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1

Black Smokers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Black Smokers explains the phenomena of deep-sea hydrothermal vents that occur under oceans within mid-ocean ridge volcanoes. The site describes deep-sea hydrothermal vent life forms, the ocean floor, and the mid-ocean ridge system. Teacher resources include games and lesson plans about the human impact on black smoker environments, the debate on human versus robotic expeditions, tools and engineering for black smoker expeditions, and how oceanic crust forms and ages. There are reports from expeditions studying black smokers and information on the research vessels and other underwater tools of the expeditions.

2

Black Smokers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains a brief introduction to the discovery of hydrothermal systems and black smokers. Within the webpage are links to information on gigantic tube worms, polychaete worms, oceans, and extreme environments. This site also provides a list of hydrothermal systems, relevant links to organizations, laboratories and observatories, WebQuests, and other websites with further information on hydrothermal systems. As part of the Environmental Literacy Council site, this webpage also contains links to other resources with environmental content, including air climate, land, water, ecosystems, energy, food, and environment and society.

2009-07-01

3

Phase separation, brine formation, and salinity variation at Black Smoker hydrothermal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first fully transient 2-D numerical simulations of black smoker hydrothermal systems using realistic fluid properties and allowing for all phase transitions possible in the system H2O-NaCl, including phase separation of convecting seawater into a low-salinity vapor and high-salinity brine. We investigate convection, multiphase flow, and phase segregation at pressures below, near, and above the critical point of

D. Coumou; T. Driesner; P. Weis; C. A. Heinrich

2009-01-01

4

The sound generated by mid-ocean ridge black smoker hydrothermal vents.  

PubMed

Hydrothermal flow through seafloor black smoker vents is typically turbulent and vigorous, with speeds often exceeding 1 m/s. Although theory predicts that these flows will generate sound, the prevailing view has been that black smokers are essentially silent. Here we present the first unambiguous field recordings showing that these vents radiate significant acoustic energy. The sounds contain a broadband component and narrowband tones which are indicative of resonance. The amplitude of the broadband component shows tidal modulation which is indicative of discharge rate variations related to the mechanics of tidal loading. Vent sounds will provide researchers with new ways to study flow through sulfide structures, and may provide some local organisms with behavioral or navigational cues. PMID:17205137

Crone, Timothy J; Wilcock, William S D; Barclay, Andrew H; Parsons, Jeffrey D

2006-01-01

5

'Black Smokers' WebQuest: An Internet WebQuest on Hydrothermal Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a black smokers WebQuest where students in groups investigate one aspect of the science of black smokers. The WebQuest provides a separate list of links for each research role, including geochemist, biologist, oceanographer, and geologist. Upon completing their specialist research, the students work in groups to get a better understanding of black smokers and the issues by presenting a position on whether to protect black smokers or continue research on the black smokers for possible benefits. The webpage is divided into the following sections: introduction, the task, the process and resources, conclusion, and hypertext dictionary. This site provides a wealth of information relevant to black smokers with current information, many images, videos, animations, and first hand accounts.

Science, Uniserve

6

The Sound Generated by Mid-Ocean Ridge Black Smoker Hydrothermal Vents  

E-print Network

organisms and are conduits for large heat and chemical exchanges between young oceanic lithosphere and the ocean. On a global scale the time-averaged hydrothermal heat flux and many chemical fluxes are well in ambient noise within several hundred meters of two hydrothermal vent sites [10,11], another study found

Crone, Timothy J.

7

Black Smokers: A Huge but Untapped Mineral Storehouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting article, appearing in the online journal Mining Engineer (free registration required through Engineer Live), discusses mineral mining potentials of black smokers. Black smokers are hydrothermal vents emitting mineral bearing fluids from the deep ocean floor. This article gives an overview of how black smokers form geologically, sulfur-reducing bacteria and other organisms living on hydrothermal vents, and how ores are deposited at these vents. The overview is followed by suggested mining strategies and instruments for trace mineral detection.

8

Black Smokers: Life Forms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational web site features life forms of deep sea hydrothermal systems. Hosted by the American Museum of Natural History, this site offers a brief introduction of the community and then focuses on Vestimentiferan tube worms, Vescomyid clams, and Bathymodiolid mussels. The site includes interactive games, teacher resources, a glossary, and more.

History, The A.

9

Cellular convection models of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal circulation and the temperatures of black smoker fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vent fields are characterized by maximum sustained venting temperatures of 320ø-380øC, irrespective of the spreading rate and the inferred depth of circulation. Metamorphic assemblages, fluid inclusions, oxygen isotope data, and the salinity of vent fluids have all been used to infer maximum circulation temperatures of up to 500ø-700øC. In this paper I investigate the pattern of circulation

William S. D. Wilcock

1998-01-01

10

Black smokers on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence for a variety of active hydrothermal venting phenomena, including black smokers, was discovered at a site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge by a research team of government and university scientists. The work was accomplished on a cruise of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship Researcher during July 1985 as part of the NOAA Vents Program. The site of the venting phenomena is the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) Hydrothermal Field on the east wall of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26°N. The TAG Hydrothermal Field was the first hydrothermal field to be found on an oceanic ridge; it was discovered 12 years ago in 1973. However, until the present cruise, only low-temperature hydrothermal activity had been documented, and the existence of higher-temperature hydrothermal activity along slow spreading oceanic ridges (half rate 2 cm/yr), such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, was in question.

Rona, Peter A.

11

Hydrothermal Fe fluxes during the Precambrian: Effect of low oceanic sulfate concentrations and low hydrostatic pressure on the composition of black smokers [rapid communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems typically release vent fluids to the ocean with dissolved H 2S in excess of Fe. These fluids are the consequence of high-temperature interactions between sulfate-rich seawater and mid-ocean ridge basalt at conditions near the critical point for seawater. The precipitation of FeS and FeS 2 during venting titrates most of the Fe from the fluid, significantly reducing the net flux of Fe to the open ocean. Here we suggest that hydrothermal fluids emanating from Precambrian seafloor systems older than ˜1.8 Ga had Fe / H 2S ratios >> 1, and with fH 2 higher than today, because seawater lacked its primary oxidant, dissolved sulfate ion. This predominance of Fe over H 2S would have promoted the establishment of an iron-rich deep ocean and the deposition of banded iron formations (BIF). Accordingly, the end of BIF deposition at ˜1.8 Ga was the result of the buildup of sulfate in seawater from oxidative weathering, and its return at 750 Ma the result of reductions in seawater sulfate concentrations during Snowball Earth episodes, enhanced by elevated Fe concentrations during depressurization of hydrothermal systems by large eustatic sea-level falls. Moreover, Precambrian chemosynthetic vent communities may have been based on H 2 synthesis rather than on H 2S oxidation, as they largely are today.

Kump, Lee R.; Seyfried, William E.

2005-07-01

12

The acute tobacco withdrawal syndrome among black smokers.  

PubMed

Black smokers have greater difficulty quitting tobacco than White smokers, but the mechanisms underlying between-race differences in smoking cessation are not clear. One possibility is that Black smokers experience greater acute withdrawal than Whites. We investigated whether Black (n = 104) and White smokers (n = 99) differed in abstinence-induced changes in self-report, physiological, and cognitive performance measures. Smokers not wishing to quit completed two counterbalanced experimental sessions. Before one session, they abstained from smoking for at least 12 hr. They smoked normally before the other session. Black smokers reported smaller abstinence-induced changes on a number of subjective measures including the total score of the 10-item Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (QSU) and the total score of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS). However, on most subjective measures, and on all objective measures, there were no between-race differences in abstinence-induced change scores. Moreover, Black participants did not report lower QSU and WSWS ratings at the abstinent session, but they did experience significantly higher QSU and WSWS ratings at the nonabstinent session. Abstinence-induced changes in subjective, physiological, and cognitive measures in White smokers were similar for smokers of nonflavored and menthol-flavored cigarettes. There was no evidence that Black smokers experienced greater acute tobacco withdrawal than Whites. To the contrary, Black participants experienced smaller abstinence-induced changes in self-reported craving and withdrawal on some measures. Racial differences in smoking cessation are unlikely to be explained by acute withdrawal. PMID:23528199

Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Waters, Andrew J

2014-03-01

13

Trace element distributions in the chalcopyrite wall of a black smoker chimney: insights from laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA–ICP–MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thin walls of young black smoker chimneys experience steep physico-chemical gradients during active venting of hydrothermal fluid, and these gradients control trace element precipitation within those walls. Here, we utilise a combination of high sensitivity ICPMS and UV laser ablation (resolution of better than 30 ?m) to demonstrate the existence of non-random V, Ag, In, Te, Ba, Au, Pb

I. B. Butler; R. W. Nesbitt

1999-01-01

14

Microbial diversity of Loki's Castle black smokers at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.  

PubMed

Hydrothermal vent systems harbor rich microbial communities ranging from aerobic mesophiles to anaerobic hyperthermophiles. Among these, members of the archaeal domain are prevalent in microbial communities in the most extreme environments, partly because of their temperature-resistant and robust membrane lipids. In this study, we use geochemical and molecular microbiological methods to investigate the microbial diversity in black smoker chimneys from the newly discovered Loki's Castle hydrothermal vent field on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) with vent fluid temperatures of 310-320 °C and pH of 5.5. Archaeal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids (GDGTs) and H-shaped GDGTs with 0-4 cyclopentane moieties were dominant in all sulfide samples and are most likely derived from both (hyper)thermophilic Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Crenarchaeol has been detected in low abundances in samples derived from the chimney exterior indicating the presence of Thaumarchaeota at lower ambient temperatures. Aquificales and members of the Epsilonproteobacteria were the dominant bacterial groups detected. Our observations based on the analysis of 16S rRNA genes and biomarker lipid analysis provide insight into microbial communities thriving within the porous sulfide structures of active and inactive deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Microbial cycling of sulfur, hydrogen, and methane by archaea in the chimney interior and bacteria in the chimney exterior may be the prevailing biogeochemical processes in this system. PMID:23006788

Jaeschke, A; Jørgensen, S L; Bernasconi, S M; Pedersen, R B; Thorseth, I H; Früh-Green, G L

2012-11-01

15

Discovery of a black smoker vent field and vent fauna at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.  

PubMed

The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) represents one of the most slow-spreading ridge systems on Earth. Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting, as well as the provenance of vent fauna at this northern and insular termination of the global ridge system, have been unsuccessful. Here, we report the first discovery of a black smoker vent field at the AMOR. The field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) and is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting and long-lived hydrothermal systems exist at ultraslow-spreading ridges, despite their strongly reduced volcanic activity. The vent field hosts a distinct vent fauna that differs from the fauna to the south along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The novel vent fauna seems to have developed by local specialization and by migration of fauna from cold seeps and the Pacific. PMID:21119639

Pedersen, Rolf B; Rapp, Hans Tore; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Lilley, Marvin D; Barriga, Fernando J A S; Baumberger, Tamara; Flesland, Kristin; Fonseca, Rita; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Jorgensen, Steffen L

2010-01-01

16

Hydrothermal activity Hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges  

E-print Network

#12;Hydrothermal activity #12;Hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges After sea water seeps metal-sulphide chimneys. #12;Hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges Black-smoker Schornsteine am;Distance (km) 10 105 50 2 4 6 8 Depth(km) Moho Transition zone Mush Gabbro Rift Valley · Slow ridges

Siebel, Wolfgang

17

First Time Ever Retrieval of "Black Smokers" from Ocean Floor Reveals One of Earth's Strangest and Most Enigmatic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article features a black smoker retrieved by an expedition team on the Juan De Fuca Ridge, at a depth of more than one mile below the surface of the ocean. The article discusses the expedition, the black smoker's complex ecosystem, and the black smoker environment and lifeform implications for the possibility of life on other planetary bodies. To learn more about the expedition through logs and photographs, the site provides links to the American Museum of Natural History, the University of Washington, and PBS television. Additional University of Washington News articles may be accessed on site as well.

Hines, Sandra

2010-03-08

18

First time ever retrieval of "black smokers" from ocean floor reveals one of Earth's strangest and most enigmatic ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article features a black smoker retrieved by an expedition team on the Juan De Fuca Ridge, at a depth of more than one mile below the surface of the ocean. The article discusses the expedition, the black smoker's complex ecosystem, and the black smoker environment and lifeform implications for the possibility of life on other planetary bodies. To learn more about the expedition through logs and photographs, the site provides links to the American Museum of Natural History, the University of Washington, and PBS television. Additional University of Washington News articles may be accessed on site as well.

Hines, Sandra; Information, University O.

19

World's largest known Precambrian fossil black smoker chimneys and associated microbial vent communities, North China: Implications for early life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black smoker chimneys and biological vent communities have been identified at many sites on the deep seafloor, particularly along oceanic spreading centers. We report the largest and oldest known, microbe-rich sub-meter-sized black smoker chimneys and mounds from a 1.43 billion-year old sulfide deposit in a continental graben in northern China. These chimneys are especially well preserved, with characteristic morphology, internal

Jianghai Li; Timothy M. Kusky

2007-01-01

20

Diversity of microbial communities of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present an organic geochemical study of Loki’s Castle, a black smoker field recently discovered at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around 73.2°N. Located at the Mohn-Knipovich Ridge, which is one of the slowest spreading ridge segments on Earth, Loki’s Castle is the most northerly major hydrothermal vent field known to date. The vent field is composed of five actively venting (320°C) black-smoker chimneys that tower on top of a large mound of hydrothermal sulfide deposits. Loki’s Castle is a basalt-hosted hydrothermal system, but high methane and ammonium contents in the vent fluids strongly indicate a sedimentary component below the volcanic ridge. In 2009, another site of low-temperature hydrothermal venting hosting numerous barite chimneys was discovered in the vicinity of the black smokers, which probably results from subsurface mixing of diffuse hydrothermal fluid with seawater. In our study, variations in microbial communities associated with the formation of actively venting, sulfide and sulfate chimneys in this essentially unexplored ultraslow spreading ridge system are assessed based on biomarker lipid and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses. Lipid extracts from an active, high-temperature sulfide chimney yielded abundant archaeal di- and tetraether lipids as well as irregular isoprenoidal hydrocarbons (PMIs) that are associated with archaeal methanogens and methanotrophs. Predominant archaeal biomarker lipids include archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as well as glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) containing 0-4 cyclopentyl moieties. In addition, GDGTs with an additional covalent bond between the isoprenoid hydrocarbon chains, so-called H-shaped GDGTs, containing 0-4 cyclopentyl rings were also found to be abundant components and are indicative of hyperthermophilic methanogens. Biomarkers characteristic of eukaryotes (sterols) and bacteria (fatty acids and hopanoids) were less prevalent in the sulfide chimney samples indicating a predominance of archaeal communities within the warmer interior zones of the chimney walls that are dominated by the iron sulfides sphalerite and pyrrhotite. The SiO2-bearing cooler outer parts of a chimney revealed predominantly bacterial fatty acids, whereas archaeal GDGTs were detected only to a minor extent. In contrast, the low-temperature barite-bearing vents located at the slope of the massive sulfide mound revealed the dominance of a range of unusual branched and unsaturated fatty acids that are specific for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). PMIs, archaeol, and sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as typically observed in methanogenic and methanotrophic archaea (AOM) have also been detected, although in much lower abundances. Ongoing compound-specific ?13C analyses will give additional information about carbon sources and metabolism of microbial consortia inhabiting actively venting sulfide and barite chimneys at Loki’s castle.

Jaeschke, A.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Früh-Green, G.

2010-12-01

21

Rare earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal deposits from the active TAG Mound, 26°N Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of various phases from the active TAG hydrothermal mound has been examined and related to their mineralogy and fluid chemistry. The mound deposits range from black and white smoker chimneys, massive anhydrite\\/sulphide mixtures, oxides, and ochres. All phases, except black smoker chimney anhydrite, demonstrate a positive Eu anomaly when normalised to chondrite REE values.

Rachel A. Mills; Henry Elderfield

1995-01-01

22

Genetic and Pharmacokinetic Determinants of Response to Transdermal Nicotine in White, Black and Asian Non-Smokers  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to examine genetic, pharmacokinetic and demographic factors that influence sensitivity to nicotine in never smokers. Sixty never smokers, balanced for gender and race (Caucasian, Blacks and Asian), wore 7 mg nicotine skin patches for up to 8 hours. Serial plasma nicotine concentrations and subjective and cardiovascular effects were measured, and genetic variation in the CYP2A6 gene, the primary enzyme responsible for nicotine metabolism, was assessed. Nicotine toxicity requiring patch removal developed in 9 subjects and was strongly associated with rate of rise and peak concentrations of plasma nicotine. Toxicity, subjective and cardiovascular effects of nicotine were associated with the presence of reduced function CYP2A6 alleles, presumably reflecting slow nicotine metabolic inactivation. This study has implications for understanding individual differences in responses to nicotine medications, particularly when the latter are used for treating medical conditions in non-smokers, and possibly in vulnerability to developing nicotine dependence. PMID:23933970

Dempsey, Delia A.; St Helen, Gideon; Jacob, Peyton; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Benowitz, Neal L.

2013-01-01

23

Laboratory models of growing flanges, and a comparison with other growth mechanisms of "black smoker" chimneys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first measurements of the structure of black smoker chimneys suggested that they form initially by the precipitation of anhydrite from seawater, because of the reverse solubility effect due to the heating of its surroundings by the effluent, rather than directly from the less dense hot plume. This initial growth is followed by replacement of the solid anhydrite framework, successively by iron, zinc and copper sulfides. More recent observations of very large chimneys have shown that later precipitation directly from the plume can occur through the growth of flanges, or large horizontal protrusions at the side of the chimneys. Light sulfide-rich fluid, leaking out of holes in the chimney wall, ponds under these flanges, which grow as the hot fluid percolates through the porous top or flows over their nearly horizontal edges and precipitates as it cools. Both of these processes have been demonstrated in laboratory models using the crystallization of solutes such as KNO 3 and Na 2CO 3 which have a strong dependence of solubility on temperature. Crystallization from the surroundings can be produced using an inflowing plume of cold K 2CO 3 into a warm nearly saturated KNO 3 solution, and in this case an axisymmetric chimney grows in length at a nearly constant rate, and at the same time thickens as further crystallization takes place. Further experiments, in which the inflowing K 2CO 3 was constrained to spread horizontally near the source, produced a cluster of chimney structures. The first experiments demonstrating the second mechanism, the process of crystallization directly from the incoming fluid, were reported in the context of replenished magma chambers. When dense saturated KNO 3 is injected slowly into cold surroundings, some of the incoming fluid is quenched while the rest is forced upwards to form columns with a flat top. These grow upwards as the gravitationally constrained fluid flows over the lip, cooling and crystallizing as it does so. In the new laboratory experiments reported here the same physical effects are observed in a more appropriate "flange" geometry if a small deflector plate is provided to produce an initial horizontal flow of the nearly saturated KNO 3 solution. Growing flanges have also been produced on the outer face of an existing crystal column, in a geometry which is directly applicable to black smoker chimneys.

Turner, J. S.

1995-09-01

24

Interactions Between Serpentinization, Hydrothermal Activity and Microbial Community at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seafloor investigations of slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges have reported many occurrences of exposed mantle peridotites and gabbroic rocks on the ocean floor. Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, these uplifted portions of oceanic crust host high-temperature black smoker-type hydrothermal systems (e.g., Rainbow, Logatchev, Saldanha), and the more distinct low-temperature Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF). Built on a southern terrace of the Atlantis

A. Delacour; G. L. Frueh-Green; S. M. Bernasconi; P. Schaeffer; M. Frank; M. Gutjahr; D. S. Kelley

2008-01-01

25

A plan for a 5 km-deep borehole at Reykjanes, Iceland, into the root zone of a black smoker on land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary workshop report describing the progress made so far by the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is presented below. The report provides recommendations concerning technical aspects related to deep drilling, and invites international participation in both the engineering and the scientific activities of the next phase of the IDDP. No issues were identified at the workshop that should rule out attempting the drilling, sampling and testing of the proposed IDDP-2 well. Although technically challenging, the consensus of the workshop was that the drilling of such a hot deep well, and producing potentially hostile fluids, is possible but requires careful contingency planning. The future well will be explored for supercritical fluid and/or superheated steam beneath the current production zone of the Reykjanes geothermal field in SW Iceland. This deep borehole will provide the first opportunity worldwide to directly investigate the root zone of a magma-hydrothermal system which is likely to be similar to those beneath the black smokers on the world-encircling mid-ocean rift systems.

Friðleifsson, G. Ó.; Elders, W. A.; Bignall, G.

2013-11-01

26

Candy Chemosynthesis: Biochemistry of Hydrothermal Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will differentiate between requirements for life in extreme environments such as hydrothermal vents and other environments and will use soft candy as a model to create a visual image of chemicals involved in autotrophic nutrition. As they review the biochemistry of hydrothermal vents, they will discover what chemicals are used by autotrophs in extreme environments in the deep ocean and how these chemicals differ from those used by terrestrial autotrophs. They will also study a diagram showing how a hydrothermal vent (black smoker) acquires the elements and compounds that deep-sea autotrophs require.

27

Discovery and Distribution of Black Smokers on the Western Galapagos Spreading Center: Implications for Spatial and Temporal Controls on High Temperature Venting at Ridge/Hotspot Intersections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though nearly one-fifth of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) lies on or near hotspots, it has been debated whether hotspots increase or decrease MOR hydrothermal flux, or affect vent biota. Despite hotspot enhancement of melt supply, high-temperature vent plumes are enigmatically sparse along two previously-surveyed ridge- hotspot intersections [Reykjanes Ridge (RR), Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR)]. This has been attributed to crustal thickening by excess volcanism. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, we conducted nested sonar, plume, and camera surveys along a 540 km-long portion of the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) where the ridge intersects the Galapagos hotspot at lon. 94.5 -89.5 deg. W. Although MOR hydrothermal springs were first found along the eastern GSC crest in 1977 near lon. 86 deg. W, the GalAPAGoS smokers are the first active high-temperature vents to be found anywhere along the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary. Active and/or recently-inactive smokers were located beneath plumes at 5 sites on the seafloor between lon. 91 deg. W and 94.5 deg. W (see Anderson et al., this session) during near-bottom, real-time fiber-optic Medea camera surveys. Smokers occur along eruptive seafloor fissures atop axial volcanic ridges near the middles of ridge segments, mainly in areas underlain by relatively shallow, continuous axial magma chamber (AMC) seismic reflectors. These findings (1) support magmatic, rather than tectonic, control of GSC smoker distribution; (2) demonstrate that thick crust at MOR-hotspot intersections does not prevent high-temperature hydrothermal vents from forming; and, (3) appear to be inconsistent with models suggesting that enhanced hydrothermal cooling causes abrupt deepening of the AMC and transition from non-rifted to rifted GSC morphology near lon. 92.7 deg. W. The widely-spaced smoker sites located on different GSC segments exhibit remarkably similar characteristics and seafloor settings. Most sites are mature or extinct, and are on lava flows of visually-similar ages (estimated to be tens-to-hundreds of years old). Possibly a volcanic pulse may have activated the hotspot- affected western GSC, and powered contemporaneous hydrothermal vents that now are waning. It may be that hotspots produce episodes of near-synchronous, extensive ridge volcanism and hydrothermal activity, followed by periods of quiescence. This idea is consistent with: the episodic eruption histories of Hawaii and Iceland; variably anomalous hydrothermal plume incidence (low on RR, SEIR, GSC; high on Mid-Atlantic Ridge near Azores hotspot); models of episodic melt extraction from mantle plumes; and evidence for magma propagation along hotspot-influenced ridges. Our hypothesis potentially can be tested by studies of gene flow between animal communities located on either side of the Galapagos hotspot, and by dating of GSC hydrothermal chimneys and the lava flows on which they are constructed.

Haymon, R. M.; Anderson, P. G.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; White, S. M.; MacDonald, K. C.

2006-12-01

28

Dynamics and storage of brine in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems are known to vent fluids with salinities substantially different from seawater as a result of phase separation and segregation of the resulting vapor and brine phases. Time series of vent temperature and salinity (chlorinity) show that some black-smoker vent fields such as the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge have vented fluids with

Fabrice J. Fontaine; William S. D. Wilcock

2006-01-01

29

Smoker's melanosis. Report of a case.  

PubMed

Melanin pigmentation of the oral cavity among tobacco smokers, "smoker's melanosis", was first described by Hedin in 1977. Studies performed on dark skinned ethnic groups found that although nearly all non-tobacco users had oral melanin pigmentation; tobacco smokers had significantly more oral surfaces pigmented than non-tobacco users. We present a case of oral smokers melanosis involving the tongue of a 37-year-old black female. PMID:9375506

Ramer, M; Burakoff, R P

1997-10-01

30

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project: (IV) Estimates of Pressure and Temperature of Black Smoker Fluid Source Regions Based on Fluid-Mineral Equilibria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One goal of Iceland Deep Drilling is to determine whether we can find a reservoir of geothermal fluid in basalt at temperatures substantially exceeding 400°C---the approximate high end of mid- ocean ridge black smoker vent temperatures. Using a newly developed thermodynamic data base for computer program SOLVEQ, we can compute fluid properties at temperatures (T) up to at least 550°C and pressures (P) greater than 3 kb, making it feasible to use the chemical analysis of a black smoker fluid to estimate the P and T simultaneously for equilibration of the fluid with alteration minerals in its host formation. We used published analyses to compute the properties of smoker fluids from the MARK-1 vent on the Mid- Atlantic Ridge, and from the East Pacific Rise vents at 11°N-4, 21°N OBS, and 21°N NGS. For MARK-1, where vent T=350°C and P=370 bar, we estimate a source fluid equilibration temperature, T(e), of 380-400°C at pressure, P(e), of 500 bar. Corresponding T and P findings for the other vents are as follows: 11°N-4 EPR (vent T=347°C, P=260 bar), T(e)=430-460°C and P(e)=600 bar; 21°N OBS (vent T=350°C, P=260 bar), T(e)=385-410°C and P(e)=490 bar; 21°N NGS (vent T=273°C, P=260 bar), T(e)=370-420°C and P(e)=540 bar. These estimates are minima, because aqueous silica and other elements in silicate minerals may have precipitated at the vents or during ascent of spring waters to the sea floor. One precipitate is anhydrite that forms in smoker chimneys where local seawater mixes with the deep fluids, depleting aqueous Ca from the source fluid, thereby affecting our estimate of T(e) for Ca minerals. Among the computed properties is the pH of the deep fluids, which is necessary to compute feldspar equilibria, among other silicates, enabling a determination that albite is undersaturated in all of the deep fluids but one. This result is consistent with the acidic pH that prevails in seawater-derived fluids reacted with basalt at high water/rock ratio, which precludes albite in the alteration assemblage along the fluid pathway, although albite is likely to occur away from permeable zones, as observed in ophiolites. The pressure estimates rely especially on the solubilities of quartz, feldspars and micas, for which there is a strong pressure effect in the T-P range relevant to smoker fluids, as also argued for quartz by VonDamm, et al. (1985) in their application of quartz solubility to estimate smoker fluid equilibration pressures, and thereby, depth of fluid penetration. Our estimated equilibration pressures are 130 bars to more than 300 bars greater than vent pressures, indicating fluid circulation to depths of 1 to 3 km beneath the sea floor. Estimated fluid equilibration temperatures, T(e), exceed vent temperatures by 30° to 100°C. The maximum T(e) we estimate is 460°C, suggesting that the Iceland Deep Drillhole has a reasonable chance of finding large quantities of fluid at temperatures substantially exceeding 400°C.

Reed, M. H.; Palandri, J. L.; Elders, W.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2006-12-01

31

High-resolution three-dimensional simulations of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution numerical simulations give clear insights into the three-dimensional structure of thermal convection associated with black-smoker hydrothermal systems. We present a series of simulations that show that, at heat fluxes expected at mid-ocean ridge spreading axes, upflow is focused in circular, pipe-like regions, with the bulk of the recharge taking place in the near-axial region. Recharging fluids have relatively warm

D. Coumou; T. Driesner; S. Geiger; A. Paluszny; C. A. Heinrich

2009-01-01

32

Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Fluxes and the Chemical Composition of the Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical estimates of mid-ocean ridge axial heat fluxes (2 to 4 times 10 and of the total hydrothermal flux 9 pm 2 times 10 are well established. Problems arise in calculation of water fluxes because of uncertainties in (a) values of off-axis fluxes and (b) the partition of axial heat flow between high-temperature black smoker and lower-temperature diffuse flow. Of

H. Elderfield; A. Schultz

1996-01-01

33

Volcanic and Hydrothermal Activity of the North Su Volcano: New Insights from Repeated Bathymetric Surveys and ROV Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bathymetric data from cruises in 2002, 2006, and 2011 were combined and compared to determine the evolution of volcanic activity, seafloor structures, erosional features and to identify and document the distribution of hydrothermal vents on North Su volcano, SuSu Knolls, eastern Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea). Geologic mapping based on ROV observations from 2006 (WHOI Jason-2) and 2011 (MARUM Quest-4000) combined with repeated bathymetric surveys from 2002 and 2011 are used to identify morphologic features on the slopes of North Su and to track temporal changes. ROV MARUM Quest-4000 bathymetry was used to develop a 10 m grid of the top of North Su to precisely depict recent changes. In 2006, the south slope of North Su was steeply sloped and featured numerous white smoker vents discharging acid sulfate waters. These vents were covered by several tens of meters of sand- to gravel-sized volcanic material in 2011. The growth of this new cone changed the bathymetry of the south flank of North Su up to ~50 m and emplaced ~0.014 km3 of clastic volcanic material. This material is primarily comprised of fractured altered dacite and massive fresh dacite as well as crystals of opx, cpx, olivine and plagioclase. There is no evidence for pyroclastic fragmentation, so we hypothesize that the fragmentation is likely related to hydrothermal explosions. Hydrothermal activity varies over a short (~50 m) lateral distance from 'flashing' black smokers to acidic white smoker vents. Within 2 weeks of observation time in 2011, the white smoker vents varied markedly in activity suggesting a highly episodic hydrothermal system. Based on ROV video recordings, we identified steeply sloping (up to 30°) slopes exposing pillars and walls of hydrothermal cemented volcaniclastic material representing former fluid upflow zones. These features show that hydrothermal activity has increased slope stability as hydrothermal cementation has prevented slope collapse. Additionally, in some places, hydrothermal crusts cover loose volcaniclastic material on the steep slopes and stabilize them.

Thal, J.; Bach, W.; Tivey, M.; Yoerger, D.

2013-12-01

34

Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such determinations rely on studies of pieces of deep oceanic crust uplifted by tectonic forces such as along the Southwest Indian Ridge, or more complete sections of oceanic crust called ophiolite sequences which are presently exposed on continents owing to tectonic emplacement. Much of what is thought to happen in submarine hydrothermal systems is inferred from studies of ophiolite sequences, and especially from the better-exposed ophiolites in Oman, Cyprus and North America. The focus of much that follows is on a few general features: pressure, temperature, oxidation states, fluid composition and mineral alteration, because these features will control whether organic synthesis can occur in hydrothermal systems.

Shock, Everett L.

1992-01-01

35

Methanotorris formicicus sp. nov., a novel extremely thermophilic, methane-producing archaeon isolated from a black smoker chimney in the Central Indian Ridge.  

PubMed

A novel extremely thermophilic, methane-producing archaeon was isolated from a black smoker chimney at the Kairei field in the Central Indian Ridge. Cells of this isolate were irregular cocci with several flagella; motility was not observed. Growth was observed between 55 and 83 degrees C (optimum of 75 degrees C; 30 min doubling time) and between pH 6.0 and 8.5 (optimum of pH 6.7). The isolate was a strictly anaerobic, methanogenic autotroph capable of using hydrogen and carbon dioxide as sole energy and carbon sources. Formate was utilized as an alternative energy source. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 33.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate was most closely related to Methanotorris igneus strain Kol 5T. The isolate, however, could be genetically differentiated from this species by DNA-DNA hybridization analysis and on the basis of its physiological properties. The name Methanotorris formicicus sp. nov. is proposed for this isolate; the type strain is Mc-S-70T (=JCM 11930T=ATCC BAA-687T). PMID:15280275

Takai, Ken; Nealson, Ken H; Horikoshi, Koki

2004-07-01

36

Serpentinization and hydrothermal activity: new insights from Fe isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal activity along the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge is evidenced by high temperature hydrothermal systems, whose fluids release high metals concentrations. In addition, some of these black smoker systems (e.g., Rainbow, Logatchev) vent high concentrations in hydrogen and methane, whose formation is related to serpentinization of mantle peridotites that form, together with gabbroic rocks, the substratum of these hydrothermal systems. Serpentinization of mantle peridotites is a process leading to replacement and oxidation of primary ferromagnesian minerals, i.e. olivine and pyroxene, to serpentine ± brucite and magnetite. This hydration and redox process is known to play a significant role in chemical fluxes of some elements (e.g., S, B) at ridges and in subduction zones, but little is know on its role in iron speciation, iron isotope composition and chemical fluxes in black smoker hydrothermal systems. We present here the first measurements of Fe-isotope compositions for a set of variably serpentinized oceanic peridotites from four sites along Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Rainbow (30°N), Logatchev (15°N), and Ashadze (13°N), which host active high temperature hydrothermal systems, and the MARK area (23°N). These sites were chosen because they cover a wide range of serpentinization and oxidation degrees. Serpentinized peridotites show a narrow range of Fe-isotope compositions (?56Fe from -0.170 to +0.138%) falling within the range of values reported for bulk mantle peridotites. This indicates that bulk Fe-isotope composition is only slightly modified during serpentinization. However, our samples show a rough negative correlation between ?56Fe values and oxidation degree, suggesting that progressive serpentinization reactions do not produce an enrichment in heavy Fe isotopes, contrasting with expectation. A more complex multiple-stage process is needed to explain this relation.

Delacour, A.; Busigny, V.; Cannat, M.; Andreani, M.; Mevel, C.

2011-12-01

37

Calcium Isotope Fractionation in Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present measurements of stable Ca isotopes (?44/40Ca) from hydrothermal fluids (Long Valley, California) and epidote from fossil hydrothermal systems (Troodos and Betts Cove ophiolites). Hydrothermal fluids in Long Valley show a progressive increase in the heavy isotopes of Ca (?44/40Ca +0.56‰ relative to the initial thermal fluid) with decreasing temperature, Ca concentration, Ca/Sr and CO2 concentration. The increase in the ?44/40Ca along the hydrothermal fluid flow path is potentially consistent with the precipitation of hydrothermal calcite (which would be isotopically lighter) or mixing between the thermal fluid and meteoric water. We favor the former explanation because non-linear relationships between CO2 concentrations and noble gasses suggest that decreasing CO2 concentrations are primarily due to reservoir degassing, which would likely drive calcite precipitation (e.g. Arnorsson cont. min. pet, 1978). Epidote mineral separates from the Betts Cove (Newfoundland, early Ordovician) and Troodos (Cyprus, Cretaceous) ophiolites are isotopically light relative to bulk silicate earth (?44/40Ca ranges from -0.7 to 0.0‰). The epidote ?44/40Ca is not correlated with calculated fluid temperatures or 87Sr/86Sr measured in the epidote but is negatively correlated with the epidote Sr/Ca. Black smoker fluids, which are thought to be related to epidote formation in ophiolites, have ?44/40Ca of about 0-0.2‰, meaning that epidote Ca is consistently lighter than the inferred fluids from which they precipitate (Amini et al, GCA, 2008). To explain the complimentary Long Valley hydrothermal fluid and fossil epidote data there must be a mechanism for fractionating Ca isotopes at hydrothermal temperatures. Equilibrium fractionation of Ca isotopes should be close to 0‰ at high temperatures (100-400°C), implying that any Ca isotopic fractionation between fluid and hydrothermal minerals is likely a kinetic effect. Experimental data suggest that, for example, epidote equilibrium dissolution rates are about 0.3um/y (Wood and Walther, Science, 1983) while observations of epidote growth rates in geothermal systems are 73 um/y (Browne et al, Am Min, 1989). DePaolo (2009 Goldschmidt abstract) calculated that kinetic isotope fractionation between fluids and minerals should occur if net precipitation rates are greater than the equilibrium dissolution rate. If the estimates for dissolution and net precipitation rates for epidote are representative of most hydrothermal systems then epidote Ca should commonly have ?44/40Ca lighter than the associated fluid. Ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids should be slightly enriched in the heavy isotopes of Ca compared to oceanic crust as recently observed (Amini et al, GCA, 2008).

Brown, S. T.; Depaolo, D. J.; Turchyn, A. V.; Kennedy, B. M.; Alt, J.; Bedard, J. H.; Skulski, T.

2009-12-01

38

Hyperthermophilic life at deep-sea hydrothermal vents.  

PubMed

The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 considerably modified the views on deep-sea biology. For the first time, an ecosystem totally based on primary production achieved by chemosynthetic bacteria was discovered. Besides the warm vents where dense invertebrate communities and their symbiotic bacteria are located, the "black smokers" venting fluids at temperatures up to 350 degrees C were also investigated by microbiologists. Several strains of hyperthermophilic Archaea (methanogens, sulfate-reducers, sulfur-reducers) were isolated from smokers and surrounding materials. Deep-sea isolates that have been totally described, have been assigned to new species, within genera previously found in coastal geothermally heated environments. However, some species appear to exist in both deep and shallow ecosystems. Some deep-sea hyperthermophiles appear to be adapted to hydrostatic pressure and showed a barophilic response. The distribution of hyperthermophiles in the hot ecosystems of the planet, and their adaptation to pressure are presented and discussed. PMID:11538423

Prieur, D; Erauso, G; Jeanthon, C

1995-01-01

39

Role of tectonic and volcanic activity in hydrothermal systems at the southern Mariana Trough: detailed bathymetric characteristics of the hydrothermal sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the detailed bathymetric characterization of field-scale geological features associated with hydrothermal systems in the southern Mariana Trough near 12°57'N, 143°37'E, using near-bottom swath mapping data collected by the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) Urashima during cruise YK09-08 and dive observation data acquired by the submersible Shinkai6500 during cruise YK10-11. In the study area, two of the hydrothermal sites are located on the active backarc spreading axis (the Snail and Yamanaka sites), one is located at the eastern foot of the axial high (the Archean site), and two are located on an off-axis knoll about 5 km from the spreading axis (the Pika and Urashima sites). We examined 1) the nature of' tectonic and volcanic controls on the hydrothermal systems, and 2) the relationship between geomorphological characteristics and hydrothermal activity based on the survey results (Yoshikawa et al., 2012). The two on-axis hydrothermal sites are possibly locally developed on a 4th order spreading segment, in association with diking events (on the basis of comparisons with previously studied cases on the East Pacific Rise). The three off-axis sites (the Archean, Urashima, and Pika sites) appear to represent locations of sustained hydrothermal activity that has created relatively large-scale hydrothermal features compared with those in the on-axis area. The formation of off-axis hydrothermal sites is likely to be closely related to an off-axis magma upwelling system, as evidenced by the absence of fault systems and the undeformed morphology of the mound and knoll. The three off-axis hydrothermal sites are composed mainly of breccia assemblages that probably originated from hydrothermal activity with black smoker venting. These areas are characterized by numerous ridge lines (height, mainly 1-6 m), conical mounds (height: < 100 m, diameter: < 300 m), and bumpy seabed. Most of the ridge lines have formed as a result of collapse of the seafloor. The fragmental materials, steep slopes (generally 22°-37°), and perhaps hydrothermal alteration of the seafloor are prerequisite for the collapse. In contrast, the on-axis sites are characterized by the absence of ridge lines, and the presence of white smoker and shimmering observed on dome-shaped pillow mounds with smooth surfaces (height, 5-30 m; diameter, 250-320 m). Furthermore, in the off-axis area with no hydrothermal activity, the mounds and the knoll have relatively smooth surfaces. Hence, the distribution of ridge lines, mound morphology, and bumpy seabed is likely to correlate with hydrothermal activity.

Yoshikawa, S.; Okino, K.; Asada, M.; Nogi, Y.; Mochizuki, N.; Nakamura, K.

2012-12-01

40

Drilling the Snake Pit hydrothermal sulfide deposit on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, lat 23/sup 0/22'N  

SciTech Connect

A major high-temperature hydrothermal area has been discovered in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley about 25 km south of the Kane Fracture Zone. The vent field consists of a wide area (> 40,000 m/sup 2/) of dark hydrothermal deposits, numerous sulfide chimneys and mounds, some up to 11 m high, and high-temperature black-smoker vents. Ten shallow holes, the first ever drilled in an active submarine hydrothermal area, recovered friable, unconsolidated Fe, Cu-Fe, and Zn sulfides and several large fragments of massive sulfide (mainly chalcopyrite) from the locally thick (> 13 m) hydrothermal deposits. The vents are also associated with an unusual biological community of smaller, more mobile organisms than reported from the East Pacific Rise.

Detrick, R.S.; Honnorez, J.; Adamson, A.C.; Brass, G.; Gillis, K.M.; Humphris, S.E.; Mevel, C.; Meyer, P.; Petersen, N.; Rautenschlein, M.; Shibata, T.; Staudigel, H.; Yamamoto, K.

1986-12-01

41

Hyperactive hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau basin revealed by ROV dives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dives with the QUEST 4000 ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) in September 2012 discovered nine hydrothermal sites in the arc and rear-arc region of the NE Lau Basin in 1150 m to 2630 m depth. These sites, originally detected by water column and seafloor surveys conducted in 2008-2011, include: (1) a paired sulfur-rich/black smoker field on the summit of a tectonically deformed magmatic arc volcano (Niua), (2) fracture-controlled black smoker venting on several small en echelon seamounts (north Matas) that lie between the magmatic arc and the backarc spreading center and (3) a magmatic degassing site on the summit of a dacite cone within a large (~12 km diameter) caldera volcano (Niuatahi). Dives at West Mata Seamount, which was undergoing strombolian volcanic activity and effusive rift-zone eruptions from 2008 to 2010, revealed a dormant volcanic phase in September 2012, with continued low-temperature diffuse venting. The high-temperature venting is likely driven by magmatic heat indicative of underlying partial melt zones and/or melt pockets distributed through the region. The occurrence of the youngest known boninite eruptions on the Mata volcanoes is consistent with subduction fluid flux melting extending into the rear-arc zone. Extension related to the transition from subduction to strike-slip motion of the northern Tonga Arc over the active Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault probably contributes to the enhanced volcanism/hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau Basin. Chemosynthetic ecosystems at these sites range from mostly motile, lower diversity ecosystems at the eruptive/magmatically-degassing sites to higher diversity ecosystems with less mobile faunal components at the black-smoker systems. The wide range of fluid chemistry, water depth and geologic settings of the hydrothermal systems in this area provides an intriguing template to study the interaction of hydrothermal fluid chemistry, chemosynthetic habitats and their geologic underpinning within an arc/backarc setting.

Embley, R. W.; Resing, J. A.; Tebo, B.; Baker, E. T.; Butterfield, D. A.; Chadwick, B.; Davis, R.; de Ronde, C. E.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Merle, S. G.; Rubin, K. H.; Shank, T. M.; Walker, S. L.; Arculus, R. J.; Bobbitt, A. M.; Buck, N.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Crowhurst, P. V.; Mitchell, E.; Olson, E. J.; Ratmeyer, V.; Richards, S.; Roe, K. K.; Keener, P.; Martinez Lyons, A.; Sheehan, C.; Brian, R.

2013-12-01

42

Hydrothermal activity in the Lau back-arc basin:Sulfides and water chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The submersible Nautile completed 22 dives during the Nautilau cruise (R/V Nadir, April 17-May 10, 1989) for a detailed investigation of the southern Lau basin near Tonga. The objective of the scientific team from France, Germany, and Tonga was to understand the process of sea-floor ore formation associated with hydrothermal circulation along the Valu Fa back-arc ridge behind the Tonga- Kermadec trench. The four diving areas, between lat 21°25?S and 22°40?S in water ˜2000 m deep, were selected on the basis of results from cruises of the R/V JeanCharcot and R/V Sonne. The Nadir cruise provided proof of hydrothermal activity—in all four areas, over more than 100 km—as indicated by the widespread occurrence of hydrothermal deposits and by heat flow, conductivity, and temperature measurements near the sea bottom. The most spectacular findings were high-temperature white and black smokers and associated fauna and ore deposits. Hydrothermal water chemistry and sulfide composition data presented here indicate that this hydrothermal field is very different from the hydrothermal fields in oceanic ridges. This difference is seen in the water chemistry of the hydrothermal fluid (pH = 2 and high metal content) and the chemical composition of sulfides (enrichment in Ba, As, and Pb).

Fouquet, Yves; von Stackelberg, Ulrich; Charlou, Jean Luc; Donval, Jean Pierre; Foucher, Jean Paul; Erzinger, Jorg; Herzig, Peter; Mühe, Richard; Wiedicke, Michael; Soakai, Sione; Whitechurch, Hubert

1991-04-01

43

Light at deep sea hydrothermal vents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We usually think of the bottom of the sea as a dark environment, lit only by flashes of bioluminescent light. Discovery of light associated with geothermal processes at deep sea hydrothermal vents forces us to qualify our textbook descriptions of the seafloor as a uniformly dark environment. While a very dim glow emitted from high temperature (350°) vents (black smokers) at mid-oceanic ridge spreading centers has been documented [Van Dover et al, 1988], the source of this light and its role, if any, in the evolution and adaptation of photobiochemical processes have yet to be determined. Preliminary studies indicate that thermal radiation alone may account for the “glow” ]Smith and Delaney, 1989] and that a novel photoreceptor in shrimp-colonizing black smoker chimneys may detect this “glow” [Van Dover et al., 1989; Pelli and Chamberlain, 1989]. A more controversial question, posed by C. L. Van Dover, J. R. Cann, and J. R. Delaney at the 1993 LITE Workshop at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, is whether there may be sufficient light of appropriate wavelengths to support geothermally driven photosynthesis by microorganisms.

Van Dover, Cindy Lee; Cann, J. R.; Cavanaugh, Colleen; Chamberlain, Steven; Delaney, John R.; Janecky, David; Imhoff, Johannes; Tyson, J. Anthony

44

Psychosocial differences between smokers and non-smokers during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Despite the well-established adverse birth and childhood health outcomes associated with maternal smoking, smoking rates among pregnant women remain high. Psychosocial health attributes, including anxiety, depression, perceived stress, self-efficacy, and personality characteristics, have especially important roles in smoking behavior. Understanding who smokes during pregnancy and what factors influence this behavior choice may be key to improving the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention programs. We use data from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women to understand the psychosocial health profiles of women who choose to smoke during pregnancy compared to the profiles of women who do not smoke or successfully quit smoking during pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression analyses on 1518 non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white women assessed the association between smoking status and psychosocial health while controlling for demographic characteristics. Higher levels of perceived stress, depression, neuroticism, negative paternal support, and perceived racism among non-Hispanic blacks were associated with higher odds of being a smoker than a non-smoker (p<0.05). Higher levels of self-efficacy, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, interpersonal support, positive paternal support, and perceived social standing were associated with lower odds of being a smoker than a non-smoker (p<0.05). Our analysis indicates that women who smoked during pregnancy experienced a more negative constellation of psychosocial adversities than women who did not smoke. Given the psychosocial needs and personality profiles experienced by smokers, more attention to the psychosocial strengths and weaknesses of these women may allow for more tailored smoking cessation programs, enhancing both the short- and long-term effectiveness of such interventions. PMID:22000409

Maxson, Pamela J; Edwards, Sharon E; Ingram, Amber; Miranda, Marie Lynn

2012-02-01

45

Geology and hydrothermal evolution of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed characterization of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, the most southern and spatially extensive field on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, provides new insights into its geologic and hydrothermal development. Meter-scale bathymetry, side-scan sonar imagery, and direct dive observations show that Mothra is composed of six actively venting sulfide clusters spaced 40-200 m apart. Chimneys within each cluster have similar morphology and venting characteristics, and all clusters host a combination of active and extinct sulfide structures. Black smoker chimneys venting fluids above 300°C are rare, while more common lower-temperature, diffusely venting chimneys support dense colonies of macrofauna and bacterial mat. Hydrothermal sediment and extinct sulfide debris cover 10-15 m of the seafloor surrounding each vent cluster, obscuring the underlying basaltic substrate of light to moderately sedimented pillow, lobate, sheet, and chaotic flows, basalt talus, and collapse terrain. Extinct sulfide chimneys and debris between the clusters indicate that hydrothermal flow was once more widespread and that it has shifted spatially over time. The most prominent structural features in the axial valley at Mothra are regional (020°) trending faults and fissures and north-south trending collapse basins. The location of actively venting clusters within the field is controlled by (1) localization of fluid upflow along the western boundary fault zone, and diversion of these fluids by antithetic faults to feed vent clusters near the western valley wall, and (2) tapping of residual magmatic heat in the central part of the axial valley, which drives flow beneath vent clusters directly adjacent to the collapse basins 70-90 m east of the western valley wall. These processes form the basis for a model of axial valley and hydrothermal system development at Mothra, in which the field is initiated by an eruptive-diking episode and sustained through intense microseismicity and non-eruptive diking events.

