    The authors used qualitative and quantitative data to identify and interpret specific images teens have about smoking and smokers. Qualitative data were collected in 1996 from 793 teenagers participating in 125 focus groups at eight different sites across the United States. Most focus groups were homogeneous with respect to gender, ethnicity, and smoking status. Ages ranged from 12 to 18 years, and about half of the participants were female. The majority of participants (62%) were white and African American, the remainder (38%) were Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian/Pacific Islander. Groups were comprised of smoking and nonsmoking teens. Focus group activities were used to elicit image-related discussions about attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of smoking. Investigators identified seven consistent and distinctive image themes: Appearance (smoking is dirty and unattractive), Activity (nonsmokers have busy, active lives), Drugs and sex (smokers are substance abusers and are sexually active), Rebellion (smokers belong to rebellious groups), Affect (smokers are depressed, angry, and stressed-out), In control (nonsmokers have self-control and are independent), and Pride (nonsmokers are proud of themselves, their families, and their heritage). A large scale, multi-site qualitative research approach can increase understanding of teen smoking. The identification of distinctive images of smoking can help researchers develop more sophisticated models of the processes of teen smoking than currently exist. PMID:11889285

  10. Cue reactivity to appetitive and aversive cues among female smokers and non-smokers 

    E-print Network

    Susabda, Agnes

    2011-02-22

    to non-deprived smokers. Furthermore, a closer look at skin conductance responses to aversive cues suggest that smoking status (deprived and non-deprived groups) significantly inhibited one?s ability to habituate to negative affect stimuli. When responses...

  11. A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

  12. Adolescents Discriminate between Types of Smokers and Related Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Mark L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Millstein, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Many studies concerning cigarette smoking and smoking-related outcomes among adolescents use categories such as "casual" or "regular" smoker to define different types of smokers. It is not clear whether adolescents themselves differentiate between different types of smokers. The present study sought to examine whether and how adolescents…

  13. Characteristics and Smoking Patterns of Intermittent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Saul; Tindle, Hilary; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah; Dunbar, Michael; Mitchell-Miland, Chantele

    2013-01-01

    Current models of smoking and dependence assume a need to smoke at regular intervals to maintain nicotine levels, yet about 25% of adult smokers do not smoke daily. This subset of intermittent smokers (ITS) has gone largely unexamined. In this study, we describe the demographics, smoking history, and smoking behavior of ITS (n=282; 50.2% male) in comparison to daily smokers (DS; n=233; 60.7% male). Within ITS, we also compare “converted” ITS (CITS), who had previously smoked daily, with “native” ITS (NITS). On average, ITS were 34.66 years of age, and had smoked 42,850 cigarettes in the course of an average of 18 years of smoking. They smoked an average of 4.38 days per week, consuming 4.39 cigarettes a day on smoking days, and demonstrated considerable day-to-day variability in cigarette consumption. Almost half of ITS had Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence scores of 0, indicating no dependence. Compared to DS, ITS were more likely to cite alcohol drinking, socializing and being with other smokers as common contexts for smoking, and they also more often cited being angry or stressed. Data suggested that ITS’ behavior was not explained by use of other nicotine products or by economic constraints on smoking, nor by differences in psychological adjustment. Within ITS, CITS were heavier, more frequent, and more dependent smokers. In many respects, CITS were intermediate between NITS and DS. ITS show distinct patterns of smoking behavior that are not well explained by current models of nicotine dependence. PMID:22390208

  14. Study of lung functions in smokers and non-smokers in rural India.

    PubMed

    Bano, Rubeena; Ahmad, Nadeem; Mahagaonkar, A M; Latti, R G

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a common habit prevalent in both the urban and rural areas in India. Smoking is a well-known risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a group of lung diseases that includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Pulmonary-function tests provide objective, quantifiable measures of lung function. The objective of the present study was to study and compare the pulmonary function tests among smokers and non-smokers in a rural area, to study the role of possible associated factors and relation of type, quantity and duration of smoking on the pulmonary function tests in Rural Maharashtra. The pulmonary function tests were assessed on computerized spirometer in 400 male subjects comprising of 200 smokers and 200 non smokers. Almost all the pulmonary function parameters were significantly reduced in smokers, more commonly in those aged 50 years and above. Obstructive pulmonary impairment was commonest among smokers. Thus by spirometry a spectrum of lung disorders may be detected at an early stage and subsequent morbidity can be minimized. PMID:22315815

  15. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  16. Zinc, copper, and lead in mid-ocean ridge basalts and the source rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doe, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    The contents of Zn, Cu, and Pb in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and the MORB source-rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits are examined. The values of Zn, Cu, and Pb for submarine mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are, respectively (in ppm): average MORB-75, 75, and 0.7; West Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR)-87, 64, and 0.5; southern JFR-120 and 0.5; and 21??N, East Pacific Rise (EPR)-73, 78, and 0.5. Values of Zn/Pb range from about 100-240 and Cu/ Pb from 100-156. In this study, Zn is found to correlate positively with TiO2 + FeO (mean square of weighted deviates, MSWD, of 1.6 for JFR basalt), and inversely with Mg number (MSWD of 3.5). Therefore, contrary to statements in the literature that Zn should be compatible in MORB, Zn is a mildly incompatible element and must be enriched in the glass phase relative to olivine as Zn does not fit into the other major phenocryst phase, plagioclase. In the source of MORB, Zn likely is most enriched in oxides: spinel, magnetite, and titanomagnetite. Copper generally does not correlate well with other elements in most MORB data examined. When differentiation is dominated by olivine, Cu has a tendency to behave incompatibly (e.g., at Mg numbers > 70), but, overall, Cu shows some tendency towards being a compatible element, particularly along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a behavior presumably due to separation of sulfides in which Cu (but not Zn) is markedly enriched. Copper thus may be in dispersed sulfides in the source of MORB. Ocean ridges provide important data on source-rock controls for sulfide deposits because, in sediment-starved ridges, much is known about the possible source rocks and mineralization is presently occurring. In contrast to Zn/Pb ~5 in continental hot Cl-rich brines, Zn/Pb in the hottest sediment-starved ridge black smoker hydrothermal fluids at 21 ??N, EPR is about 110, similar to local MORB (145), but Cu/Pb is closer to 30, possibly due to subsurface deposition of Cu. At the JFR, the best value of Zn/Pb in the hydrothermal fluids is about 175, again similar to local MORB (240), but Cu is very low in the fluids that are at temperatures less than 300??C. The large MORB-like Zn/Pb in the hottest black-smoker fluids suggests a source-rock control for the metals that prohibits significant galena in the black-smoker deposits of sediment-starved ridges. In contrast, exhalative deposits on sediment-swamped ridges have significant galena; its presence is suggestive of Pb derivation from sediments, an origin supported by Pb isotope studies of LeHuray and colleagues in 1988. ?? 1994.

  17. Probing the characteristics of metal- and sulfide-binding proteins in hydrothermal vent polychaetes using HPLC/IES-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Martineu, P.; Juniper, S.K.; Ikonomou, M.G.; Thompson, J.

    1995-12-31

    Alvinellids polychaetes colonizing the surfaces of black smokers from Eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents occupy extreme environments with high levels of heavy metals and sulfide. Investigations of mechanisms that enable them to tolerate these extreme conditions indicate sulfide-binding capacity in the blood serum of Paralvinella palmiformis and accumulation of heavy metals in their tissues. A need to characterize metal-binding proteins lead the authors to improve purification and separation of metallothioneins (MTs) by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on-line with electrospray mass spectrometry (ES/MS). A first separation step of small proteins from crude homogenates of worm tissues is performed on a size exclusion column following by accurate molecular weight identification with on-line LC-MS. This powerful technique has refined separation of isoform MT standards and weight characterization, and has provided an analytical tool to analyze metal-binding proteins from vent polychaetes. The authors are also applying this technique to separation of sulfide-binding proteins in blood serum and to identify ligands involved in sulfide detoxication and transport.

  18. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  19. 32P-POSTLABELING ANALYSIS OF DNA ADDUCTS IN HUMAN SPERM CELLS FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the feasibility of using human sperm cells for DNA 32postlabeling analyses, and to evaluate the baseline level and the possible presence of smoking-related DNA adducts in these cells, sperm DNA was isolated from 12 heavy smokers, 12 light smokers and 12 non-smokers. ...

  20. COMBUSTION OF HYDROTHERMALLY TREATED COALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of: (1) the relationship of the combustion characteristics of hydrothermally treated (HTT) coals to environmental emissions, boiler design, and interchangeability of solid fuels produced by the Hydrothermal Coal Process (HCP) with raw coa...

  1. On the global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields: One decade later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Baker, E. T.; German, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Since the last global compilation one decade ago, the known number of active submarine hydrothermal vent fields has almost doubled. At the end of 2009, a total of 518 active vent fields was catalogued, with about half (245) visually confirmed and others (273) inferred active at the seafloor. About half (52%) of these vent fields are at mid-ocean ridges (MORs), 25% at volcanic arcs, 21% at back-arc spreading centers (BASCs), and 2% at intra-plate volcanoes and other settings. One third are in high seas, and the nations with the most known active vent fields within EEZs are Tonga, USA, Japan, and New Zealand. The increase in known vent fields reflects a number of factors, including increased national and commercial interests in seafloor hydrothermal deposits as mineral resources. Here, we have comprehensively documented the percentage of strike length at MORs and BASCs that has been systematically explored for hydrothermal activity. As of the end of 2009, almost 30% of the ~60,000 km of MORs had been surveyed at least with spaced vertical profiles to detect hydrothermal plumes. A majority of the vents discovered at MORs in the past decade occurred at segments with < 60 mm/yr full spreading rate. Discoveries at ultra-slow MORs in the past decade included the deepest known vent (Beebe at Mid-Cayman Rise) and high-temperature black smoker vents (e.g., Dragon at SWIR and Loki's Castle at Mohns Ridge), and the highest temperature vent was measured at the slow-spreading S MAR (Turtle Pits). Using a previously published equation for the linear relationship between the number of active vent fields per 100 km strike length (F_s) vs. weighted-average full spreading rate (u_s), we predicted 676 vent fields remaining to be discovered at MORs. Even accounting for the lower F_s at slower spreading rates, almost half of the vents that are predicted remaining to be discovered at MORs are at ultra-slow to slow spreading rates (< 40 mm/yr) and about 1/3 at intermediate rates (40-80 mm/yr). MOR regions that are little explored tend to be at high latitudes, such as the ultra-slow to slow spreading Arctic MORs (e.g., Kolbeinsey and Mohns Ridges), the ultra-slow American-Antarctic Ridge, and the intermediate spreading Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Although a greater percentage of the ~11,000 km of BASCs has been surveyed for hydrothermal activity, the discoveries at BASCs in the past decade were mainly at segments with intermediate to fast spreading rates. Using the same equation for F_s vs. u_s, we predicted 71 vent fields remaining to be discovered at BASCs, and most are likely to be found at ultra-slow and slow spreading segments (e.g., Andaman Basin, and central to northern Mariana Trough). With 2/3 of our overall predicted total vent fields at spreading ridges remaining to be discovered, we expect that the next decade of exploration will continue to yield new discoveries, leading to new insights into biogeography of vent fauna and the global impacts of fluxes of heat and materials from vents into our oceans.

  2. Efficacy of low and high dose inhaled corticosteroid in smokers versus non-smokers with mild asthma

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, J; McMahon, A; Chaudhuri, R; Thompson, J; Wood, S; Thomson, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smokers with asthma are insensitive to short term inhaled corticosteroid therapy, but efficacy when given for a longer duration at different doses is unknown. Methods: Ninety five individuals with mild asthma were recruited to a multicentre, randomised, double blind, parallel group study comparing inhaled beclomethasone in doses of 400 µg or 2000 µg daily for 12 weeks in smokers and non-smokers. The primary end point was the change in morning peak expiratory flow (PEF). Secondary end points included evening PEF, use of reliever inhaler, number of asthma exacerbations, spirometric parameters, and asthma control score. Results: After 12 weeks of inhaled beclomethasone there was a considerable difference between the morning PEF measurements of smokers and non-smokers with asthma (–18 (95% CI –35 to –1), adjusted p = 0.035). Among those receiving 400 µg daily there was a difference between the mean (95% CI) morning PEF (l/min) in smokers and non-smokers (–25 (95% CI –45 to –4), adjusted p = 0.019) and in the number of asthma exacerbations (6 v 1 in smokers and non-smokers, respectively, p = 0.007). These differences were reduced between smokers and non-smokers receiving 2000 µg inhaled beclomethasone daily. Conclusions: Compared with non-smokers, smokers with mild persistent asthma are insensitive to the therapeutic effect of low dose inhaled corticosteroid treatment administered for a 12 week period. The disparity of the response between smokers and non-smokers appears to be reduced with high dose inhaled corticosteroid. These findings have important implications for the management of individuals with mild asthma who smoke. PMID:15790982

  3. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Hayati, Zahra; Rezaei, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions such as leukoplakia and hairy tongue. Controversy exists in the literature, however, about the prevalence of oral lesions in smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral lesions in male smokers compared with nonsmokers in Hamadan. A total of 516 male participants were assessed, 258 of whom were smokers and 258 of whom were healthy nonsmokers. The prevalence of lesions was evaluated by clinical observation and biopsy. We found that the most prevalent lesions among smokers were gingival problems and coated tongue; smokers had significantly more lesions than did nonsmokers. Malignant and premalignant lesions were found in a higher age range. Among all participants in our study, we found a large number of oral mucosal lesions in smokers that had a strong correlation with smoking. Dental services need to implement care and health education for smokers to promote health. PMID:24010068

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of lutetium disilicate nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Xiaoping; Gao Yanfeng; Chen Hongfei; Luo Hongjie

    2012-04-15

    A simple, low-cost hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize irregular-and rod-shaped lutetium disilicate (Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}) powders with sizes ranging from 71 to 340 nm. The synthesis temperature was 260 Degree-Sign C, which is nearly 1300 Degree-Sign C lower than that required for the solid-state reaction. The results indicated that both the hydrothermal temperature and pH values had great influences on the composition, crystalline phase and morphology of the powders. The formation mechanism, basic thermophysical properties, stability and anticorrosion properties of the Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders were also investigated. The obtained powders possessed low thermal conductivity, a suitable thermal expansion coefficient (3.92-5.17 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} K{sup -1}) with the silicon-based substrate and excellent thermal and structural stability. During hot corrosion testing, the surfaces of the samples appeared to react with the water and molten salt vapors, but no serious failure occurred. - Graphical abstract: An image for the as-prepared Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders (left) and XRD pattern (right) (inset shows the SEM graph of powders). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders via a hydrothermal process at 260 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline phase and morphology of the powders changed with experimental parameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hot corrosion was determined in an airflow environment containing alkaline vapor.

  5. Cotinine and Tobacco-Specific Carcinogen Exposure Among Nondaily Smokers in a Multiethnic Sample

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nondaily smoking has increased among current U.S. smokers during the past decade and is practiced by a significant percentage of smokers. Although research in nondaily smoking has grown, little is known about levels of exposure to tobacco toxicants among nondaily smokers and their variation across ethnic groups. Methods: We examined urinary levels of cotinine and a tobacco-specific nitrosamine (NNAL) in community participants. Associations between the biomarker data and smoking characteristics were evaluated with Spearman’s correlation analysis. Results: Participants included 28 Blacks, 4 Latinos, and 25 Whites who smoked at least 1 cigarette on 4–24 days in the past 30 days. Participants averaged 3.3 (SD = 2.1) cigarettes per day (cpd) on days smoked, they smoked an average of 13.0 (SD = 5.4) days in the past month, and they smoked nondaily for 10.5 (SD = 10.5) years. Median levels of creatinine-normalized cotinine and NNAL were 490.9ng/mg and 140.7 pg/mg, respectively. NNAL and cotinine were highly correlated (r = .84); NNAL and cotinine were modestly correlated with cpd (r = .39 and r = .34; all p values <.05). The number of days smoked per month was not associated with any biomarker levels. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that nondaily smokers are, on average, exposed to significant levels of nicotine and carcinogenic nitrosamines, with exposures of 40%–50% of those seen in daily smokers. This level of exposure suggests a significant health risk. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure is most closely related to number of cigarettes smoked per day but not to number of days per month of smoking. PMID:24297808

  6. Hydrothermal Reactivity of Amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, K.; Shock, E.; Hartnett, H. E.; Williams, L. B.; Gould, I.

    2013-12-01

    The reactivity of aqueous amines depends on temperature, pH, and redox state [1], all of which are highly variable in hydrothermal systems. Temperature and pH affect the ratio of protonated to unprotonated amines (R-NH2 + H+ = R-NH3+), which act as nucleophiles and electrophiles, respectively. We hypothesize that this dual nature can explain the pH dependence of reaction rates, and predict that rates will approach a maximum at pH = pKa where the ratio of protonated and unprotonated amines approaches one and the two compounds are poised to react with one another. Higher temperatures in hydrothermal systems allow for more rapid reaction rates, readily reversible reactions, and unique carbon-nitrogen chemistry in which water acts as a reagent in addition to being the solvent. In this study, aqueous benzylamine was used as a model compound to explore the reaction mechanisms, kinetics, and equilibria of amines under hydrothermal conditions. Experiments were carried out in anoxic silica glass tubes at 250°C (Psat) using phosphate-buffered solutions to observe changes in reaction rates and product distributions as a function of pH. The rate of decomposition of benzylamine was much faster at pH 4 than at pH 9, consistent with the prediction that benzylamine acts as both nucleophile and an electrophile, and our estimate that the pKa of benzylamine is ~5 at 250°C and Psat. Accordingly, dibenzylamine is the primary product of the reaction of two benzylamine molecules, and this reaction is readily reversible under hydrothermal conditions. Extremely acidic or basic pH can be used to suppress dibenzylamine production, which also suppresses the formation of all other major products, including toluene, benzyl alcohol, dibenzylimine, and tribenzylamine. This suggests that dibenzylamine is the lone primary product that then itself reacts as a precursor to produce the above compounds. Analog experiments performed with ring-substituted benzylamine derivatives and chiral methylbenzylamine suggest an SN2 mechanism for the formation of dibenzylamine. These results show the interdependence of pH and speciation with amine reaction rates. We predict the distribution of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary amines in hydrothermal solutions can be used to solve for the pH of subsurface reaction zones in hydrothermal systems. [1] McCollom, T.M. (2013) The influence of minerals on decomposition of the n-alkyl-?-amino acid norvaline under hydrothermal conditions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 104, 330-357.

  7. Geomicrobiological exploration and characterization of a novel deep-sea hydrothermal system at the TOTO caldera in the Mariana Volcanic Arc.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Takai, Ken; Suzuki, Yohey; Hirayama, Hisako; Konno, Uta; Tsunogai, Urumu; Horikoshi, Koki

    2006-01-01

    Novel hydrothermal activities accompanying effluent white smokers and elemental sulfur chimney structures at the north-east lava dome of the TOTO caldera depression in the Mariana Volcanic Arc have been explored and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. White smoker hydrothermal fluids were observed in the potential hydrothermal activity centre of the field and represented the maximal temperature of 170 degrees C and the lowest pH of 1.6. The chimney structures, all consisting of elemental sulfur (sulfur chimney), were also unique to the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field. Microbial community structures in a sulfur chimney and its formation hydrothermal fluid with a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (15 mM) have been investigated by culture-dependent and -independent analyses. 16S rRNA gene clone analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that epsilon-Proteobacteria dominated the microbial communities in the sulfur chimney structure and formed a dense microbial mat covering the sulfur chimney surface. Archaeal phylotypes were consistently minor components in the communities and related to the genera Thermococcus, Pyrodictium, Aeropyrum, and the uncultivated archaeal group of 'deep-sea hydrothermal vent euryarchaeotal group'. Cultivation analysis suggested that the chemolithoautotrophs might play a significant ecological role as primary producers utilizing gas and sulfur compounds provided from hydrothermal fluids. PMID:16343320

  8. Could a scheme for licensing smokers work in Australia?

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Roger S; Currow, David C

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we evaluate the possible advantages and disadvantages of a licensing scheme that would require adult smokers to verify their right to purchase tobacco products at point of sale using a smart-card licence. A survey of Australian secondary school students conducted in 2011 found that half of 17-2013-old smokers and one-fifth of 12-2013-old smokers believed it was "easy" or "very easy" to purchase cigarettes themselves. Reducing tobacco use by adolescents now is central to the future course of the current epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, since most current adult smokers began to smoke as adolescents--at a time when they were unable to purchase tobacco lawfully. The requirement for cigarette retailers to reconcile all stock purchased from wholesalers against a digital record of retail sales to licensed smokers would create a robust incentive for retailers to comply with laws that prohibit tobacco sales to children. Foreseeable objections to introducing a smokers licence need to be taken into account, but once we move beyond the "shock of the new", it is difficult to identify anything about a smokers licence that is particularly offensive or demeaning. A smoker licensing scheme deserves serious consideration for its potential to dramatically curtail retailers' violation of the law against selling tobacco to minors, to impose stricter accountability for sale of a uniquely harmful drug and to allow intelligent use of information about smokers' purchases to help smokers quit. PMID:23909540

  9. Lung dosimetry for inhaled radon progeny in smokers.

    PubMed

    Baias, Paul F; Hofmann, Werner; Winkler-Heil, Renate; Cosma, Constantin; Duliu, Octavian G

    2010-02-01

    Cigarette smoking may change the morphological and physiological parameters of the lung. Thus the primary objective of the present study was to investigate to what extent these smoke-induced changes can modify deposition, clearance and resulting doses of inhaled radon progeny relative to healthy non-smokers (NSs). Doses to sensitive bronchial target cells were computed for four categories of smokers: (1) Light, short-term (LST) smokers, (2) light, long-term (LLT) smokers, (3) heavy, short-term (HST) smokers and (4) heavy, long-term (HLT) smokers. Because of only small changes of morphological and physiological parameters, doses for the LST smokers hardly differed from those for NSs. For LLT and HST smokers, even a protective effect could be observed, caused by a thicker mucus layer and increased mucus velocities. Only in the case of HLT smokers were doses higher by about a factor of 2 than those for NSs, caused primarily by impaired mucociliary clearance, higher breathing frequency, reduced lung volume and airway obstructions. These higher doses suggest that the contribution of inhaled radon progeny to the risk of lung cancer in smokers may be higher than currently assumed on the basis of NS doses. PMID:19767603

  10. Tide-related variability of TAG hydrothermal activity observed by deep-sea monitoring system and OBSH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Kantaro; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kato, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Misumi; Mitsuzawa, Kyohiko; Kinoshita, Masataka; Nishizawa, Azusa

    1997-12-01

    Hydrothermal activities were monitored by an ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone (OBSH) and a composite measuring system (Manatee) including CTD, current meter, transmission meter and cameras at a small depression on the TAG hydrothermal mound in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Low-frequency pressure pulses detected by the hydrophone with semi-diurnal periodicity seem to correspond to cycles of hydrothermal upflow from a small and short-lived smoker vent close to the observing site. The peaks of pressure pulses are synchronous with the maximum gradient of areal strain decrease due to tidal load release. Microearthquakes with very near epicenters occur sporadically and do not appear to be directly correlatable to hydrothermal venting. Temporal variations in bottom water temperature also have semi-diurnal periodicity but are more complicated than the pressure events. Temperatures may be affected both by upwelling of hot water and by lateral flow of the bottom current changing its directions with ocean tide.

  11. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in asymptomatic smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sansores, Raúl H; Velázquez-Uncal, Mónica; Pérez-Bautista, Oliver; Villalba-Caloca, Jaime; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Physicians do not routinely recommend smokers to undergo spirometry unless they are symptomatic. Objective To test the hypothesis that there are a significant number of asymptomatic smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we estimated the prevalence of COPD in a group of asymptomatic smokers. Methods Two thousand nine hundred and sixty-one smokers with a cumulative consumption history of at least 10 pack-years, either smokers with symptoms or smokers without symptoms (WOS) were invited to perform a spirometry and complete a symptom questionnaire. Results Six hundred and thirty-seven (21.5%) smokers had no symptoms, whereas 2,324 (78.5%) had at least one symptom. The prevalence of COPD in subjects WOS was 1.5% when considering the whole group of smokers (45/2,961) and 7% when considering only the group WOS (45/637). From 329 smokers with COPD, 13.7% were WOS. Subjects WOS were younger, had better lung function and lower cumulative consumption of cigarettes, estimated as both cigarettes per day and pack-years. According to severity of airflow limitation, 69% vs 87% of subjects were classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I–II in the WOS and smokers with symptoms groups, respectively (P<0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that forced expiratory volume in 1 second (mL) was the only predictive factor for COPD in asymptomatic smokers. Conclusion Prevalence of COPD in asymptomatic smokers is 1.5%. This number of asymptomatic smokers may be excluded from the benefit of an “early” intervention, not just pharmacological but also from smoking cessation counseling. The higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second may contribute to prevent early diagnosis. PMID:26586941

  12. Does Moralization Motivate Smokers to Quit? A Longitudinal Study of Representative Samples of Smokers in the United States and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Moralization refers to the gradual cultural and personal process by which objects or activities move from being morally neutral to morally contemptuous. Research suggests important cross-cultural differences in how smokers react to being targets of moralization. However, research has not examined whether smokers who agree with moralized sentiments about smoking are more willing to quit or reduce their smoking. Additionally, the mediating role of perceived personal risk has not been examined. Methods: In this study, representative samples of smokers in Denmark (a smoking lenient country; N = 429) and the United States (a smoking prohibitive country; N = 431) completed surveys 6 months apart. Results: As expected, Danish smokers (compared to U.S. smokers) moralized less and estimated that their personal risk of lung cancer was smaller. Furthermore, moralization at T1 predicted an increase in perceived personal risk at T2 (for Danish smokers and marginally for U.S. smokers), a decrease in smoking behaviors (for Danish smokers only), and an increase in quitting intentions (marginally for Danish smokers only). For Danish smokers, perceived personal risk mediated the relationship between moralization and quitting intentions. Conclusions: Moralization predicted an increase in perceived personal risk, an increase in quitting intentions, and a reduction in smoking behaviors, especially for the Danish sample. Future research should examine the effects of moralization in different cultural contexts. PMID:24907242

  13. Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Allison

    This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

  14. Magnetic and Electron Microscopic Investigation on Rock Samples from the PACMANUS Hydrothermal Vent Field in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Doh, S.; Kim, Y.

    2004-12-01

    The PACMANUS hydrothermal vent field in the Eastern Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, is considered as a modern-day analog of massive volcanogenic sulfide deposits within felsic volcanic sequence. This active vent field was drilling in November-December 2003 by Ocean Drilling Program Leg 193. The recovery was generally low with less than 15% due to fragility of rocks. Paleomagnetic measurements and scanning electron microscope observations were performed on samples from three major sites (Sites 1188, 1189 and 1191). Site 1188, a low-temperature diffused venting region, was drilled to 370 mbsf. Site 1189, a black smoker region, was drilled to a depth of 200 mbsf using RCB. The recovered rock samples have inclination close to the present-day Earth field (-7° ), but those near the seafloor have much steeper inclination of up to -25° . The upper 35 m of the sites consists of fresh to moderately altered dacite-rhyodacite, which exhibits moderately high natural remanent magnetization (< 6 A/m). The region below this extrusive layer largely comprises of pervasively altered rocks with little evidence of sulfide deposit and as a whole exhibits a low magnetization intensity. However, two intervals with extremely high remanent magnetization were discovered below the upper extrusive layer at Site 1188 (135-211 mbsf and 280-370 mbsf) and one interval at Site 1189 (137-190 mbsf). In particular, the samples between 135-211-mbsf interval at Site 1188 have extremely high remanence with intensities ranging up to 300-500 A/m. Although pockets of magnetite are not uncommon in the ancient hydrothermal ore bodies, they have seldom been documented in modern-day system, and little is known about the physical and chemical condition that allows the magnetite to form in hydrothermal vent systems. Two possibilities of magnetite formation are explored: one that these magnetites precipitated from magnetite-rich fluid as it cooled from above the Curie temperature (TRM) and the other that magnetization was acquired by the growth of magnetite grains below the Curie temperature (CRM).

  15. Temperature, pressure, and composition of hydrothermal fluids, with their bearing on the magnitude of tectonic uplift at mid-ocean ridges, inferred from fluid inclusions in oceanic layer 3 rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanko, David A.

    1988-05-01

    Quartz-bearing veins in metagabbroic rocks dredged from the Mathematician Ridge, east Pacific, contain abundant fluid inclusions. Heating and freezing data on nearly 400 inclusions from seven samples allow determination of the temperatures, pressures, and fluid compositions in the subseafloor hydrothermal system at the time of quartz growth. Coexisting dense halite-saturated inclusions and low-density, low-salinity vapor-rich inclusions (average 45 and 2 wt % NaCl equivalent, respectively) attest to an episode of phase separation in some samples. The phase separation occurred at temperatures of about 600°-700°C and pressures of 60-100 MPa (600-1000 bars). The fact that samples that formed at 60-100 MPa are now exposed on the seafloor, where ambient hydrostatic pressure is only 30-35 MPa, suggests that the samples have been tectonically uplifted of the order of 3 km. The fluids could originally have been part of a deep axial hydrothermal circulation cell, or alternatively, they could have been formed in a deep convection cell underlying the off-axis edges of a magma chamber. Fluids are NaCl-CaCl2 brines with molar Na: Ca of 4-8. This range of molar Na: Ca is very close to that of the inferred hydrothermal end-member from various active black smokers, to the measured ratios from basalt-seawater interaction experiments, and to the ratio calculated during numerical basalt-seawater interaction calculations. Crushing experiments indicate little or no compressible gas within the fluids. Fluid inclusions in albite suggest trapping temperatures of around 410°-500°C. Those in epidote may have been trapped at around 500°C and 110 MPa (1.1 kbar) pressure, or around 3 km beneath the Mathematician Ridge seafloor.

  16. Cigarette Litter: Smokers’ Attitudes and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Jessica M.; Rubenstein, Rebecca A.; Curry, Laurel E.; Shank, Sarah E.; Cartwright, Julia C.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly. PMID:22829798

  17. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly. PMID:22829798

  18. Insights into Magmatic-Hydrothermal Processes in the Newly-Discovered Seafloor Massive Sulfide Deposits of the New Hebrides Arc-Backarc System, SW Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. O.; Hannington, M. D.; Haase, K. M.; Schwarz-Schampera, U.; McConachy, T.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic processes leading to hydrothermal venting and the controls on the distribution of vents at two locations along the New Hebrides arc-backarc system are being revealed by new bathymetric data and geological maps interpreted from remotely operated vehicle dive videos. The Nifonea volcanic complex spans the width of the Vate Trough, a nascent backarc basin located ~50 km to the east of the New Hebrides arc. Hydrothermal activity occurs in the caldera at the summit of Nifonea at a water depth of ~1875 m. A NW-trending eruptive fissure cuts through the center of the caldera near the area of active venting. This fissure is associated with isolated pillow mounds and collapse features along its length, and is the source of extensive jumbled sheet flows that cover the caldera floor. Low-temperature, diffuse venting is widespread; active black smoker chimneys are localized on and around the pillow mounds, in clusters of ~20 x 20 m and growing directly on the flows. The impression is that the hydrothermal venting is young and not yet "organized," in large part because of the eruptive style dominated by collapsed sheet flows. The Tinakula seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposit is located in a much shallower (~1150 m), extended arc-backarc setting at the northern end of the New Hebrides arc, ~25 km from the arc front. Chimney fields occur along two corridors, and are associated with volcanic mounds and calderas. The eastern field occupies an area of ~1200 x 200 m, and the western sulfide field is ~500 x 100 m in size. The density of chimneys appears to be largely controlled by permeability of the volcanic facies, which are dominated by autoclastic and hyaloclastic breccias. Tinakula has been commercially drilled, offering insight into the third dimension of the system. This is one of the first studies of SMS deposits in the New Hebrides arc and fills a 'knowledge gap' in the occurrence of seafloor hydrothermal systems in arc-related settings of the Melanesian archipelago.

  19. Skeletal muscle capillarization and oxidative metabolism in healthy smokers.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Rob C I; Jaspers, Richard T; van der Laarse, Willem J; Degens, Hans

    2008-12-01

    We investigated whether the lower fatigue resistance in smokers than in nonsmokers is caused by a compromised muscle oxidative metabolism. Using calibrated histochemistry, we found no differences in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, myoglobin concentration, or capillarization in sections of the vastus lateralis muscle between smokers and nonsmokers. The relationship between fatigue resistance and SDH activity in nonsmokers (r = 0.93; p = 0.02) is absent in smokers. This indicates that the lower muscle fatigue resistance of smokers can likely be attributed to causes other than differences in oxidative metabolism and capillarization. PMID:19088783

  20. Patterns of alternative tobacco use among adolescent cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Nasim, Aashir; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Alternative tobacco use among adolescents who smoke cigarettes is a growing public health concern, and evidence suggests that patterns of alternative tobacco use varies with respect to cigarette consumption and frequency of cigarette use. This study aimed to examine (a) whether variations in adolescent cigarette smoking and alternative tobacco use can be explained by underlying subtypes and (b) if these subtypes differ in their demographic and psychosocial characteristics. Methods Using data from the 2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey, latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify patterns of cigarette smoking and alternative tobacco use among 2746 current (past 30-day) smokers. After identification, classes were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression to examine differences based on demographics and smoking-related characteristics. Results Four of the six latent classes identified (non-daily light smokers, chippers, chippers-Indulgent, intermittent smokers) reflected consumption, frequency, and history of cigarette use characteristics commonly attributed to light and intermittent smokers, and the remaining two classes (daily smokers, daily smokers-Indulgent) presented cigarette use behaviors commonly attributed to daily smokers. There were clear class differences in levels of alternative tobacco product use, demographics, and psychosocial characteristics. Conclusions Study findings are consistent with previous work demonstrating demographic and psychosocial differences between cigarette smokers based on their alternative tobacco use. The six latent classes identified highlight the importance of including measures of alternative tobacco use when characterizing adolescent cigarette smokers as well as recognizing and tailoring interventions toward these different groups of tobacco users. PMID:22209307

  1. The efficiency of functional brain networks does not differ between smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Breckel, Thomas Peer Karl; Thiel, Christiane Margarethe; Giessing, Carsten

    2013-12-30

    Acute nicotine consumption in smokers impacts on functional brain network topology indicating an increase in the efficiency of information transfer and attentional task performance. The effects of chronic nicotine consumption on functional brain network topology are unknown. We here investigated the effects of chronic smoking-behaviour on functional brain network topology. Minimally-deprived smokers (N=18) and non-smokers (N=17) were measured within an fMRI scanner during a resting state condition. Graph-theoretical metrics of functional network integration (global efficiency and clustering) that have been shown to be affected by acute nicotine administration were compared between both groups. Our results revealed that smoking status did not significantly change functional network integration. Additional tests for non-inferiority confirmed the similarity of regional or nodal network properties. Brain regions such as the left insular and middle frontal gyrus, in which acute nicotine consumption affected network topology, did not reveal any decrease in functional network efficiency following chronic nicotine consumption. Within the limitation of the investigated sample size, our data suggest that the integration of functional brain networks is not altered in minimally-deprived smokers. Our findings are of relevance for clinical studies showing changes in network topology between psychiatric patients with high prevalence of smoking and healthy control subjects. PMID:24144504

  2. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  3. Hydrothermal reactivity of saponite.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, G.

    1983-01-01

    The nature and extent of the reactions of synthetic Fe-free saponite have been investigated under experimental hydrothermal conditions as a first step towards understanding saponite reactivity under relatively simple conditions. Saponite crystallizes from amorphous gel of ideal saponite composition within 7 days at 300o-550oC under P = 1 kbar. Reactions subsequent to this initial crystallization depend on reaction T and interlayer cations. Saponite is found to react hydrothermally, over a period of 200 days, at T down to 400oC, at least 150oC lower than previously reported, but showed no signs of reaction below 400oC. At 450oC, a mixture of talc/saponite and saponite/phlogopite clays forms from K-saponite via intracrystalline layer transformations, while above 450oC the initial K-saponite dissolves, with talc and phlogopite forming as discrete phases. After 200 days reactions at 400-450oC were not complete, so that given sufficient time to reach equilibrium, a lower hydrothermal stability limit for saponite is possible. Further study of the Fe-bearing saponite system will be required before experimental results can be applied to natural systems.-D.F.B.

  4. Pathogenic mechanisms of lung adenocarcinoma in smokers and non-smokers determined by gene expression interrogation

    PubMed Central

    HU, YUNQIAN; CHEN, GUOHAN

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading risk factor for lung cancer, which accounts for the highest number of cancer-related mortalities worldwide in men and women. Individuals with a history of smoking are 15–30 times more likely to develop lung cancer compared with those who do not smoke. However, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to lung tumorigenesis in smokers versus non-smokers remains incomplete. In order to investigate such mechanisms, the present study aimed to systemically interrogate microarray datasets from tumor biopsies and matching normal tissues from stage I and II lung adenocarcinoma patients who had never smoked or were current smokers. The gene expression analysis identified 422 (99 upregulated and 323 downregulated) and 534 (174 upregulated and 360 downregulated) differentially-expressed genes from the never-smokers and current smokers, respectively, and the two groups shared 277 genes that exhibited similar trends of alteration. These genes encode regulators that are involved in a variety of cellular functions, including collagen metabolism and homeostasis of caveolae plasma membranes. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes characterization indicated that biological pathways, including extracellular matrix-receptor interaction and cell migration and proliferation, were all affected in the lung cancer patients regardless of the smoking status. However, smoking induced a unique gene expression pattern characterized by upregulation of cell cycle regulators (CDK1, CCNB1 and CDC20), as well as significantly affected biological networks, including p53 signaling pathways. Taken together, these findings suggest novel mechanistic insights, and provide an improved understanding of the smoking-induced molecular alterations that contribute to the pathogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma.

  5. Evolution of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, D.; Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Mothra Hydrothermal Field (MHF) is a 600 m long, high-temperature hydrothermal field. It is located 2.7 km south of the Main Endeavour Field at the southern end of the central Endeavour Segment. Mothra is the most areally extensive field along the Endeavour Segment, composed of six active sulfide clusters that are 40-200 m apart. Each cluster contains rare black smokers (venting up to 319°C), numerous diffusely venting chimneys, and abundant extinct chimneys and sulfide talus. From north to south, these clusters include Cauldron, Twin Peaks, Faulty Towers, Crab Basin, Cuchalainn, and Stonehenge. As part of the Endeavour Integrated Study Site (ISS), the MHF is a site of intensive interdisciplinary studies focused on linkages among geology, geochemistry, fluid chemistry, seismology, and microbiology. Axial valley geology at MHF is structurally complex, consisting of lightly fissured flows that abut the walls and surround a core of extensively fissured, collapsed terrain. Fissure abundance and distribution indicates that tectonism has been the dominant process controlling growth of the axial graben. Past magmatic activity is shown by the 200 m long chain of collapse basins between Crab Basin and Stonehenge, which may have held at least ~7500 m3 of lava. Assuming a flow thickness of 0.5 m, this amount of lava could cover over half the valley floor during a single volcanic event. At a local scale, MHF clusters vary in size, activity, and underlying geology. They range in size from 400-1600 m2 and consist of isolated chimneys and/or coalesced cockscomb arrays atop ramps of sulfide talus. In the northern part of the field, Cauldron, Twin Peaks, Faulty Towers, and Crab Basin are located near the western valley wall, bounded by basalt talus and a combination of collapsed sheet flows, intermixed lobate and sulfide, disrupted terrain, and isolated pillow ridges. The southern clusters, Cuchalainn and Stonehenge, are associated with collapse basins in the central valley and bounded by extensive lobate flows and disrupted terrain. At all clusters, active chimneys stand within meters of extinct chimneys, suggesting that flow in the shallow subsurface is both complex and transient. 1-2 m high mounds of sulfide talus and broken chimneys indicate that focused flow has been concentrated at the clusters for long periods, while extinct sulfide deposits between clusters and in collapse basins demonstrate that flow conduits have been rerouted and/or clogged by mineral precipitation. Two subsurface processes are responsible for hydrothermal venting at the clusters: tapping of magmatic heat near the lava drainbacks and tectonic movement along the steeply dipping, inward-facing normal faults at the western wall boundary. The interplay between these processes and fluid flow is synthesized in an evolutionary model of hydrothermal development at Mothra.

  6. Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking: a study of smokers and former smokers*

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Maria Fernanda Besteiro; Alves, Maria Graça Pereira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. METHODS: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. RESULTS: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking. PMID:24068268

  7. Cue Reactivity in Smokers: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Potts, Geoffrey F.; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Drugs-of-abuse may increase the salience of drug cues by sensitizing the dopaminergic (DA) system (Robinson & Berridge, 1993), leading to differential attention to smoking stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to assess attention to smoking cues but not using an ERP component associated with DA-mediated salience evaluation. In this study the DA-related P2a and the P3, were compared in smokers (N=21) and non-smokers (N=21) during an attention selection cue exposure task including both cigarette and neutral images. We predicted that both the P2a and P3 would be larger to targets than non-targets, but larger to non-target cigarette images than non-target neutral images only in the smokers, reflecting smokers’ evaluation of smoking stimuli as relevant even when they were not targets. Results indicated that smokers showed behavioral cue reactivity, with more false alarms to cigarette images (responding to cigarette images when they were not targets) than non-smokers; however, both smokers and non-smokers had a larger P2a and P3 to cigarette images. Thus, while smokers showed behavioral evidence of differential salience evaluation of the cigarette images, this group difference was not reflected in differential brain activity. These findings may reflect characteristics of the ERPs (both ERP components were smaller in the smokers), the smoking sample (they were not more impulsive, i.e. reward sensitive, than the non-smokers, in contrast to prior studies) and the design (all participants were aware that the aim of the study was related to smoking). PMID:23958866

  8. Channelling of hydrothermal fluids during the accretion and evolution of the upper oceanic crust: Sr isotope evidence from ODP Hole 1256D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Michelle; Coggon, Rosalind M.; Smith-Duque, Christopher E.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Milton, James A.; Teagle, Damon A. H.

    2015-04-01

    ODP Hole 1256D in the eastern equatorial Pacific is the first penetration of a complete section of fast spread ocean crust down to the dike-gabbro transition, and only the second borehole to sample in situ sheeted dikes after DSDP Hole 504B. Here a high spatial resolution record of whole rock and mineral strontium isotopic compositions from Site 1256 is combined with core observations and downhole wireline geophysical measurements to determine the extent of basalt-hydrothermal fluid reaction and to identify fluid pathways at different levels in the upper ocean crust. The volcanic sequence at Site 1256 is dominated by sheet and massive lava flows but the Sr isotope profile shows only limited exchange with seawater. However, the upper margins of two anomalously thick (>25 m) massive flow sequences are strongly hydrothermally altered with elevated Sr isotope ratios and appear to be conduits of lateral low-temperature off-axis fluid flow. Elsewhere in the lavas, high 87Sr/86Sr are restricted to breccia horizons. Mineralised hyaloclastic breccias in the Lava-Dike Transition are strongly altered to Mg-saponite, silica and pyrite, indicating alteration by mixed seawater and cooled hydrothermal fluids. In the Sheeted Dike Complex 87Sr/86Sr ratios are pervasively shifted towards hydrothermal fluid values (?0.705). Dike chilled margins display secondary mineral assemblages formed during both axial recharge and discharge and have higher 87Sr/86Sr than dike cores, indicating preferential fluid flow along dike margins. Localised increases in 87Sr/86Sr in the Dike-Gabbro Transition indicates the channelling of fluids along the sub-horizontal intrusive boundaries of the 25 to 50 m-thick gabbroic intrusions, with only minor increases in 87Sr/86Sr within the cores of the gabbro bodies. When compared to the pillow lava-dominated section from Hole 504B, the Sr isotope measurements from Site 1256 suggest that the extent of hydrothermal circulation in the upper ocean crust may be strongly dependent on the eruption style. Sheet and massive flow dominated lava sequences typical of fast spreading ridges may experience relatively restricted circulation, but there may be much more widespread circulation through pillow lava-dominated sections. In addition, the Hole 1256D sheeted dikes display a much greater extent of Sr-isotopic exchange compared to dikes from Hole 504B. Because seawater-derived hydrothermal fluids must transit the dikes during their evolution to black smoker-type fluids, the different Sr-isotope profiles for Holes 504B and 1256D suggest there are significant variations in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems at fast and intermediate spreading ridges, which may impact geochemical cycles of elements mobilised by fluid-rock exchange at different temperatures.

  9. Internet and Mobile Phone Text Messaging Intervention for College Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, William; Obermayer, Jami; Jean-Mary, Jersino

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors developed a smoking cessation program using mobile phone text messaging to provide tailored and stage-specific messages to college smokers. Participants and Methods: The authors recruited 31 daily smokers who desired to quit from a college campus and asked them to use an Internet and mobile phone text messaging program to…

  10. Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…

  11. Educating Smokers about Their Cigarettes and Nicotine Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Brown, Anthony; Celestino, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers' Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group…

  12. Enceladus: Starting Hydrothermal Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, D. L.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; Davies, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a process for starting the hydrothermal activity in Enceladus' South Polar Region. The process takes advantage of fissures that reach the water table, about 1 kilometer below the surface. Filling these fissures with fresh ocean water initiates a flow of water up from an ocean that can be self-sustaining. In this hypothesis the heat to sustain the thermal anomalies and the plumes comes from a slightly warm ocean at depth. The heat is brought to the surface by water that circulates up, through the crust and then returns to the ocean.

