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1

Black Smokers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief web article features black smokers and discusses the history of their discovery, the geologic processes creating black smokers, and the various life forms inhabiting this extreme environment. As part of the PBS "Savage Earth" series, the site contains animations of basic geologic processes, QuickTime videos and additional web articles discussing the ring of fire, the Kola well in Russia, the internal structure of the Earth, earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. This website also provides a link to the PBS home, where other PBS online programs can be found. The QuickTime program is required to view the videos and can be downloaded free of charge on site.

Svitil, Kathy A.

2009-06-23

2

The Sound Generated by Mid-Ocean Ridge Black Smoker Hydrothermal Vents  

PubMed Central

Hydrothermal flow through seafloor black smoker vents is typically turbulent and vigorous, with speeds often exceeding 1 m/s. Although theory predicts that these flows will generate sound, the prevailing view has been that black smokers are essentially silent. Here we present the first unambiguous field recordings showing that these vents radiate significant acoustic energy. The sounds contain a broadband component and narrowband tones which are indicative of resonance. The amplitude of the broadband component shows tidal modulation which is indicative of discharge rate variations related to the mechanics of tidal loading. Vent sounds will provide researchers with new ways to study flow through sulfide structures, and may provide some local organisms with behavioral or navigational cues.

Crone, Timothy J.; Wilcock, William S.D.; Barclay, Andrew H.; Parsons, Jeffrey D.

2006-01-01

3

'Black Smokers' WebQuest: An Internet WebQuest on Hydrothermal Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a black smokers WebQuest where students in groups investigate one aspect of the science of black smokers. The WebQuest provides a separate list of links for each research role, including geochemist, biologist, oceanographer, and geologist. Upon completing their specialist research, the students work in groups to get a better understanding of black smokers and the issues by presenting a position on whether to protect black smokers or continue research on the black smokers for possible benefits. The webpage is divided into the following sections: introduction, the task, the process and resources, conclusion, and hypertext dictionary. This site provides a wealth of information relevant to black smokers with current information, many images, videos, animations, and first hand accounts.

Science, Uniserve

4

Black Smokers: A Huge but Untapped Mineral Storehouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting article, appearing in the online journal Mining Engineer (free registration required through Engineer Live), discusses mineral mining potentials of black smokers. Black smokers are hydrothermal vents emitting mineral bearing fluids from the deep ocean floor. This article gives an overview of how black smokers form geologically, sulfur-reducing bacteria and other organisms living on hydrothermal vents, and how ores are deposited at these vents. The overview is followed by suggested mining strategies and instruments for trace mineral detection.

5

A role of sulfur in 'black smoker' sedimentary matter evolution. Illustration: the TAG and Broken Spur hydrothermal vent fields (Mid-Atlantic Ridge)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous direct observations of known vents on the sea-bottom showed that formation of massive sulfide deposits has complicated and intricate story. We suggest that the matter, forming by direct contact between hydrothermal fluid and sea-water, gives useful information on genesis and evolution for ancient volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. In the Atlantic Ocean, hydrothermal particle matter collected by means of sediment traps near black smokers have been studied only within the Broken Spur [Lukashin et al., 1999] and TAG fields. Chemical and mineral composition of the particulate matter from the TAG field we discuss for the first time. Sediment traps are widely used for collecting free-sinking particles in the water column because of their design and easiness in operation. Besides, it is easy to calculate the flux if one knows the mass of trapped material, the aperture area of the trap, and the exposure time. In addition, this method makes it possible to sample the substance in the water column and to study it in the pure state (to determine mineral and chemical composition). In order to research the particulate matter and its flux near black smokers (the main problem is that the trap also collected some undesired material from another layers of the water column), our traps (KSL-400/1) were provided with special mechanism that protect a sample from "contamination" [Rusakov et al., 1996]. Two such traps were deployed with the help of manned submersible "MIR" on the sea- bottom at a distance 3 meters from basement of 'black smoker' chimney complex. First trap was near the Saracen's Head (the most massive 'black smoker' chimney of the Broken Spur field). Second one was on the top of the TAG Mound. Both fields have identical type of circulating system (axial circulating system of the low-spreading ridge) and identical source of chemical elements - toleitic basalts. Differences are concerned only the age of the vents. The results showed that the material in both cases has high contents of ore-forming chemical elements (Fe, Cu, Zn), as well as Se, As, Sb, Ba and P relatively to both pelagic sediments and basaltic rocks from that they were leached. 40 percent of particulate matter near more "old" vent on TAG field (40-50 kyr) consists of Fe-oxyhydroxide particles in contrast with the Broken Spur vent (< 1 kyr), where pyrrhotite is a dominant mineral. We propose that this difference is the result of sulfur deficit in hydrothermal fluid in older vent on the TAG field. That could be a result both decrease of sulfur content in oceanic crust and sulfur expenditure for mineralization within ore body. Higher enrichment factors for S, Se and Ca relatively to toleitic basalts for vent on the Broken Spur field may be explained by higher mobility of these elements, which were leached more intensively from rocks of reaction zone in early stages of the hydrothermal system evolution. Higher enrichment factors for Cu, Fe, Zn in the material of the TAG vent and, specially, for As and Si (in 3 and 5 times more than material from the Broken Spur vent, correspondingly), obviously, are the result of their lower mobility. It was showed in the Logachev I and II fields that hydrothermal iron may also be washed out from ore body as a result of substitution: Cu+Fe2+Fe3+S3 (isocubanite) - Cu+Fe3+S2 (chalcopyrite) - Cu5+Fe3+S4 (bornite) [Mozgova et al., 2005]. Besides, it was determined that about 67 tons of particulate iron are contained in plume body above the TAG vent field by volume about 6 km3, and 23.5 tons of particulate iron are contained in plume above the Broken Spur vent field by volume 8.24 km3 [Rusakov, 2006]. We speculate that such difference is the result of higher hydrothermal iron supply into the water column from the TAG vent.

Rusakov, V. Y.

2006-05-01

6

Black Smokers: Life Forms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational web site features life forms of deep sea hydrothermal systems. Hosted by the American Museum of Natural History, this site offers a brief introduction of the community and then focuses on Vestimentiferan tube worms, Vescomyid clams, and Bathymodiolid mussels. The site includes interactive games, teacher resources, a glossary, and more.

History, The A.

7

In-situ Chemistry of Hydrothermal Fluids from Black Smokers in Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After an off-axis earthquake swarm in 1999, dramatic changes were observed in vent fluids of Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Three month latter, we also recorded this sudden variation using a high temperature in-situ chemical sensor. The results at that time indicated some of the vent temperatures as high as 374°C. This change was also characterized by relatively high in-situ pH, high dissolved H2, and H2S concentrations in the fluids that were in excess of 5, 0.7 mmol/kg and 20 mmol/kg respectively. In order to further track time dependent changes over the past 6 years, we revisited Main Endeavour Field during the recent AT 11-31 cruise in Aug.~Sept. 2005. The high temperature chemical sensor was again used on selected dives with DSV Alvin to conduct in-situ measurements of pH, dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations along with temperatures. The data were obtained in a real time mode of 3 seconds per-reading from a series of measurements at high temperature conditions in the depth of 2200 m. Conventional gas-tight samples were also collected for verification and further study. In this study, Puffer, Sully and Bastille black smoker vent sites were specifically investigated owing to the high fluid temperatures that characterize these vents in comparison with other vents in the area. The measured temperatures for these vents were 362°C, 358°C, and 361°C respectively, which were generally about 20~30°C higher than the others currently in the area, but approximately 10°C lower than the highest temperatures measured in the aftermath of the 1999 seismic-magmatic event. Although the drops in vent temperatures were not substantial, the measured in-situ chemistry showed large departures from previous reported data. The in-situ pH values in these vents ranged from 4.43 to 4.89, in comparison with values above 5 in 1999. This difference may be linked directly to the decrease in temperature. The measured in-situ dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations were 0.12~0.18 mmol/kg and 7.96~8.90 mmol/kg, respectively. These concentrations clearly demonstrate substantially lower values than reported in the past, which cannot be simply the result of the observed decrease in temperature of the MEF vent fluids. These data reveal a strong departure from the pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite equilibrium state as observed in 1999 to more oxidizing conditions, consistent with the assemblage of anhydrite-anorthite-clinozoisite. Compared to dissolved H2, the decrease in H2S concentration is less obvious, but still significant in comparison with previous data. From these in-situ measurements, we suggest that the MEF vent systems have not yet fully returned to a pre-seismic condition. The comparatively high temperature and high dissolved H2S may be the cause for the current dense faunal communities observed most recently at the vent sites.

Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.; Zhang, Z.; Foustoukos, D.; Pester, N. J.