Glickson, Deborah A.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Delaney, John R.

2007-06-01

46

The formation, oxidation and distribution of pyrite nanoparticles emitted from hydrothermal vents: A laboratory and field based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research identified the presence of nanoparticulate pyrite in hydrothermal vent black smoker emissions, and suggested that these nanoparticles may be a transport pathway for iron from hydrothermal vents to the larger ocean basin. Here, nanoparticulate pyrite was synthesized via a hydrothermal method and oxidized in air- saturated seawater, in order to explore how hydrothermally emitted pyrite forms, and may behave in oxic seawater. Additionally, hydrothermal emissions from the Mid- Atlantic Ridge were investigated for iron and sulfide speciation and reactions relating to pyrite formation. Pyrite was synthesized via both the Fe(II) + S(0) and the FeS + H 2S pathways of pyrite formation, and factors including surfactant and synthesis time were varied in order to modify morphology. The FeS + H 2S formation pathway, which is likely the pathway of pyrite formation occurring at hydrothermal sites, reproduces the pyrite nano and sub- micron particles found in black smoker emissions most closely. The oxidation of these pyrite particles results in an initial oxidation rate that is first order with respect to both the pyrite and oxygen concentration in seawater. This work is unique to previous studies on pyrite oxidation in that it uses synthesized, rather than ground and sieved pyrite, and uses seawater as the medium of oxidation. Along with the rate data, this study also demonstrates that the initial oxide formed from pyrite oxidation under these conditions is poorly crystalline and contains Fe(II) and Fe(III). Pyrite nanoparticles were identified at each of the three sites investigated at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Rainbow, TAG and Snakepit), and their presence at these sites, when combined with previous data from Lau Basin and EPR 9 °N demonstrates that they are likely to be a ubiquitous component of black- smoker hydrothermal emissions. The Rainbow site exhibited the highest concentration of nanoparticulate pyrite measured anywhere to date (1.15 mM). The potential rates of pyrite formation during hydrothermal buoyant plume rise are investigated, as are the rates of formation for different iron- containing particulates including FeS, silicate formation, and Fe(II) oxidation.

Gartman, Amy

47

Hydrothermal Vent Systems Could Have Persisted for Millions of Years, Incubated Early Life  

NSF Publications Database

... compounds compared to black-smoker systems. "Smoking" gives more widely known black-smoker vent ... at Lost City is hot enough to shimmer but not "smoke." Last spring, NSF funded the first major ...

48

Interactions Between Serpentinization, Hydrothermal Activity and Microbial Community at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seafloor investigations of slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges have reported many occurrences of exposed mantle peridotites and gabbroic rocks on the ocean floor. Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, these uplifted portions of oceanic crust host high-temperature black smoker-type hydrothermal systems (e.g., Rainbow, Logatchev, Saldanha), and the more distinct low-temperature Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF). Built on a southern terrace of the Atlantis Massif, the LCHF is composed of carbonate-brucite chimneys that vent alkaline and low-temperature (40-90°C) hydrothermal fluids. These fluids are related to serpentinization of mantle peridotites, which together with minor gabbroic intrusions form the basement of the LCHF. Long-lived hydrothermal activity at Lost City led to extensive seawater-rock interaction in the basement rocks, as indicated by seawater-like Sr- and mantle to unradiogenic Nd-isotope compositions of the serpentinites. These high fluid fluxes in the southern part of the massif influenced the conditions of serpentinization and have obliterated the early chemical signatures in the serpentinites, especially those of carbon and sulfur. Compared to reducing conditions commonly formed during the first stages of serpentinization, serpentinization at Lost City is characterized by relatively oxidizing conditions resulting in a predominance of magnetite, the mobilization/dissolution and oxidation of igneous sulfides to secondary pyrite, and the incorporation of seawater sulfate, all leading to high bulk-rock S-isotope compositions. The Lost City hydrothermal fluids contain high concentrations in methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons considered as being produced abiotically. In contrast, organic compounds in the serpentinites are dominated by the occurrences of isoprenoids (pristane, phytane, and squalane), polycyclic compounds (hopanes and steranes), and higher abundances of C16 to C20 n-alkanes indicative of a marine organic input. We propose that the high seawater fluxes in the basement rocks favour the transport of marine organic carbon in the serpentinites and overprint any earlier abiotic signature. Serpentinites forming the basement of active hydrothermal chimneys have carbon and sulfur signatures, i.e. negative S-isotope compositions and high content of squalane biomarker, reflecting the influence of microbial activity in the subseafloor. Our geochemical study of the basement rocks, based on multiple isotopic systems, reveals the close relationships and reciprocal interactions between serpentinization, hydrothermal activity, and microbial community at Lost City. In addition, it sheds new light on the consequences of long-lived peridotite-hosted hydrothermal system on the chemical compositions of the oceanic lithosphere and global geochemical cycles.

Delacour, A.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Schaeffer, P.; Frank, M.; Gutjahr, M.; Kelley, D. S.

2008-12-01

49

Comparison of Smoking Habits of Blacks and Whites in a Case-Control Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjects were interviewed to determine smoking habits of 9,252 current cigarette smokers (11 percent black) and 7,555 former smokers (6 percent black). More blacks than whites smoked. Blacks were three times more likely to be light smokers than heavy smokers. Effective prevention may require better understanding of cultural factors affecting…

Kabat, Geoffrey C.; And Others

1991-01-01

50

Discovery and Distribution of Black Smokers on the Western Galapagos Spreading Center: Implications for Spatial and Temporal Controls on High Temperature Venting at Ridge\\/Hotspot Intersections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though nearly one-fifth of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) lies on or near hotspots, it has been debated whether hotspots increase or decrease MOR hydrothermal flux, or affect vent biota. Despite hotspot enhancement of melt supply, high-temperature vent plumes are enigmatically sparse along two previously-surveyed ridge- hotspot intersections [Reykjanes Ridge (RR), Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR)]. This has been attributed to crustal

R. M. Haymon; P. G. Anderson; E. T. Baker; J. A. Resing; S. M. White; K. C. MacDonald

2006-01-01

51

Rare earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal deposits from the active TAG Mound, 26{degrees}N mid-Atlantic ridge  

SciTech Connect

The rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of various phases from the active TAG hydrothermal mound has been examined and related to their mineralogy and fluid chemistry. The mound deposits range from black and white smoker chimneys, massive anhydrite/sulphide mixtures, oxides, and ochres. All phases, except black smoker chimney anhydrite, demonstrate a positive Eu anomaly when normalised to chondrite REE values. REE substitution into sulphide and sulphate phases appears to be strongly influenced by crystallographic control for all REE other than Eu. Precipitation of anhydrite within the TAG mound is the major mechanism for removal of REE during mound circulation and 0.15-0.35 g anhydrite is inferred to precipitate from every kg of fluid venting from the white smoker chimneys. Oxides from the mound fall into three different categories with distinct REE patterns: oxide rims on sulphides, atacamite-bearing oxides, and silica-rich Fe-oxides and ochres. The oxide rim phases contain sulphide and seawater derived REEs whereas the atacamite-bearing oxides and the ochreous material exhibit no seawater signature which suggests precipitation from, or alteration by, a modified hydrothermal fluid.

Mills, R.A. [Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom); Elderfield, H. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

1995-09-01

52

An off-axis hydrothermal vent field near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 30° N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence is growing that hydrothermal venting occurs not only along mid-ocean ridges but also on old regions of the oceanic crust away from spreading centres. Here we report the discovery of an extensive hydrothermal field at 30°N near the eastern intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Atlantis fracture zone. The vent field-named `Lost City'-is distinctly different from all other known sea-floor hydrothermal fields in that it is located on 1.5-Myr-old crust, nearly 15km from the spreading axis, and may be driven by the heat of exothermic serpentinization reactions between sea water and mantle rocks. It is located on a dome-like massif and is dominated by steep-sided carbonate chimneys, rather than the sulphide structures typical of `black smoker' hydrothermal fields. We found that vent fluids are relatively cool (40-75°C) and alkaline (pH 9.0-9.8), supporting dense microbial communities that include anaerobic thermophiles. Because the geological characteristics of the Atlantis massif are similar to numerous areas of old crust along the Mid-Atlantic, Indian and Arctic ridges, these results indicate that a much larger portion of the oceanic crust may support hydrothermal activity and microbial life than previously thought.

Kelley, Deborah S.; Karson, Jeffrey A.; Blackman, Donna K.; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Butterfield, David A.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Olson, Eric J.; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Roe, Kevin K.; Lebon, Geoff T.; Rivizzigno, Pete; AT3-60 Shipboard Party, a2

2001-07-01

53

Metalliferous sediments adjacent to hydrothermal fields: Distribution and geochemistry  

SciTech Connect

The study of metalliferous sediments located at small distances from their sources (10-15 km), such as modern or ancient hydrothermal fields, indicate essential differences in geochemistry compared with metalliferous sediments that occur at greater distances from geothermal fields. Thus, within areas of well-known metalliferous sediment, such as the TAG hydrothermal field, Galapagos Ridge, northern East Pacific Rise (near 13{degree}N), and triple junction zone in the Indian Ocean, are areas of sediment showing the following compositional features: (1) anomalously high concentrations of metals building up sulfide edifices in the central parts of hydrothermal fields (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb); (2) high noble metal concentrations; (3) rare-earth element patterns characterized by a europium anomaly (Eu/Eu* >1) and with no negative cerium anomaly (Ce/Ce* {>=}1), the latter being a peculiar feature of rare-earth composition of normal metalliferous sediments. The first two features may not always be distinguished based on examination of the bulk rock. Metalliferous sediments of this type are commonly restricted to exposed igneous rocks that supply lithogenic material (volcanic glass, clastic basalt) to the sediments during subsea weathering. Most elemental concentrations (including nonferrous and noble metals) are diluted by this lithogenic material. The diluting effect can be eliminated by recalculation on a detrital-free basis using the concentration of titanium, the element enriched in the detrital component and depleted in hydrothermal sedimentary component. The geochemical anomalies are caused by genetic features, namely that the metals are derived from the oxidation of sulfide minerals either previously building up the hydrothermal body (and transported by bottom currents after oxidation) or incorporated into black smokers (suspension in fluids).

Cherkashev, G.A. (VNIIOkeangeologia, Leningrad (USSR))

1990-06-01

54

A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem: the Lost City hydrothermal field.  

PubMed

The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from <40 degrees to 90 degrees C at pH 9 to 11, and carbonate chimneys 30 to 60 meters tall. A low diversity of microorganisms related to methane-cycling Archaea thrive in the warm porous interiors of the edifices. Macrofaunal communities show a degree of species diversity at least as high as that of black smoker vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but they lack the high biomasses of chemosynthetic organisms that are typical of volcanically driven systems. PMID:15746419

Kelley, Deborah S; Karson, Jeffrey A; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Yoerger, Dana R; Shank, Timothy M; Butterfield, David A; Hayes, John M; Schrenk, Matthew O; Olson, Eric J; Proskurowski, Giora; Jakuba, Mike; Bradley, Al; Larson, Ben; Ludwig, Kristin; Glickson, Deborah; Buckman, Kate; Bradley, Alexander S; Brazelton, William J; Roe, Kevin; Elend, Mitch J; Delacour, Adélie; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Lilley, Marvin D; Baross, John A; Summons, Roger E; Sylva, Sean P

2005-03-01

55

Hydrothermal systems: A decade of discovery in slow spreading environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although much of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is unexplored, investigations this past decade show that it hosts a rich diversity of hydrothermal systems with fluid chemistries and biogeographic heterogeneity that span much greater compositional ranges than those within intermediate and fast spreading mid-ocean ridge systems. Extreme attenuation of the crust and formation of detachment faults are now known to be key to this diversity, resulting in three classes of hydrothermal systems. Type 1 systems host high-temperature, black smokers driven by heat extracted from cooling magma and/or proximal gabbroic crust. Acidic vent fluids are enriched in magmatically derived carbon dioxide, with variable concentrations of methane, hydrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. Type II fields host black smokers driven by cooling of variable mixtures of gabbroic and ultramafic material. Fluids are enriched in carbon dioxide, reflecting the magmatic-gabbroic influence, but they also contain elevated concentrations of methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons: hallmarks of serpentinization reactions. Type III systems are low-temperature, peridotite-hosted environments where fluid circulation is driven predominantly by cooling of mantle material. Carbon dioxide is absent, but fluids are enriched in methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons of abiogenic origin. There are now more than 225 endemic species inhabiting slow spreading ridges with full species diversity ranging from ˜30 to >100 species within a given site. The fundamental drivers of vent faunal community structure are considered to be a function of geologic setting, composition, and variability of the resulting vent fluid chemistry, differences in depth, life history strategies of individual species, and the great geographic distance typically separating vent sites on slow spreading ridges.

Kelley, Deborah S.; Shank, Timothy M.

56

Hydrothermal Activity on the Mid-Cayman Rise: ROV Jason sampling and site characterization at the Von Damm and Piccard hydrothermal fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In January 2012 our multi-national and multi-disciplinary team conducted a series of 10 ROV Jason dives to conduct first detailed and systematic sampling of the Mid Cayman Rise hydrothermal systems at the Von Damm and Piccard hydrothermal fields. At Von Damm, hydrothermal venting is focused at and around a large conical structure that is approximately 120 m in diameter and rises at least 80m from the surrounding, largely sedimented seafloor. Clear fluids emitted from multiple sites around the flanks of the mound fall in the temperature range 110-130°C and fall on a common mixing line with hotter (>200°C) clear fluids emitted from an 8m tall spire at the summit which show clear evidence of ultramafic influence. Outcrop close to the vent-site is rare and the cone itself appear to consist of clay minerals derived from highly altered host rock. The dominant fauna at the summit of Von Damm are a new species of chemosynthetic shrimp but elsewhere the site also hosts two distinct species of chemosynthetic tube worm as well as at least one species of gastropod. The adjacent Piccard site, at ~5000m depth comprises 7 distinct sulfide mounds, 3 of which are currently active: Beebe Vents, Beebe Woods and Beebe Sea. Beebe Vents consists of 5 vigorous black smoker chimneys with maximum temperatures in the range 400-403°C while at Beebe Woods a more highly colonized thicket of up to 8m tall chimneys includes predominantly beehive diffusers with rare black smokers emitting fluids up to 353°C. Beebe Sea a diffuse site emitting fluids at 38°C Tmax, is the largest of the currently active mounds and immediately abuts a tall (8m) rift that strikes NE-SW bisecting the host Axial Volcanic Ridge. The fauna at Piccard are less diverse than at Von Damm and, predominantly, comprise the same species of MCR shrimp, a distinct gastropod species and abundant anemones.

German, C. R.

2012-12-01

57

COPD in Never Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background: Never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of patients with COPD. Their characteristics and possible risk factors in this population are not yet well defined. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 countries that participated in the international, population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study. Participants were aged ? 40 years and completed postbronchodilator spirometry testing plus questionnaires about respiratory symptoms, health status, and exposure to COPD risk factors. A diagnosis of COPD was based on the postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio, according to current GOLD (Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease) guidelines. In addition to this, the lower limit of normal (LLN) was evaluated as an alternative threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Results: Among 4,291 never smokers, 6.6% met criteria for mild (GOLD stage I) COPD, and 5.6% met criteria for moderate to very severe (GOLD stage II+) COPD. Although never smokers were less likely to have COPD and had less severe COPD than ever smokers, never smokers nonetheless comprised 23.3% (240/1,031) of those classified with GOLD stage II+ COPD. This proportion was similar, 20.5% (171/832), even when the LLN was used as a threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Predictors of COPD in never smokers include age, education, occupational exposure, childhood respiratory diseases, and BMI alterations. Conclusion: This multicenter international study confirms previous evidence that never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of individuals with COPD. Our data suggest that, in addition to increased age, a prior diagnosis of asthma and, among women, lower education levels are associated with an increased risk for COPD among never smokers. PMID:20884729

McBurnie, Mary Ann; Vollmer, William M.; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Welte, Tobias; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa; Studnicka, Michael; Bateman, Eric; Anto, Josep M.; Burney, Peter; Mannino, David M.; Buist, Sonia A.

2011-01-01

58

Propidium Monoazide-based Method for Identifying Phylogenetic Association of Necromass Near Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black Smoker hydrothermal systems are geologically driven systems located near subduction zones and spreading centers associated with plate margins. The high temperature and low pH of fluids that are often associated with basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems select for unique microbial communities primarily comprised of prokaryotes capable of S and Fe cycling. High temperature fluids, where temperatures exceed 300° C, are likely to have a lethal effect on transient deep water planktonic communities and, over long temporal scales, may influence the molecular composition of pelleted necromass aggregates near the chimney system. We have developed a method for discriminative sequencing permitting intra vs. extracellular 16S rDNA sequencing to reveal community differences between biologically-relevant and necromass-associated DNA. This method has only recently been applied to marine environments and, here, we propose its use as relevant tool for studying the molecular ecology of high temperature hydrothermal systems, as physical drivers of massive transient community die offs and associated detrital 16S rDNA community shifts. Ultimately, we aim to understand the fraction of 16S rDNA communities that do not represent living taxa, or the information-containing fraction of total necromass pool, to better frame ecological hypotheses regarding environmental biogeochemical cycling in hydrothermal system environments.

Ramírez, Gustavo; Edwards, Katrina

2014-05-01

59

The Vilification of Smokers: Students' Perceptions of Current Smokers, Former Smokers, and Nonsmokers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smokers are increasingly stigmatized in our society. Pressures to limit public smoking have mounted, and there is evidence of discrimination against smokers in the workplace. This study examined how current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers were differentially characterized by students drawn from a suburban high school and college. Students…

Baker, Kathleen; Katona, Chris; Brosh, Joanne; Shull, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

60

Comparing homeless smokers to economically disadvantaged domiciled smokers.  

PubMed

We compared characteristics of homeless smokers and economically disadvantaged domiciled smokers (Dallas, TX; August 2011-November 2012). Although findings indicated similar smoking characteristics across samples, homeless smokers (n = 57) were exposed to more smokers and reported lower motivation to quit, lower self-efficacy for quitting, more days with mental health problems, and greater exposure to numerous stressors than domiciled smokers (n = 110). The sample groups reported similar scores on measures of affect, perceived stress, and interpersonal resources. Results may inform novel cessation interventions for homeless smokers. PMID:24148069

Businelle, Michael S; Cuate, Erica L; Kesh, Anshula; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E

2013-12-01

61

Measures of impulsivity in cigarette smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Drug users are thought to be more ”impulsive” than non-users. Objectives: This study examined whether regular smokers are more impulsive than never smokers using personality and behavioral measures\\u000a of impulsivity. Methods: Twenty regular smokers (?15 cigarettes\\/day) and 20 never smokers were recruited. Participants completed five personality\\u000a questionnaires to assess impulsivity: Adjective Checklist, Barratt’s Impulsivity Scale, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire,

Suzanne H. Mitchell

1999-01-01

62

Microbial mediated formation of low-temperature hydrothermal barite chimneys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-temperature (20 degrees C) venting area with numerous active and extinct barite chimneys (up to 1 m tall) are located on the eastern flank of the hydrothermal mound of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the Mohns-Knipovich bend of the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. The active barite chimneys are covered by white mats containing abundant microbial cells and extracellular material with attached barite crystals. Within the chimneys microbial cells are partly embedded in barite and crystals are covered by extracellular material. These observations indicate that the microbial material serve as a substrate for nucleation and precipitation of barite with the potential of having an important control on the construction of the chimneys. In addition, the presence of framboidal pyrite in black interior flow channels and in the underlying hydrothermal sediment further suggests that the chimney formation is linked to microbial sulphate reduction (MSR). To further investigate the relationship between chimney growth and microbial activity we used a combination of biomolecular and isotope analyses. Pyrosequencing of PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA followed by taxonomic classification revealed that sulphide oxidizers (Sulfurimonas) within the Epsilonproteobacteria dominate the microbial mats and the white barite of the chimney wall. In the black interior flow channel a more diverse microbial community was observed indicating methane, sulphur and ammonia oxidation as well as heterotrophic processes. Multiple isotope analyses (?18O, ?34S, ?33S) reveal that the barite chimneys precipitated from a fluid that was modified by subseafloor MSR in the sulphide mound. This is supported by the sulphur isotope signature of the framboidal pyrite, pore water, and mono- and disulphides extracted from the hydrothermal sediment as well as the biomolecular data. We suggest that the MSR was triggered by mixing of the H2 and CH4 rich high-temperature (320 degrees C) fluids and percolating seawater, which resulted in remobilization of hydrothermal barite deposited as debris and plume fall out in the mound. The combined results strongly suggest that the formation of the barite chimneys is a result of complex seafloor and subseafloor geobio-interactions.

Thorseth, I. H.; Steen, I. H.; Eickmann, B.; Dahle, H.; Baumberger, T.; Peters, M.; Strauss, H.; Pedersen, R. B.

2012-12-01

63

Hydrothermal Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly

C. R. German; K. L. von Damm

2003-01-01

64

Smokers need not apply  

Microsoft Academic Search

With ever increasing global competition, companies and businesses are now looking for new ways to cut cost. Companies and businesses have now targeted the health sector as being one of the largest in the company’s operations. The average cost per smoker is approximately $1623 in excess medical expenses and $1760 in lost productivity according to the U.S Centers for Disease

Mishra Jitendra; Bernott Jenna; Boehm Casey; Mishra Bharat

2009-01-01

65

Dispatch from the Deep: Hydrothermal Vent Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This dispatch from the research vessel Atlantis discusses how hydrothermal vents are formed and why scientists monitor minute temperature changes around them. It includes an account of preparing temperature probes to be deployed for a year-long study, an explanation of deep sea vents and their hydrothermal nature and an explanation of why deep sea vents seem to spew black smoke.

66

Discovery of a new hydrothermal vent based on an underwater, high-resolution geophysical survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new hydrothermal vent site in the Southern Mariana Trough has been discovered using acoustic and magnetic surveys conducted by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology's (JAMSTEC) autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), Urashima. The high-resolution magnetic survey, part of a near-bottom geophysical mapping around a previously known hydrothermal vent site, the Pika site, during the YK09-08 cruise in June-July 2009, found that a clear magnetization low extends ˜500 m north from the Pika site. Acoustic signals, suggesting hydrothermal plumes, and 10 m-scale chimney-like topographic highs were detected within this low magnetization zone by a 120 kHz side-scan sonar and a 400 kHz multibeam echo sounder. In order to confirm the seafloor sources of the geophysical signals, seafloor observations were carried out using the deep-sea manned submersible Shinkai 6500 during the YK 10-10 cruise in August 2010. This discovered a new hydrothermal vent site (12°55.30'N, 143°38.89'E; at a depth of 2922 m), which we have named the Urashima site. This hydrothermal vent site covers an area of approximately 300 m×300 m and consists of black and clear smoker chimneys, brownish-colored shimmering chimneys, and inactive chimneys. All of the fluids sampled from the Urashima and Pika sites have chlorinity greater than local ambient seawater, suggesting subseafloor phase separation or leaching from rocks in the hydrothermal reaction zone. End-member compositions of the Urashima and Pika fluids suggest that fluids from two different sources feed the two sites, even though they are located on the same knoll and separated by only ˜500 m. We demonstrate that investigations on hydrothermal vent sites located in close proximity to one another can provide important insights into subseafloor hydrothermal fluid flow, and also that, while such hydrothermal sites are difficult to detect by conventional plume survey methods, high-resolution underwater geophysical surveys provide an effective means.

Nakamura, Kentaro; Toki, Tomohiro; Mochizuki, Nobutatsu; Asada, Miho; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Nogi, Yoshifumi; Yoshikawa, Shuro; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Okino, Kyoko

2013-04-01

67

Real-time observation of dispersed hydrothermal plumes using nephelometry: examples from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the 1984-1985 NOAA VENTS program on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, nephelometry was used to provide real-time detection and tracking of dispersed hydrothermal plumes. At all nine 1984 study sites, hydrothermal activity was detected by in-situ, real-time nephelometer measurements and later confirmed by dissolved Mn and particulate Fe measurements. These same techniques were employed in a site-specific survey of the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) area in 1985 where large water-column anomalies in turbidity and in dissolved Mn helped lead to the discovery of high-temperature black smokers. The optical response of the nephelometer was to hydrothermally-derived particulate matter. Thus strong correlations existed between the nephelometer readings and total suspended matter ( r = 0.98, n = 34), and particulate Fe ( r = 0.88, n = 32). In addition, digital nephelometer data correlated well with dissolved Mn ( r = 0.88; n = 78) throughout a large concentration range (0.2-31.0 nmol/kg). These data provide good evidence for the utility of in-situ nephelometer measurements for locating and surveying plumes from hydrothermal vents. It also appears possible, within limits, to predict concentrations of in-situ total suspended matter, of particulate Fe and of dissolved Mn.

Nelsen, Terry A.; Klinkhammer, Gary P.; Trefry, John H.; Trocine, Robert P.

1987-01-01

68

Ancient hydrothermal ecosystems on earth: a new palaeobiological frontier.  

PubMed

Thermal springs are common in the oceans and on land. Early in the history of the Earth they would have been even more abundant, because of a higher heat flow. A thermophilic lifestyle has been proposed for the common ancestor of extant life, and hydrothermal ecosystems can be expected to have existed on Earth since life arose. Though there has been a great deal of recent research on this topic by biologists, palaeobiologists have done little to explore ancient high temperature environments. Exploration geologists and miners have long known the importance of hydrothermal systems, as they are sources for much of our gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc. Such systems are particularly abundant in Archaean and Proterozoic successions. Despite the rarity of systematic searches of these by palaeobiologists, already 12 fossiliferous Phanerozoic deposits are known. Five are 'black smoker' type submarine deposits that formed in the deep ocean and preserve a vent fauna like that in the modern oceans; the oldest is Devonian. Three are from shallow marine deposits of Carboniferous age. As well as 'worm tubes', several of these contain morphological or isotopic evidence of microbial life. The oldest well established fossiliferous submarine thermal spring deposit is Cambro-Ordovician; microorganisms of at least three or four types are preserved in this. One example each of Carboniferous and Jurassic sub-lacustrine fossiliferous thermal springs are known. There are two convincing examples of fossiliferous subaerial hydrothermal deposits. Both are Devonian. Several known Proterozoic and Archaean deposits are likely to preserve a substantial palaeobiological record, and all the indications are that there must be numerous deposits suitable for study. Already it is demonstrable that in ancient thermal spring deposits there is a record of microbial communities preserved as stromatolites, microfossils, isotope distribution patterns and hydrocarbon biomarkers. PMID:9243013

Walter, M R

1996-01-01

69

Acoustic mapping of diffuse flow at a seafloor hydrothermal site: Monolith Vent, Juan de Fuca Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse flow of hydrothermal solutions commonly occurs in patchy areas up to tens of meters in diameter in seafloor hydrothermal fields. It is recognized as a quantitatively significant component of thermal and chemical fluxes, yet is elusive to map. We report a new acoustic method to detect and map areas of diffuse flow using phase-coherent correlation techniques. The sonar system was modified to record phase information and mounted on DSV SEA CLIFF. The submersible occupied a stationary position on the seafloor and the transducer scanned the seafloor surrounding Monolith Vent, a sulfide edifice venting black smokers, at a nominal range of 17 m at a depth of 2249 m on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Patchy areas of uncorrelated returns clearly stood out from a background of returns that exhibited ping-to-ping correlation. The areas of uncorrelated returns coincided with areas of diffuse flow as mapped by a video survey with the Navy's Advanced Tethered Vehicle (ATV). Correlated returns were backscattered from invariant seafloor. Uncorrelated returns were distorted by index of refraction inhomogeneities as they passed through diffuse flow between the seafloor and the transducer. The acoustic method presented can synoptically map areas of diffuse flow. When combined with standard in situ measurement and sampling methods the acoustic mapping will facilitate accurate determination of diffuse thermal and chemical fluxes in seafloor hydrothermal fields.

Rona, P. A.; Jackson, D. R.; Wen, T.; Jones, C.; Mitsuzawa, K.; Bemis, K. G.; Dworski, J. G.

70

Hydrothermal flow at Main Endeavour Field imaged and measured with Cable Operated Vent Imaging Sonar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial acoustic monitoring of hydrothermal flow in the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) captures the spatial distribution of diffuse and focused discharge and shows potential for flux determinations. Our Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar (COVIS) was connected to the NEPTUNE Canada Endeavour Observatory in September 2010. Using a customized Reson 7125 multi-beam sonar, COVIS acquired a 29 day time series of black smoker plume and associated diffuse hydrothermal flow from Grotto, a 30 m diameter vent cluster in the MEF, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Detection of the spatial patterns of diffuse flow utilizes phase decorrelation of the acoustic signal (200kHz) by buoyancy-driven turbulence (acoustic scintillation) to produce a time series of maps. Substantial fluctuation in the detected diffuse flow area (0.1 - 18 m^2) was observed over the 29 days of observation, although position remained stable. Acoustic imaging of focused flow (400 kHz) utilizes high volume backscatter (attributed to particles and turbulent sound speed fluctuations) to image in 3D the initial tens of meters of rise of buoyant plumes. Spectral analysis of bending inclination of a strong plume from multiple fast smokers on the NW end of Grotto (north tower) indicates that the dominant modes correspond with the ambient mixed semi-diurnal tide (based on current meter data at a mooring 2.9 km to the north and on a tidal model), with at least one secondary mode attributable to sub-inertial flow related to inflow to the axial valley. A weaker plume from several slower smokers is present on the NE end of Grotto. On first analysis, the bending inclination of the weaker plume appears to be affected by the stronger plume. Quantification of flow velocity and volume flux of plumes begins with measuring the Doppler phase shift through plume cross-sections beginning at 5 m above source vents where discharge merges. The volume flux measurements enable calculation of entrainment coefficients, which prior work on the same strong plume indicated increase with degree of bending. The acoustic data in concert with in situ measurements support inversions to obtain fluxes to elucidate the role of hydrothermal flow in transfer of heat, chemicals and biological material from the crust to the ocean. We are exploring the feasibility of fitting plume models to Doppler velocity data in order to estimate heat flux. Ongoing analysis pursues quantification of fluid flux from diffuse and focused flow. In addition, the time series provide observations of hydrothermal flow response to tidal, tectonic and volcanic forcing on time scales from hours potentially to years. (Work supported by NSF Grants Nos. OCE-0824612 and OCE-0825088)

Rona, P. A.; Bemis, K. G.; Xu, G.; Jackson, D. R.; Jones, C. D.

2011-12-01

71

Direct Measurements of Hydrothermal Heat Output at Juan de Fuca Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat output and fluid flow are key parameters for characterizing seafloor hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers. In particular, they are essential for examining partition of heat and geochemical fluxes between discrete and diffuse flow components. Hydrothermal heat output also constrains permeability of young oceanic crust and thickness of the conductive boundary layer separating hydrothermal circulation from the underlying magmatic heat source. Over the past several years, we have deployed a number of relatively simple devices to make direct measurements of focused and diffuse flow. Most recently, we have used cup anemometer and turbine flow meters to measure fluid flow and heat flux at individual high-temperature vents and diffuse flow sites. The turbine flow meter (Figure 1) includes a titanium rotor assembly housed within a stainless steel tube and supported by sapphire bearings. The device can be used at different seafloor settings for measurements of both diffuse and focused flow. The spin of the rotor blades is videotaped to acquire the angular velocity, which is a function of the flow rate determined through calibration. We report data obtained during four cruises to the Main Endeavor and High Rise vent fields, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR), between 2007 and 2009. Overall more than 50 successful measurements of heat flow have been made on a variety of high-, medium-, and low-temperature hydrothermal sites on the Endeavor, Mothra, and High Rise structures. For example, the velocity of diffuse flow at Endeavor ranged from ~1 to ~10 cm/sec. The flow velocity from black smokers varied from ~10 cm/sec to ~1 m/sec, which appears to be similar to EPR 9°N. Typical measurements of heat flux obtained at JdFR ranged from ~1 kW for diffuse flow to ~1 MW for black smokers. Although it is difficult to extrapolate the data and obtain the integrated heat output for a vent field on JdFR, the data are used to characterize the heat fluxes from individual vent structures such as Hulk, Dante, and Godzilla. Figure 1. Turbine flow meter deployed on Fairy Castle structure at the High Rise vent field (6-26-09, Alvin dive 4526).

Germanovich, L. N.; di Iorio, D.; Genc, G.; Hurt, R. S.; Lowell, R. P.; Holden, J. F.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.

2009-12-01

72

Rare earth elements as indicators of hydrothermal processes within the East Scotia subduction zone system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East Scotia subduction zone, located in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, hosts a number of hydrothermal sites in both back-arc and island-arc settings. High temperature (>348 °C) ‘black smoker’ vents have been sampled at three locations along segments E2 and E9 of the East Scotia back-arc spreading ridge, as well as ‘white smoker’ (<212 °C) and diffuse (<28 °C) hydrothermal fluids from within the caldera of the Kemp submarine volcano. The composition of the endmember fluids (Mg = 0 mmol/kg) is markedly different, with pH ranging from <1 to 3.4, [Cl-] from ?90 to 536 mM, [H2S] from 6.7 to ?200 mM and [F-] from 35 to ?1000 ?M. All of the vent sites are basalt- to basaltic andesite-hosted, providing an ideal opportunity for investigating the geochemical controls on rare earth element (REE) behaviour. Endmember hydrothermal fluids from E2 and E9 have total REE concentrations ranging from 7.3 to 123 nmol/kg, and chondrite-normalised distribution patterns are either light REE-enriched (LaCN/YbCN = 12.8-30.0) with a positive europium anomaly (EuCN/Eu?CN = 3.45-59.5), or mid REE-enriched (LaCN/NdCN = 0.61) with a negative Eu anomaly (EuCN/Eu?CN = 0.59). By contrast, fluids from the Kemp Caldera have almost flat REE patterns (LaCN/YbCN = 2.1-2.2; EuCN/Eu?CN = 1.2-2.2). We demonstrate that the REE geochemistry of fluids from the East Scotia back-arc spreading ridge is variably influenced by ion exchange with host minerals, phase separation, competitive complexation with ligands, and anhydrite deposition, whereas fluids from the Kemp submarine volcano are also affected by the injection of magmatic volatiles which enhances the solubility of all the REEs. We also show that the REE patterns of anhydrite deposits from Kemp differ from those of the present-day fluids, potentially providing critical information about the nature of hydrothermal activity in the past, where access to hydrothermal fluids is precluded.

Cole, Catherine S.; James, Rachael H.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Hathorne, Ed C.

2014-09-01

73

PGE fractionation in seafloor hydrothermal systems: examples from mafic- and ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal fields at the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of platinum group elements (PGEs) in massive sulfides and hematite-magnetite±pyrite assemblages from the recently discovered basalt-hosted Turtle Pits hydrothermal field and in massive sulfides from the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev vent field both on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was studied and compared to that from selected ancient volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) deposits. Cu-rich samples from black smoker chimneys of both vent fields are enriched in Pd and Rh (Pd up to 227 ppb and Rh up to 149 ppb) when compared to hematite-magnetite-rich samples from Turtle Pits (Pd up to 10 ppb, Rh up to 1.9 ppb). A significant positive correlation was established between Cu and Rh in sulfide samples from Turtle Pits. PGE chondrite-normalized patterns (with a positive Rh anomaly and Pd and Au enrichment), Pd/Pt and Pd/Au ratios close to global MORB, and high values of Pd/Ir and Pt/Ir ratios indicate mafic source rock and seawater involvement in the hydrothermal system at Turtle Pits. Similarly shaped PGE chondrite-normalized patterns and high values of Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios in Cu-rich sulfides at Logatchev likely reflect a similar mechanism of PGE enrichment but with involvement of ultramafic source rocks.

Pašava, Jan; Vymazalová, Anna; Petersen, Sven

2007-04-01

74

Stereotyping the smoker: adolescents’ appraisals of smokers in film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the relation between demographic factors and film smoking stereotypes in adolescents and the potential influence of smoker stereotypes on smoking susceptibility.Design: A cross sectional questionnaire survey of school students (n = 3041) aged 12–13 and 16–17 years who were asked to describe the personal characteristics of female and male smokers in films.Setting: 15 primary or intermediate schools

J P McCool; L Cameron; K Petrie

2004-01-01

75

Stereotyping the smoker: adolescents' appraisals of smokers in film  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the relation between demographic factors and film smoking stereotypes in adolescents and the potential influence of smoker stereotypes on smoking susceptibility. Design: A cross sectional questionnaire survey of school students (n = 3041) aged 12–13 and 16–17 years who were asked to describe the personal characteristics of female and male smokers in films. Setting: 15 primary or intermediate schools and 10 secondary schools in Auckland, New Zealand. Results: Appraisals of smokers in film were strongly influenced by age and sex with younger adolescents and males more likely to see female smokers as sexy, intelligent and healthy whereas older students and females more often appraised female smokers as stressed bored and depressed. Overall, image stereotypes (sexy, stylish) were more likely to be significantly associated with smoking susceptibility than emotional sensitivity stereotypes (stressed, depressed etc). Conclusions: Adolescents differ significantly in their appraisal of smokers in films; however, image based stereotypes, rather than emotional sensitivity stereotypes, are significantly associated with smoking susceptibility. PMID:15333889

McCool, J; Cameron, L; Petrie, K

2004-01-01

76

Hydrothermal Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater (after C. A. Stein and S. Stein, 1994). The first geochemical evidence for the existence of hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor came in the mid-1960s when investigations in the Red Sea revealed deep basins filled with hot, salty water (40-60 °C) and underlain by thick layers of metal-rich sediment (Degens and Ross, 1969). Because the Red Sea represents a young, rifting, ocean basin it was speculated that the phenomena observed there might also prevail along other young MOR spreading centers. An analysis of core-top sediments from throughout the world's oceans ( Figure 2) revealed that such metalliferous sediments did, indeed, appear to be concentrated along the newly recognized global ridge crest (Boström et al., 1969). Another early indication of hydrothermal activity came from the detection of plumes of excess 3He in the Pacific Ocean Basin (Clarke et al., 1969) - notably the >2,000 km wide section in the South Pacific ( Lupton and Craig, 1981) - because 3He present in the deep ocean could only be sourced through some form of active degassing of the Earth's interior, at the seafloor. (62K)Figure 2. Global map of the (Al+Fe+Mn):Al ratio for surficial marine sediments. Highest ratios mimic the trend of the global MOR axis (after Boström et al., 1969). One area where early heat-flow studies suggested hydrothermal activity was likely to occur was along the Galapagos Spreading Center in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (Anderson and Hobart, 1976). In 1977, scientists diving at this location found hydrothermal fluids discharging chemically altered seawater from young volcanic seafloor at elevated temperatures up to 17 °C ( Edmond et al., 1979). Two years later, the first high-temperature (380±30 °C) vent fluids were found at 21° N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) (Spiess et al., 1980) - with fluid compositions remarkably close to those predicted from the lower-temperature Galapagos findings ( Edmond et al., 1979). Since that time, hydrothermal activity has been found at more than 40 locations throughout the Pacific, North Atlanti

German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

2003-12-01

77

Temperature variation records at diffuse and focused outflow in Lucky Strike hydrothermal field: toward a characterization of the outflow dynamic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal activity along mid-ocean ridges accounts for a large proportion of the Earth's heat loss, but the space-time variation of both heat and chemical fluxes of venting at individual sites remains largely unconstrained. As part of the MOMAR experiment to monitor hydrothermal activity, we used an ROV to deploy autonomous temperatures sensors at black smoker chimneys, cracks, and diffuse flow areas throughout the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, ~37°17'N) between summer 2009 and summer 2012. We deployed a set of high- and low-temperature thermal probes (<350°C and <125°C respectively) sampling at intervals that varied from <1 min to 24 min. Microseismicity and bottom pressure was also recorded with an ocean bottom seismometer network and a pressure gauge. We place particular emphasis on temporal variability at semi-diurnal tidal periods, and use poroelastic theory to constrain hydrologic parameters of the sub-surface circulation system. We identify two main types of temporal variability in the temperature records : (1) episodic variability with rapid temperature changes of ~5-150°C over time periods of few hours to several days, and (2) systematic variability at tidal periods with amplitudes ranging from a few tens of a degree to a few degrees, depending largely on mean outflow temperature. The episodic variability is stochastic (i.e., typically not correlated between mutitple probes among vents at the scale of the site), and does not appear to be correlated with local nor regional seismicity. The episodic events are observed primarily in diffuse flow records. The lack of spatial and temporal correlation of these events among probes, even at distances of <5 m within the same mound, suggests that they represent episodes of seawater mixing within the shallowmost crust underlying individual vents, or within the hydrothermal edifice itself. Most temperature records display systematic tide-related variability, with the strongest signal at the principal semidiurnal tidal periods (M2, S2, N2 and K2). Cross-spectral multi-taper methods applied to the temperature and bottom pressure records reveal robust phase relationships, particularly for the high-temperature, black-smoker records, as predicted by poroelastic theory (Jupp and Schultz, Wang and Davis, Crone and Wilcock). These results demonstrate the tidal pressures diffusely propagate through the porous matrix hosting sub-surface flow, which results in phase lags between the surface pressure and the fluid dischage temperature. We use this observation to constrain the poroelastic skin depth, bulk permeability, and vertical D'arcy flow velocity of the sub-surface regime at the Lucky Strike field.

Barreyre, T.; Escartin, J.; Sohn, R. A.; Cannat, M.; Ballu, V.

2012-12-01

78

Investigations of a novel fauna from hydrothermal vents along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic deep ocean hosts a variety of habitats ranging from fairly uniform sedimentary abyssal plains to highly variable hard bottoms on mid ocean ridges, including biodiversity hotspots like seamounts and hydrothermal vents. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna, and since their discovery in 1977 more than 400 species of animals have been described. This fauna includes various animal groups of which the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. The newly discovered deep sea hydrothermal vents on the Mohns-Knipovich ridge north of Iceland harbour unique biodiversity. The Jan Mayen field consists of two main areas with high-temperature white smoker venting and wide areas with low-temperature seepage, located at 5-700 m, while the deeper Loki Castle vent field at 2400 m depth consists of a large area with high temperature black smokers surrounded by a sedimentary area with more diffuse low-temperature venting and barite chimneys. The Jan Mayen sites show low abundance of specialized hydrothermal vent fauna. Single groups have a few specialized representatives but groups otherwise common in hydrothermal vent areas are absent. Slightly more than 200 macrofaunal species have been identified from this vent area, comprising mainly an assortment of bathyal species known from the surrounding area. Analysis of stable isotope data also indicates that the majority of the species present are feeding on phytodetritus and/or phytoplankton. However, the deeper Loki Castle vent field contains a much more diverse vent endemic fauna with high abundances of specialized polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. These specializations also include symbioses with a range of chemosynthetic microorganisms. Our data show that the fauna composition is a result of high degree of local specialization with some similarities to the fauna of cold seeps along the Norwegian margin and wood-falls in the abyssal Norwegian Sea. Few species are common to both the deep and the shallow vents, but some gastropod species show a structured population difference between the sites. Our data indicate that there has been a migration of vent fauna into the Arctic Ocean from the Pacific Ocean rather than from the known vent sites further south in the Atlantic Ocean. The discovery and sampling of these new arctic vent fields provide unique data to further understand the migration of vent organisms and interactions between different deep sea chemosynthetic environments. Based on the high degree of local adaptation and specialization of fauna from the studied sites we propose the AMOR to be a new zoogeographical province for vent fauna.

Rapp, H.; Schander, C.; Halanych, K. M.; Levin, L. A.; Sweetman, A.; Tverberg, J.; Hoem, S.; Steen, I.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.

2010-12-01

79

The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.  

PubMed

Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than previously recognised. PMID:22235194

Rogers, Alex D; Tyler, Paul A; Connelly, Douglas P; Copley, Jon T; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D; Pearce, David A; Polunin, Nicholas V C; German, Christopher R; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H; Alker, Belinda J; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J J; Graham, Alastair G C; Green, Darryl R H; Hawkes, Jeffrey A; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D K; Roterman, Christopher N; Sweeting, Christopher J; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

2012-01-01

80

The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for Biogeography  

PubMed Central

Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than previously recognised. PMID:22235194

Rogers, Alex D.; Tyler, Paul A.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jon T.; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D.; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A.; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearce, David A.; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; German, Christopher R.; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Alker, Belinda J.; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A.; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J. J.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D. K.; Roterman, Christopher N.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

2012-01-01

81

Geology of a vigorous hydrothermal system on the Endeavour segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge  

SciTech Connect

A high-precision, high-resolution geologic map explicitly documents relationships between tectonic features and large steep-sided, sulfide-sulfate-silica deposits in the vigorously venting Endeavour hydrothermal field near the northern end of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Location of the most massive sulfide structures appears to be controlled by intersections of ridge-parallel normal faults and other fracture-fissure sets that trend oblique to, and perpendicular to the overall structural fabric of the axial valley. As presently mapped, the field is about 200 by 400 m on a side and contains at least 15 large (> 1,000 m[sup 3]) sulfide edifices and many tens of smaller, commonly inactive, sulfide structures. The larger sulfide structures are also the most vigorously venting features in the field; they are commonly more than 30 m in diameter and up to 20 m in height. Maximum venting temperatures of 375[degrees]C are associated with the smaller structures in the northern portion of the field are consistently 20[degrees]-30[degrees]C lower. Hydrothermal output from individual active sulfide features varies from no flow in the lower third of the edifice to vigorous output from fracture-controlled black smoker activity near the top of the structures. Two types of diffuse venting in the Endeavour field include a lower temperature 8[degrees]-15[degrees]C output through colonies of large tubeworms and 25[degrees]-50[degrees]C vent fluid that seems to percolate through the tops of overhanging flanges. The large size and steep-walled nature of these structures evidently results from sustained venting in a mature hydrothermal system, coupled with dual mineral depositional mechanisms involving vertical growth by accumulation of chimney sulfide debris and lateral growth by means of flange development.

Delaney, J.R.; Robigou, V.; McDuff, R.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Tivey, M.K. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States))

1992-12-10

82

Temporal variability and tidal modulation of hydrothermal exit-fluid temperatures at the Lucky Strike deep-sea vent field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

deployed autonomous temperature sensors at black smoker chimneys, cracks, and diffuse flow areas at the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, ~37°17'N) between summer 2009 and summer 2012 and contemporaneously measured tidal pressures and currents as part of the long-term MoMAR experiment to monitor hydrothermal activity. We classify the temperature data according to the hydrogeologic setting of the measurement sites: a high-temperature regime (>190°C) representing discharge of essentially unmixed, primary hydrothermal fluids through chimneys, an intermediate-temperature regime (10-100°C) associated with mixing of primary fluids with cold pore fluids discharging through cracks, and a low-temperature regime (<10°C) associated with a thermal boundary layer forming over bacterial mats associated with diffuse outflow of warm fluids. Temperature records from all the regimes exhibit variations at semi-diurnal tidal periods, and cross-spectral analyses reveal that high-temperature discharge correlates to tidal pressure while low-temperature discharge correlates to tidal currents. Intermediate-temperature discharge exhibits a transitional behavior correlating to both tidal pressure and currents. Episodic perturbations, with transient temperature drops of up to ~150°C, which occur in the high-temperature and intermediate-temperature records, are not observed on multiple probes (including nearby probes at the same site), and they are not correlated with microearthquake activity, indicating that the perturbation mechanism is highly localized at the measurement sites within the hydrothermal structures. The average temperature at a given site may increase or decrease at annual time scales, but the average temperature of the hydrothermal field, as a whole, appears to be stable over our 3 year observation period.