  13. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the carbohydrate structures as they have been further reacted to phenolic Aldol condensation products. The bio-oil

  14. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Quartz Nanocrystals

    E-print Network

    Natelson, Douglas

    Hydrothermal Synthesis of Quartz Nanocrystals Jane F. Bertone, Joel Cizeron, Rajeev K. Wahi, Joan K describes for the first time a chemical method for the preparation for nanocrystalline quartz. Submicron quartz powders are initially produced in hydrothermal reactions where soluble silica precursors

  15. "I Smoke but I Am Not a Smoker": Phantom Smokers and the Discrepancy between Self-Identity and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Youjin; Choi, Sejung Marina; Rifon, Nora

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the development of a new smoking status, the "phantom smokers," who do not view themselves as smokers but report smoking cigarettes. Participants: Students from 2 universities in Michigan (N = 899; October 2005) and Florida (N = 1,517; May 2006) participated in surveys. Methods: Respondents in Michigan completed…

  16. Similar Squamous Cell Carcinoma Epithelium microRNA Expression in Never Smokers and Ever Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kolokythas, Antonia; Zhou, Yalu; Schwartz, Joel L.; Adami, Guy R.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral tumors in patients who never used mutagenic agents such as tobacco is increasing. In an effort to better understand these tumors we studied microRNA (miRNA) expression in tumor epithelium of never tobacco users, tumor epithelium of ever tobacco users, and nonpathological control oral epithelium. A comparison of levels among 372 miRNAs in 12 never tobacco users with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) versus 10 healthy controls was made using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A similar analysis was done with 8 ever tobacco users with OSCC. These comparisons revealed miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-31-5p as enriched in the tumor epithelium in OSCC of both never and ever tobacco users. Examination of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project miRNA data on 305 OSCCs and 30 controls revealed 100% of those miRNAs enriched in never smoker OSCCs in this patient group were also enriched in ever smoker OSCCs. Nonsupervised clustering of TCGA OSCCs was suggestive of two or four subgroups of tumors based on miRNA levels with limited evidence for differences in tobacco exposure among the groups. Results from both patient groups together stress the importance of miR196a-5p in OSCC malignancy in both never and ever smokers, and emphasize the overall similarity of miRNA expression in OSCCs in these two risk groups. It implies that there may be great similarity in etiology of OSCC in never and ever smokers and that classifying OSCC based on tobacco exposure may not be helpful in the clinic. PMID:26544609

  17. Hydrothermal processes above the Yellowstone magma chamber: Large hydrothermal systems and large hydrothermal explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, W.C. Pat, III; Pierce, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrothermal explosions are violent and dramatic events resulting in the rapid ejection of boiling water, steam, mud, and rock fragments from source craters that range from a few meters up to more than 2 km in diameter; associated breccia can be emplaced as much as 3 to 4 km from the largest craters. Hydrothermal explosions occur where shallow interconnected reservoirs of steam- and liquid-saturated fluids with temperatures at or near the boiling curve underlie thermal fields. Sudden reduction in confi ning pressure causes fluids to fl ash to steam, resulting in signifi cant expansion, rock fragmentation, and debris ejection. In Yellowstone, hydrothermal explosions are a potentially signifi cant hazard for visitors and facilities and can damage or even destroy thermal features. The breccia deposits and associated craters formed from hydrothermal explosions are mapped as mostly Holocene (the Mary Bay deposit is older) units throughout Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and are spatially related to within the 0.64-Ma Yellowstone caldera and along the active Norris-Mammoth tectonic corridor. In Yellowstone, at least 20 large (>100 m in diameter) hydrothermal explosion craters have been identifi ed; the scale of the individual associated events dwarfs similar features in geothermal areas elsewhere in the world. Large hydrothermal explosions in Yellowstone have occurred over the past 16 ka averaging ??1 every 700 yr; similar events are likely in the future. Our studies of large hydrothermal explosion events indicate: (1) none are directly associated with eruptive volcanic or shallow intrusive events; (2) several historical explosions have been triggered by seismic events; (3) lithic clasts and comingled matrix material that form hydrothermal explosion deposits are extensively altered, indicating that explosions occur in areas subjected to intense hydrothermal processes; (4) many lithic clasts contained in explosion breccia deposits preserve evidence of repeated fracturing and vein-fi lling; and (5) areal dimensions of many large hydrothermal explosion craters in Yellowstone are similar to those of its active geyser basins and thermal areas. For Yellowstone, our knowledge of hydrothermal craters and ejecta is generally limited to after the Yellowstone Plateau emerged from beneath a late Pleistocene icecap that was roughly a kilometer thick. Large hydrothermal explosions may have occurred earlier as indicated by multiple episodes of cementation and brecciation commonly observed in hydrothermal ejecta clasts. Critical components for large, explosive hydrothermal systems include a watersaturated system at or near boiling temperatures and an interconnected system of well-developed joints and fractures along which hydrothermal fluids flow. Active deformation of the Yellowstone caldera, active faulting and moderate local seismicity, high heat flow, rapid changes in climate, and regional stresses are factors that have strong infl uences on the type of hydrothermal system developed. Ascending hydrothermal fluids flow along fractures that have developed in response to active caldera deformation and along edges of low-permeability rhyolitic lava flows. Alteration of the area affected, self-sealing leading to development of a caprock for the hydrothermal system, and dissolution of silica-rich rocks are additional factors that may constrain the distribution and development of hydrothermal fields. A partial lowpermeability layer that acts as a cap to the hydrothermal system may produce some over-pressurization, thought to be small in most systems. Any abrupt drop in pressure initiates steam fl ashing and is rapidly transmitted through interconnected fractures that result in a series of multiple large-scale explosions contributing to the excavation of a larger explosion crater. Similarities between the size and dimensions of large hydrothermal explosion craters and thermal fields in Yellowstone may indicate that catastrophic events which result in l

  18. Maximum oxygen uptake capacity of smokers of different age groups.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S; Dey, S K; Nag, S K

    1987-01-01

    Eighty-four healthy asymptomatic sedentary smokers and 92 healthy sedentary non-smokers of the age range 20-59 years were investigated for their maximum oxygen uptake capacity (VO2max) and related cardiorespiratory parameters at the level of maximal exercise by bicycle ergometry. The subjects were blocked into four age decades of 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and 50-59 years to show the effect of smoking on VO2max of smokes of different age groups. The physical characteristics of smokers and non-smokers of comparable age groups did not show any significant difference. The smokers of each subsequent age group consumed 5.9 +/- 4.1, 6.3 +/- 5.7, 12.7 +/- 7.1, and 11.5 +/- 9.1 pack years of cigarettes, respectively (pack year = number of packets of cigarettes per day X number of years of smoking). VO2max of smokers (38.9 +/- 4.6 ml.kg-1.min-1) was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) than that of nonsmokers (42.1 +/- 3.2 ml.kg-1.min-1) only in the young age group of 20-29 years. VO2max expressed in per kg of the body weight (VO2max/BW) was found to be significantly (p less than 0.01) and negatively correlated with number of cigarettes smoked per day (-0.36, p less than 0.01), number of years through which smoked (-0.38, p less than 0.01), and pack years (-0.42, p less than 0.01). In other age groups, though non-smokers predominated over smokers in VO2max, the differences were not statistically significant. Also, in these age groups, smoking histories failed to reveal any significant correlation with VO2max. This suggests that smoking impairs VO2max only in the young ages. By increasing age, VO2max was diminished by 13% from 20 to 59 years in non-smokers and 15.5% from 20 to 59 years in smokers. Age also diminished HRmax and VEmax of smokers in the same manner as in the case of non-smokers. The VO2max of Indian sedentary non-smokers was found to be lower than those of Caucasians, Kurds, Yemenites, Europeans, and Africans. Values reported on Asians were found to be comparable with those of the present study. PMID:3449664

  19. Smokers' interest in using nicotine replacement to aid smoking reduction.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul; Hughes, John R; Ferguson, Stuart G; Pillitteri, Janine L; Gitchell, Joseph G; Burton, Steven L

    2007-11-01

    In recent years the public health community has considered the risks and benefits of encouraging smokers to reduce their smoking, perhaps with the aid of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Little is known, however, about whether smokers themselves are interested in smoking reduction; whether they see reduction as an endpoint, or primarily as a route to cessation; or whether they are receptive to the notion of using NRT to achieve reduction. We conducted a population-based national telephone survey of 1,000 current daily cigarette smokers (499 male, 501 female). Most smokers (57%) reported previously trying to reduce their smoking, and many (26%) said that they plan to reduce within the next year. Almost half of those planning to quit in the next 12 months (44%) preferred to quit via gradual cessation and most (68%) indicated that they would consider using a reduction product or medication. Respondents reported that they would prefer a product with a cessation endpoint rather than a reduction endpoint (63% vs. 21%). Interest in reduction was highest among smokers who were less interested in quitting and among heavier smokers. We conclude that many smokers are interested in gradually reducing prior to quitting and that promoting reduction is unlikely to undermine motivation to quit smoking. PMID:17978992

  20. Reduced executive and default network functional connectivity in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Barbara J; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Calhoun, Vince D; Welsh, Robert C; Hutchison, Kent E

    2015-03-01

    Altered functional connectivity has been associated with acute and chronic nicotine use. Connectivity alterations, specifically in the right and left executive control networks (RECN/LECN) and the default mode network (DMN), may contribute to the addiction cycle. The objective of this study was to determine if executive control network (ECN) and DMN connectivity is different between non-smokers and smokers and whether reductions in connectivity are related to chronic cigarette use. The RECN, LECN, and DMN were identified in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 650 subjects. Analyses tested for group differences in network connectivity strength, controlling for age and alcohol use. There was a significant group effect on LECN and DMN connectivity strength with smokers (n = 452) having lower network strengths than non-smokers (n = 198). Smokers had lower connectivity than non-smokers associated with key network hubs: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and parietal nodes within ECNs. Further, ECN connectivity strength was negatively associated with pack years of cigarette use. Our data suggest that chronic nicotine use negatively impacts functional connectivity within control networks that may contribute to the difficulty smokers have in quitting. PMID:25346448

  1. Prostate Tissue Metal Levels and Prostate Cancer Recurrence in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Kandegedara, Ashoka; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Gupta, Nilesh; Rogers, Craig; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Dou, Q. Ping; Mitra, Bharati

    2014-01-01

    Although smoking is not associated with prostate cancer risk overall, smoking is associated with prostate cancer recurrence and mortality. Increased cadmium (Cd) exposure from smoking may play a role in progression of the disease. In this study, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine Cd, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) levels in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumor and tumor-adjacent non-neoplastic tissue of never- and ever-smokers with prostate cancer. In smokers, metal levels were also evaluated with regard to biochemical and distant recurrence of disease. Smokers (N =25) had significantly higher Cd (median ppb, p =0.03) and lower Zn (p =0.002) in non-neoplastic tissue than never-smokers (N =21). Metal levels were not significantly different in tumor tissue of smokers and non-smokers. Among smokers, Cd level did not differ by recurrence status. However, the ratio of Cd ppb to Pb ppb was significantly higher in both tumor and adjacent tissue of cases with distant recurrence when compared with cases without distant recurrence (tumor tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.19, p =0.009, adjacent nonneoplastic tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.02, p =0.038). Tissue Zn levels were also higher in smokers with distant recurrence (tumor, p =0.039 and adjacent non-neoplastic, p =0.028). These initial findings suggest that prostate tissue metal levels may differ in smokers with and without recurrence. If these findings are confirmed in larger studies, additional work will be needed to determine whether variations in metal levels are drivers of disease progression or are simply passengers of the disease process. PMID:24385087

  2. Hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers,

    SciTech Connect

    Sleep, N.H.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses the initial entry of hydrothermal seawater into deep levels of the oceanic crust, the effectiveness of hydrothermal circulation in cooling the crust, the geometry of hydrothermal circulation, the relationship between the hydrothermal circulation and the magma chamber, the reaction of the oceanic crust with the seawater, and the identification of the hydrothermal fluid which alters a rock sample. Topics considered include the crack front, observation relevant to the crack front, the limitations of the crack front hypothesis, the observed pattern of hydrothermal alteration, the nature of the hydrothermal fluid, the physics of large scale convection, and convection through crack zones. Knowledge of hydrothermal circulation at the ridge axis is based on sampling of the hydrothermal fluid, indirect geophysical measurements of the oceanic crust, and studies of rocks which are believed to have undergone hydrothermal alteration at the ridge axis. Includes 2 drawings.

  3. Predictors, Indicators, and Validated Measures of Dependence in Menthol Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad-Kah, Raheema; Rimmer, Lonnie; Liang, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive review of the menthol cigarette dependence-related literature and results from an original analysis of the Total Exposure Study (TES), which included 1,100 menthol and 2,400 nonmenthol adult smokers. The substantial scientific evidence available related to age of first cigarette, age of regular use, single-item dependence indicators (smoking frequency, cigarettes per day, time to first cigarette, night waking to smoke), smoking duration, numerous validated and widely accepted measures of nicotine/cigarette dependence, and our analysis of the TES do not support that menthol smokers are more dependent than nonmenthol smokers or that menthol increases dependence. PMID:24738914

  4. Why Don’t Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers’ Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting

    PubMed Central

    Morphett, Kylie; Partridge, Brad; Gartner, Coral; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker’s addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual’s situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers’ views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers’ attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences. PMID:26068089

  5. Extended treatment of older cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sharon M.; Humfleet, Gary L.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Reus, Victor I.; Robbins, Julie A.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Tobacco dependence treatments achieve abstinence rates of 25–30% at 1 year. Low rates may reflect failure to conceptualize tobacco dependence as a chronic disorder. The aims of the present study were to determine the efficacy of extended cognitive behavioral and pharmacological interventions in smokers ? 50 years of age, and to determine if gender differences in efficacy existed. Design Open randomized clinical trial. Setting A free-standing, smoking treatment research clinic. Participants A total of 402 smokers of ? 10 cigarettes per day, all 50 years of age or older. Intervention Participants completed a 12-week treatment that included group counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion. Participants, independent of smoking status, were then assigned randomly to follow-up conditions: (i) standard treatment (ST; no further treatment); (ii) extended NRT (E-NRT; 40 weeks of nicotine gum availability); (iii) extended cognitive behavioral therapy (E-CBT; 11 cognitive behavioral sessions over a 40-week period); or (iv) E-CBT plus E-NRT (E-combined; 11 cognitive behavioral sessions plus 40 weeks nicotine gum availability). Measurements Primary outcome variable was 7-day point prevalence cigarette abstinence verified biochemically at weeks 24, 52, 64 and 104. Findings The most clinically important findings were significant main effects for treatment condition, time and the treatment × time interaction. The E-CBT condition produced high cigarette abstinence rates that were maintained throughout the 2-year study period [(week 24 (58%), 52 (55%), 64 (55%) and 104 (55%)], and was significantly more effective than E-NRT and ST across that period. No other treatment condition was significantly different to ST. No effects for gender were found. Conclusions Extended cognitive behavioral treatments can produce high and stable cigarette abstinence rates for both men and women. NRT does not add to the efficacy of extended CBT, and may hamper its efficacy. Research is needed to determine if these results can be replicated in a sample with a greater range of ages, and improved upon with the addition of medications other than NRT. PMID:19392908

  6. Expression of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in central airways of smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Miotto, D; Hollenberg, M; Bunnett, N; Papi, A; Braccioni, F; Boschetto, P; Rea, F; Zuin, A; Geppetti, P; Saetta, M; Maestrelli, P; Fabbri, L; Mapp, C

    2002-01-01

    Background: Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a transmembrane G protein coupled receptor preferentially activated by trypsin and tryptase. The protease activated receptors play an important role in most components of injury responses including cell proliferation, migration, matrix remodelling, and inflammation. Cigarette smoking causes an inflammatory process in the central airways, peripheral airways, lung parenchyma, and adventitia of pulmonary arteries. Methods: To quantify the expression of PAR-2 in the central airways of smokers and non-smokers, surgical specimens obtained from 30 subjects undergoing lung resection for localised pulmonary lesions (24 with a history of cigarette smoking and six non-smoking control subjects) were examined. Central airways were immunostained with an antiserum specific for PAR-2 and PAR-2 expression was quantified using light microscopy and image analysis. Results: PAR-2 expression was found in bronchial smooth muscle, epithelium, glands, and in the endothelium and smooth muscle of bronchial vessels. PAR-2 expression was similar in the central airways of smokers and non-smokers. When smokers were divided according to the presence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow limitation, PAR-2 expression was increased in smooth muscle (median 3.8 (interquartile range 2.9–5.8) and 1.4 (1.07–3.4) respectively); glands (33.3 (18.2–43.8) and 16.2 (11.5–22.2), respectively); and bronchial vessels (54.2 (48.7–56.8) and 40.0 (36–40.4), respectively) of smokers with symptoms of chronic bronchitis with normal lung function compared with smokers with chronic airflow limitation (COPD), but the increase was statistically significant (p<0.005) only for bronchial vessels. Conclusions: PAR-2 is present in bronchial smooth muscle, glands, and bronchial vessels of both smokers and non-smokers. An increased expression of PAR-2 was found in bronchial vessels of patients with bronchitis compared with those with COPD. PMID:11828045

  7. Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov., a Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Itoh, Takashi; Bej, Asim K.; Tang, Jane; Whitman, William B.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P(sup T), was isolated from 'black smoker' chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2degN, 33.9degW). The cells of strain OGL-20P(T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed within a pH range of 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), an NaCl concentration range of 1-5%(w/v) (optimum 3%)and a temperature range of 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). The novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent upon elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, but it does not reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, Fe(III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products (peptone, bacto-tryptone, Casamino acids and yeast extract) are utilized as substrates during sulfur reduction. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloram phenicol, kanamycin and gentamicin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G + C content of the DNA is 52.9 mol% The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is closely related to Thermococcus coalescens and related species, but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, we conclude that strain OGL-20P(sup T) represents a new separate species within the genus Thermococcus, for which we propose the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (=JCM 12859(exp T) = DSM 14981(exp T)=ATCC BAA-394(exp T)).

  8. Thermococcus Thioreducens sp. nov., A Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Bej, Asim K.; Garriott, Owen

    2003-01-01

    A novel hyperthermophilic organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P(sup T), was isolated from 'black smoker' chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2 N; 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P(sup T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed to occur within the pH range 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), NaCl concentration range 1-5 % (w/v) (optimum 3 %), and temperature range 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). Novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent from elemental sulfur as electron acceptor, but it cannot reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, iron (III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products that can be utilized as substrates during sulfur-reduction are: peptone, bactotryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G+C content of DNA is 57.1 mol% . Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is most closely related to Thermococcus celer and 'T. barossii', but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-394(sup T) = DSM 1498(sup T)).

  9. Tidally-driven effluent detected by long-term temperature monitoring at the TAG hydrothermal mound, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, M.; Von Herzen, R. P.; Matsubayashi, O.; Fujioka, K.

    1998-06-01

    During Aug. 13-21, 1994, temperatures and current velocity were simultaneously monitored on the TAG hydrothermal mound. Three `Giant Kelps (GKs)', vertical thermistor arrays of 50 m height, were moored on the periphery of the central black smoker complex (CBC). A `Manatee', multi-monitoring system including current velocity, was deployed 50 m east of CBC. Four `Daibutsu' geothermal probes penetrated the sediment south to west of CBC. Compilation of all data revealed semi-diurnal variations in water temperatures and current velocity, and allowed us to discuss the source of these anomalies. Temperature anomalies of GKs correlate well with current velocity, and are interpreted to be caused by the main plume from CBC that was bent over by the tidal current. We identified two types of asymmetric, periodic temperature variations at Daibutsu Probes 2 and 8, located 20 m to the south of CBC. By comparing temperatures and current velocity, they are attributed to non-buoyant effluents laterally advected by the tidal current. The source of one variation is located east to ESE of the probes, and the source of the other is located to the north. On Aug. 31, a new periodic anomaly emerged on Probe 2 with its amplitude up to 0.8°C. The 6-h offset between the new anomaly and the previous one suggests that the source of the new anomaly lies to the west of Probe 2. The heat flux of these non-buoyant effluents is estimated to range from 30 to 100 kW/m 2, which is of the same order as direct estimates of diffuse flow at the TAG mound. It suggests that a significant amount of diffuse effluent is laterally advected by the prevailing current near the seafloor.

  10. Thermococcus sulfurophilus sp. nov., a New Hyperthermophilic, Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon Isolated from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Whitman, William B.; Marsic, Damien; Garriott, Owen; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P, was isolated from "black smoker" chimney material at the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site in the Atlantic Ocean (36.2 N; 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P have irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth occurs within pH range of 5.5-8.2 (optimal at pH 7.0-7.2), salinity range of 1-5% NaCl (optimal concentration 3% NaCl wt/vol), and temperature range of +55 C to +94 C (optimal growth at +83 C to +85 C). Strain OGL-20P is resistant to freezing (at -20 C). New isolate is strictly anaerobic with sulfur-type of respiration. A limited number of compounds are utilized as electron donors, including peptone, becto-tryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract but does not grow with separate amino acids. Sulfur and Iron can be used as electron acceptors; but not sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate or nitrate. Strain OGL-20P is resistant to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin. Growth of str. OGL20P is inhibited by tetracyclin but not by Na2MoO4. The G+C content of DNA is 57.2 mol%. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis allows one to classify strain OGL-20P as a representative of a now species of Thermococcus genus. The name Thermococcus sulfurophilus op. nov., was suggested for the new isolate, type strain OGL-20P (sup T) (= ATCC BAA_394 (sup T) = DSM...(supT)).

  11. Thermococcus Thioreducens sp. Nov., a Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-reducing Archaeon from a Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Itoh, Takashi; Bej, Asim K.; Tang, Jane; Whitman, William B.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P was isolated from black smoker chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2 N, 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P(sup T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed within the pH range 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), NaCl concentration range 1-5 % (w/v) (optimum 3%), and temperature range 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). The novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent upon elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, but it does not reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, iron (III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products (peptone, bacto-tryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract) are utilized as substrates during sulfur-reduction. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G+C content of DNA is 52.9 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is closely related to Thermococcus coalescens and related species, but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, we conclude that strain OGL-20P(sup T) represents a new separate species within the genus Thermococcus, and propose the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-394(sup T) = JCM 12859(sup T) = DSM 14981(sup T)).

  12. Correlation between nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual (water pipe) smokers among Arab Americans

    PubMed Central

    El-Shahawy, Omar; Haddad, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that dual cigarette and water pipe use is growing among minority groups, particularly among Arab Americans. Differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to smoking cessation among such dual smokers have not been previously examined in this population. We examined potential differences that might exist between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers (cigarette and water pipe) pertaining to nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation among Arab Americans. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of self-identified Arab immigrant smokers (n=131) living in the Richmond, VA metropolitan area. Data were collected using four questionnaires: Demographic and Cultural Information questionnaire, Tobacco Use questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) questionnaire, and Barriers to Cessation questionnaire. We examined differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers of cigarettes and water pipe. Furthermore, we explored the correlations of these measures with select variables. Results There was a significant difference in the FTND scores between the exclusive cigarette smokers (mean M=2.55, standard deviation [SD] =2.10) and dual smokers (M=3.71, SD =2.42); t(129) = (2.51), P=0.0066. There was also a significant difference in the Barriers to Cessation scores between exclusive cigarette smokers (M=38.47, SD =13.07) and dual smokers (M=45.21, SD =9.27); t(129) = (2.56), P=0.0058. Furthermore, there was a highly significant correlation among FTND scores, Barriers to Cessation scores, and past quit attempts among dual smokers. Conclusion Water pipe tobacco smoking seems to be both adding to the dependence potential of cigarette smoking and enhancing barriers to cessation in our study sample. However, the high correlation between quit attempts, FTND, and barriers to cessation needs further investigation to ascertain the possible reasons behind it. This preliminary study utilized a cross-sectional survey among participants of a rather small convenience sample, especially in the dual smokers group. Thus, there is a need to examine these differences via a longitudinal design in a larger sample. PMID:25674035

  13. A Retrievable Mineral Microcosm for Examining Microbial Colonization and Mineral Precipitation at Seafloor Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, E. E.; Holloway, J. R.; Cary, S.; Voglesonger, K. M.; Ashbridge, D. A.; O'Day, P. A.

    2002-12-01

    Although seafloor hydrothermal vent environments are known to support thriving ecosystems, the microscale physical and chemical environment suitable for microbial colonization and the identity of pioneering organisms is unknown. Because of the fragility of young chimneys and their ephemeral nature, novel methods for sample retrieval and analysis are required. The mineral microcosm consists of four titanium mesh chambers containing crushed minerals mounted on a titanium base that allows for fluid flow through the chambers. The chambers can be filled with different minerals or mineral mixtures (or no minerals) to supply different substrates for microbial colonization and different local microenvironments as minerals react with the surrounding fluids. The device sets on top of an active hydrothermal vent for a period of days to weeks to allow colonization and mineral reaction. The mineral microcosm was deployed during the Atlantis/Alvin Extreme 2001 Cruise (Oct.- Nov.,2001) to 9° 50'N on the East Pacific Rise a total of three times, for ~ 24, ~ 96, and ~ 48 hours each. It was deployed in two different environments, twice in lower temperature (<300°C), diffuse-flow environments and once (for ~96 hours) in a higher temperature black smoker environment (>350°C).Seed minerals included sulfides, sulfates, magnetite, apatite, and quartz, both individually and in mixtures. In the first 24-hour deployment, dissolution of anhydrite but not sulfide minerals within the chambers indicated high temperatures in chamber interiors and rapid reaction rates. Temperatures measured on chamber exteriors before retrieval ranged from 4° -98°C. The 96-hour deployment on a hot vent (fluid ~370°C before deployment) resulted in extensive mineral precipitation and chimney growth inside the mineral chambers, on the outer surfaces of the chambers, and on the platform as a whole, creating micro-chimneys several centimeters tall. The young chimneys were mainly composed of pyrite with lesser amounts of chalcopyrite and sphalerite and with thin veneers of anhydrite on exterior surfaces in contact with seawater. Bulk trace element analyses of the newly formed chimneys show concentrations of Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, and Pb (up to ~200 ppm) but a lack of As, Sn, U, and W. On the last deployment in a polychaete-rich, diffuse-flow area (vent temperature ~300°C), the microcosm was covered with biofilm and polychaete tubes had formed on the surface during the ~48 hours on the vent. Temperatures at chamber exteriors had decreased to 16- 20°C, suggesting that the vent was not vigorous enough to maintain a large flow through the chambers. Although no evidence for microbial colonization was obtained in these initial deployments, the device can simulate the mineralogy and temperature gradients of a natural hydrothermal chimney. Young chimney samples of known age (~96 hours) obtained from the second deployment were analyzed by synchrotron X-ray computed tomography for porosity and mineralogy and compared with existing chimneys at these sites (see companion abstract by Ashbridge, et al.).

  14. Population health and the hardcore smoker: Geoffrey Rose revisited.

    PubMed

    Chaiton, Michael O; Cohen, Joanna E; Frank, John

    2008-09-01

    The "hardening hypothesis" suggests that as smoking prevalence decreases, lighter smokers will quit first, leaving more "hardcore" smokers in the population. At a population level, however, the weight of evidence suggests that no hardening is occurring. By understanding the lessons from Geoffrey Rose's model of population-level risk factor change, we argue that the hardening of the smoking population is not inevitable. The Rose model predicts that the effect of policy interventions, and changes in social norms, can shift the population-level risk distribution for continuing to be a smoker, making it more likely that all smokers will quit. This analysis also suggests that further reductions in smoking prevalence will not come without further changes in the underlying--and largely cultural--root causes of smoking in a population. PMID:18701900

  15. Medical Costs Soar for Smokers Who Develop Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154858.html Medical Costs Soar for Smokers Who Develop Artery Disease ... Sept. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking significantly increases medical costs among people with peripheral artery disease (PAD), ...

  16. Diet May Protect Against Gene Changes in Smokers

    Cancer.gov

    Leafy green vegetables, folate, and some multivitamins could serve as protective factors against lung cancer in current and former smokers, according to a study that is a first step in understanding a complex association.

  17. Nicotine intake and smoking topography in smokers with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jill M; Gandhi, Kunal K; Lu, Shou-En; Steinberg, Marc L; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cigarette smoking behavior in bipolar disorder (BPD), including the effects of mood-stabilizing medications, has not been well characterized. Methods We compared serum nicotine, nicotine metabolite levels, and smoking topography in 75 smokers with BPD to 86 control smokers (CON). For some comparisons, an additional control group of 75 smokers with schizophrenia (SCZ) were included. Results There were no differences between the BPD and CON groups in baseline smoking characteristics or serum nicotine or cotinine levels. Fifty-one smokers with BPD (68.9%) were taking one of the following mood stabilizers: valproic acid, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, lithium, or topiramate. The 3-hydroxycotinine-to-cotinine ratio, a marker of cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) metabolic activity, was significantly higher in BPD versus CON and versus SCZ (0.68 versus 0.49 versus 0.54; p = 0.002). The difference between groups, however, was no longer significant when the analysis was repeated with those taking hepatic enzyme-inducing drugs (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate) included as a covariate. The time between puffs, or interpuff interval (IPI), was shorter in BPD versus CON by an average of 3.0 sec (p < 0.05), although this was no longer significant when we removed smokers from the analysis of those taking hepatic enzyme inducers. Conclusions Smokers with BPD are not different from CON on most measures of nicotine intake and smoking topography. We found an increased rate of nicotine metabolism in smokers taking mood stabilizers that are hepatic enzyme inducers, including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate. Smokers with rapid nicotine metabolism might be expected to smoke more intensely to compensate for the more rapid disappearance of nicotine from the blood and brain, and may have more difficulty in quitting smoking, although this requires further study. PMID:22938167

  18. Hydrothermal Growth of Polyscale Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrappa, Kullaiah

    In this chapter, the importance of the hydrothermal technique for growth of polyscale crystals is discussed with reference to its efficiency in synthesizing high-quality crystals of various sizes for modern technological applications. The historical development of the hydrothermal technique is briefly discussed, to show its evolution over time. Also some of the important types of apparatus used in routine hydrothermal research, including the continuous production of nanosize crystals, are discussed. The latest trends in the hydrothermal growth of crystals, such as thermodynamic modeling and understanding of the solution chemistry, are elucidated with appropriate examples. The growth of some selected bulk, fine, and nanosized crystals of current technological significance, such as quartz, aluminum and gallium berlinites, calcite, gemstones, rare-earth vanadates, electroceramic titanates, and carbon polymorphs, is discussed in detail. Future trends in the hydrothermal technique, required to meet the challenges of fast-growing demand for materials in various technological fields, are described. At the end of this chapter, an Appendix 18.A containing a more or less complete list of the characteristic families of crystals synthesized by the hydrothermal technique is given with the solvent and pressure-temperature (PT) conditions used in their synthesis.

  19. Quantification of plasma microRNAs in a group of healthy smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers and correlation to biomarkers of tobacco exposure

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Anisha; Waters, David; Camacho, Oscar M.; Minet, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The stability of circulating miRNAs, their non-invasive sampling techniques and deregulation in diseases make them potential candidate biomarkers of biological effect. Here, we profiled the level of 84 plasma miRNAs in 30 smokers, 20 non-smokers and 20 ex-smokers. A robust statistical strategy was applied with replicate samples to account for reproducibility of the results. We identified differential expression of miR-124 and let-7a between the smoking and control groups. We further explored the dose–response relationship of miR-124 and let-7a with two biomarkers of tobacco exposure and found that this relationship was affected by adjustments based on age, pack-year and gender. PMID:25598229

  20. Neural Reward and Punishment Sensitivity in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Geoffrey F.; Bloom, Erika; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicotine addiction remains a major public health problem but the neural substrates of addictive behavior remain unknown. One characteristic of smoking behavior is impulsive choice, selecting the immediate reward of smoking despite the potential long-term negative consequences. This suggests that drug users, including cigarette smokers, may be more sensitive to rewards and less sensitive to punishment. Methods We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to test the hypothesis that smokers are more responsive to reward signals and less responsive to punishment, potentially predisposing them to risky behavior. We conducted two experiments, one using a reward prediction design to elicit a Medial Frontal Negativity (MFN) and one using a reward- and punishment-motivated flanker task to elicit an Error Related Negativity (ERN), ERP components thought to index activity in the cortical projection of the dopaminergic reward system. Results and Conclusions The smokers had a greater MFN response to unpredicted rewards, and non-smokers, but not smokers, had a larger ERN on punishment motivated trials indicating that smokers are more reward sensitive and less punishment sensitive than nonsmokers, overestimating the appetitive value and underestimating aversive outcomes of stimuli and actions. PMID:25292454

  1. Nicotine vaccines: Will smokers take a shot at quitting?

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Caryn; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: A vaccine against nicotine may soon be available to smokers who want to quit. The vaccine stimulates the production of antibodies that bind to nicotine, thereby impeding nicotine from crossing the blood-brain barrier and exerting psychoactive effects. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate intentions to try a nicotine vaccine if one were to become available among a nationally representative sample of smokers. The secondary purpose was to assess whether information about genetic susceptibility to nicotine addiction had an effect on smokers’ interest in receiving the vaccine. Methods: Four hundred and twenty-seven adults were randomized to read one of two versions of a short description about the vaccine. One version framed addiction as genetically influenced, while the other framed it as environmentally influenced. Smokers were then asked about their intentions to use a nicotine vaccine if one were to become available in the future. Results: Across both groups, 53% indicated that they would be likely or very likely to try the vaccine. Using multivariate linear regression, the strongest predictors of vaccination intention were having a favorable attitude toward a nicotine vaccine (? = .41) and having a favorable attitude toward vaccination in general (? = .22). There were no significant effects of the framing conditions on intention to receive the vaccine. Discussion: Intentions to try a nicotine vaccine as a cessation method are relatively high among smokers. If the vaccine becomes available, specific groups of smokers may be more interested than others; education and recruitment efforts could be targeted appropriately. PMID:20185516

  2. Trust in Physicians Among Rural Medicaid-Enrolled Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Nelms, Emory; Wang, Ling; Pennell, Michael; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Seiber, Eric; Adolph, Michael D.; Paskett, Electra D.; Ferketich, Amy K.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Associations have been found between trusting patient-physician relationships and use of preventive care and a greater adherence to prescribed care. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of trust rural Medicaid smokers have in their physicians and whether trust was related to patient characteristics or physician behavior. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study of smokers who were enrolled in a tobacco dependence treatment program. Participants were rural Medicaid-enrolled adults, age 18 and older, who were current smokers. Participants were enrolled from 8 primary care clinics as they came in for an appointment with their physician. The Trust in Physician Scale was completed at the baseline visit. One week later, an interview was conducted with the smoker to determine whether the physician provided tobacco dependence treatment counseling at the visit. Mixed models were used to model the relationship between trust and participant characteristics and physician behaviors. FINDINGS Medicaid smokers in this study exhibited a high level of trust in their health care provider, as levels were similar to those reported in the general population of patients. Trust was significantly higher among individuals with better self-reported health. CONCLUSIONS Rural Medicaid smokers appeared to have similar levels of trust in their physician as other patients. Future research should explore the role trust plays in shaping interactions between underserved populations and physicians within the context of smoking cessation counseling. PMID:24689546

  3. Why Don't Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting.

    PubMed

    Morphett, Kylie; Partridge, Brad; Gartner, Coral; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2015-06-01

    The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker's addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual's situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers' views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers' attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences. PMID:26068089

  4. Self-change strategies in smokers and former smokers: Spanish adaptation of the SCS-CS and SCS-FS.

    PubMed

    Carballo, José Luis; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Bobes-Bascarán, Ma Teresa

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate and adapt the Self-Change Strategies in Current Smokers (SCS-CS) and the Self-Change Strategies in Former Smokers (SCS-FS) (Christie & Etter, 2005) to the Spanish population. We also wished to analyze the differences in the self-change strategies used as a function of gender. Participants were 370 subjects (190 smokers and 180 former smokers) who were recruited by means of the "snowball" method. The alpha coefficients for the SCS-CS and the SCS-FS were .86 and .87, respectively. Both scales present satisfactory psychometric properties, so they are shown to be useful instruments to use in the Spanish population. The SCS-CS score showed that male smokers used more self-change strategies than females (46.6 vs. 11.9, p < .01), specifically, more cognitive strategies. In the SCS-CS, men scored higher than women (49 vs. 12.08, p < .01), in both the group of cognitive and behavioral strategies. The psychological mechanisms used to control the smoking habit are the same in men as in women, but the men tend to use a larger number of strategies. Treatments to quit smoking do not need to be substantially different, but they should be more intensive in the case of women smokers. PMID:19899681

  5. Provider-Delivered Tobacco Dependence Treatment to Medicaid Smokers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking prevalence is 49% among Medicaid enrollees in Ohio. The objective of this pilot project was to test a comprehensive tobacco dependence treatment program targeting rural Medicaid-enrolled smokers for both physician-level and smoker-level outcomes. Methods: Using a group-randomized trial design, intervention group physicians (n = 4) were exposed to systems-level changes in their clinics, and smokers in these clinics were offered 12 weeks of telephone cessation counseling. Control group physicians (n = 4) were given the clinician’s version of the U.S. Public Health Serivce (USPHS) Clinical Practice Guideline, and smokers in these clinics were given information about the Ohio Tobacco Quitline. Physician-level and smoker-level outcomes were assessed at 1 week and 3 months, respectively. Costs per quit were estimated. Results: A total of 214 Medicaid smokers were enrolled. At 1 week, there were no reported differences in rates of being asked about tobacco use (68% intervention, 58% control) or advised to quit (69% intervention, 63% control). However, 30% of intervention and 56% of control smokers reported receiving a prescription for pharmacotherapy (p < .01). At 3 months, there were no differences in quit attempts (58% intervention, 64% control), use of pharmacotherapy (34% intervention, 46% control), or abstinence (24% intervention, 16% control for self-reported abstinence; 11% intervention, 3.5% control for cotinine-confirmed abstinence). The intervention group proved more cost-effective at achieving confirmed quits ($6,800 vs. $9,700). Conclusions: We found few differences in outcomes between physicians exposed to a brief intervention and physicians who were intensively trained. Future studies should examine how tobacco dependence treatment can be further expanded in Medicaid programs. PMID:24474305

  6. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Stephanie K.; Rogers, Brooke G.; Webb Hooper, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%). Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy. PMID:25429684

  7. Why do smokers try to quit without medication or counselling? A qualitative study with ex-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Objective When tobacco smokers quit, between half and two-thirds quit unassisted: that is, they do not consult their general practitioner (GP), use pharmacotherapy (nicotine-replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline), or phone a quitline. We sought to understand why smokers quit unassisted. Design Qualitative grounded theory study (in-depth interviews, theoretical sampling, concurrent data collection and data analysis). Participants 21 Australian adult ex-smokers (aged 28–68?years; 9 males and 12 females) who quit unassisted within the past 6?months to 2?years. 12 participants had previous experience of using assistance to quit; 9 had never previously used assistance. Setting Community, Australia. Results Along with previously identified barriers to use of cessation assistance (cost, access, lack of awareness or knowledge of assistance, including misperceptions about effectiveness or safety), our study produced new explanations of why smokers quit unassisted: (1) they prioritise lay knowledge gained directly from personal experiences and indirectly from others over professional or theoretical knowledge; (2) their evaluation of the costs and benefits of quitting unassisted versus those of using assistance favours quitting unassisted; (3) they believe quitting is their personal responsibility; and (4) they perceive quitting unassisted to be the ‘right’ or ‘better’ choice in terms of how this relates to their own self-identity or self-image. Deep-rooted personal and societal values such as independence, strength, autonomy and self-control appear to be influencing smokers’ beliefs and decisions about quitting. Conclusions The reasons for smokers’ rejection of the conventional medical model for smoking cessation are complex and go beyond modifiable or correctable problems relating to misperceptions or treatment barriers. These findings suggest that GPs could recognise and respect smokers’ reasons for rejecting assistance, validate and approve their choices, and modify brief interventions to support their preference for quitting unassisted, where preferred. Further research and translation may assist in developing such strategies for use in practice. PMID:25933811

  8. Secondhand smoke in outdoor settings: smokers’ consumption, non-smokers’ perceptions, and attitudes towards smoke-free legislation in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Sureda, Xisca; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; López, María J; Martínez, Cristina; Saltó, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe where smokers smoke outdoors, where non-smokers are exposed outdoors to secondhand smoke (SHS), and attitudes towards smoke-free outdoor areas after the implementation of national smoke-free legislation. Design This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 (n=1307 participants). Setting Barcelona, Spain. Participants Representative, random sample of the adult (?16?years) population. Primary and secondary outcomes Proportion of smoking and prevalence of exposure to SHS in the various settings according to type of enclosure. Percentages of support for outdoor smoke-free policies according to smoking status. Results Smokers reported smoking outdoors most in bars and restaurants (54.8%), followed by outdoor places at work (46.8%). According to non-smokers, outdoor SHS exposure was highest at home (42.5%) and in bars and restaurants (33.5%). Among non-smoking adult students, 90% claimed exposure to SHS on university campuses. There was great support for banning smoking in the majority of outdoor areas, which was stronger among non-smokers than smokers. Over 70% of participants supported smoke-free playgrounds, school and high school courtyards, and the grounds of healthcare centres. Conclusions Extending smoking bans to selected outdoor settings should be considered in further tobacco control interventions to protect non-smokers from SHS exposure and to establish a positive model for youth. The majority of public support for some outdoor smoke-free areas suggests that it is feasible to extend smoking bans to additional outdoor settings. PMID:25854974

  9. Cigarette Price-Minimization Strategies by U.S. Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Pesko, Michael F.; Tynan, Michael A.; Gerzoff, Robert B.; Malarcher, Ann M.; Pechacek, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Smokers may react to cigarette excise tax increases by engaging in price-minimization strategies (i.e., finding ways to reduce the cost of cigarette smoking) rather than by quitting or reducing their cigarette use, thereby reducing the public health benefits of such tax increases. Purpose To evaluate the state and national prevalence of five common cigarette price-minimization strategies and the size of price reductions obtained from these strategies. Methods Using data from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, the prevalence of five common price-minimization strategies by type of strategy and by smoker’s cigarette consumption level were estimated. The price reductions associated with these price-minimization strategies also were evaluated. Analyses took place in November 2012. Results Approximately 55.4% of U.S. adult smokers used at least one of five price-minimization strategies in the previous year, with an average reduction of $1.27 per pack (22.0%). Results varied widely by state. Conclusions Cigarette price-minimization strategies are practiced widely among current smokers, and resulting price reductions are relatively large. Policies that decrease opportunities to effectively apply cigarette price-minimization strategies would increase the public health gains of cigarette excise tax increases. PMID:23597810

  10. Adult Smokers' Responses to “Corrective Statements” Regarding Tobacco Industry Deception

    PubMed Central

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy L.; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Thrasher, James F.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J.; Krugman, Dean M.; Berg, Carla J.; Hardin, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Background To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate “corrective statements” (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. Purpose To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Methods Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280–281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Results Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. Conclusions This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco–related health disparities. PMID:24746372

  11. Strategies to Help a Smoker Who is Struggling to Quit

    PubMed Central

    Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Stopping tobacco use benefits virtually every smoker. Most of the 19% of Americans who smoke want to quit and have tried to do so. Most individual quit attempts fail, but two-thirds of smokers use no treatment when trying to quit. Treating tobacco dependence is one of the most cost-effective actions in health care. With a brief intervention, physicians can prompt smokers to attempt to quit and connect them to evidence-based treatment that includes pharmacotherapy and behavioral support (i.e., counseling). Physicians can link smokers to effective counseling support offered by a free national network of telephone quitlines (1-800-QUIT-NOW). Smokers who use nicotine replacement (NRT), bupropion, or varenicline when trying to quit double their odds of success. The most effective way to use NRT is to combine the long-acting nicotine patch with a shorter-acting product (lozenge, gum, inhaler, nasal spray) and extend treatment beyond 12 weeks. Observational studies have not confirmed case reports of behavior changes associated with varenicline and bupropion, and these drugs’ benefits outweigh potential risks. A chronic disease management model is effective for treating tobacco dependence, which deserves as high a priority in health care systems as treating other chronic diseases like diabetes and hypertension. PMID:23073954

  12. Health care institutions should not exclude smokers from employment.

    PubMed

    Huddle, Thomas S; Kertesz, Stefan G; Nash, Ryan R

    2014-06-01

    Some health care institutions, including academic health centers, have adopted policies excluding smokers from employment. Claims advanced on behalf of these policies include financial savings from reduced health costs and absenteeism as well as advantages consonant with their message of healthy living. The authors suggest that the institutional savings from these policies are speculative and unproven. Also, in settings where large medical schools operate, it is likely to be the poor, including members of minority groups, who, under an employee smoker ban, will lose the opportunity to work for an employer that offers health insurance and other benefits. In response to the incentives created by such bans, some will quit smoking, but most will not. Thus, at the community level, employee smoker bans are more likely to be harmful than beneficial.Although private businesses may rightly choose not to hire smokers in the 19 states where such policies are legal, health care institutions, including academic health centers, should consider hiring choices in light of the values they profess. The traditional values of medicine include service to all persons in need, even when illness results from addiction or unsafe behavior. Secular academic communities require a shared dedication to discovery without requiring strict conformity of private behavior or belief. The authors conclude that for health care institutions, policies of hiring smokers and helping them to quit are both prudent and expressive of the norms of medical care, such as inclusion, compassion, and fellowship, that academic health professionals seek to honor. PMID:24871233

  13. Strategies to help a smoker who is struggling to quit.

    PubMed

    Rigotti, Nancy A

    2012-10-17

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Stopping tobacco use benefits virtually every smoker. Most of the 19% of US residents who smoke want to quit and have tried to do so. Most individual quit attempts fail, but two-thirds of smokers use no treatment when trying to quit. Treating tobacco dependence is one of the most cost-effective actions in health care. With a brief intervention, physicians can prompt smokers to attempt to quit and connect them to evidence-based treatment that includes pharmacotherapy and behavioral support (ie, counseling). Physicians can link smokers to effective counseling support offered by a free national network of telephone quit lines. Smokers who use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, or varenicline when trying to quit double their odds of success. The most effective way to use NRT is to combine the long-acting nicotine patch with a shorter-acting product (lozenge, gum, inhaler, or nasal spray) and extend treatment beyond 12 weeks. Observational studies have not confirmed case reports of behavior changes associated with varenicline and bupropion, and these drugs' benefits outweigh potential risks. A chronic disease management model is effective for treating tobacco dependence, which deserves as high a priority in health care systems as treating other chronic diseases like diabetes and hypertension. PMID:23073954

  14. Mg/Ca and isotopic high resolution record of deep-sea hydrothermal barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, A.-V.; Bojar, H.-P.; Tufar, W.