2005-12-01

8

Formation of black and white smokers in the North Fiji Basin: Sulfur and lead isotope constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrothermal chimneys were recovered from 16o50¡_S triple junction area in the North Fiji Basin. The chimney samples are divided into three groups according to their mineralogy and metal contents; 1) Black smoker, 2) White smoker, 3) Transitional type. Black smoker chimneys are mainly composed of chalcopyrite and pyrite, and are enriched in high temperature elements such as Cu, Co, Mo, and Se. White smoker chimneys consist of sphalerite and marcasite with trace of pyrite and chalcopyrite, and are enriched in low temperature elements (Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Ga). Transitional chimneys show intermediate characteristics in mineralogy and composition between black and white smokers. Basaltic rocks sampled from the triple junction show wide variation in geochemistry. Trace elements composition of basaltic rocks indicates that the magma genesis in the triple junction area was affected by mixing between N-MORB and E-MORB sources. The sulfur and lead isotope compositions of hydrothermal chimneys show distinct differences between the black and white smokers. Black smokers are depleted in 34S (Øä34S = +0.4 to +4.8) and are low in lead isotope composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.082 to 18.132; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.440 to 15.481; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.764 to 37.916) compared to white smoker and transitional chimneys (Øä34S = +2.4 to +5.6; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.122 to 18.193; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.475 to 15.554; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.882 to 38.150). The heavier sulfur isotopic fractionation in white smoker can be explained by boiling of hydrothermal fluids and mixing with ambient seawater. The lead isotope compositions of the hydrothermal chimneys indicate that the metal in black and white smokers come from hydrothermal reaction with N-MORB and E-MORB, respectively. Regarding both black and white smoker are located in the same site, the condition of phase separation of hydrothermal fluid that formed white smokers might result from P-T condition of high temperature reaction zone below the hydrothermal venting site. Our results suggest that white smokers were formed by hydrothermal circulation closely related to E-MORB magma intrusion at shallower depth. Meanwhile, Black smoker probably formed by deeper intrusion of N-MORB magma before the formation of white smoker.

Kim, J.; Lee, I.; Lee, K.; Yoo, C.; Ko, Y.

2004-12-01

9

Distribution of archaea in a black smoker chimney structure.  

PubMed

Archaeal community structures in microhabitats in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney structure were evaluated through the combined use of culture-independent molecular analyses and enrichment culture methods. A black smoker chimney was obtained from the PACMANUS site in the Manus Basin near Papua New Guinea, and subsamples were obtained from vertical and horizontal sections. The elemental composition of the chimney was analyzed in different subsamples by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, indicating that zinc and sulfur were major components while an increased amount of elemental oxygen in exterior materials represented the presence of oxidized materials on the outer surface of the chimney. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that a shift in archaeal ribotype structure occurred in the chimney structure. Through sequencing of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clones from archaeal rDNA clone libraries, it was demonstrated that the archaeal communities in the chimney structure consisted for the most part of hyperthermophilic members and extreme halophiles and that the distribution of such extremophiles in different microhabitats of the chimney varied. The results of the culture-dependent analysis supported in part the view that changes in archaeal community structures in these microhabitats are associated with the geochemical and physical dynamics in the black smoker chimney. PMID:11472939

Takai, K; Komatsu, T; Inagaki, F; Horikoshi, K

2001-08-01

10

Distribution of Archaea in a Black Smoker Chimney Structure  

PubMed Central

Archaeal community structures in microhabitats in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney structure were evaluated through the combined use of culture-independent molecular analyses and enrichment culture methods. A black smoker chimney was obtained from the PACMANUS site in the Manus Basin near Papua New Guinea, and subsamples were obtained from vertical and horizontal sections. The elemental composition of the chimney was analyzed in different subsamples by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, indicating that zinc and sulfur were major components while an increased amount of elemental oxygen in exterior materials represented the presence of oxidized materials on the outer surface of the chimney. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that a shift in archaeal ribotype structure occurred in the chimney structure. Through sequencing of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clones from archaeal rDNA clone libraries, it was demonstrated that the archaeal communities in the chimney structure consisted for the most part of hyperthermophilic members and extreme halophiles and that the distribution of such extremophiles in different microhabitats of the chimney varied. The results of the culture-dependent analysis supported in part the view that changes in archaeal community structures in these microhabitats are associated with the geochemical and physical dynamics in the black smoker chimney.

Takai, Ken; Komatsu, Tetsushi; Inagaki, Fumio; Horikoshi, Koki

2001-01-01

11

The acute tobacco withdrawal syndrome among black smokers.  

PubMed

Black smokers have greater difficulty quitting tobacco than White smokers, but the mechanisms underlying between-race differences in smoking cessation are not clear. One possibility is that Black smokers experience greater acute withdrawal than Whites. We investigated whether Black (n = 104) and White smokers (n = 99) differed in abstinence-induced changes in self-report, physiological, and cognitive performance measures. Smokers not wishing to quit completed two counterbalanced experimental sessions. Before one session, they abstained from smoking for at least 12 hr. They smoked normally before the other session. Black smokers reported smaller abstinence-induced changes on a number of subjective measures including the total score of the 10-item Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (QSU) and the total score of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS). However, on most subjective measures, and on all objective measures, there were no between-race differences in abstinence-induced change scores. Moreover, Black participants did not report lower QSU and WSWS ratings at the abstinent session, but they did experience significantly higher QSU and WSWS ratings at the nonabstinent session. Abstinence-induced changes in subjective, physiological, and cognitive measures in White smokers were similar for smokers of nonflavored and menthol-flavored cigarettes. There was no evidence that Black smokers experienced greater acute tobacco withdrawal than Whites. To the contrary, Black participants experienced smaller abstinence-induced changes in self-reported craving and withdrawal on some measures. Racial differences in smoking cessation are unlikely to be explained by acute withdrawal. PMID:23528199

Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Waters, Andrew J

2014-03-01

12

A thermodynamic explanation for black smoker temperatures  

PubMed

There is a remarkable difference between the maximum temperature of black smoker effluent (350 degrees C-400 degrees C) and the temperature of the solidifying magma which heats it (approximately 1,200 degrees C). It has been suspected for some time that the nonlinear thermodynamic properties of water might be responsible for this discrepancy. Here, we translate this hypothesis into a physical model, by examining the internal temperature structure of convection cells in a porous medium. We demonstrate that, at pressures appropriate to seafloor crust, plumes of pure water form naturally at approximately 400 degrees C for any heat source with temperature greater than approximately 500 degrees C. Higher temperatures are confined to a boundary layer at the base of the convection cell, where the flow is horizontal. The phenomenon is explained analytically using the thermodynamic properties of water, and is illustrated by numerical simulations. Our model predicts the existence of the high-temperature 'reaction zone' found in ophiolites and suggests that vent temperatures will remain steady as magma chambers solidify and cool. PMID:10706282

Jupp; Schultz

2000-02-24

13

Loki's Castle: Discovery and geology of a black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting at the ultraslow spreading and magma starved parts of the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge (AMOR) have been unsuccessful. A black smoker vent field was eventually discovered at the Mohns-Knipovich bend at 73.5°N in 2008, and the field was revisited in 2009 and 2010. The Loki's Castle vent

R. Pedersen; I. H. Thorseth; M. D. Lilley; F. J. Barriga; G. Früh-Green; K. Nakamura

2010-01-01

14

Trace element distributions in the chalcopyrite wall of a black smoker chimney: insights from laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA–ICP–MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thin walls of young black smoker chimneys experience steep physico-chemical gradients during active venting of hydrothermal fluid, and these gradients control trace element precipitation within those walls. Here, we utilise a combination of high sensitivity ICPMS and UV laser ablation (resolution of better than 30 ?m) to demonstrate the existence of non-random V, Ag, In, Te, Ba, Au, Pb

I. B. Butler; R. W. Nesbitt

1999-01-01

15

A fracture-loop thermal balance model of black smoker circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This time-dependent model examines the thermal balance between hot rocks and hydrothermal circulation during the formation of volcanogenic ore deposits, in order to establish whether the major heat supply to black smoker systems comes from the rock or from an underlying magma chamber. Flow is modelled as an open thermosyphon in a single fault, which is parallel and very close to the mid-ocean ridge axis. This configuration is based on seafloor and ophiolite evidence of black smoker systems and their structural location. The fault is represented in the model by a series of pipes carrying turbulent flow, which is driven by the buoyancy difference between upflow and downflow. Hydraulic resistance to flow is predominantly in the discharge zone. The fault is allowed to propagate downwards. The horizontal conductive heat flux from the rock is computed analytically, with the water flow treated digitally, so that the heat exchange at the rock-water interface at every position in the loop can be calculated for each time step. The model thus provides the exit water temperature and mass flow rate throughout the lifespan of a hot spring, enabling the resulting ore mass to be estimated. Results show that this system cannot obtain sufficient heat from a thin layer of rock (such as the 1-2 km thick layer of lavas and dykes overlying an axial magma chamber) to sustain long-lived, ore-forming black smokers. If the circulation penetrates through a greater volume of hot rock to the base of a recently-solidified magma chamber, ore masses of a few million tonnes can be formed if conditions are particularly favourable. We conclude that systems producing larger ore masses must tap a magmatic heat supply.

Strens, M. R.; Cann, J. R.

1986-02-01

16

Growth of `black smoker' bacteria at temperatures of at least 250 °C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex communities of thermophilic bacteria have been cultured from the 350 °C waters emanating from sulphide chimneys, or `black smokers', at 21 °N along the East Pacific Rise1. Several of the bacterial communities were shown to grow rapidly at 100 °C and atmospheric pressure, producing methane, hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. These gases are found in superheated vent water, having previously been attributed to abiogenic reactions. Before concluding that these `black smoker' bacteria actually contribute to the chemistry of the superheated hydrothermal fluids, it was necessary to test their ability to grow and produce gases at in situ vent temperatures and pressures. Here we report that a bacterial community originally cultured from 306 °C water is capable of chemolithotrophic growth in a titanium growth chamber under in situ vent pressure of 265 atm and at temperatures of at least 250 °C. (At 265 atm, seawater remains liquid at temperatures of at least 460 °C2.) Transmission electron microscopy of thin sections of bacteria cultured at 250 °C has revealed the presence of at least two morphologically distinct organisms.