Barreyre, Thibaut; Escartín, Javier; Sohn, Robert A.; Cannat, Mathilde; Ballu, Valérie; Crawford, Wayne C.

2014-04-01

83

Smokers in Cars Pose Risk to Passengers  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Smokers in Cars Pose Risk to Passengers: Study Urine of those ... suggests that non-smoking people who sit in cars with smokers inhale some of the same cancer- ...

84

Culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  

PubMed

The bacterial and archaeal communities of three deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR; Rainbow, Logatchev and Broken Spur) were investigated using an integrated culture-dependent and independent approach. Comparative molecular phylogenetic analyses, using the 16S rRNA gene and the deduced amino acid sequences of the alpha and beta subunits of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes were carried out on natural microbial communities, on an enrichment culture obtained from the Broken Spur chimney, and on novel chemolithoautotrophic bacteria and reference strains originally isolated from several different deep-sea vents. Our data showed that the three MAR hydrothermal vent chimneys investigated in this study host very different microbial assemblages. The microbial community of the Rainbow chimney was dominated by thermophilic, autotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing, sulfur- and nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria related to the genus Caminibacter. The detection of sequences related to sulfur-reducing bacteria and archaea (Archaeoglobus) indicated that thermophilic sulfate reduction might also be occurring at this site. The Logatchev bacterial community included several sequences related to mesophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, while the archaeal component of this chimney was dominated by sequences related to the ANME-2 lineage, suggesting that anaerobic oxidation of methane may be occurring at this site. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggested that Epsilonproteobacteria were the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle (rTCA) at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella were prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney. PMID:18523725

Voordeckers, James W; Do, My H; Hügler, Michael; Ko, Vivian; Sievert, Stefan M; Vetriani, Costantino

2008-09-01

85

Disappearance of smoker's melanosis after reducing smoking.  

PubMed

Besides genetic factors, tobacco smoking is known to be the main cause of oral melanin pigmentation. The present study compares the frequency of oral melanin pigmentation in a large number of former smokers with that of non-smokers. It also describes in two patients the disappearance of smoker's melanosis in the buccal mucosa following a considerable reduction in smoking. PMID:8315602

Hedin, C A; Pindborg, J J; Axéll, T

1993-05-01

86

Lack of startle modulation by smoking cues in smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale The startle reflex methodology has been used to study the effects of nicotine in humans and the motivational effects of smoking cues in smokers. However, no other studies investigate startle modulation by smoking cues in smokers compared to non-smokers. In the other studies, smoking deprivation was manipulated in smokers or smokers were not compared directly to non-smokers. Objective The

S. Orain-Pelissolo; C. Grillon; F. Perez-Diaz; R. Jouvent

2004-01-01

87

“We do not hire smokers”: May employers discriminate against smokers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking employees are less healthy than nonsmokers, are absent more, make more and more expensive claims for health and disability\\u000a benefits, and endanger co-workers who breathe smoky air. Employers may establish smoke-free workplaces, but—beyond that—employers\\u000a may absolutely discriminate against smokers. Absent some common-law or statutory prohibition, employers are free to hire whomever\\u000a they wish. The Americans with Disability Act prohibits

Daniel M. Warner

1994-01-01

88

Hydrothermal Biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life in hot spring ecosystems is confronted with diverse challenges, and the responses to those challenges have dynamic biogeochemical consequences over narrow spatial and temporal scales. Within meters along hot spring outflow channels at Yellowstone, temperatures drop from boiling, and the near-boiling conditions of hot chemolithotrophic communities, to those that permit photosynthesis and on down to conditions where nematodes and insects graze on the edges of photosynthetic mats. Many major and trace element concentrations change only mildly in the water that flows through the entire ecosystem, while concentrations of other dissolved constituents (oxygen, sulfide, ammonia, total organic carbon) increase or decrease dramatically. Concentrations of metals and micronutrients range from toxic to inadequate for enzyme synthesis depending on the choice of hot spring. Precipitation of minerals may provide continuous growth of microbial niches, while dissolution and turbulent flow sweeps them away. Consequently, microbial communities change at the meter scale, and even more abruptly at the photosynthetic fringe. Isotopic compositions of carbon and nitrogen in microbial biomass reflect dramatic and continuous changes in metabolic strategies throughout the system. Chemical energy sources that support chemolithotrophic communities can persist at abundant or useless levels, or change dramatically owing to microbial activity. The rate of temporal change depends on the selection of hot spring systems for study. Some have changed little since our studies began in 1999. Others have shifted by two or more units in pH over several years, with corresponding changes in other chemical constituents. Some go through daily or seasonal desiccation cycles, and still others exhibit pulses of changing temperature (up to 40°C) within minutes. Taken together, hydrothermal ecosystems provide highly manageable opportunities for testing how biogeochemical processes respond to the scale of temporal, spatial, and compositional changes.

Shock, E.; Havig, J.; Windman, T.; Meyer-Dombard, D.; Michaud, A.; Hartnett, H.

2006-12-01

89

Smoker and ex-smoker reactions to cigarettes claiming reduced risk  

PubMed Central

Context: The tobacco industry is introducing modified tobacco products claiming to reduce the risk of smoking (potential reduced exposure products, PREPs). If PREPs are perceived as safe, they may deter smokers from quitting and encourage re-initiation by smokers who have quit. Objective: To assess smokers' and ex-smokers' perceptions of PREPs and the impact of PREP claims on interest in quitting (among smokers) or in resuming smoking (ex-smokers). Design: A random-digit-dialled survey of US smokers and ex-smokers. We used Eclipse, a modified PREP cigarette, as an exemplar PREP. During the survey, the interviewer read risk reduction claims made for Eclipse by its manufacturer, assessing smokers' interest in quitting before and after the exposure. Participants: 1000 current cigarette smokers and 499 ex-smokers (300 quit within the last two years), over 18 years old. Main outcome measures: Perception of risk reduction from Eclipse; interest in using Eclipse; smokers' interest in quitting was assessed using a stage of change approach (pre- and post-exposure to claims). Results: 91% of smokers thought Eclipse was safer than regular cigarettes. 24% believed Eclipse was completely safe. 57.4% of smokers were interested in using Eclipse; interest was greatest among smokers who were contemplating quitting. Exposure to Eclipse's claims was followed by reduced interest in quitting. Among all ex-smokers, interest in Eclipse was 6.2%, but interest was 15.2% among young adults (18–25 years) who had stopped smoking within two years. Conclusions: There is substantial risk that smokers will overinterpret reduced risk claims made for modified tobacco products. PREPs appeal to smokers who are contemplating quitting and exposure to reduced risk product claims appears to reduce smokers' readiness to quit. PREPs also appealed to young adults who had recently stopped smoking. Thus, reduced risk tobacco product claims can undermine adult cessation and youth prevention, possibly resulting in increased harm even if the products are less toxic. PMID:14985602

Shiffman, S; Pillitteri, J; Burton, S; Di, M

2004-01-01

90

Pharmacologically, are smokers the same as non-smokers?  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests that there are subpopulations of daily smokers ranging from light infrequent users to heavy daily users. In the present review we will investigate whether these differences can be explained by factors such as social context, responsiveness to environmental cues, personality traits, neurochemical and pharmacogenetic differences. We will also assess how controlled abstinence and free choice smoking paradigms in a human laboratory setting may help identify and characterize these differences and what can be learned from these models to accurately predict clinical efficacy in the later phase testing of new chemical entities for the treatment of smoking dependence. PMID:24565011

Bani, Massimo; Andorn, Anne; Heidbreder, Christian

2014-02-01

91

Methanococcus jannaschii sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic methanogen from a submarine hydrothermal vent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new extremely thermophilic methane-producing bacterium was isolated from a submarine hydrothermal vent sample collected by a research team from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution using the manned submersible ALVIN. The sample was obtained from the base of a “white smoker” chimney on the East Pacific Rise at 20° 50' N latitude and 109° 06' W longitude at a depth

W. J. Jones; J. A. Leigh; F. Mayer; C. R. Woese; R. S. Wolfe

1983-01-01

92

The Case against a Smoker's License  

PubMed Central

Background to the debate Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a “smoker's license” and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic—the tobacco industry—and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor. PMID:23152727

Collin, Jeff

2012-01-01

93

The Case for a Smoker's License  

PubMed Central

Background to the debate Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a “smoker's license” and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic—the tobacco industry—and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor. PMID:23152726

Chapman, Simon

2012-01-01

94

Smoker's melanosis. A case report.  

PubMed

Smoker's melanosis is a benign pigmentation of the oral mucosa, predominantly observed on the attached anterior mandibular gingiva and interdental papillae. These macular lesions are independent of genetic factors, therapeutic medication usage, and various systemic disorders. As a group they are often seen after the third decade of life. Due to the onset in adulthood and the progressive darkening, malignant melanoma must be ruled out. A review of the literature and a case report of this interesting and unique entity is presented. PMID:1920020

Brown, F H; Houston, G D

1991-08-01

95

Permeability-Porosity Relationships in Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To map out the thermal and chemical regimes within vent deposits where micro-and macro-organisms reside requires accurate modeling of mixing and reaction between hydrothermal fluid and seawater within the vent structures. However, a critical piece of information, quantitative knowledge of the permeability of vent deposits, and how it relates to porosity and pore geometry, is still missing. To address this, systematic laboratory measurements of permeability and porosity were conducted on 3 large vent structures from the Mothra Hydrothermal vent field on the Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Twenty-five cylindrical cores with diameters of 2.54 cm and various lengths were taken from Phang (a tall sulfide-dominated spire that was not actively venting when sampled), Roane (a lower temperature spire with dense macrofaunal communities growing on its sides that was venting diffuse fluid of < 300° C) and Finn (an active black smoker with a well-defined inner conduit that was venting 302° C fluids prior to recovery (Delaney et al., 2000; Kelley et al, 2000)). Measurements were made to obtain porosity and permeability of these drill cores using a helium porosimeter (UltraPoreTM300) and a nitrogen permeameter (UltrapermTM400) from Core Laboratories Instruments. The porosimeter uses Boyle's law to determine pore volume from the expansion of a know mass of helium into a calibrated sample holder, whereas the permeameter uses Darcy's law to determine permeability by measuring the steady-state flow rate through the sample under a given pressure gradient. A moderate confining pressure of 1.38 MPa was applied during the measurements to prevent leakage between the sample surface and the sample holder. The permeability and porosity relationship is best described by two different power law relationships with exponents of ˜9 (group I) and ˜3 (group II), respectively. Microstructural observations suggest that the difference in the two permeability-porosity relationships reflects different evolution processes as pores are sealed within different parts of the vent structures. Our data suggest that correctly identifying the processes of pore space evolution in seafloor vent deposits is the key to successfully relating permeability to porosity.

Zhu, W.; Gittings, H.; Tivey, M. K.

2003-12-01

96

Differentiation between smokers and non-smokers by breath sound analysis  

E-print Network

1987 Major Subject: Bioengineering DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS BY BREATH SOUND ANALYSIS A Thesis STEVEN MESIBOV Approved as to style and content by: Charles S. Lessard (Chairman) Hsin-i Wu (Member) Charles . Shee (Member... 1987 Major Subject: Bioengineering DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS BY BREATH SOUND ANALYSIS A Thesis STEVEN MESIBOV Approved as to style and content by: Charles S. Lessard (Chairman) Hsin-i Wu (Member) Charles . Shee (Member...

Mesibov, Steven

2012-06-07

97

Perceived Arsenic-Related Mortality Risks for Smokers and Non-smokers [Revised Draft: December, 2010  

E-print Network

Perceived Arsenic-Related Mortality Risks for Smokers and Non-smokers [Revised Draft: December University of Nevada, Las Vegas Abstract: Prolonged ingestion of arsenic in drinking water can increase the risks of dying of lung and bladder cancer, particularly for smokers. In a survey of arsenic hotspots

Shaw, W. Douglass

98

Evidence for deep sea hydrothermal fluid-mineral equilibrium from multiple S isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multiple sulfur isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids and associated sulfide mineral deposits collected in 2006 in the eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea, provide an opportunity to better understand the processes of mineral precipitation, pore fluid composition, chemosynthetic energy sources, and metal-rich ore deposition in a felsic-hosted back arc hydrothermal system. Recent advances in multiple-stable isotope analytical techniques now enable the precise determination of all four stable isotopes of sulfur in hydrothermal vent fluids and co-precipitated sulfide mineral deposits, which may be used as a tracer to distinguish between sulfide derived from igneous rock, microbial sulfate reduction, and thermochemical reduction of seawater sulfate [1]. Multiple-stable isotopes of sulfur may also help constrain the relative contribution of sulfur derived by degassing of magmatic SO2 and sedimentary sulfide mineral inputs, as either process could generate the isotopically light ?34S (< 0‰) observed in some vent fluids, chalcopyrite chimney linings, and native sulfur collected at Manus Basin. We have analyzed the sulfur isotopic composition of high temperature black smoker vent fluid and associated chalcopyrite lining the inner walls of active conduits from two vent fields within the Manus Basin, including PACMANUS, located on the neovolcanic Pual ridge, and vents on discrete volcanic domes at SuSu Knolls. Preliminary results yield vent fluid ?34SH2S values ranging from -4.89 ± 0.02 to 5.41 ± 0.01, which closely match coexisting inner wall ?34Schalcopyrite values, ranging from -4.43 ± 0.01 to 5.64 ± 0.01. These results contrast with previous studies that report systematic differences in vent fluid ?34SH2S and sulfide minerals from the inner conduits of chimney structures [1, 2, 3]. The ?33SH2S values of vent fluids range from -0.031 ± 0.027 to 0.011 ± 0.016, and those of chalcopyrite range from -0.042 ± 0.012 to 0.012 ± 0.010. Preliminary results in 7 out of 8 fluid-mineral pairs show <1‰ difference between fluid and chalcopyrite, with most chalcopyrite showing slightly enriched ?34S, consistent with equilibrium fluid-mineral sulfur isotope exchange at 300-400°C during precipitation [4]. Negative ?34S in fluid-mineral pairs from SuSu Knolls may be a consequence of both magmatic volatile and sedimentary sulfide mineral input, an assertion supported by observations of very high CH4 concentrations in the black smoker fluids and low temperature acid sulfate fluids emanating from the dome flanks. Additional analyses are being conducted on more SuSu Knolls vents, as well as fluid-mineral pairs from Lau Basin vent fields. [1] Ono et al. (2007) GCA 71, 1170-1182. [2] Shanks (2001) Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 43, 469-525. [3] Woodruff and Shanks (1988) J. Geophy. Res. 93, 4562-4572. [4] Ohmoto and Goldhaber (1997) Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits, Third Edition, pp. 517-611.

McDermott, J. M.; Ono, S.; Tivey, M. K.; Seewald, J.

2010-12-01

99

Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India  

PubMed Central

Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned). Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9) with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6%) reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions) for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker). Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go beyond providing knowledge on harmful effects of smoking to interventions that influence adolescents' social construct of smoking/smoker. PMID:21756343

2011-01-01

100

Comparative metagenomics of microbial communities inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys with contrasting chemistries  

PubMed Central

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys harbor a high diversity of largely unknown microorganisms. Although the phylogenetic diversity of these microorganisms has been described previously, the adaptation and metabolic potential of the microbial communities is only beginning to be revealed. A pyrosequencing approach was used to directly obtain sequences from a fosmid library constructed from a black smoker chimney 4143-1 in the Mothra hydrothermal vent field at the Juan de Fuca Ridge. A total of 308?034 reads with an average sequence length of 227?bp were generated. Comparative genomic analyses of metagenomes from a variety of environments by two-way clustering of samples and functional gene categories demonstrated that the 4143-1 metagenome clustered most closely with that from a carbonate chimney from Lost City. Both are highly enriched in genes for mismatch repair and homologous recombination, suggesting that the microbial communities have evolved extensive DNA repair systems to cope with the extreme conditions that have potential deleterious effects on the genomes. As previously reported for the Lost City microbiome, the metagenome of chimney 4143-1 exhibited a high proportion of transposases, implying that horizontal gene transfer may be a common occurrence in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In addition, genes for chemotaxis and flagellar assembly were highly enriched in the chimney metagenomes, reflecting the adaptation of the organisms to the highly dynamic conditions present within the chimney walls. Reconstruction of the metabolic pathways revealed that the microbial community in the wall of chimney 4143-1 was mainly fueled by sulfur oxidation, putatively coupled to nitrate reduction to perform inorganic carbon fixation through the Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle. On the basis of the genomic organization of the key genes of the carbon fixation and sulfur oxidation pathways contained in the large genomic fragments, both obligate and facultative autotrophs appear to be present and contribute to biomass production. PMID:20927138

Xie, Wei; Wang, Fengping; Guo, Lei; Chen, Zeling; Sievert, Stefan M; Meng, Jun; Huang, Guangrui; Li, Yuxin; Yan, Qingyu; Wu, Shan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Shangwu; He, Guangyuan; Xiao, Xiang; Xu, Anlong

2011-01-01

101

METEORIC-HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper summarizes the salient characteristics of meteoric-hydrothermal systems, emphasing the isotopic systematics. Discussions of permeable-medium fluid dynamics and the geology and geochemistry of modern geothermal systems are also provided, because they are essential to any understanding of hydrothermal circulation. The main focus of the paper is on regions of ancient meteoric-hydrothermal activity, which give us information about the presently inaccessible, deep-level parts of modern geothermal systems. It is shown oxygen and hydrogen isotopes provide a powerful method to discover and map fossil hydrothermal systems and to investigate diverse associated aspects of rock alteration and ore deposition.

Criss, Robert, E.; Taylor, Jr. , Hugh, P.

1986-01-01

102

Lung Cancer Incidence in Never Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Although smoking remains the predominant cause of lung cancer, lung cancer in never smokers is an increasingly prominent public health issue. However, data on this topic, particularly lung cancer incidence rates in never smokers, are limited. Methods We reviewed the existing literature on lung cancer incidence and mortality rates

Heather A. Wakelee; Ellen T. Chang; Scarlett L. Gomez; Theresa H. Keegan; Diane Feskanich; Christina A. Clarke; Lars Holmberg; Lee C. Yong; Laurence N. Kolonel; Michael K. Gould; Dee W. West

2007-01-01

103

[Personality disorders in smokers: a review].  

PubMed

The association between psychopathology and nicotine dependence in smokers has been a relevant topic in recent years. Nevertheless, little is known about personality disorders in smokers. The aim of this article is to review research published nationally and internationally which analyzes the relation between tobacco use and personality disorders. Our review permits us to affirm that research on the presence of Axis II disorders in smokers is rather scarce. Of 12 studies analyzed, it can be concluded that the prevalence of personality disorders in smokers is highly variable (between 9% and 45%), and that, in the majority of the studies, smoking is associated first with the presence of cluster C disorders (dependent, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive), and second, with cluster B disorders (histrionic, narcissistic, borderline and antisocial). Finally, we note the various limitations of previous studies and stress the need to better understand these disorders, given their relevance to the treatment of smokers. PMID:20549151

Fernández del Río, Elena; Becoña Iglesias, Elisardo

2010-01-01

104

Discovering New Mantle-Hosted Submarine Ecosytems: The Lost City Hydrothermal Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April-May 2003, the Lost City Hydrothermal Field was investigated during 19 Alvin dives and 17 missions with the autonomous vehicle ABE to examine the linkages among geological, chemical and biological processes associated with a submarine hydrothermal system hosted on mantle material. In concert, these two programs resulted in 1) delineation of the geologic features that control hydrothermal flow in this area; 2) an extremely high-resolution bathymetric map (meter scale) of the field and adjacent areas of the Atlantis Massif; 3) interdisciplinary sampling of 10 individual venting sites within the field; and 4) documentation of a nearly continuous zone of deformation at the top of the massif that is very likely the surface expression of a long-lived detachment fault that caps the massif. This hydrothermal system, which is driven by exothermic serpentinization reactions beneath the Atlantis Massif, is unlike any known field examined to date. It is hosted on 1-2 my old variably altered mantle material, it contains more than 30 carbonate chimneys that reach up to 60 m in height, and generation of diffusely venting 40-90C fluids with pH 9-11 that are enriched in methane, hydrogen and other hydrocarbons support dense microbial communities. ABE bathymetry shows that a linear array of the largest structures within the field is controlled by an E-W trending, 200 m long lineament intersected by a N-S trending fault. Mapping of the near vertical cliffs adjacent to the field indicates that much of the subsurface flow within this area is controlled by very gently west-dipping faults that result in a nearly horizontal, sheet-like style of flow. Venting of diffuse fluids directly from the near vertical walls forms perpendicular growths of carbonate flanges, and results in the formation of vertical spires, and massive, shingled deposits that cascade down the cliff faces. The plumbing system within this area is very different from the vertical conduits that typify black smoker environments. The large surface areas exposed to hydrothermal fluids along the gently dipping faults may provide important environments for microbiological communities within the subsurface. Stockwork systems and variably cemented breccias preserved along the steep walls immediately adjacent to the field are reminiscent of ancient ophicalcite deposits preserved in ophiolitic rocks since the Archean. The Lost City Field is an astounding, intensely beautiful area that hosts numerous composite chimneys that extend over an area >350 m in length. Many structures contain an array of delicate flanges, multiple pinnacles, and beehive deposits. The complex structure Poseidon dominates the field: it is over 60 m in height, >40 m in length and it hosts multiple active and inactive towers, smaller pinnacles, and flanges. It is unlikely that hydrothermal systems like Lost City are unique along the global mid-ocean ridge spreading network; where massifs similar to those at the Atlantis Fracture Zone are common. In these environments, intense long-lived faulting and seismic activity, coupled with serpentinization reactions act depth serve to promote hydrothermal flow.

Kelley, D. S.; Karson, J. A.; Yoerger, D.; Fruh-Green, G. L.; Butterfield, D. A.; Lilley, M.

2003-12-01

105

Mapping the Piccard Hydrothermal Field - The World's Deepest Known Vent Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the recent mapping and exploration of the Piccard Hydrothermal Field on the Mid-Cayman Rise. Two previous expeditions in 2009 and 2010 led to the discovery of the site, which at 5000m hosts the world's deepest known vents. The site was mapped and explored in January 2012 and the Piccard Field was found to be larger than previously appreciated. The site includes 3 separate currently active hydrothermal mounts together with 4 additional extinct depo-centers. The 3 active centers are the Beebe Vents, Beebe Woods, and Beebe Sea sites. Beebe Vents is an active black smoker system with maximum temperatures of 400-403 degrees Celsius. Beebe Woods contains a set of tall beehive smokers with temperatures of approximately 353 degrees Celsius. Beebe Sea, the largest sulfide mound in the field, contains diffuse venting together with numerous extinct chimneys that indicate significant past active focused flow. Observations of the 4 extinct mounds indicate differences in their apparent ages based on the texture and morphology of the extinct sulfides at the summit of each mound. The entire field is located on top of an axial volcanic ridge with extrusive pillow mounds prominent. A major fault traverses the mound along its long axis, from Southwest to Northeast. Beebe Woods, Beebe Sea, and extinct Beebe mound D abut this fault directly with an apparent monotonic age progression from youngest (Beebe Woods) in the SW to relict mound 'D' in the NE. Similarly, the Beebe Vents site and mound is located at the SW limit of a parallel set of mounds, offset from the fault by approximately 100m, which also ages progressively through extinct Beebe Mounds 'E', 'F' and 'G'. The major fault that bisects the axial volcanic ridge at Piccard evidently serves as a controlling mechanism for the mounds abutting that fault however the mechanism for the second line of mounds remains to be determined. Bathymetry suggests the presence of a second, smaller fault which may serve as the control mechanism. This poster will include bathymetric maps, camera images taken over 4 dives with the Jason ROV, and interpretive maps of the structure of the field.

Kinsey, J. C.; German, C. R.

2012-12-01

106

Lung Cancer in Never Smokers  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) has lately been recognized as a unique disease based on rapidly gained knowledge from genomic changes to treatment responses. The focus of this article is on current knowledge and challenges with regard to LCINS expanded from recent reviews highlighting five areas: (1) distribution of LCINS by temporal trends, geographic regions, and populations; (2) three well-recognized environmental risk factors; (3) other plausible environmental risk factors; (4) prior chronic lung diseases and infectious diseases as risk factors; and (5) lifestyles as risk or protective factors. This article will also bring attention to recently published literature in two pioneering areas: (1) histological characteristics, clinical features with emerging new effective therapies, and social and psychological stigma; and (2) searching for susceptibility genes using integrated genomic approaches. PMID:21500120

Yang, Ping

2012-01-01

107

Insights into Spatial Sulfur Variation within the Modified Gill-Chamber of the Epibiont-Colonized Hydrothermal Vent Shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rimicaris exoculata dominates the megafaunal biomass at numerous Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents. Within the gill chamber of the shrimp exists a rich epibiotic community. These shrimp swarm around active black smoker chimneys at the Snake Pit vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and have been hypothesized to utilize the mixing zone between ambient seawater and hydrothermal fluid to supply these epibionts with a redox environment suitable for the promotion of chemoautotrophic growth. Investigation of the oxidation state, distribution, and concentration of sulfur of different compartments within the shrimp's gill chamber was conducted using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy. Principle component analysis of point XANES spectra yielded four reference components indentified as elemental sulfur, sulfate, monosulfide (likely iron sulfide), and an organosulfur thiol compound. Energy specific micro-XRF mapping of these reference components in both the modified mouthparts and inner lining of the carapace enclosing the gill chamber displayed spatial heterogeneity in sulfur oxidation state and coordination. Sulfate, organosulfur thiol compounds, and phosphate tended to correlate with chitin structural features, while elemental sulfur was concentrated in areas where epibionts were observed. DNA extraction and sequencing from epibiont populations within each of the modified mouthparts and carapace was conducted to provide insight into the community structure at each of these distinct areas of the gill chamber. Here we demonstrate the complexity of sulfur speciation and mineralization in association with the host epibiont community composition.

Rempfert, K. R.; Sievert, S. M.; Hansel, C. M.; Webb, S. M.; Thomas, F.

2013-12-01

108

[Sensitivity of cough with capsaicin in smokers].  

PubMed

In this study, effect of long term smoking on sensitivity of cough reflex was investigated. Healthy, current smoker male and female was evaluated by capsaicin cough challenge test and they were compared with healthy, non-smoker persons with similar age and gender, prospectively. In current smokers, there were 50 male and 39 female, in non-smoker control group, there were 20 male and 21 female. Mean and log C5 dosage in current smoker and non-smoker groups and mean and log C5 dosage in current smoker according to gender were calculated by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results of capsaicin cough challenge test in current and non-smoker groups were evaluated by using Pearson Chi-Square test and Fisher's Exact test. In current smokers comparison of results of capsaicin cough challenge test with smoking history (age with first smoking, duration, pocket year and smoking per day) was evaluated by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Mean C5 and mean log C5 dosage were found decreased in current smokers when they were compared to control group (p< 0.00). In current smoker group mean C5 and mean log C5 dosage were found decreased in male (p< 0.002). When the results of capsaicin cough challenge test were compared between current smoker and control groups, sensitivity of cough reflex in concentration with 0.49, 0.98, 1.95, 3.9, 7.8, 15.6 microM was significantly decreased in current smoker group. Also there was a significant correlation between concentration with 0.98, 1.95, 3.9, 7.8, 15.6, 31.2 microM, and duration of smoking and pocket year of smoking. Also there was a correlation between concentration with 15.6, 31.2, 62.5, 125 microM and smoking per day. This results were correlated with hypothesis about inhibition of C-fibers with nicotin or decrease of C-fibers' sensitivity due to induction of neuropeptide wasting. PMID:18330750

Yildirim, Cetin Aydin; Celik, Pinar; Havlucu, Yavuz; Co?kun, Ev?en; Yorgancio?lu, Arzu; Sakar, Ay?in; Dinç, Gönül

2008-01-01

109

Mitochondrial DNA mutations in the parotid gland of cigarette smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed

It has previously been demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations accumulate in the lung and increase in frequency with age. It has also been shown that the level of mtDNA mutations including deletions and base substitutions are elevated in lung tissue of smokers relative to non-smokers. We have previously shown that the 'common' 4977 bp mtDNA deletion is present in the parotid (salivary) gland of smokers and non-smokers and that there is a significant increase in the level of this deletion in Warthins tumour, an oncocytoma of the parotid gland. In this study we used semi-quantitative PCR to confirm the presence of 4977 bp mtDNA deletion in the parotid gland of non-smokers and smokers. Importantly, we show that the deletion accumulates with age regardless of smoking status and that there was no significant difference in the level of the 4977 bp deletion in parotid tissue of smokers and non-smokers. Using strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and direct sequencing we also found 5/23 smokers had parotid tissue specific base substitutions: either an A/T to G/C transition at A4767 or a G/C to A/T transition at G4853. These results are evidence of age related increase in the 4977 bp deletion and a higher level of mutations, probably due to oxidative damage, in the parotid gland of smokers. PMID:12063066

Lewis, P D; Fradley, S R; Griffiths, A P; Baxter, P W; Parry, J M

2002-06-27

110

HIV symptom distress and smoking outcome expectancies among HIV+ smokers: a pilot test.  

PubMed

Smoking occurs at high rates among people with HIV/AIDS, but little attention has been paid to understanding the nature of tobacco use among HIV+ smokers, especially the role that HIV symptoms may play in cognitive smoking processes. Accordingly, the present investigation examined the relation between HIV symptom distress (i.e., the degree to which HIV symptoms are bothersome) and smoking outcome expectancies. Fifty-seven HIV+ adult smokers (82.50% male; M(age)=47.18; 45.6% White, 28.1% Black, 17.5% Hispanic) were recruited from AIDS service organizations and hospital-based clinics. On average, participants reported knowing their HIV+ status for 16 years and the majority of participants reported that they acquired HIV through unprotected sex (66.6%). Participants completed measures pertaining to HIV symptoms, smoking behavior, and smoking outcome expectancies. HIV symptom distress was positively related to negative reinforcement, negative consequences, and positive reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies after accounting for relevant covariates. The present research suggests that HIV symptom distress may play an important role in understanding smoking outcome expectancies for smokers with HIV/AIDS. Clinical implications for HIV+ smokers are discussed, including the importance of developing effective smoking cessation treatments that meet the unique needs of this group of smokers. PMID:23305258

Grover, Kristin W; Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J

2013-01-01

111

Smoking Cessation Resources California Smokers' Helpline  

E-print Network

Smoking Cessation Resources California Smokers' Helpline www ­ 6197186666 Smoke Stoppers of San Diego ­ 3699 Park Boulevard, San Diego, CA 92103 ­ 6192968700 Nicotine Smoking (CHAMPSS) ­ www.champss.com Partnership for SmokeFree Families ­ www

Russell, Lynn

112

[Negative evaluations and discrimination against smokers].  

PubMed

The present study examined the negative evaluations and discrimination against smokers among the Japanese. In Study 1, 52 students rated one of four target-persons differentially depicted in terms of gender and smoking habit using scales to measure coolness, sociability, intellectuality, and earnestness. The results showed that participants rated smokers more negatively than nonsmokers except for sociability. Those who perceived smoking as controllable rated smokers' earnestness even more negatively, suggesting that the negative evaluations are partially moderated by the perceived controllability of smoking. To examine a hypothesis that negative evaluations of smokers would mediate discrimination, in Study 2 we measured how participants (96 students) responded to target persons asking for a loan or a job, as well as their ratings of the targets on the Big Five personality dimensions. The results support the hypothesis of mediation. PMID:25016832

Yamamoto, Takehiro; Sato, Hiromi; Ohbuchi, Ken-Ichi

2014-06-01

113

Smokers: Risks and Complications in Abdominal Dermolipectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoke has many detrimental effects on health, with consequences such as cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases,\\u000a and tumors. In plastic surgery, these effects appear during the wound healing process. This retrospective study showed wound\\u000a healing in 57 patients who had undergone abdominal dermolipectomy surgery. The patients were divided into two groups: smokers\\u000a and nonsmokers. According to the results, smokers face

M. Rogliani; L. Labardi; E. Silvi; F. Maggiulli; M. Grimaldi; V. Cervelli

2006-01-01

114

Modeling the Growth of Hyperthermophiles in Deep-sea Hydrothermal Diffuse Fluids and Sulfide Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2008 and 2009, 534 hydrothermal fluid samples and 5 actively-venting black smoker chimneys were collected using Alvin for correlative microbiological and chemical analyses as part of the Endeavour Segment and Axial Volcano Geochemistry and Ecology Research (EAGER) program. Hyperthermophilic, autotrophic Fe(III) oxide reducers, methanogens, and sulfur-reducing heterotrophs were enriched for at 85 and 95°C using most-probable-number estimates from 28 diffuse fluid and 8 chimney samples. Heterotrophs were the most abundant of the three groups in both diffuse fluids and black-smoker chimneys. Iron reducers were more abundant than methanogens, and more abundant in sulfide-hosted vents than in basalt-hosted vents. Fluid chemistry suggests that there is net biogenic methanogenesis at the Marker 113/62 diffuse vent at Axial Volcano but nowhere else sampled. The growth of hyperthermophilic methanogens and heterotrophs was modeled in the lab using pure cultures. Methanocaldococcus jannaschii grew at 82°C in a 2-liter reactor with continuous gas flow at H2 concentrations between 20 and 225 µM with a H2 km of 100 µM. Correlating H2 end-member mixing curves from vent fluids and seawater with our laboratory modeling study suggests that H2 concentrations are limiting for Methanocaldococcus growth at most Mothra, Main Field, and High Rise vent sites at Endeavour but sufficient to support growth at some Axial Volcano vents. Therefore, hyperthermophilic methanogens may depend on H2 syntrophy at low H2 sites. Twenty-one pure hyperthermophilic heterotroph strains each grew on ?-1,4 and ?-1,4 linked sugars and polypeptides with concomitant H2 production. The H2 production rate (cell-1 doubling-1) for Pyrococcus furiosus at 95°C without sulfur was 29 fmol, 36 fmol, and 53 fmol for growth on ?-1,4 sugars, ?-1,4 sugars, and peptides, respectively. The CH4 production rate for M. jannaschii was 390 fmol cell-1 doubling-1; therefore, we estimate that it would take approximately 40 heterotroph cells to provide all of the H2 necessary to support the growth of a single methanogen. In contrast to methanogens, autotrophic Fe(III) oxide reducers consume far less H2 during growth and reach cell concentrations similar to methanogens in pure culture. Thermodynamic predictions suggest that they would grow at H2 concentrations lower than those needed by methanogens.

Ver Eecke, H. C.; Oslowski, D. M.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Holden, J. F.

2009-12-01

115

A variety of Microbial Mats cover the Chimney Walls of the Loki's Castle Hydrothermal Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active vent chimneys of the Loki’s castle hydrothermal field at 73°N are the most northerly black smokers ever located. Vent fluids reach temperatures of >300°C, have a pH of around 5.5 and high concentrations of reduced compounds representing important energy sources for microbial life. Particularly they are extremely rich in methane (13.5 mM) and hydrogen (4.9 mM) while hydrogen sulphide concentrations are more typical for black smoker fluids (4.1 mM). Another characteristic of Loki’s castle is the unusually high abundance of microbial mats on the exterior of the chimneys. During a cruise in 2009 we used a ROV equipped with a hydraulic sampling cylinder (biosyringe) to collect samples of five mats varying in color and texture. Pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences yielded 9000 - 25000 reads per sample. Although all mats were dominated by a relatively low number of OTUs, we observed large differences in microbial composition, richness, and evenness of the mats. Also, the most dominating metabolic process occurring in each mat seemed to vary considerably. Two of the mats were largely dominated (60-90% of the reads) by relatives of mesophilic sulfur oxidizing ?-Proteobacteria (e.g. Sulfurovum) while another mat was dominated (48 % of the reads) by organisms affiliated with methanotrophic Methylococcales. In the last two mats we found a high abundance ( >20% - >40% of the reads) of organisms clustering among thermophilic organisms such as Thermodesulfobacteriales, Archaeoglobales, Thermococcales, Thermotogales, and Aquificales. The observed variation of the microbial composition between the different mats is possibly linked to variations in temperature and chemistry of fluids diffusely venting from the chimney. The study was supplemented by pyrosequencing of environmental cDNA from three of the samples (totally 1 100 000 reads). This dataset, which is currently being analyzed, will provide more information about the most active phylotypes in the microbial mats, and give further insight about the major in situ microbial processes occurring in these environments.

Dahle, H.; Roalkvam, I.; Jørgensen, S. L.; Stokke, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Steen, I.

2010-12-01

116

Subseafloor Microbial Life in Venting Fluids from the Mid Cayman Rise Hydrothermal System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In hard rock seafloor environments, fluids emanating from hydrothermal vents are one of the best windows into the subseafloor and its resident microbial community. The functional consequences of an extensive population of microbes living in the subseafloor remains unknown, as does our understanding of how these organisms interact with one another and influence the biogeochemistry of the oceans. Here we report the abundance, activity, and diversity of microbes in venting fluids collected from two newly discovered deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the ultra-slow spreading Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR). Fluids for geochemical and microbial analysis were collected from the Von Damm and Piccard vent fields, which are located within 20 km of one another, yet have extremely different thermal, geological, and depth regimes. Geochemical data indicates that both fields are highly enriched in volatiles, in particular hydrogen and methane, important energy sources for and by-products of microbial metabolism. At both sites, total microbial cell counts in the fluids ranged in concentration from 5 x 10 4 to 3 x 10 5 cells ml-1 , with background seawater concentrations of 1-2 x 10 4 cells ml-1 . In addition, distinct cell morphologies and clusters of cells not visible in background seawater were seen, including large filaments and mineral particles colonized by microbial cells. These results indicate local enrichments of microbial communities in the venting fluids, distinct from background populations, and are consistent with previous enumerations of microbial cells in venting fluids. Stable isotope tracing experiments were used to detect utilization of acetate, formate, and dissolve inorganic carbon and generation of methane at 70 °C under anaerobic conditions. At Von Damm, a putatively ultra-mafic hosted site located at ~2200 m with a maximum temperature of 226 °C, stable isotope tracing experiments indicate methanogenesis is occurring in most fluid samples. No activity was detected in Piccard vent fluids, a basalt-hosted black smoker site located at ~4950 m with a maximum temperature of 403 °C. However, hyperthermophilic and thermophilic heterotrophs of the genus Thermococcus were isolated from Piccard vent fluids, but not Von Damm. These obligate anaerobes, growing optimally at 55-90 °C, are ubiquitous at hydrothermal systems and serve as a readily cultivable indicator organism of subseafloor populations. Finally, molecular analysis of vent fluids is on-going and will define the microbial population structure in this novel ecosystem and allow for direct comparisons with other deep-sea and subsurface habitats as part of our continuing efforts to explore the deep microbial biosphere on Earth.

Huber, J. A.; Reveillaud, J.; Reddington, E.; McDermott, J. M.; Sylva, S. P.; Breier, J. A.; German, C. R.; Seewald, J.

2012-12-01

117

Constraints On Fluid Evolution During Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Circulation From Anhydrite Sampled by ODP Hole 1256D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anhydrite is potentially a useful mineral for recording the evolution of seawater-derived fluids during mid- ocean ridge hydrothermal circulation because it exhibits retrograde solubility, and hence may precipitate due to the heating of seawater or the sub-surface mixing of seawater with black smoker-like fluids. Here we provide new insights into the chemical and thermal evolution of seawater during hydrothermal circulation through analyses of anhydrite recovered from ODP Hole 1256D, the first complete penetration of intact upper oceanic crust down to gabbros. Previously, crustal anhydrite has been recovered only from Hole 504B. Measurements of 87Sr/86Sr, major element ratios, Rare Earth Elements and ?18O in anhydrite constrain the changing composition of fluids as they chemically interact with basalt. Anhydrite fills veins and pore-space in the lower lava sequences from ~530 to ~1000 meters sub- basement (msb), but is concentrated in the lava-dike transition (754 to 811 msb) and uppermost sheeted dikes. Although present in greater quantities than in Hole 504B, the amount of anhydrite recovered from the Site 1256 crust is low compared to that predicted by models of hydrothermal circulation (e.g., Sleep, 1991). Two distinct populations of anhydrite are indicated by measurements of 87Sr/86Sr suggesting different fluid evolution paths within Site 1256. One group of anhydrites have 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7070 to 0.7085, close to that of 15 Ma seawater (0.70878), suggesting that some fluids penetrate through the lavas and into the sheeted dikes with only minimal Sr-exchange with the host basalts. A second group, with low 87Sr/86Sr between 0.7048 and 0.7052, indicates precipitation from a fluid that has undergone far greater interaction with basalt. This range is close to that estimated from Sr-isotopic analyses of epidote for the Hole 1256D hydrothermal fluids (87Sr/86Sr ~0.705). Sr/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr indicate a similar relationship to that seen at ODP Hole 504B suggesting that Sr/Ca ratios reduce greatly during recharge before there is significant Sr exchange with the host basalts. ?18O measurements display an irregular trend with depth from +17‰ in the lower volcanics to +10‰ in the sheeted dikes suggesting an increase in precipitation temperatures from 105 to 211°C. One sample, from a chalcopyrite mineralized dike margin has a very light ?18O of +2.2‰ suggesting a temperature of ~408°, perhaps indicating that fluid was superheated following direct contact with the hot intrusive body. This sample also records low 87Sr/86Sr and high total REE.

Smith-Duque, C.; Teagle, D. A.; Alt, J. C.; Cooper, M. J.

2008-12-01

118

Increased risk of suicidal ideation in smokers and former smokers compared to never smokers: Evidence from the Baltimore ECA follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Objective The incidence rate of suicidal ideation amongst current and former smokers versus never smokers is not known. Main Findings The age-adjusted incidence of suicidal ideation was highest among current smokers, followed by former, and never smokers. The adjusted hazard for suicide ideation was 2.22 (95%CI=1.48, 3.33) and 1.19 (95%CI=0.78, 1.82) for current and former smokers respectively, compared to never smokers. Conclusion Current smokers have increased risks of suicidal ideation above and beyond the risk for never and former smokers regardless of age, gender, history of depressive disorder and/or anxiety symptoms, and alcohol abuse/dependence. Smoking cessation might be beneficial for some suicide prevention efforts. PMID:20822357

Clarke, Diana E.; Eaton, William W.; Petronis, Kenneth R.; Ko, Jean Y.; Chatterjee, Anjan; Anthony, James C.

2010-01-01

119

Cartilage tympanoplasty: a reliable technique for smokers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to report our experience with cartilage tympanoplasty (CT) in smokers and compare it with that of non-smokers using a retrospective chart review at a tertiary referral center. Between September 2008 and September 2010, cartilage tympanoplasty was performed in 52 patients. Among them, 27 were active smokers and 25 former or non-smokers. The entire tympanic membrane was replaced with conchal cartilage, shaped either as a shield for cases with intact canal wall mastoidectomies, or crashed for cases with canal wall down procedures. The mean post-operative follow-up was 12 months (range 6-18 months). A complete pre- and post-operative audiologic evaluation was obtained in all patients. Graft take was successful in all patients. The overall average pre-operative and post-operative pure tone average air-bone gaps (PTA-ABG) was 52.2 dB ± 17.7 dB and 35.4 dB ± 17.9 dB, respectively, with an overall improvement of 16.8 dB (p < 0.001). A post-operative PTA-ABG of 25 dB or less was achieved in 39 (75 %) patients (p < 0.001). In smokers, the hearing improvement was 17.6 dB (p < 0.001) with a PTA-ABG of 25 dB or less in 19 (70 %). In non-smokers, the average hearing improvement was 16.8 dB (p < 0.0005) with a post-operative PTA-ABG of 25 dB or less in 19 (76 %), (p < 0.001). The results showed that the CT technique is a very effective procedure for smokers. Excellent graft take and satisfactory hearing results can be accomplished regardless of smoking habits. PMID:23440436

Kyrodimos, E; Stamatiou, G A; Margaritis, E; Kikidis, D; Sismanis, A

2014-02-01

120

Geological setting of hydrothermal activity at 12°50'N on the East Pacific Rise: A submersible study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed submersible investigation of a 20-km segment of the East Pacific Rise near 12°50'N between the Orozco and Clipperton fracture zones has resulted in the localization of 24 active hydrothermal vent fields and over 80 sites of sulfide accumulations. The active vents range from low-temperature vents characterized by exotic benthic communities to high-temperature "black smokers" and the deposition of polymetallic sulfides. The study is based upon a combination of fine scale topography obtained using the SEABEAM sonar system on N/O "Jean Charcot", camera lowerings along the axis using the RAIE vehicle, and 32 dives by the submersible "Cyana" operating from N/O "Le Suroit". The observations made between the Orozco and Clipperton fracture zones show topographic highs situated along the strike of the accreting plate segment separated by a small ridge offset at 11°49'N. This offset divides this portion of the ridge into two separate spreading segments each of which has a primary topographic high along strike. Secondary highs are associated with each segment of the ridge separated by either small offsets (or relay zones) or in some cases, zones where spreading centers overlap. Dives made on the tops of both primary highs (12°50'N and 11°30'N) confirm the presence inferred from previous surface work of high-temperature vent fields while one reconnaissance dive (14°20'N) near the Orozco fracture zone/ridge axis intersection reveals the absence of any hydrothermal activity in the present or recent past. The vast majority of vent fields investigated were found at the topographic high near 12°50'N, are associated with the most recent period of volcanism, and are confined to lava ponds situated within the axial graben.

Ballard, R. D.; Hekinian, Roger; Francheteau, Jean

1984-07-01

121

Zinc, copper, and lead in mid-ocean ridge basalts and the source rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The contents of Zn, Cu, and Pb in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and the MORB source-rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits are examined. The values of Zn, Cu, and Pb for submarine mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are, respectively (in ppm): average MORB-75, 75, and 0.7; West Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR)-87, 64, and 0.5; southern JFR-120 and 0.5; and 21??N, East Pacific Rise (EPR)-73, 78, and 0.5. Values of Zn/Pb range from about 100-240 and Cu/ Pb from 100-156. In this study, Zn is found to correlate positively with TiO2 + FeO (mean square of weighted deviates, MSWD, of 1.6 for JFR basalt), and inversely with Mg number (MSWD of 3.5). Therefore, contrary to statements in the literature that Zn should be compatible in MORB, Zn is a mildly incompatible element and must be enriched in the glass phase relative to olivine as Zn does not fit into the other major phenocryst phase, plagioclase. In the source of MORB, Zn likely is most enriched in oxides: spinel, magnetite, and titanomagnetite. Copper generally does not correlate well with other elements in most MORB data examined. When differentiation is dominated by olivine, Cu has a tendency to behave incompatibly (e.g., at Mg numbers > 70), but, overall, Cu shows some tendency towards being a compatible element, particularly along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a behavior presumably due to separation of sulfides in which Cu (but not Zn) is markedly enriched. Copper thus may be in dispersed sulfides in the source of MORB. Ocean ridges provide important data on source-rock controls for sulfide deposits because, in sediment-starved ridges, much is known about the possible source rocks and mineralization is presently occurring. In contrast to Zn/Pb ~5 in continental hot Cl-rich brines, Zn/Pb in the hottest sediment-starved ridge black smoker hydrothermal fluids at 21 ??N, EPR is about 110, similar to local MORB (145), but Cu/Pb is closer to 30, possibly due to subsurface deposition of Cu. At the JFR, the best value of Zn/Pb in the hydrothermal fluids is about 175, again similar to local MORB (240), but Cu is very low in the fluids that are at temperatures less than 300??C. The large MORB-like Zn/Pb in the hottest black-smoker fluids suggests a source-rock control for the metals that prohibits significant galena in the black-smoker deposits of sediment-starved ridges. In contrast, exhalative deposits on sediment-swamped ridges have significant galena; its presence is suggestive of Pb derivation from sediments, an origin supported by Pb isotope studies of LeHuray and colleagues in 1988. ?? 1994.