    2012-04-01

    Barnacles are crustaceans adapted to a sessile existence and cemented to a substrate by a protein complex. Most of the known species inhabit shallow marine environment, less than 2% of the species are found at depths between 100 and 2500 m. The shell of barnacles has a great adaptive significance, the shell of some barnacle species have been already investigated for microstructure. In this study we investigated the shell microstructure as well as the Mg/Ca and stable isotope distribution of barnacles found at a depth of around 2500m at a black smoker from the Manus Spreading centre, north-east of Papua New Guinea. The shell consists of three substructures: an outer layer with pores and aragonite crystals, a massive interior mass and an inner layer with pores. The shell shows grown lines and the outer layer exhibits longitudinal striation from base to apex. The pores have a medium size of 0.8 microns. The size of the calcitic microcrystals are in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 microns, beside, larger aragonite crystals, with size of c. 10 microns are present. The massive interior mass has a compact structure, no pores or channels could be observed. Oxygen stable isotope data of barnacle shell were performed from the centre to the border of the calcitic shells, along profiles. Within one shell, the isotope values show variations of max. 0.6 ‰. The calculated temperatures from the stable isotope data consistently indicate that the barnacles populate sites with low temperature values, up to a few °C. The calculated temperatures from the isotope data are also in agreement with the reported habitat from the North Fiji and Lau Basins, where temperatures of max. 6°C were measured at sites populated by barnacles. Both calculated and measured temperatures of a few degrees indicate that at the sites where barnacles live, hydrothermal fluid input is present, as ambient temperature is around 1.5°C. Electron-microbeam analyses were done along the interior layer of the shell. The shell consists of a low-Mg calcite. The magnesium content varies between 0.1 and 0.85 wt.%.

  15. Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette smokers: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Helmi Ben; Khemiss, Mehdi; Nhari, Saida; Essghaier, Mejda Ben; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of the lung function profiles of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Males aged 35–60 living in Sousse, Tunisia, who have been smoking narghile exclusively for more than 10 narghile-years (n=36) or cigarettes exclusively for more than 10 pack-years (n=106) were recruited to participate in this case–control study. The anthropometric and plethysmographic data were measured according to international recommendations using a body plethysmograph (ZAN 500 Body II, Me?greräte GmbH, Germany). Large-airway-obstructive-ventilatory-defect (LAOVD) was defined as: first second forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) below the lower-limit-of-normal (LLN). Restrictive-ventilatory-defect (RVD) was defined as total lung capacity < LLN. Lung hyperinflation was defined as residual volume > upper-limit-of-normal. Student t-test and ?2 test were used to compare plethysmographic data and profiles of the two groups. Results The subjects in the ENS and ECS groups are well matched in age (45±7 vs. 47±5 years) and height (1.73±0.06 vs. 1.72±0.06 m) and used similar quantities of tobacco (36±22 narghile-years vs. 35±19 pack-years). Compared to the ENS group, the ECS group had significantly lower FEV1 (84±12 vs. 60±21%), FVC (90±12 vs. 76±18%), and FEV1/FVC (99±7 vs. 83±17%). The two groups had similar percentages of RVD (31 vs. 36%), while the ECS group had a significantly higher percentage of LAOVD (8 vs. 58%) and lung hyperinflation (36 vs.57%). Conclusion Chronic exclusive narghile smoking has less adverse effects on pulmonary function tests than chronic exclusive cigarette smoking. PMID:24382307

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

  17. Smoking a virtual cigarette increases craving among smokers.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Weidberg, Sara; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Secades-Villa, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) environments that reproduce smoking-related stimuli for increasing self-reported craving and psychophysiological reactivity in smokers. However, no study to date has attempted to simulate smoking behavior itself by means of VR technology. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of smoking a virtual cigarette on self-reported craving levels and heart rate (HR) in a sample of smokers. Participants were 45 smokers randomly assigned to three VR conditions built into a virtual pub: smoking a virtual cigarette, throwing virtual darts at a virtual dartboard or just being in the virtual pub. Results showed that smoking a virtual cigarette significantly increased self-reported craving and HR when compared to the other two conditions. These results reveal that simulation of smoking behavior in a VR environment functions as an efficacious proximal cue that can be used for triggering craving under the cue-exposure paradigm. PMID:23793042

  18. Mechanisms Linking Socioeconomic Disadvantage and BMI in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Castro, Yessenia; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate a conceptual model of the psychosocial pathways linking socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI) among smokers. Methods A latent variable modeling approach was used to evaluate the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect, and BMI among smokers recruited from the Houston metropolitan area (N = 424). Results A total of 42.4% of participants were obese, with the highest prevalence of obesity among Latinos followed by African Americans. Across all racial/ethnic groups, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect functioned as pathways linking socioeconomic status and BMI. Conclusions Findings indicate the need for interventions that target obesity among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers and provide potential intervention targets for the prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:23985281

  19. Quantitative Assessment of Calcium Profile in Whole Saliva From Smokers and Non-Smokers with Chronic Generalized Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Shashikanth; Kashyap, Rajesh; Maiya, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Measures of in vivo calcium status are important in understanding the mineralization capacity as it is an essential mineral component of both teeth and bone; and also play a vital role in the lipid profile and hormonal balance. Aim To evaluate the existence of any disturbances in calcium metabolism and absorption induced by smoking, by quantitatively assessing the variations in the salivary calcium level between smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis and relating to their periodontal status. Materials and Methods A total of 50 male patients were selected and categorized as Group I (smokers with chronic generalized periodontitis) and Group II (non-smoker/ non-tobacco users with chronic generalized periodontitis). Clinical parameters such as Calculus Index and Community Periodontal Index were assessed. Subsequently two ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected and subjected to biochemical analysis for the estimation of salivary calcium which was carried out in the next 20 min. Results Salivary calcium levels were significantly higher in Group I (2.2700) compared to Group II (1.7260). Higher calculus index and CPI index score were also seen in Group I when compared to Group II. Conclusion Elevated salivary calcium level among the Group I emphasize the decreased calcium absorption efficiency among the smokers. High salivary calcium content hardens plaque more rapidly, indirectly influencing the level of oral hygiene. PMID:26155563

  20. Neuroimaging of marijuana smokers during inhibitory processing: a pilot investigation.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Staci A; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2005-04-01

    Neuropsychological investigations of substance abusers have reported impairments on tasks mediated by the frontal executive system, including functions associated with behavioral inhibition and decision making. The higher order or executive components which are involved in decision making include selective attention and short term storage of information, inhibition of response to irrelevant information, initiation of response to relevant information, self-monitoring of performance, and changing internal and external contingencies in order to "stay the course" towards the ultimate goal. Given the hypothesized role of frontal systems in decision making and the previous evidence that executive dysfunctions and structural brain changes exist in subjects who use illicit drugs, we applied fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques in a pilot investigation of heavy cannabis smokers and matched control subjects while performing a modification of the classic Stroop task. Marijuana smokers demonstrated significantly lower anterior cingulate activity in focal areas of the anterior cingulate cortex and higher midcingulate activity relative to controls, although both groups were able to perform the task within normal limits. Normal controls also demonstrated increased activity within the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the interference condition, while marijuana smokers demonstrated a more diffuse, bilateral pattern of DLPFC activation. Similarly, although both groups performed the task well, marijuana smokers made more errors of commission than controls during the interference condition, which were associated with different brain regions than control subjects. These findings suggest that marijuana smokers exhibit different patterns of BOLD response and error response during the Stroop interference condition compared to normal controls despite similar task performance. Furthermore, DTI measures in frontal regions, which include the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and bilateral anterior cingulate white matter regions, showed no between group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of directional coherence within white matter fiber tracts, but a notable increase in trace, a measure of overall isotropic diffusivity in marijuana smokers compared to controls. Overall, results from the present study indicate significant differences in the magnitude and pattern of signal intensity change within the anterior cingulate and the DLPFC during the Stroop interference subtest in chronic marijuana smokers compared to normal controls. Furthermore, although chronic marijuana smokers were able to perform the task reasonably well, the functional activation findings suggest they utilize different cortical processes from the control subjects in order to do so. Findings from this study are consistent with the notion that substance abusers demonstrate evidence of altered frontal neural function during the performance of tasks that involve inhibition and performance monitoring, which may affect the ability to make decisions. PMID:15795138

  1. Effectiveness of individual counseling for smoking cessation in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asymptomatic smokers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Chen, Yan; Chen, Ping; Liu, Zhijun; Luo, Hong; Cai, Shan

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of individual counseling for smoking cessation in China. The present study evaluated the efficacy of individual counseling in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asymptomatic smokers. This prospective randomized study evaluated 85 smokers with COPD and 105 asymptomatic smokers with normal lung function. The individuals were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. Subjects in the intervention group were provided with individual cognitive counseling based on face-to-face individual consultation, self-help materials and nine telephone follow-ups. Subjects in the control group were provided with simple smoking cessation advice. The smoking status for all subjects and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) for COPD patients were assessed at baseline, week 4 and month 6. The COPD patient exacerbations during the 6 months were recorded. In the total study population, individual counseling resulted in higher abstinence rates compared with those in the control: Intervention vs. control, 23.4 vs. 10.4% (P=0.007), respectively. Similar results were observed in the smokers with COPD: Intervention vs. control, 40.5 vs. 18.6% (P=0.027), respectively. However, for asymptomatic smokers, the effect of individual counseling was identified to be statistically insignificant: Intervention vs. control, 9.6 vs. 3.8% (P=0.230), respectively. SGRQ scores and COPD exacerbations were significantly improved in patients who abstained from smoking compared with those in the patients who failed to stop smoking. Airway obstruction, quitting motivation and individual counseling were predictors associated with smoking cessation. Airway obstruction was the most significant predictor of smoking cessation (odds ratio, 4.215; 95% confidence interval, 2.215-7.865). The results of the present study show that individual counseling is an effective method for smoking cessation, particularly in COPD patients. However, its efficacy in asymptomatic smokers requires confirmation in further studies. PMID:24520273

  2. Effectiveness of individual counseling for smoking cessation in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asymptomatic smokers

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JUAN; CHEN, YAN; CHEN, PING; LIU, ZHIJUN; LUO, HONG; CAI, SHAN

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of individual counseling for smoking cessation in China. The present study evaluated the efficacy of individual counseling in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asymptomatic smokers. This prospective randomized study evaluated 85 smokers with COPD and 105 asymptomatic smokers with normal lung function. The individuals were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. Subjects in the intervention group were provided with individual cognitive counseling based on face-to-face individual consultation, self-help materials and nine telephone follow-ups. Subjects in the control group were provided with simple smoking cessation advice. The smoking status for all subjects and the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) for COPD patients were assessed at baseline, week 4 and month 6. The COPD patient exacerbations during the 6 months were recorded. In the total study population, individual counseling resulted in higher abstinence rates compared with those in the control: Intervention vs. control, 23.4 vs. 10.4% (P=0.007), respectively. Similar results were observed in the smokers with COPD: Intervention vs. control, 40.5 vs. 18.6% (P=0.027), respectively. However, for asymptomatic smokers, the effect of individual counseling was identified to be statistically insignificant: Intervention vs. control, 9.6 vs. 3.8% (P=0.230), respectively. SGRQ scores and COPD exacerbations were significantly improved in patients who abstained from smoking compared with those in the patients who failed to stop smoking. Airway obstruction, quitting motivation and individual counseling were predictors associated with smoking cessation. Airway obstruction was the most significant predictor of smoking cessation (odds ratio, 4.215; 95% confidence interval, 2.215–7.865). The results of the present study show that individual counseling is an effective method for smoking cessation, particularly in COPD patients. However, its efficacy in asymptomatic smokers requires confirmation in further studies. PMID:24520273

  3. Hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers,

    SciTech Connect

    Rona, P.A.; Bostrom, K.; Laubier, L.; Smith, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    This book examines research on the description and interpretation of hydrothermal and associated phenomena at seafloor spreading centers. An interdisciplinary overview of the subject is presented, including geological, geophysical, geochemical, and biological discoveries. The implications of the discoveries for understanding the earth's heat transfer, geochemical mass balances and cycles, mineralization, and biological adaptation are discussed. Topics considered include geologic setting (e.g., the four dimensions of the spreading axis, geological processes of the mid-ocean ridge), hydrothermal convection (e.g., oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies, the basic physics of water penetration into hot rock), Iceland and oceanic ridges (e.g., chemical evidence from Icelandic geothermal systems, the physical environment of hydrothermal systems), mass balances and cycles (e.g., reduced gases and bacteria in hydrothermal fluids, the effects of hydrothermal activity on sedimentary organic matter), ferromanganese deposits, hydrothermal mineralization, and the biology of hydrothermal vents.

  4. Mesozoic hydrothermal alteration associated with gold mineralization in the Mercur district, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.N.; Parry, W.T. )

    1990-09-01

    K/Ar dates and chemical data show that a Mesozoic gold-bearing hydrothermal system altered black shales of the Mississippian Great Blue Limestone throughout an area encompassing the Mercur gold district, Utah. K/Ar dates of illite veins and illite-rich, clay-sized separates of altered shales that are enriched in Au, As, Hg, Sc, and other heavy metals indicate that hydrothermal activity occurred from 193 to 122 Ma. Several ages from within the Mercur district cluster near 160 Ma and may date the minimum age of gold mineralization.

  5. Coronary CT angiography findings based on smoking status: Do ex-smokers and never-smokers share a low probability of developing coronary atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Yi, Minkyung; Chun, Eun Ju; Lee, Min Su; Lee, Jaebong; Choi, Sang Il

    2015-12-01

    The relationship of coronary artery disease (CAD) in ex-smokers has not been elucidated, although smoking is considered to be one of the major risk factors of CAD. We investigate subclinical coronary atherosclerosis (SCA) in asymptomatic subjects with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), according to smoking status, and determine whether ex-smokers share a low probability of developing CAD with never-smokers. We retrospectively enrolled 6930 self-referred asymptomatic adults who underwent both coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and CCTA. The prevalence and characteristics of SCA were assessed according to smoking status (never-, ex- and current smokers). After adjusting for variable risk factors, we used multivariate logistic regression for adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of high CACS (>100), SCA (any plaque), significant stenosis (>50 % in luminal stenosis) and each plaque type (non-calcified, mixed and calcified plaque) among the three groups. The prevalence of SCA was highest in the ex-smokers (35.4 %) and the prevalence of significant stenosis in ex-smokers (6.9 %) was as high as in current smokers (6.4 %). However, after adjusting for variable risk factors, SCA was significantly correlated with both ex-smokers (AOR; 1.21) and current smokers (AOR; 1.25), whereas significant stenosis was correlated only with current smokers (AOR; 1.91). The association between SCA and ex-smokers is as strong as with current smokers, although significant stenosis is only correlated with current smokers; thus, not only quitting smoking but also never initiating smoking would be helpful to reduce the progression of the SCA. PMID:26259628

  6. College Student Smokers' Cognitive Appraisal of High-Risk Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Amy L.; Kulesza, Magdalena; Patterson, Scott M.; Terlecki, Meredith A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Students who smoke are more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as binge drinking and unprotected sex (Schnieder and Morris, "Environ Behav." 1999; 23:575-591). The goals of the present study were to determine whether smokers assess these behaviors as lower risk than nonsmokers, and if smoking rate influences risk perceptions.…

  7. Does every US smoker bear the same cigarette tax?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Malarcher, Ann; O’Halloran, Alissa; Kruger, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate state cigarette excise tax pass-through rates for selected price-minimizing strategies. Design Multivariate regression analysis of current smokers from a stratified, national, dual-frame telephone survey. Setting United States. Participants A total of 16 542 adult current smokers aged 18 years or older. Measurements Cigarette per pack prices paid with and without coupons were obtained for pack versus carton purchase, use of generic brands versus premium brands, and purchase from Indian reservations versus outside Indian reservations. Findings The average per pack prices paid differed substantially by price-minimizing strategy. Smokers who used any type of price-minimizing strategies paid substantially less than those who did not use these strategies (P < 0.05). Premium brand users who purchased by pack in places outside Indian reservations paid the entire amount of the excise tax, together with an additional premium of 7–10 cents per pack for every $1 increase in excise tax (pass-through rate of 1.07–1.10, P < 0.05). In contrast, carton purchasers, generic brand users or those who were likely to make their purchases on Indian reservations paid only 30–83 cents per pack for every $1 tax increase (pass-through rate of 0.30–0.83, P < 0.05). Conclusions Many smokers in the United States are able to avoid the full impact of state excise tax on cost of smoking by buying cartons, using generic brands and buying from Indian reservations. PMID:24861973

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF COUGH FOR ENHANCING MUCUS CLEARANCE IN ASYMPTOMATIC SMOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using monodisperse aerosols radiolabeled with 99mTc, we studied the effectiveness of ough and rapid inhalations for clearing mucus in en asymptomatic smokers. On three eparate study days, each subject breathed 5 um (MMAD) 99mTc-iron oxide particles under ontrolled breathing condi...

  9. Putting It on the Line: Telephone Counseling for Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedeschi, Gary J.; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Anderson, Christopher M.; Cummins, Sharon; Ribner, Neil G.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an adolescent counseling intervention used by the California Smokers' Helpline and test in the largest randomized trials to date. In this study, more than 1,400 teen clients were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received telephone counseling…

  10. [Smoking cessation in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G

    2014-12-01

    One out of two smokers who smoke throughout their lifetime will die from a disease related to smoking. Tobacco smoking therefore represents a major global public health issue. Smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Projections for 2020 indicate that by then, COPD will have become the third cause of death and the fifth cause of disability worldwide. Stopping smoking reduces the risk of developing COPD and is an essential treatment for this inflammatory disease. Smoking cessation decreases the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, number of hospitalizations, and decline in FEV1, as well as exacerbation frequency and overall mortality. Among the patients, 38-77% with COPD are smokers. Their daily cigarette consumption and level of nicotine dependence are often high. The combination of high intensity behavioral interventions and medication treatments (nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, bupropion) is the most effective strategy for smokers with COPD. In contrast, behavioral interventions without medication are not more effective than simple advice to stop. Two factors seem to predict the success of the attempt to quit in smokers with COPD: a strong motivation to quit and the use of smoking cessation medications. PMID:25496790

  11. The subgingival microbiome of clinically healthy current and never smokers.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew R; Preshaw, Philip M; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Dabdoub, Shareef M; Rahman, Anis; Kumar, Purnima S

    2015-01-01

    Dysbiotic oral bacterial communities have a critical role in the etiology and progression of periodontal diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which smoking increases risk for disease by influencing the composition of the subgingival microbiome in states of clinical health. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 200 systemically and periodontally healthy smokers and nonsmokers. 16S pyrotag sequencing was preformed generating 1,623,713 classifiable sequences, which were compared with a curated version of the Greengenes database using the quantitative insights into microbial ecology pipeline. The subgingival microbial profiles of smokers and never-smokers were different at all taxonomic levels, and principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clustering of the microbial communities based on smoking status. Smokers demonstrated a highly diverse, pathogen-rich, commensal-poor, anaerobic microbiome that is more closely aligned with a disease-associated community in clinically healthy individuals, suggesting that it creates an at-risk-for-harm environment that is primed for a future ecological catastrophe. PMID:25012901

  12. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  13. Factors in Nonadherence to Quitline Services: Smoker Characteristics Explain Little

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Emily K.; Levinson, Arnold H.; Deaton, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Quitlines offer evidence-based, multisession coaching support for smoking cessation in the 50 U.S. states, Canada, and several other countries. Smokers who enroll in quitline services have, "ipso facto," shown readiness to attempt to quit, but noncompletion of coaching services appears widespread and has not been widely investigated.…

  14. Smoking Intensity among Nigerian Secondary Schools Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhonde, Henry O.; Aluede, Oyaziwo

    2007-01-01

    This study examined smoking intensity among secondary school adolescent smokers. A total of 800 students, made up of 685 males and 115 females who have at least tasted a cigarette once, from twenty secondary schools (5 private and 15 public secondary schools) in Benin City, Nigeria participated in the study. A questionnaire was used in collecting…

  15. 2003 Geological Society of America. For permission to copy, contact Copyright Permissions, GSA, or editing@geosociety.org. Geology; February 2003; v. 31; no. 2; p. 119122; 4 figures. 119

    E-print Network

    Chadwick, Bill

    on ridge-crest hydrothermal venting and ridge-transform dynamics is investigated using a June 1­7, 2000 were deployed in black smoker chimneys at the Vent1 and Plume hydrothermal fields along the southern are not the only causes of change to hydrothermal systems. Keywords: hydrothermal vents, earthquakes, fluid

  16. Experiments in Fluids manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Crone, Timothy J.

    jet-like and plume-like behavior. Keywords Black smoker plumes · Hydrothermal vents · Optical expression of these hydrothermal systems are vent fields where hydrothermal fluids enter the ocean after in Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems Received: date / Accepted: date Abstract Evidence suggests that fluid flow

  17. Plagioclase and epidote buffering of cation ratios in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids: Experimental results in and near the supercritical region

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, M.E.; Seyfried, W.E. Jr. ); Janecky, D.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Experiments have been performed with Na-Ca-K-Cl fluids of seawater chlorinity and diabase, basalt, and plagioclase bearing mineral mixtures at 350-425{degree}C and 250-400 bars to help constrain hydrothermal alteration processes at mid-ocean ridges. Dissolved Ca, Na, and pH for all experiments responded systematically to differences in dissolved SiO{sub 2} concentrations and the compositions of plagioclase reactants. Diabase alteration at low fluid/rock mass ratios (0.5 to 1) produces fluids undersaturated with respect to quartz during hydration of primary olivine and orthopyroxene, whereas basalt alteration under similar conditions yields fluids slightly supersaturated with respect to quartz during breakdown of glass to smectite and amphibole. Fluid chemistry in all experiments appears to approach a partial equilibrium state with the albite and anorthite components in plagioclase and approaches a pH consistent with plagioclase alteration to epidote. Trace element data from vent fluids, specifically B and Sr, together with major element chemistry, provides evidence that the reaction zone for black-smoker fluids at mid-ocean ridges is composed of only slightly altered diabase and is characterized by small amounts of epidote, nearly fresh plagioclase and clinopyroxene, and partially to completely hydrated olivine and orthopyroxene. Using equilibrium between plagioclase, the dominant reactant, and epidote, the dominant reaction product in experiments, the authors estimate that temperatures in reaction zones are in excess of 375{degree}C for most vent systems. These temperatures are higher than measured vent temperatures, suggesting that hot spring fluids commonly loose heat during ascent to the sea floor.

  18. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  19. A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Responses to Messages Discouraging Dual Tobacco Product Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried…

  20. Rapid Communication Gene Expression in Lung Adenocarcinomas of Smokers and Nonsmokers

    E-print Network

    . Our goal in this paper was to determine if AC in smokers and nonsmokers represents the same genetic in a field of genetically altered tissue. There were some similarities in gene expression in smokers and non whether AC in nonsmok- ers is the same genetic disease as in smokers. DNA microarray technology is capable

  1. Psychosocial and Behavioral Characteristics Among Subgroups of Nondaily College Student Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Devan R; Pulvers, Kim; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-01-01

    Nondaily smoking is becoming common in young adults and there appear to be different characteristics associated with past month smoking frequency among nondaily smokers. The present study examines behavioral and psychosocial correlates of smoking among subgroups of nondaily college student smokers (N = 80; 18–25 years of age) attending a large, public university. Nondaily smokers were categorized based on the frequency of days smoked in the past month and were divided into two subgroups: 1–5 days and 6–29 days. A quarter of nondaily smokers considered themselves as a smoker and significantly more 6–29 nondaily smokers were identified as a smoker and smoked more cigarettes per day (CPD). Almost half (45%) of nondaily smokers have attempted to quit smoking completely and 71% of the 6–29 nondaily smokers reported significantly higher quit attempts. The 6–29 nondaily smokers had significantly higher perceived risk related to smoking. Self-efficacy to abstain from smoking was significantly higher for 1–5 nondaily smokers. These results suggest heterogeneity among subgroups of nondaily college student smokers exists in a number of behavioral and psychosocial factors. Prevention and cessation strategies may be improved by considering frequency of nondaily smoking and targeting subgroups differently. PMID:25741181

  2. Anticipation of Smoking Sufficiently Dampens Stress Reactivity in Nicotine-Deprived Smokers

    E-print Network

    Green, C. Shawn

    Anticipation of Smoking Sufficiently Dampens Stress Reactivity in Nicotine-Deprived Smokers Daniel examined the effects of anticipation and actual smoking on stress reactivity in 34 deprived smokers the task once, smokers anticipated smoking a cigarette resting in front of them while they completed

  3. Reward and Affective Regulation in Depression-Prone Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Wileyto, E. Paul; Ashare, Rebecca; Cuevas, Jocelyn; Strasser, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a disproportionately high smoking prevalence among individuals who are prone to depression. While depression has been conceptualized as a disorder of dysregulated positive affect and disrupted reward processing, little research has been conducted to determine the role of smoking in these processes among depression-prone smokers. Methods Depression-prone smokers (DP+; n = 34) and smokers not depression-prone (DP-; n=49) underwent two laboratory sessions, once while smoking abstinent and once while smoking ad-libitum, to assess the relative reinforcing value of smoking and reward sensitivity. Using experience sampling methods, participants completed self-report measures of subjective reward, positive affect, and negative affect across three days while smoking as usual and three days while smoking abstinent. Results DP+ were two times more likely to work for cigarette puffs versus money in a progressive ratio, choice task (OR 2.05; CI 95% 1.04 to 4.06, p=0.039) compared to DP-. Reward sensitivity as measured by the signal detection task did not yield any significant findings. Mixed models regressions revealed a 3-way interaction (depression group, smoking phase, and time) for subjective reward, negative affect and positive affect. For all three of these outcomes, the slopes for DP- and DP+ differed significantly from each other (p's < 0.05), and the effect of smoking (vs. abstinence) over time was greater for DP+ than DP- smokers (p's <0.05). Conclusions These findings indicate that the effects of smoking on reward and positive affect regulation are specific to DP+ smokers and highlight novel targets for smoking cessation treatment in this population. PMID:24947541

  4. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  5. To what extent do smokers plan quit attempts?

    PubMed Central

    Larabie, L

    2005-01-01

    Design: Face-to-face in depth semi-structured interviews. Participants: 146 smoking and ex-smoking patients within a family medicine practice were recruited by means of screening 700 consecutive patients (14 years of age and older) and inviting eligible patients to participate. To be eligible, patients had to have smoked a minimum of five cigarettes per day for at least six months in their lives and made at least one serious quit attempt that lasted at least 24 hours. There were no refusals. Ex-smokers (n = 67) were defined as those who had not smoked for six months. The remainder were classified as smokers (n = 79). Measurements: Participants were asked to describe, in their own words, their most recent quit attempt and whether they had planned the quit attempt in advance, what were the triggers, and how long they abstained. A quit attempt was defined as planned if smokers set a quit date at some future time point. An unplanned quit attempt was defined as a sudden decision not to smoke any more cigarettes including those that might be remaining in the current pack. Information was also collected on methods used to quit and reasons for quitting. Results: A majority (51.6%) of quit attempts were reported as being unplanned. The figure was higher for ex-smokers than for smokers (67.1% v 36.7%, p < 0.001). Most quit attempts were unaided (64%) and made for reasons of health (64%). Conclusions: The finding that so many quit attempts are unprepared suggests that models of smoking cessation should place greater emphasis on the dynamic nature of motivation to quit. This is an area that requires further investigation. PMID:16319368

  6. Lithium Isotopic Composition of Intra-Oceanic Arc Hydrothermal Fluids - Initial Results From the Tonga Kermadec Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoth, G. J.; Chan, L.; Butterfield, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Active hydrothermal venting has recently been discovered on submarine volcanoes along the Tonga-Kermadec Arc. Li isotopic compositions of high temperature fluids from mid-ocean ridge systems have been well studied as an indicator of seawater-basalt exchange. we present here initial Li isotope data for hydrothermal fluids collected from the volcanoes along the arc: Volcano 1 and Volcano 19 on the Tonga arc and Monowai, Giggenbach, Macauley, Brothers, and Healy along the Kermadec arc. The system features shallow venting depths, phase separation, magmatic degassing, and pervasive diffuse flows. Black smoker venting occurs on Volcano 19 (maximum fluid temperature 245°C) and Brothers NW vents (290°C). ?7Li (relative to L-SVEC) of high temperature end-member fluids at these two locations are 8.2 and 7.2‰ respectively. These isotopic values are in the typical range for mid-ocean ridge crest hot springs, which average 7± 1‰ globally (Bray, 2001). The similarity in fluid composition may reflect comparable Li isotopic compositions of arc volcanic substrates and mid-ocean ridge basalts. Most low temperature fluids (<70°C, e.g. at Brothers cones, Healy, and Giggenbach) are variably enriched in Li and have ?7Li between 15‰ and the seawater value (32‰). Only Monowai shows slight Li depletion and higher ?7Li (33.5‰) than seawater. The trends of Li versus Mg vary widely between sites, reflecting very different water/rock ratios. However, high and low temperature fluids converge to a general linear relationship between ?7Li and Mg/Li and Cl/Li suggesting that the diffuse flows are essentially the product of subsurface mixing of ambient seawater and high temperature vent fluids. The compositions of diffuse flows differ from that of Baby Bare, a 60°C warm spring water from a ridge flank hydrothermal system in that the latter has lost both Mg and Li as a result of low temperature reaction (Wheat and Mottl, 2000). High ?7Li (33‰) relative to Mg/Li and Cl/Li has been observed at Macauley and, together with high Mg and Si, is consistent with acid leaching of chemically weathered rocks. Several sites (Volcanoes 1 and 19, Monowai, Giggenbach and Brothers) provide evidence of phase separation, but Li isotopic fractionation associated with this process appears to be insignificant. Available data also do not indicate anomalous composition in samples containing magmatic volatiles. Our initial results thus suggest that high temperature vent fluids from the Tonga-Kermadec main arc have similar Li isotope compositions as those from mid-ocean ridge systems. Further work is in progress to investigate the nature of diffuse flows. References: Bray, A.M., 2001, PhD thesis, University of New Hampshire. Wheat, C.G., Mottl, M.J., 2000. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 629-642.

  7. COMPARISON OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION IN NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS OBTAINED FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several studies have demonstrated that individuals who smoke have greater susceptibility to influenza infections, as well as other respiratory virus infections, than non-smokers, yet the role of airway epithelial cells in this response is not clear. To determine whether in vivo t...

  8. Perceived Risks of Certain Types of Cancer and Heart Disease among Asian American Smokers and Non-Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Feeley, Rosemary M.; Thomas, Priya

    2002-01-01

    Assessed Asian Americans' knowledge levels regarding the health risks of tobacco use. Surveys of Korean, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Cambodian smokers and nonsmokers indicated that most respondents recognized the association between smoking and increased risk for lung, mouth, throat, and esophageal cancer and heart disease. There were significant…

  9. Differences between nicotine-abstinent smokers and non-smokers in terms of visuospatial attention and inhibition before and after single-blind nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-09-26

    The cholinergic system is implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, however the exact role is still unclear. Two key mechanisms in visuospatial attention are bias and disengagement. Bias refers to neuronal signals that enhance the sensitivity of the sensory cortex, disengagement is the decoupling of attention. Previous studies suggest that nicotine affects disengagement and (related) inhibition. However the exact relation is still unknown. Furthermore, nicotine-abstinence in 'healthy' smokers may resemble some anomalies of visuospatial attention and inhibition as seen in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Smokers and non-smokers (32 male students) performed in a visuospatial cueing (VSC) task, to assess bias and disengagement, and in a stop-signal task (SST) to assess inhibition. It was expected that nicotine abstinent smokers compared to non-smokers, would show poor disengagement (indicated by an enhanced validity effect) and poor inhibitory control (indicated by an enhanced stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)). It was expected that nicotine would positively affect disengagement and inhibition: hypothesis 1 stated that this effect would be larger in smokers as opposed to non-smokers, in terms of smoking-related deficient inhibitory control. Hypothesis 2 stated the exact opposite, in terms of drug-tolerance. Results indicated no baseline differences. Nicotine enhanced inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers. Integrating the results, nicotine-abstinent smokers do not seem to resemble ADHD patients, and do not seem to smoke in order to self-medicate a pre-existing deficit pertaining to mechanisms of visuospatial attention and inhibition. Nicotine may affect inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers, consistent with a drug-tolerance account. PMID:25050819

  10. Magmatic contributions to hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muffler, L. J. Patrick; Hedenquist, Jeffrey W.; Kesler, Stephen E.; Izawa, Eiji

    Although there is agreement that many hydrothermal systems in the upper crust derive their thermal energy from magmas, debate continues over the extent to which magmas contribute water, metals, and sulfur to hydrothermal systems. A multidisciplinary seminar was held November 10-16, 1991, in Ebino and Kagoshima, Japan, to establish current understanding about this topic and to explore the major unanswered questions and the most promising research directions. The thirty-eight participants were from Japan (eighteen), the U.S. (thirteen), Canada and New Zealand (two each), and England, the Philippines, and Russia (one each). Disciplines represented were volcanology, geochemistry (volcanic-gas, water, isotopes, experimental, and modeling), igneous petrology, geothermal geology, economic geology, fluid-inclusion study, geophysics, and physical modeling.

  11. Second Primary Lung Cancers: Smokers v. Nonsmokers after Resection of Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ripley, R. Taylor; McMillan, Robert R.; Sima, Camelia S.; Hasan, Saad M.; Ahmad, Usman; Lou, Feiran; Jones, David R.; Rusch, Valerie W.; Rizk, Nabil P.; Huang, James

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Smokers have a higher risk of developing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) than nonsmokers, but the relative risk of developing second primary lung cancer (SPLC) is unclear. Determining the risk of SPLC in smokers versus nonsmokers after treatment of an initial cancer may help guide recommendations for long-term surveillance. Methods Patients who underwent resection for stage I adenocarcinoma were identified from a prospectively maintained institutional database. Patients with other histologies, synchronous lesions, or who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy were excluded. SPLC were identified based on Martini criteria. Results From 1995 to 2012, 2151 patients underwent resection for stage I adenocarcinoma (308 never-smokers [14%] and 1843 ever-smokers [86%]). Thirty never-smokers (9.9%) and 145 ever-smokers (7.8%) developed SPLC. SPLC was detected by surveillance computed tomography scan in the majority of patients (161; 92%). In total, 87% of never-smokers and 83% of ever-smokers had stage I SPLC. There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of SPLC between never-smokers and ever-smokers (p=0.18) in a competing-risks analysis. The cumulative incidence at 10 years was 20.3% for never-smokers and 18.2% for ever-smokers. Conclusions Although smokers have a greater risk of developing NSCLC, the risk of developing a second primary cancer after resection of stage I lung cancer is comparable between smokers and never smokers. The majority of these second primary cancers are detectable at a curable stage. Ongoing postoperative surveillance should be recommended for all patients regardless of smoking status. PMID:25038021

  12. Black Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is a Black Eye? Tweet Black eye is a phrase used to describe bruising ... dark bruising in the tissue. What Is a Black Eye? Black Eye Symptoms What Causes a Black ...

  13. Tobacco Use by College Students: A Comparison of Daily and Nondaily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Berg, Carla J.; Champion, Heather; Helme, Donald W.; O’Brien, Mary Claire; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore demographics, contextual factors, and health risk behaviors associated with nondaily smoking by college students. Methods In fall 2005, a random sample of 4,100 students completed an online survey. Results 29% reported current smoking, of which 70% were nondaily smokers. Compared to daily smokers, nondaily smokers were younger, African American (compared to White), had mothers with higher education, belonged to Greek organizations, and attended private (vs. public) schools. Nondaily smokers were less likely to have used illicit drugs. Conclusions Nondaily and daily smokers differed on several demographic and contextual factors, but reported mostly similar health risk behaviors. PMID:22370259

  14. Synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide by single-step soft hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar Bokinala, Kiran; CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608; Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara ; Pollet, M.; Artemenko, A.; Miclau, M.; Grozescu, I; Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara

    2013-02-15

    Lithium cobalt double oxide LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized at 220 Degree-Sign C by soft hydrothermal method using Co(OH){sub 2} and LiOH as precursors, LiOH/NaOH as mineralizers and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The soft hydrothermal synthesis method offers the dual advantage of a much lower synthesis time and a higher purity in comparison with other synthesis methods. The compound was identified by X-ray diffraction and its purity was checked by magnetic and electron magnetic resonance measurements. The grain morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and an exponential growth of particle size with synthesis time was observed. - Graphical abstract: Concave cuboctohedrons obtained after 60 h reaction time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimized soft hydrothermal method for a fast synthesis of high purity LiCoO{sub 2} compound is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both lamellar and cuboctahedral particles could be stabilized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary phases content is lower than 0.1%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close to surface defects were evidenced using EMR.

  15. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Do, Kathy T; Galván, Adriana

    2015-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers. PMID:25887154

  16. Hydrothermal vent complexes associated with sill intrusionsin sedimentarybasins

    E-print Network

    Podladchikov, Yuri

    Hydrothermal vent complexes associated with sill intrusionsin sedimentarybasins BJIbRNJAMTVEIT1 sedimentarybasinscause strongthermal perturbations and frequentlycause extensivehydrothermalactivity.Hydrothermal vent strata surrounding a central vent complex. comprisingmultiplesandstone dykes, pipes, and hydrothermal

  17. The natural history of light smokers: A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Biener, Lois; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Among cigarette smokers, lower levels of consumption, defined as smoking fewer cigarettes per day (CPD) or not smoking daily, are becoming more common. The relationship between cigarette consumption and smoking frequency (daily or nondaily) is not well characterized, and the natural history of light smoking (defined here as smoking ?10 CPD) is poorly understood. Methods: We assessed changes in CPD and smoking frequency over time among light smokers (?10 CPD) and very light smokers (?5 CPD), using a population-based longitudinal survey of 3,083 adult smokers in Massachusetts who were interviewed three times over a 4-year follow-up period (in 2000–2001, 2002–2003, and 2005–2006). We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with light smokers’ progression to heavier smoking or smoking reduction/quitting. Results: Seventy percent of very light smokers were nondaily smokers. Very light nondaily smokers differed from very light daily smokers by younger age, higher socioeconomic status, a social smoking pattern, later smoking initiation, less evidence of nicotine addiction, and more recent and planned cessation efforts. Very light nondaily smokers and smokers consuming 6–10 CPD were more likely to remain in the same smoking category and were less likely to increase consumption than were very light daily smokers. Factors independently associated with increasing consumption among very light smokers were smoking daily, nicotine dependence, White ethnicity, social smoking, and having more friends who smoked; among smokers consuming 6–10 CPD, male gender and lack of quitting self-efficacy were associated with increasing consumption. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that most light smoking is not a gateway to heavier smoking. PMID:19264862

  18. Aesthetic Depigmentation of Gingival Smoker's Melanosis Using Carbon Dioxide Lasers

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Luis Silva; Costa, José Adriano; da Câmara, Marco Infante; Albuquerque, Rui; Martins, Marco; Pacheco, José Júlio; Salazar, Filomena; Figueira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Melanic pigmentation results from melanin produced by the melanocytes present in the basal layer of the oral epithelium. One of the most common causes of oral pigmentation is smoker melanosis, a condition associated with the melanocyte stimulation caused by cigarette smoke. This paper aims to illustrate the use of a carbon dioxide laser in the removal of the gingival melanic pigmentation for aesthetic reasons in a 27-year-old female patient with history of a smoking habit. The carbon dioxide laser vaporisation was performed on the gingival mucosa with effective and quick results and without any complications or significant symptoms after the treatment. We conclude that a carbon dioxide laser could be a useful, effective, and safe instrument to treat the aesthetic complications caused by oral smoker melanosis. PMID:25954535

  19. Imaging-based assessment of dyspnea in cigarette smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, Jeffrey R.; Chang, Paul J.; Schwartz, David A.; Hunninghake, Gary W.; Helmers, Richard; Mori, Masaki

    1994-05-01

    Patients with pulmonary fibrosis frequently smoke cigarettes. The cause of dyspnea in these patients is often complex because of the coexistence of multiple disease processes. We investigated 10 cigarette smokers with pulmonary fibrosis who were referred for evaluation of new onset or worsening dyspnea. Chest radiographs and pulmonary function tests were obtained in addition to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). In those patients with HRCT evidence of both diseases, spirometry and lung volumes were most often normal. Although plain films provided a reasonable assessment of fibrosis, they underestimated the severity of emphysema. Quantitation of both emphysema and fibrosis by HRCT was reproducible and correlated with key pulmonary function tests. Our findings indicate that the HRCT scan is a useful diagnostic test in patients with pulmonary fibrosis who are also cigarette smokers.

  20. Constant-load exercise decreases the serum concentration of myeloperoxidase in healthy smokers and smokers with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Holz, Olaf; Roepcke, Stefan; Watz, Henrik; Tegtbur, Uwe; Lahu, Gezim; Hohlfeld, Jens M

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing demand for easily accessible biomarkers related to pathophysiological processes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Short-term intense exercise is known to increase the peripheral blood levels of cytokines. Therefore, we tested the potential and the repeatability of an exercise challenge to amplify seven serum biomarkers (interleukin 6 [IL6], C-reactive protein [CRP], myeloperoxidase [MPO], leukotriene B4, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and von Willebrand factor [VWF]) in smokers with and without COPD. Twenty-three smokers with moderate COPD (GOLD 2) and 23 sex- and age-matched healthy smokers underwent up to 30-minute submaximal, constant-load exercise (75% of maximum work load) on two occasions separated by 4 weeks (second challenge n=19/20). Serum samples were obtained before, 5 minutes after the start, at the end of exercise (maximum 30 minutes or until exhaustion), and after additional 20 minutes of rest. The median (interquartile range) exercise time until exhaustion in the two challenges was 10.0 (4.0) minutes and 10.0 (8.0) minutes in smokers with COPD and 22.0 (16.0) minutes and 26.5 (14.5) minutes in healthy smokers. The exercise challenge significantly increased the serum concentrations of IL6 and VWF, but decreased the concentrations of MPO. Healthy smokers showed a significantly greater increase (at the end of exercise compared to before exercise) in IL6 (P=0.01) and a larger decline (P=0.03) in MPO. The overall profile of the serum markers during the exercise challenge was shown to be repeatable in the second challenge. In summary, intense load exercise is capable of changing the concentration of inflammatory and endothelial function markers. Especially, the decline in the level of MPO, a marker closely related to cardiovascular risk, appears to be of clinical interest, as the exercise-induced decline might be related to the beneficial effects of physical activity in general. PMID:26229458

  1. Iron isotope fractionation in sulfides: constraints on mechanisms of sulfide formations in hydrothermal and magmatic systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, Veniamin; Soultanov, Dilshod

    2010-05-01

    Data on non-traditional stable isotope fractionations (e.g., Fe, Cu) provide further insight into mechanisms of sulfide mineralization. Correct interpretation of these data is impossible without knowledge on equilibrium isotopic fractionation factors of sulfides. We present data on iron isotope fractionation factors (?-factors) of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and mackinawite (FeS). Iron ?-factors for chalcopyrite were derived from synchrotron experimental data on inelastic nuclear resonant x-ray scattering (INRXS) [1] using the method described elsewhere [2,3]. The ?-factors for mackinawite were found from the Moessbauer second-order Doppler shift data [4] by the method presented in [5]. The temperature dependence of the iron ?-factors are fitted by following third-order polynomials: 103ln?cpy = 0.82560x - 0.01298x2 + 0.0005246x3 103ln?mcw = 0.2542x - 0.0001847x2 + 2.072×103x3 where x=106/T2 Using these data along with ?-factors for pyrite and troilite [3,6], we compared iron isotope fractionation between pyrite and chalcopyrite in hydrothermal and magmatic conditions. Rouxel et al. [7] studied iron isotope of seafloor of hydrothermal vents in detail. They found that pyrite is enriched in light iron isotope relative to chalcopyrite in the case of black smoker Bio 9. This result evidences absence of iron isotope equilibrium between pyrite and chalcopyrite, because in equilibrium pyrite is enriched in heavy iron isotope (?py > ?cpy). Quantitatively, iron isotope fractionation between chalcolpyrite and pyrite is very close to equilibrium iron isotope fractionation between chalcolpyrite and FeS phase (mackinawite or troilite). This agrees the mechanism of pyrite formation through intermidient FeS phase if to assume isotopic equilibrium between the FeS phase and dissolved iron and no isotopic effect in the final stage of conversion FeS to FeS2 (pyrite). Another iron isotope fractionation was observed between pyrite and chalcopyrite in the case of the Cu-Au porphyry deposit of Crasberg igneous complex (GIC) [8]. In this case, pyrite is enriched in heavy iron isotope relative to chalcopyrite that is in agreement with direction of iron isotope fractionation in equilibrium. Using these data [8] and appropriate iron ?-factors obtained from INRXS- and Moessbauer experiments, we estimated temperatures of pyrite and chalcopyrite formation. We obtained reasonable temperatures varying between 180 and 650oC for different intrusions of GIC, which are in agreement with other estimations [9,10] Conclusions: Iron ?-factors for chalcopyrite CuFeS2 were calculated from 57Fe PDOS obtained in INRXS synchrotron radiation experiments [1]. Iron ?-factors for mackinawite were calculated from the Moessbauer SOD shift based on experiments [4]. Using new value of chalcopyrite and mackinawite and/or troilite iron ?-factors, it was shown that isotope composition of pyrite in hydrothermal seafloor processes is controlled by equilibrium isotope fractionation between FeS phase (pyrite precursor) and hydrothermal fluid. Fe isotope equilibrium between pyrite and chalcopyrite may be attained in magmatic processes. References: Kobayashi H., Umemura J., Kazekami Y. and Sakai N. Phys. Rev. B. (2007) 76, 134108. Polyakov V. B., Mineev S. D., Clayton R. N., Hu G. and Mineev K. S. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2005) 69, 5531-5536. Polyakov V. B., Clayton R. N., Horita J. and Mineev S.D. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2007) 71, 3833-3846. Bertaut E. F., Burlet P. and Chappert J. Solid State Comm. (1965) 3, 335 - 338. Polyakov V. B. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (1997)61, 4213 - 4217. Polyakov V.B. and Mineev S. D. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2000) 64, 849 - 865 Rouxel O., Shanks III W. C., Bach W. and Edwards K. J. Chem. Geol. (2008) 252, 214 - 227 Graham S., Pearson N., Jackson S., Griffin W. and O'Reilly S. Y. Chem. Geol. (2004) 204, 147 - 169 Heinrich C. A. Mineralium Deposita (2005) 39, 864-889 Pollard P.J. and Taylor R.G. Mineralium Deposita (2004) 37, 117-136. .