Baross, John A.

1983-06-01

17

Discovery of a black smoker vent field and vent fauna at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge  

PubMed Central

The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) represents one of the most slow-spreading ridge systems on Earth. Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting, as well as the provenance of vent fauna at this northern and insular termination of the global ridge system, have been unsuccessful. Here, we report the first discovery of a black smoker vent field at the AMOR. The field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) and is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting and long-lived hydrothermal systems exist at ultraslow-spreading ridges, despite their strongly reduced volcanic activity. The vent field hosts a distinct vent fauna that differs from the fauna to the south along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The novel vent fauna seems to have developed by local specialization and by migration of fauna from cold seeps and the Pacific.

Pedersen, Rolf B.; Rapp, Hans Tore; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.; Baumberger, Tamara; Flesland, Kristin; Fonseca, Rita; Fruh-Green, Gretchen L.; Jorgensen, Steffen L.

2010-01-01

18

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (IV) Interpretations of Black Smoker Fluid Compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One scientific goal of the IDDP is to understand high-temperature reaction zones such as those that feed hydrothermal fluids to active mid-ocean ridge black smoker vents. Smoker fluids emerge from a reservoir of composition, pressure and temperature resembling those expected in a supercritical IDDP well in the Reykjanes geothermal system. We have reconstructed black smoker fluids based on published analyses, and then computed mineral saturation indices, log(Q/K), for a wide range of P-T conditions, from which we identify a pressure and temperature where a group of probable alteration minerals equilibrated with the fluid. The estimated reservoir conditions commonly reflect approximately 60°C of cooling at the vent in excess of that from adiabatic decompression. Saturation index surfaces distinctly converge to zero in a narrow range of pressure and temperature, but the small angle of intersection of most curves yield substantial uncertainty, especially in pressure. Feldspars, quartz, garnet, actinolite, wairakite and chlorite have a stronger pressure dependence than do others, so they become the principal indicators of pressure, which is especially reflected in pH and silica solubility. An accurate reconstructed in situ pH is essential. In reconstructing fluids, we recompute pH to high P-T starting from the pH measured on shipboard in cooled fluid samples. Aside from temperature effects, the pH in such samples is elevated by mixing with cold seawater and lowered by precipitation of vent sulfides. To examine our understanding of pH, we scrutinized the saturation states of sulfides in the reconstructed vent fluids. For example, in 21°N EPR HG vent, we find that sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite are approximately saturated at the vent conditions (350°C, 260bar), and that pyrite is supersaturated and bornite is undersaturated. The former three are common vent sulfides. In the same fluid, silicates indicate reservoir conditions of approximately 450°C and 600 bar, at which conditions the sulfides are substantially undersaturated. These findings indicate that pH and concentrations of metals and sulfide measured in vent fluids are depressed by sulfide precipitation at and near the vent, thus an accurate estimate of the reservoir fluid properties requires a 're-dissolution' of metals and sulfide into the fluid, limited by saturation at reservoir P and T with sphalerite, chalcopyrite and pyrite, which are common accessory minerals in seafloor-altered basalts.

Reed, M. H.; Palandri, J. L.; Elders, W.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2008-12-01

19

Response error in self-reported current smoking frequency by black and white established smokers.  

PubMed

As compared with white smokers, black smokers, although they report using fewer cigarettes per day, are at higher risk for most smoking-related diseases. Among black smokers serum cotinine levels are also higher in proportion to cigarettes per day; this observation has led to suggestions of bias in self-reporting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the extent of errors in self-reported smoking patterns among black and white established smokers. Ninety-seven white and 66 black smokers participated in structured telephone interviews, filled out two self-administered questionnaires one week apart, and collected all of their cigarette butts for a week. Group differences in the validity of self-reported smoking patterns were assessed by comparison with cigarette butt counts and the measured butt lengths. Both black and white smokers significantly overestimated smoking on our measure of smoking frequency (both P < 0.001); the group difference in bias was not significant (P = 0.13). There was no evidence that underreporting was more common among blacks than among whites (P = 0.67). Test-retest reliability was not significantly different in the two groups (P = 0.09). Both groups performed poorly when asked to categorize their smoking frequency according to the cutpoints of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Black smokers smoked more of each cigarette and smoked longer cigarettes, but they smoked fewer total millimeters of cigarettes per day (all P < 0.001). Contrary to an earlier report, the disproportionately high cotinine levels could not be attributed to reporting error. PMID:8978878

Clark, P I; Gautam, S P; Hlaing, W M; Gerson, L W

1996-11-01

20

Predictors of Cessation Pharmacotherapy Use Among Black and Non-Hispanic White Smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Use of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation improves quit rates, but these treatments are underutilized, particularly among Black smokers. Attitudes toward pharmacotherapy may differ between racial/ethnic minorities and Caucasian smokers. It was hypothesized that Black and non-Hispanic White smokers would differ in their attitudes toward pharmacotherapy and that the association between attitudes toward and actual use of pharmacotherapy would differ by race. Methods: The study consisted of a single, cross-sectional telephone-based survey of current smokers (N = 697), which examined the relationship between race, attitudes toward pharmacotherapy, and pharmacotherapy usage in a representative bi-racial sample (39% Black). Results: Black smokers were significantly less likely to report ever use of pharmacotherapy (23%) than Caucasians (39%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.33–0.66). Compared with Caucasians, Blacks had significantly less favorable attitudes toward pharmacotherapy, including disbelief about efficacy (p = .03), addiction concerns (p = .03), harmfulness of pharmacotherapy (p = .008), and need for treatment of any kind to quit smoking (p = .004). In a multiple logistic regression, racial group (Caucasian is referent: OR = 0.55, p = .003), addiction concerns (OR = 0.80, p < .01), and need for treatment of any kind to quit smoking (OR = 1.52, p < .001) were predictive of pharmacotherapy use. Conclusions: These findings replicate and build upon previous research demonstrating underutilization of pharmacotherapy and enduring misconceptions about pharmacotherapy, particularly among Black smokers. Regardless of racial group, misconceptions about pharmacotherapy are related to lower rates of use. Efforts to improve understanding about the efficacy and safety of these products are needed to boost utilization and impact cessation rates.

Ryan, Katherine K.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Alberg, Anthony J.; Cartmell, Kathleen B.

2011-01-01

21

The early health consequences of smoking: Relationship with psychosocial factors among treatment-seeking Black smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Blacks suffer disproportionately from the long-term health effects of smoking. Little is known about the prevalence of the early health consequences of smoking in this population or whether psychosocial factors influence the frequency of symptoms. This study investigated the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of smoking-related physical symptoms in Black smokers. Methods: Adult smokers (N = 117, 58% female, Mage = 43.0 years) who smoked at least 5 cigarettes/day completed self-administered assessments of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking duration, alcohol use, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and smoking-related symptoms. Results: The most frequently occurring physical symptoms were shortness of breath (66%), coughing (50%), and headaches (49%). Multivariate analyses showed that smoking history, alcohol use, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms were independently related to smoking-related symptoms, even after controlling for sociodemographic variables and medical diagnoses. Discussion: The early health consequences of smoking appear to be common among Black smokers and can serve as a cue to action for cessation efforts. Alcohol use, stress, and depression appear to negatively influence the early health consequences of smoking and should be assessed routinely in treatment-seeking Black smokers.

Carey, Michael P.

2009-01-01

22

First time ever retrieval of "black smokers" from ocean floor reveals one of Earth's strangest and most enigmatic ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article features a black smoker retrieved by an expedition team on the Juan De Fuca Ridge, at a depth of more than one mile below the surface of the ocean. The article discusses the expedition, the black smoker's complex ecosystem, and the black smoker environment and lifeform implications for the possibility of life on other planetary bodies. To learn more about the expedition through logs and photographs, the site provides links to the American Museum of Natural History, the University of Washington, and PBS television. Additional University of Washington News articles may be accessed on site as well.

Hines, Sandra; Information, University O.

23

Effects of Menthol on the Pharmacokinetics of Bupropion Among Black Smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Despite the widespread use of mentholated cigarettes, lower cessation rates, and disproportionately high smoking–related morbidity among Blacks, the possible role of menthol in smokers’ response to pharmacotherapy has not been well-studied. This study examined the effects of menthol on the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of bupropion and its principal metabolites, hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion, and erythrohydrobupropion among Black smokers. Methods: After a 7-day placebo run-in period, participants received 150 mg bid sustained-release bupropion for 20–25 days. Blood samples were drawn for PK analysis on 2 occasions, 10–15 days after the commencement of bupropion while participants were still smoking (smoking phase) and at days 20–25 when they were asked not to smoke (nonsmoking phase). Results: 18 smokers of nonmenthol cigarettes and 23 smokers of menthol cigarettes were enrolled in this study. No differences were found by menthol smoking status in the Cmax and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) of bupropion and its metabolites in the smoking or nonsmoking phases. However, among menthol smokers, the AUC ratios of metabolite/bupropion were lower in the nonsmoking phase compared with the smoking phase (hydro/bup = 31.49 ± 18.84 vs. 22.95 ± 13.27, p = .04; erythro/bup = 1.99 ± 1.02 vs. 1.76 ± 0.75, p = .016; threo/bup = 11.77 ± 8.90 vs. 10.44 ± 5.63, p = .034). No significant differences were found in the metabolite/bup ratios between smoking and nonsmoking conditions among nonmenthol smokers. Conclusions: We did not find a significant effect of menthol compared with nonmenthol cigarette smoking on the PKs of bupropion and metabolites at steady state. More research is needed to advance the understanding of mechanisms underlying disparities in smoking cessation outcomes related to smoking of menthol cigarettes.