Doe, B. R.

1994-01-01

122

Life Gain in Italian Smokers Who Quit  

PubMed Central

This study aims to estimate the number of life years gained with quitting smoking in Italian smokers of both sexes, by number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day) and age at cessation. All-cause mortality tables by age, sex and smoking status were computed, based on Italian smoking data, and the survival curves of former and current smokers were compared. The more cig/day a man/woman smokes, and the younger his/her age of quitting smoking, the more years of life he/she gains with cessation. In fact, cessation at age 30, 40, 50, or 60 years gained, respectively, about 7, 7, 6, or 5, and 5, 5, 4, or 3 years of life, respectively, for men and women that smoked 10–19 cig/day. The gain in life years was higher for heavy smokers (9 years for >20 cig/day) and lower for light smokers (4 years for 1–9 cig/day). Consistently with prospective studies conducted worldwide, quitting smoking increases life expectancy regardless of age, gender and number of cig/day. The estimates of the number of years of life that could be gained by quitting smoking, when computed specifically for a single smoker, could be used by physicians and health professionals to promote a quit attempt. PMID:24577282

Carrozzi, Laura; Falcone, Franco; Carreras, Giulia; Pistelli, Francesco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Martini, Andrea; Viegi, Giovanni

2014-01-01

123

Heart Rate Variability and Wavelet-based Studies on ECG Signals from Smokers and Non-smokers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study deals with the heart rate variability (HRV) and wavelet-based ECG signal analysis of smokers and non-smokers. The results of HRV indicated dominance towards the sympathetic nervous system activity in smokers. The heart rate was found to be higher in case of smokers as compared to non-smokers ( p < 0.05). The frequency domain analysis showed an increase in the LF and LF/HF components with a subsequent decrease in the HF component. The HRV features were analyzed for classification of the smokers from the non-smokers. The results indicated that when RMSSD, SD1 and RR-mean features were used concurrently a classification efficiency of > 90 % was achieved. The wavelet decomposition of the ECG signal was done using the Daubechies (db 6) wavelet family. No difference was observed between the smokers and non-smokers which apparently suggested that smoking does not affect the conduction pathway of heart.

Pal, K.; Goel, R.; Champaty, B.; Samantray, S.; Tibarewala, D. N.

2013-12-01

124

How do smokers control their cigarette expenditures?  

PubMed

When faced with high cigarette prices, smokers can potentially control cigarette expenditures by limiting consumption or seeking cheaper cigarettes. The present study examined both these options and whether the use of price-minimizing strategies (the second option) could counteract a further price increase without smokers having to reduce consumption. Data for 5,109 smokers who purchased manufactured cigarettes were from the 2002 cross-sectional, population-based, random-digit-dialed California Tobacco Survey. We used logistic regression to examine which smokers used consumption-limiting or price-minimizing strategies, and multiple linear regression to determine how much price-minimizing strategies reduced the average price paid per pack. Overall, 32.3% of California smokers said they limited consumption and 74.1% used at least one of the five price-minimizing strategies identified: choosing cheaper retail outlets (61.1%), using promotional offers (35.2%), choosing cheaper brands (28.7%), purchasing by the carton (27.7%), and using low-tax or nontaxed sources (6.3%). Different groups of smokers used different strategies. Except for the use of promotional offers, all price-minimizing strategies significantly reduced the price paid per pack. Carton purchasers saved 1.01 US dollars/pack, and those buying from low-tax or nontaxed sources saved 1.23 US dollars/pack. However, pack buyers were reluctant to purchase cartons, mostly because they thought they might smoke too much, or because they considered the upfront cost unaffordable. The average California smoker could potentially save 0.33-0.66 US dollars/pack or 6.00-12.00 US dollars/month by using other price-minimizing strategies. Reducing consumption by 3 cigarettes/day could save a smoker 18.00 US dollars/month. Whereas price-minimizing strategies appeared to save money, cutting consumption could save even more. Thus further substantial tax increases would likely have the desired effect. PMID:16085532

White, Victoria M; Gilpin, Elizabeth A; White, Martha M; Pierce, John P

2005-08-01

125

Multiplicity of abnormal promoter methylation in lung adenocarcinomas from smokers and never smokers.  

PubMed

The prevalence of methylation of the p16, DAPK and RASSF1A genes was investigated in lung adenocarcinoma from smokers, former uranium miners and never smokers. The association between a common genetic alteration in adenocarcinoma, mutation of the K-ras gene and methylation of these genes, as well as survival was examined. Adenocarcinomas from 157 smokers, 46 never smokers and 34 former uranium miners were evaluated for methylation of the p16, DAPK and RASSF1A genes using the methylation-specific PCR assay. Comparisons were also made to prevalences of methylation of the MGMT gene and mutation of the K-ras gene previously examined in these tumors. The prevalence of methylation for all genes was similar between adenocarcinomas from smokers and never smokers, although the prevalence for methylation of the p16 gene tended to be higher in smokers compared to never smokers. A significantly higher prevalence for p16 methylation was seen in central vs. peripheral lung tumors. At least 1 gene was methylated in 35% of stage I tumors, whereas 2 and >/=3 genes were methylated in 40% and 16% of tumors, respectively. Methylation of all genes was independent of K-ras mutation, whereas methylation of the DAPK and RASSF1A genes was positively associated. Environmental tobacco smoke, the strongest lung cancer risk factor among never smokers, induces adenocarcinoma in part through inactivation of the p16, DAPK and RASSF1A genes. Adenocarcinomas may develop through 2 distinct processes: multiple gene inactivations through promoter hypermethylation and activation of the K-ras gene. PMID:15578700

Divine, Kevin K; Pulling, Leah C; Marron-Terada, Patricia G; Liechty, Kieu C; Kang, Terri; Schwartz, Ann G; Bocklage, Therese J; Coons, Teresa A; Gilliland, Frank D; Belinsky, Steven A

2005-04-10

126

Perceptions of smokers influence nonsmoker attitudes and preferences for interactions  

PubMed Central

In two studies, we examined nonsmokers’ perceptions of smokers and consequences of the perceptions. In Study 1, smokers answered questions about their sense of self, dependence on smoking, and motivation to quit. Nonsmokers answered questions about their perceptions of these characteristics. Differences between smokers’ self-descriptions and nonsmokers’ perceptions were observed. Study 2 asked nonsmokers to judge two types of smokers for which the descriptions were based on Study 1 findings. Results showed that nonsmokers held a more negative attitude about and were less willing to engage in different close relationships with the smoker who was described in terms of nonsmokers’ perceptions rather than smokers’ reports. Attitude mediated the relationship between type of smoker and willingness to date a smoker. PMID:23734065

Dillard, Amanda J.; Magnan, Renee E.; Koblitz, Amber R.; McCaul, Kevin D.

2012-01-01

127

Reaching smokers with lower educational attainment.  

PubMed

Between 1977 and 1994, smoking rates declined among men and women, but the decline was steeper for men. While smoking rates fell among people at all levels of education, the smallest drop was among those with high school graduation or less, particularly women. For those who had stopped smoking, health concerns had been the overriding factor. Smokers with lower education reported encountering fewer smoking restrictions in their daily activities than did those with higher education. All smokers cited the mass media as their major source of information about smoking, but those with lower education reported the mass media less often than did smokers with higher levels of attainment, and were less likely to obtain information from books, pamphlets or magazines. In addition, smaller percentages of smokers with lower education recalled printed warnings about heart disease on cigarette packages. Variations in the decline of smoking suggest that health promotion and smoking cessation programs should consider sex and educational differences when targeting the smoking population. Differences in rates of smoking among people aged 20 and over were examined by educational attainment using selected health surveys conducted between 1977 and 1994. A Health Canada-sponsored supplement to Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey was used for data on other aspects of smoking such as cutting back or attempting to quit, sources of health information, and awareness of smoking restrictions and cigarette package warnings. PMID:9110961

Millar, W J

1996-01-01

128

Teens' images of smoking and smokers.  

PubMed Central

The authors used qualitative and quantitative data to identify and interpret specific images teens have about smoking and smokers. Qualitative data were collected in 1996 from 793 teenagers participating in 125 focus groups at eight different sites across the United States. Most focus groups were homogeneous with respect to gender, ethnicity, and smoking status. Ages ranged from 12 to 18 years, and about half of the participants were female. The majority of participants (62%) were white and African American, the remainder (38%) were Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian/Pacific Islander. Groups were comprised of smoking and nonsmoking teens. Focus group activities were used to elicit image-related discussions about attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of smoking. Investigators identified seven consistent and distinctive image themes: Appearance (smoking is dirty and unattractive), Activity (nonsmokers have busy, active lives), Drugs and sex (smokers are substance abusers and are sexually active), Rebellion (smokers belong to rebellious groups), Affect (smokers are depressed, angry, and stressed-out), In control (nonsmokers have self-control and are independent), and Pride (nonsmokers are proud of themselves, their families, and their heritage). A large scale, multi-site qualitative research approach can increase understanding of teen smoking. The identification of distinctive images of smoking can help researchers develop more sophisticated models of the processes of teen smoking than currently exist. PMID:11889285

Luke, D.; Allen, P.; Arian, G.; Crawford, M.; Headen, S.; Spigner, A. C.; Tassler, P.; Ureda, J.

2001-01-01

129

Variations in Lung Cancer Risk Among Smokers  

Cancer.gov

Variations in Lung Cancer Risk Among Smokers Peter B. Bach, Michael W. Kattan, Mark D. Thornquist, Mark G. Kris, Ramsey C. Tate, Matt J. Barnett, Lillian J. Hsieh, Colin B. Begg Institutions: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Fred

130

Tobacco Dependence Treatment for Hospitalized Smokers: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Ironically, the identifi- cation of admitted smokers and offers of assistance with the management of nicotine withdrawal and smoking cessation have not been accorded a priority or even consid- ered an element of basic practice in most hospital settings. With many other medical problems, hospitals have implemented policies to deal with significant public health issues (eg, the screening of

131

GEOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROTHERMAL DEPOSITS  

E-print Network

T. Mackenzie MichaelJ.Mottl #12;iv ABSTRACT Mineralogical composition,major, minor and rare earth elementchemistry,and uranium-seriesradionuclideswere determinedfor hydrothermaliron-rich depositsfrom five hydrothermal vent fields on the summit of Loihi Seamount,Hawai'i. The mineralogy and the major

Luther, Douglas S.

132

[Tooth decay and its complication prognosis in smokers].  

PubMed

The study focuses on complicated and non-complicated tooth decay course and prognosis in smokers. Oral status, prevention and treatment effectiveness was assessed in 330 non-smokers and 345 smoking patients. The results allowed concluding with guidelines for tooth decay prevention and treatment in smokers. PMID:24576962

Orekhova, L Iu; Osipova, M V

2014-01-01

133

Cerebral effects of nicotine during cognition in smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the smoker, nicotine has a positive effect on attention, cognition and mood. Conversely, nicotine abstinence is characterized\\u000a by uncomfortable psychological effects such as impaired attention, but also irritability. We postulated that nicotine exerts\\u000a an effect on cerebral areas important for attention and mood. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), as an index for cerebral\\u000a activity, was measured in both smokers

P. H. Ghatan; M. Ingvar; L. Eriksson; S. Stone-Elander; M. Serrander; K. Ekberg; J. Wahren

1998-01-01

134

Comparison of peroxidase response to mental arithmetic stress in saliva of smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed

Saliva is the first body fluid to encounter exogenous materials or gases such as cigarette smoke (CS). The aim of this study was to examine whether smoking affects oral peroxidase (OPO) reactivity to mental stress. The subjects were 39 non-smokers and 10 smokers. In the experiment, the Kraepelin psychodiagnostic test as a psychological stressor and saliva was sampled 30 min before, just before, immediately after, and 30 min after the beginning of the test. OPO reactivity to the test between smokers and non-smokers was measured in addition to uric acid concentration, flow rate, IgA, thiocyanate (SCN-) concentration, amylase activity as a salivary stress marker, and ultra-weak chemiluminescence (UCL) level, which is indicative of salivary antioxidative and antibacterial abilities. Moreover, we studied the effect of smoking on the response of salivary peroxidase (SPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity to mental stress, respectively. The results showed that the IgA concentration, amylase activity, SCN(- concentration, and UCL level are higher in the non-smoking group than smoking group and the IgA concentration and UCL level increased in the non-smokers significantly just after the Kraepelin test. The levels of SCN-) were higher in smokers than in non-smokers and OPO activity was greater in the non-smoking group in all sessions. Furthermore, only the non-smokers had significantly increased MPO activity just after the test. MPO may play a crucial role in the response to acute psychological stress besides inflammation, and CS suppresses this response significantly. PMID:17538236

Goi, Nobuhiro; Hirai, Yuuko; Harada, Hitoshi; Ikari, Akira; Ono, Takahiko; Kinae, Naohide; Hiramatsu, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Kimitsugu; Takagi, Kuniaki

2007-05-01

135

No difference in striatal dopamine transporter availability between active smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers using [123I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and SPECT  

PubMed Central

Background Mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways play important roles in both the rewarding and conditioning effects of drugs. The dopamine transporter (DAT) is of central importance in regulating dopaminergic neurotransmission and in particular in activating the striatal D2-like receptors. Molecular imaging studies of the relationship between DAT availability/dopamine synthesis capacity and active cigarette smoking have shown conflicting results. Through the collaboration between 13 SPECT centres located in 10 different European countries, a database of FP-CIT-binding in healthy controls was established. We used the database to test the hypothesis that striatal DAT availability is changed in active smokers compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers. Methods A total of 129 healthy volunteers were included. Subjects were divided into three categories according to past and present tobacco smoking: (1) non-smokers (n = 64), (2) ex-smokers (n = 39) and (3) active smokers (n = 26). For imaging of the DAT availability, we used [123I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Data were collected in collaboration between 13 SPECT centres located in 10 different European countries. The striatal measure of DAT availability was analyzed in a multiple regression model with age, SPECT centre and smoking as predictor. Results There was no statistically significant difference in DAT availability between the groups of active smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers (p = 0.34). Further, we could not demonstrate a significant association between striatal DAT and the number of cigarettes per day or total lifetime cigarette packages in smokers and ex-smokers. Conclusion Our results do not support the hypothesis that large differences in striatal DAT availability are present in smokers compared to ex-smokers and healthy volunteers with no history of smoking. PMID:23688063

2013-01-01

136

Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

2013-01-01

137

32P-POSTLABELING ANALYSIS OF DNA ADDUCTS IN HUMAN SPERM CELLS FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

To determine the feasibility of using human sperm cells for DNA 32postlabeling analyses, and to evaluate the baseline level and the possible presence of smoking-related DNA adducts in these cells, sperm DNA was isolated from 12 heavy smokers, 12 light smokers and 12 non-smokers. ...

138

Tide-related variability of TAG hydrothermal activity observed by deep-sea monitoring system and OBSH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal activities were monitored by an ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone (OBSH) and a composite measuring system (Manatee) including CTD, current meter, transmission meter and cameras at a small depression on the TAG hydrothermal mound in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Low-frequency pressure pulses detected by the hydrophone with semi-diurnal periodicity seem to correspond to cycles of hydrothermal upflow from a small and short-lived smoker vent close to the observing site. The peaks of pressure pulses are synchronous with the maximum gradient of areal strain decrease due to tidal load release. Microearthquakes with very near epicenters occur sporadically and do not appear to be directly correlatable to hydrothermal venting. Temporal variations in bottom water temperature also have semi-diurnal periodicity but are more complicated than the pressure events. Temperatures may be affected both by upwelling of hot water and by lateral flow of the bottom current changing its directions with ocean tide.

Fujioka, Kantaro; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kato, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Misumi; Mitsuzawa, Kyohiko; Kinoshita, Masataka; Nishizawa, Azusa

1997-12-01

139

Black Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is a Black Eye? Tweet Black eye is a phrase used to describe bruising ... dark bruising in the tissue. What Is a Black Eye? Black Eye Symptoms What Causes a Black ...

140

Smoking Characteristics and Comorbidities in the Power To Quit Randomized Clinical Trial for Homeless Smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Smoking prevalence in homeless populations is strikingly high (?70%); yet, little is known about effective smoking cessation interventions for this population. We conducted a community-based clinical trial, Power To Quit (PTQ), to assess the effects of motivational interviewing (MI) and nicotine patch (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT]) on smoking cessation among homeless smokers. This paper describes the smoking characteristics and comorbidities of smokers in the study. Methods: Four hundred and thirty homeless adult smokers were randomized to either the intervention arm (NRT + MI) or the control arm (NRT + Brief Advice). Baseline assessment included demographic information, shelter status, smoking history, motivation to quit smoking, alcohol/other substance abuse, and psychiatric comorbidities. Results: Of the 849 individuals who completed the eligibility survey, 578 (68.1%) were eligible and 430 (74.4% of eligibles) were enrolled. Participants were predominantly Black, male, and had mean age of 44.4 years (S D = 9.9), and the majority were unemployed (90.5%). Most participants reported sleeping in emergency shelters; nearly half had been homeless for more than a year. Nearly all the participants were daily smokers who smoked an average of 20 cigarettes/day. Nearly 40% had patient health questionnaire-9 depression scores in the moderate or worse range, and more than 80% screened positive for lifetime history of drug abuse or dependence. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of enrolling a diverse sample of homeless smokers into a smoking cessation clinical trial. The uniqueness of the study sample enables investigators to examine the influence of nicotine dependence as well as psychiatric and substance abuse comorbidities on smoking cessation outcomes. PMID:22589422

Goldade, Kate; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Thomas, Janet L.; Eischen, Sara; Guo, Hongfei; Connett, John E.; Grant, Jon; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Resnicow, Ken; Owen, Greg; Gelberg, Lillian; Jarlais, Don Des

2013-01-01

141

Comparing attentional bias to smoking cues in current smokers, former smokers, and non-smokers using a dot-probe task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much evidence documents that individuals with emotional and drug-use disorders demonstrate biased attention toward stimuli associated with their disorder. This bias appears to diminish following successful treatment. Two studies examined whether current cigarette smokers show biased attention toward smoking-related images compared with non-smokers (Studies 1 and 2) and whether this bias is less pronounced in former smokers (Study 2). Attentional

Ronald N Ehrman; Steven J Robbins; Melissa A Bromwell; Megan E Lankford; John R Monterosso; Charles P O'Brien

2002-01-01

142

volcanic architecture of an active felsic-hosted hydrothermal system reconstructed using rab-images and wireline logging data (odp hole 1189c)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 193 drilled an active black smoker field (Roman Ruins) of the PACMANUS hydrothermal system (Papua New Guinea), a hydrothermal system associated with felsic magmatism at a convergent plate margin. Leg 193 drilled three holes at this hydrothermal site but only two holes were cored and variably altered dacites were recovered. Hole 1189C was drilled 166 m deep without coring using Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) technique and employing the Resistivity-at-the-Bit (RAB) technique for the first time in ODP. Therefore, LWD data and additional wireline measurements, including Formation Microscanner (FMS) images recorded over a 40 m long interval, are of prime importance for reconstructing the different volcanic facies. The RAB provides electrical images of the borehole wall with lower spatial resolution than the images from the FMS tool but yields a full 360° coverage of the borehole wall. Volcanic facies were reconstructed by calibrating logs with the RAB and FMS images. Information on the volcanic facies as well as their petrophysical properties were taken from the cores in the neighboring holes. Using the combination of LWD and wireline measurements defined individual log response patterns for each facies could be defined. Massive units cause high electrical resistivity values and low total gamma-ray values The massive dacites belong to the coherent facies representing the interior part of lava flows where the erupted melt cools slowly. Brecciated and fractured material from the outer part of lava flows, the so-called volcaniclastic facies show low electrical resistivity and high gamma-ray counts. Sulfide disseminations developing in connection with hydrothermal fluids are characterized by high density and photoelectrical factor. In the RAB images fresh massive rocks of the coherent facies can be distinguished by the strongly altered material of the volcaniclastic facies. Besides in the FMS images it is possible to separate breccia from fractured units within the volcaniclastic facies. The reconstructed lithology of Hole 1189C consists of a complex facies association. The equal portions of coherent and volcaniclastic facies indicate a medial facies situated at the flanks of the subaqueous, lava-dominated felsic volcano.

Arnold, J.; Bartetzko, A.; Clauser, C.

2003-04-01

143

Reduction of the Nailfold Capillary Blood Velocity in Cigarette Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette smoking causes cardiovascular disease and activates markers of endothelial dysfunction or injury. We investigated the nailfold capillary blood velocity (NCV) in cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers. Methods Forty-eight men (eighteen non-smokers and thirty smokers) were recruited. We measured NCV using nailfold capillary microscopy and exhaled carbon monoxide (ECO) concentration three times (before smoking; NCV0min and ECO0min, and after smoking; NCV5min, ECO5min, NCV30min, and ECO30min), in a condition of fasting in the case of smokers. In non-smokers, the same measurements were taken without smoking. Additionally, personal cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking history were acquired by a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Mean age, waist circumference, ECO0min, ECO5min, and ECO30min was higher and NCV5min and NCV30min were significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Total smoking years were negatively correlated with NCV5min. Average pack of the daily smoking, total pack-years, as well as total smoking years were also negatively correlated with NCV30min by regression analysis. After adjustment of significantly different variables, NCV30min was significantly lower in smokers. In the subgroup analysis, the interleukin-6 level was significantly increased in subjects with a long period of cigarette smoking compared with non-smokers. Conclusion Reduction of NCV in smokers is associated with personal smoking history, not with body composition or certain oxidative stress markers. PMID:23267426

Kim, Kwang-Min; Lee, Duck-Joo

2012-01-01

144

‘We will speak as the smoker’: the tobacco industry’s smokers’ rights groups  

PubMed Central

Introduction The tobacco industry usually keeps its commercial and political communications separate. However, the images of the smoker developed by the two types of communication may contradict one another. This study assesses industry attempts to organize ‘smokers’ rights groups,’ (SRGs) and the image of the smoker that underlay these efforts. Methods Searches of the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, the British American Tobacco documents database, and Tobacco Documents Online. Results 1100 documents pertaining to SRGs were found, including groups from across Europe and in Australia, New Zealand, and Hong Kong. From the late 1970s through the late 1990s they were active in numerous policy arenas, particularly the defeat of smoke-free laws. Their strategies included asserting their right to smoke and positioning themselves as courteous victims of tobacco control advocates. However, most SRGs were short-lived and apparently failed to inspire smokers to join in any significant numbers. Conclusion SRGs conflated the legality of smoking with a right to smoke. SRGs succeeded by focusing debates about smoke-free policies on smokers rather than on smoke. However, SRGs’ inability to attract members highlights the conflict between the image of the smoker in cigarette ads and that of the smokers’ rights advocate. The changing social climate for smoking both compelled the industry’s creation of SRGs, and created the contradictions that led to their failure. As tobacco control becomes stronger, the industry may revive this strategy in other countries. Advocates should be prepared to counter SRGs by exposing their origins and exploiting these contradictions. PMID:17065174

Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

2009-01-01

145

Evidence of Chemolithoautotrophy in the Bacterial Community Associated with Alvinella pompejana, a Hydrothermal Vent Polychaete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep-sea polychaete Alvinella pompejana colonizes tubes on the sides of black smoker chimneys along the East Pacific Rise. A diverse, yet phylogenetically constrained episymbiotic community is obligately associated with its dorsal surface. The morphologically and phylogenetically distinct dominant episymbionts have not yet been cultured, and there are no clearly defined roles for these bacteria in this symbiosis. A large

Barbara J. Campbell; Jeffrey L. Stein; S. Craig Cary

2003-01-01

146

Genetics might determine which smokers get hooked  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have identified genetic risk factors that may accelerate a teen's progression to becoming a lifelong heavy smoker. The team of scientists from the U.S., the U.K., and New Zealand examined earlier studies by other research teams to develop a genetic risk profile for heavy smoking. Then they looked at their own long-term study of 1,000 New Zealanders from birth to age 38 to identify whether individuals at high genetic risk got hooked on cigarettes more quickly as teens and whether, as adults, they had a harder time quitting. Duke University researchers developed a new "genetic risk score" for the study by examining prior genome-wide associations (GWAS) of adult smokers. Duke is home to the Duke Cancer Institute.

147

The mortality risks of smokers in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Few studies of adverse health effects from smoking have been conducted in southeastern Asian populations which may exhibit racial, cultural, and smoking behavioral differences that could affect mortality patterns. This study aims to quantify cause-specific mortality risks among cigarette smokers in Taiwan.Methods. The study population for this investigation was derived from two existing prospective study cohorts: a community-based cohort

Chi-Pang Wen; Shan Pou Tsai; Chien-Jen Chen; Ting-Yuan Cheng

2004-01-01

148

Breath-holding in a marijuana smoker  

PubMed Central

It is vital to ask about illicit drug smoking in the respiratory history as marijuana smoking augments the detrimental effects of tobacco. We describe the case of a 28 year old marijuana smoker who developed a pneumothorax during a breath-holding competition. Pneumothorax is a common clinical entity that every physician should be aware of how to manage and lifetime risk is considerably increased by smoking and in exposure to barotrauma.

Aujayeb, Avinash; Donald, Calum; Doe, Simon

2011-01-01

149

Mood, mood regulation expectancies and frontal systems functioning in current smokers versus never-smokers in China and Australia.  

PubMed

Indices of mood, mood regulation expectancies and everyday executive functioning were examined in adult current smokers and never-smokers of both genders in Australia (N = 97), where anti-smoking campaigns have dramatically reduced smoking prevalence and acceptability, and in China (N = 222), where smoking prevalence and public acceptance of smoking remain high. Dependent measures included the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), the Negative Mood Regulation (NMR) expectancies scale, the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVAs) controlling for demographic and recruitment related variables revealed highly significant differences between current smokers and never-smokers in both countries such that smokers indicated worse moods and poorer functioning than never-smokers on all dependent measures. Chinese smokers scored significantly worse on all dependent measures than Australian smokers whereas Chinese and Australian never-smokers did not differ on any of the same measures. Although nicotine dependence level as measured by FTND was significantly higher in Chinese than Australian smokers and was significantly correlated with all other dependent measures, inclusion of FTND scores as another covariate in MANCOVA did not eliminate the highly significant differences between Chinese and Australian smokers. Results are interpreted in light of the relative ease of taking up and continuing smoking in China compared to Australia today. PMID:23948698

Lyvers, Michael; Carlopio, Cassandra; Bothma, Vicole; Edwards, Mark S

2013-11-01

150

CHARACTERISTICS OF HIV-POSITIVE CIGARETTE SMOKERS: A SAMPLE OF SMOKERS FACING MULTIPLE CHALLENGES  

PubMed Central

HIV-positive populations have high smoking rates and smoking puts HIV-positive individuals at higher risk for HIV-related health problems. Little information is available on the characteristics of HIV-positive smokers. The present study examines the baseline psychosocial characteristics of 184 HIV-positive cigarette smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation clinical trial. The sample was 82% male, and 53% Caucasian. Over half were unemployed and 43.8% reported an income of less than $10,000. Mean cigarettes per day was 19.2 and the mean Fagerström Test Nicotine Dependence score was 4.8. The majority reported a strong desire to quit however, only 45% endorsed a goal of complete abstinence. On average, 43.2% of the smokers' social support was made up of other smokers. Both licit and illicit drug use was common and there were significant rates of lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in this cohort of smokers. It is critical to evaluate interventions that consider the specific needs of this group. PMID:19537954

Humfleet, Gary L.; Delucchi, Kevin; Kelley, Kevin; Hall, Sharon M.; Dilley, James; Harrison, George

2009-01-01

151

Heavy smokers have higher bcl-2 mutation frequency and risk for lymphoma than non-smokers  

SciTech Connect

Early detection of cells carrying somatic mutations at oncogenic loci could prove useful for identifying individuals at high risk for cancer and permit intervention prior to the onset of clinically recognizable disease. We have determined the frequency of rare t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocations at the bcl-2 proto-oncogene locus in the peripheral blood of 85 smokers and 35 nonsmokers using a sensitive nested PCR assay. The identical translocation occurs in 85% of follicular lymphoma tumors, and about 50% of all non-Hodgkin`s Lymphoma. Smokers with the highest exposure had a 3.6-fold higher mutation frequency relative to the nonsmokers. Logistic regression analysis showed that of the variables tested (age, race, sex, current smoking, years of smoking, and pack-years), the cumulative smoking measure (pack-years) was the best predictor of t(14;18) frequency (p=0.004). These observations are consistent with two recent epidemiological studies showing 2.3-fold and 3.8-fold increased risk for Non-Hodgkins lymphoma among heavy smokers. The results support the hypothesis that smokers have an increased burden of lymphocytes bearing bcl-2 mutations which raises their individual risk for future lymphoid tumors. We speculate that the increased frequency of oncogenic translocations in smokers may result either from the mutagenic or antigenic activity of cigarette smoke.

Liu, Y.; Cortopassi, G.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Bell, D.A.

1994-09-01

152

Prevalence of NRT Use and Associated Nicotine Intake in Smokers, Recent Ex-Smokers and Longer-Term Ex-Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is used by smokers wanting to reduce their smoking and to quit. However, there are very little data on nicotine intake associated with NRT use in representative population samples. This study aimed to provide estimates for NRT use and associated nicotine exposure among smokers, recent and longer-term ex-smokers in England, a country with a permissive regulatory regime for nicotine substitution. Methods In the Smoking Toolkit Study, a monthly series of representative household surveys of adults aged 16+ in England, current and recent ex-smokers who agreed to be re-contacted were followed up 6 months later and standard socio-demographic and smoking characteristics assessed (N?=?5,467, response rate 25.1%). A random sub-sample (N?=?1,614; 29.5%) also provided saliva, analysed for cotinine. Results The sample followed up was broadly representative of the original sample. At follow-up, 11.8% (95%CI 10.9–12.8, N?=?565) of current smokers, 34.8% (95%CI 28.9–41.3, N?=?77) of recent (?3 months) ex-smokers, and 7.8% (95%CI 5.6–10.6, N?=?36) of longer-term (>3 months) ex-smokers reported using NRT. Smokers who used NRT had similar saliva cotinine concentrations to smokers who did not use NRT (mean ± sd ?=?356.0±198.6 ng/ml vs. 313.1±178.4 ng/ml). Recent ex-smokers who used NRT had levels that were somewhat lower, but not significantly so, than current smokers (216.7±179.3 ng/ml). Longer-term ex-smokers using NRT had still lower levels (157.3±227.1 ng/ml), which differed significantly from smokers using NRT (p?=?0.024). Conclusions Concurrent use of nicotine replacement therapy while smoking is relatively uncommon and is not associated with higher levels of nicotine intake. Among ex-smokers, NRT use is common in the short but not longer-term and among longer-term users is associated with lower nicotine intake than in smokers. PMID:25405343

Shahab, Lion; Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert

2014-01-01

153

Barriers to quitting smoking among medically ill smokers.  

PubMed

Few studies examine predictors of smoking cessation among medically ill smokers, despite their high smoking prevalence. We prospectively examined barriers to smoking cessation in medically ill smokers, with age as a hypothesized moderator. Participants were smokers (N = 237, M (age) = 56.1, 53.6% females) receiving home-based nursing care. Baseline self-report questionnaires assessed barriers to cessation (demographics, smoking history, psychosocial, and medical factors). Smoking status was biochemically verified at 2- and 6-months post-intervention. Compared with younger smokers, older smokers had significantly lower levels of nicotine dependence, stress, and depressed mood and a greater prevalence of smoking-related diseases. Older smokers were more likely to achieve biochemically verified abstinence at 6-month follow-up (7.8%) than younger smokers (3.1%) though this difference was not significant. Higher levels of depressed mood and lower levels of perceived stress were associated with a greater likelihood of cessation at both follow-up points, but only for younger smokers. For younger smokers, higher self-efficacy to quit and the presence of a smoking-related disease increased the odds of abstinence. These findings could help guide treatment development for this high-risk group of smokers. PMID:21850514

Gregor, Kristin; Borrelli, Belinda

2012-10-01

154

Total reactive antioxidant potential in human saliva of smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed

Uric acid is the most important non-enzymatic antioxidant present in human saliva. There is a great variability among individuals, both in salivary uric acid content and saliva total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP). The uric acid present in saliva correlates with plasma uric acid, suggesting that the former is imported from plasma. There are not statistical differences between uric acid or TRAP values in saliva of smokers and non-smokers. Also, smoking a cigarette does not modify the levels of antioxidants present in saliva. PMID:10410236

Kondakova, I; Lissi, E A; Pizarro, M

1999-06-01

155

[Pulmonary complications after thoracic surgery in smokers and non-smokers. A prospective study of 55 cases].  

PubMed

A prospective study was carried out between 1987 and 1989 at the Pneumological Department of the IRCCS-Policlinico S. Matteo in Pavia (Italy) to evaluate the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications in smokers and non-smokers undergoing thoracic surgery for various diseases. Non-smokers were defined as those who had never smoked tobacco, while ex-smokers who had given up for over years were included in the "low consumption" group (less than 10 cigarettes/day). Out of a total of 55 cases, 75% were smokers. Complications developed in 20/55 cases (36.4%), whereas they were observed in 60% of the smokers' group. Major atelectasis developed in 8/20 (40%): 5 smokers and 3 non-smokers. Pulmonary complications were significantly higher among heavy smokers (greater than 10 cigarettes/day) than among non-smokers (p less than 0.001). The incidence of pulmonary complications in this study was thought to be satisfactory, although it could probably be further improved, given that daily postoperative chest X-rays and physical and/or pharmacological pre- and postoperative prophylaxis--in addition to continuous clinical monitoring--were performed. This strategy enabled complications to be detected early and controlled. PMID:2082205

Rizzo, S; Ratta, L; Pilliteri, P M

1990-10-31

156

Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

Freeman, Allison

157

Life at Hydrothermal Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site is a NOVA Online Adventure from PBS (1). Into the Abyss decribes the "pitch darkness, poison gas, heavy metals, extreme acidity, and enormous pressure" found at hydrothermal vents, and offers a look at bizarre and fascinating creatures found in this environment. The next Web site from Exploring Earth, an online earth sciences text book, contains video clips taken during research expeditions along the Juan de Fuca Ridge (2). Ocean AdVENTure, a ThinkQuest Web site, offers a comprehensive and well-designed introduction to hydothermal vents from research tools to fauna to unsolved mysteries and more (3). Visitors can choose their own scientific adVENTure to explore hydrothermal vents in this interactive feature from the University of Washington School of Oceonagraphy Exploraquarium (4). Dive and Discover is "an interactive distance learning Web site designed to immerse you in the excitement of discovery and exploration of the deep seafloor." This Web site (5) extends a virtual invitation to join scientists aboard research cruises to the depth of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, providing daily logs, video, and other features for each expedition. The next Web site from the University of California-Berkeley offer a closer look at the "strange tube-dwelling worm" phylum found only near hydrothermal vents (6). Creature Features, provided by the University of Delaware Graduate College of Marine Science, contains descriptions and video clips of tubeworms, vent crabs, Pompeii crabs, and ancient bacteria found at deep sea vents (7). The last Web site (8) is a transcript of a June 1997 PBS NewsHour interview with science writer William Broad. Broad discusses his book The Universe Below: Discovering the Secrets of the Deep Sea, and relates the exciting opportunities for scientific exploration of the sea floor made possible by the end of the Cold War.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

158

Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the carbohydrate structures as they have been further reacted to phenolic Aldol condensation products. The bio-oil

Elliott, Douglas C.

2010-12-10

159

Hydrothermal reactions under mechanochemical treating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanochemical treating of solids containing some amount of free or chemically bound water in high-energetic activators enable the hydrothermal processes (as in autoclaves). Estimations of the optimal value of the water content were carried out. The data on the investigation of the mechanochemical reaction between calcium hydroxide and hydrated silica are presented as the experimental confirmation of the hydrothermal

N. V. Kosova; A. Kh. Khabibullin; V. V. Boldyrev

1997-01-01

160

Biocatalytic transformations of hydrothermal fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of copious animal populations at deep-sea vents indicates an effective microbial chemosynthetic biocatalysis of hydrothermal fluids on their emission into oxygenated ambient seawater. The large metabolic and physiological diversity of microbes found at these sites, including anaerobic and aerobic hyperthermophiles, reflects an even higher variety of biocatalytic or enzymatic reactions that greatly influence deep-sea hydrothermal geochemistry.

Jannasch, H. W.

161

Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco\\u000a use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications\\u000a on tobacco control.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government\\u000a or private owned). Data was

Upendra M Bhojani; Maya A Elias; Devadasan N

2011-01-01

162

Light and intermittent cigarette smokers: a review (1989–2009)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Growing proportions of smokers in the USA do not smoke everyday and can be referred to as light and intermittent smokers (LITS).\\u000a Despite a current prevalence of LITS in the USA estimated at 25–33% of all smokers, a systematic review of the literature\\u000a on this group of smokers has yet to be written.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The aim of this paper is to

Chris R. E. Coggins; E. Lenn Murrelle; Richard A. Carchman; Christian Heidbreder

2009-01-01

163

Skeletal muscle capillarization and oxidative metabolism in healthy smokers.  

PubMed

We investigated whether the lower fatigue resistance in smokers than in nonsmokers is caused by a compromised muscle oxidative metabolism. Using calibrated histochemistry, we found no differences in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, myoglobin concentration, or capillarization in sections of the vastus lateralis muscle between smokers and nonsmokers. The relationship between fatigue resistance and SDH activity in nonsmokers (r = 0.93; p = 0.02) is absent in smokers. This indicates that the lower muscle fatigue resistance of smokers can likely be attributed to causes other than differences in oxidative metabolism and capillarization. PMID:19088783

Wüst, Rob C I; Jaspers, Richard T; van der Laarse, Willem J; Degens, Hans

2008-12-01

164

Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking: a study of smokers and former smokers*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. METHODS: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. RESULTS: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking. PMID:24068268

Afonso, Maria Fernanda Besteiro; Alves, Maria Graca Pereira

2013-01-01

165

Young Adult Former Ever Smokers: The Role of Type of Smoker, Quit Attempts, Quit Aids, Attitudes/Beliefs, and Demographics  

PubMed Central

Objective Young adults who smoke are often nondaily users who either quit or transition into dependent smokers. Further, this age group often has been considered an extension of the adult population. This study aims to examine young adult former ever smokers to understand factors associated with their stopping smoking. Method Telephone interviews were conducted in 2010 with 4,401 young adults in Florida. We examined the association between former ever smokers and sociodemographics, smoking behavior, quit attempts, quit aids, and attitudes/beliefs about smoking. Results Thirty-seven percent of young adults were former smokers, 20% were current smokers, and 43% were never smokers. Former smokers were more likely to be female, situational smokers (compared to occasional or established), more likely to have stopped smoking without acknowledging making a quit attempt, less likely to have used a quit aid, and less likely to display pro-tobacco attitudes/beliefs. Conclusion Young adult former and current smokers have unique patterns of smoking and stopping smoking. Young adults may require novel intervention techniques to promote prevention and cessation based on these unique smoking patterns. Future research is needed to understand motivations to quit smoking among young adults. PMID:24021991

McClure, Laura A.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Lee, David J.; Sly, David F.; Dietz, Noella A.

2013-01-01

166

Cue reactivity in smokers: an event-related potential study.  

PubMed

Drugs-of-abuse may increase the salience of drug cues by sensitizing the dopaminergic (DA) system (Robinson and Berridge, 1993), leading to differential attention to smoking stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to assess attention to smoking cues but not using an ERP component associated with DA-mediated salience evaluation. In this study the DA-related P2a and the P3, were compared in smokers (N = 21) and non-smokers (N = 21) during an attention selection cue exposure task including both cigarette and neutral images. We predicted that both the P2a and P3 would be larger to targets than non-targets, but larger to non-target cigarette images than non-target neutral images only in the smokers, reflecting smokers' evaluation of smoking stimuli as relevant even when they were not targets. Results indicated that smokers showed behavioral cue reactivity, with more false alarms to cigarette images (responding to cigarette images when they were not targets) than non-smokers; however, both smokers and non-smokers had a larger P2a and P3 to cigarette images. Thus, while smokers showed behavioral evidence of differential salience evaluation of the cigarette images, this group difference was not reflected in differential brain activity. These findings may reflect characteristics of the ERPs (both ERP components were smaller in the smokers), the smoking sample (they were not more impulsive, i.e. reward sensitive, than the non-smokers, in contrast to prior studies) and the design (all participants were aware that the aim of the study was related to smoking). PMID:23958866

Bloom, Erika Litvin; Potts, Geoffrey F; Evans, David E; Drobes, David J

2013-11-01

167

Trends in serum cotinine concentrations among daily cigarette smokers: data from NHANES 1999-2010.  

PubMed

To the best of our knowledge, there have been no apparent studies of the trends in serum cotinine levels among smokers. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 1999-2010 were used to evaluate trends for serum cotinine levels; average number of cigarettes smoked per day; and Cambridge filter method (CFM) tar and CFM nicotine levels by gender, race/ethnicity, and cigarette mentholation status. Regression models were fitted to evaluate the factors associated with serum cotinine levels. Serum cotinine levels increased over time for both males and females, non-Hispanic whites and others. CFM nicotine levels also rose over time for cigarettes smoked by both males and females and by both non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks. Average number of cigarettes smoked per day decreased over time for females, non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks. CFM tar levels fell only for Mexican Americans. Exposure to second hand smoke at home was found to be associated with more than 1 ng/ml increase in serum cotinine levels. This large study on a nationally representative sample of daily smokers suggested that increasing concentrations of CFM nicotine in cigarettes over time led to elevated serum cotinine levels even though the number of cigarettes smoked daily remained relatively constant. PMID:24291557

Jain, Ram B

2014-02-15

168

Tidally-driven effluent detected by long-term temperature monitoring at the TAG hydrothermal mound, Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Aug. 13-21, 1994, temperatures and current velocity were simultaneously monitored on the TAG hydrothermal mound. Three `Giant Kelps (GKs)', vertical thermistor arrays of 50 m height, were moored on the periphery of the central black smoker complex (CBC). A `Manatee', multi-monitoring system including current velocity, was deployed 50 m east of CBC. Four `Daibutsu' geothermal probes penetrated the sediment south to west of CBC. Compilation of all data revealed semi-diurnal variations in water temperatures and current velocity, and allowed us to discuss the source of these anomalies. Temperature anomalies of GKs correlate well with current velocity, and are interpreted to be caused by the main plume from CBC that was bent over by the tidal current. We identified two types of asymmetric, periodic temperature variations at Daibutsu Probes 2 and 8, located 20 m to the south of CBC. By comparing temperatures and current velocity, they are attributed to non-buoyant effluents laterally advected by the tidal current. The source of one variation is located east to ESE of the probes, and the source of the other is located to the north. On Aug. 31, a new periodic anomaly emerged on Probe 2 with its amplitude up to 0.8°C. The 6-h offset between the new anomaly and the previous one suggests that the source of the new anomaly lies to the west of Probe 2. The heat flux of these non-buoyant effluents is estimated to range from 30 to 100 kW/m 2, which is of the same order as direct estimates of diffuse flow at the TAG mound. It suggests that a significant amount of diffuse effluent is laterally advected by the prevailing current near the seafloor.

Kinoshita, M.; Von Herzen, R. P.; Matsubayashi, O.; Fujioka, K.

1998-06-01

169

Quitting Smoking Smokers Helpline: 1-800-QUIT-NOW  

E-print Network

Quitting Smoking Smokers Helpline: 1-800-QUIT-NOW This national smokers helpline directs callers, and staying smoke free after quitting. 4. Screening for medication: You will be screened and may be eligible of the Massachusetts state health insurance plans offer coverage for quit-smoking medication and counseling. Private

Liu, Xiaole Shirley

170

Identification of Early Interstitial Lung Disease in Smokers from the  

E-print Network

: Early interstitial lung disease; CT scan; smoker. ªAUR, 2010 I diopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPFIdentification of Early Interstitial Lung Disease in Smokers from the COPDGene Study George R interstitial lung disease (ILD) on chest computed tomographic (CT) scans. Materials and Methods: The CT scans

171

Educating Smokers about Their Cigarettes and Nicotine Medications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers' Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group…

Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Brown, Anthony; Celestino, Paula

2010-01-01

172

Mood differences between male and female light smokers and nonsmokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an open study, we determined whether there were sex differences in the mood ratings of non-deprived light smokers and nonsmokers under baseline conditions and after completing a battery of cognitive tests that were mildly stressful. Male and female students who were light smokers (5–12 cigarettes a day) were tested immediately after smoking their usual cigarette, at a time that

Sandra E File; Abigail K Dinnis; Joy E Heard; Elaine E Irvine

2002-01-01

173

Internet and Mobile Phone Text Messaging Intervention for College Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors developed a smoking cessation program using mobile phone text messaging to provide tailored and stage-specific messages to college smokers. Participants and Methods: The authors recruited 31 daily smokers who desired to quit from a college campus and asked them to use an Internet and mobile phone text messaging program to…

Riley, William; Obermayer, Jami; Jean-Mary, Jersino

2008-01-01

174

Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…

Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

2013-01-01

175

Reactivity to smoking cues in adolescent cigarette smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined reactivity to smoking cues in adolescent smokers (n=12) and nonsmokers (n=32), between 14 and 19 years of age. Participants were presented with videotaped smoking and neutral cues in a counterbalanced order. Subjective and physiological responses to each cue type were obtained. Findings indicated that smokers reported greater desire to smoke cigarettes in response to smoking cues, relative

Himanshu P Upadhyaya; David J Drobes; Suzanne E Thomas

2004-01-01

176

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Attentional bias toward cigarette cues in active smokers  

E-print Network

between distinct aspects of attentional allocation in the smoking-cue attentional bias observed in smokers. Methods Active smokers (AS) and non-smoking controls completed spatial cueing tasks with pairs of smoking and neutral pictorial cues to measure attentional capture, and an attentional blink task with either a smoking

Boettiger, Charlotte A.

177

Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

2003-01-01

178

Spontaneous Action Representation in Smokers when Watching Movie Characters Smoke  

PubMed Central

Do smokers simulate smoking when they see someone else smoke? For regular smokers, smoking is such a highly practiced motor skill that it often occurs automatically, without conscious awareness. Research on the brain basis of action observation has delineated a frontopareital network that is commonly recruited when people observe, plan or imitate actions. Here, we investigated whether this action observation network would be preferentially recruited in smokers when viewing complex smoking cues, such as those occurring in motion pictures. Seventeen right-handed smokers and seventeen non-smokers watched a popular movie while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a natural stimulus, such as a movie, allowd us to keep both smoking and non-smoking participants naïve to the goals of the experiment. Brain activity evoked by scenes of movie smoking was contrasted with non-smoking control scenes which were matched for frequency and duration. Compared to non-smokers, smokers showed greater activity in left anterior intraparietal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus, both regions involved in the simulation of contralateral hand-based gestures, when viewing smoking vs. control scenes. These results demonstrate that smokers spontaneously represent the action of smoking when viewing others smoke, the consequence of which may make it more difficult to abstain from smoking. PMID:21248113

Wagner, Dylan D.; Cin, Sonya Dal; Sargent, James D.; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

2013-01-01

179

Impact of supragingival therapy on subgingival microbial profile in smokers versus non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to assess subgingival microbiological changes in smokers versus non-smokers presenting severe chronic periodontitis after supragingival periodontal therapy (ST). Methods Non-smokers (n=10) and smokers (n=10) presenting at least nine teeth with probing pocket depth (PPD) (?5 mm), bleeding on probing (BoP), and no history of periodontal treatment in the last 6 months were selected. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index (PI), BoP, PPD, relative gingival margin position (rGMP) and relative clinical attachment level (rCAL). Subgingival biofilm was collected before and 21 days after ST. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the universal primer pair, 27F and 1492R. Amplified genes were cloned, sequenced, and identified by comparison with known 16S rRNA sequences. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t and Chi-Square tests (?=5%). Results Clinically, ST promoted a significant reduction in PI and PPD, and gain of rCAL for both groups, with no significant intergroup difference. Microbiologically, at baseline, data analysis demonstrated that smokers harbored a higher proportion of Porphyromonas endodontalis, Bacteroidetes sp., Fusobacterium sp. and Tannerella forsythia and a lower number of cultivated phylotypes (p<0.05). Furthermore, non-smokers featured significant reductions in key phylotypes associated with periodontitis, whereas smokers presented more modest changes. Conclusion Within the limits of the present study, ST promoted comparable clinical improvements in smokers and non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis. However, in smokers, ST only slightly affected the subgingival biofilm biodiversity, as compared with non-smokers. PMID:22232720

Meulman, Tatiana; Casarin, Renato C. V.; Peruzzo, Daiane C.; Giorgetti, Ana Paula; Barbagallo, Andre; Casati, Marcio Z.; Sallum, Enilson A.; Goncalves, Reginaldo B.; Nociti Jr, Francisco H.