  2. Attentional bias toward cigarette cues in active smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sours, Chandler R.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale While it is well documented that substance users exhibit attentional bias toward addiction-related stimuli, the exact mechanism remains unclear. Objectives To differentiate between distinct aspects of attentional allocation in the smoking-cue attentional bias observed in smokers. Methods Active smokers (AS) and non-smoking controls completed spatial cueing tasks with pairs of smoking and neutral pictorial cues to measure attentional capture, and an attentional blink task with either a smoking or neutral image appearing behind the first target (T1) to measure aspects of attention separate from capture. In addition, we tested groups of sports enthusiasts, and non-enthusiasts in corresponding tasks replacing smoking images with sports-related images to address the possibility that effects found in the smoking study were due simply to greater stimulus familiarity. Results Smoking cues reflexively capture smokers' attention, as AS showed a greater bias toward smoking cues in short stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA; the time between the onset of two stimuli) trials, but not in trials with a longer SOA. These effects represent a facilitation of responding to smoking- versus neutral-cued targets, and were absent in the sports control task. The attentional blink effects were similar in the smoking- and sports-cue experiments: the special T1 resulted in better detection of the second target for the smokers and sports enthusiasts. Conclusions Stimulus familiarity may contribute to some aspects of attentional bias in regular nicotine users, but selective quick capture of attention by smoking cues may be nicotine-habit specific. PMID:20668841

  3. Change in Smoking, Diet, and Walking for Exercise in Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Thomas, Janet L.; An, Lawrence C.; Guo, Hongfei; Collins, Tracie; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Positive changes in one health behavior may be accompanied by other constructive health behavior changes. Thus, the authors investigated the association of smoking reduction and cessation to changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and engaging in walking for exercise. This study included 539 Black light smokers ([less than or equal to]10…

  4. Masticatory Changes as a Result of Oral Disorders in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rech, Rafaela Soares; Santos, Karoline Weber dos; Maahs, Marcia Angelica Peters; Vidor, Deisi Cristina Gollo Marques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction?For chewing to occur properly, it is necessary that all oral structures are present and of normal standard. Objectives?The aim of this study is to verify the presence of oral changes in smokers and the impact of the changes on masticatory function compared with individuals who never smoked. Methods?Forty-eight subjects were evaluated, split into two study groups (24 subjects each) of current tobacco users and individuals who have never smoked. The variables halitosis, presence of lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems, number of teeth, classification of malocclusions according to angle, standard grinding food, chewing pattern, and speed of chewing were evaluated. Results?There was no statistically significant difference in tooth loss between the groups, but the smokers had more losses manifesting malocclusion. Most smokers had halitosis and lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems; the halitosis was associated with the latter variable. Masticatory speed was also reduced significantly in these individuals compared with the control group when associated with occlusal alterations, in addition to grinding food with the tongue. No difference was observed regarding the chewing pattern. The presence of halitosis and periodontal problems were more common in those who smoke more than 20 years. Conclusion?There is an association between smoking and dental changes, which cause increased masticatory changes. PMID:25992124

  5. Recycling of hard-core smokers with nicotine nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Tønnesen, P; Mikkelsen, K; Nørregaard, J; Jørgensen, S

    1996-08-01

    The primary aim of this smoking cessation study was to evaluate the effect of long-term treatment with nicotine nasal spray in a group of hard-core smokers. A further aim was to compare the effect of ad libitum with fixed dosage of nasal nicotine spray. Eighty nine smokers, failures from two earlier studies with nicotine patches, were enrolled in an open smoking cessation study with nicotine nasal sprays, to be used ad libitum (n=45) or on a fixed schedule of 1 mg x h-1 during the day (n= 44). Carbon monoxide-verified continuous abstinence from smoking beyond Week 2, was 39% at 3 weeks, 12% at 3 months, 10% at 6 months and 6% after 1 yr, with no significant difference in success rate between ad libitum and fixed dosing. Mean daily nicotine dose was 15-16 mg during the first 3 months (range 2-65 mg). Tolerance to local irritating side-effects of nicotine developed during the first weeks of use. Although short-term outcome was promising, the long-term success rate in this group of hardcore smokers was low. Other recycling set-ups are warranted, which might include more aggressive nicotine dosing. PMID:8866582

  6. Increased levels of metallothionein in placenta of smokers.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Arguello, Graciela; Suazo, Myriam; Llanos, Miguel N

    2005-03-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate and compare metallothionein (MT), zinc and cadmium levels in human placentas of smoking and non-smoking women. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption and urine cotinine levels before delivery. Smoking pregnant women with urine cotinine levels higher than 130 ng/ml were included in the smoking group. Determination of placental MT was performed by western blot analysis after tissue homogenization and saturation with cadmium chloride (1000 ppm). Metallothionein was analyzed with a monoclonal antibody raised against MT-1 and MT-2 and with a second anti mouse antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Zinc and cadmium were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry respectively. Smokers showed higher placental MT and cadmium levels, together with decreased newborn birth weights, as compared to non-smokers. The semi-quantitative analysis of western blots by band densitometry indicated that darker bands corresponded to MT present in smokers' samples. This study confirms that cigarette smoking increases cadmium accumulation in placental tissue and suggests that this element has a stimulatory effect on placental MT production. PMID:15664440

  7. Black holes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I.

    The following topics were dealt with: astrophysics of black holes; a nonrotating black hole; a rotating black hole; electromagnetic fields near a black hole; some aspects of physics of black holes, wormholes, and time machines; observational appearance of the black holes in the Universe; and primordial black holes.

  8. Recent population expansion and connectivity in the hydrothermal shrimp

    E-print Network

    Borges, Rita

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Recent population expansion and connectivity in the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris of the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata, which forms high-density local populations on hydrothermal vents along

  9. Male smoker and non-smoker responses to television advertisements on the harms of secondhand smoke in China, India and Russia.

    PubMed

    Murukutla, Nandita; Bayly, Megan; Mullin, Sandra; Cotter, Trish; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-02-01

    Mass media campaigns can play an important role in strengthening support for smoke-free policies and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Identifying anti-SHS advertisements that are effective in diverse cultural contexts may allow for resource sharing in low- and middle-income countries. A convenience sample of 481 male cigarette smokers and non-smokers in three high tobacco burden and culturally dissimilar countries (India, China and Russia) viewed and rated five anti-SHS ads. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 'Message Acceptance', 'Negative Emotion', 'Perceived Effectiveness' and 'Behavioral Intentions'. Smokers and non-smokers in all countries consistently rated the strong graphic, health harm ads as the most effective, and the 'informational' ad as the least effective overall: the graphic ad 'Baby Alive' was at least 1.8 times more likely than the informational ad 'Smoke-free works' to receive positive ratings on all four outcomes (all P < 0.001). Graphic, health harm messages about SHS exposure have the greatest universal appeal and are the most effective in motivating changes in behavioral intentions. Similarity in reactions between smokers and non-smokers, and across countries, suggests that resource sharing and the use of a single graphic ad targeted at smokers and non-smokers would be cost-efficient strategies. PMID:25122618

  10. Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In an attempt to minimize the pack design avenue of communication between tobacco producers and smokers and potential smokers, several jurisdictions, including Norway, have considered regulations on cigarette pack design. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how package design affects young people’s perceptions of typical smokers of some pre-chosen cigarette brands and brand varieties. Methods Based on data from a web survey among 1022 15–22 year-olds, possible effects of plain packaging of cigarettes on adolescents’ views about typical cigarette smokers were investigated. The data collection had a between-subjects design, in which participants were allocated to one of three groups, and asked to typify the smokers of selected cigarette packs either in branded, plain or plain with descriptor versions. The sample included boys and girls, and smokers and non-smokers. The smoker characteristics included in the investigation were: gender, glamour, stylishness, popularity, coolness, sophistication and slimness. Results After creating sum-scores within and across packs and pack versions, analyses indicated that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging would result in a reduction in positive user images related to smoking among adolescents and young adults. For girls, this effect held up after controlling for confounders. Conclusions To the extent that plain packaging contributes to making smoking images less positive, it can potentially be an efficient aid in reducing smoking uptake among adolescents. PMID:24156515

  11. Noninvasive quantification of alveolar morphometry in elderly never- and ex-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Gregory A; Ouriadov, Alexei; Lessard, Eric; Sheikh, Khadija; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a way to generate in vivo lung images with contrast sensitive to the molecular displacement of inhaled gas at subcellular length scales. Here, we aimed to evaluate hyperpolarized 3He MRI estimates of the alveolar dimensions in 38 healthy elderly never-smokers (73 ± 6 years, 15 males) and 21 elderly ex-smokers (70 ± 10 years, 14 males) with (n = 8, 77 ± 6 years) and without emphysema (n = 13, 65 ± 10 years). The ex-smoker and never-smoker subgroups were significantly different for FEV1/FVC (P = 0.0001) and DLCO (P = 0.009); while ex-smokers with emphysema reported significantly diminished FEV1/FVC (P = 0.02) and a trend toward lower DLCO (P = 0.05) than ex-smokers without emphysema. MRI apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and CT measurements of emphysema (relative area–CT density histogram, RA950) were significantly different (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007) for never-smoker and ex-smoker subgroups. In never-smokers, the MRI estimate of mean linear intercept (260 ± 27 ?m) was significantly elevated as compared to the results previously reported in younger never-smokers (210 ± 30 ?m), and trended smaller than in the age-matched ex-smokers (320 ± 72 ?m, P = 0.06) evaluated here. Never-smokers also reported significantly smaller internal (220 ± 24 ?m, P = 0.01) acinar radius but greater alveolar sheath thickness (120 ± 4 ?m, P < 0.0001) than ex-smokers. Never-smokers were also significantly different than ex-smokers without emphysema for alveolar sheath thickness but not ADC, while ex-smokers with emphysema reported significantly different ADC but not alveolar sheath thickness compared to ex-smokers without CT evidence of emphysema. Differences in alveolar measurements in never- and ex-smokers demonstrate the sensitivity of MRI measurements to the different effects of smoking and aging on acinar morphometry. PMID:26462748

  12. Reported exposures to anti-smoking messages and their impact on Chinese smoker’s subsequent quit attempts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Jiang, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Hammond, David; Quah, Anne C. K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine Chinese smokers’ exposure to anti-smoking messages in a range of channels and to determine if exposure was associated with subsequent quit attempts. Methods A prospective cohort design was employed. Participants were 6,509 adult smokers who completed at least one of the first three waves (2006–2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, sampled from six Chinese cities. The main measures were reported exposure to anti-smoking messages in a range of channels and smokers’ subsequent quit attempts. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) modelling was used to combine respondents from all three waves while accounting for inherent within-person correlation. Results The overall exposure levels to anti-smoking messages were low and varied between cities and from one channel to another. Television was the medium with the greatest overall exposure (over 50% in almost all the cities across all the waves). After controlling for a range of covariates, higher level of combined exposure were positively related to higher subsequent quit attempts (adjusted odd ratio=1.03, 95% CI 1.02~1.05, p<.001); among the individual channels exposures in newspapers and on posters were significant in their own right. Conclusions The findings suggest that anti-smoking warning messages have the potential to stimulate Chinese smokers to make quit attempts, but they also indicate that the levels and strength of warning messages in China needs to be increased. China should consider adopting proven international practices, including mandating pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages, adopting prominent point-of-sale warnings, and carrying out strong and ongoing mass media campaigns. PMID:24078490

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis of vanadium oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Chirayil, T.; Zavalij, P.Y.; Whittingham, M.S.

    1998-10-01

    The use of mild hydrothermal methods to synthesize vanadium oxides is reviewed, with particular emphasis on those with layer and 3-dimensional structures. A wide range of studies have been performed predominantly in the past decade to grow new materials that might have interesting electrochemical and magnetic properties. Most emphasis has been placed on vanadium oxides that contain organic species or simple cations such as the alkali metals, alkaline earths, zinc and copper. The key parameters determining the structures formed are reviewed, including pH and the organic structure-directing ion. Some initial electrochemical studies are described.

  14. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  15. Hydrothermal metamorphism in the Larderello Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Cavarretta, G.; Gianelli, G.; Puxeddu, M.

    1980-01-01

    The various tectonic units underlying the Larderello-Travale geothermal region have undergone hydrothermal metamorphism. The hydrothermal mineral assemblages are generally consistent with the temperatures now measured in the wells, leading to the hypothesis that solid phases deposited from a liquid medium during a hot-water stage that preceded the vapor-dominated one. 61 refs.

  16. Function-associated surface molecules on airway dendritic cells in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Bratke, Kai; Klug, Michael; Bier, Andrea; Julius, Peter; Kuepper, Michael; Virchow, J Christian; Lommatzsch, Marek

    2008-06-01

    Airway dendritic cells (DCs) control pulmonary immune responses to inhaled particles. However, the profile of function-associated surface molecules on airway DCs in smokers is unknown. In this study, function-associated surface molecules were analyzed using four-color flow cytometry on myeloid DCs (mDCs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of cigarette smokers and never-smokers. Furthermore, the lung function was assessed directly before bronchoscopy in all participants. There was a 7-fold increase in total cell numbers in BALF of smokers, as compared with never-smokers. The percentage of mDCs among BALF cells and the expression of the maturation marker CD83 on mDCs did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. However, there was a strong increase in the expression of Langerin and CD1a (markers of Langerhans cells) on mDCs of smokers. Furthermore, mDCs of smokers were characterized by an increased expression of antigen presentation markers such as CD80 and CD86. By contrast, mDCs of smokers displayed a decreased expression of the lymph node homing receptor CCR7, as compared with mDCs of never-smokers. Decreased expression of CCR7 on mDCs, but not any of the other surface molecules studied, was specifically associated with airway obstruction and pulmonary hyperinflation in smokers. In conclusion, our data suggest that smoking affects the expression profile of function-associated surface molecules on airway mDCs. We provide the first evidence that a reduced CCR7 expression on airway mDCs is associated with airflow limitation in smokers. PMID:18203971

  17. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sajid, Khan Mohammad; Chaouachi, Kamal; Mahmood, Rubaida

    2008-01-01

    Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc.), prepared between 1 and 4 times a day with a quantity of up to 120 g of a tobacco-molasses mixture each (i.e. the tobacco weight equivalent of up to 60 cigarettes of 1 g each) and consumed in 1 to 8 sessions. Methods Enhanced chemiluminescent immunometric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in serum samples from 59 exclusive male smokers with age ranging from 20–80 years (mean = 58.8 ± 14.7 years) and 8–65 years of smoking (mean = 37.7 ± 16.8). 36 non-smokers served as controls. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the number of preparations; the number of sessions and the total daily smoking time: Light (1; 1; ? 20 minutes); Medium (1–3; 1–3; >20 min to ? 2 hrs) and Heavy smokers (2–4; 3–8; >2 hrs to ? 6 hrs). Because of the nature of distribution of CEA levels among our individuals, Wilcoxon's rank sum two-sample test was applied to compare the variables. Results The overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers (mean: 3.58 ± 2.61 ng/ml; n = 59) were not significantly different (p ? 0.0937) from the levels in non-smokers (2.35 ± 0.71 ng/ml). Mean levels in light, medium and heavy smokers were: 1.06 ± 0.492 ng/ml (n = 5); 2.52 ± 1.15 ng/ml (n = 28) and 5.11 ± 3.08 ng/ml (n = 26) respectively. The levels in medium smokers and non-smokers were also not significantly different (p ? 0.9138). In heavy smokers, the CEA levels were significantly higher than in non-smokers (p ? 0.0001567). Conclusion Overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers were low compared to cigarette smokers. However, heavy hookah smoking substantially raises CEA levels. Low-nitrosamines smokeless tobacco of the SNUS Swedish type could be envisaged as an alternative to smoking for this category of users and also, in a broad harm reduction perspective, to the prevalent low-quality moist snuff called naswar. PMID:18501010

  18. Ongoing hydrothermal activities within Enceladus.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Postberg, Frank; Sekine, Yasuhito; Shibuya, Takazo; Kempf, Sascha; Horányi, Mihály; Juhász, Antal; Altobelli, Nicolas; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masaki, Yuka; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Tachibana, Shogo; Sirono, Sin-iti; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Srama, Ralf

    2015-03-12

    Detection of sodium-salt-rich ice grains emitted from the plume of the Saturnian moon Enceladus suggests that the grains formed as frozen droplets from a liquid water reservoir that is, or has been, in contact with rock. Gravitational field measurements suggest a regional south polar subsurface ocean of about 10 kilometres thickness located beneath an ice crust 30 to 40 kilometres thick. These findings imply rock-water interactions in regions surrounding the core of Enceladus. The resulting chemical 'footprints' are expected to be preserved in the liquid and subsequently transported upwards to the near-surface plume sources, where they eventually would be ejected and could be measured by a spacecraft. Here we report an analysis of silicon-rich, nanometre-sized dust particles (so-called stream particles) that stand out from the water-ice-dominated objects characteristic of Saturn. We interpret these grains as nanometre-sized SiO2 (silica) particles, initially embedded in icy grains emitted from Enceladus' subsurface waters and released by sputter erosion in Saturn's E ring. The composition and the limited size range (2 to 8 nanometres in radius) of stream particles indicate ongoing high-temperature (>90 °C) hydrothermal reactions associated with global-scale geothermal activity that quickly transports hydrothermal products from the ocean floor at a depth of at least 40 kilometres up to the plume of Enceladus. PMID:25762281

  19. Ongoing hydrothermal activities within Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Postberg, Frank; Sekine, Yasuhito; Shibuya, Takazo; Kempf, Sascha; Horányi, Mihály; Juhász, Antal; Altobelli, Nicolas; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masaki, Yuka; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Tachibana, Shogo; Sirono, Sin-Iti; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Srama, Ralf

    2015-03-01

    Detection of sodium-salt-rich ice grains emitted from the plume of the Saturnian moon Enceladus suggests that the grains formed as frozen droplets from a liquid water reservoir that is, or has been, in contact with rock. Gravitational field measurements suggest a regional south polar subsurface ocean of about 10 kilometres thickness located beneath an ice crust 30 to 40 kilometres thick. These findings imply rock-water interactions in regions surrounding the core of Enceladus. The resulting chemical `footprints' are expected to be preserved in the liquid and subsequently transported upwards to the near-surface plume sources, where they eventually would be ejected and could be measured by a spacecraft. Here we report an analysis of silicon-rich, nanometre-sized dust particles (so-called stream particles) that stand out from the water-ice-dominated objects characteristic of Saturn. We interpret these grains as nanometre-sized SiO2 (silica) particles, initially embedded in icy grains emitted from Enceladus' subsurface waters and released by sputter erosion in Saturn's E ring. The composition and the limited size range (2 to 8 nanometres in radius) of stream particles indicate ongoing high-temperature (>90 °C) hydrothermal reactions associated with global-scale geothermal activity that quickly transports hydrothermal products from the ocean floor at a depth of at least 40 kilometres up to the plume of Enceladus.

  20. Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal hydrothermal vents

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.L.

    1984-02-17

    The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.

  1. The effectiveness of nicotine patch and nicotine lozenge in very heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul; Di Marino, Michael E; Pillitteri, Janine L

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) among very heavy and highly dependent smokers was examined in a secondary analysis of two randomized clinical trials of NRT. In the first trial, smokers were assigned to active patch (n=249) or placebo (n=253) plus intensive behavioral treatment. In the second trial, smokers were assigned to active 4-mg nicotine lozenge (n=450) or placebo (n=451) plus brief behavioral treatment. Nicotine patch and lozenge significantly increased 6-month continuous abstinence quit rates in both very heavy (>or=40 cigarettes per day) and highly dependent (Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire or Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score >7) smokers. The effect of active NRT treatment did not differ significantly by smoking rate or nicotine dependence, with the exception that the nicotine patch was significantly more effective than placebo in highly dependent smokers. The nicotine patch and lozenge are effective (vs. placebo) even in heavy and highly dependent smokers. PMID:15723732

  2. An Evidence-based Cessation Strategy Using Rural Smokers’ Experiences with Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Karen M.; Hedgecock, Susan; Record, Rachael A.; Derifield, Stephanie; McGinn, Carolyn; Murray, Deborah; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Although tobacco use remains the single most preventable cause of death in the US, little is known about the most effective population-based strategies to reach rural smokers and motivate them to quit. The purpose of this study was to describe the personal narratives of current and former smokers living in an economically distressed, rural area of Appalachian Kentucky. Personal narratives were obtained from focus groups with smokers/former smokers (N=21). Data were analyzed using Atlas.ti 6 Three categories of nine themes emerged: personal motivators to quit smoking, external influences, pride of place. Capturing personal narratives represents an evidence-based, data-rich strategy for development of culturally sensitive, population-based interventions aimed at rural smokers. Such strategies may be effective in reaching rural smokers and motivating them to quit, thereby reducing tobacco-related disease and premature death in rural, economically distressed communities. PMID:22289396

  3. Connecting low-income smokers to tobacco treatment services.

    PubMed

    Slater, Jonathan S; Nelson, Christina L; Parks, Michael J; Ebbert, Jon O

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for using population-level incentive-based interventions, and cigarette smoking is one of the most significant health behaviors driving costs and adverse health in low-income populations. Telehealth offers an opportunity to facilitate delivery of evidence-based smoking cessation services as well as incentive-based interventions to low-income populations. However, research is needed on effective strategies for linking smokers to services, how to couple financial incentives with telehealth, and on how to scale this to population-level practice. The current paper evaluates primary implementation and follow-up results of two strategies for connecting low-income, predominantly female smokers to a telephone tobacco quitline (QL). The population-based program consisted of participant-initiated phone contact and two recruitment strategies: (1) direct mail (DM) and (2) opportunistic telephone referrals with connection (ORC). Both strategies offered financial incentives for being connected to the QL, and all QL connections were made by trained patient navigators through a central call center. QL connections occurred for 97% of DM callers (N=870) and 33% of ORC callers (N=4550). Self-reported continuous smoking abstinence (i.e., 30 smoke-free days at seven-month follow-up) was 20% for the DM group and 16% for ORC. These differences between intervention groups remained in ordered logistic regressions adjusting for smoking history and demographic characteristics. Each recruitment strategy had distinct advantages; both successfully connected low-income smokers to cessation services and encouraged quit attempts and continuous smoking abstinence. Future research and population-based programs can utilize financial incentives and both recruitment strategies, building on their relative strengths. PMID:26489597

  4. Protein networks in induced sputum from smokers and COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N; Casado, Begona; Pannell, Lewis K; McGarvey, Peter B; Boschetto, Piera; Luisetti, Maurizio; Iadarola, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Subtypes of cigarette smoke-induced disease affect different lung structures and may have distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Objective To determine if proteomic classification of the cellular and vascular origins of sputum proteins can characterize these mechanisms and phenotypes. Subjects and methods Individual sputum specimens from lifelong nonsmokers (n=7) and smokers with normal lung function (n=13), mucous hypersecretion with normal lung function (n=11), obstructed airflow without emphysema (n=15), and obstruction plus emphysema (n=10) were assessed with mass spectrometry. Data reduction, logarithmic transformation of spectral counts, and Cytoscape network-interaction analysis were performed. The original 203 proteins were reduced to the most informative 50. Sources were secretory dimeric IgA, submucosal gland serous and mucous cells, goblet and other epithelial cells, and vascular permeability. Results Epithelial proteins discriminated nonsmokers from smokers. Mucin 5AC was elevated in healthy smokers and chronic bronchitis, suggesting a continuum with the severity of hypersecretion determined by mechanisms of goblet-cell hyperplasia. Obstructed airflow was correlated with glandular proteins and lower levels of Ig joining chain compared to other groups. Emphysema subjects’ sputum was unique, with high plasma proteins and components of neutrophil extracellular traps, such as histones and defensins. In contrast, defensins were correlated with epithelial proteins in all other groups. Protein-network interactions were unique to each group. Conclusion The proteomes were interpreted as complex “biosignatures” that suggest distinct pathophysiological mechanisms for mucin 5AC hypersecretion, airflow obstruction, and inflammatory emphysema phenotypes. Proteomic phenotyping may improve genotyping studies by selecting more homogeneous study groups. Each phenotype may require its own mechanistically based diagnostic, risk-assessment, drug- and other treatment algorithms. PMID:26396508

  5. Lung disease with chronic obstruction in opium smokers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, J. L.; Tock, E. P. C.; Boey, H. K.

    1971-01-01

    Fifty-four opium smokers with chronic obstructive lung disease were studied for two-and-a-half years. Forty-eight patients had a cough for at least two years before the onset of inappropriate exertional dyspnoea. Fine, bubbling adventitious sounds suggesting small airway disease were heard on auscultation over the middle and lower lobes in 38 patients. The prevalence of inflammatory lung disease and chronic respiratory failure in this series is suggested as the main cause for the frequent finding of right ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. Physiological studies revealed moderate to severe airways obstruction with gross over-inflation and, in 32 patients, an additional restrictive defect probably due to peribronchiolar fibrosis. Radiological evidence of chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis was observed in 45 patients, `pure' chronic bronchiolitis in six patients, and `widespread' emphysema in 25 patients respectively. Necropsy examinations in nine patients, however, showed destructive emphysema of variable severity in all. Chronic bronchiolitis often associated with striking bronchiolectasis was present in six cases. More severe bronchiolar rather than bronchial inflammation was noted. The heavy opium smokers had characteristic nodular shadows on chest radiography, sometimes associated with a striking reticular pattern not seen in `pure' cigarette smokers. This was due to gross pigmented dust (presumably carbon) deposition in relation to blood vessels, lymphatics, and bronchioles, and also within the alveoli. It is speculated that the initial lesion is an acquired bronchiolitis. Opium smoking induces an irritative bronchopathy favouring repeated attacks of acute bronchiolitis and eventually resulting in obliterative bronchiolitis, peribronchiolar fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and destructive emphysema. Images PMID:5134057

  6. Smoking and the bandit: A preliminary study of smoker and non-smoker differences in exploratory behavior measured with a multi-armed bandit task

    PubMed Central

    Addicott, Merideth A.; Pearson, John M.; Wilson, Jessica; Platt, Michael L.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Advantageous decision-making is an adaptive trade-off between exploring alternatives and exploiting the most rewarding option. This trade-off may be related to maladaptive decision-making associated with nicotine dependence; however, explore/exploit behavior has not been previously investigated in the context of addiction. The explore/exploit trade-off is captured by the multi-armed bandit task, in which different arms of a slot machine are chosen to discover the relative payoffs. The goal of this study was to preliminarily investigate whether smokers differ from non-smokers in their degree of exploratory behavior. Smokers (n = 18) and non-smokers (n = 17) completed a six-armed bandit task as well as self-report measures of behavior and personality traits. Smokers were found to exhibit less exploratory behavior (i.e. made fewer switches between slot machine arms) than non-smokers within the first 300 trials of the bandit task. The overall proportion of exploratory choices negatively correlated with self-reported measures of delay aversion and nonplanning impulsivity. These preliminary results suggest that smokers make fewer initial exploratory choices on the bandit task. The bandit task is a promising measure that could provide valuable insights into how nicotine use and dependence is associated with explore/exploit decision-making. PMID:23245198

  7. Changing smokers' risk perceptions--for better or worse?

    PubMed

    Myers, Lynn B

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of a smoking health message on smokers' comparative optimism. Two groups watched an anti-smoking scenario, with one group imagining being part of the scenario. Participants, including controls, completed comparative optimism ratings for four smoking-related illnesses. The intervention had negative consequences with both intervention groups reporting significantly higher comparative optimism versus the control group for all four smoking-related illnesses. It is concluded that media health messages can be powerful tools in changing comparative optimism but are influenced by peoples' prior perceptions. Health messages need to be systematically assessed to understand prior beliefs of the target audience. PMID:23338730

  8. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

    2006-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist consumers in distinguishing real health threats from spurious health claims. As this report documents, there is a strong scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction, and it shows great potential as a public health strategy to help millions of smokers. PMID:17184539

  9. Poor smokers, poor quitters, and cigarette tax regressivity.

    PubMed

    Remler, Dahlia K

    2004-02-01

    The traditional view that excise taxes are regressive has been challenged. I document the history of the term regressive tax, show that traditional definitions have always found cigarette taxes to be regressive, and illustrate the implications of the greater price responsiveness observed among the poor. I explain the different definitions of tax burden: accounting, welfare-based willingness to pay, and welfare-based time inconsistent. Progressivity (equity across income groups) is sensitive to the way in which tax burden is assessed. Analysis of horizontal equity (fairness within a given income group) shows that cigarette taxes heavily burden poor smokers who do not quit, no matter how tax burden is assessed. PMID:14759931

  10. Genomic Aberrations in Lung Adenocarcinoma in Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Beau-Faller, Michèle; Camilleri-Broët, Sophie; Girard, Philippe; Hofman, Paul; Mazières, Julien; Toujani, Saloua; Lacroix, Ludovic; Laffaire, Julien; Dessen, Philippe; Fouret, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Background Lung cancer in never smokers would rank as the seventh most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Methods and Findings We performed high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of lung adenocarcinoma in sixty never smokers and identified fourteen new minimal common regions (MCR) of gain or loss, of which five contained a single gene (MOCS2, NSUN3, KHDRBS2, SNTG1 and ST18). One larger MCR of gain contained NSD1. One focal amplification and nine gains contained FUS. NSD1 and FUS are oncogenes hitherto not known to be associated with lung cancer. FISH showed that the amplicon containing FUS was joined to the next telomeric amplicon at 16p11.2. FUS was over-expressed in 10 tumors with gain of 16p11.2 compared to 30 tumors without that gain. Other cancer genes present in aberrations included ARNT, BCL9, CDK4, CDKN2B, EGFR, ERBB2, MDM2, MDM4, MET, MYC and KRAS. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering with adjustment for false-discovery rate revealed clusters differing by the level and pattern of aberrations and displaying particular tumor characteristics. One cluster was strongly associated with gain of MYC. Another cluster was characterized by extensive losses containing tumor suppressor genes of which RB1 and WRN. Tumors in that cluster frequently harbored a central scar-like fibrosis. A third cluster was associated with gains on 7p and 7q, containing ETV1 and BRAF, and displayed the highest rate of EGFR mutations. SNP array analysis validated copy-number aberrations and revealed that RB1 and WRN were altered by recurrent copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. Conclusions The present study has uncovered new aberrations containing cancer genes. The oncogene FUS is a candidate gene in the 16p region that is frequently gained in never smokers. Multiple genetic pathways defined by gains of MYC, deletions of RB1 and WRN or gains on 7p and 7q are involved in lung adenocarcinoma in never smokers. PMID:21151896

  11. Arctic Ocean: hydrothermal activity on Gakkel Ridge.

    PubMed

    Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Fourré, Elise

    2004-03-01

    In the hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges, sea water penetrates the fractured crust, becomes heated by its proximity to the hot magma, and returns to the sea floor as hot fluids enriched in various chemical elements. In contradiction to earlier results that predict diminishing hydrothermal activity with decreasing spreading rate, a survey of the ultra-slowly spreading Gakkel Ridge (Arctic Ocean) by Edmonds et al. and Michael et al. suggests that, instead of being rare, the hydrothermal activity is abundant--exceeding by at least a factor of two to three what would be expected by extrapolation from observation on faster spreading ridges. Here we use helium-3 (3He), a hydrothermal tracer, to show that this abundance of venting sites does not translate, as would be expected, into an anomalous hydrothermal 3He output from the ridge. Because of the wide implications of the submarine hydrothermal processes for mantle heat and mass fluxes to the ocean, these conflicting results call for clarification of the link between hydrothermal activity and crustal production at mid-ocean ridges. PMID:14999274

  12. Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2014-09-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

  13. Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2014-01-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

  14. Emotion regulation in heavy smokers: experiential, expressive and physiological consequences of cognitive reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lingdan; Winkler, Markus H.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Andreatta, Marta; Li, Yonghui; Pauli, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation dysfunctions are assumed to contribute to the development of tobacco addiction and relapses among smokers attempting to quit. To further examine this hypothesis, the present study compared heavy smokers with non-smokers (NS) in a reappraisal task. Specifically, we investigated whether non-deprived smokers (NDS) and deprived smokers (DS) differ from non-smokers in cognitive emotion regulation and whether there is an association between the outcome of emotion regulation and the cigarette craving. Sixty-five participants (23 non-smokers, 22 NDS, and 20 DS) were instructed to down-regulate emotions by reappraising negative or positive pictorial scenarios. Self-ratings of valence, arousal, and cigarette craving as well as facial electromyography and electroencephalograph activities were measured. Ratings, facial electromyography, and electroencephalograph data indicated that both NDS and DS performed comparably to nonsmokers in regulating emotional responses via reappraisal, irrespective of the valence of pictorial stimuli. Interestingly, changes in cigarette craving were positively associated with regulation of emotional arousal irrespective of emotional valence. These results suggest that heavy smokers are capable to regulate emotion via deliberate reappraisal and smokers’ cigarette craving is associated with emotional arousal rather than emotional valence. This study provides preliminary support for the therapeutic use of reappraisal to replace maladaptive emotion-regulation strategies in nicotine addicts. PMID:26528213

  15. What Defines a Separate Hydrothermal System

    SciTech Connect

    Lawless, J.V.; Bogie, I.; Bignall, G.

    1995-01-01

    Separate hydrothermal systems can be defined in a variety of ways. Criteria which have been applied include separation of heat source, upflow, economic resource and geophysical anomaly. Alternatively, connections have been defined by the effects of withdrawal of economically useful fluid and subsidence, effects of reinjection, changes in thermal features, or by a hydrological connection of groundwaters. It is proposed here that: ''A separate hydrothermal system is one that is fed by a separate convective upflow of fluid, at a depth above the brittle-ductile transition for the host rocks, while acknowledging that separate hydrothermal systems can be hydrologically interconnected at shallower levels''.

  16. Catastrophic volcanic collapse: relation to hydrothermal processes.

    PubMed

    López, D L; Williams, S N

    1993-06-18

    Catastrophic volcanic collapse, without precursory magmatic activity, is characteristic of many volcanic disasters. The extent and locations of hydrothermal discharges at Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, suggest that at many volcanoes collapse may result from the interactions between hydrothermal fluids and the volcanic edifice. Rock dissolution and hydrothermal mineral alteration, combined with physical triggers such as earth-quakes, can produce volcanic collapse. Hot spring water compositions, residence times, and flow paths through faults were used to model potential collapse at Ruiz. Caldera dimensions, deposits, and alteration mineral volumes are consistent with parameters observed at other volcanoes. PMID:17793659

  17. Hydrothermal processing of actinide contaminated organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Worl, A.; Buelow, S.J.; Le, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1997-12-31

    Hydrothermal oxidation is an innovative process for the destruction of organic wastes, that occurs above the critical temperature and pressure of water. The process provides high destruction and removal efficiencies for a wide variety of organic and hazardous substances. For aqueous/organic mixtures, organic materials, and pure organic liquids hydrothermal processing removes most of the organic and nitrate components (>99.999%) and facilitates the collection and separation of the actinides. We have designed, built and tested a hydrothermal processing unit for the removal of the organic and hazardous substances from actinide contaminated liquids and solids. Here we present results for the organic generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility.

  18. High Resolution Mapping of the Ashadze and Logachev Hydrothermal Fields, Mid Atlantic Ridge 13-15°N.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondreas, H.; Cannat, M.; Cherkashov, G.; Fouquet, Y.; Normand, A.; Serpentine Scientific Party, A.

    2007-12-01

    During the SERPENTINE cruise (feb 25 to apr. 5, 2007) on board the french research vessel Pourquoi Pas? a new multibeam bathymetric system (RESON 7125 echo sounder) was used on the ROV Victor 6000 to gather real time fine-scale bathymetry. The resolution is 5% of the altitude above the seafloor (h), and the footprint at the seafloor is 0.2% of h. The Ashadze and Logachev hydrothermal fields are located in the 13-15°N region of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, on outcrops of serpentinized mantle-derived peridotite with interspeded gabbroic bodies. Maps at 50 m above the seafloor were done to investigate the relationships between the vent fields and their tectonic/volcanic environnement. Higher resolution mapping, 20 m above the seafloor, was done at the scale of the vent fields. These maps, which have resolutions of a few tens of centimetres, are unique tools to understand the local geological control on the vents. Our observations also emphasize the role of slope failure, and spreading-parallel or oblique structural lineaments on the fine scale topography of MAR axial valley walls. Ashadze area comprises two active vent fields located at two different levels on the western wall of the axial valley near 13°N. The Ashadze1 and 2 sites, 5 km apart, are respectively 4 km and 9 km off-axis. Active vents at Azhadze1 (4100 m) are distributed over an area about 150 m-long, along an EW-trending south-facing scarp. High resolution mapping at 20 m (450x450 m area) reveals the fine structure of sulfide mounds, as well as complex fissure arrays near the vents. Away from the vents, topography appears dominated by slope failure, with prominent landslides. Black smokers at Ashadze 2 (3260 m) are located in a crater-shaped depression, about 25 m in diameter, which lies in a narrow (about 70 m), N-S trending trough. On the high resolution maps at Ashadze 2 (800x450 m) the N-S trending trough appears bounded to the east by a faulted gabbroic body. To the west, it is limited by a narrow N-S trending ridge, 20 to 50 m-high, that bears numerous extinct hydrothermal chimneys. Logachev comprises two active vent fields located east of the ridge near 14°45"N. Logachev 1 and 2 sites, 5 km apart, are located 8 km and 12 km off-axis. We only mapped Logatchev 1, which is a large and well studied vent field on the eastern axial valley wall. It comprises many vents in a NW-trending elongated area about 400 m-long. High resolution mapping at 20m (550X750 m) reveals the circular shape of the main sulfide mounds, as well as complex arrays of scarps and fissures, oriented predominantly E-W, and NE- SW. Numerous lens-shaped slump features are also revealed near the vents.

  19. Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

    2003-07-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  20. Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

    2002-01-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  1. Field occurrence and lithology of Archean hydrothermal systems in the 3.2Ga Dixon Island Formation, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Y.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Horie, K.; Sakamoto, R.; Miki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Stratigraphic transition of black chert to iron-rich sedimentary rocks above volcanic sequences with hydrothermal systems is common and characteristic feature of Archean greenstone belts. The 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation, exposed along the northern coast of Dixon Island located in the coastal Pilbara terrane, Western Australia, is one of such units and the focus of our study. We introduce field occurrence and lithology of the Dixon Island Formation that preserves features of paleohydrohermal environment in the Mesoarchean ocean. The Dixon Island Formation is composed of the following three members (in ascending order): Komatiite-Rhyolite Tuff, Black Chert, and Varicolored Chert members (Kiyokawa and Taira, 1998). Here we focus on the Komatiite-Rholite Tuff member. It preserves two cycles of highly altered komatiite lavas and well-stratified rhyolite tuff. Komatiite lavas include dendritic crystals of chrome spinel and ghosts of spinifex, euhedral and sheet-like olivines and pyroxenes. These rocks are now composed of granular microcrystalline quartz with chromian muscovite, chrome spinel and chrorite that formed by intense silicification. Its upper part contains hydrothermal veining and alteration (i.e., many vein swarms composed of veins of quartz and organic carbon-rich black chert). Most black chert veins intrude vertically into overlying layers, and contain barite, pyrite, monazite and clay minerals which were least affected by silicificatio. Based on the cross-cutting relationship seen in the outcrops, we recognized two generations of black chert veins (type 1 and type 2 veins; Kiyokawa et al., 2006). Type 1 veins are mainly composed of carbonaceous peloids in a microcrystalline quartz matrix. Euhedral and xenocrystic tourmaline are found only in Type1 veins. Type 2 veins are organic carbon-poor and contain fragments of black chert and siliceous volcanic breccia (Kiyokawa et al., 2006). Intense silicification of komatiitic volcaniclastics and lava, enriched in Si and K and depleted in Mg, occurred earlier than the formation of black chert veins and probably during sedimentation of the overlying Black Chert member. Petrographycally, tourmaline in Type1 veins formed by hydrothermal processes and can be used to infer physicochemical conditions of the hydrothermal activity. Fragmentation of black chert and volcanic rocks within Type 2 veins was probably due to high pressure caused by hydrothermal activity.