Faseru, Babalola; Reed, Gregory A.; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Bronars, Carrie A.; Opole, Isaac; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Mayo, Matthew S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Benowitz, Neal L.

2012-01-01

24

A Pilot Clinical Trial of Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in Black Smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Varenicline, a first-line non-nicotine medication, has not been evaluated in Black smokers, and limited attention has been paid to pharmacotherapy adherence in smoking cessation trials. This pilot study estimated quit rates for Black smokers treated with varenicline and tested a behavioral intervention to aid varenicline adherence. Methods: Seventy-two Black smokers (>10 cigarettes per day; cpd) were randomly assigned to adherence support (AS; n = 36) or standard care (n = 36). All participants received 3 months of varenicline and a single counseling session focused on making a quit plan. AS participants received 5 additional counseling sessions to encourage medication use. Outcome measures included salivary cotinine, and carbon monoxide confirmed smoking abstinence, reductions in self-reported cpd, and pill counts of varenicline adherence at Months 1, 2, and 3. Results: Sixty-one participants (84.7%) completed follow-up at Month 3. Participants were female (62.5%), 46.8 years of age, and smoked 16.3 cpd. No treatment group differences were found on the smoking or adherence outcome measures (p > .05). Collapsing across treatment, varenicline adherence was adequate (86.1%), yet despite a reduction of 12.2 (6.5) cpd from baseline to Month 3 (p < 0.001), only 23.6% were confirmed quit at Month 3. Participants who were quit at Month 3 had higher varenicline adherence rates (95.8%) than those who continued to smoke (80.8%, p ? .05). Conclusions: Studies are needed to examine the efficacy of varenicline among Black smokers. Interventions to facilitate adherence to pharmacotherapy warrant further attention as adherence is linked to improved tobacco abstinence.

Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Nazir, Niaman; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Owen, Ashli; Pankey, Sydni; Thompson, Nia; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2011-01-01

25

World's largest known Precambrian fossil black smoker chimneys and associated microbial vent communities, North China: Implications for early life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black smoker chimneys and biological vent communities have been identified at many sites on the deep seafloor, particularly along oceanic spreading centers. We report the largest and oldest known, microbe-rich sub-meter-sized black smoker chimneys and mounds from a 1.43 billion-year old sulfide deposit in a continental graben in northern China. These chimneys are especially well preserved, with characteristic morphology, internal

Jianghai Li; Timothy M. Kusky

2007-01-01

26

Comparison of CYP1A2 and NAT2 Phenotypes between Black and White Smokers  

PubMed Central

The lower incidence rate of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in blacks than in whites may be due to racial differences in the catalytic activity of enzymes that metabolize carcinogenic arylamines in tobacco smoke. To examine this, we compared cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) and N-acetyltransferase-2 activities (NAT2) in black and white smokers using urinary caffeine metabolites as a probe for enzyme activity in a community-based study of 165 black and 183 white cigarette smokers. The paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine, 17X)/caffeine (trimethylxanthine, 137X) ratio or [17X + 1,7-dimethyluric acid (17U)]/137X ratio was used as an indicator of CYP1A2 activity. The 5-acetyl-amino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil (AFMU)/1-methylxanthine (1X) ratio indicated NAT2 activity. The odds ratio for the slow NAT2 phenotype associated with black race was 0.4; 95% confidence intervals 0.2–0.7. The putative combined low risk phenotype (slow CYP1A2/rapid NAT2) was more common in blacks than in whites (25% vs. 15%, P<0.02). There were no significant racial differences in slow and rapid CYP1A2 phenotypes, and in the combined slow NAT2/rapid CYP1A2 phenotype. Age, education, cigarette smoking amount, body mass index, GSTM1 and GSTM3 genotypes were unrelated to CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity. Intake of cruciferous vegetables (primarily broccoli), red meat, carrots, grapefruit and onions predicted CYP1A2 activity either for all subjects or in race-specific analyses. Carrot and grapefruit consumption was related to NAT2 activity. Collectively, these results indicated that phenotypic differences in NAT2 alone or in combination with CYP1A2 might help explain the higher incidence rates of transitional cell bladder cancer in whites.

Muscat, Joshua E.; Pittman, Brian; Kleinman, Wayne; Lazarus, Philip; Stellman, Steven D.; Richie, John P.

2008-01-01

27

Mapping elemental distributions in submarine hydrothermal sulfide smokers using proton induced X-ray emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PIXE analysis using a 3 MeV proton beam on the CSIRO Nuclear Microprobe was carried out on samples of four typical undersea sulfide chimneys from the Rogers Ruins and Fenway hydrothermal sites, PACMANUS field, Eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea. The ability of PIXE to map the spatial association of trace elements within the sulfides across multiple mineralogical zones provides important insights into the mode of formation of structures and the nature of interaction between ˜250 and 350 °C hydrothermal fluids and 3-4 °C ambient seawater within the chimney walls.

Yeats, Chris; Belton, David; Laird, Jamie S.; Ryan, Chris G.

2010-06-01

28

Diversity of microbial communities of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present an organic geochemical study of Loki’s Castle, a black smoker field recently discovered at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around 73.2°N. Located at the Mohn-Knipovich Ridge, which is one of the slowest spreading ridge segments on Earth, Loki’s Castle is the most northerly major hydrothermal vent field known to date. The vent field is composed of five actively venting (320°C) black-smoker chimneys that tower on top of a large mound of hydrothermal sulfide deposits. Loki’s Castle is a basalt-hosted hydrothermal system, but high methane and ammonium contents in the vent fluids strongly indicate a sedimentary component below the volcanic ridge. In 2009, another site of low-temperature hydrothermal venting hosting numerous barite chimneys was discovered in the vicinity of the black smokers, which probably results from subsurface mixing of diffuse hydrothermal fluid with seawater. In our study, variations in microbial communities associated with the formation of actively venting, sulfide and sulfate chimneys in this essentially unexplored ultraslow spreading ridge system are assessed based on biomarker lipid and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses. Lipid extracts from an active, high-temperature sulfide chimney yielded abundant archaeal di- and tetraether lipids as well as irregular isoprenoidal hydrocarbons (PMIs) that are associated with archaeal methanogens and methanotrophs. Predominant archaeal biomarker lipids include archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as well as glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) containing 0-4 cyclopentyl moieties. In addition, GDGTs with an additional covalent bond between the isoprenoid hydrocarbon chains, so-called H-shaped GDGTs, containing 0-4 cyclopentyl rings were also found to be abundant components and are indicative of hyperthermophilic methanogens. Biomarkers characteristic of eukaryotes (sterols) and bacteria (fatty acids and hopanoids) were less prevalent in the sulfide chimney samples indicating a predominance of archaeal communities within the warmer interior zones of the chimney walls that are dominated by the iron sulfides sphalerite and pyrrhotite. The SiO2-bearing cooler outer parts of a chimney revealed predominantly bacterial fatty acids, whereas archaeal GDGTs were detected only to a minor extent. In contrast, the low-temperature barite-bearing vents located at the slope of the massive sulfide mound revealed the dominance of a range of unusual branched and unsaturated fatty acids that are specific for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). PMIs, archaeol, and sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as typically observed in methanogenic and methanotrophic archaea (AOM) have also been detected, although in much lower abundances. Ongoing compound-specific ?13C analyses will give additional information about carbon sources and metabolism of microbial consortia inhabiting actively venting sulfide and barite chimneys at Loki’s castle.

Jaeschke, A.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Früh-Green, G.

2010-12-01

29

A method for Doppler acoustic measurement of black smoker flow fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is developed for using multibeam sonar to map the flow velocity field of black smoker plumes. The method is used to obtain two-dimensional cross-sectional maps of vertical velocity, but is capable of mapping velocity in three dimensions. This is in contrast to conventional current meters, which measure only at several points and acoustic Doppler current profilers, whose diverging beams cannot readily map the interior of a plume. Geometric corrections are used to estimate the vertical component of velocity, compensating for ambient current. The method is demonstrated using data from the main plume at the Grotto vent complex in the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge, and the errors due to noise, signal fluctuations, and fluctuations in plume structure are estimated.

Jackson, Darrell R.; Jones, Christopher D.; Rona, Peter A.; Bemis, Karen G.

2003-11-01

30

Sonar images hydrothermal vents in seafloor observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal plumes venting from black smokers and diffuse flow discharging from the surrounding area of the seafloor are important as agents of transfer of heat, chemicals, and biological material from the crust into the ocean in quantitatively significant amounts [Elderfield and Schultz, 1996]. An unprecedented time series of three-dimensional (3-D) volume images of plumes rising tens of meters from black smoker vents and of concurrent 2-D maps of diffuse flow discharging from surrounding areas of the seafloor illuminates the turbulent behavior of hydrothermal fluid transfer into the ocean (see Figure 1).