2012-01-01

180

A Retrievable Mineral Microcosm for Examining Microbial Colonization and Mineral Precipitation at Seafloor Hydrothermal Vents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although seafloor hydrothermal vent environments are known to support thriving ecosystems, the microscale physical and chemical environment suitable for microbial colonization and the identity of pioneering organisms is unknown. Because of the fragility of young chimneys and their ephemeral nature, novel methods for sample retrieval and analysis are required. The mineral microcosm consists of four titanium mesh chambers containing crushed minerals mounted on a titanium base that allows for fluid flow through the chambers. The chambers can be filled with different minerals or mineral mixtures (or no minerals) to supply different substrates for microbial colonization and different local microenvironments as minerals react with the surrounding fluids. The device sets on top of an active hydrothermal vent for a period of days to weeks to allow colonization and mineral reaction. The mineral microcosm was deployed during the Atlantis/Alvin Extreme 2001 Cruise (Oct.- Nov.,2001) to 9° 50'N on the East Pacific Rise a total of three times, for ~ 24, ~ 96, and ~ 48 hours each. It was deployed in two different environments, twice in lower temperature (<300°C), diffuse-flow environments and once (for ~96 hours) in a higher temperature black smoker environment (>350°C).Seed minerals included sulfides, sulfates, magnetite, apatite, and quartz, both individually and in mixtures. In the first 24-hour deployment, dissolution of anhydrite but not sulfide minerals within the chambers indicated high temperatures in chamber interiors and rapid reaction rates. Temperatures measured on chamber exteriors before retrieval ranged from 4° -98°C. The 96-hour deployment on a hot vent (fluid ~370°C before deployment) resulted in extensive mineral precipitation and chimney growth inside the mineral chambers, on the outer surfaces of the chambers, and on the platform as a whole, creating micro-chimneys several centimeters tall. The young chimneys were mainly composed of pyrite with lesser amounts of chalcopyrite and sphalerite and with thin veneers of anhydrite on exterior surfaces in contact with seawater. Bulk trace element analyses of the newly formed chimneys show concentrations of Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, and Pb (up to ~200 ppm) but a lack of As, Sn, U, and W. On the last deployment in a polychaete-rich, diffuse-flow area (vent temperature ~300°C), the microcosm was covered with biofilm and polychaete tubes had formed on the surface during the ~48 hours on the vent. Temperatures at chamber exteriors had decreased to 16- 20°C, suggesting that the vent was not vigorous enough to maintain a large flow through the chambers. Although no evidence for microbial colonization was obtained in these initial deployments, the device can simulate the mineralogy and temperature gradients of a natural hydrothermal chimney. Young chimney samples of known age (~96 hours) obtained from the second deployment were analyzed by synchrotron X-ray computed tomography for porosity and mineralogy and compared with existing chimneys at these sites (see companion abstract by Ashbridge, et al.).

Dunn, E. E.; Holloway, J. R.; Cary, S.; Voglesonger, K. M.; Ashbridge, D. A.; O'Day, P. A.

2002-12-01

181

Marriage to a smoker and lung cancer risk.  

PubMed Central

As part of a population-based case-control study of lung cancer in New Mexico, we have collected data on spouses' tobacco smoking habits and on-the-job exposure to asbestos. The present analyses include 609 cases and 781 controls with known passive and personal smoking status, of whom 28 were lifelong nonsmokers with lung cancer. While no effect of spouse cigarette smoking was found among current or former smokers, never smokers married to smokers had about a two-fold increased risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer risk in never smokers also increased with duration of exposure to a smoking spouse, but not with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day by the spouse. Our findings are consistent with previous reports of elevated risk for lung cancer among never smokers living with a spouse who smokes cigarettes. PMID:3565655

Humble, C G; Samet, J M; Pathak, D R

1987-01-01

182

Geothermal study of the southwest part of the Black Rock Desert and its geothermal areas; Washoe, Pershing, and Humboldt Counties, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several hydrothermal systems were explored in northwestern Nevada in parts of Washoe, Pershing, and Humboldt Counties. These hydrothermal systems included the Great Boiling springs and Mud springs at Gerlach, the Fly Ranch hot springs in Hualapai Flat, Double Hot and Black Rock springs at the southern end of the Black Rock Range, Trego hot spring, Soldier Meadows hot springs, and

1978-01-01

183

The Role of Magmatic Volatile Input, Near-surface Seawater Entrainment and Sulfide Deposition in Regulating Metal Concentrations Within Manus Basin Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag, Cd, Co and Sb in vent fluid samples from four hydrothermal systems in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, were carried out by ICP-MS. Vienna Woods is located on the well- defined, basalt-dominated Manus Spreading Center, while the other systems are hosted in felsic volcanics on the Pual Ridge (PACMANUS), within a caldera (DESMOS), and on volcanic cones (SuSu Knolls). Metal concentrations were coupled with other fluid data (pH, SO4, Ca, H2S) to discriminate effects of deep- seated water-rock reaction and magmatic volatile input from near surface seawater entrainment, mixing, and consequent mineral precipitation and metal remobilization. Both magmatic volatile input (e.g. SO2, HCl, HF) and sulfide precipitation can increase fluid acidity and thus affect the aqueous mobility of metals. At Vienna Woods, 280°C end-member (Mg = 0) fluids have high pH (>4.2) and low metal contents (Fe <160 uM, Cu <10 uM, Zn <40 uM) relative to most mid-ocean ridge (MOR) vent fluids. The high pH and lack of evidence for magmatic volatile input are consistent with fluid compositions regulated by subsurface seawater- basalt/andesite reactions. Despite low aqueous Zn concentrations, Zn-rich (wurtzite-lined) chimneys are common at Vienna Woods active vents, reflecting deposition from fluids characterized by low Fe and Cu and high pH. At PACMANUS, black smoker fluids (T >300°C, pH ~ 2.7) are enriched in sulfide-forming metals by an order of magnitude relative to Vienna Woods fluids. Enrichments at PACMANUS reflect efficient leaching of metals at low pH, with the lower pH likely a result of input of magmatic volatiles. In addition, some vents fluids show clear evidence for seawater entrainment, subsurface precipitation of Cu-Fe-sulfides and preferential remobilization of Zn-sulfides (lower T, non-zero Mg, lower Fe, Cu, H2S and pH (2.3-2.4), but higher Zn, Pb, Cd and Ag, compared to black smokers). The higher metal concentrations and lower pH of fluids from PACMANUS versus Vienna Woods are reflected in chimney deposit compositions with Zn-poor sulfide linings composed of Cu-Fe-sulfides and As-Sb-sulfosalts in high T and lower T vents, respectively. At DESMOS caldera, fluid data suggest extensive magmatic volatile input (e.g. pH <1.5, elevated F and SO4) but lesser reaction with the basement felsic rocks (low Li, Rb, Mn). Sampled "acid-sulfate" fluids are low temperature (T ~180°C) with Mg >46 mM, and very high concentrations of some metals for these Mg concentrations (Fe >5 mM, Zn >50 - 400 uM). At SuSu Knolls, vent fluid compositions similar to those at both PACMANUS and DESMOS are observed. Smoker fluids have high but variable metal concentrations of similar magnitude to PACMANUS. Acid-sulfate fluids from North Su have low pH (<2), non-zero Mg (>40 mM), and high Fe and Zn concentrations, similar to DESMOS fluids. At SuSu Knolls, fluid compositions reflect either high temperature water-rock reaction (smoker fluids) or magmatic volatile input (acid-sulfate fluids). As at PACMANUS, chimney deposits that correspond to venting fluids are Cu-Fe-As-Sb-rich and Zn-poor, likely reflecting deposition from low pH, high Cu and Fe fluids.

Craddock, P. R.; Tivey, M. K.; Seewald, J. S.; Rouxel, O.; Bach, W.

2007-12-01

184

Phylogenetic diversity of methanogenic, sulfate-reducing and methanotrophic prokaryotes from deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial communities of methanogenic, sulfate-reducing and methanotrophic prokaryotes from deep-sea environments were investigated by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the genes encoding for the methyl coenzyme M reductase ( mcrA), dissimilatory sulfite reductase ( dsrAB) and particulate methane monoxygenase ( pmoA), respectively. Clone libraries of PCR amplified genes were constructed using DNA extracted from deep-sea vent chimneys (Rainbow and Logatchev hydrothermal vent fields, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Atlantic Ocean; 9°N East Pacific Rise, Pacific Ocean) and from vertically subsampled sediment cores from cold-seep areas (Blake Ridge, western Atlantic Ocean; Florida Escarpment, Gulf of Mexico). Recombinant clones were screened by RFLP and representative dsrAB, mcrA and pmoA genes were sequenced. The dsrAB sequences grouped primarily within the orders Desulfobacterales, Syntrophobacterales and the Gram-positive order Clostridales. Cold-seep mcrA sequences were distributed among the ANME-2c, -2d and -2e groups, which were previously shown to be associated with the anaerobic oxidation of methane. This study also reports the first mcrA sequences from a high-temperature, black smoker chimney (Logatchev) to group within the ANME-2e subgroup. The majority of the remaining hydrothermal vent mcrA sequences were primarily related to thermophilic members of the anaerobic, methanogenic order Methanococcales. A shift in the dominant ANME-2 group with depth in the sediment for both Florida Escarpment and Blake Ridge mcrA libraries was detected. ANME-2d related clones were detected in the top zones of both cores, with the frequency of ANME-2e related clones increasing with depth. All pmoA sequences retrieved from the cold-seep sites were found to be related to Type I methanotrophic members of the ?-proteobacteria, and were primarily distributed among three major clusters of sequences. No Type II pmoA sequences related to methanotrophic members of the ?-proteobacteria were detected, suggesting that the methanotrophic communities in these cold-seep areas are dominated by Type I ?-proteobacteria.

Reed, Andrew J.; Dorn, Ruth; Van Dover, Cindy L.; Lutz, Richard A.; Vetriani, Costantino

2009-09-01

185

Delay and probability discounting of multiple commodities in smokers and never-smokers using multiple-choice tasks.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate temporal and probabilistic discounting in smokers and never-smokers, across a number of commodities, using a multiple-choice method. One hundred and eighty-two undergraduate university students, of whom 90 had never smoked, 73 were self-reported light smokers (<10 cigarettes/day), and 17 were heavy smokers (10+cigarettes/day), completed computerized batteries of delay and probability discounting questions pertaining to a total of eight commodities and administered in a multiple-choice format. In addition to cigarettes, monetary rewards, and health outcomes, the tasks included novel commodities such as ideal dating partner and retirement income. The results showed that heavy smokers probability discounted commodities at a significantly shallower rate than never-smokers, suggesting greater risk-taking. No effect of smoking status was observed for delay discounting questions. The only commodity that was probability discounted significantly less than others was 'finding an ideal dating partner'. The results suggest that probability discounting tasks using the multiple-choice format can discriminate between non-abstaining smokers and never-smokers and could be further explored in the context of behavioral and drug addictions. PMID:24196025

Poltavski, Dmitri V; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

2013-12-01

186

Perceived Arsenic-Related Mortality Risks for Smokers and Non-smokers [Forthcoming, Contemporary Economic Policy, May 2011  

E-print Network

Perceived Arsenic-Related Mortality Risks for Smokers and Non-smokers [Forthcoming, Contemporary and Mary Riddel University of Nevada, Las Vegas Abstract: Prolonged ingestion of arsenic in drinking water of arsenic hotspots in the United States, we elicited individuals' subjective mortality risks related

Shaw, W. Douglass

187

Dimensions of impulsivity among heavy drinkers, smokers, and heavy drinking smokers: singular and combined effects.  

PubMed

Alcohol use and cigarette smoking commonly co-occur. The role impulsivity may play as a common underlying mechanism in alcohol use and cigarette smoking is of particular interest due to emerging evidence of it being a critical component across multiple forms of addiction. Impulsivity can be examined through several constructs including, risky decision-making, response inhibition, and delay reward discounting. Impulsivity and each of these specific constructs play significant roles in the initiation of drug use, continued use despite negative consequences, and potential to relapse. This study used three behavioral tasks to measure risky decision-making (balloon analog risk test; BART), response inhibition (stop signal task; SST), and delay reward discounting (delay discounting task; DDT). This study advances research on impulsivity and substance use by parsing out the various components of impulsivity and examining them across three groups, heavy drinkers only (HD) (N=107), smokers only (S) (N=67), and heavy drinking smokers (HDS) (N=213). Participants completed questionnaires, interviews, and neurocognitive tasks including the SST, BART, and DDT. Analyses supported an additive effect of alcohol and nicotine use in delay reward discounting. Heavy drinking smokers displayed steeper delay discounting of small rewards than did smokers only (p<.05) and heavy drinkers only (p<.05). This additive effect of smoking and drinking was not observed for risky decision-making and response inhibition, suggesting specificity of the effects for delay reward discounting. These findings indicate that those who both drink heavily and smoke cigarettes daily have increased delay reward discounting, than those in the S and HD groups. Future studies should examine these constructs longitudinally, as well as incorporate genetic and/or a neuroimaging component to these group comparisons in order to ascertain the biological bases of these behavioral findings. PMID:22445419

Moallem, Nathasha R; Ray, Lara A

2012-07-01

188

Steroid Resistance in COPD? Overlap and Differential Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Smokers and Ex-Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) reduce exacerbation rates and improve health status but can increase the risk of pneumonia in COPD. The GLUCOLD study, investigating patients with mild-to-moderate COPD, has shown that long-term (2.5-year) ICS therapy induces anti-inflammatory effects. The literature suggests that cigarette smoking causes ICS insensitivity. The aim of this study is to compare anti-inflammatory effects of ICS in persistent smokers and persistent ex-smokers in a post-hoc analysis of the GLUCOLD study. Methods Persistent smokers (n?=?41) and persistent ex-smokers (n?=?31) from the GLUCOLD cohort were investigated. Effects of ICS treatment compared with placebo were estimated by analysing changes in lung function, hyperresponsiveness, and inflammatory cells in sputum and bronchial biopsies during short-term (0–6 months) and long-term (6–30 months) treatment using multiple regression analyses. Results Bronchial mast cells were reduced by short-term and long-term ICS treatment in both smokers and ex-smokers. In contrast, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ cells were reduced by short-term ICS treatment in smokers only. In addition, sputum neutrophils and lymphocytes, and bronchial CD8+ cells were reduced after long-term treatment in ex-smokers only. No significant interactions existed between smoking and ICS treatment. Conclusion Even in the presence of smoking, long-term ICS treatment may lead to anti-inflammatory effects in the lung. Some anti-inflammatory ICS effects are comparable in smokers and ex-smokers with COPD, other effects are cell-specific. The clinical relevance of these findings, however, are uncertain. PMID:24505290

Hoonhorst, Susan J. M.; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Vonk, Judith M.; Timens, Wim; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Lapperre, Therese S.; Sterk, Peter J.; Postma, Dirkje S.

2014-01-01

189

The Case of theThe Case of the MissingMissing RumbleometerRumbleometer  

E-print Network

features six moviesCurriculum features six movies and animations related to theand animations related = black_smoker.mov View of a high-temperature (342°C) black smoker hydrothermal vent. #12;Movie 2:Movie 2 living at a hydrothermal vent. Movie filename = tubeworms.mov #12;Movie 3:Movie 3: View of the

190

Black Cohosh  

MedlinePLUS

... mothers. Black cohosh should not be confused with blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), which has different properties, treatment ... black cohosh. Black cohosh is sometimes used with blue cohosh to stimulate labor, but this therapy has ...

191

Black Funnels  

E-print Network

The Hartle-Hawking state of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM at strong coupling and large $N$ on a fixed black hole background has two proposed gravitational duals: a black funnel or a black droplet. We construct the black funnel solutions that are dual to the Hartle-Hawking state on a Schwarzschild black hole and on a class of three-dimensional asymptotically flat black hole backgrounds. We compute their holographic stress tensor and argue for the stability of these solutions.

Jorge E. Santos; Benson Way

2012-08-30

192

Psychomotor Function in Chronic Daily Cannabis Smokers during Sustained Abstinence  

PubMed Central

Background The present study assessed psychomotor function in chronic, daily cannabis smokers during 3 weeks continuously monitored abstinence on a secure research unit. We hypothesized that psychomotor performance would improve during abstinence of chronic, daily cannabis smokers. Methodology/Principal Findings Performance on the critical tracking (CTT) and divided attention (DAT) tasks was assessed in 19 male chronic, daily cannabis smokers at baseline and after 8, 14–16 and 21–23 days of continuously monitored abstinence. Psychomotor performance was compared to a control group of non-intoxicated occasional drug users. Critical frequency (?c) of the CTT and tracking error and control losses of the DAT were the primary outcome measures. Results showed that chronic cannabis smokers’ performance on the CTT (p<0.001) and the DAT (p<0.001) was impaired during baseline relative to the comparison group. Psychomotor performance in the chronic cannabis smokers improved over 3 weeks of abstinence, but did not recover to equivalent control group performance. Conclusions/Significance Sustained cannabis abstinence moderately improved critical tracking and divided attention performance in chronic, daily cannabis smokers, but impairment was still observable compared to controls after 3 weeks of abstinence. Between group differences, however, need to be interpreted with caution as chronic smokers and controls were not matched for education, social economic status, life style and race. PMID:23301031

Bosker, Wendy M.; Karschner, Erin L.; Lee, Dayong; Goodwin, Robert S.; Hirvonen, Jussi; Innis, Robert B.; Theunissen, Eef L.; Kuypers, Kim P. C.

2013-01-01

193

Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of perovskite bismuth ferrite nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) nanoparticles were grown by hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The soaking time is effective in improving phase formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rietveld refinement reveals an orthorhombic structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed magnetism of the BFO crystallites is a consequence of particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HTMW is a genuine technique for low temperatures and short times of synthesis. -- Abstract: Hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline bismuth ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) nanoparticles (BFO) in the temperature of 180 Degree-Sign C with times ranging from 5 min to 1 h. BFO nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray analyses, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, TG-DTA and FE-SEM. X-ray diffraction results indicated that longer soaking time was benefit to refraining the formation of any impurity phases and growing BFO crystallites into almost single-phase perovskites. Typical FT-IR spectra for BFO nanoparticles presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. TG-DTA analyses confirmed the presence of lattice OH{sup -} groups, commonly found in materials obtained by HTMW process. Compared with the conventional solid-state reaction process, submicron BFO crystallites with better homogeneity could be produced at the temperature as low as 180 Degree-Sign C. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could be used as an alternative to obtain BFO nanoparticles in the temperature of 180 Degree-Sign C for 1 h.

Biasotto, G. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica (LIEC), Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)] [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica (LIEC), Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Simoes, A.Z., E-mail: alezipo@yahoo.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista-Unesp, Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Bairro Pedregulho, CEP 12516-410, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Foschini, C.R.; Zaghete, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica (LIEC), Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)] [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica (LIEC), Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

2011-12-15

194

Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal  

SciTech Connect

We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

Ross, D.S.

1989-12-21

195

The female smoker: from addiction to recovery.  

PubMed

Millions of American girls and women have been drawn to smoking by an industry that has been clearly and systematically targeting women of all ages and life circumstances. Big tobacco's well-timed marketing strategies skillfully link cigarette use to typical female values: independence, self-reliance, weight control, stress management, social progress and popularity, personal attractiveness, autonomy, self-fulfillment, youth, happiness, personal success, health, and active, vigorous, and strenuous lifestyles. Biologically speaking, women are especially vulnerable to the legion of health problems of tobacco use. Smoking is a critical hazard for women in their reproductive years, particularly when they are pregnant. The US Public Health Service 2000 Clinical Practice Guideline provides helpful guidance and sound general recommendations for the treatment of women of all ages for tobacco use and dependence. Women and girls who smoke represent diverse subgroups of the population with unique issues and needs. The 2001 Surgeon General's Report on Women and Smoking stresses the importance of multistrategy programs for treating female smokers. This approach includes antitobacco media campaigns, increases in tobacco prices, promotion of nonsmoking in public places, curbs on tobacco advertising and promotion, enforcement of legislation to reduce youth access to tobacco products, and effective tobacco use treatment programs. PMID:14557740

Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

2003-10-01

196

Differences between smokers and nonsmokers with anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Epidemiological data suggest that early smoking increases the risk for emergence of certain anxiety disorders (e.g., panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)), and that presence of certain anxiety disorders (e.g., social anxiety) increases the risk for later development of nicotine dependence. Although some studies report a high prevalence of smoking among anxiety disorders, the extent to which smokers with anxiety disorders differ from their nonsmoking counterparts remains uncertain. Differences between smokers and nonsmokers with anxiety disorders (N=527) were examined with respect to multiple measures of theoretical and clinical interest. Compared to nonsmokers, smokers with anxiety disorders reported greater anxiety sensitivity, anxiety symptoms, agoraphobic avoidance, depressed mood, negative affect, stress and life interference; however, these differences were largely accounted for by panic disorder. No differences were found between smokers and nonsmokers regarding social anxiety, worry, obsessive-compulsive symptoms or positive affect. Differential patterns were observed when evaluating constructs within anxiety disorder diagnoses. PMID:16202562

Morissette, Sandra Baker; Brown, Timothy A; Kamholz, Barbara Wolfsdorf; Gulliver, Suzy Bird

2006-01-01

197

Treating Lung Cancer in Nonsmokers and Former Light Smokers  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, previously untreated non-small cell lung cancer patients who never smoked or are former light smokers will be treated with either erlotinib alone or erlotinib in combination with the drugs carboplatin and paclitaxel.

198

Living with a Smoker Like Living in a Polluted City  

MedlinePLUS

... Preidt Tuesday, October 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Secondhand Smoke TUESDAY, Oct. 21, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ... Control . "Smokers often express the view that outdoor air pollution is just as much a concern as the ...

199

Hospital Discharge a Key Time to Help Smokers Quit  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital Discharge a Key Time to Help Smokers Quit ... 19, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The weeks after a hospital discharge may be a great time to help ...

200

Diet May Protect Against Gene Changes in Smokers  

Cancer.gov

Leafy green vegetables, folate, and some multivitamins could serve as protective factors against lung cancer in current and former smokers, according to a study that is a first step in understanding a complex association.

201

Black holes  

PubMed Central

Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

Brugmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

2001-01-01

202

Acute autonomic effects of vitamins and fats in male smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Vitamins can help improve cardiovascular control. In contrast, smoking works in the opposite fashion, reducing the baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) possibly via oxidative stress. High-fat challenges also impair cardiovascular regulation. Whether vitamins have acute beneficial effects on the baroreflex control of HR in smokers is unclear.Subjects\\/Methods:A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study in 30 male smokers (34.2±6.9 years). Interventions were:

C I Wright; H Ruediger; C I Kroner; B J A Janssen; R Draijer

2009-01-01

203

Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

1998-01-01

204

Exploration strategies for hydrothermal deposits.  

PubMed

With unlimited money the most certain strategy for finding most hydrothermal metal deposits would be by drilling to 5000 m at 50 m spacing. However, the cost would far outweigh the benefit of the discoveries. Geological knowledge and exploration techniques may be used to obtain the greatest benefit for minimum cost, and to concentrate human and material resources in the most economic way in areas with the highest probability of discovery. This paper reviews the economic theory of exploration based on expected value, and the application of geological concepts and exploration techniques to exploration for hydrothermal deposits. Exploration techniques for hydrothermal-systems on Mars would include geochemistry and particularly passive geophysical methods. PMID:9243019

Horn, R A

1996-01-01

205

Health education for pregnant smokers: its behavioral impact and cost benefit.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. A randomized trial (the Birmingham Trial II) was conducted to evaluate the behavioral impact of health education methods among 814 female smokers at four public health maternity clinics. METHODS. Four hundred patients were randomly assigned to an Experimental (E) Group, and 414 were assigned to a Control (C) Group. Self-reports and saliva cotinine tests confirmed smoking status at the first visit, at midpregnancy, and at end of pregnancy. RESULTS. The E Group exhibited a 14.3% quit rate and the C Group an 8.5% quit rate. A Historical Comparison (C) Group exhibited a 3.0% quit rate. Black E and C Group patients had higher quit rates than White E and C Group patients. A cost-benefit analysis found cost-to-benefit ratios of $1:$6.72 (low estimate) and $1:$17.18 (high estimate) and an estimated savings of $247,296 (low estimate) and $699,240 (high estimate). CONCLUSION. Health education methods are efficacious and cost beneficial for pregnant smokers in public health maternity clinics. PMID:8427323

Windsor, R A; Lowe, J B; Perkins, L L; Smith-Yoder, D; Artz, L; Crawford, M; Amburgy, K; Boyd, N R

1993-01-01

206

Airway epithelial expression of TLR5 is downregulated in healthy smokers and smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

The TLRs are important components of the respiratory epithelium host innate defense, enabling the airway surface to recognize and respond to a variety of insults in inhaled air. On the basis of the knowledge that smokers are more susceptible to pulmonary infection and that the airway epithelium of smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by bacterial colonization and acute exacerbation of airway infections, we assessed whether smoking alters expression of TLRs in human small airway epithelium, the primary site of smoking-induced disease. Microarrays were used to survey the TLR family gene expression in small airway (10th to 12th order) epithelium from healthy nonsmokers (n = 60), healthy smokers (n = 73), and smokers with COPD (n = 36). Using the criteria of detection call of present (P call) ? 50%, 6 of 10 TLRs (TLRs 1-5 and 8) were expressed. Compared with nonsmokers, the most striking change was for TLR5, which was downregulated in healthy smokers (1.4-fold, p < 10?¹?) and smokers with COPD (1.6-fold, p < 10?¹¹). TaqMan RT-PCR confirmed these observations. Bronchial biopsy immunofluorescence studies showed that TLR5 was expressed mainly on the apical side of the epithelium and was decreased in healthy smokers and smokers with COPD. In vitro, the level of TLR5 downstream genes, IL-6 and IL-8, was highly induced by flagellin in TLR5 high-expressing cells compared with TLR5 low-expressing cells. In the context that TLR5 functions to recognize pathogens and activate innate immune responses, the smoking-induced downregulation of TLR5 may contribute to smoking-related susceptibility to airway infection, at least for flagellated bacteria. PMID:22855713

Wang, Rui; Ahmed, Joumana; Wang, Guoqing; Hassan, Ibrahim; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Salit, Jacqueline; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G

2012-09-01

207

Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors of the smokers and non-smokers in the city of Debrecen, Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study was to compare the major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors of smokers and non-smokers. Risk screening of CVD was estimated by a questionnaire, via interview. Random samples of 20 000 inhabitants of Debrecen, Hungary, aged 30–65 y, took part in the study. 19 922 questionnaires were considered appropriate for further evaluation. 32.2% of the participants

Z Jenei; D Páll; É Katona; P Polgár; Zs Karányi; M Bodor; Gy Kakuk

2000-01-01

208

Black Holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Anton Koekemoer; 1. Black holes, entropy, and information G. T. Horowitz; 2. Gravitational waves from black-hole mergers J. G. Baker, W. D. Boggs, J. M. Centrella, B. J. Kelley, S. T. McWilliams and J. R. van Meter; 3. Out-of-this-world physics: black holes at future colliders G. Landsberg; 4. Black holes in globular clusters S. L. W. McMillan; 5. Evolution of massive black holes M. Volonteri; 6. Supermassive black holes in deep multiwavelength surveys C. M. Urry and E. Treister; 7. Black-hole masses from reverberation mapping B. M. Peterson and M. C. Bentz; 8. Black-hole masses from gas dynamics F. D. Macchetto; 9. Evolution of supermassive black holes A. Müller and G. Hasinger; 10. Black-hole masses of distant quasars M. Vestergaard; 11. The accretion history of supermassive black holes K. Brand and the NDWFS Boötes Survey Teams; 12. Strong field gravity and spin of black holes from broad iron lines A. C. Fabian; 13. Birth of massive black-hole binaries M. Colpi, M. Dotti, L. Mayer and S. Kazantzidis; 14. Dynamics around supermassive black holes A. Gualandris and D. Merritt; 15. Black-hole formation and growth: simulations in general relativity S. L. Shapiro; 16. Estimating the spins of stellar-mass black holes J. E. McClintock, R. Narayan and R. Shafee; 17. Stellar relaxation processes near the Galactic massive black hole T. Alexander; 18. Tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes S. Gezari; 19. Where to look for radiatively inefficient accretion flows in low-luminosity AGN M. Chiaberge; 20. Making black holes visible: accretion, radiation, and jets J. H. Krolik.

Livio, Mario; Koekemoer, Anton M.

2011-02-01

209

Symptoms in smokers trying to quit  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: Aims: To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design: A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting: Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants: All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements: Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as “not a single puff of smoke during the last week”. A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings: High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression / depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusions: Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

Tanja Tomson; Mats Toftgård; Hans Gilljam; Asgeir R. Helgason

210

Scottish court dismisses a historic smoker's suit  

PubMed Central

The decision in a Scottish smoker's case, McTear v. Imperial Tobacco Limited, that there was no scientific proof of causation between the plaintiff's smoking and his death from lung cancer, accepted all of the traditional arguments that the tobacco industry has made throughout the history of tobacco litigation, including that epidemiology is not an adequate branch of science to draw a conclusion of causation, that the tobacco industry has no knowledge that its products are dangerous to consumers, and that, despite this lack of knowledge, the plaintiff had sufficient information to make an informed decision about the dangers of smoking. This case relied on outmoded methods of reasoning and placed too great a faith in the tobacco industry's timeworn argument that “everybody knew, nobody knows”. Further, the judge found it prejudicial that the plaintiff's expert witnesses were not paid for their services because she was indigent, believing that the lack of payment placed in doubt their credibility and claiming that the paid tobacco expert witnesses had more motive to testify independently because they had been paid, a perverse and novel line of reasoning. The McTear case contrasts unfavourably with the recent decision in United States v. Philip Morris, a United States decision that found the tobacco industry defendants to be racketeers, based both on the weight of a huge amount of internal tobacco industry documents showing that the tobacco industry knew their products were addictive and were made that way purposely to increase sales, and on the testimony of expert witnesses who, like those who testified in McTear, have made the advancement of the public health their life's work and are not “hired guns”. The McTear case's reasoning seems outdated and reminiscent of early litigation in the United States. Hopefully, it will not take courts outside of the United States 40 more years to acknowledge the current scientific knowledge about smoking and health. PMID:17897973

Friedman, L; Daynard, R

2007-01-01

211

Intent to quit among daily and non-daily college student smokers  

PubMed Central

Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking category as it relates to readiness to quit among current smokers. Of the 4438 students at six Southeast colleges who completed an online survey, 69.7% (n = 3094) were non-smokers, 6.6% (n = 293) were quitters, 7.1% (n = 317) were native non-daily smokers, 6.4% (n = 283) were converted non-daily smokers and 10.2% (n = 451) were daily smokers. There were differences in sociodemographics, substance use (alcohol, marijuana, other tobacco products) in the past 30 days and psychosocial factors among these subgroups of students (P < 0.001). Among current smokers, there were differences in cigarettes smoked per day, recent quit attempts, self-identification as a smoker, self-efficacy and motivation to quit (P < 0.001). After controlling for important factors, converted non-daily smokers were more likely to be ready to quit in the next month versus native non-daily smokers (OR = 2.15, CI 1.32–3.49, P = 0.002). Understanding differences among young adults with different smoking patterns and histories is critical in developing interventions targeting psychosocial factors impacting cessation among this population. PMID:23197630

Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

2013-01-01

212

African-American smokers and cancers of the lung and of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. Is menthol part of the puzzle?  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of cigarette smoking is higher among African Americans than among whites. African Americans have higher rates of lung cancer than whites, although they smoke fewer cigarettes. To explore this black-white difference in lung cancer rates, I examine various aspects of tobacco use in African-American smokers, including the age of initiation of smoking, quantity of cigarettes smoked, quit rates, level of nicotine dependence, biochemical differences, and brand preferences, specifically menthol brand cigarettes. I also review briefly the sequelae of patterns of tobacco use, including rates of lung and other tobacco-related cancers. A preference for mentholated cigarettes by African Americans is well documented and is one of the most striking differences between African-American and white smokers. Menthol brand preference has been investigated in an attempt to explain the black-white differences in rates of cancers of the lungs and the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. Also, studies have evaluated smoking behavior both with and without menthol and have explicitly examined the question of whether menthol use helps explain the black-white difference in lung cancer rates. The results of these studies are so far inconclusive with regard to the use of menthol and the risk of lung cancer developing. I provide practical suggestions for clinicians in counseling African-American smokers to quit smoking and to maintain a nonsmoking status. PMID:9143194

Richardson, T L

1997-01-01

213

Black droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in [1]. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

Santos, Jorge E.; Way, Benson

2014-08-01

214

Do smokers in Europe think all cigarettes are equally harmful?  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the ban on misleading descriptors such as light or mild cigarettes in Europe, there are still widespread misperceptions of the relative harmfulness of different brands of cigarettes among smokers. This study examined the extent to which smokers in three European countries believed that some cigarette brands are less harmful and why, using data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe surveys. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were completed among nationally representative samples of 4,956 current smokers (aged ? 18) from Germany (n = 1,515), France (n = 1,735) and the United Kingdom (n = 1,706) conducted between September 2006 and November 2007. Logistic regression models examined whether outcomes, including beliefs that some cigarettes could be less harmful than others, varied by socio-demographic and country of residence. Findings: Around a quarter of smokers in the UK and France, and a third in Germany believed some cigarettes are less harmful than others. Overall, of smokers who falsely believed that some cigarettes are less harmful, 86.3% thought that tar/nicotine yields, 48.7% taste, and 40.4% terms on packs such as ‘smooth’ or ‘ultra’ indicated less harmful brands. About a fifth of smokers across all countries chose their brand based on health reasons, and a similar proportion gave tar yields as a reason for choosing brands. Conclusions: Our research suggests that the current European Tobacco Products Directive is inadequate in eliminating misperceptions about the relative risk of brand descriptors on cigarettes. There is therefore an urgent need to protect smokers in Europe from these misperceptions via stronger measures such as plain packaging regulations. PMID:22294783

McNeill, Ann; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain

2012-01-01

215

Simulating smokers' acceptance of modifications in a cessation program.  

PubMed Central

Recent research has underscored the importance of assessing barriers to smokers' acceptance of cessation programs. This paper illustrates the use of computer simulations to gauge smokers' response to program modifications which may produce barriers to participation. It also highlights methodological issues encountered in conducting this work. Computer simulations were based on conjoint analysis, a consumer research method which enables measurement of smokers' relative preference for various modifications of cessation programs. Results from two studies are presented in this paper. The primary study used a randomly selected sample of 218 adult smokers who participated in a computer-assisted phone interview. Initially, the study assessed smokers' relative utility rating of 30 features of cessation programs. Utility data were used in computer-simulated comparisons of a low-cost, self-help oriented program under development and five other existing programs. A baseline version of the program under development and two modifications (for example, use of a support group with a higher level of cost) were simulated. Both the baseline version and modifications received a favorable response vis-à-vis comparison programs. Modifications requiring higher program costs were, however, associated with moderately reduced levels of favorable consumer response. The second study used a sample of 70 smokers who responded to an expanded set of smoking cessation program features focusing on program packaging. This secondary study incorporate in-person, computer-assisted interviews at a shopping mall, with smokers viewing an artist's mock-up of various program options on display. A similar pattern of responses to simulated program modifications emerged, with monetary cost apparently playing a key role. The significance of conjoint-based computer simulation as a tool in program development or dissemination, salient methodological issues, and implications for further research are discussed. PMID:1738813

Spoth, R

1992-01-01

216

Synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide by single-step soft hydrothermal method  

SciTech Connect

Lithium cobalt double oxide LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized at 220 Degree-Sign C by soft hydrothermal method using Co(OH){sub 2} and LiOH as precursors, LiOH/NaOH as mineralizers and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The soft hydrothermal synthesis method offers the dual advantage of a much lower synthesis time and a higher purity in comparison with other synthesis methods. The compound was identified by X-ray diffraction and its purity was checked by magnetic and electron magnetic resonance measurements. The grain morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and an exponential growth of particle size with synthesis time was observed. - Graphical abstract: Concave cuboctohedrons obtained after 60 h reaction time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimized soft hydrothermal method for a fast synthesis of high purity LiCoO{sub 2} compound is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both lamellar and cuboctahedral particles could be stabilized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary phases content is lower than 0.1%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close to surface defects were evidenced using EMR.

Kumar Bokinala, Kiran [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania) [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania); CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara (Romania); Pollet, M., E-mail: pollet@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Artemenko, A. [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France)] [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Miclau, M., E-mail: marinela.miclau@gmail.com [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania); Grozescu, I [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania) [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania); Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara (Romania)

2013-02-15

217

Plagioclase and epidote buffering of cation ratios in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids: Experimental results in and near the supercritical region  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been performed with Na-Ca-K-Cl fluids of seawater chlorinity and diabase, basalt, and plagioclase bearing mineral mixtures at 350-425{degree}C and 250-400 bars to help constrain hydrothermal alteration processes at mid-ocean ridges. Dissolved Ca, Na, and pH for all experiments responded systematically to differences in dissolved SiO{sub 2} concentrations and the compositions of plagioclase reactants. Diabase alteration at low fluid/rock mass ratios (0.5 to 1) produces fluids undersaturated with respect to quartz during hydration of primary olivine and orthopyroxene, whereas basalt alteration under similar conditions yields fluids slightly supersaturated with respect to quartz during breakdown of glass to smectite and amphibole. Fluid chemistry in all experiments appears to approach a partial equilibrium state with the albite and anorthite components in plagioclase and approaches a pH consistent with plagioclase alteration to epidote. Trace element data from vent fluids, specifically B and Sr, together with major element chemistry, provides evidence that the reaction zone for black-smoker fluids at mid-ocean ridges is composed of only slightly altered diabase and is characterized by small amounts of epidote, nearly fresh plagioclase and clinopyroxene, and partially to completely hydrated olivine and orthopyroxene. Using equilibrium between plagioclase, the dominant reactant, and epidote, the dominant reaction product in experiments, the authors estimate that temperatures in reaction zones are in excess of 375{degree}C for most vent systems. These temperatures are higher than measured vent temperatures, suggesting that hot spring fluids commonly loose heat during ascent to the sea floor.

Berndt, M.E.; Seyfried, W.E. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA)); Janecky, D.R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (USA))

1989-09-01

218

BLACK ISSUES  

E-print Network

transactions in recent years include Viacom's acquisition of Black Entertainment Television, NBC's purchaseBLACK ISSUES :: Your Portal To Diversity :: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: http of the Telemundo television network and the Chicago-based Tribune Company's heavy investments in Spanish

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

219

Adult Smokers' Responses to "Corrective Statements" Regarding Tobacco Industry Deception  

PubMed Central

Background To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate “corrective statements” (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. Purpose To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Methods Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280–281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Results Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. Conclusions This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco–related health disparities. PMID:24746372

Kollath-Cattano, Christy L.; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Thrasher, James F.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J.; Krugman, Dean M.; Berg, Carla J.; Hardin, James W.

2014-01-01

220

Health care institutions should not exclude smokers from employment.  

PubMed

Some health care institutions, including academic health centers, have adopted policies excluding smokers from employment. Claims advanced on behalf of these policies include financial savings from reduced health costs and absenteeism as well as advantages consonant with their message of healthy living. The authors suggest that the institutional savings from these policies are speculative and unproven. Also, in settings where large medical schools operate, it is likely to be the poor, including members of minority groups, who, under an employee smoker ban, will lose the opportunity to work for an employer that offers health insurance and other benefits. In response to the incentives created by such bans, some will quit smoking, but most will not. Thus, at the community level, employee smoker bans are more likely to be harmful than beneficial.Although private businesses may rightly choose not to hire smokers in the 19 states where such policies are legal, health care institutions, including academic health centers, should consider hiring choices in light of the values they profess. The traditional values of medicine include service to all persons in need, even when illness results from addiction or unsafe behavior. Secular academic communities require a shared dedication to discovery without requiring strict conformity of private behavior or belief. The authors conclude that for health care institutions, policies of hiring smokers and helping them to quit are both prudent and expressive of the norms of medical care, such as inclusion, compassion, and fellowship, that academic health professionals seek to honor. PMID:24871233

Huddle, Thomas S; Kertesz, Stefan G; Nash, Ryan R

2014-06-01

221

E-Cigarette Use among Smokers with Serious Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Background We examined electronic cigarette (EC) use, correlates of use, and associated changes in smoking behavior among smokers with serious mental illness in a clinical trial. Methods Adult smokers were recruited during acute psychiatric hospitalization (N?=?956, 73% enrollment among approached smokers) in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2009–2013. At baseline, participants averaged 17 (SD?=?10) cigarettes per day for 19 (SD?=?14) years; 24% intended to quit smoking in the next month. Analyses examined frequency and correlates of EC use reported over the 18-month trial and changes in smoking behavior by EC use status. Findings EC use was 11% overall, and by year of enrollment, increased from 0% in 2009 to 25% in 2013. In multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of EC use was significantly greater with each additional year of recruitment, for those aged 18–26, and for those in the preparation versus precontemplation stage of change, and unlikely among Hispanic participants. EC use was unrelated to gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and measures of tobacco dependence at baseline. Further, over the 18-month trial, EC use was not associated with changes in smoking status or, among continued smokers, with reductions in cigarettes per day. Interpretation Within a clinical trial with smokers with serious mental illness, EC use increased over time, particularly among younger adults and those intending to quit tobacco. EC use was unrelated to changes in smoking. The findings are of clinical interest and warrant further study. PMID:25419703

Prochaska, Judith J.; Grana, Rachel A.

2014-01-01

222

Natural killer cell activity in cigarette smokers and asbestos workers  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure on cellular immunity, the authors tested a group of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers for natural killer (NK) activity in the peripheral blood. The mean NK activity in cigarette smokers was lower than in normal subjects (13.7 +/- 1.6 versus 29.0 +/- 3%; p less than 0.05). As a group, the mean NK activity for the asbestos-exposed group was also reduced compared with that of the nonsmoking control group (22.6 +/- 3.2%; p less than 0.05). When divided according to the smoking status, the asbestos workers who were nonsmokers or ex-smokers showed similar decreases in NK activity compared with normal subjects (19.5 +/- 6.2 and 21.2 +/- 4.5%, respectively; p less than 0.05). A subgroup of asbestos-exposed subjects who currently smoked showed no decrease in NK activity. The data show that NK activity is reduced in the peripheral blood of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers. The relatively normal NK activity found in asbestos workers who also smoked is unexplained. Impairment of NK activity is a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of infection and cancer in smokers and neoplasia in asbestos workers.

Ginns, L.C.; Ryu, J.H.; Rogol, P.R.; Sprince, N.L.; Oliver, L.C.; Larsson, C.J.

1985-06-01

223

Isolated and Skeptical: Social Engagement and Trust in Information Sources Among Smokers  

PubMed Central

Our study compared indicators of social engagement and trust among current, former, and never smokers. Multinomial regression analyses of data from the 2005 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (n=5586) were conducted to identify independent associations between social engagement, trust in health information sources, and smoking status. Never smokers (odds ratio (OR)=2.08) and former smokers (OR=2.48) were significantly more likely to belong to community organizations than current smokers. Never (OR=4.59) and former smokers (OR=1.96) were more likely than current smokers to attend religious services. Never smokers (OR=1.38) were significantly more likely than current smokers to use the Internet. Former smokers (OR=1.41) were more likely than current smokers to be married. Compared to current smokers, never smokers were significantly more likely to trust health care professionals (OR=1.52) and less likely to trust the Internet (OR=0.59) for health information. Current smokers are less socially engaged and less trusting of information resources than non-smokers. PMID:21340632

Blake, Kelly; Hesse, Bradford W.; Ackerson, Leland K.

2014-01-01

224

Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette smokers: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of the lung function profiles of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Males aged 35–60 living in Sousse, Tunisia, who have been smoking narghile exclusively for more than 10 narghile-years (n=36) or cigarettes exclusively for more than 10 pack-years (n=106) were recruited to participate in this case–control study. The anthropometric and plethysmographic data were measured according to international recommendations using a body plethysmograph (ZAN 500 Body II, Me?greräte GmbH, Germany). Large-airway-obstructive-ventilatory-defect (LAOVD) was defined as: first second forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) below the lower-limit-of-normal (LLN). Restrictive-ventilatory-defect (RVD) was defined as total lung capacity < LLN. Lung hyperinflation was defined as residual volume > upper-limit-of-normal. Student t-test and ?2 test were used to compare plethysmographic data and profiles of the two groups. Results The subjects in the ENS and ECS groups are well matched in age (45±7 vs. 47±5 years) and height (1.73±0.06 vs. 1.72±0.06 m) and used similar quantities of tobacco (36±22 narghile-years vs. 35±19 pack-years). Compared to the ENS group, the ECS group had significantly lower FEV1 (84±12 vs. 60±21%), FVC (90±12 vs. 76±18%), and FEV1/FVC (99±7 vs. 83±17%). The two groups had similar percentages of RVD (31 vs. 36%), while the ECS group had a significantly higher percentage of LAOVD (8 vs. 58%) and lung hyperinflation (36 vs.57%). Conclusion Chronic exclusive narghile smoking has less adverse effects on pulmonary function tests than chronic exclusive cigarette smoking. PMID:24382307

Saad, Helmi Ben; Khemiss, Mehdi; Nhari, Saida; Essghaier, Mejda Ben; Rouatbi, Sonia

2013-01-01

225

Preliminary results from Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 - NE Lau: First explorations of hydrothermally active volcanoes across the supra-subduction zone and a return to the West Mata eruption site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several expeditions in the past few years have shown that the NE Lau basin has one of the densest concentrations of volcanically and hydrothermally active volcanoes on the planet. In 2008 two active submarine volcanic eruptions were discovered during a one week period and subsequent dives with the Jason remotely operated vehicle at one of the sites (West Mata) revealed an active boninite eruption taking place at 1200 m depth. Two dives at the other revealed evidence for recent eruption along the NE Lau Spreading Center. Several more expeditions in 2010-11 discovered additional evidence about the extent and types of hydrothermal activity in this area. Data from CTDO (conductivity, temperature, depth, optical) vertical casts, tow-yos, and towed camera deployments revealed more than 15 hydrothermal sites at water depths from ~800 to 2700 m that include sites from the magmatic arc, the "rear arc," and the back arc spreading centers. These sites range from high temperature black smoker sulfide-producing systems to those dominated by magmatic degassing. Dives by remotely operated vehicle (Quest 4000) in September 2012 will explore these sites and return samples for chemical, biological and geologic studies. One of the dives will be a return visit to West Mata volcano, the site of the deepest submarine eruption yet observed (in 2009). Recent multibeam data reveal large changes in West Mata's summit, suggesting that the nature of the eruption and the location of the erupting vents may have changed. In addition to the preliminary results from the science team, we will also discuss our use and experience with continuous live video transmission (through the High Definition video camera on the Quest 4000) back to shore via satellite and through the internet. Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 Science Team: Bradley Tebo, Bill Chadwick, Ed Baker, Ken Rubin, Susan Merle, Timothy Shank, Sharon Walker, Andra Bobbitt, Nathan Buck, David Butterfield, Eric Olson, John Lupton, Richard Arculus, Fabio Caratori-Tontini, Rick Davis, Kevin Roe, Edward Mitchell, Paula Keener-Chavis Carolyn Sheehan, Peter Crowhurst, Simon Richards,and Volker Ratmeyer along with the Quest-4000 team. .