  2. The Relationship between Nicotine Dependence and Age among Current Smokers

    PubMed Central

    LI, Huijie; ZHOU, Yunping; LI, Suyun; WANG, Qiang; PAN, Lulu; YANG, Xiaorong; ZHANG, Nan; JIANG, Fan; HAN, Mingkui; JIA, Chongqi

    2015-01-01

    Background: A recent study indicates that the incidence of smoking cessation varies with age. Although nicotine dependence (ND) has been regarded as one of the most significant barriers of successful smoking cessation, few researches have focused on the relationship between nicotine dependence and age. Methods: A cross-sectional study (conducted in 2013) with 596 Chinese rural male current smokers was performed to study the relationship between ND and age. The ND level was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scale. The univariate two-degree fractional polynomials (FPs) regression was used to explore the relation of ND to age. Results: The mean of FTND scores in the middle-aged group (45–64 yr old) was higher than that in the younger (<45 yr old) and older groups (?65 yr old). The FPs regression showed an inverse U-shaped relationship between ND and age. Conclusion: The middle-aged current smokers had higher degree of ND than the younger and the older groups, which showed an inverse U-shaped relationship between ND and age. This finding needs to be confirmed by further researches. PMID:26056668

  3. Conditioned cues for smoking elicit preparatory responses in healthy smokers

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Markus H.; Weyers, Peter; Mucha, Ronald F.; Stippekohl, Bastian; Stark, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Smoking cues are theorized to be conditioned stimuli (CSs) formed by repeated pairing with drug. Smoking paraphernalia can elicit subjective and physiological responses in smokers, indicative of positive affect and motivation to consume. Although these responses are probably the result of conditioning, direct evidence from human conditioning studies with physiological measures of motivational valence is rare. Objective The present study investigated the motivational properties of experimentally conditioned cues for smoking. Methods Thirty-nine smokers completed a differential conditioning protocol. Abstract pictures were used as CSs and single puffs on a cigarette as unconditioned stimulus (US). Skin conductance responses and facial electromyography of the zygomatic, corrugator, and orbicularis oris muscles were measured during conditioning. Results The conditioned cue for smoking (CS+) elicited stronger skin conductance responses and more activity of the zygomatic and orbicularis oris muscles than the CS?. Conclusions These results support the notion that through pairing with smoking, neutral stimuli acquire the ability to elicit preparatory physiological responses, which are assumed to play an important role in the maintenance of addiction and relapse in the natural environment. PMID:20953588

  4. Time to First Cigarette and Hypertension in Korean Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Saerom; Jang, Miae; Noh, Hye-Mi; Oh, Hye-Young; Song, Hong Ji; Park, Kyung Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background Morning blood pressure surge affects to cardiovascular disease risk. Short time to first cigarette (TTFC) after waking can enhance morning blood pressure surge, and accelerate atherosclerosis Methods We investigated that the relationship between TTFC and blood pressure. The study subjects included male current smokers (n=211) who had health check-up in Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital from July to September, 2014. We categorized the subjects into 2 groups according to TTFC; early TTFC (TTFC <30 minutes) and late TTFC (TTFC ?30 minutes), and the subjects who were taking antihypertensive medications or had a high blood pressure (>140 mm Hg or 90 mm Hg) were defined as hypertensive group. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval to investigate the association between TTFC and hypertensive group. Results Compared with late TTFC, early TTFC had higher odds (odds ratio [OR], 3.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.89-7.94) for hypertensive group. After adjusting confounding factors, early TTFC was significantly associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR, 4.43; 95% CI, 1.84-10.70). Conclusion early TTFC after waking is associated with hypertension. It suggests delaying TTFC might help to control of blood pressure among the current smokers who are not ready to immediately quit smoking. PMID:26435812

  5. Gender and racial Differences in Smoking of Long/Ultra-long and King size Cigarettes among U.S. adult Smokers, NHANES 1999–2012

    PubMed Central

    Agaku, Israel T.; Vardavas, Constantine I.; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.; Alpert, Hillel R.; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette rod length as a design feature may play a specific role in harm perception and tobacco use. Internal tobacco industry documents have shown targeting of females with long/ultra-long cigarettes. This study assessed trends and differences in smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes among U.S. smokers aged ?20 years during 1999 through 2012. Methods Data were obtained from the 1999/2000 through 2011/2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The proportion of current smokers who reported using long/ultra-long cigarettes during each survey year was calculated and compared using ?2 statistics. Linear and quadratic trends during 1999 through 2012 were assessed using binary logistic regression (p<0.05). Multi-variable analyses were performed to assess current disparities in smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes. Results Despite overall declines in current smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes during the 1999 through 2012 period (p<0.001 for both linear and quadratic trends), the proportion of smokers of long/ultra-long brands increased in recent years, with over a third (38.7%) of current smokers reporting smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes during 2011/2012. Current smokers of long/ultra-long cigarettes were more likely to be female compared to males (aOR=3.09; 95%C.I:2.09–4.58), of black race compared to whites (aOR=2.07; 95%C.I:1.30–3.28), or aged 45–64, or ?65 years (aOR=2.39 and 5.27 respectively), compared to 18–24 year olds. Conclusions Specific gender, age and race/ethnic characteristics of smokers of long/ultra-long cigarettes were noted, hence potentially contributing to the widening of health disparities. Cigarette rod length should be considered an important aspect of cigarette engineering/design in regulatory efforts to reduce the burden of tobacco-related disease. PMID:24417962

  6. Biomass reforming processes in hydrothermal media

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Andrew A

    2009-01-01

    While hydrothermal technologies offer distinct advantages in being able to process a wide variety of biomass feedstocks, the composition of the feedstock will have a large effect on the processing employed. This thesis ...

  7. Modeling methane production by iron-bearing carbonate minerals in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Norman, D.

    2005-12-01

    We measured methane and other major volatiles in fluid inclusions from gold deposits such as Lone Tree, Getchell, Twin Creeks, and Pipeline Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada by bulk analysis using quadrupole mass spectrometry. Ore-stage fluids are characterized by CO2/CH4 ratios that typically are < 10. Fluid inclusion methane concentrations generally are between 0.1 and 0.5 mol.%; other gaseous species show much wider ranges in composition. Also we commonly measure CO2/CH4 ratios of 10 or less in geothermal fluid inclusions. Similar ratios are reported in some black smokers. Few geothermal systems in production have CH4 in other than trace amounts. Giggenbach (1997) demonstrates that CO2/CH4 ratio in geothermal fluids in equilibrium with granite should vary positively with temperature, but we see no such variation and some fluid inclusion CO2/CH4 in granite-hosted inclusions ratios are an order of magnitude higher than calculated by Giggenbach (1997). This raises the question about the fluid inclusion gas measurements. We have looked at explanations for measurement of fluid inclusion methane that include preferential trapping of hydrocarbon compounds, concentration of methane by boiling, and contamination, but none can explain in all cases the methane concentrations measured. Hence we have modeled geothermal fluid rock reactions using Geochemists Workbench to demonstrate that methane can be a result of fluid-rock reactions. For gold ore wall rocks, we assume that wall rock includes iron-bearing carbonate minerals, epidote, and biotite. For geothermal systems, we assumed fluids with 1 mol.% CO2 and salinity of 1 %. We modeled the reaction of iron-bearing carbonate minerals, epidote, and biotite with the fluid between 100 and 300 °C. The reaction released ferrous iron, and the released ferrous iron is oxidized and precipitated as hematite or magnetite. The precipitation of hematite or magnetite produced acid and the acid dissolved calcite increasing CO2 concentration. The oxidation of ferrous iron produced hydrogen gas and the produced hydrogen reacted with CO2 producing methane. The equilibrium between magnetite and other ferrous-iron bearing minerals controlled the hydrogen fugacity and the hydrogen fugacity controlled the ratio of CO2 and methane. When the hydrogen fugacity was controlled by the equilibrium of magnetite and iron-bearing calcite, the modeled CO2/CH4 was about 10 and the ratio did not significantly vary between 100 and 300 °C. The reaction occurred over a wide range of pH conditions. At a low pH, the modeled ferrous iron concentration in the fluid was higher than that of higher pH. The modeled result suggests that the methane trapped in fluid inclusion can be produced by water-rock interaction in hydrothermal systems.

  8. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  9. Rare earth element systematics in hydrothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Michard, A. )

    1989-03-01

    Rare earth element concentrations have been measured in hydrothermal solutions from geothermal fields in Italy, Dominica, Valles Caldera, Salton Sea and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The measured abundances show that hydrothermal activity is not expected to affect the REE balance of either continental or oceanic rocks. The REE enrichment of the solutions increases when the pH decreases. High-temperature solutions (> 230{degree}C) percolating through different rock types may show similar REE patterns.

  10. Lower expressions of the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R in smokers: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that smokers have deficit in detecting taste, particularly bitter taste, no study has investigated its biological correlate. Methods In this context, we compared the expression of the bitter taste receptor gene, taste 2 receptor (TAS2R) in the tongues of smokers and non-smokers. Tissue samples were collected from the lateral portion of the tongues of 22 smokers and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (19 males and three females) with no history of smoking. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the expression of TAS2R in the two groups, and the effect of aging on TAS2R expression was also assessed. Results TAS2R expression was significantly lower among smokers than non-smokers (t?=?6.525, P?smokers vs. smokers). Further, a positive correlation between age and expression of TAS2R was observed in non-smokers (r?=?.642, P?=?.001), but not smokers (r?=?.124, P?=?.584). This correlation difference was significant (Z?=?1.96, P?=?.0496). Conclusions Smokers showed a significantly lower expression of the bitter taste receptor gene than non-smokers, which is potentially caused by their inability to acquire such receptors with age because of cigarette smoking, in contrast to non-smokers. PMID:25152706

  11. The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) in the Middle East region and worldwide is increasing. There is evidence to indicate both short term and long term health effects of WTS, resulting in the issuance of an advisory note by the World Health Organization. Methods This research aimed at gaining an in-depth understanding of the factors contributing to the rise in WTS in Lebanon. Qualitative focus groups (25) and in-depth interviews (9) were conducted with adults in Lebanon in 2007. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, gender, age groups and urban/rural residence. The interviews and focus groups were thematically analyzed, and recurrent themes noted and summarized. Results The main themes identified were availability, affordability, innovation, influence of media, lack of a policy framework, and the sensory characteristics evoked from WTS. Men and women, smokers and non-smokers, and younger and older participants differed in their emphases on the above themes. These themes, though specific to waterpipe, are similar to themes manipulated by the cigarette industry, and eventually controlled through tobacco control policies. Conclusions Understanding reasons behind the rise in waterpipe tobacco use is important if appropriate prevention, cessation, and policy interventions are to be formulated. Strict adherence to the FCTC is warranted, with careful and vigilant attention that all tobacco products are covered by laws in both high as well as middle to lower income countries. PMID:21569577

  12. Macrofauna of shallow hydrothermal vents on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge at 71N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schander, C.; Rapp, H. T.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna and since their discovery in 1977, more than 400 species of animals have been described. Specialized vent fauna includes various animal phyla, but the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. We have investigated the fauna collected around newly discovered hydrothermal vents on the Mohns Ridge north of Jan Mayen. The venting fields are located at 71°N and the venting takes place within two main areas separated by 5 km. The shallowest vent area is at 500-550 m water depth and is located at the base of a normal fault. This vent field stretches approximately 1 km along the strike of the fault, and it is composed of 10-20 major vent sites each with multiple chimney constructions discharging up to 260°C hot fluids. A large area of diffuse, low- temperature venting occurs in the area surrounding the high-temperature field. Here, partly microbial mediated iron-oxide-hydroxide deposits are abundant. The hydrothermal vent sites do not show any high abundance of specialized hydrothermal vent fauna. Single groups (i.e. Porifera and Mollusca) have a few representatives but groups otherwise common in hydrothermal vent areas (e.g. vestimentifera, Alvinellid worms, mussels, clams, galathaeid and brachyuran crabs) are absent. Up until now slightly more than 200 species have been identified from the vent area. The macrofauna found in the vent area is, with few exceptions, an assortment of bathyal species known in the area. One endemic, yet undescribed, species of mollusc has been found so far, an gastropod related to Alvania incognita Warén, 1996 and A. angularis Warén, 1996 (Rissoidae), two species originally described from pieces of sunken wood north and south of Iceland. It is by far the most numerous mollusc species at the vents and was found on smokers, in the bacterial mats, and on the ferric deposits. A single specimen of an undescribed tanaidacean has also ben found. The crinoid Heliometra glacialis is dominating large areas surrounding the vent fields. Calcareous sponges were common in the area. Calcareous sponges normally represent only a minor fraction of the sponge fauna and it was therefore a big surprise that eight out of a total of 13 species reported here are calcareans. Annelids were the most speciose group with more than 80 identified species, followed by crustaceans. Possible explanations for the lack of typical vent fauna is discussed.

  13. Black Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black

  14. Policy Compliance of Smokers on a Tobacco-Free University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russette, Helen C.; Harris, Kari Jo; Schuldberg, David; Green, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors influencing compliance with campus tobacco policies and strategies to increase compliance. Participants: Sixty tobacco smokers (April 2012). Methods: A 22-item intercept-interview with closed-and open-ended questions was conducted with smokers in adjacent compliant and noncompliant areas at 1 university with a 100%…

  15. Tobacco Use by College Students: A Comparison of Daily and Nondaily Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Berg, Carla J.; Champion, Heather; Helme, Donald W.; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore demographics, contextual factors, and health risk behaviors associated with nondaily smoking by college students. Methods: In fall 2005, a random sample of 4100 students completed an online survey. Results: Of those surveyed, 29% reported current smoking; of that 29%, 70% were nondaily smokers. Compared to daily smokers,…

  16. Correcting Media Mis-Education: The Portrayal of Smokers and Smoking in Top Grossing Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Alyssa; Brackin, Taryn; Chubb, Jamie; Covata, Sandy; Ferguson, Liz; Hinckley, Adele; Hodges, Jilda; Liberati, Cheryl; Tornetta, Jonette; Chambliss, Catherine

    Given that young people are extremely concerned with how they appear socially, beguiling and glamorous portrayals of smokers in recent films may be contributing to the continual rise in college student smoking. The pervasive positive depiction of smokers as attractive and appealing easily preys on young people who lack confidence and self esteem.…

  17. Risk of COPD with obstruction in active smokers with normal spirometry and reduced diffusion capacity.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben-Gary; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Kaner, Robert J; Sanders, Abraham; Vincent, Thomas L; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G

    2015-12-01

    Smokers are assessed for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using spirometry, with COPD defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as airflow limitation that is not fully reversible with bronchodilators. There is a subset of smokers with normal spirometry (by GOLD criteria), who have a low diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), a parameter linked to emphysema and small airway disease. The natural history of these "normal spirometry/low DLCO" smokers is unknown.From a cohort of 1570 smokers in the New York City metropolitian area, all of whom had normal spirometry, two groups were randomly selected for lung function follow-up: smokers with normal spirometry/normal DLCO (n=59) and smokers with normal spirometry/low DLCO (n=46). All had normal history, physical examination, complete blood count, urinalysis, HIV status, ?1-antitrypsin level, chest radiography, forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio and total lung capacity. Throughout the study, all continued to be active smokers.In the normal spirometry/normal DLCO group assessed over 45±20?months, 3% developed GOLD-defined COPD. In contrast, in the normal spirometry/low DLCO group, followed over 41±31?months, 22% developed GOLD-defined COPD.Despite appearing "normal" according to GOLD, smokers with normal spirometry but low DLCO are at significant risk of developing COPD with obstruction to airflow. PMID:26541521

  18. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Samet, Jonathan M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Boffetta, Paolo; Hannan, Lindsay M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Thun, Michael J.; Rudin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the U.S. in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10–15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000–24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U.S. if considered to be a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accompanying article, lung cancers that occur in never smokers differ from those that occur in smokers in their molecular profile and response to targeted therapy. These recent laboratory and clinical observations highlight the importance of defining the genetic and environmental factors responsible for the development of lung cancer in never-smokers. This article summarizes available data on the clinical epidemiology of lung cancer in never smokers, and the several environmental risk factors that population-based research has implicated in the etiology of these cancers. Primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in never smokers include exposure to known and suspected carcinogens including radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, and other indoor air pollutants. Several other exposures have been implicated. However, a large fraction of lung cancers occurring in never-smokers cannot be definitively associated with established environmental risk factors, highlighting the need for additional epidemiologic research in this area. PMID:19755391

  19. Peer Influence, Images of Smokers, and Beliefs about Smoking among Preadolescent Nonsmokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragesser, Sarah L.; Aloise-Young, Patricia A.; Swaim, Randall C.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test whether perceived peer influence is related to image of a typical smoker, and whether image of a typical smoker is associated with beliefs about the effects of smoking among preadolescent nonsmokers. Two hundred and ninety-two preadolescents completed a survey indicating their perceptions of the…

  20. Dopamine Function in Cigarette Smokers: An [18F]-DOPA PET Study

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Michael AP; Pepper, Fiona; Egerton, Alice; Demjaha, Arsime; Tomasi, Gianpaolo; Mouchlianitis, Elias; Maximen, Levi; Veronese, Mattia; Turkheimer, Federico; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Howes, Oliver D

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco addiction is a global public health problem. Addiction to tobacco is thought to involve the effects of nicotine on the dopaminergic system. Only one study has previously investigated dopamine synthesis capacity in cigarette smokers. This study, exclusively in male volunteers, reported increased dopamine synthesis capacity in heavy smokers compared with non-smokers. We sought to determine whether dopamine synthesis capacity was elevated in a larger sample of cigarette smokers that included females. Dopamine synthesis capacity was measured in 15 daily moderate smokers with 15 sex- and age-matched control subjects who had never smoked tobacco. Dopamine synthesis capacity (indexed as the influx rate constant Kicer) was measured with positron emission tomography and 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[18F]-fluoro-l-phenylalanine. There was no significant group difference in dopamine synthesis capacity between smokers and non-smoker controls in the whole striatum (t28=0.64, p=0.53) or any of its functional subdivisions. In smokers, there were no significant relationships between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and dopamine synthesis capacity in the whole striatum (r=?0.23, p=0.41) or any striatal subdivision. These findings indicate that moderate smoking is not associated with altered striatal dopamine synthesis capacity. PMID:24718373

  1. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

  2. Obese Smokers as a Potential Subpopulation of Risk in Tobacco Reduction Policy

    PubMed Central

    Rupprecht, Laura E.; Donny, Eric C.; Sved, Alan F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and obesity represent the largest challenges to public health. There is an established inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and smoking, but this relationship becomes more complicated among obese smokers. Smokers with higher BMI consume more cigarettes per day and may be more nicotine-dependent than lean smokers. Rates of obesity are lower among smokers than non-smokers, indicating that chronic exposure to tobacco smoke may prevent excess weight gain in people who would otherwise become obese. Furthermore, obese smokers may be more sensitive to the weight-suppressive and reinforcing effects of nicotine. Consequently, obese smokers may respond differently to reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, a tobacco control policy being considered both in the Unites States and abroad. Here, we review the interrelationship between nicotine and obesity in the context of a potential nicotine reduction policy. We discuss the implications of nicotine-induced body weight suppression in obese smokers, as well as the possibility that obesity might increase susceptibility to smoking and nicotine dependence. PMID:26339212

  3. Adverse Reaction to Nicotine Gum in Malay Female Smoker: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorzurani, Md Haris Robson; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are prescribed in smoking cessation programmes to help smokers stop smoking. The ideal dosage of NRT should control cravings and withdrawal symptoms but avoid adverse reactions. This report describes a case of adverse reaction to nicotine gum in a female Malay smoker. Assays taken 2 h after the gum, showed that…

  4. Quitting Smoking Smokers' Helpline: 1-800-QUIT-NOW (1-800-784-8669)

    E-print Network

    Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    Quitting Smoking Smokers' Helpline: 1-800-QUIT-NOW (1-800-784-8669) This national smokers' helpline symptoms, and staying smoke free after quitting. 4. Screening for medication: You will be screened and may of the Massachusetts state health insurance plans offers coverage for quit-smoking medication and counseling. Private

  5. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Yawen; Ding, Weina; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xu, Jianrong; Du, Yasong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA. PMID:25506057

  6. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-01-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme—under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness—as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  7. Monodisperse spindle-like FeWO{sub 4} nanoparticles: Controlled hydrothermal synthesis and enhanced optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jinxue; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Lu, Yibin; Zhang, Xiao; Kuang, Shaoping; Hou, Wanguo

    2012-12-15

    Monodisperse FeWO{sub 4} nanoparticles with specific spindle-like morphology have been synthesized in the presence of citric acid through hydrothermal process. In the synthesis route, citric acid played four roles such as the reducing agent, chelating regents, structure-directing agent and stabilizing agents. In addition, the morphology of FeWO{sub 4} was dramatically tuned by the pH value of the precursor medium. The optical properties of FeWO{sub 4} were investigated with UV-Vis spectra and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic experiments demonstrated that the decomposition efficiency of the monodisperse spindle-like FeWO{sub 4} nanoparticles is 74% after 30 min of UV irradiation, which displayed remarkable enhanced photodegradation activity compared with ordinary FeWO{sub 4} sample (57%) and normal TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts P-25 (56%). - Monodisperse spindle-like FeWO{sub 4} nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activities. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monodisperse spindle-like FeWO{sub 4} were synthesized with hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Citric acid plays key roles in the hydrothermal synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their morphology can be tuned with pH value of the precursor medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They show enhanced photocatalytic activities with irradiation of UV light.

  8. Reduced expression IRF7 in nasal epithelial cells from smokers as a potential mechanism mediating enhanced susceptibility to influenza

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Smokers are more susceptible to viral infections, including influenza virus, yet the mechanisms mediating this effect are not known. Methods: We have established an in vitro model of differentiated nasal epithelial cells from smokers, which maintain enhanced levels...

  9. Smokers are not a homogeneous group and smoking is not a uniform behaviour: profiling psychosocial characteristics differentiates between smoking patterns. 

    E-print Network

    Seeds, Sophie

    2013-07-02

    Much of our understanding of ‘smokers’ is based the subset of the group that smoke daily, under the assumption that smokers are a relatively homogeneous group. However, there is a growing body of evidence which recognises other ‘kinds’ of smoking...

  10. Study of hydrothermal channels based on near-bottom magnetic prospecting: Application to Longqi hydrothermal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, W.; Tao, C.; Li, H.; Zhaocai, W.; Jinhui, Z.; Qinzhu, C.; Shili, L.

    2014-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridges, largely present far from the continental plates, are characterized by complex geological structures and numerous hydrothermal systems with complex controlling factors. Exploring seafloor sulfide resources for industrial and scientific applications is a challenge. With the advent of geophysical surveys for seabed investigation, near-bottom magnetic prospecting, which yields shallow geological structure, is an efficient method for investigating active and inactive hydrothermal fields and for researching the structure of hydrothermal systems (Tivey et al., 1993, 1996?German et al., 2008). We collected near-bottom magnetic data in the Longqi hydrothermal area, located in the southwest Indian ridge (49.6° E; Zhu et al., 2010; Tao et al., 2014), using the autonomous benthic explorer, an autonomous underwater vehicle, during the second leg of the Chinese cruise DY115-19 on board R/V DaYangYiHao. Based on the results of the intensity of the spatial differential vector method (Seaman et al., 1993), we outline the hydrothermal alternation zone. By building models, we subsequently infer a fault along the discovered hydrothermal vents; this fault line may be connected to a detachment fault (Zhao et al., 2013). In addition, we discuss the channels of the hydrothermal circulation system (Figure 1), and presume that heat was conducted to the sea subsurface by the detachment fault; the aqueous fluid that infiltrated the fault is heated and conveyed to the seafloor, promoting the circulation of the hydrothermal system.

  11. Hardening and the hard-core smoker: concepts, evidence, and implications.

    PubMed

    Warner, Kenneth E; Burns, David M

    2003-02-01

    A nascent debate pits researchers who believe that hard-core smokers are coming to dominate the remaining population of smokers against others who perceive the hardening of the target as a far more distant concern. At stake is the future emphasis of tobacco control: should we alter the current allocation of resources between treatment of individual smokers and modification of the psychosocial environment through public education and policy measures? We review the evidence and conclude that: (1) hardening is probably occurring in the sense that, compared with earlier generations, many of today's smokers possibly do have greater difficulty quitting, or are inherently less willing to do so. (2) Hardening may be most usefully construed in the context of specific groups of smokers, such as the mentally ill, who may constitute a growing fraction of the remaining smoking population. (3) Using conventional measures, however, we find little evidence that the population of smokers as a whole is hardening. Cessation rates have not decreased. (4) Truly hard-core smokers necessarily constitute a very small fraction of the population. Quitting-susceptible smokers continue to dominate the smoking population. (5) Hardening and the potential existence of true hard-core smokers recommend creative thinking about, and devotion of resources to, finding new ways to help the most dependent smokers to quit. (6) Sound research recommends the expansion of comprehensive tobacco-control programs in both the public and private sectors, and does not support reallocation of resources from such programs toward more intensive individualized treatment. We can afford both. PMID:12745505

  12. Smoker Identity and Its Potential Role in Young Adults’ Smoking Behavior: A Meta-Ethnography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identity is an important influence on behavior. To identify potential targets for smoking cessation interventions in young adults, we synthesized findings from qualitative studies on smoker identity and potential influences on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: A systematic search of 4 electronic databases up to September 19, 2013, was conducted to identify qualitative studies on smoker identity in smokers and ex-smokers aged 16–34. Key concepts were extracted from individual studies and synthesized into higher-order interpretations by following the principles of meta-ethnography. Results: Seventeen relevant papers were identified. At the highest level of interpretation, we identified 4 types of findings: (a) contributory factors to identity, (b) identity in relation to smoking, (c) contextual and temporal patterning, and (d) behavior in relation to smoking. Contributory factors included the desire to establish aspirational individual and social identities, enact a smoker identity appropriate to the momentary social context, and alter personal nonsmoking rules when consuming alcohol. Smoker identity was multifaceted and incorporated individuals’ defensive rationalizations, and both positive and negative feelings attached to it. Smoker identities took time to develop, were subject to change, and were context dependent. Identity was found to play a role in quit attempts. Conclusions: Qualitative research into the identity of young adult smokers has established it as a multifaceted phenomenon serving important functions but also involving conflict and defensive rationalizations. It develops over time and contextual factors influence its expression. The nature of a smoker’s identity can play an important role in smoking cessation. PMID:25622078

  13. A Paleoarchean coastal hydrothermal field inhabited by diverse microbial communities: the Strelley Pool Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Sugitani, K; Mimura, K; Takeuchi, M; Yamaguchi, T; Suzuki, K; Senda, R; Asahara, Y; Wallis, S; Van Kranendonk, M J

    2015-11-01

    The 3.4-Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) at the informally named 'Waterfall Locality' in the Goldsworthy greenstone belt of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, provides deeper insights into ancient, shallow subaqueous to possibly subaerial ecosystems. Outcrops at this locality contain a thin (<3 m) unit of carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous cherts and silicified sandstones that were deposited in a shallow-water coastal environment, with hydrothermal activities, consistent with the previous studies. Carbonaceous, sulfide-rich massive black cherts with coniform structures up to 3 cm high are characterized by diverse rare earth elements (REE) signatures including enrichment of light [light rare earth elements (LREE)] or middle rare earth elements and by enrichment of heavy metals represented by Zn. The massive black cherts were likely deposited by mixing of hydrothermal and non-hydrothermal fluids. Coniform structures in the cherts are characterized by diffuse laminae composed of sulfide particles, suggesting that unlike stromatolites, they were formed dominantly through physico-chemical processes related to hydrothermal activity. The cherts yield microfossils identical to previously described carbonaceous films, small and large spheres, and lenticular microfossils. In addition, new morphological types such as clusters composed of large carbonaceous spheroids (20-40 ?m across each) with fluffy or foam-like envelope are identified. Finely laminated carbonaceous cherts are devoid of heavy metals and characterized by the enrichment of LREE. This chert locally contains conical to domal structures characterized by truncation of laminae and trapping of detrital grains and is interpreted as siliceous stromatolite formed by very early or contemporaneous silicification of biomats with the contribution of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids. Biological affinities of described microfossils and microbes constructing siliceous stromatolites are under investigation. However, this study emphasizes how diverse the microbial community in Paleoarchean coastal hydrothermal environment was. We propose the diversity is at least partially due to the availability of various energy sources in this depositional environment including reducing chemicals and sunlight. PMID:26189535

  14. Cost-effectiveness of Extended Cessation Treatment for Older Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Paul G.; Wong, Wynnie; Jeffers, Abra; Munoz, Ricardo; Humfleet, Gary; Hall, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the cost-effectiveness of extended smoking cessation treatment in older smokers. Design Participants who completed a 12 week smoking cessation program were factorial randomized to extended cognitive behavioral treatment and extended nicotine replacement therapy. Setting A free-standing smoking cessation clinic in the United States. Participants 402 smokers aged 50 years and older were recruited from the community. Measurements The trial measured biochemically-verified abstinence from cigarettes after 24 months and the quantity of smoking cessation services used. Trial findings were combined with literature on changes in smoking status and the age and gender adjusted effect of smoking on health care cost, mortality, and qualify of life over the long-term in a Markov model of cost-effectiveness over a lifetime horizon. Findings The addition of extended cognitive behavioral therapy added $83 in smoking cessation services cost (p =.012, CI $21-$212). At the end of follow-up, cigarette abstinence rates were 50.0% with extended cognitive behavioral therapy and 37.2% without this therapy (p <.05, odds ratio 1.69, CI 1.18-2.54). The model-based incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $6,324 per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis found that the additional $947 in lifetime cost of the intervention had a 95% confidence interval of –$331 – $2,081; the 0.150 additional QALYs had a confidence interval of 0.035- 0.280, and that the intervention was cost-effective against a $50,000/QALY acceptance criterion in 99.6% of the replicates. Extended nicotine replacement therapy was not cost-effective. Conclusions Adding extended cognitive behavior therapy to standard smoking cessation treatment can be cost-effective. PMID:24329972

  15. Black Funnels

    E-print Network

    Jorge E. Santos; Benson Way

    2012-12-18

    The Hartle-Hawking state of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM at strong coupling and large $N$ on a fixed black hole background has two proposed gravitational duals: a black funnel or a black droplet. We construct the black funnel solutions that are dual to the Hartle-Hawking state on a Schwarzschild black hole and on a class of three-dimensional asymptotically flat black hole backgrounds. We compute their holographic stress tensor and argue for the stability of these solutions.

  16. Using “warm handoffs” to link hospitalized smokers with tobacco treatment after discharge: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    E-print Network

    Faseru, Babalola; Mussulman, Laura M.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Shireman, Theresa I.; Hunt, Jamie J.; Carlini, Beatriz H.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Ayars, Candace L.; Cook, David J.; Richter, Kimber P.

    2012-08-01

    Post-discharge support is a key component of effective treatment for hospitalized smokers, but few hospitals provide it. Many hospitals and care settings fax-refer smokers to quitlines for follow-up; however, less than half of fax-referred smokers...

  17. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  18. Microbial diversity of Loki's Castle black smokers at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    obser- vations based on the analysis of 16S rRNA genes and biomarker lipid analysis provide insight energy for diverse thermophilic micro- bial communities that inhabit either specific microniches in different parts of the porous chimney structure, appear as free-living micro-organisms in vent fluids

  19. Interactive Omics: Black raspberry metabolites and the oral microbiome in smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  20. Marked global reduction in mGluR5 receptor binding in smokers and ex-smokers determined by [11C]ABP688 positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Akkus, Funda; Ametamey, Simon M; Treyer, Valerie; Burger, Cyrill; Johayem, Anass; Umbricht, Daniel; Gomez Mancilla, Baltazar; Sovago, Judit; Buck, Alfred; Hasler, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is a major public health problem, resulting in primary glutamatergic dysfunction. We measured the glutamate receptor binding in the human brain and provided direct evidence for the abnormal glutamate system in smokers. Because antagonism of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) reduced nicotine self-administration in rats and mice, mGluR5 is suggested to be involved in nicotine addiction. mGluR5 receptor binding specifically to an allosteric site was observed by using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]ABP688. We found a marked global reduction (20.6%; P < 0.0001) in the mGluR5 distribution volume ratio (DVR) in the gray matter of 14 smokers. The most prominent reductions were found in the bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex. Compared with 14 nonsmokers, 14 ex-smokers had global reductions in the average gray matter mGluR5 DVR (11.5%; P < 0.005), and there was a significant difference in average gray matter mGluR5 DVR between smokers and ex-smokers (9.2%; P < 0.01). Clinical variables reflecting current nicotine consumption, dependence and abstinence were not correlated with mGluR5 DVR. This decrease in mGluR5 receptor binding may be an adaptation to chronic increases in glutamate induced by chronic nicotine administration, and the decreased down-regulation seen in the ex-smokers could be due to incomplete recovery of the receptors, especially because the ex-smokers were abstinent for only 25 wk on average. These results encourage the development and testing of drugs against addiction that directly target the glutamatergic system. PMID:23248277

  1. Black Saturn

    E-print Network

    Henriette Elvang; Pau Figueras

    2007-04-03

    Using the inverse scattering method we construct an exact stationary asymptotically flat 4+1-dimensional vacuum solution describing Black Saturn: a spherical black hole surrounded by a black ring. Angular momentum keeps the configuration in equilibrium. Black saturn reveals a number of interesting gravitational phenomena: (1) The balanced solution exhibits 2-fold continuous non-uniqueness for fixed mass and angular momentum; (2) Remarkably, the 4+1d Schwarzschild black hole is not unique, since the black ring and black hole of black saturn can counter-rotate to give zero total angular momentum at infinity, while maintaining balance; (3) The system cleanly demonstrates rotational frame-dragging when a black hole with vanishing Komar angular momentum is rotating as the black ring drags the surrounding spacetime. Possible generalizations include multiple rings of saturn as well as doubly spinning black saturn configurations.

  2. Hydrothermal mineralization at seafloor spreading centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, Peter A.

    1984-01-01

    The recent recognition that metallic mineral deposits are concentrated by hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers constitutes a scientific breakthrough that opens active sites at seafloor spreading centers as natural laboratories to investigate ore-forming processes of such economically useful deposits as massive sulfides in volcanogenic rocks on land, and that enhances the metallic mineral potential of oceanic crust covering two-thirds of the Earth both beneath ocean basins and exposed on land in ophiolite belts. This paper reviews our knowledge of processes of hydrothermal mineralization and the occurrence and distribution of hydrothermal mineral deposits at the global oceanic ridge-rift system. Sub-seafloor hydrothermal convection involving circulation of seawater through fractured rocks of oceanic crust driven by heat supplied by generation of new lithosphere is nearly ubiquitous at seafloor spreading centers. However, ore-forming hydrothermal systems are extremely localized where conditions of anomalously high thermal gradients and permeability increase hydrothermal activity from the ubiquitous low-intensity background level (? 200°C) to high-intensity characterized by high temperatures ( > 200-c.400°C), and a rate and volume of flow sufficient to sustain chemical reactions that produce acid, reducing, metal-rich primary hydrothermal solutions. A series of mineral phases with sulfides and oxides as high- and low-temperature end members, respectively, are precipitated along the upwelling limb and in the discharge zone of single-phase systems as a function of increasing admixture of normal seawater. The occurrence of hydrothermal mineral deposits is considered in terms of spatial and temporal frames of reference. Spatial frames of reference comprise structural features along-axis (linear sections that are the loci of seafloor spreading alternating with transform faults) and perpendicular to axis (axial zone of volcanic extrusion and marginal zones of active extension) common to all spreading centers, regional tectonic setting determined by stage (early, advanced), and rate (slow, intermediate-to-fast) of opening of an ocean basin about a spreading center, and local tectonic sub-setting that incorporates anomalous structural and thermal conditions conducive to mineral concentration (thermal gradient, permeability, system geometry, leaky versus tight hydrothermal systems). Temporal frames of reference comprise the relation between mineral concentration and timing of regional plutonic, volcanic and tectonic cycles and of episodic local physical and chemical events (transient stress, fluctuating heat transfer, intrusion-extrusion, fracturing, sealing, etc.). Types of hydrothermal deposits are not uniquely associated with specific tectonic settings and subsettings. Similar types of hydrothermal deposits may occur in different tectonic settings as a consequence of convergence of physical and chemical processes of concentration. Local tectonic sub-settings with conditions conducive to hydrothermal mineralization at slow-spreading centers (half rate ? 2cm y -1; length c. 28,000 km), characterized by an estimated average convective heat transfer of 15.1·10 8 cal. cm -2, deep-level ( > 3 km), relative narrow (< 5 km wide at base) magma chambers, and high topographic relief (1-5 km) are: (1) basins along linear sections of the axial zone of volcanic extrusion near transform faults at an early stage of opening, represented by a large stratiform sulfide deposit (estimated 32.5·10 6 metric tons) of the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea; (2) the wall along linear sections of the rift valley in the marginal zone of active extension at an advanced stage of opening, represented by encrustations and layered deposits of manganese and iron oxides, hydroxides and silicates inferred to be underlain by stockwork sulfides at the TAG Hydrothermal Field at latitude 26°C on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; (3) transform faults, especially those with large ridge-ridge offset ( > 30 km), at an advanced stage of opening,

  3. Sample Return from Ancient Hydrothermal Springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal spring deposits on Mars would make excellent candidates for sample return. Molecular phylogeny suggests that that life on Earth may have arisen in hydrothermal settings [1-3], and on Mars, such settings not only would have supplied energy-rich waters in which martian life may have evolved [4-7] but also would have provided warm, liquid water to martian life forms as the climate became colder and drier [8]. Since silica, sulfates, and clays associated with hydrothermal settings are known to preserve geochemical and morphological remains of ancient terrestrial life [9-11], such settings on Mars might similarly preserve evidence of martian life. Finally, because formation of hydrothermal springs includes surface and subsurface processes, martian spring deposits would offer the potential to assess astrobiological potential and hydrological history in a variety of settings, including surface mineralized terraces, associated stream deposits, and subsurface environments where organic remains may have been well protected from oxidation. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data [12-14]. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel, and based on these new data, we have interpreted several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra as ancient hydrothermal springs [15, 16].

  4. The hydrothermal power of oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grose, C. J.; Afonso, J. C.

    2015-03-01

    We have estimated the power of ventilated hydrothermal heat transport, and its spatial distribution, using a set of recently developed plate models which highlight the effects of hydrothermal circulation and thermal insulation by oceanic crust. Testing lithospheric cooling models with these two effects, we estimate that global advective heat transport is about 6.6 TW, significantly lower than previous estimates, and that the fraction of that extracted by vigorous circulation on the ridge axes (<1 Ma) is about 50% of the total, significantly higher than previous estimates. This low hydrothermal power estimate originates from the thermally insulating properties of oceanic crust in relation to the mantle. Since the crust is relatively insulating, the effective properties of the lithosphere are "crust dominated" near ridge axes (yielding lower heat flow), and gradually approach mantle values over time. Thus, cooling models with crustal insulation predict low heat flow over young seafloor, implying that the difference of modeled and measured heat flow is due to the heat transport properties of the lithosphere, in addition to ventilated hydrothermal circulation as generally accepted. These estimates may bear on important problems in the physics and chemistry of the Earth because the magnitude of hydrothermal power affects chemical exchanges between the oceans and the lithosphere, thereby affecting both thermal and chemical budgets in the oceanic crust and lithosphere, the subduction factory, and convective mantle.

  5. Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

  6. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Methods Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n = 504), 2006 (n = 525), 2007 (n = 414) and 2008 (n = 464). Results Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Conclusions Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact. PMID:21496314

  7. Smoked cannabis' psychomotor and neurocognitive effects in occasional and frequent smokers.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Chauchard, Emeline; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-05-01

    ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis, impairs psychomotor performance, cognition and driving ability; thus, driving under the influence of cannabis is a public safety concern. We documented cannabis' psychomotor, neurocognitive, subjective and physiological effects in occasional and frequent smokers to investigate potential differences between these smokers. Fourteen frequent (?4x/week) and 11 occasional (<2x/week) cannabis smokers entered a secure research unit ?19 h prior to smoking one 6.8% THC cigarette. Cognitive and psychomotor performance was evaluated with the critical tracking (CTT), divided attention (DAT), n-back (working memory) and Balloon Analog Risk (BART) (risk-taking) tasks at -1.75, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 22.5 h after starting smoking. GLM (General Linear Model) repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to compare scores. Occasional smokers had significantly more difficulty compensating for CTT tracking error compared with frequent smokers 1.5 h after smoking. Divided attention performance declined significantly especially in occasional smokers, with session × group effects for tracking error, hits, false alarms and reaction time. Cannabis smoking did not elicit session × group effects on the n-back or BART. Controlled cannabis smoking impaired psychomotor function, more so in occasional smokers, suggesting some tolerance to psychomotor impairment in frequent users. These data have implications for cannabis-associated impairment in driving under the influence of cannabis cases. PMID:25745105

  8. Unique Relationships between Facets of Mindfulness and Eating Pathology among Female Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Claire E.; McVay, Megan Apperson; Kinsaul, Jessica; Benitez, Lindsay; Vinci, Christine; Stewart, Diana W.; Copeland, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Female smokers often have higher levels of eating disorder symptoms than non-smokers, and concerns about eating and weight might interfere with smoking cessation. Thus, it is critical to identify factors to promote healthier eating and body image in this population. Initial research suggests that specific aspects of trait mindfulness predict lower body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among non-smokers. However, these relationships are unknown among smokers. The current study examined associations between facets of trait mindfulness and eating disorder symptoms in 112 college female smokers (83% Caucasian; mean age 20 years, SD = 1.69). After controlling for relevant sociodemographic variables, Describing and Nonjudging facets of mindfulness predicted lower bulimic symptoms and body dissatisfaction (ps < .05), while Acting with Awareness predicted lower bulimic and anorexic symptoms, ps < .05. Observing predicted higher anorexic symptoms, p < .05. These results suggest that specific mindfulness facets are related to lower eating disorder symptoms among smokers, whereas other facets are not associated or have a positive relationship with these symptoms. Mindfulness-based interventions focusing on Describing, Nonjudging, and Acting with Awareness may help to reduce eating pathology among female smokers, which could potentially improve smoking cessation rates in this population. PMID:23121795

  9. Life One Year After a Quit Attempt: Real-Time Reports of Quitters and Continuing Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Schlam, Tanya R.; Piper, Megan E.; Cook, Jessica W.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Smokers are often reluctant to quit because they fear long-lasting withdrawal. Yet little research prospectively examines smokers’ withdrawal longer than 1 month post-quit. Purpose To compare successful versus unsuccessful quitters’ withdrawal, positive affect/pleasure, and lifestyle at 1 year post-quit. Methods Smokers (N=572) in a cessation trial completed ecological momentary assessments four times a day for 1 week pre-quit, 1 week post-quit, and 1 week at 1 year post-quit. Results From pre-quit to 1 year later, only quitters reported sizeable declines in craving and restlessness, and fewer stressful events. At 1 year, quitters, on average, reported no significant craving. Continuing smokers reduced their cigarette consumption considerably from pre-quit to 1 year later. Conclusions Contrary to smokers’ worries, long-term quitters reported less craving and restlessness than when they smoked (perhaps because cessation eliminates the acute nicotine withdrawal smokers experience between cigarettes). This information may encourage smokers to quit and endure withdrawal. PMID:22865499

  10. Do Smokers of Menthol Cigarettes Find It Harder to Quit Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Monica Webb; Pletcher, Mark J.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Menthol cigarette smokers may find it harder to quit smoking than smokers of nonmenthol cigarettes. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of published studies examining the association between menthol cigarette smoking and cessation. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched to identify studies published through May 2010, and results were tabulated. Results: Ten studies were located that reported cessation outcomes for menthol and nonmenthol smokers. Half of the studies found evidence that menthol smoking is associated with lower odds of cessation, while the other half found no such effects. The pattern of results in these studies suggest that the association between smoking menthol cigarettes and difficulty quitting is stronger in (a) racial/ethnic minority populations, (b) younger smokers, and (c) studies carried out after1999. This pattern is consistent with an effect that relies on menthol to facilitate increased nicotine intake from fewer cigarettes where economic pressure restricts the number of cigarettes smokers can afford to purchase. Conclusions: There is growing evidence that certain subgroups of smokers find it harder to quit menthol versus nonmenthol cigarettes. There is a need for additional research, and particularly for studies including adequately powered and diverse samples of menthol and nonmenthol smokers, with reliable measurement of cigarette brands, socioeconomic status, and biomarkers of nicotine intake. PMID:21177366

  11. Marine diagenesis of hydrothermal sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Moammar, M.O.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt is made to discuss the artificial and natural oxidation and hydrolysis of hydrothermal sulfide upon interaction with normal seawater. Synthetic and natural ferrosphalerite particles used in kinetic oxidation and hydrolysis studies in seawater develop dense, crystalline coatings consisting of ordered and ferrimagnetic delta-(Fe, Zn)OOH. Due to the formation of this reactive diffusion barrier, the release of Zn into solution decreases rapidly, and sulfide oxidation is reduced to a low rate determined by the diffusion of oxygen through the oxyhydroxide film. This also acts as an efficient solvent for ions such as Zn/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and possibly Cd/sup 2 +/, which contribute to the stabilization of the delta-FeOOH structure. The oxidation of sulfide occurs in many seafloor spreading areas, such as 21/sup 0/N on the East Pacific Ridge. In these areas the old surface of the sulfide chimneys are found to be covered by an orange stain, and sediment near the base of nonactive vents is also found to consist of what has been referred to as amorphous iron oxide and hydroxide. This thesis also discusses the exceedingly low solubility of zinc in seawater, from delta-(Fe, Zn)OOH and the analogous phase (zinc-ferrihydroxide) and the zinc exchange minerals, 10-A manganate and montmorillonite. The concentrations of all four are of the same magnitude (16, 36.4, and 12 nM, respectively) as the zinc concentration in deep ocean water (approx. 10 nM), which suggests that manganates and montmorillonite with iron oxyhydroxides control zinc concentration in the deep ocean.

  12. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Health Services Use among Adolescent Current Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lo, Wing Sze; Lam, Tai Hing

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the associations of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with medical consultation and hospitalisation among adolescents in Hong Kong. Methods A total of 35827 secondary 1 (US grade 7) to secondary 5 students from 85 randomly selected schools completed an anonymous questionnaire on smoking, SHS at home, SHS outside home, medical consultation in the past 14 days, hospitalisation in the past 12 months, and socio-demographic characteristics. Current smoking was defined as any smoking in the past 30 days. SHS exposure was classified as none (reference), 1–4 and 5–7 days/week. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for medical consultation and hospitalisation in relation to SHS exposure at home and outside home in current smokers. Analyses were also done among never-smokers for comparison. Results Among all students, 15.9% had medical consultation and 5.2% had been hospitalised. Any SHS exposure at home was associated with AORs (95% CI) for medical consultation and hospitalisation of 1.69 (1.14–2.51) and 2.85 (1.47–5.52) in current smokers, and 1.03 (0.91–1.15) and 1.25 (1.02–1.54) in never-smokers, respectively, (P<0.01 for interaction between smoking status and SHS exposure at home). SHS exposure outside home was generally not associated with medical consultation and hospitalisation in smokers and never-smokers. Conclusions SHS exposure at home was associated with health services use among adolescent current smokers. Adolescent smokers should be aware of the harm of SHS in addition to that from their own smoking. The evidence helps health care professionals to advise adolescent smokers to avoid SHS exposure and stop smoking. PMID:23667706

  13. Mineralogical and geochemical evidence for hydrothermal activity at the west wall of 12°50?N core complex (Mid-Atlantic ridge): a new ultramafic-hosted seafloor hydrothermal deposit?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dekov, Vesselin; Boycheva, Tanya; Halenius, Ulf; Billstrom, Kjell; Kamenov, George D.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Stummeyer, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Dredging along the west wall of the core complex at 12°50?N Mid-Atlantic Ridge sampled a number of black oxyhydroxide crusts and breccias cemented by black and dark brown oxyhydroxide matrix. Black crusts found on top of basalt clasts (rubble) are mainly composed of Mn-oxides (birnessite, 10-Å manganates) with thin films of nontronite and X-ray amorphous FeOOH on their surfaces. Their chemical composition (low trace- and rare earth-element contents, high Li and Ag concentrations, rare earth element distribution patterns with negative both Ce and Eu anomalies), Sr–Nd–Pb-isotope systematic and O-isotope data suggest low-temperature (~ 20 °C) hydrothermal deposition from a diffuse vent area on the seafloor. Mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical investigations of the breccias showed the rock clasts were hydrothermally altered fragments of MORBs. Despite the substantial mineralogical changes caused by the alteration the Sr–Nd–Pb-isotope ratios have not been significantly affected by this process. The basalt clasts are cemented by dark brown and black matrix. Dark brown cement exhibits geochemical features (very low trace- and rare earth- element contents, high U concentration, rare earth element distribution pattern with high positive Eu anomaly) and Nd–Pb-isotope systematics (similar to that of MORB) suggesting that the precursor was a primary, high-temperature Fe-sulfide, which was eventually altered to goethite at ambient seawater conditions. The data presented in this work points towards the possible existence of high- and low-temperature hydrothermal activity at the west wall of the core complex at 12°50?N Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Tectonic setting at the site implies that the proposed hydrothermal field is possibly ultramafic-hosted.