Rona, Peter; Light, Russ

2011-05-01

31

Genetic and Pharmacokinetic Determinants of Response to Transdermal Nicotine in White, Black and Asian Non-Smokers  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to examine genetic, pharmacokinetic and demographic factors that influence sensitivity to nicotine in never smokers. Sixty never smokers, balanced for gender and race (Caucasian, Blacks and Asian), wore 7 mg nicotine skin patches for up to 8 hours. Serial plasma nicotine concentrations and subjective and cardiovascular effects were measured, and genetic variation in the CYP2A6 gene, the primary enzyme responsible for nicotine metabolism, was assessed. Nicotine toxicity requiring patch removal developed in 9 subjects and was strongly associated with rate of rise and peak concentrations of plasma nicotine. Toxicity, subjective and cardiovascular effects of nicotine were associated with the presence of reduced function CYP2A6 alleles, presumably reflecting slow nicotine metabolic inactivation. This study has implications for understanding individual differences in responses to nicotine medications, particularly when the latter are used for treating medical conditions in non-smokers, and possibly in vulnerability to developing nicotine dependence.

Dempsey, Delia A.; St Helen, Gideon; Jacob, Peyton; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Benowitz, Neal L.

2013-01-01

32

Light at deep sea hydrothermal vents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We usually think of the bottom of the sea as a dark environment, lit only by flashes of bioluminescent light. Discovery of light associated with geothermal processes at deep sea hydrothermal vents forces us to qualify our textbook descriptions of the seafloor as a uniformly dark environment. While a very dim glow emitted from high temperature (350°) vents (black smokers)

Cindy Lee Van Dover; J. R. Cann; Colleen Cavanaugh; Steven Chamberlain; John R. Delaney; David Janecky; Johannes Imhoff; J. Anthony Tyson

1994-01-01

33

Sediment in the black smoker area of the East Pacific Rise (18.5°S)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sediment profile perpendicular to the East Pacific Rise (EPR) was investigated in an area in which massive sulfides have been observed along the axis of the EPR. A Holocene to Late Pleistocene age is concluded for all of the up-to-3-m-long cores leading to sedimentation rates of 0.3-2.6 cm/1000 a. The sediments are composed of hydrothermal precipitate, calcareous tests and, in traces, hyaloclastic material. The proportion of carbonate increases with increasing distance from the spreading center. The hyaloclastic material is more or less weathered and is concentrated near the spreading center. The hydrothermal component is composed mainly of iron and manganese hydroxides. The proportion of hydrothermal matter in the sediment is higher near the axis of the EPR. Also near the axis, the elements B, P, Cr, and V are enriched in the hydrothermal component whereas Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe, and As are depleted. The core profiles show a fluctuation in the proportion of hydrothermal material. Periods of higher hydrothermal input correlate with periods of the best calcite preservation. Diagenetic alteration of the sediment increases with increasing distance from the spreading center, i.e. with decreasing sedimentation rate. Mo, Zr, Co, Ni, Rb, Th, Y, Ba, La, and REE are enriched in the sediment by diagenetic processes.

Marchig, Vesna; Erzinger, Jörg; Heinze, Peter-Matthias

1986-08-01

34

Submarine Hydrothermal Systems: Insights from 3D and Multiphase Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this talk we present some new insights into black smoker hydrothermal systems using a state-of-the-art finite element-finite volume fluid flow simulator, recently developed in our group at ETH. First of all, we present fully-transient multi-phase simulations of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems that include the full complexity of the H2O-NaCl phase diagram. A series of 2D simulations were performed to

D. Coumou; T. Driesner; P. Weis; C. A. Heinrich

2009-01-01

35

Geomicrobiological exploration and characterization of novel deep-sea hydrothermal activities accompanying with extremely acidic white smokers and elemental sulfur chimneys at the TOTO caldera in the Mariana Volcanic Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel hydrothermal activities accompanying effluent white smokers and elemental sulfur chimney structures at the northeast lava dome of the TOTO caldera depression in the Mariana Volcanic Arc were explored by the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. The white smoker hydrothermal fluids were observed in the potential hydrothermal activity center of the field and represented a maximal temperature of 172 degree C and a lowest pH of 1.59, that was the lowest pH of the hydrothermal fluid ever recorded. The chimney structures consisting all of elemental sulfur (sulfur chimney) were also peculiar to the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field in the world. The geochemical characterization strongly suggested that the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field was a novel system driven by subseafloor mixing between the oxygenated seawater and the superheated volcanic gasses. Microbial community structures in a sulfur chimney structure and its formation hydrothermal fluid with a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (15 mM) were investigated by culture-dependent and _|independent analyses. Ribosomal rRNA gene clone analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that epsilon-Proteobacteria, specifically classified into Group G and Group B, dominated the microbial communities in the sulfur chimney structure and formed a dense microbial mat covering the sulfur chimney surface. Archaeal phylotypes were consistently minor components in the communities and related to the genera Thermococcus, Pyrodictium, Aeropyrum, and the uncultivated archaeal group of Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeotal Group. Cultivation analysis suggested that the microbial components inhabiting in the sulfur chimney structure might be entrained by hydrothermal fluids from the potential subsurface habitats

Takai, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Hirayama, H.; Kosaka, A.; Tsunogai, U.; Gamo, T.; Nealson, K. H.; Horikoshi, K.

2004-12-01

36

Visual Observations and Geologic Settings of the Newly-Discovered Black Smoker Vent Sites Across the Galapagos Ridge-Hotspot Intersection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly one-fifth of the global mid-ocean ridge is hotspot-affected, yet very little is known about how hotspots affect quantity and distribution of high-temperature hydrothermal vents along the ridge. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, acoustic and plume sensor surveys were conducted across the Galapagos ridge- hotspot intersection, lon. 94.5ºW- lon. 89.5ºW, to map fine scale geologic features and locate hydrothermal plumes emanating from the ridge crest. Where significant plumes were detected, the Medea fiber-optic camera sled was used successfully to find and image high-temperature vents on the seafloor. With Medea we discovered and imaged the first active and recently extinct black smokers known along the entire Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC), and documented the geologic setting of these vents. The Medea survey imaged numerous inactive vents as well as 3 active high-temperature vent fields along the ridge at 94º 04.5'W (Navidad Site), 91º56.2'W (Iguanas Site) and 91º54.3'W (Pinguinos Site). Two recently extinct vent fields also were identified at 91º23.4'-23.7'W and 91º13.8'W. All of the high-temperature vent sites that we identified along the GSC are found above relatively shallow AMC reflectors and are located in the middle 20% of ridge segments. Without exception the vent sites are located along fissures atop constructional axial volcanic ridges (AVR's) composed of relatively young pillow basalts. In some cases, the vents were associated with collapses adjacent to the fissures. The fissures appear to be eruptive sources of the pillow lavas comprising the AVR's. Video images of the chimneys show mature, cylindrical structures, up to 14m high; little diffuse flow; few animals; and some worm casts and dead clam shells, suggesting prior habitation. We conclude that distribution of the vents is controlled by magmatic processes, (i.e., by locations of shallow AMC magma reservoirs and eruptive fissures above dike intrusions), and that there is surprising similarity in the settings of the vents and the apparent ages of the chimneys and lavas along ~400 n.m of the GSC spanning the Galapagos mantle plume.

Anderson, P.; Haymon, R.; MacDonald, K.; White, S.

2006-12-01

37

Metal sources of black smoker chimneys, Endeavour Segment Juan de Fuca Ridge: Pb isotope constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrothermal chimney sulfides and vent cap chimney samples from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge, a sediment-starving mid-ocean ridge, display Pb isotope compositions that are indistinguishable from the local basalt, indicating the primary Pb source of sulfides and hydrothermal fluids in Endeavour Segment is basalt. Mean while the relative large Pb isotope composition variation range when compared with other sediment-starving ridges and the anomaly Pb-Pb plot, indicating a sediment component contribution. Results of binary mixing models suggest that the sediment sources contribution is no more than 1%. Combining the Pb isotope data with the chemistry data of hydrothermal fluid within the Endeavour Segment, we suggested the sediment component may locate in the recharge zone, rather than high temperature reaction zone. In addition, the sediment component should have a lower 206Pb/204Pb inferred from the "BF" line which through the densest cluster of Pb isotope data. The lower 206Pb/204Pb sediment component may have a common provenance with that of Middle Valley, providing a new insight on the evolution of the north end of the Juan de Fuca ridge.

Yao, H.-Q.; Zhou, H.-Y.; Peng, X.-T.; Wu, Z.-J.; Li, J.-T.; Bao, S.-X.

2009-04-01

38

Direct observation of the evolution of a seafloor 'black smoker' from vapor to brine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A single hydrothermal vent, 'F' vent, occurring on very young crust at 9??16.8???N, East Pacific Rise, was sampled in 1991 and 1994. In 1991, at the measured temperature of 388??C and seafloor pressure of 258 bar, the fluids from this vent were on the two-phase curve for seawater. These fluids were very low in chlorinity and other dissolved species, and high in gases compared to seawater and most sampled seafloor hydrothermal vent fluids. In 1994, when this vent was next sampled, it had cooled to 351??C and was venting fluids ???1.5 times seawater chlorinity. This is the first reported example of a single seafloor hydrothermal vent evolving from vapor to brine. The 1991 and 1994 fluids sampled from this vent are compositionally conjugate pairs to one another. These results support the hypothesis that vapor-phase fluids vent in the early period following a volcanic eruption, and that the liquid-phase brines are stored within the oceanic crust, and vent at a later time, in this case 3 years. These results demonstrate that the venting of brines can occur in the same location, in fact from the same sulfide edifice, where the vapor-phase fluids vented previously.

Von Damm, K. L.; Buttermore, L. G.; Oosting, S. E.; Bray, A. M.; Fornari, D. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Shanks, III, W. C.