Resing, J.; Embley, R. W.

2012-12-01

226

Black Magic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most non-permanent markers use inks that are made of mixtures of colored pigments and water. How does Black Magic work? Why do some black inks separate into many colors on a wet coffee filter? Why does mixing many colors of ink make black?

2010-01-01

227

Drill core-based facies reconstruction of a deep-marine felsic volcano hosting an active hydrothermal system (Pual Ridge, Papau New Guinea, ODP Leg 193)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pual Ridge is a deep-marine, felsic volcanic edifice in the eastern Manus back-arc basin (Papua New Guinea) with an estimated volume of ˜6 to 9 km 3. It is 1-1.5 km wide, 20 km long and rises 500-600 m above the surrounding ocean floor. The active PACMANUS hydrothermal field on the crest of Pual Ridge at 1640-1690 m below sea level was the target of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 193. Variably altered dacite lavas have been recovered from the subsurface of a low-T discharge site (Snowcap) and a high-T black smoker site (Roman Ruins) reaching a maximum depth of 380 m below seafloor (mbsf). Volcanic facies interpretation of these cores is difficult due to incomplete recovery and widespread pseudoclastic textures generated by fracturing and multi-phase, incomplete fluid-dacite interaction. However, distinction of genuine volcaniclastic facies and facies with alteration-related clastic appearance is important in order to define paleo-seafloor positions within the volcanic stratigraphy, that may be prospective for massive sulfide mineralization. This has been accomplished using remnant primary characteristics indicative of transportation such as polymictic composition, grading or textural evidence for differential movement of individual clasts. Three phases of volcanic activity can be distinguished and a proximal facies association dominated by coherent facies of dacite lavas exists below Snowcap. At Roman Ruins, a medial facies association consists of lava flows with about equal proportions of coherent and volcaniclastic facies. Endogenous growth was an important process during lava flow emplacement and groundmass textures such as perlite, flow banding and spherulites indicate that cooling rates were variable, locally allowing for high-temperature devitrification. A tube pumice breccia unit is interpreted as the resedimented facies of a quench fragmented, highly vesicular dacite lava carapace. Sulfide accumulations in the subsurface are restricted to Roman Ruins suggesting that the abundance of volcaniclastic facies favored ascent of metal-bearing fluids due to the inherent high permeability. Evidence for mineralization at paleo-seafloor positions at 110 and 195 mbsf indicate a complex interrelationship between volcanic and hydrothermal activity. A facies model has been developed which may help to locate subaqueous, felsic lava-dominated volcanic centers and associated sulfide deposits in ancient volcano-sedimentary successions.

Paulick, H.; Vanko, D. A.; Yeats, C. J.

2004-02-01

228

Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings.  

PubMed

The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. We conducted a pilot, randomised double blind placebo controlled study set out to assess the impact of the ad-hoc use of cannabidiol (CBD) in smokers who wished to stop smoking. 24 smokers were randomised to receive an inhaler of CBD (n=12) or placebo (n=12) for one week, they were instructed to use the inhaler when they felt the urge to smoke. Over the treatment week, placebo treated smokers showed no differences in number of cigarettes smoked. In contrast, those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by ~40% during treatment. Results also indicated some maintenance of this effect at follow-up. These preliminary data, combined with the strong preclinical rationale for use of this compound, suggest CBD to be a potential treatment for nicotine addiction that warrants further exploration. PMID:23685330

Morgan, Celia J A; Das, Ravi K; Joye, Alyssa; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

2013-09-01

229

Smoking a virtual cigarette increases craving among smokers.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) environments that reproduce smoking-related stimuli for increasing self-reported craving and psychophysiological reactivity in smokers. However, no study to date has attempted to simulate smoking behavior itself by means of VR technology. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of smoking a virtual cigarette on self-reported craving levels and heart rate (HR) in a sample of smokers. Participants were 45 smokers randomly assigned to three VR conditions built into a virtual pub: smoking a virtual cigarette, throwing virtual darts at a virtual dartboard or just being in the virtual pub. Results showed that smoking a virtual cigarette significantly increased self-reported craving and HR when compared to the other two conditions. These results reveal that simulation of smoking behavior in a VR environment functions as an efficacious proximal cue that can be used for triggering craving under the cue-exposure paradigm. PMID:23793042

García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Weidberg, Sara; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Secades-Villa, Roberto

2013-10-01

230

A preliminary experimental investigation of peer influence on risk-taking among adolescent smokers and non-smokers  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Epidemiological evidence suggests that peer influence plays a significant role in a variety of adolescent risk-taking behaviors, including tobacco use. We attempted to establish this relationship in a controlled laboratory setting. METHOD We modified the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) task to include a peer component to investigate whether peer influences alter risk-taking behaviors. Thirty-nine adolescents (22 smokers, 17 non-smokers) completed one experimental session during which the standard and peer BART were presented in counterbalanced order, with the dependent measures being adjusted pumps and explosions. We also examined the relationship of changes in the BART (standard-peer) to personality measures of impulsivity (BIS-11) and resistance to peer influence (RPI). RESULTS A significant interaction of BART type and smoking status was present (p = .05); specifically smokers had a greater increase in the number of explosions by 2.27 (SD = 3.12) compared to an increase of .29 (SD = 2.87) by non-smokers. BIS-11 scores were related to peer-influenced BART changes: those who were more impulsive experienced greater changes in risk-taking, but no similar relationships were observed for the RPI. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that peer influences enhance risk-taking among adolescents, and that smokers may be more susceptible to these influences. PMID:23131775

Cavalca, Eleonora; Kong, Grace; Liss, Thomas; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Schepis, Ty S.; Lejuez, C. W.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

2012-01-01

231

Direct Observations of Parenting and Real-time Negative Affect among Adolescent Smokers and Non-Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objective This longitudinal study examined how observations of parental general communication style and control with their adolescents predicted changes in negative affect over time for adolescent smokers and non-smokers. Method Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 111; 56.8% female) who had all experimented with cigarettes and were thus at risk for continued smoking and escalation; 36% of these adolescents (n = 40) had smoked in the past month at baseline and were considered smokers in the present analyses. Adolescents participated separately with mothers and fathers in observed parent-adolescent problem-solving discussions to assess parenting at baseline. Adolescent negative affect was assessed at baseline, 6- and 24-months via ecological momentary assessment. Results Among both smoking and non-smoking adolescents, escalating negative affect significantly increased risk for future smoking. Higher quality maternal and paternal communication predicted a decline in negative affect over 1.5 years for adolescent smokers but was not related to negative affect for non-smokers. Controlling maternal, but not paternal, parenting predicted escalation in negative affect for all adolescents. Conclusions Findings suggest that reducing negative affect among experimenting youth can reduce risk for smoking escalation. Therefore, family-based prevention efforts for adolescent smoking escalation might consider parental general communication style and control as intervention targets. However, adolescent smoking status and parent gender may moderate these effects. PMID:23153193

Richmond, Melanie J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

2012-01-01

232

Altered hypothalamic response to food in smokers123  

PubMed Central

Background: Smoking cessation is often followed by weight gain. Eating behaviors and weight change have been linked to the brain response to food, but it is unknown whether smoking influences this response. Objective: We determined the influence of smoking status (smokers compared with nonsmokers) on the brain response to food in regions associated with weight changes in nonsmokers. Design: In study 1, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to identify regions of the brain associated with weight change in nonsmokers. BMI and the brain response to a milk shake, which is a palatable and energy-dense food, were measured in a group of 27 nonsmokers (5 men). Sixteen subjects (3 men) returned 1 y later for BMI reassessment. The change in BMI was regressed against the brain response to isolate regions associated with weight change. In study 2, to determine whether smokers showed altered responses in regions associated with weight change, we assessed the brain response to a milk shake in 11 smokers. The brain response to a milk shake compared with a tasteless control solution was assessed in 11 smokers (5 men) in comparison with a group of age-, sex- and body weight–matched nonsmokers selected from the pool of nonsmokers who participated in study 1. Results: The response in the midbrain, hypothalamus, thalamus, and ventral striatum was positively associated with weight change at the 1-y follow-up in 16 nonsmokers. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers had a greater response to milk shakes in the hypothalamus. Conclusion: Smokers display an altered brain response to food in the hypothalamus, which is an area associated with long-term weight change in nonsmokers. PMID:23235196

Geha, Paul Y; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Felsted, Jennifer; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Small, Dana M

2013-01-01

233

Boron isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids from submarine hydrothermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron is highly mobile in submarine hydrothermal systems and useful to trace the process of water-rock reaction. In this study, we measured the boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids collected from arc-backarc hydrothermal systems in the western Pacific. In sediment-starved hydrothermal systems (Manus Basin, Suiyo Seamount, and Mariana Trough), the boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids are dependent on type of host rock. The end member fluids from MORB-like basalt-hosted Vienna Woods in the Manus Basin showed low boron content and high ?11B value (0.53 mM, 29.8‰), while dacite-hosted PACMANUS and the Suiyo Seamount showed high boron contents and low ?11B values (1.45 and 1.52 mM, 13.6 and 18.5‰, respectively). The Alice Springs and Forecast Vent field in the Mariana Trough showed values intermediate between them (0.72 and 0.63 mM, 19.9 and 24.0‰, respectively), reflecting reaction of seawater and basalt influenced by slab material. In phase separated hydrothermal systems (North Fiji Basin), boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids (0.44-0.56 mM, 34.5-35.9‰) were similar to those in the Vienna Woods. Considering little fractionation of boron and boron isotope during phase separation demonstrated by the previous experimental studies, it is suggested that the host rock in the North Fiji Basin is MORB-like basalt. In sediment-hosted hydrothermal system (Okinawa Trough), the reaction with boron-enriched sediment following seawater-rock reaction resulted in significantly high boron contents and low ?11B values of vent fluids (4.4-5.9 mM, 1.5-2.6‰). The water-sediment ratio was estimated to be ~2. In spite of the different geological settings, the end member fuids from all vent fields are enriched in B relative to seawater (0.41 mM, 39.6‰) and the ?11B values are inversely propotional to the boron concentrations. It suggests that boron isotopic composition of vent fluid predominantly depends on the amount of boron originated from solid-phase.

Yamaoka, K.; Hong, E.; Ishikawa, T.; Gamo, T.; Kawahata, H.

2013-12-01

234

Attentional bias toward cigarette cues in active smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  While it is well documented that substance users exhibit attentional bias toward addiction-related stimuli, the exact mechanism\\u000a remains unclear.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To differentiate between distinct aspects of attentional allocation in the smoking-cue attentional bias observed in smokers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Active smokers (AS) and non-smoking controls completed spatial cueing tasks with pairs of smoking and neutral pictorial cues\\u000a to measure attentional capture, and an attentional

Vicki W. Chanon; Chandler R. Sours; Charlotte A. Boettiger

2010-01-01

235

Comparison of Barriers to Cessation among Arab American Smokers of Cigarettes and Waterpipe  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional study examined the differences in barriers to cessation and reasons for quitting smoking among dual smokers of cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco, exclusive cigarette smokers and exclusive waterpipe smokers. Participants were Arab American adults residing in Richmond, Virginia, who were recruited from Middle Eastern grocery stores, restaurants/lounges and faith and charity organizations. The study yielded several key findings: (1) Exclusive cigarette and waterpipe smokers had similar mean barriers to quitting and were more concerned about their health than dual smokers. (F(2, 150) = 5.594, p = 0.0045). This implies that barriers to smoking and health concerns could be a function of the individual who smokes rather than the modality of smoking itself. (2) Exclusive cigarette or waterpipe smokers and dual smokers may have different reasons for quitting, since they have different reasons for smoking. The proportion of smokers who endorsed smoking as a messy habit as the reason among exclusive cigarette smokers was 0.37, whereas the proportion among exclusive waterpipe smokers was 0.04 and among dual smokers 0.39. The difference in proportions is significant, ?2 (df = 2, N = 154) = 13.17, p = 0.0014. In summary, this study supports the need to further investigate dual cigarette and waterpipe smokers, as the study results indicate greater barriers to smoking cessation in this group. Recognition and understanding of these barriers among dual tobacco users would be important for any future tobacco intervention among waterpipe smokers. PMID:25226410

Haddad, Linda; El-Shahawy, Omar; Ghadban, Roula

2014-01-01

236

The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Methods Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Results All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they ‘ought’ to quit as opposed to ‘wanted’ to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be considerable in order to influence motivation. Highly motivated smokers expressed more willingness to visit Stop Smoking Services, although none had done so. Conclusion Continuing smokers’ attitudes towards smoking and quitting suggests that research and policy need to focus on increasing smokers’ implicit motivation to quit smoking, even for those who classified themselves as having high motivation to quit. Targeted information and further education about Stop Smoking Services is required to increase uptake. PMID:23641875

2013-01-01

237

Motion and twisting of magnetic particles ingested by alveolar macrophages in non-smokers and smokers: Implementation of viscoelasticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferrimagnetic iron oxide particles were inhaled by 17 healthy volunteers (9 non-smokers, 8 smokers), and the retained particles were magnetized and detected by a SQUID. Stochastic particle transport due to cytoskeletal reorganizations within macrophages (relaxation) and directed particle motion in a weak magnetic twisting field were investigated with respect to viscous and elastic properties of the cytoskeleton. Relaxation and cytoskeletal stiffness were not influenced by cigarette smoking. Relaxation and particle twisting revealed a non-Newtonian viscosity with a pure viscous and a viscoelastic compartment. Viscous and elastic data obtained from relaxation correlated with particle twisting, indicating that the proposed simple model is a reasonable approximation of cytoskeletal mechanical properties.

Möller, Winfried; Felten, Kathrin; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Häussinger, Karl; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.

2007-04-01

238

Smoking Intensity among Nigerian Secondary Schools Adolescent Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined smoking intensity among secondary school adolescent smokers. A total of 800 students, made up of 685 males and 115 females who have at least tasted a cigarette once, from twenty secondary schools (5 private and 15 public secondary schools) in Benin City, Nigeria participated in the study. A questionnaire was used in collecting…

Imhonde, Henry O.; Aluede, Oyaziwo

2007-01-01

239

Decreased endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion in healthy young smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. To determine whether altered response also occurs in young individuals without manifest coronary disease we quantified coronary blood flow at rest, following adenosine vasodilator stress and during the cold pressor test in healthy young smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified by oxygen-15 labelled water positron emission tomography in 30 healthy men

Yasuyoshi Iwado; Keiichiro Yoshinaga; Hideto Furuyama; Yoshinori Ito; Kazuyuki Noriyasu; Chietsugu Katoh; Yuji Kuge; Eriko Tsukamoto; Nagara Tamaki

2002-01-01

240

Recurrent hemoptysis in a 62-year-old smoker  

PubMed Central

Tracheal papillary adenoma is a rare benign tumor. We report a case of papillary adenoma in a 62-year-old male smoker who presented with recurrent hemoptysis. The tumor was located in the upper third of trachea and forceps biopsy through flexible bronchoscopy was uncomplicated and diagnostic. PMID:23741099

Gowrinath, Karanam; Ramakrishna, Baddukonda Appala; Shanthi, Vissa; Sujatha, Gogineni

2013-01-01

241

Perceptions of self, self-esteem, and the adolescent smoker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent tobacco use remains a key problem in health education and health promotion. The continuing growth of youthful smoking and other substance use is often explained by appeal to global psychological variables such as self- esteem, where the young smoker is assumed to smoke, drink, or take drugs to compensate for low levels of self-esteem. This paper sets out a

Carl May

1999-01-01

242

College Student Smokers' Cognitive Appraisal of High-Risk Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Students who smoke are more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as binge drinking and unprotected sex (Schnieder and Morris, Environ Behav. 1999; 23:575–591). The goals of the present study were to determine whether smokers assess these behaviors as lower risk than nonsmokers, and if smoking rate influences risk perceptions. Methods: Participants were 303 college students. Cognitive Appraisal

Amy L. Copeland; Magdalena Kulesza; Scott M. Patterson; Meredith A. Terlecki

2009-01-01

243

Influence of smoking cues in movies on craving among smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims - Research has shown that smoking-related cues are important triggers for craving. The objective of the present study was to test whether smoking cues in movies also function as triggers to evoke craving. To accomplish this, we conducted a pilot study in which we examined smokers' reactivity to smoking cues from a particular movie in a common cue-reactivity paradigm

K. C. Lochbühler; Rutger C. M. E. Engels; Ron H. J. Scholte

2009-01-01

244

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Spontaneous Action Representation in Smokers when  

E-print Network

to smoking relapse, exposure to smoking cues may also trigger automatic smoking behaviors (Tiffany, 1990 Characters Smoke Dylan D. Wagner,1 Sonya Dal Cin,2 James D. Sargent,2 William M. Kelley,1 and Todd F Hitchcock Medical School, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 Do smokers simulate smoking when

Kelley, William M.

245

Willingness Among College Students to Help a Smoker Quit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Between February and March 2003, the authors examined college students' willingness to help a smoker quit and assessed demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with willingness to help. Participants: Survey respondents were 701 college students (474 women, 227 men) aged 18 to 24 years who indicated there was someone close to them whom they thought should quit smoking. Methods: Respondents

Janet L. Thomas; Tracy A. Gerber; Tabetha A. Brockman; Christi A. Patten; Darrell R. Schroeder; Kenneth P. Offord

2008-01-01

246

Pancreatic Cancer Linked to Insulin Resistance in Male Smokers  

Cancer.gov

A new study, led by researchers at the NCI, shows for the first time that male smokers with the highest insulin levels are twice as likely to develop pancreatic cancer as men with the lowest levels. Similarly, men with glucose levels in the range of clinical diabetes were twice as likely to develop the cancer as men with normal glucose levels.

247

EFFECTIVENESS OF COUGH FOR ENHANCING MUCUS CLEARANCE IN ASYMPTOMATIC SMOKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Using monodisperse aerosols radiolabeled with 99mTc, we studied the effectiveness of ough and rapid inhalations for clearing mucus in en asymptomatic smokers. On three eparate study days, each subject breathed 5 um (MMAD) 99mTc-iron oxide particles under ontrolled breathing condi...

248

A displacement and reconditioning technique for compulsive smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for reducing total anxiety in chronic smokers while ostensibly directed toward permissive alteration of the smoking pattern is presented. In light trance the motivated patient is taught: (a) elementary respiratory relaxation (natural sigh), (b) displacement of emphasis from inhaling smoke to exhaling clean fresh air, (c) enhancement of satisfaction from other pleasurable factors-touch, shape, color, aroma, flame, smoke

Calvert Stein

1964-01-01

249

Apparent underreporting of cigarette consumption among Mexican American smokers.  

PubMed Central

To determine the accuracy of self-report of cigarette consumption among Mexican American smokers, we compared self-reported cigarette use and serum cotinine concentrations in a sample of 547 participants in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES). We defined underreporting of cigarette use as a cotinine to cigarette-per-day ratio of greater than 0.142 microM/l which represented a substantial discrepancy between self-reported consumption and serum cotinine. Of the 98 men and 97 women who reported smoking one to nine cigarettes/day, 20.4 percent and 24.7 percent, respectively, underreported their cigarette consumption. Underreporting was less common among men and women smoking 10 to 19 cigarettes/day (8.3 percent and 10.8 percent, respectively) and 20 or more cigarettes/day (2.2 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively). Comparison of underreporters to other smokers by demographic characteristics within sex and cigarettes/day categories showed no differences. Differences in cotinine metabolism and extremely efficient smoking are alternative explanations that can not be ruled out with these data. We believe, however, that a proportion of Mexican American light smokers may underreport the quantity of cigarettes smoked per day, and may truly be moderate or heavy smokers. PMID:2382741

Perez-Stable, E J; Marin, B V; Marin, G; Brody, D J; Benowitz, N L

1990-01-01

250

Diminished error processing in smokers during smoking cue exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficits in error processing may contribute to the continuation of impulsive behaviors such as smoking. Previous studies show deficits in error processing among substance abuse patients. However, these studies were all conducted during affectively neutral conditions. Deficits in error processing in smokers may become more pronounced under affectively challenging conditions, such as during smoking cue exposure. The aim of the

Maartje Luijten; Catharina S. van Meel; Ingmar H. A. Franken

2011-01-01

251

Nicotine Withdrawal and Psychiatric Symptoms in Cigarette Smokers with Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of smoking is markedly elevated in schizophrenia. Low smoking cessation rates and reports that some smokers with schizophrenia experience an acute increase in symptoms during attempts to quit smoking, suggest a self-medication model. Alternatively, smoking may modulate medication side effects. The effects of treated and untreated smoking abstinence on psychotic symptoms and medication side effects were examined in

Gregory W Dalack; Lisa Becks; Elizabeth Hill; Ovide F Pomerleau; James H Meador-Woodruff

1999-01-01

252

CD8 1 T-Lymphocytes in Peripheral Airways of Smokers with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether the inflammatory process in peripheral airways is different in smokers who develop symptoms of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow limitation and in asymptomatic smokers who do not develop chronic airflow limitation, we examined surgical specimens obtained from 16 smokers undergoing lung resection for localized pulmonary lesions. Nine had symptoms of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow limitation and

MARINA SAETTA; ANTONINO D I STEFANO; GRAZIELLA TURATO; FABRIZIO M. FACCHINI; LAURA CORBINO; CRISTINA E. MAPP; PIERO MAESTRELLI; ADALBERTO CIACCIA; LEONARDO M. FABBRI

1998-01-01

253

Young adult smoking: what factors differentiate ex-smokers, smoking cessation treatment seekers and nontreatment seekers?  

PubMed

The present study investigated demographic and psychosocial correlates of smoking status and predictors of smoking cessation among young adults, ages 18-30 years old. Young adults (n=294) completed a self-report survey regarding their health habits and smokers were offered the opportunity to enroll in a smoking cessation program. Substitute reinforcers were greater among ex-smokers compared to nontreatment-seeking smokers, treatment-seeking smokers who did participate in a smoking cessation program and treatment-seeking smokers who did not subsequently participate in a smoking cessation program. Greater complementary reinforcers and delay discounting rates differentiated nontreatment-seeking smokers from ex-smokers and treatment-seeking smokers who subsequently attended a smoking cessation program. Nontreatment seekers were less likely to have higher depression symptoms than ex-smokers. Treatment seekers who did not attend a smoking cessation program tended to live in a household with another smoker, to not be college educated, and to be non-white. Young adult smokers who increased their substitute reinforcers across treatment were almost two times more likely to be quit at treatment end. These results highlight variables that may be important to consider in recruitment strategies and treatment components for smoking cessation interventions for young adult smokers. PMID:19619948

Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel; Epstein, Leonard H; Rodgers, Kelli; Cuevas, Jocelyn; Wileyto, E Paul

2009-12-01

254

Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in cigarette and water pipe smokers.  

PubMed

This study compared the amplitude of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and latencies of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) among non-smokers, cigarette smokers, water pipe smokers, mixed smokers and ex-smokers. A total of 50 non-smokers, 28 water pipe smokers, 34 pure cigarette smokers, 28 mixed cigarette-water pipe smokers, and 21 ex-smokers were evaluated in this study. Their age ranged from 20 to 40 years. All had normal hearing sensitivity and normal middle ear functions. TEOAEs amplitude and VEMPs were measured for all participants. Results of this study showed that smoking had deleterious effects on the hair cells in the labyrinth. Damage to the outer hair cells was evidenced by the reduced amplitude of the TEOAEs in smokers and ex-smokers when compared with control group. Harm to the saccular hair cells is detected by the increased latency of the VEMPs. Results also suggested that cessation of smoking could not change the profile of TEOAEs or VEMPs. Our results suggested that smoking could have irreversible hazardous effects on the labyrinthine hair cell functions. These effects could be attributed to the impact of nicotine on the microvascular dynamics. PMID:24121784

Mustafa, Mohamed Wael Mohamed

2014-10-01

255

Young Adult Smoking: What factors differentiate ex-smokers, smoking cessation treatment seekers and nontreatment seekers?  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated demographic and psychosocial correlates of smoking status and predictors of smoking cessation among young adults, ages 18–30 years old. Young adults (n=294) completed a self-report survey regarding their health habits and smokers were offered the opportunity to enroll in a smoking cessation program. Substitute reinforcers were greater among ex-smokers compared to nontreatment seeking smokers, treatment seeking smokers who did participate in a smoking cessation program and treatment seeking smokers who did not subsequently participate in a smoking cessation program. Greater complementary reinforcers and delay discounting rates differentiated nontreatment seeking smokers from ex-smokers and treatment seeking smokers who subsequently attended a smoking cessation program. Nontreatment seekers were less likely to have higher depression symptoms than ex-smokers. Treatment seekers who did not attend a smoking cessation program tended to live in a household with another smoker, to not be college educated, and to be non-white. Young adult smokers who increased their substitute reinforcers across treatment were almost two times more likely to be quit at treatment end. These results highlight variables that may be important to consider in recruitment strategies and treatment components for smoking cessation interventions for young adult smokers. PMID:19619948

Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel; Epstein, Leonard H.; Rodgers, Kelli; Cuevas, Jocelyn; Wileyto, E. Paul

2009-01-01

256

Vaginal cells of smokers are more resistant to human papillomavirus infection than that of non-smokers  

PubMed Central

To evaluate effect of HPV and smoking on DNA double-strand breaks in vaginal samples, vaginal specimens collected from participants (n=76) were classified based on HPV and smoking status and DNA double-strand breaks measured using comet assay. Mean tail length (31.2 +/? 18.7 ?m) and tail moment (2.4 +/? 2.8 arbitrary units) for HPV-positive patients were lower (p<0.001) compared with HPV-negative patients (61.7 +/? 22.6 ?m; 8.7 +/? 4.9). Never-smokers were found to have higher level (p<0.001) of double-strand breaks (57.7 +/? 24.5 ?m, 7.5 +/? 5.5 AU) compared with ever smokers (35.3 +/? 21.9 ?m; 3.4 +/? 3.7 AU). Among HPV infected patients, never-smokers have more double-strand breaks compared to smokers (p<0.001) which correlated with age (p<0.001). Highly differentiated vaginal epithelium may be resistant to DNA damage associated with HPV infection and smoking, which may be attributed to adoptive survival mechanisms of vaginal epithelium. PMID:23137616

Moktar, Afsoon; Ravoori, Srivani; Vadhanm, Manicka V.; Pan, Jianmin; Rai, Shesh N; Jenson, Alfred B.; Parker, Lynn P.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

2012-01-01

257

Mechanisms of Disease: signal transduction in lung carcinogenesis—a comparison of smokers and never-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although smoking has been established as the most important cause of lung cancer, approximately 10% of patients with this malignancy have no history of smoking. The pathogenesis of tobacco-related lung carcinogenesis is becoming well characterized, but the molecular mechanisms of neoplastic transformation in never-smokers have not yet been adequately elucidated. Nevertheless, numerous recent studies have revealed a distinct biological process

Pierre Fouret; Jean-Charles Soria; Giannis Mountzios

2008-01-01

258

Effects of Tobacco Smoking on the Kinetics of the Pupillary Light Reflex: A Comparison between Smokers and Non-Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The time course of the pupillary light reflex (PLR) is determined by the successive activation of parasympathetic and sympathetic innervations of the iris, latency and amplitude reflecting parasympathetic activity and recovery time showing mainly sympathetic activity. Objective: To determine the effects of tobacco cigarette smoking on the PLR in smokers after an abstinence period of at least 12 h.

A. Morte; L. Benito; E. Grasa; S. Clos; J. Riba; M. J. Barbanoj

2005-01-01

259

COMPARISON OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION IN NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS OBTAINED FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several studies have demonstrated that individuals who smoke have greater susceptibility to influenza infections, as well as other respiratory virus infections, than non-smokers, yet the role of airway epithelial cells in this response is not clear. To determine whether in vivo t...

260

A comparison of cocaine-dependent cigarette smokers and non-smokers on demographic, drug use and other characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking (n = 156) and non-smoking (n = 43) individuals seeking out-patient treatment for cocaine-dependence were compared on demographic, drug use and other variables. Smokers were younger, less educated, earned less money, began cocaine use at an earlier age, used cocaine more frequently, were more likely to inject or smoke cocaine, were more likely to report legal troubles and

John M. Roll; Stephen T. Higgins; Alan J. Budney; Warren K. Bickel; Gary J. Badger

1996-01-01

261

Magmatic intrusions and hydrothermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation investigates the possible role of hydrothermally driven ground-water outflow in the formation of fluvial valleys on Mars. Although these landforms have often been cited as evidence for a past warmer climate and denser atmosphere, recent theoretical modeling precludes such climatic conditions on early Mars when most fluvial valleys formed. Because fluvial valleys continued to form throughout Mars' geological history and the most Earth-like stream valleys on Mars formed well after the decline of the early putative Earth-like climate, it may be unnecessary to invoke drastically different climatic conditions for the formation of the earliest stream valleys. The morphology of most Martian fluvial valleys indicates formation by ground-water sapping which is consistent with a subsurface origin. Additionally, many Martian fluvial valleys formed on volcanoes, impact craters, near fractures, or adjacent to terrains interpreted as igneous intrusions; all are possible locales of vigorous, geologically long-lived hydrothermal circulation. Comparison of Martian valley morphology to similar features on Earth constrains valley genesis scenarios. Volumes of measured Martian fluvial valleys range from 1010 to 1013 m3. Based on terrestrial analogs, total water volumes required to erode these valleys range from approximately 1010 to 1015 m3. The clustered distribution of Martian valleys within a given terrain type, the sapping dominated morphology, and the general lack of associated runoff valleys all indicate the importance of localized ground-water outflow in the formation of these fluvial systems. An analytic model of a conductively cooling cylindrical intrusion is coupled with the U.S. Geological Survey's numerical ground-water computer code SUTRA to evaluate the magnitude of ground-water outflow expected from magmatically-driven hydrothermal systems on Mars. Results indicate that magmatic intrusions of several 102 km3 or larger can provide sufficient ground-water outflow over periods (several 105 years) required to form Martian fluvial valleys. Therefore, a vastly different climate on early Mars may not be necessary to explain the formation of the observed valleys. Martian hydrothermal systems would have also produced long-lived sources of near-surface water; these localized regions may have provided oases for any microbial life that may have evolved on the planet.

Gulick, Virginia Claire

1993-01-01

262

Hydrothermal vents and the origin of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submarine hydrothermal vents are geochemically reactive habitats that harbour rich microbial communities. There are striking parallels between the chemistry of the H2–CO2 redox couple that is present in hydrothermal systems and the core energy metabolic reactions of some modern prokaryotic autotrophs. The biochemistry of these autotrophs might, in turn, harbour clues about the kinds of reactions that initiated the chemistry

John Baross; Deborah Kelley; Michael J. Russell; William Martin

2008-01-01

263

Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

2013-03-01

264

Hydrothermal Scheduling Using Benders Decomposition: Accelerating Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new decomposition method is presented that includes the network through ac modeling within the hydrothermal scheduling optimization process including the losses. In short-term hydrothermal scheduling, the transmission network is typically modeled with dc power flow techniques. Such modeling, however, can lead to impractical solutions when it is verified with ac power flow. Another proposal considers in thermal systems the

Wilfredo S. Sifuentes; Alberto Vargas

2007-01-01

265

Hydrothermal studies in the Aegean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the Aegean Hydrothermal Fluxes and Biological Production project were to estimate the fluxes of fluids, chemicals, heat and bacteria, from hydrothermal vents, establish the controls on venting dynamics, measure the productivity in the region of the vents and establish the effect of the vents on biodiversity of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This paper presents an initial synthesis

P. R. Dando; S. Aliani; H. Arab; C. N. Bianchi; M. Brehmer; S. Cocito; J GUNDERSEN; L HOOPER; R KOLBH

2000-01-01

266

Pregnant smokers who quit, pregnant smokers who don't: does history of problem behavior make a difference?  

PubMed

More than half of women who smoke in the USA continue to do so while pregnant. While socioeconomic and demographic factors that distinguish pregnancy quitters from persistent smokers have been identified, less is known about behavioral factors that are associated with persistent smoking. Because smoking during pregnancy is not only an individual, but also a maternal behavior, it may have different behavioral correlates than women's smoking has in general. We propose a conceptual framework in which smoking during pregnancy is viewed as a maternal problem behavior. We explore this conceptualization by examining whether persistent smoking during pregnancy is associated with a pattern of psychosocial risk- and health-compromising behaviors in multiple domains, with pilot data from a small clinic-based sample. Data are presented for 96 predominantly Caucasian, working-class pregnant women recruited from prenatal clinics in the USA. Smoking during pregnancy was measured repeatedly by self-report and biochemical assay. Participants were non-smokers (37%), pregnancy quitters (17%), and persistent smokers (46%). These groups were compared in terms of their history of problem behavior in three domains: interpersonal difficulties, problems in adaptive functioning and problematic health behaviors. With few exceptions, smokers were more likely to have problematic relationships, poorer adaptive functioning and to engage in problematic health behaviors, than both pregnancy quitters and non-smokers. This pattern of problem behavior may interfere with the effectiveness of standard public health prenatal cessation interventions for a sub-group of women. Examining pregnancy smoking as part of a broader matrix of problem behavior may help to identify pregnant women most at risk for persistent smoking and inform the development of targeted interventions. PMID:12742608

Wakschlag, Lauren S; Pickett, Kate E; Middlecamp, Molly K; Walton, Laura L; Tenzer, Penny; Leventhal, Bennett L

2003-06-01

267

The role of dopamine in inhibitory control in smokers and non-smokers: a pharmacological fMRI study.  

PubMed

Contemporary theoretical models of substance dependence posit that deficits in inhibitory control play an important role in substance dependence. The neural network underlying inhibitory control and its association with substance dependence have been widely investigated. However, the pharmacology of inhibitory control is still insufficiently clear. The aims of the current study were twofold. First, we investigated the role of dopamine in inhibitory control and associated brain activation. Second, the proposed link between dopamine and impaired inhibitory control in nicotine dependence was investigated by comparing smokers and non-smoking controls. Haloperidol (2 mg), a dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist, and placebo were administered to 25 smokers and 25 non-smoking controls in a double-blind randomized cross-over design while performing a Go/NoGo task during fMRI scanning. Haloperidol reduced NoGo accuracy and associated brain activation in the ACC, right SFG and left IFG, showing that optimal dopamine levels are crucial to effectively implement inhibitory control. In addition, smokers showed behavioral deficits on the Go/NoGo task as well as hypoactivity in the left IFG, right MFG and ACC after placebo, supporting the hypothesis of a hypoactive prefrontal system in smokers. Haloperidol had a stronger impact on prefrontal brain activation in non-smoking controls compared to smokers, which is in line with the inverted 'U' curve theory of dopamine and cognitive control. The current findings suggest that altered baseline dopamine levels in addicted individuals may contribute to the often observed reduction in inhibitory control in these populations. PMID:23194834

Luijten, Maartje; Veltman, Dick J; Hester, Robert; Smits, Marion; Nijs, Ilse M T; Pepplinkhuizen, Lolke; Franken, Ingmar H A

2013-10-01

268

Are black holes totally black?  

E-print Network

Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.

A. A. Grib; Yu. V. Pavlov

2014-10-21

269

Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8), with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5), females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5), White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4) or Black people (0.90, 0.73-1.10, n = 4). Estimates for current and ever smokers are similar. The combined estimate for long-term use (0.95, 0.80-1.13, n = 4) again suggests no effect of mentholation. Conclusion Higher lung cancer rates in Black males cannot be due to their greater preference for mentholated cigarettes. While some study weaknesses exist, the epidemiological evidence is consistent with mentholation having no effect on the lung carcinogenicity of cigarettes. PMID:21501470

2011-01-01

270

Tobacco Use by College Students: A Comparison of Daily and Nondaily Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore demographics, contextual factors, and health risk behaviors associated with nondaily smoking by college students. Methods In fall 2005, a random sample of 4,100 students completed an online survey. Results 29% reported current smoking, of which 70% were nondaily smokers. Compared to daily smokers, nondaily smokers were younger, African American (compared to White), had mothers with higher education, belonged to Greek organizations, and attended private (vs. public) schools. Nondaily smokers were less likely to have used illicit drugs. Conclusions Nondaily and daily smokers differed on several demographic and contextual factors, but reported mostly similar health risk behaviors. PMID:22370259

Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Berg, Carla J.; Champion, Heather; Helme, Donald W.; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Wolfson, Mark

2013-01-01

271

Effect of smoking one cigarette on antioxidant metabolites in the saliva of healthy smokers.  

PubMed

Concentrations of glutathione, uric acid and total antioxidant activity, expressed as Trolox (a water-soluble vitamin E analogue) equivalent, were measured in the saliva of healthy non-smokers and smokers before and just after smoking a single cigarette. There was no statistically significant difference between smokers and non-smokers in uric acid concentrations and total radical-trapping antioxidant capacity, but glutathione concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in smokers. Smoking of a single cigarette induced a significant reduction in glutathione concentration (p < 0.05). Salivary antioxidant power may affect individual sensitivity toward tobacco stress. PMID:10401526

Zappacosta, B; Persichilli, S; De Sole, P; Mordente, A; Giardina, B

1999-06-01

272

False promises: The tobacco industry, "low-tar" cigarettes, and older smokers  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging Baby Boomers. Methods Archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis utilizing iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Results Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. “Low tar” cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Conclusion Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing “low-tar” or “light” cigarettes to older smokers at risk at quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer; however, “light” cigarettes may actually make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers and families about the tobacco industry’s influence may decrease the tendency to “blame the victim,” thereby enhancing the likelihood of tobacco addiction treatment for older adults. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

Cataldo, Janine K.; Malone, Ruth E.

2009-01-01

273

When smokers move out and nonsmokers move in: Residential thirdhand smoke pollution and exposure  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined whether thirdhand smoke (THS) persists in smokers’ homes after they move out and nonsmokers move in, and whether new nonsmoking residents are exposed to THS in these homes. Methods Homes of 100 smokers and 50 nonsmokers were visited before the residents moved out. Dust, surfaces, and air and participants’ fingers were measured for nicotine and children’s urine samples were analyzed for cotinine. The new residents who moved into these homes were recruited if they were nonsmokers. Dust, surfaces, and air, and new residents’ fingers were examined for nicotine in 25 former smoker and 16 former nonsmoker homes. A urine sample was collected from the youngest resident. Results Smoker homes’ dust, surface, and air nicotine decreased after the change of occupancy (p<.001); yet dust and surfaces showed higher contamination levels in former smoker homes than former nonsmoker homes (p<.05). Nonsmoking participants’ finger nicotine was higher in former smoker homes compared to former nonsmoker homes (p<.05). Finger nicotine levels among nonsmokers living in former smoker homes were significantly correlated with dust and surface nicotine and urine cotinine. Conclusions These findings indicate that THS accumulates in smokers’ homes and persists when smokers move out even after homes remain vacant for two months and are cleaned and prepared for new residents. When nonsmokers move into homes formerly occupied by smokers, they encounter indoor environments with THS polluted surfaces and dust. Results suggest that nonsmokers living in former smoker homes are exposed to THS in dust and on surfaces. PMID:21037269

Matt, Georg E.; Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Zakarian, Joy M.; Fortmann, Addie L.; Chatfield, Dale A.; Hoh, Eunha; Uribe, Anna M.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2013-01-01

274

Up-regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in menthol cigarette smokers  

PubMed Central

One-third of smokers primarily use menthol cigarettes and usage of these cigarettes leads to elevated serum nicotine levels and more difficulty quitting in standard treatment programmes. Previous brain imaging studies demonstrate that smoking (without regard to cigarette type) leads to up-regulation of ?2*-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We sought to determine if menthol cigarette usage results in greater nAChR up-regulation than non-menthol cigarette usage. Altogether, 114 participants (22 menthol cigarette smokers, 41 non-menthol cigarette smokers and 51 non-smokers) underwent positron emission tomography scanning using the ?4?2* nAChR radioligand 2-[18F]fluoro-A-85380 (2-FA). In comparing menthol to non-menthol cigarette smokers, an overall test of 2-FA total volume of distribution values revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from menthol smokers having 9–28% higher ?4?2* nAChR densities than non-menthol smokers across regions. In comparing the entire group of smokers to non-smokers, an overall test revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from smokers having higher ?4?2* nAChR levels in all regions studied (36–42%) other than thalamus (3%). Study results demonstrate that menthol smokers have greater up-regulation of nAChRs than non-menthol smokers. This difference is presumably related to higher nicotine exposure in menthol smokers, although other mechanisms for menthol influencing receptor density are possible. These results provide additional information about the severity of menthol cigarette use and may help explain why these smokers have more trouble quitting in standard treatment programmes. PMID:23171716

Brody, Arthur L; Mukhin, Alexey G; La Charite, Jaime; Ta, Karen; Farahi, Judah; Sugar, Catherine A.; Mamoun, Michael S.; Vellios, Evan; Archie, Meena; Kozman, Maggie; Phuong, Jonathan; Arlorio, Franca; Mandelkern, Mark A.

2013-01-01

275

The Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) differentiates smokers and nonsmokers.  

PubMed

In trying to better understand why individuals begin and continue to smoke despite the obvious health consequences, researchers have become interested in identifying relevant personality variables, such as risk taking. In this study, the authors compared the ability of 2 behavioral measures of risk taking, the Bechara Gambling Task (BGT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), to differentiate smokers and nonsmokers. Self-report measures of impulsivity and sensation seeking were taken for comparison with the 2 behavioral risk-taking tasks. Results indicate that behavior on the BART, and not the BGT, was related to smoking status. Further, when considered in a logistic regression analysis, only the Sensation Seeking total score and the BART score contributed uniquely to the differentiation of smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:12622341

Lejuez, C W; Aklin, Will M; Jones, Heather A; Richards, Jerry B; Strong, David R; Kahler, Christopher W; Read, Jennifer P

2003-02-01

276

Comparison of the Respiratory Microbiome in Healthy Nonsmokers and Smokers  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Results from 16S rDNA-encoding gene sequence–based, culture-independent techniques have led to conflicting conclusions about the composition of the lower respiratory tract microbiome. Objectives: To compare the microbiome of the upper and lower respiratory tract in healthy HIV-uninfected nonsmokers and smokers in a multicenter cohort. Methods: Participants were nonsmokers and smokers without significant comorbidities. Oral washes and bronchoscopic alveolar lavages were collected in a standardized manner. Sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding genes was performed, and the neutral model in community ecology was used to identify bacteria that were the most plausible members of a lung microbiome. Measurements and Main Results: Sixty-four participants were enrolled. Most bacteria identified in the lung were also in the mouth, but specific bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus, Methylobacterium, and Ralstonia species were disproportionally represented in the lungs compared with values predicted by the neutral model. Tropheryma was also in the lung, but not the mouth. Mouth communities differed between nonsmokers and smokers in species such as Porphyromonas, Neisseria, and Gemella, but lung bacterial populations did not. Conclusions: This study is the largest to examine composition of the lower respiratory tract microbiome in healthy individuals and the first to use the neutral model to compare the lung to the mouth. Specific bacteria appear in significantly higher abundance in the lungs than would be expected if they originated from the mouth, demonstrating that the lung microbiome does not derive entirely from the mouth. The mouth microbiome differs in nonsmokers and smokers, but lung communities were not significantly altered by smoking. PMID:23491408

Beck, James M.; Schloss, Patrick D.; Campbell, Thomas B.; Crothers, Kristina; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Flores, Sonia C.; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Ghedin, Elodie; Huang, Laurence; Jablonski, Kathleen; Kleerup, Eric; Lynch, Susan V.; Sodergren, Erica; Twigg, Homer; Young, Vincent B.; Bassis, Christine M.; Venkataraman, Arvind; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Weinstock, George M.

2013-01-01

277

Attentional bias toward cigarette cues in active smokers  

PubMed Central

Rationale While it is well documented that substance users exhibit attentional bias toward addiction-related stimuli, the exact mechanism remains unclear. Objectives To differentiate between distinct aspects of attentional allocation in the smoking-cue attentional bias observed in smokers. Methods Active smokers (AS) and non-smoking controls completed spatial cueing tasks with pairs of smoking and neutral pictorial cues to measure attentional capture, and an attentional blink task with either a smoking or neutral image appearing behind the first target (T1) to measure aspects of attention separate from capture. In addition, we tested groups of sports enthusiasts, and non-enthusiasts in corresponding tasks replacing smoking images with sports-related images to address the possibility that effects found in the smoking study were due simply to greater stimulus familiarity. Results Smoking cues reflexively capture smokers' attention, as AS showed a greater bias toward smoking cues in short stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA; the time between the onset of two stimuli) trials, but not in trials with a longer SOA. These effects represent a facilitation of responding to smoking- versus neutral-cued targets, and were absent in the sports control task. The attentional blink effects were similar in the smoking- and sports-cue experiments: the special T1 resulted in better detection of the second target for the smokers and sports enthusiasts. Conclusions Stimulus familiarity may contribute to some aspects of attentional bias in regular nicotine users, but selective quick capture of attention by smoking cues may be nicotine-habit specific. PMID:20668841

Sours, Chandler R.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

2010-01-01

278

Pulmonary ventilation defects in older never-smokers.  

PubMed

Hyperpolarized (3)He MRI previously revealed spatially persistent ventilation defects in healthy, older compared with healthy, younger never-smokers. To understand better the physiological consequences and potential relevance of (3)He MRI ventilation defects, we evaluated (3)He-MRI ventilation-defect percent (VDP) and the effect of deep inspiration (DI) and salbutamol on VDP in older never-smokers. To identify the potential determinants of ventilation defects in these subjects, we evaluated dyspnea, pulmonary function, and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) measurements, as well as occupational and second-hand smoke exposure. Fifty-two never-smokers (71 ± 6 yr) with no history of chronic respiratory disease were evaluated. During a single visit, pulmonary function tests, CPET, and (3)He MRI were performed and the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease questionnaire administered. For eight of 52 subjects, there was spirometry evidence of airflow limitation (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease-Unclassified, I, and II), and occupational exposure was reported in 13 of 52 subjects. In 13 of 52 (25%) subjects, there were no ventilation defects and in 39 of 52 (75%) subjects, ventilation defects were observed. For those subjects with ventilation defects, six of 39 showed a VDP response to DI/salbutamol. Ventilation heterogeneity and VDP were significantly greater, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity was significantly lower (P < 0.05) for subjects with ventilation defects with a response to DI/salbutamol than subjects with ventilation defects without a response to DI/salbutamol and subjects without ventilation defects. In a step-wise, forward multivariate model, FEV1, inspiratory capacity, and airway resistance significantly predicted VDP (R(2) = 0.45, P < 0.001). In conclusion, most never-smokers had normal spirometry and peripheral ventilation defects not reversed by DI/salbutamol; such ventilation defects were likely related to irreversible airway narrowing/collapse but not to dyspnea and decreased exercise capacity. PMID:24903918

Sheikh, Khadija; Paulin, Gregory A; Svenningsen, Sarah; Kirby, Miranda; Paterson, Nigel A M; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

2014-08-01

279

Smokers can learn to influence their urge to smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty heavy smokers participated in a within-subject experiment in which the association between smoking-related cues and nicotine intake was made conditional on two neutral stimuli. Two colored cards indicated whether smoking-related cues, placed on the cards, would or would not be followed by nicotine intake. In the presence of each card, subjects were asked to rank their urge to smoke

M Dols; B Willems; M van den HOUT; R Bittoun

2000-01-01

280

Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker's saliva.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker's and non-smoker's saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPHSpectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers' instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher's protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker's and nonsmoker's saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker's or nonsmoker's saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group. PMID:20155506

Pinzon, Lilliam M; Oguri, Makoto; O'Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M; Marshall, Grayson W

2010-02-01

281

Smoking in Oman: prevalence and characteristics of smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out a cross-sectional survey to study the prevalence and the characteristics of current and former smoking among Omani adults. Crude prevalence of current smoking was 7.0% (males 13.4%, females 0.5%); 2.3% were former smokers. The overall highest prevalence of current smoking (11.1%) was observed in those 40-49 years (18.7% of males, 0.9% of females). Older age (? 40

A. A. Al Riyami; M. Afifi

2004-01-01

282

OXIDATIVE STRESS RELATED APOPTOSIS IN SMOKERS AND CHRONIC LUNG DISEASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoke contains various carcinogens, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It has been found that cigarette smoking causes several chronic lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). There are mul- tiple markers used for oxidative damage\\/stress in smokers such as urinary 8- hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), serum hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and H2O2 in breath condensate.