  14. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  15. Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: A questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Sieminska, Alicja; Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Jassem, Ewa; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Ucinska, Romana; Chelminska, Marta

    2008-01-01

    Background The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their motivations to quit are. Methods Convenience sampling was used for the purpose of the study. Individuals attending several health care units were screened for a history of quit attempts. Ex-smokers were defined as smoking previously at least one cigarette/day but who have no longer been smoking for at least one month. Attempts at quitting were defined as abstaining from cigarettes for at least one day. Data on socio-demographics, tobacco use, quitting behaviors and reasons to quit from 618 subjects (385 ex- and 233 current smokers) who fulfilled these criteria were collected with the use of a questionnaire. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used. Results In the entire study population, 77% of smokers attempted to quit smoking on their own and a similar proportion of smokers (76%) used the cold turkey method when quitting. Current smokers were more likely than former smokers to use some form of aid (p = 0.0001), mainly nicotine replacement therapy (68%). The most important reasons for quitting smoking were: general health concern (57%), personal health problems (32%) and social reasons (32%). However, 41% of smokers prompted to quitting by personal health problems related to tobacco smoking did not see the link between the two. A small proportion of ex-smokers (3%) abstaining from cigarettes for longer than a year were not confident about their self-efficacy to sustain abstinence further. Conclusion The majority of Polish smokers, including patients with tobacco-related diseases, attempt to quit without smoking cessation assistance, thus there is a need for a broader professional help for them. There is also a lack of general information on hazards related to tobacco and further anti-tobacco campaigns in media are needed. Finally, former smokers should be given more attention and periodic inquiries regarding the smoking habit are worthwhile. PMID:18680600

  16. Targeting smokers with empathy appeal antismoking public service announcements: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lijiang

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment study (N = 189) was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of empathy appeal antismoking messages and their potential advantage over fear appeal messages. Data from 12 antismoking public service announcements showed that (a) smokers resist antismoking messages and (b) overall empathy appeal was equally effective as fear appeal messages. There was also evidence for moderators. First, empathy messages were more effective to women than to men. Second, fear appeal messages were more effective to occasional smokers than were empathy messages. Third, empathy messages were more effective to regular smokers than were fear appeal messages. Implications for audience segmentation and message targeting in public health antismoking efforts are discussed. PMID:25826606

  17. Hydrothermal plume measurements: a regional perspective.

    PubMed

    Baker, E T; Massoth, G J

    1986-11-21

    An extensive deep-tow survey around an active submarine vent field was conducted to map the three-dimensional distribution of hydrothermal emissions and calculate the hydrothermal discharge of heat and manganese. Emissions from the 10-kilometer-long vent field formed a nearly isopycnal plume about 250 meters thick and elongated in the direction of the local net current. Net export of hydrothermal discharge from both point and diffuse sources was estimated from the advective transport of the plume; the heat flux was 5.8 +/- 2.9 x 10(8) watts and the dissolved manganese flux was 0.2 +/- 0.1 moles per second. Flux measurements of this type could be expanded to encompass entire ridge segments, allowing comparison with theoretical thermal and chemical process models on a common spatial scale. PMID:17771339

  18. Thermodynamics of Strecker synthesis in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, Mitchell; Shock, Everett

    1995-01-01

    Submarine hydrothermal systems on the early Earth may have been the sites from which life emerged. The potential for Strecker synthesis to produce biomolecules (amino and hydroxy acids) from starting compounds (ketones, aldehydes, HCN and ammonia) in such environments is evaluated quantitatively using thermodynamic data and parameters for the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equation of state. Although there is an overwhelming thermodynamic drive to form biomolecules by the Strecker synthesis at hydrothermal conditions, the availability and concentration of starting compounds limit the efficiency and productivity of Strecker reactions. Mechanisms for concentrating reactant compounds could help overcome this problem, but other mechanisms for production of biomolecules may have been required to produce the required compounds on the early Earth. Geochemical constraints imposed by hydrothermal systems provide important clues for determining the potential of these and other systems as sites for the emergence of life.

  19. Hydrothermal pretreatment of bamboo and cellulose degradation.

    PubMed

    Ma, X J; Cao, S L; Lin, L; Luo, X L; Hu, H C; Chen, L H; Huang, L L

    2013-11-01

    A systematic hydrothermal pretreatment of bamboo chips had been conducted with an aim to trace the cellulose degradation. The results showed that cellulose chain cleavage basically occurred when the temperature exceeded 150°C. A slightly higher DP (degree of polymerization) than starting material had been observed at low temperature pretreatment. Treatment at higher temperature (? 170°C) caused severe cleavage of cellulose and therefore gave rise to low DP with more soluble species. DP of cellulose declined drastically without additional hemicelluloses dissolution when hemicelluloses removal reached to the limit level. Cellulose degradation under hydrothermal pretreatment generally followed the zero reaction kinetics with the activity energy of 121.0 kJ/mol. Besides, the increase of cellulose crystalline index and the conversion of I?-I? had also observed at the hydrothermal pretreatment. PMID:24077149

  20. Hydrothermal processing of radioactive combustible waste

    SciTech Connect

    Worl, L.A.; Buelow, S.J.; Harradine, D.; Le, L.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1998-09-01

    Hydrothermal processing has been demonstrated for the treatment of radioactive combustible materials for the US Department of Energy. A hydrothermal processing system was designed, built and tested for operation in a plutonium glovebox. Presented here are results from the study of the hydrothermal oxidation of plutonium and americium contaminated organic wastes. Experiments show the destruction of the organic component to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, with 30 wt.% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxidant, at 540 C and 46.2 MPa. The majority of the actinide component forms insoluble products that are easily separated by filtration. A titanium liner in the reactor and heat exchanger provide corrosion resistance for the oxidation of chlorinated organics. The treatment of solid material is accomplished by particle size reduction and the addition of a viscosity enhancing agent to generate a homogeneous pumpable mixture.

  1. Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

    2012-09-01

    The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

  2. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2015-01-29

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  3. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  4. A Serpentinite-Hosted Ecosystem: The Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    A Serpentinite-Hosted Ecosystem: The Lost City Hydrothermal Field Deborah S. Kelley,1 * Jeffrey A. Baross,1 Roger E. Summons,7 Sean P. Sylva4 The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field of the ridge. In 2000, a hydrothermal field called Lost City was serendipitously discovered more than 15 km

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ultra-diffuse hydrothermal venting supports

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ultra-diffuse hydrothermal venting supports Fe-oxidizing bacteria and massive University, Bellingham, WA, USA A novel hydrothermal field has been discovered at the base of Lo¯ihi Seamount seawater temperature, derives from a distal, ultra-diffuse hydrothermal source. FeMO Deep is expressed

  6. Belief Change Maximisation for Hydrothermal Vent Hunting Using Occupancy Grids

    E-print Network

    Wyatt, Jeremy

    Belief Change Maximisation for Hydrothermal Vent Hunting Using Occupancy Grids Zeyn Saigol floor for hydrothermal vents. The state of the art in these problems is information lookahead Vehicle (AUV) prospecting for hydrothermal vents, which are superheated outgassings of water found on mid

  7. Recent population expansion and connectivity in the hydrothermal shrimp

    E-print Network

    Borges, Rita

    -sea hydrothermal vents are unstable habitats that are both spatially and temporally fragmented. In vent species of the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata, which forms high-density local populations on hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic ridge. Location Deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Methods We used

  8. 1 INRODUCTION The physico-chemical conditions in hydrothermal

    E-print Network

    Pichler, Thomas

    Submarine hydrothermal venting occurs at Tutum Bay (Figure 1) in shallow (5-10 m) water along the inner of venting are observed. (1) Focused discharge of a clear, hydrothermal fluid occurs at discrete ports, 10 Tutum Bay vents discharge and ultimately they are caused by changes in the hydrology of the hydrothermal

  9. Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise,

    E-print Network

    Bohnenstiehl, Delwayne

    Hydrothermal venting along Earth's fastest spreading center: East Pacific Rise, 27.5°­32.3°S E. T by a hydrothermal plume. Plume chemistry mostly reflected discharge from mature vent fields apparently unperturbed March/April 1998 we conducted detailed mapping and sampling of hydrothermal plumes along six segments

  10. Discovery of abundant hydrothermal venting on the ultraslow-spreading

    E-print Network

    Graham, David W.

    ............................................................................................................................................................................. Submarine hydrothermal venting along mid-ocean ridges is an important contributor to ridge thermal structure predicted that the incidence of hydrothermal venting would be extremely low on ultraslow-spreading ridgesPublishing Group #12;active hydrothermal venting on the Gakkel ridge, which is the slowest spreading (0.6­1.3 cm yr

  11. Geothermal reservoirs in hydrothermal convection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs commonly exist in hydrothermal convection systems involving fluid circulation downward in areas of recharge and upwards in areas of discharge. Because such reservoirs are not isolated from their surroundings, the nature of thermal and hydrologic connections with the rest of the system may have significant effects on the natural state of the reservoir and on its response to development. Conditions observed at numerous developed and undeveloped geothermal fields are discussed with respect to a basic model of the discharge portion of an active hydrothermal convection system. Effects of reservoir development on surficial discharge of thermal fluid are also delineated.

  12. Does non-smoker identity following quitting predict long-term abstinence? Evidence from a population survey in England

    PubMed Central

    Tombor, Ildiko; Shahab, Lion; Brown, Jamie; Notley, Caitlin; West, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Aims ‘Categorical self-labels’ (e.g. thinking of oneself as a smoker or non-smoker) are important aspects of identity that can have a fundamental influence on behaviour. To explore the role identity aspects relating to smoking can play in smoking cessation and relapse, this study assessed the prospective associations between taking on a non-smoker identity following quitting and long-term abstinence. Methods A representative sample of 574 ex-smokers in England who quit smoking in the past year was followed-up at three (N = 179) and six months (N = 163). Post-quit identity relating to smoking (‘I still think of myself as a smoker’ or ‘I think of myself as a non-smoker’), and demographic and smoking-related characteristics were assessed at baseline. Self-reported smoking abstinence was assessed at follow-ups. Results Non-smoker identity was reported by 80.3% (95%CI 76.8–83.4) of recent ex-smokers. Younger age (p = 0.017) and longer abstinence (p < 0.001) were independently associated with a post-quit non-smoker identity. After adjusting for covariates, non-smoker identity (p = 0.032) and length of abstinence at baseline (p < 0.001) were associated with continued abstinence at three month follow-up, and baseline length of abstinence (p = 0.003) predicted continued abstinence at six months. Conclusions The majority of people who quit smoking recently consider themselves as non-smokers. Younger people and those who have been abstinent for longer are more likely to take on a non-smoker identity. Ex-smokers who make this mental transition following a quit attempt appear more likely to remain abstinent in the medium term than those who still think of themselves as smokers. PMID:25658770

  13. The chemistry of hydrothermal magnetite: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, Patrick; Angerer, Thomas; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; French, David; Walshe, John

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a well-recognized petrogenetic indicator and is a common accessory mineral in many ore deposits and their host rocks. Recent years have seen an increased interest in the use of hydrothermal magnetite for provenance studies and as a pathfinder for mineral exploration. A number of studies have investigated how specific formation conditions are reflected in the composition of the respective magnetite. Two fundamental questions underlie these efforts — (i) How can the composition of igneous and, more importantly, hydrothermal magnetite be used to discriminate mineralized areas from barren host rocks, and (ii) how can this assist exploration geologists to target ore deposits at greater and greater distances from the main mineralization? Similar to igneous magnetite, the most important factors that govern compositional variations in hydrothermal magnetite are (A) temperature, (B) fluid composition — element availability, (C) oxygen and sulfur fugacity, (D) silicate and sulfide activity, (E) host rock buffering, (F) re-equilibration processes, and (G) intrinsic crystallographic controls such as ionic radius and charge balance. We discuss how specific formation conditions are reflected in the composition of magnetite and review studies that investigate the chemistry of hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from various mineral deposits and their host rocks. Furthermore, we discuss the redox-related alteration of magnetite (martitization and mushketovitization) and mineral inclusions in magnetite and their effect on chemical analyses. Our database includes published and previously unpublished magnetite minor and trace element data for magnetite from (1) banded iron formations (BIF) and related high-grade iron ore deposits in Western Australia, India, and Brazil, (2) Ag–Pb–Zn veins of the Coeur d'Alene district, United States, (3) porphyry Cu–(Au)–(Mo) deposits and associated (4) calcic and magnesian skarn deposits in the southwestern United States and Indonesia, and (5) plutonic igneous rocks from the Henderson Climax-type Mo deposit, United States, and the un-mineralized Inner Zone Batholith granodiorite, Japan. These five settings represent a diverse suite of geological settings and cover a wide range of formation conditions. The main discriminator elements for magnetite are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, and Ga. These elements are commonly present at detectable levels (10 to > 1000 ppm) and display systematic variations. We propose a combination of Ni/(Cr + Mn) vs. Ti + V, Al + Mn vs. Ti + V, Ti/V and Sn/Ga discriminant plots and upper threshold concentrations to discriminate hydrothermal from igneous magnetite and to fingerprint different hydrothermal ore deposits. The overall trends in upper threshold values for the different settings can be summarized as follows: (I) BIF (hydrothermal) — low Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga and Sn; (II) Ag–Pb–Zn veins (hydrothermal) — high Mn and low Ga and Sn; (III) Mg-skarn (hydrothermal) — high Mg and Mn and low Al, Ti, Cr, Co, Ni and Ga; (IV) skarn (hydrothermal) — high Mg, Al, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn and low Sn; (V) porphyry (hydrothermal) — high Ti and V and low Sn; (VI) porphyry (igneous) — high Ti, V and Cr and low Mg; and (VII) Climax-Mo (igneous) — high Al, Ga and Sn and low Mg and Cr.

  14. Endothelin receptor-antagonists suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release from alveolar macrophages of non-smokers, smokers and COPD subjects.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Kathrin; Köhler-Bachmann, Stefanie; Jungck, David; Körber, Sandra; Yanik, Sarah; Knoop, Heiko; Wehde, Deborah; Rheinländer, Sonja; Walther, Jörg W; Kronsbein, Juliane; Knobloch, Jürgen; Koch, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Smoking-induced COPD is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, which becomes enhanced by bacterial infections resulting in accelerated disease progression called exacerbation. Alveolar macrophages (AM) release endothelin-1 (ET-1), IL-6, CCL-2 and MMP-9, all of which are linked to COPD pathogenesis and exacerbation. ET-1 signals via ETA- and ETB-receptors (ETAR, ETBR). This is blocked by endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs), like bosentan, which targets both receptors, ETAR-selective ambrisentan and ETBR-specific BQ788. Therefore, ERAs could have anti-inflammatory potential, which might be useful in COPD and other inflammatory lung diseases. We hypothesized that ERAs suppress cytokine release from AM of smokers and COPD subjects induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the most important immunogen of gram-negative bacteria. AM were isolated from the broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) of n=29 subjects (11 non-smokers, 10 current smokers without COPD, 8 smokers with COPD), cultivated and stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of ERAs. Cytokines were measured by ELISA. Endothelin receptor expression was investigated by RT-PCR and western blot. AM expressed ETAR and ETBR mRNA, but only ETBR protein was detected. LPS and ET-1 both induced IL-6, CCL-2 and MMP-9. LPS-induced IL-6 release was increased in COPD versus non-smokers and smokers. Bosentan, ambrisentan and BQ788 all partially reduced all cytokines without differences between cohorts. Specific ETBR inhibition was most effective. LPS induced ET-1, which was exclusively blocked by BQ788. In conclusion, LPS induces ET-1 release in AM, which in turn leads to CCL-2, IL-6 and MMP-9 expression rendering AM sensitive for ERAs. ERAs could have anti-inflammatory potential in smoking-induced COPD. PMID:26526351

  15. Sources of cigarettes among adolescent smokers: Free or purchased?

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Paul; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Fabian, Lindsey E.A.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Forster, Jean L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have described youth cigarette sources in terms of whether the cigarettes were free or purchased. Understanding the different ways youth obtain tobacco can guide development of interventions to more effectively reduce youth smoking. Purpose To determine the propensity for youth to purchase cigarettes versus obtain cigarettes for free, and the factors associated with each obtainment method. Methods Our sample included 812 youth ages 12-17 who reported ever smoking a whole cigarette. Our outcome was the source of the last cigarette smoked (purchased vs. free) and independent variables included demographics, smoking behaviors, and smoking status of parents/siblings/friends. We conducted logistic regression to assess relationships between outcome and independent variables. Results Eighty-four percent of youth obtained their last cigarette for free and 16% purchased their last cigarette. Youth who smoked less and had less weekly spending money were more likely to have obtained their last cigarette for free. Discussion Youth smokers appear to have a high propensity to obtain their cigarette for free, particularly those who smoke relatively infrequently. Translation to Health Education Practice Interventions that target sources of free cigarettes have the potential to reduce the progression of youth smoking at a critical stage in its development. PMID:26500710

  16. Improvement of mucociliary transport in smokers by mucolytics.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, D; Marsico, S A; Del Donno, M

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of two mucolytic drugs with different mechanism of action on mucociliary transport (MCT). N-acetylcysteine (NAC-600 mg/day) and ambroxol (AMB-90 mg/day) were administered according to a double-blind cross-over scheme to 12 heavy smokers suffering from hypersecretory bronchitis and homogeneous reduction of the MCT. Placebo of both treatments was administered during an interval of ten days between the administrations of NAC and AMB. The entire treatment period was 30 days. The data were analyzed according to ANOVA for the two-period cross-over clinical trial. The results indicate that: NAC and AMB, administered both before and after placebo, produce a significant increase in MCT, NAC showed a slightly greater efficacy than AMB, but the differences are not statistically significant. The overall efficacy of NAC and AMB is consistently greater than that of placebo. The sequence of administration of the drugs does not influence their effect. PMID:3862608

  17. FUMEPOC: Early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently is not feasible using conventional spirometry as a screening method in Primary Care especially among smoking population to detect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in early stages. Therefore, the FUMEPOC study protocol intends to analyze the validity and reliability of Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer as simpler tool to aid screening and diagnosis of this disease in early stages in primary care surgery. Methods / Design Study design: An observational, descriptive study of diagnostic tests, undertaken in Primary Care and Pneumology Outpatient Care Centre at San Juan Hospital and Elda Hospital. All smokers attending the primary care surgery and consent to participate in the study will undergo a test with Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer. Subsequently, a conventional spirometry will be performed in the hospital and the results will be compared with those of the Vitalograph COPD-6 test. Discussion It is difficult to use the spirometry as screening for early diagnose test in real conditions of primary care clinical practice. The use of a simpler tool, Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer, can help in the early diagnose and therefore, it could improve the clinical management of the disease. PMID:21627787

  18. COMPARATIVE YIELDS OF MUTAGENS FROM CIGARETTE SMOKERS' URINE OBTAINED BY USING SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urine from cigarette smokers was prepared for mutagenicity testing by extracting mutagens with solid phase extraction columns. ommercially available prepacked bonded silicas (cotadecyl, cyclohexyl, cyanopropyl) were compared for their efficiency and specificity in concentration o...

  19. Epithelial cells from smokers modify dendritic cell responses in the context of influenza infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for infection with influenza, but the mechanisms underlying this susceptibility remain unknown. To ascertain if airway epithelial cells from smokers demonstrate a decreased ability to orchestrate an influenza...

  20. Effects of Online Comments on Smokers’ Perception of Anti-Smoking Public Service Announcements

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Rui; Messaris, Paul; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2014-01-01

    On YouTube anti-smoking PSAs are widely viewed and uploaded; they also receive extensive commentary by viewers. This study examined whether such evaluative comments with or without uncivil expressions influence evaluations by subsequent viewers. Results showed PSAs with positive (i.e. anti-smoking) comments were perceived by smokers as more effective than PSAs with negative (pro smoking) comments. Smokers in the no comment condition gave the highest perceived effectiveness score to PSAs. Smokers’ readiness to quit smoking moderated the effect of comments on PSA evaluation. Smokers reading negative uncivil comments reported more negative attitude toward quitting and a lower level of perceived risk of smoking than those reading negative civil comments but positive civil and positive uncivil comments didn't elicit different responses. PMID:25561825

  1. Do different styles of antismoking ads influence the types of smokers who call quitlines?

    PubMed

    Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C; Kamyab, Kian; MacMonegle, Anna J

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between television antismoking advertisements and the proportion of smokers who call a smokers' quitline who are ready to quit or have high confidence in quitting. The primary data of interest came from completed intake interviews of smokers. Using a generalized linear model, we modeled the proportion of Quitline callers who are ready to quit and/or have high confidence in quitting. The primary explanatory variable was monthly target audience rating points (TARPs) for antismoking advertisements, a measure of broadcast media exposure, obtained from the state's media buyer. The proportions of callers ready to quit and with high confidence in quitting were negatively associated with total TARPs. This result, over all ad types, was driven by why to quit-graphic ads. These results suggest that why to quit-graphic ads influence smokers who are less ready to quit or have lower confidence they can quit, likely new quitters, to call the Quitline. PMID:22843327

  2. Plasma oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol correlates inversely with testosterone in young adult male smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ebesunun, Maria Onomhaguan; Bankole, Olurakinyo Lanre; Oduwole, Olayiwola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There are indications that oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (Ox-LDLC) may play an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. In most developing countries, the interplay between the different lipid fractions and cigarette smoking has not been studied. This study assessed the effect of cigarette smoking on the alterations in plasma lipid fractions and their associations with the gonadal hormone, testosterone (T). Methods One hundred and sixty male participants, consisting of eighty smokers and eighty apparently healthy non-smokers were recruited. Anthropometric indices and biochemical parameters were determined using standard procedures. Results Significant increases were obtained in plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDLC) and Ox-LDLC/TT ratio (p<0.001) in smokers compared with the non-smokers. Plasma high density cholesterol (HDLC) (p<0.001) was significantly reduced in smokers compared with the non-smokers. The plasma mean T result was not significantly different from the non-smokers, but inversely correlated with Ox-LDLC and significantly correlated with the lipids and lipoproteins. Significantly high plasma TC, TG and LDLC (p<0.001) and low HDLC (p<0.001) were also obtained in smokers when co-founding factors such as duration and number of cigarette smoked per day were applied. Conclusion This study showed an inverse correlation between Ox-LDLC and testosterone as well as strong association between the number of tobacco and cigarettes usage per day. These changes in part, could be major causes of premature CVD and decreased fertility in young adults. PMID:25848456

  3. What is behind smoker support for new smokefree areas? National survey data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some countries have started to extend indoor smokefree laws to cover cars and various outdoor settings. However, policy-modifiable factors around smoker support for these new laws are not well described. Methods The New Zealand (NZ) arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project) derives its sample from the NZ Health Survey (a national sample). From this sample we surveyed adult smokers (n = 1376). Results For the six settings considered, 59% of smokers supported at least three new completely smokefree areas. Only 2% favoured smoking being allowed in all the six new settings. Support among Maori, Pacific and Asian smokers relative to European smokers was elevated in multivariate analyses, but confidence intervals often included 1.0. Also in the multivariate analyses, "strong support" by smokers for new smokefree area laws was associated with greater knowledge of the second-hand smoke (SHS) hazard, and with behaviours to reduce SHS exposure towards others. Strong support was also associated with reporting having smokefree cars (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.21 - 2.34); and support for tobacco control regulatory measures by government (aOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.32 - 2.01). There was also stronger support by smokers with a form of financial stress (not spending on household essentials). Conclusions Smokers from a range of population groups can show majority support for new outdoor and smokefree car laws. Some of these findings are consistent with the use of public health strategies to support new smokefree laws, such as enhancing public knowledge of the second-hand smoke hazard. PMID:20718985

  4. Health perceptions of home-grown tobacco (chop-chop) smokers.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Campbell; Fry, Tim R L; Grahlmann, Linda; Masters, Tristan

    2008-03-01

    We present results from a qualitative study of smokers of home-grown tobacco (chop-chop). In particular, we focused on participants' perceptions of the health effects of smoking chop-chop relative to legal tobacco. Consistent with previous work, we found that smokers of chop-chop believe that relatively less chemical treatment of chop-chop tobacco meant lower health risks than with legal products, although many believed the ultimate difference in effect on health was negligible. PMID:18324558

  5. Anticipation of smoking sufficiently dampens stress reactivity in nicotine-deprived smokers.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Daniel E; Curtin, John J; Piper, Megan E

    2015-02-01

    Most smokers attempting to quit will relapse, even when using evidence-based cessation treatment. This illustrates the need for better understanding of the relapse process to thereby improve cessation treatments. Although the impact of stress sensitivity on relapse is clear, little research has precisely examined stress reactivity in addicted individuals. Further, most research on relapse focuses on affect surrounding self-administration, and does not address potentially important preconsumption processes such as anticipation of use. We examined the effects of anticipation and actual smoking on stress reactivity in 34 deprived smokers withdrawn for 24 hr and 37 nondeprived smokers, with 37 nonsmoker controls. Using a cued shock stressor task, we measured stress reactivity via startle potentiation and self-reported anxiety. After completing the task once, smokers anticipated smoking a cigarette resting in front of them while they completed the task a second time. Smokers then smoked before completing the task a third and final time. Nonsmokers anticipated and drank water as a control. Anticipation of smoking significantly attenuated both startle potentiation and self-reported anxiety to shock cues for deprived smokers relative to nondeprived smokers. Smokers' stress reactivity was not reduced by smoking beyond the prior effect of anticipation. These results suggest that anticipation, rather than actual drug consumption, may drive the primary reinforcing effect of reduced stress reactivity in smoking. Future research is needed to understand this effect of anticipation on drug use and to determine whether anticipation would make an effective intervention target for addiction and other psychopathology that exhibits increased stress sensitivity. PMID:25688439

  6. The hydrothermal power of oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grose, C. J.; Afonso, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    We have estimated the power of ventilated hydrothermal heat transport, and its spatial distribution, using a set of recently developed plate models which highlight the effects of axial hydrothermal circulation and thermal insulation by oceanic crust. Testing lithospheric cooling models with these two effects, we estimate that global advective heat transport is about 6.6 TW, significantly lower than most previous estimates, and that the fraction of that extracted by vigorous circulation on the ridge axes (< 1 My old) is about 50 % of the total, significantly higher than previous estimates. These new estimates originate from the thermally insulating properties of oceanic crust in relation to the mantle. Since the crust is relatively insulating, the effective properties of the lithosphere are "crust dominated" near ridge axes (a thermal blanketing effect yielding lower heat flow) and gradually approach mantle values over time. Thus, cooling models with crustal insulation predict low heat flow over young seafloor, implying that the difference of modeled and measured heat flow is due to the heat transport properties of the lithosphere, in addition to ventilated hydrothermal circulation as generally accepted. These estimates may bear on important problems in the physics and chemistry of the Earth because the magnitude of ventilated hydrothermal power affects chemical exchanges between the oceans and the lithosphere, thereby affecting both thermal and chemical budgets in the oceanic crust and lithosphere, the subduction factory, and the convective mantle.

  7. Hydrothermal systems and the emergence of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, E. L.

    1994-01-01

    The author reviews current thought about life originating in hyperthermophilic microorganisms. Hyperthermophiles obtain food from chemosynthesis of sulfur and have an RNA nucleotide sequence different from bacteria and eucarya. It is postulated that a hyperthermophile may be the common ancestor of all life. Current research efforts focus on the synthesis of organic compounds in hydrothermal systems.

  8. Hydrothermal carbonization of municipal waste streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that can be used to convert municipal waste streams into sterilized, value-added hydrochar. HTC has been mostly applied and studied on a limited number of feedstocks, ranging from pure substances to slightly more complex biomass ...

  9. Hydrothermal stability of high silica zeolites 

    E-print Network

    Young, David

    1988-01-01

    This thesis concerns the hydrothermal stability of two zeolite molecular sieves with the MFI structure, ZSM-5 and its 'aluminium free' form silicalite. Silicalite was synthesised from low pH alkali metal free aqueous gels at 95°C and characterised...

  10. “You're made to feel like a dirty filthy smoker when you're not, cigar smoking is another thing all together.” Responses of Australian cigar and cigarillo smokers to plain packaging

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Caroline L; Ettridge, Kerry A; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore experiences of cigar and cigarillo smokers under Australian laws requiring plain packaging (PP) and strengthened graphic health warnings (GHWs). Methods In February/March 2014, we conducted: in-depth interviews with 10 regular premium cigar smokers; two focus groups with occasional premium cigar and premium cigarillo smokers (n=14); four focus groups with non-premium cigarillo smokers (n=28); and a national online survey of cigar and/or cigarillo smokers (n=268). Results Premium cigar smokers had limited exposure to PP, with many purchasing fully branded cigars in boxes duty free or online and singles in non-compliant packaging. Those who were exposed noticed and were concerned by the warnings, tried to avoid them and felt more like ‘dirty smokers’. Changes in perceived taste, harm and value were minimal for experienced premium cigar smokers. Occasional premium cigar and premium cigarillo smokers with higher PP exposure (gained by purchasing boxes rather than singles) perceived cigar/package appeal and value had declined and noticed the GHWs. Non-premium cigarillo smokers reported high PP exposure, reduced perceived appeal, quality, taste, enjoyment and value, somewhat increased perceived harm, greater noticeability of GHWs and concealment of packs and more contemplation of quitting. Online survey participants reported increased noticeability of GHWs (33%), decreased appeal of packaging (53%) and reduced consumption of cigars (42%) and cigarillos (44%) since PP implementation. Conclusions Non-premium cigarillo smokers appear to have been most exposed and influenced by PP, with cigar smokers less so, especially regular premium cigar smokers who have maintained access to fully branded products.

  11. Smokers Who Try E-Cigarettes to Quit Smoking: Findings From a Multiethnic Study in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; Little, Melissa A.; Kawamoto, Crissy T.; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized smokers who are likely to use electronic or “e-”cigarettes to quit smoking. Methods. We obtained cross-sectional data in 2010–2012 from 1567 adult daily smokers in Hawaii using a paper-and-pencil survey. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression. Results. Of the participants, 13% reported having ever used e-cigarettes to quit smoking. Smokers who had used them reported higher motivation to quit, higher quitting self-efficacy, and longer recent quit duration than did other smokers. Age (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.97, 0.99) and Native Hawaiian ethnicity (OR?=?0.68; 95% CI?=?0.45, 0.99) were inversely associated with increased likelihood of ever using e-cigarettes for cessation. Other significant correlates were higher motivation to quit (OR?=?1.14; 95% CI?=?1.08, 1.21), quitting self-efficacy (OR?=?1.18; 95% CI?=?1.06, 1.36), and ever using US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved cessation aids such as nicotine gum (OR?=?3.72; 95% CI?=?2.67, 5.19). Conclusions. Smokers who try e-cigarettes to quit smoking appear to be serious about wanting to quit. Despite lack of evidence regarding efficacy, smokers treat e-cigarettes as valid alternatives to FDA-approved cessation aids. Research is needed to test the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes as cessation aids. PMID:23865700

  12. How does increasingly plainer cigarette packaging influence adult smokers’ perceptions about brand image? An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, M A; Germain, D; Durkin, S J

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cigarette packaging is a key marketing strategy for promoting brand image. Plain packaging has been proposed to limit brand image, but tobacco companies would resist removal of branding design elements. Method: A 3 (brand types) × 4 (degree of plain packaging) between-subject experimental design was used, using an internet online method, to expose 813 adult Australian smokers to one randomly selected cigarette pack, after which respondents completed ratings of the pack. Results: Compared with current cigarette packs with full branding, cigarette packs that displayed progressively fewer branding design elements were perceived increasingly unfavourably in terms of smokers’ appraisals of the packs, the smokers who might smoke such packs, and the inferred experience of smoking a cigarette from these packs. For example, cardboard brown packs with the number of enclosed cigarettes displayed on the front of the pack and featuring only the brand name in small standard font at the bottom of the pack face were rated as significantly less attractive and popular than original branded packs. Smokers of these plain packs were rated as significantly less trendy/stylish, less sociable/outgoing and less mature than smokers of the original pack. Compared with original packs, smokers inferred that cigarettes from these plain packs would be less rich in tobacco, less satisfying and of lower quality tobacco. Conclusion: Plain packaging policies that remove most brand design elements are likely to be most successful in removing cigarette brand image associations. PMID:18827035

  13. Trends in alternative tobacco use among light, moderate, and heavy smokers in adolescence, 1999–2009?

    PubMed Central

    Nasim, Aashir; Khader, Yousef; Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine trends in alternative tobacco product (ATP) use (smokeless tobacco, cigars, and bidis/cloves) among a national sample of adolescent cigarette smokers (light, moderate, and heavy) during 1999–2009. Method A secondary analysis of data from the 1999–2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey was performed to investigate the tobacco behaviors of 6th through 12th graders enrolled in public and private schools in the United States. Long-term trends in ATP use were analyzed using logistic regression – controlling for sex, grade, and race/ethnicity – and simultaneously assessing linear and higher order time effects and their interaction with cigarette smoking status. Results During 1999–2009, increases in smokeless tobacco use and decreases in bidis/cloves use were observed across all smoking groups. For cigars, declines were observed for heavy and moderate smokers, but levels returned to baseline levels in 2009. Cigar use among light smokers was less variable. Rates of any ATP were highest among heavy smokers and lowest among light smokers. Conclusion Trends in cigarette and SLT use increased dramatically in the past decade, and this increase is evident across all cigarette smoker types. Implications for tobacco surveillance, prevention and cessation programs, and tobacco control policies are discussed. PMID:22464872

  14. Smoking patterns, beliefs, and the practice of healthy behaviors in abstinent, relapsed, and recalcitrant smokers.

    PubMed

    Wynd, Christine A

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a secondary analysis of smoking patterns and beliefs related to healthy behaviors in adult smokers (N = 71). Data for the secondary analysis were obtained from an original study that examined guided health imagery as a smoking cessation intervention. The imagery intervention resulted in significantly higher 2-year smoking abstinence rates for the intervention group of participants (26% vs. 12% for the control group). In this study, discriminant function analysis demonstrated that "well-established smoking patterns" accounted for 42% of the variance in those smokers who relapsed or never made any attempt to quit smoking. Higher baseline smoking rates, longer lifetime smoking histories, younger age at initiation of smoking, more positive beliefs about smoking (pros), and fewer healthy behaviors differentiated abstinent smokers from those who relapsed or were considered recalcitrant. Smoking patterns, belief systems related to smoking, and the practice of healthy behaviors need to be assessed as smokers enroll in cessation programs. Knowledge about relapsed and recalcitrant smokers will assist in the development of future interventions to meet smokers' unique needs and demands for cessation. PMID:17098157

  15. Menthol Cigarette Use Predicts Treatment Outcomes of Weight-Concerned Smokers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that individuals who smoke menthol cigarettes are less likely to quit smoking and more likely to relapse during a quit attempt. The current study investigated menthol cigarette use as a potential predictor of smoking cessation outcomes in a sample of treatment-seeking smokers. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of low-dose naltrexone augmentation of nicotine replacement designed to examine smoking cessation and postcessation weight gain in weight-concerned smokers. Results: Analyses revealed that menthol use predicted lower quit rates. Among menthol smokers (N = 61), 13% were abstinent at week 26, and among nonmenthol smokers (N = 105), 30% were abstinent (Wald = 4.15, p = .04; odds ratio [OR] = 2.47; 95% CI = 1.04–5.90). Further, menthol smokers who quit smoking gained significantly more weight at week 26 (M = 14.87 lbs, SD = 9.08; t(37) = –2.22, p = .03) than nonmenthol smokers who quit (M = 7.95 lbs, SD = 7.53). Conclusions: Menthol cigarette use has not typically been evaluated as a predictor of smoking cessation outcomes, but emerging evidence suggests that consumption of menthol may make cessation more difficult. This study adds to the literature supporting the claim that smoking menthol cigarettes can have adverse effects on smoking cessation efforts and on other cessation-related outcomes, such as postcessation weight gain. PMID:24113927

  16. Recruitment and Retention of Smokers Versus Nonsmokers in an rTMS Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheffer, Christine E; Brackman, Sharon; Mennemeier, Mark; Brown, Ginger; Landes, Reid D; Dornhoffer, John; Kimbrell, Timothy; Bickel, Warren K

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a new frontier in the examination of addictive behaviors and perhaps the development of new interventions. This study examined differences in recruitment, eligibility, and retention among smokers and nonsmokers in an rTMS study. We modeled participant eligibility and study completion among eligible participants accounting for demographic differences between smokers and nonsmokers. Nonsmokers were more likely than smokers to remain eligible for the study after the in-person screen (84.2% versus 57.4%; OR 4.0 CI: 1.0, 15.4, p=0.05) and to complete the study (87.5% versus 59.3%; OR=43.9 CI: 2.8, 687.2, p=0.007). The preliminary findings suggest that careful screening for drugs of abuse and brain abnormalities among smokers prior to administering rTMS is warranted. More research is needed concerning the prevalence of brain abnormalities in smokers. Smokers might need to be informed about a higher risk of incidental MRI findings. PMID:26436136

  17. Blood cadmium concentrations of male cigarette smokers are inversely associated with fruit consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyesook; Lee, Hee Jung; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Ha, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyesook; Ha, Mina; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Hong, Yun-Chul; Chang, Namsoo

    2010-06-01

    Decreased fruit and vegetable consumption, along with elevated blood cadmium concentrations, are frequently observed among cigarette smokers. Few studies have investigated whether the blood cadmium concentrations of cigarette smokers are associated with the consumption of antioxidative nutrients, as well as foods containing high concentrations of antioxidative nutrients and phytochemicals, such as fruits and vegetables. In this study, we aimed to determine where there is any relationship between blood cadmium concentration and the consumption of certain foods and nutrients in adult male smokers. Blood cadmium concentrations in whole blood samples from 546 adult men, whose pregnant wives were registered in the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health Study, were analyzed using the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Dietary intakes were assessed using a semiquantitative FFQ. Blood cadmium concentrations were higher in the smokers than in the nonsmokers (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis with covariates revealed that blood cadmium concentrations were negatively associated with intakes of fruit (P = 0.001), vitamin C (P = 0.035), and fiber (P = 0.049), but only in the smokers. These results warrant future studies to explore any mechanisms responsible for fruit's beneficial role against elevated blood cadmium concentrations in smokers. PMID:20375264

  18. Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of 'light' cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Falcone, M; Bansal-Travers, M; Sanborn, P M; Tang, K Z; Strasser, A A

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as 'light', 'ultra-light' and 'low tar' with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of 'light', 'mild' and 'low' on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Center in Philadelphia, PA, USA shortly after the ban went into effect to determine the extent of awareness of recent cigarette packaging changes among smokers of light cigarettes. In our sample of 266 smokers, 76 reported smoking light cigarettes, but fewer than half of these smokers reported noticing changes to their cigarette packaging. Simple removal of a few misleading terms may be too subtle of a change to register with consumers of so-called 'low tar' cigarettes; more comprehensive regulation of cigarette packaging design may be necessary to gain smokers' attention and minimize misperceptions associated with tobacco pack design characteristics and color. PMID:25492058

  19. Decreased expression of TGF-ß type II receptor in bronchial glands of smokers with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Baraldo, S; Bazzan, E; Turato, G; Calabrese, F; Beghe, B; Papi, A; Maestrelli, P; Fabbri, L; Zuin, R; Saetta, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: The role of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is still controversial, but it has been proposed that it may protect from mucus hypersecretion since it is able to downregulate mucin production. A study was undertaken to investigate the expression of TGF-ß1 and its type II receptor (TGF-ß RII) in the bronchial glands of smokers with COPD. Methods: The expression of TGF-ß1 and TGF-ß RII were examined immunohistochemically in the bronchial glands of 24 smokers undergoing lung resection for solitary peripheral nodules: 12 with airflow limitation (smokers with COPD) and 12 with normal lung function. Results: The expression of TGF-ß1 in bronchial glands was similar in the two groups of subjects while that of TGF-ß RII was lower in smokers with COPD than in smokers with normal lung function (p = 0.004). TGF-ß RII expression was inversely correlated with the values of Reid's index, a measure of gland size (p = 0.02, r = –0.50). Conclusions: In the bronchial glands of smokers with COPD there is decreased expression of TGF-ß RII which is associated with bronchial gland enlargement. These findings support the view that the absence of TGF-ß signalling may induce structural changes in the bronchial glands which, in turn, may promote mucus hypersecretion. PMID:16227324

  20. The Biogeochemistry of Sulfur in Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, Mitchell; Rogers, K. L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The incorporation of sulfur into many biomolecules likely dates back to the development of the earliest metabolic strategies. Sulfur is common in enzymes and co-enzymes and is an indispensable structural component in many peptides and proteins. Early metabolism may have been heavily influenced by the abundance of sulfide minerals in hydrothermal systems. The incorporation of sulfur into many biomolecules likely dates back to the development of the earliest metabolic strategies. Sulfur is common in enzymes and co-enzymes and is an indispensable structural component in many peptides and proteins. Early metabolism may have been heavily influenced by the abundance of sulfide minerals in hydrothermal systems. Understanding how sulfur became prevalent in biochemical processes and many biomolecules requires knowledge of the reaction properties of sulfur-bearing compounds. We have previously estimated thermodynamic data for thiols, the simplest organic sulfur compounds, at elevated temperatures and pressures. If life began in hydrothermal environments, it is especially important to understand reactions at elevated temperatures among sulfur-bearing compounds and other organic molecules essential for the origin and persistence of life. Here we examine reactions that may have formed amino acids with thiols as reaction intermediates in hypothetical early Earth hydrothermal environments. (There are two amino acids, cysteine and methionine, that contain sulfur.) Our calculations suggest that significant amounts of some amino acids were produced in early Earth hydrothermal fluids, given reasonable concentrations H2, NH3, H2S and CO. For example, preliminary results indicate that glycine activities as high as 1 mmol can be reached in these systems at 100 C. Alanine formation from propanethiol is also a favorable reaction. On the other hand, the calculated equilibrium log activities of cysteine and serine from propanethiol are -21 and -19, respectively, at 100 C. These results indicate that while amino acid formation with thiols as intermediates is favored in some cases, other mechanisms may have been necessary to produce significant amounts of other amino acids. Coupled with our previous results for thiols, these studies imply that sulfur may have been easily incorporated into the organic geochemistry of early Earth hydrothermal systems, leading to its widespread use in biomolecules. Formation of more complex biomolecules in hydrothermal systems may have required sulfur-bearing organic compounds as reaction intermediates.