1997-01-01

39

Discovery and Distribution of Black Smokers on the Western Galapagos Spreading Center: Implications for Spatial and Temporal Controls on High Temperature Venting at Ridge/Hotspot Intersections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though nearly one-fifth of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) lies on or near hotspots, it has been debated whether hotspots increase or decrease MOR hydrothermal flux, or affect vent biota. Despite hotspot enhancement of melt supply, high-temperature vent plumes are enigmatically sparse along two previously-surveyed ridge- hotspot intersections [Reykjanes Ridge (RR), Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR)]. This has been attributed to crustal thickening by excess volcanism. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, we conducted nested sonar, plume, and camera surveys along a 540 km-long portion of the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) where the ridge intersects the Galapagos hotspot at lon. 94.5 -89.5 deg. W. Although MOR hydrothermal springs were first found along the eastern GSC crest in 1977 near lon. 86 deg. W, the GalAPAGoS smokers are the first active high-temperature vents to be found anywhere along the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary. Active and/or recently-inactive smokers were located beneath plumes at 5 sites on the seafloor between lon. 91 deg. W and 94.5 deg. W (see Anderson et al., this session) during near-bottom, real-time fiber-optic Medea camera surveys. Smokers occur along eruptive seafloor fissures atop axial volcanic ridges near the middles of ridge segments, mainly in areas underlain by relatively shallow, continuous axial magma chamber (AMC) seismic reflectors. These findings (1) support magmatic, rather than tectonic, control of GSC smoker distribution; (2) demonstrate that thick crust at MOR-hotspot intersections does not prevent high-temperature hydrothermal vents from forming; and, (3) appear to be inconsistent with models suggesting that enhanced hydrothermal cooling causes abrupt deepening of the AMC and transition from non-rifted to rifted GSC morphology near lon. 92.7 deg. W. The widely-spaced smoker sites located on different GSC segments exhibit remarkably similar characteristics and seafloor settings. Most sites are mature or extinct, and are on lava flows of visually-similar ages (estimated to be tens-to-hundreds of years old). Possibly a volcanic pulse may have activated the hotspot- affected western GSC, and powered contemporaneous hydrothermal vents that now are waning. It may be that hotspots produce episodes of near-synchronous, extensive ridge volcanism and hydrothermal activity, followed by periods of quiescence. This idea is consistent with: the episodic eruption histories of Hawaii and Iceland; variably anomalous hydrothermal plume incidence (low on RR, SEIR, GSC; high on Mid-Atlantic Ridge near Azores hotspot); models of episodic melt extraction from mantle plumes; and evidence for magma propagation along hotspot-influenced ridges. Our hypothesis potentially can be tested by studies of gene flow between animal communities located on either side of the Galapagos hotspot, and by dating of GSC hydrothermal chimneys and the lava flows on which they are constructed.

Haymon, R. M.; Anderson, P. G.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; White, S. M.; MacDonald, K. C.

2006-12-01

40

Hydrothermal exploration near the Azores Triple Junction: tectonic control of venting at slow-spreading ridges?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous acoustic imaging of the seafloor and detection of particle-rich plumes in the overlying water column have been used to identify and determine the tectonic setting of high-temperature ‘black smokerhydrothermal activity along 200 km of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 36° and 38°N. Using this approach, we have identified hydrothermal signals at 7 different locations. These results indicate a higher

C. R. German; L. M. Parson; H. Bougault; D. Coller; M. Critchley; A. Dapoigny; C. Day; D. Eardley; A. Fearn; C. Flewellen; R. Kirk; G. Klinkhammer; J.-Y. Landure; E. Ludford; M. Miranda; H. D. Needham; J. Patching; R. Pearce; H. Pelle; J. Radford-Knoery; I. Rouse; J. Scott; P. Stoffregen; P. Taylor; D. Teare; J. Wynar

1996-01-01

41

A new species of the shrimp genus Chorocaris (Decapoda: Caridea: Alvinocarididae) from hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chorocaris paulexa, new species, the first member of the genus Chorocaris Martin & Hessler, 1990 reported from the eastern Pacific, is de­ scribed based primarily on two specimens, one of which is ovigerous, collected by the DSV Alvin at the Homer hydrothermal (black smoker) vent site (17°S) on the southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR). Seven additional (non-type) speci­ mens from

Joel W. Martin; Timothy M. Shank

2005-01-01

42

Smoker's lung  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physicians can easily tell if you are a smoker by how your lungs look. Normal lungs are red or pink and fluid-looking. Smokers have blackened lungs that are drier than normal lungs. Tumors may develop from continued tobacco use-these appear as white masses.

John Hayman (None;)

2007-07-02

43

Submarine-hydrothermal exhalative ore layers in black shales from South China and associated fossils — insights into a Lower Cambrian facies and bio-evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early Cambrian (Tommotian) black shales in South China contain submarine-hydrothermal exhalative sulfide ore layers within an arc-parallel linear belt extending more than 1600km. Evidence for an Early Cambrian hydrothermal venting is given by the records of main and trace elements, rare earth elements (REE), sulfur isotopes and the petrological and geological investigations. Mass occurrences of arthropods, sponges and undetermined shelly

Michael Steiner; Eckart Wallis; Bernd-Dietrich Erdtmann; Yuanlong Zhao; Ruidong Yang

2001-01-01

44

Reactions of hydrothermal solutions with organic matter in Paleoproterozoic black shales at Talvivaara, Finland: Evidence from multiple sulfur isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopic studies of Archean-Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks older than 2.4 Ga have documented large mass-anomalous fractionations of sulfur isotopes (?33S=>0±0.2‰), while younger rocks record little to no anomalous fractionation of sulfur isotopes. This change from large anomalous fractionations to sulfur isotope values that fall on the terrestrial fractionation line has been proposed to represent the transition from an essentially anoxic Archean atmosphere to an oxygenated atmosphere. Here we present ?34S and ?33S data for 28 core samples from Paleoproterozoic (2.1-1.9 Ga) metamorphosed black shales and associated sulfide ores in eastern Finland. Previous ?34S of studies of the Talvivaara and Outokumpu deposits of eastern Finland focused on single-grain analyses of sulfides, while this study presents data from sequentially extracted sulfur fractions (e.g., acid-soluble sulfides, chrome-reducible sulfides, elemental sulfur). The sulfur isotope results range between +16.6 and -11.6‰ for ?34S, +8.6 and -6.0‰ for ?33S, and +1.25 and -0.55‰ for ?33S. The anomalously fractionated samples are not consistent with previous findings that large anomalous fractionations of sulfur isotopes are absent in sedimentary/metasedimentary rocks younger than 2.4 Ga. It is unlikely that Talvivaara sulfides are the products of ultraviolet photolysis of volcanic SO2 in an oxygen-poor atmosphere. Alternatively, these sulfides could in part be the products of diagenetic reactions between sediments enriched in organic matter (Corg) and hydrothermal solutions rich in sulfate (i.e., thermochemical sulfate reduction). Laboratory experiments on thermochemical sulfate-reduction have shown that mass-anomalous fractionations of sulfur isotopes can be recorded in reduced-sulfur products from reactions between simple amino acids and sulfate at 150-300 °C. A thermochemical sulfate-reduction pathway for the mass-anomalous signatures in Talvivaara samples is consistent with previous genetic models proposed for the origin of the sulfur- and organic carbon-rich black shales (now schists) associated with the Talvivaara and Outokumpu ore deposits. At Talvivaara metalliferous black shales apparently were deposited under an anoxic to sulfidic marine water column. The reported multiple sulfur-isotopic data are key geological evidence for mass-anomalous fractionations of sulfur isotopes during hydrothermal alteration of fine-grained organic-rich sediments. Approximately 20% of samples in this study show large offsets in ?33S values between different extracted sulfur fractions from the same sample, which can be explained by classical isotope effects associated with the formation of hydrothermal alteration products that predominantly are retained within the precursor fine-grained organic-rich units.

Young, Seth A.; Loukola-Ruskeeniemi, Kirsti; Pratt, Lisa M.

2013-04-01

45

Volcanic and Hydrothermal Activity of the North Su Volcano: New Insights from Repeated Bathymetric Surveys and ROV Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bathymetric data from cruises in 2002, 2006, and 2011 were combined and compared to determine the evolution of volcanic activity, seafloor structures, erosional features and to identify and document the distribution of hydrothermal vents on North Su volcano, SuSu Knolls, eastern Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea). Geologic mapping based on ROV observations from 2006 (WHOI Jason-2) and 2011 (MARUM Quest-4000) combined with repeated bathymetric surveys from 2002 and 2011 are used to identify morphologic features on the slopes of North Su and to track temporal changes. ROV MARUM Quest-4000 bathymetry was used to develop a 10 m grid of the top of North Su to precisely depict recent changes. In 2006, the south slope of North Su was steeply sloped and featured numerous white smoker vents discharging acid sulfate waters. These vents were covered by several tens of meters of sand- to gravel-sized volcanic material in 2011. The growth of this new cone changed the bathymetry of the south flank of North Su up to ~50 m and emplaced ~0.014 km3 of clastic volcanic material. This material is primarily comprised of fractured altered dacite and massive fresh dacite as well as crystals of opx, cpx, olivine and plagioclase. There is no evidence for pyroclastic fragmentation, so we hypothesize that the fragmentation is likely related to hydrothermal explosions. Hydrothermal activity varies over a short (~50 m) lateral distance from 'flashing' black smokers to acidic white smoker vents. Within 2 weeks of observation time in 2011, the white smoker vents varied markedly in activity suggesting a highly episodic hydrothermal system. Based on ROV video recordings, we identified steeply sloping (up to 30°) slopes exposing pillars and walls of hydrothermal cemented volcaniclastic material representing former fluid upflow zones. These features show that hydrothermal activity has increased slope stability as hydrothermal cementation has prevented slope collapse. Additionally, in some places, hydrothermal crusts cover loose volcaniclastic material on the steep slopes and stabilize them.