Ratana Banjerdpongchai

2006-01-01

283

Correlates of Self-efficacy among Rural Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy has been related to intent to stop smoking, abstinence success, and risk for relapse. Because limited research exists regarding self-efficacy among rural smokers, the current study examined correlates of self-efficacy among rural primary care patients smoking ?10 cigarettes per day. Participants completed a telephone survey assessing demographics, smoking history, and psychosocial variables (e.g. motivation, depression). Among the 750 participants,

Carla J. Berg; Lisa Sanderson Cox; Jonathan D. Mahnken; K. Allen Greiner; Edward F. Ellerbeck

2008-01-01

284

Hydrothermal dolomite—a product of poor definition and imagination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latest dolomite bandwagon is the “hydrothermal dolomite model”. In its present form, this bandwagon is doomed or at least very much overstated for at least two reasons: (1) there are several definitions of hydrothermal, and hardly any author specifies which one s\\/he is using; (2) very few of the dolomites hitherto called hydrothermal have been demonstrated to be hydrothermal

Hans G Machel; Jeff Lonnee

2002-01-01

285

Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers.  

PubMed

Intermittent smokers (ITS) - who smoke less than daily - comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5-30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n=21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n=26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or "indulgent" smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS. PMID:24599056

Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M; Tindle, Hilary A; Anderson, Stewart J; Ferguson, Stuart G

2014-01-01

286

Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.  

PubMed

Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226

McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

2013-12-01

287

Depressed smokers and stage of change: implications for treatment interventions.  

PubMed

Tobacco Dependence among smokers with psychiatric disorders has been under-addressed by the mental health, addictions, and tobacco control communities. This study examined depressed smokers' readiness to quit and the applicability of the Stages of Change framework to a psychiatric sample. Currently depressed smokers (N=322) were recruited from four outpatient psychiatric clinics. Participants averaged 16 cigarettes per day (S.D.=10) and 24 years (S.D.=13) of smoking. The majority (79%) reported intention to quit smoking with 24% ready to take action in the next 30 days. Individuals in the preparation stage reported more prior quit attempts, a greater commitment to abstinence, increased recognition of the cons of smoking, and greater use of the processes of change. Precontemplators were least likely to identify a goal related to their smoking behavior. Depressive symptom severity and history of recurrent depressive episodes were unrelated to readiness to quit. This study is one of the first to examine the smoking behaviors of currently depressed psychiatric outpatients. The level and longevity of their tobacco use underscore the need for cessation interventions. The consistency in hypothesized patterns among theoretical constructs of the Stages of Change model supports the transfer of stage-tailored interventions to this clinical population. PMID:15488338

Prochaska, Judith J; Rossi, Joseph S; Redding, Colleen A; Rosen, Amy B; Tsoh, Janice Y; Humfleet, Gary L; Eisendrath, Stuart J; Meisner, Marc R; Hall, Sharon M

2004-11-11

288

Smoking Patterns and Stimulus Control in Intermittent and Daily Smokers  

PubMed Central

Intermittent smokers (ITS) – who smoke less than daily – comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4–27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5–30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n?=?21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n?=?26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or “indulgent” smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS. PMID:24599056

Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Ferguson, Stuart G.

2014-01-01

289

Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

2014-09-01

290

Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

2014-01-01

291

Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

2013-12-01

292

Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey  

PubMed Central

Background In an attempt to minimize the pack design avenue of communication between tobacco producers and smokers and potential smokers, several jurisdictions, including Norway, have considered regulations on cigarette pack design. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how package design affects young people’s perceptions of typical smokers of some pre-chosen cigarette brands and brand varieties. Methods Based on data from a web survey among 1022 15–22 year-olds, possible effects of plain packaging of cigarettes on adolescents’ views about typical cigarette smokers were investigated. The data collection had a between-subjects design, in which participants were allocated to one of three groups, and asked to typify the smokers of selected cigarette packs either in branded, plain or plain with descriptor versions. The sample included boys and girls, and smokers and non-smokers. The smoker characteristics included in the investigation were: gender, glamour, stylishness, popularity, coolness, sophistication and slimness. Results After creating sum-scores within and across packs and pack versions, analyses indicated that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging would result in a reduction in positive user images related to smoking among adolescents and young adults. For girls, this effect held up after controlling for confounders. Conclusions To the extent that plain packaging contributes to making smoking images less positive, it can potentially be an efficient aid in reducing smoking uptake among adolescents. PMID:24156515

2013-01-01

293

Cigarette-smoke-induced priming of neutrophils from smokers and non-smokers for increased oxidative burst response is mediated by TNF-?.  

PubMed

In vitro treatment of human peripheral blood neutrophils from smokers and non-smokers with an aqueous cigarette smoke (CS) extract resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in surface expression of CD11b and CD66b and a corresponding decrease of CD62L, together with a concentration-dependent release of MMP-8, MMP-9, and lactoferrin, indicating considerable activation and degranulation. However, the burst response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) was unchanged in CS-stimulated neutrophils from both smokers and non-smokers. When supernatants from CS-treated monocytic MonoMac-6 (MM6) cells were used for activation of neutrophils, concentration-dependent changes in surface marker expression, granule protein release, and the oxidative burst response to fMLP were observed, again with no major differences between smokers and non-smokers. CS-treated MM6 cells released significant amounts of IL-8 and TNF-? into the culture supernatant. However, antibody blocking experiments showed that only TNF-? mediated the increased burst response in neutrophils. These data show that, in the presence of secondary cells, CS is able to prime neutrophils for an increased burst response to fMLP which is mediated by TNF-?, released from the secondary cells in response to CS. Following stimulation with priming agents, peripheral blood neutrophils from healthy smokers show an equal burst response compared to those from non-smokers. PMID:24997298

Friedrichs, Bärbel; Neumann, Ute; Schüller, Jutta; Peck, Michael J

2014-10-01

294

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Loessial Mesoporous Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to sustain the inherent porous properties of loess, hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous materials from loess was carried out under saturated steam pressure at 100-200 °C for up to 24h. The experimental results showed that the curing temperature and time exerted a positive influence on the strength development, which was believed to be due to tobermorite formation. Moreover, during the hydrothermal process, a huge number of new mesopores could be formed within the matrix. Therefore a tough and mesoporous material could be produced from loess hydrothermally, which is expected to provide a good humidity regulating property.

Lu, L.; Jing, Z.; Wang, Z.; Pan, X.; Ishida, E. H.

2010-11-01

295

What Defines a Separate Hydrothermal System  

SciTech Connect

Separate hydrothermal systems can be defined in a variety of ways. Criteria which have been applied include separation of heat source, upflow, economic resource and geophysical anomaly. Alternatively, connections have been defined by the effects of withdrawal of economically useful fluid and subsidence, effects of reinjection, changes in thermal features, or by a hydrological connection of groundwaters. It is proposed here that: ''A separate hydrothermal system is one that is fed by a separate convective upflow of fluid, at a depth above the brittle-ductile transition for the host rocks, while acknowledging that separate hydrothermal systems can be hydrologically interconnected at shallower levels''.

Lawless, J.V.; Bogie, I.; Bignall, G.

1995-01-01

296

Dive and Discover's Deeper Discovery: Hydrothermal Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dive and Discover is an interactive distance learning web site designed to immerse you in the excitement of discovery and exploration of the deep seafloor. On this particular website, Dive and Discover takes you on a deeper discovery of hydrothermal vents. This site features an introduction to hydrothermal vent systems, including vent basics, vents around the world, chemistry, boiling points, interactive diagrams, videos, a quiz, and links to selected Dive and Discover hydrothermal vent-related seafloor expeditions. This web page also provides links to other Deeper Discovery topics, Dive and Discover seafloor expeditions, a teacher's page, and further Dive and Discover information.

2010-04-12

297

Black tea  

MedlinePLUS

... combining caffeine, an ingredient in black tea, with ephedra and creatine might increase the risk of serious ... 600 mg of caffeine, 40-60 mg of ephedra, and a variety of other supplements daily for ...

298

Hydrothermal carbonization of lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermochemical conversion process to convert lignocellulosic biomass into value-added products. HTC processes were studied using two different biomass feedstocks: corn stalk and Tamarix ramosissima. The treatment brought an increase of the higher heating values up to 29.2 and 28.4 MJ/kg for corn stalk and T. ramosissima, respectively, corresponding to an increase of 66.8% and 58.3% as compared to those for the raw materials. The resulting lignite-like solid products contained mainly lignin with a high degree of aromatization and a large amount of oxygen-containing groups. Liquid products extracted with ethyl acetate were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified degradation products were phenolic compounds and furan derivatives, which may be desirable feedstocks for biodiesel and chemical production. Based on these results, HTC is considered to be a potential treatment in a lignocellulosic biomass refinery. PMID:22698445

Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

2012-08-01

299

Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope  

DOEpatents

A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

2003-07-01

300

Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope  

DOEpatents

A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

2002-01-01

301

Cigarette smoking and bronchial carcinoma: dose and time relationships among regular smokers and lifelong non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 20-year prospective study on British doctors, smoking habits were ascertained by questionnaire and lung cancer incidence was monitored. Among cigarette smokers who started smoking at ages 16-25 and who smoked 40 or less per day, the annual lung cancer incidence in the age range 40-79 was:0.273X10(-12). (cigarettes\\/day+6)2. (age--22.5)4.5. The form of the dependence on dose in this relationship

R Doll; R Peto

1978-01-01

302

Radon-induced lung cancer in smokers and non-smokers: risk implications using a two-mutation carcinogenesis model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three sets of data (population statistics in non-smokers, data from an investigation of the smoking habits of British doctors\\u000a and a study of Colorado uranium miners) were used to analyse lung cancer in humans as a function of exposure to radon and\\u000a smoking. One of the aims was to derive implications for radon risk estimates. The data were analysed using

H. P. Leenhouts

1999-01-01

303

Solid surface spectroscopic methodology for ultra-trace urinary nickel monitoring in smokers and non-smokers' subjects.  

PubMed

Nickel chemical enrichment on nylon membranes previously treated with eosin (eo) is proposed for subsequent quantification by spectrofluorimetry (lambda(em)=547 nm, lambda(exc)=515 nm). Operational variables which have influence on quantitative metal retention have been studied. At optimal experimental conditions, quantitative recovery was reached (superior to 99%), with a detection limit of 0.13 ng L(-1) and quantification limit of 0.44 ng L(-1). The calibration sensitivity was of 6x10(13) ng L(-1) for the new methodology with a linear range of 0.44-410 ng L(-1) Ni(II). The tolerance levels, respect to cations and anions as potential interferents, were studied, with good results. The methodology was validated by standard addition method and satisfactorily applied to urinary nickel determination of 50 subjects including smokers, second hand smokers and non-smokers' samples without previous treatment. Stability of biological samples was daily studied for a period of 1 month. Within-day precision was better than 0.02 CV. The reproducibility (between-day precision) was also evaluated over 3 days by performing six determinations each day with a CV of 0.052. The different groups were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test with satisfactory results. PMID:20219313

Talio, María Carolina; Luconi, Marta O; Masi, Adriana N; Fernández, Liliana P

2010-09-01

304

[Evaluation of visual attentional biases in a sample of university smokers].  

PubMed

The tobacco consumption continues being a worrying problem due to the negative consequences in the health. At presents, strategies of prevention based on the persuasion across clue pictures are used, which need to attract the attention of the smoker in order that they are effective. Nevertheless, the number of experimental studies in Spain on attentional biases in smokers is very limited. For it, in this study the aim was to verify the presence of visual attentional biases using the dot probe task in university smokers, stage where the smoking habit is consolidated. The sample was constituted by 337 students of the University of Huelva, with ages between 17 and 30 years. The participation was voluntary and the participants signed an informed assent. 135 subjects presented consumption history, which were distributed, according to classification of the WHO, in daily smokers, occasional smokers and former smokers. A experimental Ex post facto prospective design was used. The results showed that the smokers group was significantly later time to respond to the clue located in the same place that the tobacco picture than the group of not smokers. This shows that the smokers presented more difficulty to disconnect the attention towards smoking cues than not smokers. PMID:23748945

Morales Domínguez, Zaira; Pascual Orts, Luis Miguel; Garrido Muñoz de Arenillas, Rocío

2013-01-01

305

[Selected risk factors for diseases of hard tooth tissues in tobacco smokers--preliminary study].  

PubMed

The etiology of the diseases of hard tooth tissues is multifactorial. Important risk factors for caries development are i.a. high count of Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Lactobacillus (LB), dietary habits connected with improper diet composition and frequency of meals consumption as well as low salivary buffer capacity. The aim of the study was the assessment of MS and LB counts in saliva of smokers and evaluation of buffering capacity of stimulated saliva in smokers in relation to risk factors of the diseases of hard tooth tissues. Survey and clinical studies involved 42 patients aged 20-53 years. MS colonies count in saliva of smokers and non-smokers did not differ significantly, similarly to LB count. In smokers buffering capacity of saliva was significantly lower comparing with the non-smokers group. 50% of smokers and 80% of non-smokers presented for dental check-ups every six months. In the smokers group teeth hypersensitivity on stimuli declared 36,36% of the cases. Obtained results indicate the necessity of carrying out studies concerning caries risk factors in a larger group of smokers. PMID:23421027

Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa

2012-01-01

306

Moderate drug use and delay discounting: a comparison of heavy, light, and never smokers.  

PubMed

Delay discounting was examined in light smokers (10 or fewer cigarettes per day) and compared with previously published delay discounting data for heavy and never smokers. Participants evaluated several hypothetical outcomes: money gains and loses ($10, $100, and $1,000), health gains and losses (durations of improved and impoverished health subjectively equivalent to $1,000), cigarette gains and losses (amounts subjectively equivalent to $1,000), and potentially real rewards ($10 and $100). Light smokers discounted money significantly more than never smokers, but light smokers did not differ from heavy smokers. The 3 groups did not statistically differ in discounting of health consequences. Similarly, the 2 smoking groups were not found to differ in discounting of cigarettes. Like heavy smokers, light smokers discounted cigarettes significantly more than money and health. Several significant, positive correlations were found between smoking rate and various discounting measures in the heavy smokers but not in the light smokers. Several previous findings were replicated, helping to validate the present results: the sign effect (greater discounting of gains than losses), the magnitude effect (greater discounting of smaller rewards), reliability of discounting measures over time, and the consistency of hypothetical and potentially real rewards. These data suggest that even moderate levels of drug use may be associated with high delay discounting levels. PMID:17469942

Johnson, Matthew W; Bickel, Warren K; Baker, Forest

2007-04-01

307

Perceptions of Addiction, Attempts to Quit, and Successful Quitting in Nondaily and Daily Smokers  

PubMed Central

We aimed to qualitatively examine differences in perceptions of addiction, attempts to quit, and successful quitting among nondaily versus daily college student smokers. We conducted 16 focus groups with a total of 73 college student smokers from the southeastern U.S. Focus groups were homogenous in terms of gender, smoking status (nondaily, daily), and type of school (2-year college, 4-year university). Questions centered on perceptions of addiction, their own addiction, what constitutes a quit attempt, and successful quitting. Themes that emerged among all smokers regarding conceptualization of general addiction included physiological and psychological dependence and an inability to quit smoking. In terms of their own addiction, nondaily smokers referenced their ability to quit and sense of choice to smoke as factors indicating a lack of addiction, whereas daily smokers reported dependence symptoms and their inability to control their smoking indicating addiction. Nondaily smokers discussed quit attempts in terms of making the decision to quit and avoiding situational triggers, whereas daily smokers reported taking more behavioral steps toward cessation (e.g., not buying cigarettes, reducing cigarette consumption). With regard to successful cessation, both groups identified losing the desire to smoke as a hallmark. However, nondaily smokers reported that the decision to quit might constitute successful cessation; daily smokers had more strict behavioral criteria such as abstinence for an extended period of time. The different perceptions of one’s own addiction, attempting to quit smoking, and successful quitting suggest the need to improve assessments of these factors, particularly among nondaily smokers. PMID:24364689

Berg, Carla J.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Sterling, Kymberle; DeSisto, Carla; Pinsker, Erika A.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2014-01-01

308

Pulmonary function responses to ozone in smokers with a limited smoking history.  

PubMed

In non-smokers, ozone (O3) inhalation causes decreases in forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and dead space (VD) and increases the slope of the alveolar plateau (SN). We previously described a population of smokers with a limited smoking history that had enhanced responsiveness to brief O3 boluses and aimed to determine if responsiveness to continuous exposure was also enhanced. Thirty smokers (19M, 11F, 24±4 years, 6±4 total years smoking,4±2 packs/week) and 30 non-smokers (17M, 13F, 25±6 years) exercised for 1h on a cycle ergometer while breathing 0.30ppm O3. Smokers and non-smokers were equally responsive in terms of FEV1 (-9.5±1.8% vs -8.7±1.9%). Smokers alone were responsive in terms of VD (-6.1±1.2%) and SN (9.1±3.4%). There was no difference in total delivered dose. Dead space ventilation (VD/VT) was not initially different between the two groups, but increased in the non-smokers (16.4±2.8%) during the exposure, suggesting that the inhaled dose may be distributed more peripherally in smokers. We also conclude that these cigarette smokers retain their airway responsiveness to O3 and, uniquely, experience changes in VD that lead to heterogeneity in airway morphometry and an increase in SN. PMID:24747805

Bates, Melissa L; Brenza, Timothy M; Ben-Jebria, Abdellaziz; Bascom, Rebecca; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Ultman, James S

2014-07-01

309

Intelligent Planning for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

in scientific research 3 / 10 #12;Oceanography and Black Smokers Plate tectonics - 1960s Mechanism for most interesting ocean behaviour Discovery of hydrothermal vents (Black Smokers) - 1977 Formed at spreading centres systems more sophisticated, but same restrictions 6 / 10 #12;Problem specification Results of actions

Yao, Xin

310

Magmatic intrusions and hydrothermal systems on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are continuing our investigation of Martian hydrothermal systems and the formation of fluvial valleys on Mars. Here we present our initial numerical modeling results of hydrothermal systems associated with magmatic intrusions on Mars. To model such hydrothermal systems, we consider single, cylindrical intrusions of 4 km height 2 km below the surface. Our preliminary results of modeling hydrothermal systems associated with magmatic intrusions in the Martian environment suggest that such systems, if associated with intrusions of several 10(exp 2) km(exp 3) or larger, in the presence of permeable, water-rich subsurface should be able to provide adequate discharges of water over the time periods needed to form fluvial valleys. However, it is important to note that the amount of water ultimately available for erosion also depends on the surface and subsurface lithology.

Gulick, V. C.

1992-01-01

311

Biomass reforming processes in hydrothermal media  

E-print Network

While hydrothermal technologies offer distinct advantages in being able to process a wide variety of biomass feedstocks, the composition of the feedstock will have a large effect on the processing employed. This thesis ...

Peterson, Andrew A

2009-01-01

312

Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers  

PubMed Central

Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc.), prepared between 1 and 4 times a day with a quantity of up to 120 g of a tobacco-molasses mixture each (i.e. the tobacco weight equivalent of up to 60 cigarettes of 1 g each) and consumed in 1 to 8 sessions. Methods Enhanced chemiluminescent immunometric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in serum samples from 59 exclusive male smokers with age ranging from 20–80 years (mean = 58.8 ± 14.7 years) and 8–65 years of smoking (mean = 37.7 ± 16.8). 36 non-smokers served as controls. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the number of preparations; the number of sessions and the total daily smoking time: Light (1; 1; ? 20 minutes); Medium (1–3; 1–3; >20 min to ? 2 hrs) and Heavy smokers (2–4; 3–8; >2 hrs to ? 6 hrs). Because of the nature of distribution of CEA levels among our individuals, Wilcoxon's rank sum two-sample test was applied to compare the variables. Results The overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers (mean: 3.58 ± 2.61 ng/ml; n = 59) were not significantly different (p ? 0.0937) from the levels in non-smokers (2.35 ± 0.71 ng/ml). Mean levels in light, medium and heavy smokers were: 1.06 ± 0.492 ng/ml (n = 5); 2.52 ± 1.15 ng/ml (n = 28) and 5.11 ± 3.08 ng/ml (n = 26) respectively. The levels in medium smokers and non-smokers were also not significantly different (p ? 0.9138). In heavy smokers, the CEA levels were significantly higher than in non-smokers (p ? 0.0001567). Conclusion Overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers were low compared to cigarette smokers. However, heavy hookah smoking substantially raises CEA levels. Low-nitrosamines smokeless tobacco of the SNUS Swedish type could be envisaged as an alternative to smoking for this category of users and also, in a broad harm reduction perspective, to the prevalent low-quality moist snuff called naswar. PMID:18501010

Sajid, Khan Mohammad; Chaouachi, Kamal; Mahmood, Rubaida

2008-01-01

313

Rare earth element systematics in hydrothermal fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earth element concentrations have been measured in hydrothermal solutions from geothermal fields in Italy, Dominica, Valles Caldera, Salton Sea and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The measured abundances show that hydrothermal activity is not expected to affect the REE balance of either continental or oceanic rocks. The REE enrichment of the solutions increases when the pH decreases. High-temperature solutions (>230°C) percolating

Annie Michard

1989-01-01

314

Rare earth element systematics in hydrothermal fluids  

SciTech Connect

Rare earth element concentrations have been measured in hydrothermal solutions from geothermal fields in Italy, Dominica, Valles Caldera, Salton Sea and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The measured abundances show that hydrothermal activity is not expected to affect the REE balance of either continental or oceanic rocks. The REE enrichment of the solutions increases when the pH decreases. High-temperature solutions (> 230{degree}C) percolating through different rock types may show similar REE patterns.

Michard, A. (Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France))

1989-03-01

315

PREDICTORS OF ADVERSE EVENTS AMONG PREGNANT SMOKERS EXPOSED IN A NICOTINE REPLACEMENT THERAPY TRIAL  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine the contribution of randomization to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), socio-demographic and psychosocial factors, and pregnancy and medical history to serious perinatal adverse events among pregnant smokers. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective review of all medical records for participants in the Baby Steps Trial. Data abstracted from 157 records was combined with baseline characteristics for logistic regression modeling of serious adverse events, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS Serious adverse events occurred in 17% (9/52) and 31% (33/105) of participants in the control and NRT arms, respectively. Black race, adverse pregnancy history, and use of analgesic medication during pregnancy were significant predictors (p-values =0.02, 0.04, and 0.01, respectively). Remaining covariates, including randomization to NRT, were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION While race, poor pregnancy history, and use of analgesics were associated with serious adverse events, randomization to NRT during pregnancy was not a significant factor. Further research is needed to examine the safety of analgesic medications during pregnancy. PMID:19664750

SWAMY, Geeta K.; ROELANDS, Jennifer J.; PETERSON, Bercedis L.; FISH, Laura J.; ONCKEN, Cheryl A.; PLETSCH, Pamela K.; MYERS, Evan R.; WHITECAR, Paul W.; POLLAK, Kathryn I.

2009-01-01

316

Promoter hypermethylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene: more common in lung adenocarcinomas from never-smokers than smokers and associated with tumor progression.  

PubMed

Adenocarcinoma (AC) is the most common type of lung cancer diagnosed in the United States, comprising up to 40% of tumors in smokers and 50-80% of tumors in never-smokers. Exposures to cigarette smoke, direct or second-hand, and radiation in the form of radon progeny are the major risk factors for lung AC in both smokers and never-smokers. The goal of the current study was to determine the prevalence for O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation in a large sample of central or peripheral ACs from smokers (n = 157), former uranium miners (n = 34), and never-smokers (n = 46). The mutation rate at codon 12 of the K-ras gene was determined to assess whether activation of this oncogene was associated with MGMT methylation. The overall prevalence for MGMT methylation was 51%. Significantly more tumors from never-smokers than smokers exhibited MGMT methylation (66 versus 47%, respectively). In contrast, exposure to radon through uranium mining did not affect the prevalence for methylation. The frequency of MGMT methylation was increased significantly in association with tumor stage. K-ras mutations were detected in 24% of all ACs and 22, 24, and 28% of tumors from never-smokers, smokers, and miners, respectively. Alterations in both the K-ras and MGMT genes were seen in only 11% of ACs. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates did not reveal any difference between patient survival with or without MGMT methylation. In contrast, survival was significantly reduced over the initial 60 months after diagnosis for patients with a transition mutation in the K-ras gene compared with those with a transversion mutation. This investigation demonstrates that MGMT promoter hypermethylation is a common event in the progression of early stage AC of the lung. We have shown that the incidence of MGMT methylation was significantly higher in never-smokers than smokers and have detected a higher frequency of mutations within the K-ras gene than previously reported in never-smokers. This study also suggests that K-ras activation is independent of MGMT methylation. PMID:12941804

Pulling, Leah C; Divine, Kevin K; Klinge, Donna M; Gilliland, Frank D; Kang, Terri; Schwartz, Ann G; Bocklage, Therese J; Belinsky, Steven A

2003-08-15

317

Gender Differences in Quit Support by Partners of Health-Compromised Smokers  

PubMed Central

In a study of spousal support for smoking cessation, 34 couples in which one partner continued to smoke despite having a heart or lung problem used an adaptation of Cohen & Lichtenstein’s (1990) Partner Interaction Questionnaire to describe the spouse’s attempts to help the primary (ill) smoker quit. Female smokers received less support for quitting from their spouse or partner than male smokers did, regardless of whether the support was positive or negative, whether the partner also smoked, or whether the smoker or partner rated the partner’s support behavior Female patients in a treatment sub-sample were also less likely than men to achieve stable 1-year cessation if the couple had rated partner support at baseline as coercive or unhelpful. Given known gender differences in relapse risk, cessation interventions for health-compromised female smokers might profitably include partners in addition to the smokers themselves. PMID:19907672

Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Shoham, Varda; Dempsey, Catherine L.

2009-01-01

318

Attentional Bias in Drug Dependence: Vigilance for Cigarette-Related Cues in Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated attentional biases for smoking-related cues in smokers and nonsmokers, using the visual probe task. In Experiment 1, when pictures were displayed for 500 ms, smokers who had made repeated quit attempts showed an attentional bias for smoking-related scenes. Experiment 2 replicated this finding and revealed that when pictures were presented for 2,000 ms, the smoker group as

Brendan P. Bradley; Karin Mogg; Tamsin Wright; Matt Field

2003-01-01

319

Prefrontal hemodynamic changes during cigarette smoking in young adult smokers with and without ADHD.  

PubMed

Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have elevated smoking prevalence and reduced cessation rates compared to the general population. However, the effects of cigarette smoking on underlying brain activity in smokers with ADHD are not well characterized. Non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to characterize how cigarette smoking affects prefrontal brain hemodynamics in smokers with and without ADHD. Prefrontal changes of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin (HbO2 and HHb) were measured in six male adult smokers with ADHD and six age- and gender-matched control smokers. NIRS measurements were separated into four sequential time intervals, i.e., before smoking, during smoking, after smoking, and during a breath hold. Prefrontal HbO2 was lower during smoking in smokers with ADHD compared to control smokers. More specifically, smokers with ADHD showed decreased prefrontal HbO2 during smoking compared to breath hold, before and after smoking periods. In contrast, control smokers showed increased prefrontal HbO2 from before smoking to breath hold. Decreased prefrontal HbO2 in smokers with ADHD may reflect a smoking-induced change in prefrontal brain activity and microvasculature, which is not found in smokers without ADHD. The lower prefrontal HbO2 may be a biomarker for increased susceptibility to tobacco smoke in smokers with ADHD. Smoking in individuals with ADHD may increase vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries in the prefrontal cortex, which may contribute to a reduction in HbO2. The findings highlight the importance of smoking cessation, in particular in those smokers who use nicotine to self-medicate ADHD symptoms. PMID:24125785

Gehricke, Jean-G; Polzonetti, Chiara; Caburian, Cyrus; Gratton, Enrico

2013-11-01

320

Prefrontal hemodynamic changes during cigarette smoking in young adult smokers with and without ADHD?  

PubMed Central

Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have elevated smoking prevalence and reduced cessation rates compared to the general population. However, the effects of cigarette smoking on underlying brain activity in smokers with ADHD are not well characterized. Non-invasive Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to characterize how cigarette smoking affects prefrontal brain hemodynamics in smokers with and without ADHD. Prefrontal changes of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin (HbO2 and HHb) were measured in six male adult smokers with ADHD and six age- and gender-matched control smokers. NIRS measurements were separated into four sequential time intervals, i.e., before smoking, during smoking, after smoking, and during a breath hold. Prefrontal HbO2 was lower during smoking in smokers with ADHD compared to control smokers. More specifically, smokers with ADHD showed decreased prefrontal HbO2 during smoking compared to breath hold, before and after smoking periods. In contrast, control smokers showed increased prefrontal HbO2 from before smoking to breath hold. Decreased prefrontal HbO2 in smokers with ADHD may reflect a smoking-induced change in prefrontal brain activity and microvasculature, which is not found in smokers without ADHD. The lower prefrontal HbO2 may be a biomarker for increased susceptibility to tobacco smoke in smokers with ADHD. Smoking in individuals with ADHD may increase vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries in the prefrontal cortex, which may contribute to a reduction in HbO2. The findings highlight the importance of smoking cessation, in particular in those smokers who use nicotine to self-medicate ADHD symptoms. PMID:24125785

Gehricke, Jean-G.; Polzonetti, Chiara; Caburian, Cyrus; Gratton, Enrico

2013-01-01

321

Transitions in Smoking Status Over Time in a Population-Based Panel Study of Smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Few studies have examined the transitions of smokers in the general population through multiple periods of daily, occasional smoking, or abstinence over time. Transitions from daily to occasional smoking are particularly of interest as these may be steps toward cessation. Methods: The Ontario Tobacco Survey panel study followed 4,355 baseline smokers, semiannually for up to 3 years. Probabilities of all possible changes in smoking status more than 6 months were estimated using 13,000 repeated measures observations generated from sets of 3 consecutive interviews (n = 9,932 daily smokers, 1,245 occasion smokers, and 1,823 abstinent for at least 30 days, at Time 1). Results: For initial daily smokers, an estimated 83% remained daily smokers more than 2 follow-ups. The majority of those who had been abstinent for 30 days at 1 interview, were also former smokers at the following interview. In contrast, occasional smoking status was unstable and future smoking status was dependent upon smoking history and subjective dependence. Among daily smokers who became occasional smokers 6 months later, an estimated 20% became a former smoker, at the next interview, but 50% returned to daily smoking. Daily, turned occasional smokers who rebounded back to daily smoking were more likely to describe themselves as addicted at Time 1. Continuing occasional smokers were somewhat less likely to intend to quit, or have tried, despite considering themselves less addicted. Conclusions: Reducing to occasional smoking can be a stepping stone toward cessation but entails a greater risk of return to daily smoking, compared with complete abstinence. PMID:23231826

2013-01-01

322

Quitters referring smokers: a quitline chain-referral pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Telephone counseling Quitlines can support smoking cessation, but are under-utilized. We explored the use of smoker peer-referrals to increase use of a Quitline in Mississippi and Alabama. Findings Collaborating with the Alabama and Mississippi Quitline, we piloted peer-referrals to Quitlines. Successful ‘quitters’ who had used the Quitline were contacted at routine follow-up and recruited to participate as a peer-referrer and refer their friends and family who smoked to the Quitline. Peer-referrers completed a training session, received a manual and a set of Quitline brochures a peer-referral forms. These peer-referral forms were then returned to the Quitline telephone counselors who proactively called the referred smokers. Of the initial potential pool of 96 who quit using the Quitline, 24 peer-referrers (75% Women, 29% African-American, and high school graduates/GED 67%) were recruited and initially agreed to participate as peer-referrers. Eleven of the 24 who initially agreed were trained, and of these 11, 4 (4%) actively referred 23 friends and family over 2 months. From these 23 new referrals, three intakes (100% Women, 66% African-American) were completed. Of the initial pool of 96, 4 (4%) actively participated in referring friends and family. Quitline staff and peer-referrers noted several barriers including: time-point in which potential peer-referrers were asked to participate, an ‘overwhelming’ referral form to use and limited ways to refer. Conclusions Though ‘quitters’ were willing to agree to peer-refer, we received a minority of referrals. However, we identified several areas to improve this new method for increasing awareness and access to support systems like the Quitline for smokers who want to quit. PMID:24886693

2014-01-01

323

Mineralogical and geochemical evidence for hydrothermal activity at the west wall of 12??50'N core complex (Mid-Atlantic ridge): A new ultramafic-hosted seafloor hydrothermal deposit?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dredging along the west wall of the core complex at 12??50'N Mid-Atlantic Ridge sampled a number of black oxyhydroxide crusts and breccias cemented by black and dark brown oxyhydroxide matrix. Black crusts found on top of basalt clasts (rubble) are mainly composed of Mn-oxides (birnessite, 10-?? manganates) with thin films of nontronite and X-ray amorphous FeOOH on their surfaces. Their chemical composition (low trace- and rare earth-element contents, high Li and Ag concentrations, rare earth element distribution patterns with negative both Ce and Eu anomalies), Sr-Nd-Pb-isotope systematic and O-isotope data suggest low-temperature (~. 20. ??C) hydrothermal deposition from a diffuse vent area on the seafloor. Mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical investigations of the breccias showed the rock clasts were hydrothermally altered fragments of MORBs. Despite the substantial mineralogical changes caused by the alteration the Sr-Nd-Pb-isotope ratios have not been significantly affected by this process. The basalt clasts are cemented by dark brown and black matrix. Dark brown cement exhibits geochemical features (very low trace- and rare earth- element contents, high U concentration, rare earth element distribution pattern with high positive Eu anomaly) and Nd-Pb-isotope systematics (similar to that of MORB) suggesting that the precursor was a primary, high-temperature Fe-sulfide, which was eventually altered to goethite at ambient seawater conditions. The data presented in this work points towards the possible existence of high- and low-temperature hydrothermal activity at the west wall of the core complex at 12??50'N Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Tectonic setting at the site implies that the proposed hydrothermal field is possibly ultramafic-hosted. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Dekov, V.; Boycheva, T.; Halenius, U.; Billstrom, K.; Kamenov, G. D.; Shanks, W. C.; Stummeyer, J.

2011-01-01

324

Genomic Aberrations in Lung Adenocarcinoma in Never Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Lung cancer in never smokers would rank as the seventh most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Methods and Findings We performed high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of lung adenocarcinoma in sixty never smokers and identified fourteen new minimal common regions (MCR) of gain or loss, of which five contained a single gene (MOCS2, NSUN3, KHDRBS2, SNTG1 and ST18). One larger MCR of gain contained NSD1. One focal amplification and nine gains contained FUS. NSD1 and FUS are oncogenes hitherto not known to be associated with lung cancer. FISH showed that the amplicon containing FUS was joined to the next telomeric amplicon at 16p11.2. FUS was over-expressed in 10 tumors with gain of 16p11.2 compared to 30 tumors without that gain. Other cancer genes present in aberrations included ARNT, BCL9, CDK4, CDKN2B, EGFR, ERBB2, MDM2, MDM4, MET, MYC and KRAS. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering with adjustment for false-discovery rate revealed clusters differing by the level and pattern of aberrations and displaying particular tumor characteristics. One cluster was strongly associated with gain of MYC. Another cluster was characterized by extensive losses containing tumor suppressor genes of which RB1 and WRN. Tumors in that cluster frequently harbored a central scar-like fibrosis. A third cluster was associated with gains on 7p and 7q, containing ETV1 and BRAF, and displayed the highest rate of EGFR mutations. SNP array analysis validated copy-number aberrations and revealed that RB1 and WRN were altered by recurrent copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. Conclusions The present study has uncovered new aberrations containing cancer genes. The oncogene FUS is a candidate gene in the 16p region that is frequently gained in never smokers. Multiple genetic pathways defined by gains of MYC, deletions of RB1 and WRN or gains on 7p and 7q are involved in lung adenocarcinoma in never smokers. PMID:21151896

Beau-Faller, Michele; Camilleri-Broet, Sophie; Girard, Philippe; Hofman, Paul; Mazieres, Julien; Toujani, Saloua; Lacroix, Ludovic; Laffaire, Julien; Dessen, Philippe; Fouret, Pierre

2010-01-01

325

Opioid antagonism enhances marijuana's effects in heavy marijuana smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and objective  Studies in laboratory animals strongly suggest reciprocal modulation of the opioidergic and endocannabinoid systems, a relationship\\u000a that has not been demonstrated in humans. This study sought to clarify this interaction by assessing how a range of naltrexone\\u000a doses altered the subjective, cognitive, and cardiovascular effects of marijuana.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and methods  Daily marijuana smokers (n?=?29) participated in this within-subject, randomized,

Ziva D. Cooper; Margaret Haney

2010-01-01

326

Conditioned cues for smoking elicit preparatory responses in healthy smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Smoking cues are theorized to be conditioned stimuli (CSs) formed by repeated pairing with drug. Smoking paraphernalia can\\u000a elicit subjective and physiological responses in smokers, indicative of positive affect and motivation to consume. Although\\u000a these responses are probably the result of conditioning, direct evidence from human conditioning studies with physiological\\u000a measures of motivational valence is rare.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The present study investigated

Markus H. Winkler; Peter Weyers; Ronald F. Mucha; Bastian Stippekohl; Rudolf Stark; Paul Pauli

2011-01-01

327

[The erythrocyte composition of the peripheral blood in tobacco smokers].  

PubMed

Data of cytometry and acid erythrography were evaluated in 60 tobacco smokers and 30 non-smoking healthy persons depending on length of smoking. Tobacco smoking was found to effect blood erythrocytes. Five-year smoking resulted in an increase of macrocytes, young resistant cells. Toxic signs were less pronounced concerning the resistance of circulating red cells. 6-10 years duration of smoking resulted in toxic lesions of the circulating erythrocytes confirmed by an increase of the number of spherulation-altered and low-resistant cells, early onset and late termination of hemolysis, increase of the percent of perished cells. PMID:1448983

German, A K

1992-07-01

328

Interaction between naltrexone and oral THC in heavy marijuana smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Rationale. Studies in non-human animals suggest that opioid antagonists block the reinforcing effects of cannabinoids.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective. The present studies in humans investigated how naltrexone modulates (1) the subjective and physiological effects of oral\\u000a THC in comparison to methadone, (2) the reinforcing effects of oral THC, and (3) plasma levels of oral THC.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. In study 1, marijuana smokers (n=9)

Margaret Haney; Adam Bisaga; Richard W. Foltin

2003-01-01

329

Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers  

PubMed Central

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist consumers in distinguishing real health threats from spurious health claims. As this report documents, there is a strong scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction, and it shows great potential as a public health strategy to help millions of smokers. PMID:17184539

Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

2006-01-01

330

Analysis of smoking patterns and contexts among college student smokers  

PubMed Central

Many who smoke in college do so infrequently and smoking conditions are not well-understood. We examined smoking patterns among college fraternity and sorority members (N=207) from a Midwestern university in three successive fall semesters in 2006–2008. Participants completed calendar-assisted retrospective assessments of 30-day smoking at up to 5 assessment points over 96 days. Overall smoking rates declined over the course of each semester and higher smoking on weekends was observed, with more variability among daily smokers. The most frequent categories of events to cue recall of smoking were socializing, work, and school. Findings can be used to target prevention efforts. PMID:21210723

Cronk, Nikole J.; Harris, Kari Jo; Harrar, Solomon W.; Conway, Kathrene; Catley, Delwyn; Good, Glenn E.

2011-01-01

331

Low sputum MMP-9/TIMP ratio is associated with airway narrowing in smokers with asthma.  

PubMed

Asthmatic smokers have poor symptom control and accelerated decline in lung function. A reduced ratio of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in nonsmokers with asthma has been implicated in airway remodelling. We tested the hypothesis that sputum MMP-9 activity/TIMPs ratios are reduced in smokers compared with never-smokers with asthma and are associated with reduced lung function and altered computed tomography (CT) measures of airway wall dimensions. Lung function, airway dimensions by CT, and induced sputum concentrations (and activity) of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 and -2 were measured in 81 asthmatics and 43 healthy subjects (smokers and never-smokers). Respiratory epithelial MMP9 and TIMP mRNA was quantified in 31 severe asthmatics and 32 healthy controls. Sputum MMP-9 activity/TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 ratios, and nasal epithelial MMP9/TIMP1 and MMP9/TIMP2 expression ratios were reduced in smokers with asthma compared with never-smokers with asthma. Low sputum ratios in asthmatic smokers were associated with reduced post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio and segmental airway lumen area. The association of a low sputum MMP-9 activity/TIMP-1 ratio with persistent airflow obstruction and reduced CT airway lumen area in smokers with asthma may indicate that an imbalance of MMP-9 and TIMPs contributes to structural changes to the airways in this group. PMID:24993912

Chaudhuri, Rekha; McSharry, Charles; Brady, Jeffrey; Grierson, Christal; Messow, C Martina; Spears, Mark; Miele, Gino; Nocka, Karl; MacNee, William; Connell, Martin; Murchison, John T; Sproule, Michael; Hilmi, Omar J; Miller, Douglas K; Thomson, Neil C

2014-10-01

332

Increased Genetic Vulnerability to Smoking at CHRNA5 in Early-Onset Smokers  

PubMed Central

Context Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. Objective To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. Data Sources Primary data. Study Selection Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. Data Extraction Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94 050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ?10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33 348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ?16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. Data Synthesis Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR]=1.45; 95% CI, 1.36–1.55; n=13 843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21–1.33, n = 19 505) (P = .01). Conclusion These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers. PMID:22868939

Hartz, Sarah M.; Short, Susan E.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert; Chen, LiShiun; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Coon, Hilary; Han, Younghun; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sun, Juzhong; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef; Geller, Frank; Gu?bjartsson, Daniel; Hansel, Nadia N.; Jiang, Chenhui; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Liu, Zhen; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Michel, Martha; Rawal, Rajesh; Hum, Sc; Rosenberger, Albert; Scheet, Paul; Shaffer, John R.; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, John R.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Wheeler, William; Xiao, Xiangjun; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Aggen, Steven H.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Beaty, Terri; Bennett, Siiri; Bergen, Andrew W.; Boyd, Heather A.; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cichon, Sven; Couper, David; Cucca, Francesco; Dick, Danielle M.; Foroud, Tatiana; Furberg, Helena; Giegling, Ina; Gu, Fangyi; Hall, Alistair S.; Hallfors, Jenni; Han, Shizhong; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkila, Kauko; Lic, Phil; Hewitt, John K.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jensen, Majken K.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaakinen, Marika; Kittner, Steven J.; Konte, Bettina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Leppert, Mark; Levy, Steven M.; Mathias, Rasika A.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Muley, Thomas; Murray, Tanda; Nauck, Matthias; North, Kari; Pergadia, Michele; Polasek, Ozren; Ramos, Erin M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Risch, Angela; Ruczinski, Ingo; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Terracciano, Antonio; Uda, Manuela; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wu, Xifeng; Abecasis, Goncalo; Barnes, Kathleen; Bickeboller, Heike; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caporaso, Neil; Duan, Jubao; Edenberg, Howard J.; Francks, Clyde; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gelernter, Joel; Grabe, Hans Jorgen; Hops, Hyman; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Viikari, Jorma; Kahonen, Mika; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F.; Marazita, Mary L.; Marchini, Jonathan; Melbye, Mads; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nothen, Markus M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Raitakari, Olli; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sanders, Alan R.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shete, Sanjay; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret; Stefansson, Kari; Swan, Gary E.; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Volzke, Henry; Wei, Qingyi; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Amos, Christopher I.; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S.; Ehringer, Marissa; Grucza, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Heath, Andrew; Johnson, Eric O.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stitzel, Jerry A.; Weiss, Robert B.; Kraft, Peter; Bierut, Laura J.

2012-01-01

333

Baseline Stage, Severity, and Effort Effects Differentiate Stable Smokers from Maintainers and Relapsers  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional study (N = 4,144) compared three longitudinal dynatypes (Maintainers, Relapsers, and Stable Smokers) of smokers on baseline demographics, stage, addiction severity, and transtheoretical model effort effect variables. There were significant small-to-medium-sized differences between the Stable Smokers and the other two groups on stage, severity, and effort effect variables in both treatment and control groups. There were few significant, very small differences on baseline effort variables between Maintainers and Relapsers in the control, but not the treatment group. The ability to identify Stable Smokers at baseline could permit enhanced tailored treatments that could improve population cessation rates. PMID:21449711

Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Paiva, Andrea; Rossi, Joseph S.; Velicer, Wayne; Blissmer, Bryan J.; Greene, Geoffrey W.; Robbins, Mark L.; Sun, Xiaowu

2011-01-01

334

Altered salivary profile in heavy smokers and its possible connection to oral cancer.  

PubMed

Saliva is the first biological fluid to encounter inhaled cigarette smoke, whose numerous carcinogens and oxidants are responsible for the oral cancer so prevalent among smokers. Whole saliva, collected from 25 consenting heavy smokers and from a control group of 25 age- and gender-matched non-smokers, was subjected to sialochemical, biochemical, immunological and oxidative analyses. The mean flow rate was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, as were the median activity value of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the total salivary antioxidant capacity (ImAnOx) (by 32% and 12%, respectively, p=0.05). The salivary carbonyl concentration (an oxidative stress indicator) was significantly higher by 126% (p=0.0006) among smokers, while lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, total immunoglobulin G, and the metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentrations were significantly lower in the smokers, by 86% (p=0.003), 65% (p=0.003), 61% (p=0.048), 35% (p=0.005) and 55% (p=0.035), respectively. Apparently, the oral cavity''s salivary antioxidant system fails to cope with the severe attack of reactive oxygen species originating in cigarette smoke. Moreover, various other salivary functional and protective parameters also decreased among the smokers. Hence, further research aimed at examining the possibility of administration of agents as antioxidants or saliva substitutes to the oral cavity of smokers should be considered. PMID:18161658

Nagler, R M

2007-01-01

335

Hydrothermal carbonization of agricultural residues.  

PubMed

The work presented in this article addresses the application of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) to produce a solid fuel named HTC-Biochar, whose characteristics are comparable to brown coal. Several batch HTC experiments were performed using agricultural residues (AR) as substrates, commonly treated in farm-based biogas plants in Germany. Different AR were used in different combinations with other biomass residues. The biogas potential from the resulting process water was also determined. The combination of different AR lead to the production of different qualities of HTC-Biochars as well as different mass and energy yields. Using more lignocellulosic residues lead to higher mass and energy yields for the HTC-Biochar produced. Whilst residues rich in carbohydrates of lower molecular weight such as corn silage and dough residues lead to the production of a HTC-Biochar of better quality and more similar to brown coal. Process water achieved a maximum of 16.3 L CH4/kg FM (fresh matter). PMID:23735795

Oliveira, Ivo; Blöhse, Dennis; Ramke, Hans-Günter

2013-08-01

336

Microbial interactions with hydrothermal fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When copious populations of animals clustering around deep-sea hydrothermal vents were first observed [Lonsdale, 1977, Ballard, 1977; Corliss et al., 1979], the foremost question concerned the origin of these unexpectedly high quantities of biomass. The deep sea has long been known as a desert-like environment, the input of energy for the heterotrophic production of biomass in the absence of light being limited to the sedimenting of particulate organic matter from the photosynthetically productive surface waters to the bottom. The decomposition and mineralization of this organic carbon occurs largely in the upper 200-300 m layers of the world oceans averaging at about 95% of their total primary productivity. Of the renaming 5% only about one fifth reaches the sea floor at greater depths in particulate form [e.g. Honjo and Manganini, 1993]. The scant benthic deep-sea animal populations, their diversity and feeding strategies reflect this limited particulate food source [Sanders et al., 1972]. Some of this particulate organic matter is replenished from dissolved organic carbon by microbial growth, the so-called "microbial loop".