  1. Experimental constraints on hydrothermal activities in Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Y.; Shibuya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Kuwatani, T.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most remarkable findings by the Cassini-Huygens mission is perhaps water-rich plumes erupting from the south-pole region of Enceladus [1]. Given such geological activity and the detection of sodium salts in the plume, the interior of Enceladus is highly likely to contain an interior ocean interacting with the rock core [2]. A primary question regarding astrobiology and planetary science is whether Enceladus has (or had) hydrothermal activities in the interior ocean. Because N2 might be formed by thermal dissociation of primordial NH3 [3], the presence of N2 in the plume may be a possible indicator for the presence of hydrothermal activities in Enceladus. However, the Cassini UVIS revealed that the plumes do not contain large amounts of N2 [4]. Although these observations may not support the presence of hydrothermal activities, whether NH3 dissociation proceeds strongly depends on the kinetics of hydrothermal reactions and interactions with the rock components, which remain largely unknown. Furthermore, the Cassini CDA recently showed that small amounts of SiO2 might have been included in the plume dusts [5]. Formation of amorphous SiO2 usually occurs when high-temperature and/or high-pH solution with high concentrations of dissolved SiO2 cools and/or is neutralized. Thus, the presence of SiO2 in the plume dusts may suggest the presence of a temperature and/or pH gradient in the ocean. However, no laboratory experiments have investigated what processes control pH and SiO2 concentrations in hydrothermal fluids possibly existing in Enceladus. Here, we show the results of laboratory experiments simulating hydrothermal systems on Enceladus. As the initial conditions, we used both aqueous solution of high concentrations (0.01-2%) of NH3 and NaHCO3 and powdered olivine as an analog for the rock components. Our experimental results show that formation of N2 from NH3 is kinetically and thermodynamically inhibited even under high temperature conditions (< 400°C). This is because NH3 decomposition proceeds inefficiently due to efficient H2 production via serpentinization. Our experimental results also suggest that SiO2 concentration dissolved in hydrothermal fluids simulating Enceladus' condition would be buffered by the serpentine-brucite system. The presence of NH3 in the hydrothermal conditions keeps pH of the solution high (pH 9-11). We suggest that under such conditions, SiO2 concentrations in the fluids would be 0.1 mmol/L or less for temperature < 350°C. Given the SiO2 solubility of 1-10 mmol/L at 0°C and pH 9-11, direct formation of amorphous SiO2 would not occur in Enceladus' hydrothermal systems. To produce amorphous SiO2, large-scale hydrothermal activities and subsequent concentration of dissolved SiO2 in the ocean (due to freezing and/or evaporation of liquid water) would be required, which is consistent with high concentrations of radiogenic Ar and sodium salts in the plume [2, 6]. [1] Porco et al., Science 311, 1393 (2006). [2] Postberg et al., Nature 459, 1098 (2009). [3] Matson et al., Icarus 187, 569 (2007). [4] Hansen t al., Geophs. Res. Lett. 38, L11202 (2011). [5] Hsu et al., EOS Trans. AGU, (2010). [6] Waite et al., Nature 460, 487 (2009).

  2. Fungal colonization of an Ordovician impact-induced hydrothermal system

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Sturkell, Erik; Ormö, Jens; Siljeström, Sandra; van Zuilen, Mark; Bengtson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Impacts are common geologic features on the terrestrial planets throughout the solar system, and on at least Earth and Mars impacts have induced hydrothermal convection. Impact-generated hydrothermal systems have been suggested to possess the same life supporting capability as hydrothermal systems associated with volcanic activity. However, evidence of fossil microbial colonization in impact-generated hydrothermal systems is scarce in the literature. Here we report of fossilized microorganisms in association with cavity-grown hydrothermal minerals from the 458?Ma Lockne impact structure, Sweden. Based on morphological characteristics the fossilized microorganisms are interpreted as fungi. We further infer the kerogenization of the microfossils, and thus the life span of the fungi, to be contemporaneous with the hydrothermal activity and migration of hydrocarbons in the system. Our results from the Lockne impact structure show that hydrothermal systems associated with impact structures can support colonization by microbial life. PMID:24336641

  3. Hydrothermal systems in small ocean planets.

    PubMed

    Vance, Steve; Harnmeijer, Jelte; Kimura, Jun; Hussmann, Hauke; Demartin, Brian; Brown, J Michael

    2007-12-01

    We examine means for driving hydrothermal activity in extraterrestrial oceans on planets and satellites of less than one Earth mass, with implications for sustaining a low level of biological activity over geological timescales. Assuming ocean planets have olivine-dominated lithospheres, a model for cooling-induced thermal cracking shows how variation in planet size and internal thermal energy may drive variation in the dominant type of hydrothermal system-for example, high or low temperature system or chemically driven system. As radiogenic heating diminishes over time, progressive exposure of new rock continues to the current epoch. Where fluid-rock interactions propagate slowly into a deep brittle layer, thermal energy from serpentinization may be the primary cause of hydrothermal activity in small ocean planets. We show that the time-varying hydrostatic head of a tidally forced ice shell may drive hydrothermal fluid flow through the seafloor, which can generate moderate but potentially important heat through viscous interaction with the matrix of porous seafloor rock. Considering all presently known potential ocean planets-Mars, a number of icy satellites, Pluto, and other trans-neptunian objects-and applying Earth-like material properties and cooling rates, we find depths of circulation are more than an order of magnitude greater than in Earth. In Europa and Enceladus, tidal flexing may drive hydrothermal circulation and, in Europa, may generate heat on the same order as present-day radiogenic heat flux at Earth's surface. In all objects, progressive serpentinization generates heat on a globally averaged basis at a fraction of a percent of present-day radiogenic heating and hydrogen is produced at rates between 10(9) and 10(10) molecules cm(2) s(1). PMID:18163874

  4. Exposure to smoking cues during an emotion recognition task can modulate limbic fMRI activation in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Artiges, Eric; Ricalens, Emmanuel; Berthoz, Sylvie; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Penttilä, Jani; Trichard, Christian; Martinot, Jean-Luc

    2009-09-01

    Smoking cues (SCs) refer to smoking-associated environmental stimuli that may trigger craving and withdrawal symptoms, and predispose to relapse in smokers. Although previous brain imaging studies have explored neural responses to SCs, no study has characterized the effects of SCs on cerebral activity in smokers engaged in an attention-demanding cognitive task that is unrelated to smoking. Thirteen tobacco smokers and a demographically matched group of 13 healthy non-smokers participated in a fast event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that involved a visual task integrating SCs and neutral cues (NCs) during emotion recognition trials requiring a high level of attention. No significant SC-induced alterations were detected in smokers' behavioural performance. fMRI results show that non-smokers exhibited no difference between SC and NC trials; in contrast, smokers showed SC-induced widespread deactivations in a limbic, paralimbic and striatal network classically involved in addiction, and activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In addition, a correlation between deactivation of the right insula and the severity of smoking dependence (Fagerström test) was detected in smokers. These results suggest that the neural reactivity of smokers to SCs can be modified in the context of a cognitive challenge. This could reflect smokers' ability to inhibit cue-induced craving and may help in smoking cessation. PMID:19650816

  5. Response inhibition of cigarette-related cues in male light smokers: behavioral evidence using a two-choice oddball paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhao; Ting, Liu X.; Yi, Zan X.; Li, Dai; Bao, Zhou A.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibitory control has been shown to play an important role in a variety of addictive behaviors. A number of studies involving the use of Go/NoGo and stop-signal paradigms have shown that smokers have reduced response inhibition for cigarette-related cues. However, it is not known whether male light smokers’ response inhibition for cigarette-related cues is lower than that of non-smokers in the two-choice oddball paradigm. The objective of the current study was to provide further behavioral evidence of male light smokers’ impaired response inhibition for cigarette-related cues, using the two-choice oddball paradigm. Sixty-two male students (31 smokers, 31 non-smokers), who were recruited via an advertisement, took part in this two-choice oddball experiment. Cigarette-related pictures (deviant stimuli) and pictures unrelated to cigarettes (standard stimuli) were used. Response inhibition for cigarette-related cues was measured by comparing accuracy (ACC) and reaction time (RT) for deviant and standard stimuli in the two groups of subjects. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that in all the participants, ACC was significantly lower for deviant stimuli than for standard stimuli. For deviant stimuli, the RTs were significantly longer for male light smokers than for male non-smokers; however, there was no significant difference in RTs for standard stimuli. Compared to male non-smokers, male light smokers seem to have a reduced ability to inhibit responses to cigarette-related cues. PMID:26528200

  6. Hydrothermal Activity on ultraslow Spreading Ridge: new hydrothermal fields found on the Southwest Indian ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, C.; Li, H.; Deng, X.; Lei, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, K.; Zhou, J.; Liu, W.

    2014-12-01

    Ultraslow spreading ridge makes up about 25% of global mid-ocean ridge length. Previous studies believed that hydrothermal activity is not widespread on the ultraslow spreading ridge owing to lower magma supply. Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) with the spreading rate between 1.2cm/a to 1.4cm/a, represents the ultraslow spreading ridge. In 2007, Chinese Cruise (CC) 19th discovered the Dragon Flag deposit (DFD) on the SWIR, which is the first active hydrothermal field found on the ultraslow spreading ridge. In recent years, over 10 hydrothermal fields have been found on the SWIR between Indomed and Gallieni transform faults by the Chinese team. Tao et al. (2012) implied that the segment sections with excess heat from enhanced magmatism and suitable crustal permeability along slow and ultraslow ridges might be the most promising areas for searching for hydrothermal activities. In 2014, CC 30thdiscovered five hydrothermal fields and several hydrothermal anomalies on the SWIR. Dragon Horn Area (DHA). The DHA is located on the southern of segment 27 SWIR, with an area of about 400 km2. The geophysical studies indicated that the DHA belongs to the oceanic core complex (OCC), which is widespread on the slow spreading ridges (Zhao et al., 2013). The rocks, such as gabbro, serpentinized peridotite, and consolidated carbonate were collected in the DHA, which provide the direct evidence with the existence of the OCC. However, all rock samples gathered by three TV-grab stations are basalts on the top of the OCC. A hydrothermal anomaly area, centered at 49.66°E?37.80° S with a range of several kms, is detected in the DHA. It is probably comprised of several hydrothermal fields and controlled by a NW fault. New discovery of hydrothermal fields. From January to April 2014, five hydrothermal fields were discovered on the SWIR between 48°E to 50°E during the leg 2&3 of the CC 30th, which are the Su Causeway field (48.6°E, 38.1°S), Bai Causeway field (48.8°E, 37.9 °S), Dragon Well West field (49.6°E, 37.8°S), Dragon Well East field (49.8°E, 37.8°S), and Landing Stage field (51.0°E, 37.5°S), respectively.

  7. Black psyllium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by the North American Indians. People use the seed to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse ... black psyllium is also LIKELY UNSAFE. Black psyllium seeds contain a substance that can cause kidney damage. ...

  8. Black Maria 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    The primary objective of this thesis is to advocate for Black Nationalism's full inclusion in the academic field of political philosophy. By bringing the thinkers in the Black Nationalist tradition into this discourse, the ...

  9. Marijuana's dose-dependent effects in daily marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D

    2013-08-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose-response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (?5.5% ??-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana "strength," "high," "liking," "good effect," and "take again" were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana's cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose. PMID:23937597

  10. Exposure and Kinetics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    St. Helen, Gideon; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Dempsey, Delia; Wilson, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

    2012-01-01

    Study objectives were (1) to investigate the selectivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites for tobacco smoke exposure, and (2) to determine half-lives of PAH metabolites in smokers. There were 622 participants from the United States (US) and Poland, and of these 70% were smokers. All subjects provided spot urine samples and 125 smokers provided blood samples. Urinary PAH metabolite half-lives were determined in 8 smokers. In controlled hospital studies of 18 smokers, the associations between various measures of nicotine intake and urinary excretion of PAH metabolites were investigated. Plasma nicotine was measured by GC. LC-MS/MS was used to measure the plasma levels of cotinine and trans-3?-hydroxycotinine, and urine levels of nicotine and its metabolites, total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and PAH metabolites (2-naphthol, 1-, 2- and 3-hydroxyfluorenes, 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes, and 1-hydroxypyrene). Regardless of smoking status, PAH metabolite excretion was higher in Polish subjects than in US subjects (p-values<0.001). 1-Hydroxyfluorene exhibited the greatest difference between smokers and non-smokers, with a 5-fold difference in Polish subjects and a 25-fold difference in US subjects, followed by 3- and 2-hydroxyfluorenes, 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene. The differences for hydroxyphenanthrenes were small or non-significant. 1-Hydroxyfluorene had the highest correlation with urine nicotine equivalents (r=0.77) and urine NNAL (r=0.64). While the half-lives of PAH metabolites were <10 h in smokers, 1-hydroxyfluorene had the largest ratio of initial to terminal urine concentration (58.4±38.6, mean±SD) after smoking. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis of PAHs among Polish and US subjects further showed that hydroxyfluorenes are most highly discriminative of smokers from nonsmokers followed by 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene. In conclusion, hydroxyfluorenes, particularly 1-hydroxyfluorene, and 2-naphthol are more selective of tobacco smoke than 1-hydroxypyrene and hydroxyphenanthrenes. Characterization of hydroxyfluorene and 2-naphthol metabolites in urine may improve the characterization of PAHs from tobacco smoke and related disease risks among smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:22428611

  11. Does the hand that controls the cigarette packet rule the smoker? Findings from ethnographic interviews with smokers in Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom and the USA.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kirsten; Dennis, Simone; Robinson, Jude; Moore, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Throughout the twentieth century, packaging was a carefully cultivated element of the appeal of the cigarette. However, the tobacco industry's control over cigarette packaging has been steadily eroded through legislation that aims to rebrand the packet from a desirable to a dangerous commodity-epitomized in Australia's introduction of plain packaging in 2012. Evident in both the enactment of cigarette packaging legislation and industry efforts to overturn it is the assumption that packets do things-i.e. that they have a critical role to play in either promoting or discouraging the habit. Drawing on 175 ethnographic interviews conducted with people smoking in public spaces in Vancouver, Canada; Canberra, Australia; Liverpool, England; and San Francisco, USA, we produce a 'thick description' of smokers' engagements with cigarette packets. We illustrate that despite the very different types of cigarette packaging legislation in place in the four countries, there are marked similarities in the ways smokers engage with their packets. In particular, they are not treated as a purely visual sign; instead, a primary means through which one's own cigarette packet is apprehended is by touch rather than by sight. Smokers perceive cigarette packets largely through the operations of their hands-through their 'handiness'. Thus, our study findings problematize the assumption that how smokers engage with packets when asked to do so on a purely intellectual or aesthetic level reflects how they engage with packets as they are enfolded into their everyday lives. PMID:26301486

  12. Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    The black student revolt did not start with the highly publicized activities of the black students at San Francisco State College. The roots of the revolt lie deeply imbedded within the history and structure of the overall black liberation struggle in America. The beginnings of this revolt can be found in the students of Southern Negro colleges in…

  13. Black Holes

    E-print Network

    Gary T. Horowitz; Saul A. Teukolsky

    1998-08-12

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  14. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  15. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of black historian Ed Cabbell by Pat…

  16. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal. [Heat and hydrothermal treatment at 350 degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.S.

    1990-05-30

    We recently examined Argonne supplied Wyodak coal under both thermal (no added water, under N{sub 2}) and hydrothermal (liquid water present, under N{sub 2}) conditions at 350{degrees}C for periods of 30 min. and 5 hr. We found that the coal produces a tar that is deposited on the reactor insert walls solely at hydrothermal conditions. The shift from 30 min. to 5 hr. yields a tar that is more volatile and has a slightly increased molecular weight. The coals recovered from thermal and hydrothermal treatments are different by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS). Specifically, the hydrothermal condition yields py-FIMS volatiles with a higher weight average molecular weight and greater volatility. They are thus less polar, a conclusion consistent with other py-FIMS data showing that the volatiles from the hydrothermally treated coal are lower in phenolics. Our results show that the phenols and catechols in the coal behave very differently. Our data are consistent with a scheme in which the catechol units in the coal engage in condensation at thermal conditions, probably through a catalyzed process related to acidic sites on the mineral matter. The phenols in contrast are unreactive. At hydrothermal conditions, on the other hand, both are released hydrolytically. Thus it appears that the presence of added water decreases or eliminates thermally promoted crosslinking tied to catechol condensation. Unexpectedly, we see acetone and other simple ketones in the Wyodak pyrolysate from both the thermal and hydrothermal treatment. Acetone in some cases is the single most prominent product. These ketones are not seen, however, in the unconfined py-FIMS heating. The difference between confined and unconfined heating suggest that water evolved from the coal itself in confined heating acts in some hydrolytic fashion to liberate the ketones.

  17. Perturbation of cellular immune functions in cigarette smokers and protection by palm oil vitamin E supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoke contains free radicals and an have adverse effect to the immune system. Supplementation of palm oil vitamin E (palmvitee), is known has antioxidant properties is thought to be beneficial for system immune protection against free radicals activity. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of palmvitee supplementation on immune response in smokers. Methods This study involved a group of smokers and nonsmokers who received 200?mg/day palmvitee and placebo for the control group. Blood samples were taken at 0, 12 and 24?weeks of supplementation. Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol were determined by HPLC, lymphocyte proliferation by lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) and enumeration of lymphocytes T and B cells by flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann–Whitney U-test for non-parametric data distribution and correlation among the variables was examined by Spearman. Results Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol were increased in vitamin E supplemented group as compared to placebo group. Urine cotinine levels and serum ?1-antitrypsin were significantly higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers. Lymphocyte proliferation induced by PHA showed an increasing trend with palmvitee supplementation in both smokers and nonsmokers. Natural killer cells were decreased; CD4+ cells and B cells were increased in smokers compared to nonsmokers but were unaffected with vitamin E supplementation except in the percentage of B cells which were increased in nonsmokers supplemented palmvitee compared to placebo. CD4+/CD8+ ratio was increased in smokers compared to nonsmokers. The high TWBC count observed in smokers correlated with the increased CD4+ and B cells. Conclusions Smoking caused alterations in certain immune parameters and palmvitee supplementation tended to cause an increase in lymphocytes transformation test but had no effect on CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, NK cells and B cells except B cells percentage in nonsmokers. PMID:23286246

  18. Did hardening occur among smokers in England from 2000 to 2010?

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, Graeme; McNeill, Ann; Gartner, Coral; Szatkowski, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Aims To assess trends in the prevalence of ‘hardcore’ smoking in England between 2000 and 2010, and to examine associations between hardcore smoking and socio-demographic variables. Design Secondary analysis of data from the United Kingdom's General Lifestyle Survey (GLF) and the Health Survey for England (HSE). Setting Households in England. Participants Self-reported adult current smokers resident in England aged 26?years and over. Measurements Hardcore smokers were defined in three ways: smokers who do not want to quit (D1), those who ‘usually’ smoke their first cigarette of the day within 30 minutes of waking (D2) and a combination of D1 and D2, termed D3. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore associations between these variables and calendar year, age, sex and socio-economic status, and P-values for trends in odds were calculated. Findings The odds of smokers being defined as hardcore according to D3 increased over time in both the GLF (P?smokers in lower occupational groups (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: (1.97–2.26). Lack of motivation to quit (D1) increased with age and was more likely in men. Conclusions The proportion of smokers in England with both low motivation to quit and high dependence appears to have increased between 2000 and 2010, independently of risk factors, suggesting that ‘hardening’ may be occurring in this smoker population. PMID:24103060

  19. Smoking Cessation Outcomes Among Sexual and Gender Minority and Nonminority Smokers in Extended Smoking Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Humfleet, Gary L.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Reus, Victor I.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual and gender minority individuals (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender [LGBT]) have a higher smoking prevalence than nonminority individuals. There is limited evidence of smoking abstinence success in nontailored smoking treatments among LGBT smokers. Methods: This study is a secondary data analysis comparing the efficacy of extended, nontailored treatments among sexual and gender minority and nonminority smokers. Data from two clinical trials were combined to increase power and generalizability of the findings. Trials began with 12 weeks of counseling, nicotine replacement, and bupropion, after which participants were randomized to an extended treatment. Results: Follow-up occurred at weeks 12, 24, 52, 64, and 104. Of the sample (n = 777), 17% identified as sexual and gender minority and 83% as nonminority. The sample was 75% non-Hispanic White, with 86% completing at least some college, and 68% were employed. Sexual and gender minorities were younger and indicated a greater desire to quit smoking than nonminority smokers. No other differences emerged on demographic, smoking, or mood variables. The average Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score was 4.8, and mean daily cigarettes was 19.8. The generalized estimating equations model revealed no significant differences in abstinence between sexual and gender minority smokers and nonminority smokers at all follow-up assessments. Conclusions: Sexual and gender minority smokers appear as likely to quit or abstain as nonminority smokers in extended, nontailored interventions. However, these findings may not generalize to other geographic areas, where access to treatment is limited or a higher stigma of sexual orientation exists. PMID:24727483

  20. Decreased leukotriene B4 synthesis in smokers' alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Laviolette, M; Coulombe, R; Picard, S; Braquet, P; Borgeat, P

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that alveolar macrophages (AM) are able to release leukotrienes (LTs). Since cigarette smoking inhibits the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism in the AM, we evaluated the LT production by AM from smokers and nonsmokers. AM were obtained from 35 volunteers, 16 nonsmokers, and 19 smokers. The cells were incubated under various conditions including stimulation with 30 microM arachidonic acid, 2 microM ionophore A23187, or both. Each experiment was performed in parallel using cells from a smoker and a nonsmoker. Lipoxygenase products were analyzed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. After stimulation, nonsmokers' AM produced LTB4 and 5-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE). In incubations of AM with arachidonic acid and ionophore, the amounts of products formed were: LTB4, 317 +/- 56 pmol/10(6) cells and 5-HETE, 1,079 +/- 254, mean +/- SEM. No metabolites were generated under control conditions (no stimulation). In all incubations performed, the peptido-LTs (LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) were undetectable. In comparison with AM from nonsmokers, those from smokers showed a 80-90% reduction of 5-HETE and LTB4 synthesis (P less than 0.05 to P less than 0.001 according to stimulatory conditions). This defective lipoxygenase metabolite production in AM from smokers was observed over a wide range of stimuli concentrations and incubation times; AM from smokers also had lower levels of intracellular (esterified) 5-HETE than nonsmokers' AM. We also studied blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and no difference in the synthesis of 5-lipoxygenase products in these cells was noticed between smokers and nonsmokers. These data show that cigarette smoking causes a profound inhibition of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in AM but not in blood PMNL. PMID:3003154

  1. Comparing Carbonate-Depositing Hydrothermal Systems Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at Lost City Hydrothermal Field and Along the Rio Grande rift in the Southwestern US: Geochemistry, Geomicrobiology and Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cron, B. R.; Crossey, L.; Hall, J.; Takacs-Vesbach, C.; Dahm, K.; Northup, D.; Karlstrom, K.

    2008-12-01

    Both continental and marine rift settings are characterized by hydrothermal vents (smokers) that include important components of mantle-derived "endogenic" fluids. These fluids ascend along extensional faults and provide unique biologic settings. We hypothesize that deep crustal processes support near-surface metabolic strategies by delivering chemically reduced constituents to partially oxidized surface environments. Lost City hydrothermal field, a marine vent system located 15 km west of the Mid-Atlantic ridge, exhibits a range of temperatures (40 to 75°C), pH (9-9.8), and mineral compositions (carbonate rather than sulfide-dominated) that were originally thought to be non-existent in marine vent systems. Travertine depositing CO2 springs within the Rio Grande rift, NM exhibit striking similarities in many respects to vents in Lost City. Previous research has already determined the importance of methanogenic and sulfur metabolizing microorganisms in carbonate structures at Lost City. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from a terrestrial CO2 spring was performed. In addition, cells from bacteria and fungi were also cultured with oligotrophic media. Both archaeal phylotypes from the terrestrial spring grouped within Marine Group I of the Crenarchaeota, a clade dominated by sequences from hydrothermal marine vents, including some from Lost City. We will report comparative analyses of sequences from Lost City and both cultured and environmental clone libraries from the terrestrial spring using UniFrac. Geochemical modeling of data (water and gas chemistry from both locations) is used to rank the energy available for dozens of metabolic reactions. SEM and microprobe data are presented to compare mineral compositions. Our results will be discussed in respect to the tectonic setting, microbial community distributions, and the geochemical composition and textural properties of the carbonates that are precipitated in each of these systems.

  2. Seismic identification of along-axis hydrothermal flow on the East Pacific Rise

    E-print Network

    Bohnenstiehl, Delwayne

    . Here we show that hypocentres beneath a well-studied hydrothermal vent field on the East Pacific Rise to the distribution and temper- ature of hydrothermal vents along this section of the ridge suggests that hydrothermal by hydrothermal circu- lation at the mid-ocean-ridge axis has been studied widely since deep-sea hydrothermal vent

  3. Super eruption environments make for "super" hydrothermal explosions: Extreme hydrothermal explosions in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L. A.; Shanks, W. P.; Pierce, K. L.

    2006-12-01

    Hydrothermal explosions are violent events resulting in the rapid ejection of boiling water, steam, mud, and rock fragments over areas that range from a few meters in diameter up to several kilometers in diameter. Hydrothermal explosions occur where shallow interconnected reservoirs of steam-saturated fluids underlie thermal fields. Sudden reduction in pressure causes the fluids to flash to steam resulting in significant expansion, rock fragmentation, and debris ejection. In Yellowstone, at least 20 large (>100 meters in diameter) hydrothermal explosions have been identified, and the scale of the individual events dwarfs similar features in other hydrothermal and geothermal areas of the world. Large explosions in Yellowstone have occurred over the past 16 ka at an interval of ~1 per every 700 yrs and similar events are likely to occur in the future. Our studies of hydrothermal explosive events indicate: 1) none are associated with magmatic or volcanic events; 2) several have been triggered by seismic events coupled with other processes; 3) lithic clasts and matrix from explosion deposits are extensively altered, indicating long-term, extensive hydrothermal mineralization in areas that were incorporated into the explosion deposit; 4) many lithic clasts in explosion breccia deposits contain evidence of repeated fracturing and cementation; and 4) dimensions of many documented large hydrothermal explosion craters in Yellowstone are similar to the dimensions of currently active geyser basins or thermal areas in Yellowstone. The vast majority of active thermal areas in Yellowstone are characterized by 1) high-temperature hot-water systems in areas of high heat-flow, 2) extensive systems of hot springs, fumaroles, geysers, sinter terraces, mud pots, and, in places, small hydrothermal explosion craters, 3) widespread alteration of host rocks, 4) large areal dimensions (>several 100 m) and 5) intermittent but long-lived activity (40,000 to 300,000 years). Critical requirements for large hydrothermal explosions are an interconnected system of well-developed joints and fractures along which hydrothermal fluids flow and a water-saturated system close to or at boiling temperatures. Important factors are the active deformation of the Yellowstone caldera, active faults and moderate seismicity, high heat flow, climate changes, and regional stresses. Ascending fluids flow along fractures that develop in response to active deformation of the Yellowstone caldera and along edges of impermeable rhyolitic lava flows. Alteration, self sealing, and dissolution further constrain the distribution and development of hydrothermal fields. A partial impermeable cap can contribute to the final over-pressurization. An abrupt drop in pressure initiates steam-flashing and is instantly transmitted through interconnected fractures, resulting in a series of multiple large-scale explosions and excavation of an explosion crater. Strong similarities between large hydrothermal explosion craters and thermal fields in Yellowstone may indicate that catastrophic failures leading to large hydrothermal explosions represent a unique phase in the life cycle of a geyser basin.

  4. Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge, Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?

    PubMed

    Maloney, Erin K; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of vaping in electronic cigarette advertisements may serve as smoking cues to smokers and former smokers, increasing urge to smoke and smoking behavior, and decreasing self-efficacy, attitudes, and intentions to quit or abstain. After assessing baseline urge to smoke, 301 daily smokers, 272 intermittent smokers, and 311 former smokers were randomly assigned to view three e-cigarette commercials with vaping visuals (the cue condition) or without vaping visuals (the no-cue condition), or to answer unrelated media use questions (the no-ad condition). Participants then answered a posttest questionnaire assessing the outcome variables of interest. Relative to other conditions, in the cue condition, daily smokers reported greater urge to smoke a tobacco cigarette and a marginally significantly greater incidence of actually smoking a tobacco cigarette during the experiment. Former smokers in the cue condition reported lower intentions to abstain from smoking than former smokers in other conditions. No significant differences emerged among intermittent smokers across conditions. These data suggest that visual depictions of vaping in e-cigarette commercials increase daily smokers' urge to smoke cigarettes and may lead to more actual smoking behavior. For former smokers, these cues in advertising may undermine abstinence efforts. Intermittent smokers did not appear to be reactive to these cues. A lack of significant differences between participants in the no-cue and no-ad conditions compared to the cue condition suggests that visual depictions of e-cigarettes and vaping function as smoking cues, and cue reactivity is the mechanism through which these effects were obtained. PMID:25758192

  5. Conversion of kraft lignin under hydrothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-Fei

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to explore hydrothermal conversion of kraft lignin for value-added products. With ranging between 5.4% and 10.6%, total oil yield decreased with the increase of temperature (130, 180, and 230°C), the longer reaction time (15-60min) led to increased total oil yield. Main compound of oils characterized by GC-MS was guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol) in the range of 19-78% of oil depending on different reaction conditions. Residual kraft lignins were characterized by GPC and FTIR with respect to the conversion mechanism of kraft lignin by this process. The conversion of kraft lignin under hydrothermal conditions had something to do with the degradation of ?-O-4 linkages, hydroxyl groups, carbonyl groups, aromatic rings resulting in the increased amount of phenolic OH groups in kraft lignin. PMID:25176169

  6. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  7. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  8. Iridium material for hydrothermal oxidation environments

    DOEpatents

    Hong, Glenn T. (Tewksbury, MA); Zilberstein, Vladimir A. (Brookline, MA)

    1996-01-01

    A process for hydrothermal oxidation of combustible materials in which, during at least a part of the oxidation, corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises iridium, iridium oxide, an iridium alloy, or a base metal overlaid with an iridium coating. Iridium has been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of hydrothermal oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 800.degree. C.

  9. Frontispiece: Hydrothermal Formation of Calcium Copper Tetrasilicate.

    PubMed

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Comer, Sara; Kolis, Joseph W; Salguero, Tina T

    2015-12-01

    Crystal Engineering CaCuSi4 O10 is a famous pigment (Egyptian blue), rare mineral (cuprorivaite), and unique near-infrared luminescent material. Now CaCuSi4 O10 can be prepared hydrothermally using conditions vastly different from the historic salt-flux and solid-state routes. But mind the details-too hot a reaction and you get calcium silicate, too cold and you get a porous calcium copper silicate. 350?°C is just right. Additional parameters that strongly influence the hydrothermal chemistry leading to CaCuSi4 O10 include the copper precursor, the mineralizer, and reaction duration. This new synthesis of CaCuSi4 O10 sheds light on the formation of cuprorivaite in select mineral deposits around the world. For more information, see the Communication by T.?T. Salguero and co-workers on page?17560?ff. PMID:26599876

  10. Chinese Smokers’ Cigarette Purchase Behaviors, Cigarette Prices and Consumption: Findings from the ITC China Survey

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background While cigarette purchasing behavior has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviors and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world’s largest cigarette consumer. Objective The goal of this study is to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviors, and estimate the impact of these behaviors on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socio-economic differences in compensatory purchase behaviors, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviors, cigarette prices, and cigarette consumption. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves - Wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), Wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and Wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010) - of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers’ self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviors were analyzed. Findings Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase behaviors. Those behaviors led to reductions in purchase prices. The price savings ranged from 0.54 Yuan to 1.01 Yuan per pack of cigarettes, depending on the behavior examined, representing a price reduction of 8% - 15%. Conclusion A significant portion of Chinese urban adult smokers engaged in cost/price-reducing purchase behaviors. Such behaviors reduce cigarette purchase prices and are associated with increased cigarette consumption. Smokers of different SES engaged in different purchase behaviors to mitigate the impact of higher cigarette prices. Reducing tobacco use through raising tobacco taxes/prices in China needs to take into account these cost/price-reducing behaviors. PMID:24048580

  11. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Zeghal, Khaled N.; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers. Aim To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers. Methods Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our exercise program. All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest) three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity (V.O2max). Pulmonary function was measured using spirometry, and maximum aerobic capacity was assessed by maximal exercise testing on a treadmill before the beginning and at the end of the exercise training program. Results As expected, prior to the exercise intervention, the cigarette and hookah smokers had significantly lower pulmonary function than the non-smokers. The 12-week exercise training program did not significantly affect lung function as assessed by spirometry in the non-smoker group. However, it significantly increased both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the cigarette smoker group, and PEF in the hookah smoker group. Our training program had its most notable impact on the cardiopulmonary system of smokers. In the non-smoker and cigarette smoker groups, the training program significantly improved V.O2max (4.4 and 4.7%, respectively), v V.O2max (6.7 and 5.6%, respectively), and the recovery index (7.9 and 10.5%, respectively). Conclusions After 12 weeks of interval training program, the increase of V.O2max and the decrease of recovery index and resting heart rate in the smoking subjects indicated better exercise tolerance. Although the intermittent training program altered pulmonary function only partially, both aerobic capacity and life quality were improved. Intermittent training should be advised in the clinical setting for subjects with adverse health behaviors. PMID:25694204

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of nanoplate-assembled hierarchical structured Co{sub 1-x}S microrods

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jihong; Xing Yan Liu Xianchun; Yu Xiaodan; Su Zhongmin

    2012-05-15

    Hierarchical structured Co{sub 1-x}S microrods have been first fabricated in a high yield by a one-pot complex-surfactant-assisted hydrothermal method. The microrod is assembled by numerous interleaving nanoplates. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the samples. The mechanism for the formation of the hierarchical microstructures has been proposed. Additionally, the magnetic characterization suggests that the obtained Co{sub 1-x}S microrods are ferromagnetic at low temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hierarchical structured Co{sub 1-x}S microrods are fabricated by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microrods are assembled by numerous interleaving nanoplates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The growth mechanism of rodlike microstructures is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained Co{sub 1-x}S microrods are ferromagnetic at low temperature.

  13. Modeling Microbiological Interactions with Hydrothermal Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori

    2006-01-01

    All organisms require energy. Characterizing and quantifying the biological demand for energy places constraints on the possible interactions of organisms with each other and with the environment. This talk will consider energetic and mass transfer constraints on the ecology of hydrothermal vent microbes. Following a general introduction to the biological energy requirements and their link to environmental conditions, energy constraints will be applied to several vent-relevant case studies.

  14. Mu Opioid Receptor Binding Correlates with Nicotine Dependence and Reward in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Brasic, James R.; Contoreggi, Carlo; Cascella, Nicola; Mackowick, Kristen M.; Taylor, Richard; Rousset, Olivier; Willis, William; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Concheiro, Marta; Wand, Gary; Wong, Dean F.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2014-01-01

    The rewarding effects of nicotine are associated with activation of nicotine receptors. However, there is increasing evidence that the endogenous opioid system is involved in nicotine's rewarding effects. We employed PET imaging with [11C]carfentanil to test the hypotheses that acute cigarette smoking increases release of endogenous opioids in the human brain and that smokers have an upregulation of mu opioid receptors (MORs) when compared to nonsmokers. We found no significant changes in binding potential (BPND) of [11C]carfentanil between the placebo and the active cigarette sessions, nor did we observe differences in MOR binding between smokers and nonsmokers. Interestingly, we showed that in smokers MOR availability in bilateral superior temporal cortices during the placebo condition was negatively correlated with scores on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Also in smokers, smoking-induced decreases in [11C]carfentanil binding in frontal cortical regions were associated with self-reports of cigarette liking and wanting. Although we did not show differences between smokers and nonsmokers, the negative correlation with FTND corroborates the role of MORs in superior temporal cortices in nicotine addiction and provides preliminary evidence of a role of endogenous opioid signaling in frontal cortex in nicotine reward. PMID:25493427

  15. Putative Roles of Circulating Resistin in Patients with Asthma, COPD and Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Al Mutairi, Sana S.; Mojiminiyi, Olusegun A.; Shihab-Eldeen, Aida; Al Rammah, Tahani; Abdella, Nabila

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the hypothesis that circulating resistin reflects the degree of pulmonary inflammation, this study explores putative roles of resistin in patients with acute and stable inflammatory obstructive airway diseases and cigarette smokers. Methods: We determined complements C3, C4, fasting resistin, insulin, glucose and lipid profile; calculated insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) in patients with acute asthma exacerbation (n = 34); stable asthma (n = 26) and stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 26), cigarette smokers (n = 81), and healthy control subjects (n = 42). We determined the associations between these variables and pulmonary function tests. Results: Patients with COPD, acute and stable asthma had significantly higher resistin and insulin than control subjects. Resistin, insulin, HOMA-IR, FEV1% and FEV1/FVC were significantly (p < 0.05) different between patients with acute asthma compared with stable asthma and COPD; smokers had similar levels of resistin, C3 and C4 as patients with asthma and COPD. In smokers, patientswith asthma or COPD, resistin showed significant inverse correlations with FEV1%; FEV1/FVC% and positive significant correlations with BMI and HOMA-IR. Logistic regression showed that resistin is associated (p < 0.05) with inflammatory obstructive airways disease ? odds ratio (OR) = 1.22 and smoking OR = 1.18. Conclusion: Resistin may be a disease activity marker and may contribute to insulin resistance in smokers, asthma and COPD. PMID:21846943

  16. Heterogeneity in phenotypes based on smoking status in the Great Lakes Smoker Sibling Registry.

    PubMed

    Pomerleau, Cynthia S; Pomerleau, Ovide F; Snedecor, Sandy M; Gaulrapp, Stefanie; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2004-12-01

    We investigated whether 52 same-sex sibling pairs discordant for ever-smoking differed on psychiatric cofactors, alcohol and caffeine use, and responses to initial exposure to smoking. Ever-smokers scored significantly higher on measures of novelty seeking, depression, and childhood ADHD, and on alcohol dependence, alcohol intake, and caffeine intake. They reported significantly more pleasurable experiences, dizziness, "buzz," and relaxation upon initial exposure to smoking and significantly fewer displeasurable sensations, nausea, and cough than did nicotine-exposed, never-smoking siblings. Ever-smokers had significantly fewer years of education than their never-smoking siblings, suggesting that the concentration of smokers in lower socioeconomic strata may be partly due to downward mobility among smokers, possibly because of the observed elevation in psychiatric cofactors, which may interfere with academic performance. These findings are consistent with differences previously identified in unrelated ever- and never-smokers. Because same-sex siblings typically share a large set of common environments during childhood, our findings could be due either to genetic differences among siblings and/or (excepting educational level and responses to early exposure) to differences in adult environments. PMID:15530728

  17. A qualitative study of smokers' responses to messages discouraging dual tobacco product use.

    PubMed

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-04-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried smokeless tobacco were unaware of health risks of novel smokeless tobacco products, perceived scary messages as effective and acknowledged the addictive nature of nicotine. Smokers who had tried smokeless tobacco shared their personal (mainly negative) experiences with smokeless tobacco, were aware of health risks of novel smokeless tobacco products, but denied personal addiction, and misinterpreted or disregarded more threatening messages. Portraying women as smokeless tobacco users was perceived as unbelievable, and emphasizing the lack of appeal of novel smokeless tobacco products was perceived as encouraging continued smoking. Future ads should educate smokers about risks of novel smokeless tobacco products, but past users and never users may require different message strategies. PMID:24441592

  18. Receiving and adhering to lifestyle modification counseling for hypertension: disparities between smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Persoskie, Alexander; Kaufman, Annette R; Leyva, Bryan

    2014-06-01

    Hypertensive patients who smoke are in particular need of lifestyle modification counseling because they are at increased risk for poorer outcomes. The authors examined whether hypertensive smokers were more or less likely than nonsmokers to report receiving recommendations for diet, salt intake, exercise, alcohol use, and medication and whether receipt of recommendations was differentially associated with lifestyle changes among smokers vs nonsmokers. In an analysis of data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System on a representative sample of hypertensive adults from 9 US states (N=23,093), smokers were less likely than nonsmokers to report being told by a provider to exercise (odds ratio [OR], 0.66; P<.001) and change their diet (OR, 0.83; P<.05). Receiving dietary recommendations was more strongly associated with self-reported dietary improvements among smokers (OR, 7.08; P<.001) compared with nonsmokers (OR, 4.17; P<.001) P<.01. Delivery of counseling may vary by smoking status. When provided, lifestyle counseling may be equally or more effective for smokers compared with nonsmokers. PMID:24713034

  19. Does screening for loss of lung function help smokers give up?

    PubMed

    Wells, Sally; de Lusignan, Simon

    One-fifth of smokers show accelerated decline in lung function. These are the patients that go on to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an illness characterized by cough, production of sputum, shortness of breath and premature death (Sethi and Rochester, 2000). If this group of smokers stopped smoking, their decline would slow and they might avoid developing COPD. This pilot study aimed to discover whether those with accelerated decline in lung function would quit if presented with the facts about their situation. Known smokers in their 50s were screened for signs of accelerated respiratory decline. Those with an accelerated decline in lung function were identified and given tailored smoking cessation advice. Of 141 eligible patients, 22 responded and six gave up smoking and remained non-smokers 1 year later. The results of this pilot suggest that screening smokers for accelerated respiratory decline by practice nurses is feasible and acceptable to those patients that respond. Further research is needed to discover whether such an intervention would be cost-effective. PMID:12829957

  20. The impact of initiation: Early onset marijuana smokers demonstrate altered Stroop performance and brain activation.

    PubMed

    Sagar, K A; Dahlgren, M K; Gönenç, A; Racine, M T; Dreman, M W; Gruber, S A

    2015-12-01

    Marijuana (MJ) use is on the rise, particularly among teens and emerging adults. This poses serious public health concern, given the potential deleterious effects of MJ on the developing brain. We examined 50 chronic MJ smokers divided into early onset (regular MJ use prior to age 16; n=24) and late onset (age 16 or later; n=26), and 34 healthy control participants (HCs). All completed a modified Stroop Color Word Test during fMRI. Results demonstrated that MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance on the Interference subtest of the Stroop, as well as altered patterns of activation in the cingulate cortex relative to HCs. Further, early onset MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance relative to both HCs and late onset smokers. Additionally, earlier age of MJ onset as well as increased frequency and magnitude (grams/week) of MJ use were predictive of poorer Stroop performance. fMRI results revealed that while late onset smokers demonstrated a more similar pattern of activation to the control group, a different pattern was evident in the early onset group. These findings underscore the importance of assessing age of onset and patterns of MJ use and support the need for widespread education and intervention efforts among youth. PMID:25936584

  1. Mu Opioid Receptor Binding Correlates with Nicotine Dependence and Reward in Smokers.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Hiroto; Heishman, Stephen J; Brasic, James R; Contoreggi, Carlo; Cascella, Nicola; Mackowick, Kristen M; Taylor, Richard; Rousset, Olivier; Willis, William; Huestis, Marilyn A; Concheiro, Marta; Wand, Gary; Wong, Dean F; Volkow, Nora D

    2014-01-01

    The rewarding effects of nicotine are associated with activation of nicotine receptors. However, there is increasing evidence that the endogenous opioid system is involved in nicotine's rewarding effects. We employed PET imaging with [11C]carfentanil to test the hypotheses that acute cigarette smoking increases release of endogenous opioids in the human brain and that smokers have an upregulation of mu opioid receptors (MORs) when compared to nonsmokers. We found no significant changes in binding potential (BPND) of [11C]carfentanil between the placebo and the active cigarette sessions, nor did we observe differences in MOR binding between smokers and nonsmokers. Interestingly, we showed that in smokers MOR availability in bilateral superior temporal cortices during the placebo condition was negatively correlated with scores on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Also in smokers, smoking-induced decreases in [11C]carfentanil binding in frontal cortical regions were associated with self-reports of cigarette liking and wanting. Although we did not show differences between smokers and nonsmokers, the negative correlation with FTND corroborates the role of MORs in superior temporal cortices in nicotine addiction and provides preliminary evidence of a role of endogenous opioid signaling in frontal cortex in nicotine reward. PMID:25493427

  2. Neural activity related to the processing of increasing monetary reward in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Martin-Soelch, C; Missimer, J; Leenders, K L; Schultz, W

    2003-08-01

    This study investigated the processing of increasing monetary reward in nonsmoking and smoking subjects. The choice of the subject populations has been motivated by the observation of differences between nonsmokers and smokers in response to rewarding stimuli in a previous study. Subjects performed a pattern recognition task with delayed response, while rCBF was measured with [H215O] PET. Correct responses to the task were reinforced with three different amounts of monetary reward. The subjects received the sum of the rewards at the end of the experiment. The results show that a cortico-subcortical loop, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the cingulate gyrus and the thalamus is involved in processing increasing monetary reward. Furthermore, the striatal response differentiates nonsmokers from smokers. Thus, we found significant correlations between rCBF increases in striatum and increasing monetary reward and between striatal rCBF increases and mood in nonsmokers, but not in smokers. Moreover, no significant mood changes among the different monetary rewards could be observed in smokers. We infer that the response of the striatum to reward is related to changes in subjective feelings. The differences between smokers and nonsmokers confirm our previous conclusions that the association between blood flow, performance, mood and amount of reward is more direct in nonsmokers. PMID:12911764

  3. Comparing socially disadvantaged smokers who agree and decline to participate in a randomised smoking cessation trial

    PubMed Central

    Bonevski, Billie; Twyman, Laura; Paul, Chris; D'Este, Catherine; West, Robert; Siahpush, Mohammad; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Palazzi, Kerrin; Bryant, Jamie; Guillaumier, Ashleigh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined sociodemographic, smoking and psychosocial characteristics associated with consent to participate in a smoking cessation trial for socially disadvantaged smokers. Design Baseline data were collected prior to seeking consent for the Call it Quits, a randomised controlled trial. Setting An Australian social and community service organisation. Sociodemographic, smoking and psychosocial characteristics were compared between smokers who agreed or declined to participate. Participants Of the 584 smokers invited to participate, 431 (74%) consented and 153 (26%) declined. Results Logistic regression modelling indicates the ORs of participation were twice as high for those reporting ‘high’ motivation to quit compared to the ‘moderate’ motivation group, and five times higher than the ‘low’ motivation group (p=0.007). The ORs of consenting were higher for those with a preference for gradual reduction in cigarettes in quit attempts compared with ‘no preference’. The ORs were lower for those reporting ‘don't know’ regarding their enjoyment of smoking compared to ‘not at all’ enjoying smoking, and reporting that fewer of their family or friends smoked compared to ‘most or all’. Conclusions This study is the first to examine the characteristics of socially disadvantaged smokers who consent or decline to participate in a smoking cessation trial. Low-income smokers who are motivated to quit, are not enjoying smoking, had family or friends who smoked, and who are interested in gradual cessation approaches may be more likely to participate in a smoking cessation trial. Trial registration number ISRCTN85202510. PMID:26369799

  4. Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between experienced consumers (vapers) and naïve users (smokers)

    PubMed Central

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.; Spyrou, Alketa; Stefopoulos, Christos; Tsimopoulou, Kalliroi; Kourkoveli, Panagiota; Tsiapras, Dimitris; Kyrzopoulos, Stamatis; Poulas, Konstantinos; Voudris, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are nicotine delivery devices that are proposed as tobacco harm reduction products to smokers. Nicotine delivery from ECs is potentially important in their efficacy as smoking substitutes. Herein, nicotine delivery from using a new-generation EC device (variable-wattage, set at 9?W) was evaluated, comparing experienced (vapers) with naïve users (smokers). Twenty-four vapers and 23 smokers participated to the study. They were asked to obtain 10 puffs in 5?minutes and then use the EC ad lib for 60 more minutes (total duration of use: 65?minutes). An 18?mg/mL nicotine-containing liquid was used. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, 5-minutes and every 15?minutes thereafter, while number of puffs and average puff duration were recorded. Although at baseline both groups had similar plasma nicotine levels, smokers consistently exhibited lower levels at all time-periods; at 5-minutes the levels were lower by 46%, while during the subsequent period they were lower by 43% (at 65-minutes) to 54% (at 20-minutes). Both groups took similar number of puffs, but smokers had average puff duration of 2.3?s compared to 3.5?s in vapers. Even in vapers, plasma nicotine levels at 5?minutes were lower than those observed after smoking 1 tobacco cigarette. PMID:26082330

  5. Acute effects of nicotine on processing of complex stimuli in smokers and nonsmokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkrider, Ashley; Hedrick, Mark

    2001-05-01

    Effects of nicotine in the auditory system of normal-hearing smokers and nonsmokers were investigated both behaviorally and physiologically. Discrimination of consonant-vowel speech in quiet and noise was assessed in the presence and absence of a transdermal nicotine patch by measuring categorical boundaries and mismatch negativity (MMN). Data indicate that the effects of nicotine on both behavioral and physiological measures increased with an increase in severity of nicotine-induced symptoms. Smokers showed improved CV discrimination in quiet and noise with nicotine. Additionally, smokers exhibited more measurable and significantly sharper boundaries as well as larger MMN areas than nonsmokers in quiet and noise for both placebo and nicotine sessions. MMN data acquired for both quiet and noise, and behavioral data acquired in quiet, indicate that smokers show the greatest improvements in discrimination during nicotine exposure, followed by symptomatic nonsmokers. Asymptomatic nonsmokers show little improvement with nicotine and, on occasion, show decrements in performance. These data may contribute to our understanding of the role of nAChRs in the auditory system, the neural mechanisms that underlie the recognition of sound in quiet and noise, and mechanisms mediating improved information processing and enhanced cognitive performance that serve as reinforcement for continued tobacco use by smokers.