Thal, J.; Bach, W.; Tivey, M.; Yoerger, D.

2013-12-01

46

Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such determinations rely on studies of pieces of deep oceanic crust uplifted by tectonic forces such as along the Southwest Indian Ridge, or more complete sections of oceanic crust called ophiolite sequences which are presently exposed on continents owing to tectonic emplacement. Much of what is thought to happen in submarine hydrothermal systems is inferred from studies of ophiolite sequences, and especially from the better-exposed ophiolites in Oman, Cyprus and North America. The focus of much that follows is on a few general features: pressure, temperature, oxidation states, fluid composition and mineral alteration, because these features will control whether organic synthesis can occur in hydrothermal systems.

Shock, Everett L.

1992-01-01

47

Calcium Isotope Fractionation in Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present measurements of stable Ca isotopes (?44/40Ca) from hydrothermal fluids (Long Valley, California) and epidote from fossil hydrothermal systems (Troodos and Betts Cove ophiolites). Hydrothermal fluids in Long Valley show a progressive increase in the heavy isotopes of Ca (?44/40Ca +0.56‰ relative to the initial thermal fluid) with decreasing temperature, Ca concentration, Ca/Sr and CO2 concentration. The increase in the ?44/40Ca along the hydrothermal fluid flow path is potentially consistent with the precipitation of hydrothermal calcite (which would be isotopically lighter) or mixing between the thermal fluid and meteoric water. We favor the former explanation because non-linear relationships between CO2 concentrations and noble gasses suggest that decreasing CO2 concentrations are primarily due to reservoir degassing, which would likely drive calcite precipitation (e.g. Arnorsson cont. min. pet, 1978). Epidote mineral separates from the Betts Cove (Newfoundland, early Ordovician) and Troodos (Cyprus, Cretaceous) ophiolites are isotopically light relative to bulk silicate earth (?44/40Ca ranges from -0.7 to 0.0‰). The epidote ?44/40Ca is not correlated with calculated fluid temperatures or 87Sr/86Sr measured in the epidote but is negatively correlated with the epidote Sr/Ca. Black smoker fluids, which are thought to be related to epidote formation in ophiolites, have ?44/40Ca of about 0-0.2‰, meaning that epidote Ca is consistently lighter than the inferred fluids from which they precipitate (Amini et al, GCA, 2008). To explain the complimentary Long Valley hydrothermal fluid and fossil epidote data there must be a mechanism for fractionating Ca isotopes at hydrothermal temperatures. Equilibrium fractionation of Ca isotopes should be close to 0‰ at high temperatures (100-400°C), implying that any Ca isotopic fractionation between fluid and hydrothermal minerals is likely a kinetic effect. Experimental data suggest that, for example, epidote equilibrium dissolution rates are about 0.3um/y (Wood and Walther, Science, 1983) while observations of epidote growth rates in geothermal systems are 73 um/y (Browne et al, Am Min, 1989). DePaolo (2009 Goldschmidt abstract) calculated that kinetic isotope fractionation between fluids and minerals should occur if net precipitation rates are greater than the equilibrium dissolution rate. If the estimates for dissolution and net precipitation rates for epidote are representative of most hydrothermal systems then epidote Ca should commonly have ?44/40Ca lighter than the associated fluid. Ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids should be slightly enriched in the heavy isotopes of Ca compared to oceanic crust as recently observed (Amini et al, GCA, 2008).

Brown, S. T.; Depaolo, D. J.; Turchyn, A. V.; Kennedy, B. M.; Alt, J.; Bedard, J. H.; Skulski, T.

2009-12-01

48

Hyperactive hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau basin revealed by ROV dives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dives with the QUEST 4000 ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) in September 2012 discovered nine hydrothermal sites in the arc and rear-arc region of the NE Lau Basin in 1150 m to 2630 m depth. These sites, originally detected by water column and seafloor surveys conducted in 2008-2011, include: (1) a paired sulfur-rich/black smoker field on the summit of a tectonically deformed magmatic arc volcano (Niua), (2) fracture-controlled black smoker venting on several small en echelon seamounts (north Matas) that lie between the magmatic arc and the backarc spreading center and (3) a magmatic degassing site on the summit of a dacite cone within a large (~12 km diameter) caldera volcano (Niuatahi). Dives at West Mata Seamount, which was undergoing strombolian volcanic activity and effusive rift-zone eruptions from 2008 to 2010, revealed a dormant volcanic phase in September 2012, with continued low-temperature diffuse venting. The high-temperature venting is likely driven by magmatic heat indicative of underlying partial melt zones and/or melt pockets distributed through the region. The occurrence of the youngest known boninite eruptions on the Mata volcanoes is consistent with subduction fluid flux melting extending into the rear-arc zone. Extension related to the transition from subduction to strike-slip motion of the northern Tonga Arc over the active Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault probably contributes to the enhanced volcanism/hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau Basin. Chemosynthetic ecosystems at these sites range from mostly motile, lower diversity ecosystems at the eruptive/magmatically-degassing sites to higher diversity ecosystems with less mobile faunal components at the black-smoker systems. The wide range of fluid chemistry, water depth and geologic settings of the hydrothermal systems in this area provides an intriguing template to study the interaction of hydrothermal fluid chemistry, chemosynthetic habitats and their geologic underpinning within an arc/backarc setting.

Embley, R. W.; Resing, J. A.; Tebo, B.; Baker, E. T.; Butterfield, D. A.; Chadwick, B.; Davis, R.; de Ronde, C. E.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Merle, S. G.; Rubin, K. H.; Shank, T. M.; Walker, S. L.; Arculus, R. J.; Bobbitt, A. M.; Buck, N.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Crowhurst, P. V.; Mitchell, E.; Olson, E. J.; Ratmeyer, V.; Richards, S.; Roe, K. K.; Keener, P.; Maritnez-Lyons, A.; Sheehan, C.; Brian, R.

2013-12-01

49

Effects of anhydrite precipitation on hydrothermal convection patterns at fast-spreading ridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in hydrothermal modeling capabilities have revealed the key thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic controls on hydrothermal convection patterns and vent temperatures at oceanic spreading centers. The observed upper limit to black smoker vent temperatures of approx. 400°C can be explained by the thermodynamic properties of water (Jupp and Schultz, 2000). Likewise, 3D models of hydrothermal flow at fast-spreading ridges show cylindrical upwellings with adjacent warm recharge flow (Coumou et al., 2008). This close relation between dis- and recharge flow implies that hydrothermal convection cells have a relatively short wavelength (~500m), which is difficult to reconcile with ideas on elongated along-axis convection cells proposed for the East Pacific Rise (Tolstoy et al., 2008) and with the irregular spacing of hydrothermal sites along ridge segments. One possible additional process controlling the spacing/wavelength of hydrothermal convection cells may be chemical precipitation reactions. A key reaction in hydrothermal systems is the precipitation of anhydrite. In recharge zones, heating of 1 kg of seawater to approx. 350°C results in the precipitation of roughly 1.4 g of anhydrite, which is buffered by the amount of calcium dissolved in seawater. More significant may be the precipitation of anhydrate when calcium-rich hydrothermal fluids mix with sulfate rich seawater. A consequence of anhydrite precipitation is the progressive clogging of pore space, which in turn affects permeability and thereby hydrothermal flow. We have implemented the above processes into 2D and 3D hydrothermal flow models and will present first results of how chemical reactions can affect hydrothermal flow patterns at fast-spreading ridges.

Ruepke, Lars; Hasenclever, Joerg

2014-05-01

50

Light at deep sea hydrothermal vents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We usually think of the bottom of the sea as a dark environment, lit only by flashes of bioluminescent light. Discovery of light associated with geothermal processes at deep sea hydrothermal vents forces us to qualify our textbook descriptions of the seafloor as a uniformly dark environment. While a very dim glow emitted from high temperature (350°) vents (black smokers) at mid-oceanic ridge spreading centers has been documented [Van Dover et al, 1988], the source of this light and its role, if any, in the evolution and adaptation of photobiochemical processes have yet to be determined. Preliminary studies indicate that thermal radiation alone may account for the “glow” ]Smith and Delaney, 1989] and that a novel photoreceptor in shrimp-colonizing black smoker chimneys may detect this “glow” [Van Dover et al., 1989; Pelli and Chamberlain, 1989]. A more controversial question, posed by C. L. Van Dover, J. R. Cann, and J. R. Delaney at the 1993 LITE Workshop at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, is whether there may be sufficient light of appropriate wavelengths to support geothermally driven photosynthesis by microorganisms.