Jannasch, Holger W.

337

Neural Responses to BEGIN- and END-Stimuli of the Smoking Ritual in Nonsmokers, Nondeprived Smokers, and Deprived Smokers  

PubMed Central

Drug-associated stimuli (cues) have a prominent role in addiction research because they are able to provoke craving and relapses. Generally, drug cues are seen as conditioned excitatory stimuli, which elicit drug seeking and usage. However, newer data suggest differential effects for smoking stimuli depending on their stage in the smoking ritual. Specifically, stimuli associated with the terminal stage of smoke consumption (END-stimuli) may evoke reactivity opposite to the reactivity evoked by stimuli associated with the beginning of smoke consumption (BEGIN-stimuli). This fMRI study compared 20 nondeprived smokers with 20 nonsmokers to unravel the influence of smoking-related pictures displaying the beginning (BEGIN-stimuli) and termination (END-stimuli) of the smoking ritual on neural activity in the addiction network. In addition, 20 deprived smokers (12?h deprivation) were investigated to explore the effects of deprivation on the processing of these stimuli. In nondeprived smokers, BEGIN-stimuli reliably activated the addiction network (for example, the ventral striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)). In contrast, END-stimuli triggered a differential pattern of activations as well as deactivations; deactivations were found in the ventral striatum and the ACC. Deprivation had no clear effect on the responses triggered by BEGIN-stimuli, but affected the reactivity to END-stimuli. Our data clearly suggest that stimuli associated with different stages of the smoking ritual trigger differential neuronal responses. While BEGIN-stimuli generally seem to activate the addiction network, END-stimuli presumably have some inhibitory properties. This new finding might add to a more differentiated understanding of cue reactivity and addiction. PMID:20090671

Stippekohl, Bastian; Winkler, Markus; Mucha, Ronald F; Pauli, Paul; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

2010-01-01

338

Attentional avoidance of smoking cues in former smokers.  

PubMed

It has been speculated that attentional bias (AB) to smoking cues is a permanent feature of addiction. The objective of the present study was to investigate if abstinence duration has an influence on AB. Performance on a visual probe task of three groups (recent, intermediate and prolonged) of ex-smokers (n=62, mean age 50±11 years) with different abstinence durations was compared. Target/Control images were presented at three stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs: 200, 500, and 2000 ms) on a 17-inch monitor. Former smokers avoided target images (TIs). Mean reaction time to control images was shorter than to TIs, confirming the attentional avoidance of TIs. Attentional avoidance of TIs and the lower emotional valence of these stimuli may have been a strategy to avoid relapse. Sustained avoidance to smoking-related cues may be a predictor of long-term abstinence. Direct training of AB away from drug cues may improve the results of smoking cessation therapy. PMID:24074848

Peuker, Ana Carolina; Bizarro, Lisiane

2014-02-01

339

Educating smokers about their cigarettes and nicotine medications  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers’ Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group received counseling, nicotine patches and quit smoking guide; and experimental group received counseling, nicotine patches, quit guide, plus information about cigarette characteristics mailed in a brand-tailored box. Participants were contacted 1 month later to assess knowledge about cigarettes and actions taken to alter smoking behavior. The results found that respondents in the experimental condition were more likely to report using and sharing the test materials with others compared with the control condition. Overall mean knowledge scores for the experimental group were slightly higher compared with those who received the standard materials. Knowledge of cigarette ingredients was not related to quit attempts or quitting smoking. This study found that the experimental materials were better recalled and contributed to higher levels of knowledge about specific cigarette design features; however, this did not translate into changes in smoking behavior. PMID:20064838

Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Brown, Anthony; Celestino, Paula

2010-01-01

340

Cortisol levels decrease after acute tobacco abstinence in regular smokers  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effect of acute tobacco abstinence on cortisol levels in regular smokers, and whether abstinence-induced changes in cortisol levels are correlated with various signs and symptoms of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome. Methods Smokers (N = 77, ?15 cigarettes/day) attended two counterbalanced sessions (avg = 1 h), one following 12–20 h of abstinence and the other following ad lib smoking. At both sessions, salivary cortisol levels were measured at three time points. Additionally, a battery of self-report questionnaires, physiological assessments, and cognitive performance tasks were administered to measure signs and symptoms of tobacco withdrawal. Results Salivary cortisol levels were significantly lower during the abstinent session versus the non-abstinent session. No significant associations were found between abstinence-induced changes in cortisol and other tobacco withdrawal measures, although there was suggestive evidence that abstinence-induced changes in cortisol levels and hunger were inversely associated to a modest degree. Conclusion Acute tobacco abstinence was associated with decreased cortisol levels. Cortisol dampening during acute tobacco abstinence may reflect nicotine-mediated modulation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity, which may be relevant to the maintenance of tobacco dependence. Tobacco-withdrawal cortisol changes do not appear to be a cause or consequence of many manifestations of acute tobacco withdrawal with the possible exception of hunger. PMID:24399662

Wong, Jordan A.; Pickworth, Wallace B.; Waters, Andrew J.; al'Absi, Mustafa; Leventhal, Adam M.

2014-01-01

341

Effects of High Dose Transdermal Nicotine Replacement in Cigarette Smokers  

PubMed Central

Rationale Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) have been evaluated to facilitate cigarette smoking reduction in smokers unwilling or unable to quit. In most of these studies, only conventional doses of NRT have been tested and higher doses may be required to result in significant reductions in smoking and in biomarkers of exposure. Objective To determine if higher NRT doses in conjunction with smoking are safe and may promote significant reductions in cigarette smoking and biomarkers of exposure. Methods A dose-ranging, withinsubject design was implemented to evaluate the effects of 15, 30 and 45 mg nicotine patch treatment on measures of safety and the extent of smoking reduction and biomarker exposure per cigarette in smokers (N = 20 completers) not immediately interested in quitting. Results Concurrent smoking and NRT were generally tolerated and resulted in no changes in blood pressure or heart rate. Slightly less than 10% of the study sample was not given the highest dose of NRT due to side effects. Self-reported cigarette smoking decreased with increasing doses of nicotine replacement and significant reductions were observed for total NNAL (a carcinogen biomarker) and carbon monoxide. However, even at the 45 mg dose, increased carbon monoxide and total NNAL per cigarette occurred, even though cotinine levels increased on average, 69.3% from baseline. Conclusions The present results suggest that the use of high dose NRT is safe, leads to significant reductions in smoking (-49%), significant but less reductions in total NNAL (-24%) and carbon monoxide (-37%) due to compensatory smoking. PMID:17267026

Hatsukami, Dorothy; Mooney, Marc; Murphy, Sharon; LeSage, Mark; Babb, David; Hecht, Stephen

2007-01-01

342

Black Flies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information about the common annoyance pest the Black Fly. The flies life cycle and control strategy are covered. While the information is specific to Los Angeles California, the same strategies are effective elsewhere. Personal protection information is also offered and is universally effective.

0002-11-30

343

Black Carbon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Black carbon, composed of tiny particles of soot, is produced whenever organic substances like fossil fuels, firewood or coal is incompletely burned. These particles are polluting the air and causing serious health and environmental concerns for people around the world. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

344

Peptide synthesis in early Earth hydrothermal systems.  

PubMed

We report here results from experiments and thermodynamic calculations that demonstrate a rapid, temperature-enhanced synthesis of oligopeptides from the condensation of aqueous glycine. Experiments were conducted in custom-made hydrothermal reactors, and organic compounds were characterized with ultraviolet-visible procedures. A comparison of peptide yields at 260 degrees C with those obtained at more moderate temperatures (160 degrees C) gives evidence of a significant (13 kJ . mol(-1)) exergonic shift. In contrast to previous hydrothermal studies, we demonstrate that peptide synthesis is favored in hydrothermal fluids and that rates of peptide hydrolysis are controlled by the stability of the parent amino acid, with a critical dependence on reactor surface composition. From our study, we predict that rapid recycling of product peptides from cool into near-supercritical fluids in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems will enhance peptide chain elongation. It is anticipated that the abundant hydrothermal systems on early Earth could have provided a substantial source of biomolecules required for the origin of life. PMID:19371157

Lemke, Kono H; Rosenbauer, Robert J; Bird, Dennis K

2009-03-01

345

The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) in the Middle East region and worldwide is increasing. There is evidence to indicate both short term and long term health effects of WTS, resulting in the issuance of an advisory note by the World Health Organization. Methods This research aimed at gaining an in-depth understanding of the factors contributing to the rise in WTS in Lebanon. Qualitative focus groups (25) and in-depth interviews (9) were conducted with adults in Lebanon in 2007. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, gender, age groups and urban/rural residence. The interviews and focus groups were thematically analyzed, and recurrent themes noted and summarized. Results The main themes identified were availability, affordability, innovation, influence of media, lack of a policy framework, and the sensory characteristics evoked from WTS. Men and women, smokers and non-smokers, and younger and older participants differed in their emphases on the above themes. These themes, though specific to waterpipe, are similar to themes manipulated by the cigarette industry, and eventually controlled through tobacco control policies. Conclusions Understanding reasons behind the rise in waterpipe tobacco use is important if appropriate prevention, cessation, and policy interventions are to be formulated. Strict adherence to the FCTC is warranted, with careful and vigilant attention that all tobacco products are covered by laws in both high as well as middle to lower income countries. PMID:21569577

2011-01-01

346

Hydrothermal vent complexes associated with sill intrusionsin sedimentarybasins  

E-print Network

Hydrothermal vent complexes associated with sill intrusionsin sedimentarybasins BJIbRNJAMTVEIT1 sedimentarybasinscause strongthermal perturbations and frequentlycause extensivehydrothermalactivity.Hydrothermal vent Carboniferous-Middle Jurassic Karoo Basin in South Africa. Distinct features include inward-dipping sedimentary

Podladchikov, Yuri

347

Policy Compliance of Smokers on a Tobacco-Free University Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To explore factors influencing compliance with campus tobacco policies and strategies to increase compliance. Participants: Sixty tobacco smokers (April 2012). Methods: A 22-item intercept-interview with closed-and open-ended questions was conducted with smokers in adjacent compliant and noncompliant areas at 1 university with a 100%…

Russette, Helen C.; Harris, Kari Jo; Schuldberg, David; Green, Linda

2014-01-01

348

Does Precontemplation Represent a Homogeneous Stage Category? A Latent Class Analysis on German Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the subtype structure of smokers classified in the precontemplation stage of change within the transtheoretical model. From a general practice-based sample of 1,499 daily smoking patients from Germany (participation rate 80%), they used a subgroup of 929 smokers who were classified in the precontemplation stage and applied…

Schorr, Gudrun; Ulbricht, Sabina; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Ruge, Jeannette; Schumann, Anja; Rumpf, Hans-Jurgen; John, Ulrich; Meyer, Christian

2008-01-01

349

Gene Expression Profiling of Human Lung Tissue from Smokers with Severe Emphysema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism by which inhaled smoke causes the anatomic lesions and physiologic impairment of chronic obstructive pulmonary dis- ease remains unknown. We used high-density microarrays to mea- sure gene expression in severely emphysematous lung tissue re- moved from smokers at lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and normal or mildly emphysematous lung tissue from smokers under- going resection of pulmonary nodules.

Avrum Spira; Jennifer Beane; Victor Pinto-Plata; Aran Kadar; Gang Liu; Vishal Shah; Bartolome Celli; Jerome S. Brody

2004-01-01

350

Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: A questionnaire study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their

Alicja Sieminska; Krzysztof Buczkowski; Ewa Jassem; Katarzyna Lewandowska; Romana Ucinska; Marta Chelminska

2008-01-01

351

Subjective and cardiovascular responses to nicotine combined with alcohol in male and female smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine and alcohol are often consumed concurrently by smokers. Each drug alone produces significant subjective and cardiovascular responses, but the effects of the two drugs in combination have rarely been examined. Smokers who were moderate alcohol drinkers (n = 18, 9 males and 9 females) participated in four sessions, involving acute administration of nicotine\\/placebo and alcohol\\/no alcohol. Subjects abstained overnight

K. A. Perkins; J. E. Sexton; A. DiMarco; J. E. Grobe; A. Scierka; R. L. Stiller

1995-01-01

352

Airway epithelial gene expression in the diagnostic evaluation of smokers with suspect lung cancer  

E-print Network

Airway epithelial gene expression in the diagnostic evaluation of smokers with suspect lung cancer, Timothy Anderson6, Norman Gerry7, Joseph Keane4, Marc E Lenburg7 & Jerome S Brody1 Lung cancer smokers with suspicion of lung cancer could be used as a lung cancer biomarker. Using a training set (n

Cai, Long

353

Moderate Drug Use and Delay Discounting: A Comparison of Heavy, Light, and Never Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delay discounting was examined in light smokers (10 or fewer cigarettes per day) and compared with previously published delay discounting data for heavy and never smokers. Participants evaluated several hypothetical outcomes: money gains and loses ($10, $100, and $1,000), health gains and losses (durations of improved and impoverished health subjectively equivalent to $1,000), cigarette gains and losses (amounts subjectively equivalent

Matthew W. Johnson; Warren K. Bickel; Forest Baker

2007-01-01

354

Engaging smokers with schizophrenia in treatment for tobacco dependence: A brief motivational interviewing intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine how to best motivate smokers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder to seek treatment for tobacco dependence. Smokers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=78) were randomly assigned to receive a Motivational Interviewing, Psychoeducational, or Minimal Control intervention. A greater proportion of participants receiving the Motivational Interviewing intervention followed through on a referral for

Marc L. Steinberg

2003-01-01

355

Attentional bias in smokers: exposure to dynamic smoking cues in contemporary movies.  

PubMed

Research has shown that smokers have an attentional bias for pictorial smoking cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether smokers also have an attentional bias for dynamic smoking cues in contemporary movies and therefore fixate more quickly, more often and for longer periods of time on dynamic smoking cues than non-smokers. By drawing upon established methods for assessing attentional biases for pictorial cues, we aimed to develop a new method for assessing attentional biases for dynamic smoking cues. We examined smokers' and non-smokers' eye movements while watching a movie clip by using eye-tracking technology. The sample consisted of 16 smoking and 17 non-smoking university students. Our results confirm the results of traditional pictorial attentional bias research. Smokers initially directed their gaze more quickly towards smoking-related cues (p?=?0.01), focusing on them more often (p?=?0.05) and for a longer duration (p?=?0.01) compared with non-smokers. Thus, smoking cues in movies directly affect the attention of smokers. These findings indicate that the effects of dynamic smoking cues, in addition to other environmental smoking cues, need to be taken into account in smoking cessation therapies in order to increase successful smoking cessation and to prevent relapses. PMID:21098549

Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Voogd, Hubert; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

2011-04-01

356

Individual differences in cue reactivity among smokers trying to quit: effects of gender and cue type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across studies, when presented with a variety of smoking cues, smokers and ex-smokers evidence distinct patterns of self-reported, physiological, and behavioral reactions. However, few studies have compared more than two different kinds of cues within the same experiment. Furthermore, despite the importance of examining the moderating effect of gender on smoking outcomes, few studies have examined gender differences in smoking

Raymond Niaura; William G Shadel; David B Abrams; Peter M Monti; Damaris J Rohsenow; Alan Sirota

1998-01-01

357

Ventral Striatum/Nucleus Accumbens Activation to Smoking-Related Pictorial Cues in Smokers and  

E-print Network

Ventral Striatum/Nucleus Accumbens Activation to Smoking-Related Pictorial Cues in Smokers/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) for the contrast between smoking-related (SR) and nonsmoking related neutral (N) cues of greater VS/NAc activation in addicted smokers than nonsmokers presented with smoking-related cues using f

358

Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

2013-01-01

359

Validation of a Model of Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Among Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bach model was developed to pre- dict the absolute 10-year risk of devel- oping lung cancer among smokers by use of participants in the Carotene and Retinol Effi cacy Trial of lung cancer prevention. We assessed the validity of the Bach model among 6239 smokers from the placebo arm of the Alpha- Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. The

Kathleen A. Cronin; Zhaohui Zou; Peter B. Bach; Jarmo Virtamo; Demetrius Albanes

2006-01-01

360

Can Reduced Smoking Be a Way for Smokers Not Interested in Quitting to Actually Quit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominating way to stop smoking is to do it abruptly. At every given time, the large majority of smokers are not motivated or willing to try and give up. Some smokers are entirely happy with their smoking, a larger group would like to smoke less and a third group wants to quit. With the abrupt quitting message we are

Karl O. Fagerström

2005-01-01

361

Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved

S Chapman; J Liberman

2005-01-01

362

Retracing the steps of marco polo: From clinical trials to diffusion of interventions for smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results from a series of four controlled trials which evaluate efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation of interventions for smokers, and then discuss diffusion of our program in feasibility studies both nationally in Australia and internationally. In our first study we reported that when general practitioners delivered moderately brief advice to smokers, they have a 36% abstinence rate at

Robyn L. Richmond

1996-01-01

363

Correcting Media Mis-Education: The Portrayal of Smokers and Smoking in Top Grossing Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given that young people are extremely concerned with how they appear socially, beguiling and glamorous portrayals of smokers in recent films may be contributing to the continual rise in college student smoking. The pervasive positive depiction of smokers as attractive and appealing easily preys on young people who lack confidence and self esteem.…

Bartlett, Alyssa; Brackin, Taryn; Chubb, Jamie; Covata, Sandy; Ferguson, Liz; Hinckley, Adele; Hodges, Jilda; Liberati, Cheryl; Tornetta, Jonette; Chambliss, Catherine

364

Use of Other Tobacco Products among U.S. Adult Cigarette Smokers: Prevalence, Trends and Correlates  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the trends in concurrent use of cigarettes and other tobacco and sociodemographic variables associated with concurrent use among adult cigarette smokers in the United States. Data from the 1995/96, 1998, 2000, and 2001/02 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey were used to estimate concurrent use of tobacco among cigarette smokers among adults ages 18 years and older (n for all 4 survey groups = 552,804). Concurrent use of tobacco fluctuated over the survey periods for current smokers and ranged from 3.7% in 1995/96 to 7.9% in 1998. Results from the multivariate logistic regression indicate that male current, daily, and intermittent smokers had substantially higher odds of concurrent use (OR = 12.9, 11.7, 17.2, respectively) than their female counterparts. Age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, income, and survey years were significantly associated with concurrent use among current and daily smokers; for intermittent smokers, these variables and occupation were significantly associated with concurrent use. The strongest correlates for multiple tobacco use among cigarettes smokers were being male and Non-Hispanic White. These factors should be considered when planning tobacco prevention and control efforts. In addition, surveillance efforts should continue to monitor changes in concurrent use and further investigate the increased risk of cancer among smokers who also use other forms of tobacco. PMID:18053653

Backinger, Cathy L.; Fagan, Pebbles; O'Connell, Mary E.; Grana, Rachel; Lawrence, Deirdre; Bishop, Jennifer Anne; Gibson, James Todd

2008-01-01

365

Marijuana Use Among Daily Tobacco Smokers: Relationship to Anxiety-Related Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation evaluated the incremental validity of regular marijuana use and frequency of such use in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and perceived health among young adult tobacco smokers (n = 202). Approximately 72% of the sample were current marijuana smokers, using this drug on an average of 7.6 (SD = 9.2) times per week. As expected, after

Marcel O. Bonn-Miller; Michael J. Zvolensky; Ellen W. Leen-Feldner; Matthew T. Feldner; Andrew R. Yartz

2005-01-01

366

Use of and Interest in Smoking Cessation Strategies among Daily and Nondaily College Student Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine use of and interest in cessation strategies among nondaily and daily college student smokers. Participants: 800 undergraduate student smokers aged 18 to 25. Methods: The authors examined nondaily versus daily smoking in relation to use of and interest in cessation strategies using an online survey. Results: Nondaily (65.8%)…

Berg, Carla J.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mendel, Jennifer; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2012-01-01

367

Adverse Reaction to Nicotine Gum in Malay Female Smoker: A Case Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are prescribed in smoking cessation programmes to help smokers stop smoking. The ideal dosage of NRT should control cravings and withdrawal symptoms but avoid adverse reactions. This report describes a case of adverse reaction to nicotine gum in a female Malay smoker. Assays taken 2 h after the gum, showed that…

Noorzurani, Md Haris Robson; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

2008-01-01

368

Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users: A Comparison of Personality Characteristics among Collegiate Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study of 289 undergraduate males indicate significant differences in personality traits between cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Smokeless tobacco users were more practical, conventional, and concerned with immediate interests and issues. Cigarette smokers tended to be more imaginative and Bohemian. (IAH)

Glover, Elbert D.; And Others

1989-01-01

369

Depression and Smoking Cessation: Characteristics of Depressed Smokers and Effects of Nicotine Replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has linked depression to difficulties smoking cessation. The authors followed 269 smokers who attempted to quit smoking for 3 months. Participants were given nicotine gum (2 or 4 mg) or placebo gum and brief counseling. The study found that 34% of the smokers met the criterion for current depression using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Depressed

Taru Kinnunen; Kevin Doherty; Frank S. Militello; Arthur J. Garvey

1996-01-01

370

Mood Management Intervention for College Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This pilot study examined smoking reduction and cessation among college smokers with elevated depressive symptomatology participating in a group-based behavioral counseling, mood management, and motivational enhancement combined intervention (CBT). Participants and Methods: Fifty-eight smokers (smoked 6 days in the past 30) were…

Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Campbell, Duncan G.; Harrar, Solomon W.

2012-01-01

371

Transdermal Nicotine-Induced Tobacco Abstinence Symptom Suppression: Nicotine Dose and Smokers' Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aversive tobacco abstinence syndrome, thought to reflect an underlying level of nicotine dependence, contributes to cigarette smokers' failed quit attempts. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) suppresses tobacco abstinence, but high relapse rates suggest room for improvement. Improving NRT's efficacy might begin with identifying factors that influence tobacco abstinence symptom suppression. Two such factors are smokers' gender and NRT dose. The

Sarah E. Evans; Melissa Blank; Cynthia Sams; Michael F. Weaver; Thomas Eissenberg

2006-01-01

372

Nativity and Cigarette Smoking among Lower Income Blacks:Results from the Healthy Directions Study  

PubMed Central

Blacks in the United States bear the greatest disease burden associated with cigarette smoking. Previous studies have shown that the rapidly increasing population of foreign-born Blacks has lower smoking rates compared to their native-born counterparts. However, less is known about whether cigarette smoking among Blacks varies by region of birth (US, Africa, or the Caribbean), generational status, or acculturation. We examined the association between nativity and cigarette smoking among 667 Black adult men and women enrolled in the Harvard Cancer Prevention Program project. In multi-variable analyses, US-born Blacks were more likely to be smokers compared to those born in the Caribbean (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08, and 0.34) or in Africa (OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.08, and 0.74). Language acculturation was positively associated with cigarette smoking (OR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.17, and 5.85). We found that US-born Blacks were more likely to be current cigarette smokers than those born in either Caribbean or African countries. Our findings highlight the importance of intervening early new Black immigrants to stem the uptake of cigarette smoking behaviors as individuals become acculturated. PMID:17924192

Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Okechukwu, Cassandra A.; Arthur, Carlotta M.; Askew, Sandy; Sorensen, Glorian; Emmons, Karen M.

2009-01-01

373

Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)  

SciTech Connect

The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

2012-09-01

374

The BGU/CERN solar hydrothermal reactor  

E-print Network

We describe a novel solar hydrothermal reactor (SHR) under development by Ben Gurion University (BGU) and the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. We describe in broad terms the several novel aspects of the device and, by extension, of the niche it occupies: in particular, enabling direct off-grid conversion of a range of organic feedstocks to sterile useable (solid, liquid) fuels, nutrients, products using only solar energy and water. We then provide a brief description of the high temperature high efficiency panels that provide process heat to the hydrothermal reactor, and review the basics of hydrothermal processes and conversion taking place in this. We conclude with a description of a simulation of the pilot system that will begin operation later this year.

Bertolucci, Sergio; Caspers, Fritz; Garb, Yaakov; Gross, Amit; Pauletta, Stefano

2014-01-01

375

Hydrothermal Ni Prospectivity Analysis of Tasmania, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tasmania contains the largest hydrothermal Ni deposit in Australia: Avebury (118,000 Ni metal tonnes). This Devonian deposit was discovered in 1998 in the Dundas geological region, and consists of a system of hydrothermal Ni ore bodies. They are hosted by an intensely altered and serpentinized Cambrian ultramafic suite in close proximity to major structural features. The mineralization is considered to be the result of hydrothermal scavenging and remobilization of the original nickel content of mafic/ultramafic rocks in the area, and subsequent re-deposition in favourable structural traps. This is based on the low sulphur, low Cu and Platinum element content of the mineralization. The mineralization is spatially (at the edge) and temporally related to a large granitic intrusion, the Heemskirk Granite, which is considered to be the source of the hydrothermal fluids as well as the necessary thermal gradients for the circulation of the fluids. Tasmania is largely covered by the Jurassic Ferrar continental flood basalt province in the East and constrains a number of early Cambrian ultramafic-mafic complexes in the West. The Ferrar large igneous province (LIP) extends over to Antarctica and is temporally and genetically related to the Karoo igneous province in southern Africa that comprises tholeiitic lava flows, sills, and dyke swarms. The Ferrar and Karoo igneous provinces were associated with the same thermal anomaly that was responsible for the break up of eastern Gondwana at ca 180 Ma. Despite of timeframe differences between the Avebury Ni deposits and the Ferrar LIP emplacement, similar geological settings to the Avebury could be duplicated along the Ferrar LIP. The presence of mafic/ultramafic rocks in favourable lithological packages and/or structural traps along the margins of the province indicate that this LIP could represent a possible exploration target for Ni hydrothermal deposits. Based on this background, a prospectivity analysis for hydrothermal Ni deposits was carried out on a regional scale for the entire state of Tasmania to explore the prospectivity of for hydrothermal Ni deposits of this part of the Ferrar LIP for. A conceptual model of hydrothermal nickel mineral systems was used to identify the following as the most important exploration criteria for hydrothermal nickel deposits: (i) presence of potential nickel sources, (ii) heat and fluid sources, (iii) permeable transportation channels for circulating hydrothermal fluids, and (iv) prospective lithological and structural traps conducive for sulphur saturation and deposition of nickel sulphides. Available public domain exploration datasets were processed using GIS functionalities to derive a series of derivative GIS layers that could be used as proxies for each of the above exploration criteria. These included mafic-ultramafic rocks formed from magma with >7% MgO, large igneous province; major faults, and mineral alteration assemblages that could indicate redox gradients and/or reduced fluids highly concentrated in chloride etc. A two-pronged approach involving GIS-assisted manual prospectivity analysis and GIS-based (automated) prospectivity analysis was used for identifying the most prospective ground for hydrothermal nickel deposits in Tasmania. The manual analysis involved a conceptual review of all geological regions of the state, while the GIS-based automated approach used a spatial fuzzy model. The results of the two analyses were subsequently integrated and, after a detailed geological follow-up study, were used to generate a hydrothermal nickel prospectivity map of the state. The methodology developed in this study could be potentially applied to frontier exploration grounds with similar geological setting, such as Papua New Guinea.

Gonzalez-Alvarez, I.; Porwal, A.; McCuaig, T. C.; Maier, W.

2009-04-01

376

Hydrothermal Ni Prospectivity Analysis of Tasmania, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tasmania contains the largest hydrothermal Ni deposit in Australia: Avebury (118,000 Ni metal tonnes). This Devonian deposit was discovered in 1998 in the Dundas geological region, and represents an outstanding example of hydrothermal Nickel sulphide mineralization type. Avebury Ni deposit is a system of hydrothermal Ni ore bodies. It is hosted by an intensely altered and serpentinized Cambrian ultramafic suite in close proximity to major structural features. The mineralization is considered to be the result of hydrothermal scavenging and remobilization of the original nickel content of the mafic/ultramafic rocks in the area, and subsequent re-deposition in favourable structural traps. The mineralization is spatially and temporally related to a large granitic intrusion, the Heemskirk Granite, which is considered to be the source of the hydrothermal fluids as well as the necessary thermal gradients for the circulation of the fluids. Tasmania is largely covered by the Jurassic Ferrar Continental Flood basalt Province in the East and presents early Cambrian ultramafic-mafic complexes in the West. The Ferrar large igneous province (LIP) extends over to Antarctica and is related to the Karoo Province in southern Africa that comprises tholeiitic lava flows, sills, and dyke swarms. The Ferrar and Karoo provinces were associated with the same thermal anomaly that was involved in the break up of Gondwana. The presence of mafic/ultramafic rocks in favourable lithological packages and/or structural traps along the margins of the province, as well as several prospective reduced or reactive sedimentary packages within and around the Ferrar indicate that this LIP could represent a novel promising ground for Ni hydrothermal exploration. Based on this prospective geological background, a prospectivity analysis for hydrothermal Ni deposits was carried out on regional scale for the entire state of Tasmania. A conceptual model of hydrothermal nickel mineral system was used to identify the following as the most important exploration criteria for hydrothermal nickel deposits: (i) potential nickel sources, (ii) heat and fluid sources, (iii) permeable transportation channels for circulating hydrothermal fluids, and (iv) prospective lithological and structural traps conducive for sulphur saturation and deposition of nickel sulphides. Available public domain exploration datasets were processed using GIS functionalities to derive a series of derivative GIS layers that could be used as proxies for each of the above exploration criteria. These included komatiites/picrites/mafic-ultramafic rocks formed from magma with >7% MgO, large igneous province; major faults; crustal contamination, older sulphur bearing rock suites, redox gradients and/or reduced fluids highly concentrated in chloride etc.. A two-pronged approach involving GIS-assisted manual prospectivity analysis and GIS-based (automated) prospectivity analysis was used for identifying the most prospective ground for hydrothermal nickel deposits in Tasmania. The manual analysis involved a conceptual review of all geological regions of the state, while the GIS-based automated approach used a spatial fuzzy model. The results of the two analyses were subsequently integrated and, after a detailed geological follow-up study, were used to generate a hydrothermal nickel prospectivity map of the state. The methodology developed in this study could be potentially applied to frontier exploration grounds with similar geological setting, such as Papua New Guinea.

Gonzalez-Alvalez, I.; Porwal, A.; McCuaig, T. C.

2009-04-01

377

Depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides under hydrothermal conditions.  

PubMed

Fucoidan and chondroitin sulfate, which are well known sulfated polysaccharides, were depolymerized under hydrothermal conditions (120-180°C, 5-60min) as a method for the preparation of sulfated polysaccharides with controlled molecular weights. Fucoidan was easily depolymerized, and the change of the molecular weight values depended on the reaction temperature and time. The degree of sulfation and IR spectra of the depolymerized fucoidan did not change compared with those of untreated fucoidan at reaction temperatures below 140°C. However, fucoidan was partially degraded during depolymerization above 160°C. Nearly the same depolymerization was observed for chondroitin sulfate. These results indicate that hydrothermal treatment is applicable for the depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides, and that low molecular weight products without desulfation and deformation of the initial glycan structures can be obtained under mild hydrothermal conditions. PMID:24361592

Morimoto, Minoru; Takatori, Masaki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Mori, Daiki; Takashima, Osamu; Yoshida, Shinichi; Sato, Kimihiko; Kawamoto, Hitoshi; Tamura, Jun-ichi; Izawa, Hironori; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

2014-01-30

378

Risk factors for tobacco dependence in adolescent smokers  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the incidence of conversion to tobacco dependence (TD) and the prevalence of the TD state in relation to several potential determinants in a sample of adolescent smokers. Methods Questionnaires were administered every 3–4?months to document TD symptoms, amount of cigarette consumption, and depression symptoms in a prospective cohort of 1293 grade 7 students in a convenience sample of 10 schools. Results Over 54?months of follow?up, 113 of 344 novice smokers converted to TD. The referent series for the analysis of incidence comprised 823 person?surveys. The prevalence series included 1673 person?surveys, contributed by 429 smokers. Conversion to TD and TD status were associated with the intensity of recent (that is, past 3?month) cigarette consumption (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 1.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36 to 1.97) and adjusted prevalence odds ratio (aPOR) 1.35 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.48) per 100 cigarettes per month), slowest CYP2A6 activity (aIRR 4.19 (95% CI 1.38 to 12.76) and aPOR 2.30 (95% CI 1.29 to 4.09)), depression score (aIRR 1.61 (95% CI 1.17 to 2.21) and aPOR 1.47 (95% CI 1.22, 1.75) per 1?unit change). Additional determinants included, for conversion to TD, time since onset of cigarette use (aIRR 0.76 (95% CI 0.58 to 1.00) per year) and, for the TD state, positive TD status six months ago (aPOR 3.53 (95% CI 2.41 to 5.19)). Conclusions TD risk in adolescents is associated with intensity of recent cigarette consumption, while the role of more distant cigarette consumption appears small; subjects with slow nicotine metabolism and those with more depression symptoms are at increased risk of becoming tobacco dependent. The risk of being tobacco dependent is considerably higher in subjects who had previously developed the TD state. PMID:16728750

Karp, I; O'Loughlin, J; Hanley, J; Tyndale, R F

2006-01-01

379

A comparison of smokers' and nonsmokers' fruit and vegetable intake and relevant psychosocial factors.  

PubMed

The authors examined the relation between smoking status and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among a population-based sample and examined differences in psychosocial factors that may influence diet and inform intervention efforts. The authors recruited adults (N = 2,540) from 5 US health plans to participate in a Web-based dietary intervention trial. At baseline, smokers ate fewer FV servings per day (p < .001) and were less likely to meet the 5 A Day goal (p < .001). Smokers reported lower self-efficacy, overall motivation, and intrinsic motivation for meeting daily FV recommendations. Fewer smokers expected that eating 5 FV servings a day would reduce their risk for diabetes (p = .02) or obesity (p = .008). Smokers are an important target group for dietary intervention. Intervention efforts should attempt to increase smokers' motivation and confidence in their abilities to change their eating patterns and educate them about the health benefits of eating FV. PMID:19297300

McClure, Jennifer B; Divine, George; Alexander, Gwen; Tolsma, Dennis; Rolnick, Sharon J; Stopponi, Melanie; Richards, Julie; Johnson, Christine C

2009-01-01

380

Black Europeans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The British Library has been producing quality online features for close to a decade now, and this latest offering is worth a close look. This particular feature offers some insights and commentary on five prominent black Europeans. It may even come as a surprise to some visitors that several of the individuals profiled were black, such as Alexandre Dumas, the celebrated author of The Three Musketeers. These profiles are supplemented with essays by Dr. Mike Phillips, a writer, scholar, and journalist. The essays are accompanied by a series of images, including engravings, portraits, and illustrations. Visitors may also want to view and print out extended versions of Phillipsâ essays, which are available here in the pdf format.

381

Reduced expression IRF7 in nasal epithelial cells from smokers as a potential mechanism mediating enhanced susceptibility to influenza  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Smokers are more susceptible to viral infections, including influenza virus, yet the mechanisms mediating this effect are not known. Methods: We have established an in vitro model of differentiated nasal epithelial cells from smokers, which maintain enhanced levels...

382

Tribological and hydrothermal behaviour of silicon carbide under water lubrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the tribological and hydrothermal behaviour of silicon carbide was examined. No significant reaction layer was found after tribochemical experiments conducted on sintered silicon carbide (SSiC) and after hydrothermal treatment using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). Mechanical contact of sliding parts induced superficial amorphisation and chemical analysis showed a slight increase in oxygen content within the topmost

V. Presser; O. Krummhauer; K. G. Nickel; A. Kailer; C. Berthold; C. Raisch

2009-01-01

383

Hydrothermal synthesis of ZrO2 and its composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of hydrous zirconia samples were prepared by hydrothermal method and investigated. It was observed that developed hydrothermal technique of water suspensions of zirconium and aluminum hydroxide allows producing of nanoparticles of zirconia, alumina and its compositions with specific surface area (SSA) in the range of 50-96 m2\\/g. However, the step of additional treatment after hydrothermal synthesis is necessary

L Kuznecova; I Zalite

2011-01-01

384

HYDROTHERMAL PROCESSES IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN CRUST, 26°N  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant evidence indicates extensive hydrothermal activity at oceanic spreading centers. Slabs of manganese oxides dredged from talus slopes covering faults on the rift valley walls of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26°N have chemistries similar to hydrothermal manganese and growth rates two or­ ders of magnitude faster than hydrogenous ferromanganese. Also the occur­ rence of hydrothermal crusts coated with hydrogenous crusts

Robert B. Scott; Andrew Hajash

385

Differences in delay discounting between smokers and nonsmokers remain when both rewards are delayed  

PubMed Central

Rationale When offered a choice between a small monetary reward available immediately (SmallNow) versus a larger reward available after a delay (LargeLater), smokers select the SmallNow alternative more than nonsmokers. That is, smokers discount the value of the LargeLater reward more than nonsmokers. Objectives To investigate whether this group difference was due to smokers overweighing the value of rewards available immediately compared with nonsmokers, we examined whether the group difference was also seen when both alternatives were delayed, i.e., when choosing between a SmallSoon reward and a LargeLater reward. Methods In Experiment 1, smokers and nonsmokers completed a task including SmallNow versus LargeLater choices and SmallSoon versus LargeLater choices. In Experiment 2, smokers and nonsmokers completed the same task but with hypothetical choices. Results Analyses using hyperbolic and double exponential (?-?) models replicate prior findings that smokers discount the LargeLater reward more than nonsmokers when the smaller reward is available immediately. The smoker-nonsmoker difference was also seen when the smaller reward was slightly delayed, though this effect was primarily driven by heightened discounting in male smokers. However, for potentially real rewards only, this smoker-nonsmoker difference was significantly reduced when the smaller reward was delayed. Conclusions The smoker-nonsmoker difference in discounting is not confined to situations involving immediate rewards. Differences associated with potentially real vs. hypothetical rewards and gender underscore the complexity of the smoking-delay discounting relationship. PMID:21983917

Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Wilson, Vanessa B.

2013-01-01

386

Neural Responses to Smoking Stimuli Are Influenced by Smokers' Attitudes towards Their Own Smoking Behaviour  

PubMed Central

An important feature of addiction is the high drug craving that may promote the continuation of consumption. Environmental stimuli classically conditioned to drug-intake have a strong motivational power for addicts and can elicit craving. However, addicts differ in the attitudes towards their own consumption behavior: some are content with drug taking (consonant users) whereas others are discontent (dissonant users). Such differences may be important for clinical practice because the experience of dissonance might enhance the likelihood to consider treatment. This fMRI study investigated in smokers whether these different attitudes influence subjective and neural responses to smoking stimuli. Based on self-characterization, smokers were divided into consonant and dissonant smokers. These two groups were presented smoking stimuli and neutral stimuli. Former studies have suggested differences in the impact of smoking stimuli depending on the temporal stage of the smoking ritual they are associated with. Therefore, we used stimuli associated with the beginning (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli) and stimuli associated with the terminal stage (END-smoking-stimuli) of the smoking ritual as distinct stimulus categories. Stimulus ratings did not differ between both groups. Brain data showed that BEGIN-smoking-stimuli led to enhanced mesolimbic responses (amygdala, hippocampus, insula) in dissonant compared to consonant smokers. In response to END-smoking-stimuli, dissonant smokers showed reduced mesocortical responses (orbitofrontal cortex, subcallosal cortex) compared to consonant smokers. These results suggest that smoking stimuli with a high incentive value (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli) are more appetitive for dissonant than consonant smokers at least on the neural level. To the contrary, smoking stimuli with low incentive value (END-smoking-stimuli) seem to be less appetitive for dissonant smokers than consonant smokers. These differences might be one reason why dissonant smokers experience difficulties in translating their attitudes into an actual behavior change. PMID:23155368

Stippekohl, Bastian; Winkler, Markus H.; Walter, Bertram; Kagerer, Sabine; Mucha, Ronald F.; Pauli, Paul; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

2012-01-01

387

Hardening and the hard-core smoker: concepts, evidence, and implications.  

PubMed

A nascent debate pits researchers who believe that hard-core smokers are coming to dominate the remaining population of smokers against others who perceive the hardening of the target as a far more distant concern. At stake is the future emphasis of tobacco control: should we alter the current allocation of resources between treatment of individual smokers and modification of the psychosocial environment through public education and policy measures? We review the evidence and conclude that: (1) hardening is probably occurring in the sense that, compared with earlier generations, many of today's smokers possibly do have greater difficulty quitting, or are inherently less willing to do so. (2) Hardening may be most usefully construed in the context of specific groups of smokers, such as the mentally ill, who may constitute a growing fraction of the remaining smoking population. (3) Using conventional measures, however, we find little evidence that the population of smokers as a whole is hardening. Cessation rates have not decreased. (4) Truly hard-core smokers necessarily constitute a very small fraction of the population. Quitting-susceptible smokers continue to dominate the smoking population. (5) Hardening and the potential existence of true hard-core smokers recommend creative thinking about, and devotion of resources to, finding new ways to help the most dependent smokers to quit. (6) Sound research recommends the expansion of comprehensive tobacco-control programs in both the public and private sectors, and does not support reallocation of resources from such programs toward more intensive individualized treatment. We can afford both. PMID:12745505

Warner, Kenneth E; Burns, David M

2003-02-01

388

African-American menthol and nonmenthol smokers: differences in smoking and cessation experiences.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day, African Americans have lower cessation rates and experience disproportionately higher rates of smoking-related health consequences. Because of their high preference for menthol cigarettes, it has been suggested that smoking menthol cigarettes may contribute to the excess smoking-related morbidity experienced by African Americans. Smoking menthol cigarettes could increase health risks from smoking if smokers of menthol cigarettes have lower cessation rates and thereby have longer duration of smoking compared to smokers of nonmentholated cigarettes. Few studies have examined associations between smoking of mentholated cigarettes and smoking cessation among African Americans. This study examined the smoking patterns of menthol cigarette smokers and their smoking cessation experiences. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 480 African-American smokers at an inner-city health center. Survey examined sociodemographics, smoking characteristics, and smoking cessation experiences of participants. Menthol smokers (n = 407) were compared to nonmenthol smokers (n = 73) in these characteristics. RESULTS: Menthol smokers were younger and more likely to smoke cigarettes with longer rod length, with filters, and those high in nicotine and tar. Although both groups did not differ by number of past quit attempts, time since most recent quit attempt was shorter for menthol smokers. The durations of most recent and longest-ever quit attempts were nonsignificantly shorter for menthol, compared to nonmenthol smokers. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that African-American menthol smokers are less successful with smoking cessation. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and examine mechanisms underlying such differences. PMID:15481749

Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ebersole-Robinson, Maiko; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2004-01-01

389

Brain activity and emotional processing in smokers treated with varenicline.  

PubMed

Prior evidence suggests that varenicline, an effective smoking cessation treatment, may relieve negative affective signs of nicotine withdrawal. We examined varenicline effects on emotional processing in 25 abstinent smokers after 13 days of varenicline and placebo using a within-subject cross-over design. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired while subjects completed a face emotion identification task. Results showed a significant drug effect, characterized by decreased BOLD signal in dorsal anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortex, occipital cortex and thalamus. Increased BOLD signal was observed in the middle temporal gyrus. Varenicline improved correct response time; however, neither BOLD signal nor performance effects were moderated by emotion type. An exploratory region of interest analysis suggests that varenicline reduced amygdala activity independent of emotional valence. Taken together, these results suggest that observed drug effects on brain activity do not reflect affective changes but rather enhanced early processing of perceptual features of facial stimuli. PMID:21507156

Loughead, James; Ray, Riju; Wileyto, E Paul; Ruparel, Kosha; O'Donnell, Gregory P; Senecal, Nicole; Siegel, Steven; Gur, Ruben C; Lerman, Caryn

2013-07-01

390

Measuring the stages of change in cigarette smokers.  

PubMed

This article describes preliminary reliability testing of an instrument for measuring a smoker's progress toward abstinence or relapse. We have developed a set of visual-analog scales intended to measure subtle changes in the smoking cessation process. These are based on the Stages of Change described by DiClemente and Prochaska and the presentation format suggested by Biener and Abrams. In this study, we presented the scales in two different formats (projected on a screen using an overhead projector or printed on sheets of paper) to 23 subjects, all inpatients in a chemical dependency treatment program. The subjects' response on the two modalities were highly correlated, indicating reliability of the scale between modalities and within the time frame studied. We offer this instrument as an inexpensive and efficient means of evaluating smoking cessation strategies and the progress of individuals in smoking cessation programs. PMID:8389898

Rustin, T A; Tate, J C

1993-01-01

391

Opioid antagonism enhances marijuana's effects in heavy marijuana smokers  

PubMed Central

Rationale and objective Studies in laboratory animals strongly suggest reciprocal modulation of the opioidergic and endocannabinoid systems, a relationship that has not been demonstrated in humans. This study sought to clarify this interaction by assessing how a range of naltrexone doses altered the subjective, cognitive, and cardiovascular effects of marijuana. Material and methods Daily marijuana smokers (n=29) participated in this within-subject, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Naltrexone (0, 12, 25, 50, or 100 mg) was administered before active or inactive marijuana (3.27 or 0% THC) was smoked. Results Active marijuana increased subjective ratings of marijuana ‘Strength,’ ‘High,’ and positive subjective ratings of marijuana quality and drug effect including ‘Liking,’ ‘Good,’ and ‘Take Again’ compared to inactive marijuana. Naltrexone alone decreased ratings of ‘Liking,’ ‘Take Again,’ and ‘Stimulated’ compared with placebo, but increased ratings of drug ‘Strength,’ ‘High,’ ‘Good,’ ‘Liking,’ ‘Stimulated,’ and ‘Take Again’ when administered under active marijuana conditions. Active marijuana did not affect performance on cognitive tasks relative to inactive marijuana, whereas naltrexone decreased performance when administered alone or in combination with active marijuana. Active marijuana increased heart rate compared to inactive marijuana under placebo naltrexone conditions. Although naltrexone alone decreased heart rate, it further increased marijuana's cardiovascular effect. Conclusions In heavy marijuana smokers opioid-receptor blockade enhanced the subjective and cardiovascular effects of marijuana, suggesting that endogenous opioids dampen cannabinoid effects in this population. These findings demonstrate that a broad range of clinically used doses of naltrexone potentially increases the abuse liability and cardiovascular risks of cannabinoids. PMID:20490465

Haney, Margaret

2010-01-01

392

Menstrual cycle and cue reactivity in women smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Emerging research suggests potential effects of the menstrual cycle on various aspects of smoking behavior in women, but results to date have been mixed. The present study sought to explore the influence of menstrual cycle phase on reactivity to smoking in vivo and stressful imagery cues in a sample of non–treatment-seeking women smokers. Methods: Via a within-subjects design, nicotine-dependent women (N = 37) participated in a series of four cue reactivity sessions, each during a distinct biologically verified phase of the menstrual cycle (early follicular [EF], mid-follicular [MF], mid-luteal [ML], and late luteal [LL]). Subjective (Questionnaire of Smoking Urges–Brief; QSU-B) and physiological (skin conductance and heart rate) measures of craving and reactivity were collected and compared across phases. Results: Subjective reactive craving (QSU-B) to smoking in vivo cues varied significantly across the menstrual cycle (p = .02) and was higher in both EF and MF phases versus ML and LL phases, but this finding was not sustained when controlling for reactivity to neutral cues. Heart rate reactivity to stressful imagery cues (p = .01) and skin conductance reactivity to smoking in vivo cues (p = .05) varied significantly across the menstrual cycle upon controlling for reactivity to neutral cues, with highest reactivity during the MF phase. Discussion: Menstrual cycle phase may have an effect on reactivity to smoking-related and stressful cues among women smokers<