  6. Diffuse flow from hydrothermal vents. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Trivett, D.A.

    1991-08-01

    The effluent from a collection of diffuse hydrothermal vents was modelled to determine the fate of the source of flow under typical environmental conditions at seafloor spreading centers. A laboratory simulation was conducted to test an analytic model of diffuse plume rise. The results showed that diffuse plumes are likely to remain near the seafloor, with their maximum rise height scaled with the diameter of the source of diffuse flow. The entrainment of ambient seawater into these plumes is limited by the proximity to the seafloor, thus slowing the rate of dilution. The model of diffuse plume behaviour was used to guide the design and implementation of a scheme for monitoring the flow from diffuse hydrothermal vents in the ocean. A deployment of an array at the Southern Juan de Fuca Ridge yielded measurements of a variety of diffuse plume properties, including total heat output. Two distinct sources of hydrothermal flow were detected during the field deployment. The larger source was 1-1.5km north of the instrument array, and its energy output was 450 + or - 270MW. A smaller source was located 100m east of one instrument in the array. The energy output of the source was 12 + or - 8MW. The rise heights of the centerlines of these plumes were 45m and 10m, respectively.

  7. Surface roughened zirconia: towards hydrothermal stability.

    PubMed

    Camposilvan, Erik; Flamant, Quentin; Anglada, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Surface roughness is needed in several yttria-stabilized zirconia components used in restorative dentistry for osseointegration or adhesion purposes. This can be achieved by different treatments, which may also modify the microstructure of the surface. Among them, sandblasting and chemical etching are widely used, but their effect on hydrothermal aging of zirconia is not fully understood. In the present work, the zirconia long-term stability of rough surfaces prepared by these techniques is analyzed and a method is proposed for preventing hydrothermal aging while maintaining the original surface appearance and mechanical properties. The method involves pressure infiltration of a Cerium salt solution on the roughened surfaces followed by a thermal treatment. The solution, trapped by surface defects and small pores, is decomposed during thermal treatment into Cerium oxide, which is diffused at high temperature, obtaining Ce co-doping in the near-surface region. In addition, the microstructural changes induced in the near-surface by sandblasting or chemical etching are removed by the thermal treatment together with surface defects. No color modification was observed and the final roughness parameters were in the range of existing implants of proved good osseointegration. The aging resistance of Ce co-doped materials was strongly enhanced, showing the absence of aging after artificial degradation, increasing in this way the surface mechanical integrity. The proposed treatment is easily applicable to the current manufacturing procedures of zirconia dental posts, abutments, crowns and dentures, representing a solution to hydrothermal aging in these and other biomedical applications. PMID:25867636

  8. Hydrothermal carbonization of poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed

    Poerschmann, J; Weiner, B; Woszidlo, S; Koehler, R; Kopinke, F-D

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was subjected to hydrothermal carbonization in subcritical water at 180-260 °C. Dehydrochlorination increased with increasing reaction temperature. The release of chlorine was almost quantitative above ?235 °C. The fraction of organic carbon (OC) recovered in the hydrochar decreased with increasing operating temperature from 93% at 180 °C to 75% at 250 °C. A wide array of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could be detected in the aqueous phase, but their combined concentration amounted to only ?140 ?g g(-1) PVC-substrate at 240 °C. A pathway for the formation of cyclic hydrocarbons and O-functionalized organics was proposed. Chlorinated hydrocarbons including chlorophenols could only be identified at trace levels (low ppb). Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) could not be detected. The sorption potential of the hydrochar turned out to be very low, in particular for polar organic pollutants. Our results provide strong evidence that hydrothermal carbonization of household organic wastes which can be tied to co-discarded PVC-plastic residues is environmentally sound regarding the formation of toxic organic products. Following these findings, hydrothermal treatment of PVC-waste beyond operating temperatures of ?235 °C to allow complete release of organic chlorine should be further pursued. PMID:25150971

  9. Hydrothermal Formation of Calcium Copper Tetrasilicate.

    PubMed

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Comer, Sara; Kolis, Joseph W; Salguero, Tina T

    2015-12-01

    We describe the first hydrothermal synthesis of CaCuSi4 O10 as micron-scale clusters of thin platelets, distinct from morphologies generated under salt-flux or solid-state conditions. The hydrothermal reaction conditions are surprisingly specific: too cold, and instead of CaCuSi4 O10 , a porous calcium copper silicate forms; too hot, and calcium silicate (CaSiO3 ) forms. The precursors also strongly impact the course of the reaction, with the most common side product being sodium copper silicate (Na2 CuSi4 O10 ). Optimized conditions for hydrothermal CaCuSi4 O10 formation from calcium chloride, copper(II) nitrate, sodium silicate, and ammonium hydroxide are 350?°C at 3000?psi for 72?h; at longer reaction times, competitive delamination and exfoliation causes crystal fragmentation. These results illustrate that CaCuSi4 O10 is an even more unique material than previously appreciated. PMID:26482329

  10. Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

  11. Synthesis of high intrinsic loss power aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticles by citric acid-assisted hydrothermal-reduction route

    SciTech Connect

    Behdadfar, Behshid; Kermanpur, Ahmad; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Morales, Maria del Puerto; Mozaffari, Morteza

    2012-03-15

    Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticle were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The results showed that certain concentrations of citric acid (CA) are required to obtain only magnetic iron oxides with mean particle sizes around 8 nm. CA acts as a modulator and reducing agent in iron oxide formation which controls nanoparticle size. The XRD, magnetic and heating measurements showed that the temperature and time of hydrothermal reaction can affect the magnetic properties of obtained ferrofluids. The synthesized ferrofluids were stable at pH 7. Their mean hydrodynamic size was around 80 nm with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.158. The calculated intrinsic loss power (ILP) was 9.4 nHm{sup 2}/kg. So this clean and cheap route is an efficient way to synthesize high ILP aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia. - Graphical abstract: Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction method with citric acid as reductant which is an efficient way to synthesize aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aqueous iron oxide ferrofluids were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Citric acid acted as reducing agent and surfactant in the route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a facile, low energy and environmental friendly route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aqueous iron oxide ferrofluids were monodispersed and stable at pH of 7. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated intrinsic loss power of the synthesized ferrofluids was very high.

  12. Hydrothermal Conditions and the Origin of Cellular Life.

    PubMed

    Deamer, David W; Georgiou, Christos D

    2015-12-01

    The conditions and properties of hydrothermal vents and hydrothermal fields are compared in terms of their ability to support processes related to the origin of life. The two sites can be considered as alternative hypotheses, and from this comparison we propose a series of experimental tests to distinguish between them, focusing on those that involve concentration of solutes, self-assembly of membranous compartments, and synthesis of polymers. Key Word: Hydrothermal systems. Astrobiology 15, 1091-1095. PMID:26684507

  13. Characterization of large, autotrophic Beggiatoa spp. abundant at hydrothermal vents of the Guaymas Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.C. ); Wirsen, C.O.; Jannasch, H.W. )

    1989-11-01

    Filamentous bacteria, identified as members of the genus Beggiatoa by gliding motility and internal globules of elemental sulfur, occur in massive aggregations at the deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Cell aggregates covering the surface of sulfide-emanating sediments and rock chimneys were collected by DS R/V Alvin and subjected to shipboard and laboratory experiments. Each sample collected contained one to three discrete width classes of this organism usually accompanied by a small number of flexibacteria (width, 1.5 to 4 {mu}m). The average widths of the Beggiatoa classes were 24 to 32, 40 to 42, and 116 to 122 {mu}m. As indicated by electron microscopy and cell volume/protein ratios, the dominant bacteria are hollow cells, i.e., a thin layer of cytoplasm surrounding a large central liquid vacuole. Activities of Calvin-cycle enzymes indicated that at least two of the classes collected possess autotrophic potential. Judging from temperature dependence of enzyme activities and whole-cell CO{sub 2} incorporation, the widest cells were mesophiles. The narrowest Beggiatoa sp. was either moderately thermophilic or mesophilic with unusually thermotolerant enzymes. This was consistent with its occurrence on the flanks of hot smoker chimneys with highly variable exit temperatures. In situ CO{sub 2} fixation rates, sulfide stimulation of incorporation, and autoradiographic studies suggest that these Beggiatoa spp. contribute significantly as lithoautrophic primary producers to the Guaymas Basin vent ecosystems.

  14. Theoretical constraints of physical and chemical properties of hydrothermal fluids on variations in chemolithotrophic microbial communities in seafloor hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kentaro; Takai, Ken

    2014-12-01

    In the past few decades, chemosynthetic ecosystems at deep-sea hydrothermal vents have received attention as plausible analogues to the early ecosystems of Earth, as well as to extraterrestrial ecosystems. These ecosystems are sustained by chemical energy obtained from inorganic redox substances (e.g., H2S, CO2, H2, CH4, and O2) in hydrothermal fluids and ambient seawater. The chemical and isotope compositions of the hydrothermal fluid are, in turn, controlled by subseafloor physical and chemical processes, including fluid-rock interactions, phase separation and partitioning of fluids, and precipitation of minerals. We hypothesized that specific physicochemical principles describe the linkages among the living ecosystems, hydrothermal fluids, and geological background in deep-sea hydrothermal systems. We estimated the metabolic energy potentially available for productivity by chemolithotrophic microorganisms at various hydrothermal vent fields. We used a geochemical model based on hydrothermal fluid chemistry data compiled from 89 globally distributed hydrothermal vent sites. The model estimates were compared to the observed variability in extant microbial communities in seafloor hydrothermal environments. Our calculations clearly show that representative chemolithotrophic metabolisms (e.g., thiotrophic, hydrogenotrophic, and methanotrophic) respond differently to geological and geochemical variations in the hydrothermal systems. Nearly all of the deep-sea hydrothermal systems provide abundant energy for organisms with aerobic thiotrophic metabolisms; observed variations in the H2S concentrations among the hydrothermal fluids had little effect on the energetics of thiotrophic metabolism. Thus, these organisms form the base of the chemosynthetic microbial community in global deep-sea hydrothermal environments. In contrast, variations in H2 concentrations in hydrothermal fluids significantly impact organisms with aerobic and anaerobic hydrogenotrophic metabolisms. Particularly in H2-rich ultramafic rock-hosted hydrothermal systems, anaerobic and aerobic hydrogenotrophy is more energetically significant than thiotrophy. The CH4 concentration also has a considerable impact on organisms with aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophic metabolisms, particularly in sediment-associated hydrothermal systems. Recently clarified patterns and functions of existing microbial communities and their metabolisms are generally consistent with the results of our thermodynamic modeling of the hydrothermal mixing zones. These relationships provide important directions for future research addressing the origin and early evolution of life on Earth as well as for the search for extraterrestrial life.

  15. Influence of surfactants on the morphology of SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals prepared via a hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Mi; Gao Yanfeng; Dai Lei; Cao Chuanxiang; Guo Xuhong

    2012-05-15

    Nanoscaled SnO{sub 2} with different morphologies has been synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process at 180 Degree-Sign C using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) or tetrapropyl ammonium bromide (TPAB) as surfactant. All the prepared SnO{sub 2} are of a tetragonal crystal structure. Nanocubes, nanorods, nanosheets, nanobelts and nanoparticles were prepared when changing the type and dosage of organic surfactants. It is shown that anionic surfactant (SDS) and cationic surfactant (CTAB or TPAB) at their suitable addition amounts can largely influence the morphologies of SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals. The effect is significantly dependent on the solvent types: water or ethanol. The non-ionic surfactant (PVP) can also change the morphologies like SDS but the impacts are less obvious. The effect of surfactants on the shape and size of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was discussed in detail. The particle growth mechanism is described based on the electrostatic interactions and Van der Waals' forces. - Graphical abstract: SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals with controllable morphologies were prepared via a hydrothermal method with surfactants. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals were prepared via a hydrothermal method with surfactants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SnO{sub 2} morphologies changed with the type and the dosage of surfactants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of surfactants on the growth of crystal planes was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The controlling mechanisms of surfactants on SnO{sub 2} morphologies were discussed.

  16. The Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse hydrothermal field: A hydrothermal system on an active detachment fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphris, Susan E.; Tivey, Margaret K.; Tivey, Maurice A.

    2015-11-01

    Over the last ten years, geophysical studies have revealed that the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) hydrothermal field (26°08?N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge) is located on the hanging wall of an active detachment fault. This is particularly important in light of the recognition that detachment faulting accounts for crustal accretion/extension along a significant portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and that the majority of confirmed vent sites on this slow-spreading ridge are hosted on detachment faults. The TAG hydrothermal field is one of the largest sites of high-temperature hydrothermal activity and mineralization found to date on the seafloor, and is comprised of active and relict deposits in different stages of evolution. The episodic nature of hydrothermal activity over the last 140 ka provides strong evidence that the complex shape and geological structure of the active detachment fault system exerts first order, but poorly understood, influences on the hydrothermal circulation patterns, fluid chemistry, and mineral deposition. While hydrothermal circulation extracts heat from a deep source region, the location of the source region at TAG is unknown. Hydrothermal upflow is likely focused along the relatively permeable detachment fault interface at depth, and then the high temperature fluids leave the low-angle portion of the detachment fault and rise vertically through the highly fissured hanging wall to the seafloor. The presence of abundant anhydrite in the cone on the summit of the TAG active mound and in veins in the crust beneath provides evidence for a fluid circulation system that entrains significant amounts of seawater into the shallow parts of the mound and stockwork. Given the importance of detachment faulting for crustal extension at slow spreading ridges, the fundamental question that still needs to be addressed is: How do detachment fault systems, and the structure at depth associated with these systems (e.g., presence of plutons and/or high permeability zones) influence the pattern of hydrothermal circulation, mineral deposition, and fluid chemistry, both in space and time, within slowly accreted ocean crust?

  17. Does smoke-free legislation and smoking outside bars increase feelings of stigmatization among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.

    PubMed

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Willemsen, Marc C; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van den Putte, Bas; Hitchman, Sara C; Crone, Matty R; Fong, Geoffrey T; van der Heiden, Sander; de Vries, Hein

    2012-11-01

    This study examined whether smokers' perceived level of stigmatization changed after the implementation of smoke-free hospitality industry legislation and whether smokers who smoked outside bars reported more perceived stigmatization. Longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey was used, involving a nationally representative sample of 1447 smokers aged 15 years and older. Whether smoke-free legislation increases smokers' perceived stigmatization depends on how smokers feel about smoking outside. The level of perceived stigmatization did not change after the implementation of smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in the Netherlands, possibly because most Dutch smokers do not feel negatively judged when smoking outside. PMID:22921198

  18. Aalborg Universitet Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Product Characterization of Barley Straw in Sub-and

    E-print Network

    Rosendahl, Lasse

    Aalborg Universitet Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Product Characterization of Barley Straw in Sub, G. (2013). Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Product Characterization of Barley Straw in Sub- and Super Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS Hydrothermal Liquefaction

  19. Innate immunity in the deep sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus Raul Bettencourt a,

    E-print Network

    Allam, Bassem

    Innate immunity in the deep sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus Raul Bettencourt a hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus. Cellular constituents in the hemolymph and extrapallial fluid October 2008 Available online 13 November 2008 Keywords: Hydrothermal Bivalve Bathymodiolus azoricus

  20. Oral fluid cannabinoid concentrations following controlled smoked cannabis in chronic frequent and occasional smokers

    PubMed Central

    Anizan, Sebastien; Milman, Garry; Desrosiers, Nathalie; Barnes, Allan J.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral fluid (OF) is an alternative biological matrix for monitoring cannabis intake in drug testing, and drugged driving (DUID) programs, but OF cannabinoid test interpretation is challenging. Controlled cannabinoid administration studies provide a scientific database for interpreting cannabinoid OF tests. Methods We compared differences in OF cannabinoid concentrations from 19h before to 30h after smoking a 6.8% THC cigarette in chronic frequent and occasional cannabis smokers. OF was collected with the Statsure Saliva Sampler™ OF device. 2D-GC-MS was used to quantify cannabinoids in 357 OF specimens; 65 had inadequate OF volume within 3h after smoking. Results All OF specimens were THC-positive for up to 13.5h after smoking, without significant differences between frequent and occasional smokers over 30h. CBD and CBN had short median last detection times (2.5–4h for CBD and 6–8h for CBN) in both groups. THCCOOH was detected in 25 and 212 occasional and frequent smokers’ OF samples, respectively. THCCOOH provided longer detection windows than THC in all frequent smokers. As THCCOOH is not present in cannabis smoke, it’s presence in OF minimizes the potential for false positive results from passive environmental smoke exposure, and can identify oral THC ingestion, while OF THC cannot. THC?1?g/L, in addition to CBD?1?g/L or CBN?1?g/L suggested recent cannabis intake (?13.5h), important for DUID cases, whereas THC?1?g/L or THC?2?g/L cutoffs had longer detection windows (?30h), important for workplace testing. THCCOOH windows of detection for chronic, frequent cannabis smokers extended beyond 30 h, while they were shorter (0–24h) for occasional cannabis smokers. PMID:23954944

  1. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Exposures in Smokers and Nonsmokers Exposed to Cigarette or Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.; Carmella, Steven G.; Loffredo, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The causal relationship between tobacco smoking and a variety of cancers is attributable to the carcinogens that smokers inhale, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). We aimed to assess the exposure to TSNAs in waterpipe smokers (WPS), cigarette smokers (CS), and nonsmoking females exposed to tobacco smoke. Methods: We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. Results: Of the 24 current male smokers, 54.2% were exclusive CS and 45.8% were exclusive WPS. Among wives, 59.1% reported exposure to cigarette smoke and 40.9% to waterpipe smoke. The geometric mean of urinary NNAL was 0.19 ± 0.60 pmol/ml urine (range 0.005–2.58) in the total sample. Significantly higher levels of NNAL were observed among male smokers of either cigarettes or waterpipe (0.89 ± 0.53 pmol/ml, range 0.78–2.58 in CS and 0.21–1.71 in WPS) compared with nonsmoking wives (0.04 ± 0.18 pmol/ml, range 0.01–0.60 in CS wives, 0.05–0.23 in WPS wives, p = .000). Among males, CS had significantly higher levels of NNAL compared with WPS (1.22 vs. 0.62; p = .007). However, no significant difference was detected in NNAL levels between wives exposed to cigarette smoke or waterpipe smoke. Conclusions: Cigarette smokers levels of NNAL were higher than WPS levels in males. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evident in wives of both CS and WPS. Among WPS, NNAL tended to increase with increasing numbers of hagars smoked/day. PMID:22573723

  2. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Reduces Negative Affect but Not Cigarette Craving in Overnight Abstinent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiansong; Fregni, Felipe; Brody, Arthur L.; Rahman, Ardeshir S.

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (?1.5?h) smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathode to the right supra-orbital area for 20?min with a current of 2.0?mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood States (POMS) to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS) Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension–anxiety, depression–dejection, and confusion–bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation. PMID:24065930

  3. Black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creighton, Teviet; Price, Richard H.

    2008-01-01

    Black Holes are regions of space in which gravitational fields are so strong that no particle or signal can escape the pull of gravity. The boundary of this no-escape region is called the event horizon, since distant observers outside the black hole cannot see (cannot get light from) events inside. Although the fundamental possibility of such an object exists within Newton's classical theory of gravitation, Einstein's theory of gravity makes black holes inevitable under some circumstances. Prior to the early 1960s, black holes seemed to be only an interesting theoretical concept with no astrophysical plausibility, but with the discovery of quasars in 1963 it became clear that very exotic astrophysical objects could exist. Nowadays it is taken for granted that black holes do exist in at least two different forms. Stellar mass black holes are the endpoint of the death of some stars, and supermassive black holes are the result of coalescences in the centers of most galaxies, including our own. No signal can propagate from inside a black hole, but the gravitational influence of a black hole is always present. (This influence does not propagate out of the hole; it is permanently present outside, and depends only on the total amount of mass, angular momentum, and electric charge that have gone into forming the hole.) Black holes can be detected through the influence of this strong gravity on the surroundings just outside the hole. In this way, stellar mass holes produce detectable X-rays, supermassive black holes produce a wide spectrum of electromagnetic signals, and both types can be inferred from the orbital motion of luminous stars and matter around them. Phenomena involving black holes of any mass can produce strong gravitational waves, and are of interest as sources for present and future gravitational wave detectors.

  4. An uncommon cause of progressive visual loss in a heavy smoker

    PubMed Central

    Koufakis, Dimitris; Konstantopoulos, Dimitrios; Koufakis, Theocharis

    2015-01-01

    Loss of vision due to eye metastasis is generally uncommon, representing an ophthalmological diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We here report a case of a smoker patient finally diagnosed with lung cancer, whose initial symptom was visual loss due to choroidal metastasis. Given that the majority of subjects presenting with uveal metastasis have already developed other distant metastases as well, a complete diagnostic work-up of these patients is always required. Despite being rare, eye metastasis from a lung malignancy should always be suspected in smokers presenting with progressive vision deterioration.

  5. Fe stable isotope fractionation in modern and ancient hydrothermal Fe-Si deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, K.; Schoenberg, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Øvreås, L.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    Modern iron-silica deposits of small yellow to rust coloured mounds and chimney-like structures were found in a low-temperature venting area distal to a white smoker type hydrothermal vent site at the south-western part of the Mohns Ridge, North Atlantic. Individual stratified mm to cm thick laminated layers within these structures are largely composed of branching, twisted filaments resembling encrusted stalks of Fe-oxidising bacteria. DNA analyses have confirmed the presence of both Fe-oxidising (Mariprofundus ferrooxidans and other ?-Proteobacteria) and Fe-reducing bacteria (Shewanellaceae). Similar morphologic features, such as several mm thick red hematite-rich laminae and micron-scale filamentous structures concentrated in discrete laminae, have also been found in Early Ordovician volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) hosted jasper deposits in the Løkken-Høydal area, Norway [1]. These filamentous structures are believed to be formed by Fe-oxidising bacteria similar to Mariprofundus ferrooxidans [2]. Here, we compare the Fe isotope composition of these two different types of Fe-Si deposits with the aim to gain further information about deposition mechanisms and the role of microorganisms in Fe redox cycling of deep-sea hydrothermal systems. Fe isotope compositions of the modern biogenic Fe-Si deposit vary between -2.09 and -0.66 ‰ in ?56Fe values, a range that is comparable to late Archaean to early Proterozoic banded iron formations. The ~490 Ma old Løkken jaspers show a similar variation, but with significantly higher ?56Fe values ranging from -0.39 to +0.89 ‰. The Fe isotopic composition of the Løkken jaspers clearly correlates with morphological features with the lowest ?56Fe values in layered and the highest ones in brecciform jaspers. Our data demonstrate that variations in Fe isotope compositions of the modern Fe-Si deposit cannot be explained by a single process, but rather reflect the full complexity of Fe redox cycling within deep-sea sediments and the deposit itself, including abiogenic partial oxidation of hydrothermal Fe(II)aq through mixing with oxygenated seawater, reduction of Fe(III) precipitates by dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) and re-oxidation by Fe-oxidising bacteria. The Løkken jaspers were postulated to be a combination of Fe-oxyhydroxide precipitation within buoyant and non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes and Si flocculation in a silica-saturated ocean [1]. Observations from a modern basalt-hosted hydrothermal system indicate that Fe(II)aq in a buoyant plume gets fractionated towards heavier isotopic compositions due to precipitation of low-?56Fe iron sulphides [3]. However, mass balance calculations of plume particles revealed that Fe-oxyhydroxides have ?56Fe values of around -0.2 ‰, thus significantly lighter than the heaviest Løkken signatures of 0.89 ‰. Possible scenarios to explain the Fe isotope compositions of Løkken jaspers and the modern Mohns Ridge Fe-Si deposits will be discussed. [1] Grenne, T. & Slack, J. (2003) Miner Deposita, 38, 625ff. [2] Little, C. et al. (2004) Geomicrobiol J, 21, 415ff. [3] Bennett, S. et al. (2009) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., 73, 5619ff.

  6. Targeting organic molecules in hydrothermal environments on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell, J.; Bowden, S. A.; Lindgren, P.; Wilson, R.; Cooper, J. M.

    2008-09-01

    Hydrothermal deposits on Mars Hydrothermal systems are proposed as environments that could support organic synthesis, the evolution of life or the maintenance of life [1,2,3]. They have therefore been suggested as primary targets for exploration on Mars [1,2,4,].There is now confidence that hydrothermal deposits occur at the martian surface. This is based on a range of criteria that could point towards hydrothermal activity, including volcanic activity, magmatic-driven tectonism, impact cratering in icy terrains, hydrous alteration of minerals and typical hydrothermal mineralogies [4]. The proposals to search for evidence of life at martian hydrothermal sites have been focussed on seeking morphological evidence of microbial activity [5]. Here we discuss the potential to seek a chemical signature of organic matter in hydrothermal systems. Organics in terrestrial hydrothermal systems Terrestrial hydrothermal systems can have large quantities of organic matter because they intersect organic-rich sedimentary rocks or oil reservoirs. Thus the signatures that they contain reflect some preexisting concentration of fossil organic compounds, rather than life which was active in the hydrothermal system. If any extant life was incorporated in these hydrothermal systems, it is swamped by the fossil molecules. Examples of environments where organic materials may become entrained include subsurface hydrothermal mineral deposits, generation of hydrothermal systems by igneous intrusions, and hot fluid venting at the seafloor. Nevertheless, there is value in studying the interactions of hydrothermal systems with fossil organic matter, for information about the survivability of organic compounds, phase relationships between carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous materials, and where in hydrothermal deposits to find evidence of organic matter. Microbial colonization of hot spring systems is feasible at depth within the systems and at the surface where the hydrothermal waters discharge. Discharging fluids will also precipitate minerals due to drop in temperature and pressure, and colonising organisms are likely to become entrained by the minerals. Attempts to find evidence of microbial activity related to hydrothermal systems in the geological record have therefore been focussed on hydrothermal mineral precipitates. Organic matter is found in hydrothermal precipitates back into the Precambrian [6]. Fig. 1 Settings for organic matter in hydrothermal systems. Surface discharge could be in subaerial or subaqueous environment. Application of SERS Studies using conventional laser Raman instruments have made a good case for application of this type of spectroscopy to planetary exploration. The detection of pigments sited in microbial matter in a range of samples from extreme environments (e.g. [7]) has supported development of the technique for space exploration generally, and Mars exploration in particular [8]. A major advantage of conventional Raman spectroscopy is that it can be applied to simultaneous characterization of bond types in both organic and inorganic materials. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) increases the sensitivity by several orders of magnitude, and overcomes the problems created by natural fluorescence [9]. SERS is achieved by adsorbing the target analyte onto the surface of a metal. We are combining the additional sample processing necessary for SERS with sample preparation in a microfluidic format (including extraction and sample concentration). The final result will be a very rapid assay, capable of detecting ppb concentrations of certain organic analytes. This approach was tested at a site in Iceland, where young/active hydrothermal systems are focussed in a rift environment. Sulphur species are prevalent, in a range of oxidation states, including sulphates, sulphides and native sulphur. Thus they are a useful model for systems that might exist on Mars, where sulphur species are widespread and therefore likely to be incorporated into hydrothermal systems. Microbial colonization of the Iceland sites is evident as pigme

  7. Tobacco Health Warning Messages on Plain Cigarette Packs and in Television Campaigns: A Qualitative Study with Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health…

  8. Will Genetic Testing for Complex Diseases Increase Motivation to Quit Smoking? Anticipated Reactions in a Survey of Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Saskia C.; Wardle, Jane

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve understanding of smokers' potential reactions to genetic testing for smoking-related diseases. One thousand twenty-four respondents completed a postal survey; 186 were smokers. Questions addressed anticipated psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test results using hypothetical scenarios. Of…

  9. "Cigarettes Are Priority": A Qualitative Study of How Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers Respond to Rising Cigarette Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial modelling research assessing the impact of cigarette taxes on smoking rates across income groups, few studies have examined the broader financial effects and unintended consequences on very low-income smokers. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers in a high-income country manage smoking costs on…

  10. Intermittent or Continuous Acetylsalicylic Acid and Gene Expression in the Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II clinical trial studies the safety and effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) taken continuously or intermittently on gene expression in the nasal tissue of current smokers. Smokers are at increased risk of developing lung cancer. Acetylsalicylic acid may be useful in preventing lung cancer.

  11. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  12. Are black holes totally black?

    E-print Network

    A. A. Grib; Yu. V. Pavlov

    2014-10-21

    Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.

  13. Biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of silver bismuth sulfide with nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kaowphong, Sulawan

    2012-05-15

    Silver bismuth sulfide (AgBiS{sub 2}) nanostructures were successfully prepared via a simple biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal synthesis at 200 Degree-Sign C for 12-72 h. Silver nitrate, bismuth nitrate and L-cysteine were used as starting materials. Here, the biomolecule, L-cysteine, was served as the sulfide source and a complexing agent. The products, characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), were cubic AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles with a diameter range of about 20-75 nm. It was found that their crystallinity and particle size increased with increasing reaction time. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometry (ICP-OES) analyses were used to confirm the stoichiometry of AgBiS{sub 2}. The optical band gap of the AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles, calculated from UV-vis spectra, was 3.0 eV which indicated a strong blue shift because of the quantum confinement effect. A possible formation mechanism of the AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles was also discussed. - Graphical abstract: The optical band gap of the as-prepared AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles displays a strong blue shift comparing to the 2.46 eV of bulk AgBiS{sub 2} caused by the quantum confinement effects. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal method is developed to prepare AgBiS{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Cysteine is served as the sulfide source and a complexing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in band gap of the AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles attributes to the quantum confinement effects.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of hexagonal magnesium hydroxide nanoflakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Chunhong; Guo, Ming; Sun, Lingna; Hu, Changwen

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of PEG-20,000. Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflake yielded different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes is discussed. - Highlights: • Hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method. • PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of hexagonal nanostructure. • Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes show different crystalline structures at different positions. • The probable formation mechanism of hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes was reported. - Abstract: Hexagonal magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of the surfactant polyethylene glycol 20,000 (PEG-20,000). Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The composition, morphologies and structure of the Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflake show different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes is discussed. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis were performed to investigate the porous structure and surface area of the as-obtained nanoflakes.

  15. Porosity evolution in Icelandic hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thien, B.; Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced hydrothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems, grant number CRSII2_141843/1) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. These are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. These shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. Field observations suggest that active and fossil Icelandic hydrothermal systems are built from a superposition of completely altered and completely unaltered layers. With help of 1D and 2D reactive transport models (OpenGeoSys-GEM code), we investigate the reasons for this finding, by studying the mineralogical evolution of protoliths with different initial porosities at different temperatures and pressures, different leaching water composition and gas content, and different porosity geometries (i.e. porous medium versus fractured medium). From this study, we believe that the initial porosity of protoliths and volume changes due to their transformation into secondary minerals are key factors to explain the different alteration extents observed in field studies. We also discuss how precipitation and dissolution kinetics can influence the alteration time scales.

  16. Hydrothermal processes at Mount Rainier, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Field studies and thermal-infrared mapping at Mount Rainier indicate areas of active hydrothermal alteration where excess surface heat flux is about 9 megawatts. Three representative settings include: (1) An extensive area (greater than 12,000 m/sup 2/) of heated ground and slightly acidic boiling-point fumaroles at 76-82/sup 0/C at East and West Craters on the volcano's summit; (2) A small area (less than 500 m/sup 2/) of heated ground and sub-boiling-point fumaroles at 55-60/sup 0/C on the upper flank at Disappointment Cleaver, and other probably similar areas at Willis Wall, Sunset Amphitheater, and the South Tahoma and Kautz headwalls; (3) Sulfate and carbon dioxide enriched thermal springs at 9-24/sup 0/C on the lower flank of the volcano in valley walls beside the Winthrop and Paradise Glaciers. In addition, chloride- and carbon dioxide-enriched thermal springs issue from thin sediments that overlie Tertiary rocks at, or somewhat beyond, the base of the volcanic edifice in valley bottoms of the Nisqually and Ohanapecosh Rivers where maximum spring temperatures are 19-25/sup 0/C, respectively, and where extensive travertine deposits have developed. The heat flow, distribution of thermal activity, and nature of alteration products indicate that a narrow, central hydrothermal system exists within Mount Rainier forming steam-heated snowmelt at the summit craters and localized leakage of steam-heated fluids within 2 kilometers of the summit. The lateral extent of the hydrothermal system is limited in that only sparse, neutral sulfate-enriched thermal water issues from the lower flank of the cone. Simulations of geochemical mass transfer suggest that the thermal springs may be derived from an acid sulfate-chloride parent fluid which has been neutralized by reaction with andesite and highly diluted with shallow ground water.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of initiation of smoking behavior among preteen black and white children.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar U; Ahmed, Noushin S; Semenya, Kofi A; Elzey, Jared D; Larson, Celia; Bennett, C Ray; Hinds, Joseph E

    2004-02-01

    This study estimated smoking prevalence and identified factors associated with initiation among preteens in Nashville, TN. An anonymous, self-administrated questionnaire was given to 238 fifth- and sixth-graders in a middle-class neighborhood school. The mean age at initiation was 8.5 years (range 6-11 years). Overall, 10.5% of students had ever smoked; 16.1% of blacks and 9.3% of whites. Eighty-six percent continued to smoke. Black sixth-graders smoked (26.9%) four times the rate of black fifth-graders and 2.5 times that of white sixth-graders. Relatives initiated 78% of blacks while friends initiated 68% of whites. One-quarter of smokers got their cigarettes at home. Regular attendees of religious services had a lower smoking rate (6.9% versus 16.4%; p=0.01). Smoking rates decreased with increased knowledge of risks (p=0.00001). Among smokers, none believed that smoking is a risk factor for heart disease, 96% did not believe that smoking has any short-term health effects or is a risk factor for stroke. Few ever-smokers had a complete understanding of the health risks. Targeted messages and curriculum should be developed to teach preteens about the short- and long-term dangers of smoking. Clinicians can play a major role in educating their clients about the risks of smoking. PMID:14977279

  18. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  19. The Hydrothermal Circulation of the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellsson, J.; Doos, K.; Laliberté, F. B.; Zika, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The atmospheric circulation maintains the energy balance between the warm/moist regions and the colder/drier regions of the Earth. A well-studied aspect of the atmospheric circulation is the time-averaged zonal-mean meridional overturning circulation. The meridional overturning describes the Hadley, Ferrel and Polar Cells in each hemisphere. However, in isobaric coordinates, the zonal average is unable to capture zonally asymmetric features such as the Walker circulation and transient exchanges of heat and moisture. The Walker Circulation is restricted to equatorial regions, and is commonly studied using a meridional mean over a limited region with ill-defined latitudinal boundaries. The Walker Circulation is thus neither mass-conserving nor uniquely defined. To overtcome these limitations, the Walker circulation is often diagnosed using vertical velocity. As a consequence, it is difficult to distinguish between the zonal-mean circulation (Hadley Circulation) and the zonal asymmetries (Walker Circulation). Global mass and energy transport is here investigated using a moisture-heat perspective. A hydrothermal streamfunction is defined where latent heat and dry static energy act as coordinates. Because the hydrothermal streamfunction resides in purely thermodynamical space, it does not differentiate between zonal, meridional, or vertical transports. The hydrothermal streamfunction shows the global overturning circulation as a unified cycle. It describes a cycle with three branches: i) a convective branch where latent heat is converted into sensible heat along moist adiabats, ii) a cooling branch where dry air loses energy due to radiative damping and iii) a return branch where cold, dry air is heated and moistened following the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. These three branches form a single cell of more than 400 Sv with at least 100 Sv due to zonal motions such as the Walker Circulation. The cell is also found fairly stationary on seasonal and inter-annual timescales. The hydrothermal streamfunction thus diagnoses the Hadley and Walker circulations in a common coordinate system and allows for measuring their combined strength unambiguously. Moreover, it highlights similarities and differences between the tropical convectively-driven circulations and the midlatitude eddy-driven circulation by joining them into a single, global cycle. This simple yet complete diagnostic is furthermore proposed as a tool for the intercomparison of climate simulations.

  20. Hydrothermal mineralising systems as critical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Hydrothermal mineralising systems as critical systems. Bruce E Hobbs1,2, Alison Ord1 and Mark A. Munro1. 1. Centre for Exploration Targeting, The University of Western Australia, M006, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia. 2. CSIRO Earth and Resource Engineering, Bentley, WA, Australia Hydrothermal mineralising systems are presented as large, open chemical reactors held far from equilibrium during their life-time by the influx of heat, fluid and dissolved chemical species. As such they are nonlinear dynamical systems and need to be analysed using the tools that have been developed for such systems. Hydrothermal systems undergo a number of transitions during their evolution and this paper focuses on methods for characterising these transitions in a quantitative manner and establishing whether they resemble first or second (critical) phase transitions or whether they have some other kind of nature. Critical phase transitions are characterised by long range correlations for some parameter characteristic of the system, power-law probability distributions so that there is no characteristic length scale and a high sensitivity to perturbations; as one approaches criticality, characteristic parameters for the system scale in a power law manner with distance from the critical point. The transitions undergone in mineralised hydrothermal systems are: (i) widespread, non-localised mineral alteration involving exothermic mineral reactions that produce hydrous silicate phases, carbonates and iron-oxides, (ii) strongly localised veining, brecciation and/or stock-work formation, (iii) a series of endothermic mineral reactions involving the formation of non-hydrous silicates, sulphides and metals such as gold, (iv) multiple repetitions of transitions (ii) and (iii). We have quantified aspects of these transitions in gold deposits from the Yilgarn craton of Western Australia using wavelet transforms. This technique is convenient and fast. It enables one to establish if the transition is multifractal (and if so, quantify the multifractal spectrum) and determine the scale dependence of long range correlations or anti-correlations. The availability of long drill holes with detailed chemical analyses and mineral abundances derived from hyperspectral data enables individual ore bodies to be characterised in a quantitative manner and constraints placed on whether the various transition are possibly critical or of some other form. We also present some simple nonlinear models that produce the multifractal character and correlation scaling relations observed in these data sets,

  1. Economic Environmental Scheduling of Hydrothermal Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanayak, D. N.; Chakrabarti, R. N.; Basu, M.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an interactive fuzzy satisfying method based on simulated annealing technique to determine the economic environmental scheduling of hydrothermal power system consisting of multi-reservoir cascaded hydro plants with time delay and thermal plants with nonsmooth fuel cost and emission level functions. This paper treats cost and emission as competing objectives. Assuming that the decision maker (DM) has fuzzy goals for each of the objective functions, fuzzy satisfying method based on simulated annealing technique is applied for generating a corresponding optimal noninferior solution for the DM's goals. Test results obtained from the proposed method are compared with those obtained by using evolutionary programming.

  2. Hydrothermal alteration in oceanic ridge volcanics: A detailed study at the Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridley, W.I.; Perfit, M.R.; Josnasson, I.R.; Smith, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field is composed of altered oceanic crust and extinct hydrothermal vents within the eastern Galapagos Rift between 85??49???W and 85??55???W. The discharge zone of the hydrothermal system is revealed along scarps, thus providing an opportunity to examine the uppermost mineralized, and highly altered interior parts of the crust. Altered rocks collected in situ by the submersible ALVIN show complex concentric alteration zones. Microsamples of individual zones have been analysed for major/minor, trace elements, and strontium isotopes in order to describe the complex compositional details of the hydrothermal alteration. Interlayered chlorite-smectite and chlorite with disequilibrium compositions dominate the secondary mineralogy as replacement phases of primary glass and acicular pyroxene. Phenocrysts and matrix grains of plagioclase are unaffected during alteration. Using a modification of the Gresens' equation we demonstrate that the trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively immobile, and calculate degrees of enrichment and depletion in other elements. Strontium isotopic ratios increase as Sr concentrations decrease from least-altered cores to most-altered rims and cross-cutting veins in individual samples, and can be modeled by open system behaviour under low fluid-rock ratio (< 10) conditions following a period of lower-temperature weathering of volcanics within the rift zone. The complex patterns of element enrichment and depletion and strontium isotope variations indicate mixing between pristine seawater and ascending hot fluids to produce a compositional spectrum of fluids. The precipitation of base-metal sulfides beneath the seafloor is probably a result of fluid mixing and cooling. If, as suggested here, the discharge zone alteration occurred under relatively low fluid-rock ratios, then this shallow region must play an important role in determining the exit composition of vent fluids in marine hydrothermal systems. ?? 1994.

  3. Hydrothermal alteration in oceanic ridge volcanics: A detailed study at the Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, W.I.; Perfit, M.R.; Smith, M.F.; Jonasson, I.R.

    1994-06-01

    The Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field is composed of altered oceanic crust and extinct hydrothermal vents within the eastern Galapagos Rift between 85{degree}49 feet W and 85{degree} 55 feet W. The discharge zone of the hydrothermal system is revealed along scarps, thus providing an opportunity to examine the uppermost mineralized, and highly altered interior parts of the crust. Altered rocks collected in situ by the submersible ALVIN show complex concentric alteration zones. Microsamples of individual zones have been analysed for major/minor, trace elements, and strontium isotopes in order to describe the complex compositional details of the hydrothermal alteration. Interlayered chlorite-smectite and chlorite with disequilibrium compositions dominate the secondary mineralogy as replacement phases of primary glass and acicular pyroxene. Phenocrysts and matrix grains of plagioclase are unaffected during alteration. Using a modification of the Gresens` equation we demonstrate that the trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively immobile, and calculate degrees of enrichment and depletion in other elements. Strontium isotopic ratios increase as Sr concentrations decrease from least-altered cores to most-altered rims and cross-cutting veins in individual samples, and can be modeled by open system behaviour under low fluid-rock ratio (<10) conditions following a period of lower-temperature weathering of volcanics within the rift zone. The complex patterns of element enrichment and depletion and strontium isotope variations indicate mixing between pristine seawater and ascending hot fluids to produce a compositional spectrum of fluids. If, as suggested here, the discharge zone alteration occurred under relatively low fluid-rock ratios, then this shallow region must play an important role in determining the exit composition of vent fluids in marine hydrothermal systems. 50 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Hydrothermal systems as environments for the emergence of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, E. L.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the chemical disequilibrium provided by the mixing of hydrothermal fluids and seawater in present-day systems indicates that organic synthesis from CO2 or carbonic acid is thermodynamically favoured in the conditions in which hyperthermophilic microorganisms are known to live. These organisms lower the Gibbs free energy of the chemical mixture by synthesizing many of the