Van Dover, Cindy Lee; Cann, J. R.; Cavanaugh, Colleen; Chamberlain, Steven; Delaney, John R.; Janecky, David; Imhoff, Johannes; Tyson, J. Anthony

51

The visibility of 350 °C black-body radiation by the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata and man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eye of the 'eyeless' shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is unusual in having no image-forming optics and a high concentration of rhodopsin1. The shrimps swarm around 350 °C hydrothermal 'black smoker' vents in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge2. There is no other known source of visible light in the shrimp's environment. The spectral sensitivity of rhodopsin is well matched to typical spectra of

Denis G. Pelli; Steven C. Chamberlain

1989-01-01

52

Potential biomass in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first discovery of black smoker vents hosting chemosynthetic macrofaunal communities (Spiess et al., 1980), submarine hydrothermal systems and associated biota have attracted interest of many researchers (e.g., Humphris et al., 1995; Van Dover, 2000; Wilcock et al., 2004). In the past couple of decades, particular attention has been paid to chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms that sustain the hydrothermal vent-endemic animal communities as the primary producer. This type of microorganisms obtains energy from inorganic substances (e.g., sulfur, hydrogen, and methane) derived from hydrothermal vent fluids, and is often considered as an important modern analogue to the early ecosystems of the Earth as well as the extraterrestrial life in other planets and moons (e.g., Jannasch and Mottl, 1985; Nealson et al., 2005; Takai et al., 2006). Even today, however, the size of this type of chemosynthetic deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is largely unknown. Here, we present geophysical and geochemical constraints on potential biomass in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem. The estimation of the potential biomass in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is based on hydrothermal fluid flux calculated from heat flux (Elderfield and Schltz, 1996), maximum chemical energy available from metabolic reactions during mixing between hydrothermal vent fluids and seawater (McCollom, 2007), and maintenance energy requirements of the chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms (Hoehler, 2004). The result shows that the most of metabolic energy sustaining the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is produced by oxidation reaction of reduced sulfur, although some parts of the energy are derived from hydrogenotrophic and methanotrophic reactions. The overall total of the potential biomass in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is calculated to be much smaller than that in terrestrial ecosystems including terrestrial plants. The big difference in biomass between the chemosynthetic deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem and the photosynthetic terrestrial ecosystems could reflect the difference between energy fluxes from the Sun and the Earth's interior. Based on the result, it can be concluded that the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is quite minor (although interesting and important) component of the modern Earth's biosphere.

Nakamura, K.; Takai, K.

2012-12-01

53

Isolation of Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria from Black Smoker Plume Waters of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean  

PubMed Central

A strain of the aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was isolated from a deep-ocean hydrothermal vent plume environment. The in vivo absorption spectra of cells indicate the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into light-harvesting complex I and a reaction center. The general morphological and physiological characteristics of this new isolate are described.

Yurkov, Vladimir; Beatty, J. Thomas

1998-01-01

54

Contrasting evolution of hydrothermal fluids in the PACMANUS system, Manus Basin: The Sr and S isotope evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 193 investigated two sites of hydrothermal activity along the crest of the Pual Ridge in the eastern Manus Basin. A site of low-temperature diffuse venting, Snowcap (Site 1188), and a high-temperature black smoker site, Roman Ruins (Site 1189), were drilled to depths of 386 and 206 m below seafloor (mbsf), respectively. Although the two sites are <1000 m apart, the 87Sr/86Sr and ?34S signatures of anhydrite recovered at both sites are very different. The data suggest a complex interplay among hydrothermal fluid, magmatic fluid, and seawater during alteration and mineralization of the PACMANUS (Papua New Guinea Australia Canada Manus) system. These new results significantly expand the subsurface data on seafloor hydrothermal systems and may begin to explain the earliest processes of multistage mineralization and alteration history that typify ancient massive sulfide systems.

Roberts, S.; Bach, W.; Binns, R. A.; Vanko, D. A.; Yeats, C. J.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Blacklock, K.; Blusztajn, J. S.; Boyce, A. J.; Cooper, M. J.; Holland, N.; McDonald, B.

2003-09-01

55

Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges presents a multidisciplinary overview of the remarkable emerging diversity of hydrothermal systems on slow spreading ocean ridges in the Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic oceans. When hydrothermal systems were first found on the East Pacific Rise and other Pacific Ocean ridges beginning in the late 1970s, the community consensus held that the magma delivery rate of intermediate to fast spreading was necessary to support black smoker-type high-temperature systems and associated chemosynthetic ecosystems and polymetallic sulfide deposits. Contrary to that consensus, hydrothermal systems not only occur on slow spreading ocean ridges but, as reported in this volume, are generally larger, exhibit different chemosynthetic ecosystems, produce larger mineral deposits, and occur in a much greater diversity of geologic settings than those systems in the Pacific. The full diversity of hydrothermal systems on slow spreading ocean ridges, reflected in the contributions to this volume, is only now emerging and opens an exciting new frontier for ocean ridge exploration, including • Processes of heat and chemical transfer from the Earth's mantle and crust via slow spreading ocean ridges to the oceans • The major role of detachment faulting linking crust and mantle in hydrothermal circulation • Chemical reaction products of mantle involvement including serpentinization, natural hydrogen, abiotic methane, and hydrocarbon synthesis • Generation of large polymetallic sulfide deposits hosted in ocean crust and mantle • Chemosynthetic vent communities hosted in the diverse settings The readership for this volume will include schools, universities, government laboratories, and scientific societies in developed and developing nations, including over 150 nations that have ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

Rona, Peter A.; Devey, Colin W.; Dyment, Jérôme; Murton, Bramley J.

56

Hydrothermal Alteration in the PACMANUS Hydrothermal Field: Implications From Secondary Mineral Assemblages and Mineral Chemistry, OPD Leg 193  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leg 193 of the Ocean Drilling Program investigated the subsurface nature of the active PACMANUS hydrothermal field in the Manus backarc basin near Papua New Guinea. Drilling in different areas on the felsic neovolcanic Pual Ridge, including the high-temperature black smoker complex of Roman Ruins and the low-temperature Snowcap site with diffusive discharge yielded a complex alteration history with a regional primary alteration being overprinted by a secondary mineralogy. The intense hydrothermal alteration at both sites shows significant differences in the secondary mineralogy. At Roman Ruins, the upper 25 m of hydrothermally altered rocks are characterized by a rapid change from secondary cristobalite to quartz, implying a high temperature gradient. From 10 to 120 mbsf the clay mineralogy is dominated by illite and chlorite. The chlorite formation temperature calculated from oxygen isotope data lies at 250° C in 116 mbsf which is similar to the present fluid outflow temperatures of 240-250° C (Douville et al., 1999, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 627-643). Drilling in the Snowcap field recovered evidence for several stages of hydrothermal alteration. Between 50 and 150 mbsf, cristobalite and chlorite are the most abundant alteration minerals while hydrothermal pyrophyllite becomes abundant in some places At 67 mbsf, the isotopic composition of pyrophyllite gives a temperature for ist formation at 260° C whereas at 77 and 116 mbsf the pyrophyllite displays the highest temperatures of formation (>300° C). These temperatures are close to the maximum measured borehole temperatures of 313° C. The appearance of assemblages of chlorite, chlorite-vermiculite, chlorite-vermiculite-smectite and illite-smectite as well as the local development of corrensite below 150 mbsf suggests that the alteration at Snowcap may be more complex than that beneath Roman Ruins. Detailed geochemical studies of the authigenic clay mineral phases will provide further insights into the chemical changes due to hydrothermal alteration.

Lackschewitz, K. S.; Kummetz, M.; Kummetz, M.; Ackermand, D.; Botz, R.; Devey, C. W.; Singer, A.; Stoffers, P.

2001-12-01

57

Gases and helium isotopes in high temperature solutions sampled before and after ODP Leg 158 drilling at TAG Hydrothermal Field (26°N, MAR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal fluids were sampled for dissolved gases at TAG (26°N-MAR) during two Alvin dive series, in April-May 1993 and March 1995, respectively 17 months before and 4 months after Ocean Drilling Program Leg 158. Total gas volumes extracted from the 1993 and 1995 samples are of the same order of magnitude, even if some increase in H2S, CO2 and CH4 was noticeable in the 1995 samples. No significant difference was observed in helium concentration and helium isotopic ratio (³He/4He = 8.2 ±0.1 Ra). The CH4/³He ratio found in black smokers sampled in 1993 is around 9 × 106, close to ratio found in MAR basalts. In 1995, this ratio is around 4 times higher, due to the CH4 increase. The ?13C in CO2, measured on two black smokers sampled in 1993, is uniform at -8.4 to -8.8‰ (versus PDB), while a ?13C value of -13‰ is measured at a new site sampled in 1995, located 40 meters east of the main Black Smokers Complex (BSC). CH4/³He and 13C values both point to a mainly magmatic (abiogenic) origin of the carbon species in the system. Overall comparison of the 1993 and 1995 data suggests that the hydrothermal circulation is continuing through the basaltic layer carrying helium, CO2 and CH4 of magmatic origin, even if some thermogenic CH4 contribution seems likely in the 1995 samples collected in the new active area. We can speculate that the 1994 drilling may have modified the previously steady state hydrothermal circulation in the TAG mound and temporarily enhanced the hydrothermal circulation, by opening new pathways favouring transient input of CH4 rich fluids, before coming back to a new steady state.

Charlou, Jean L.; Donval, Jean P.; Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Dapoigny, Arnaud; Rona, Peter A.

58

Why do smokers quit?  

PubMed

Scarce information is available, particularly from Europe, on why smokers quit. We analyzed this issue in a large dataset of Italian ex-smokers. Six population-based surveys on smoking were annually conducted in 2005-2010 on a representative sample of the Italian adult population, which included more than 3000 participants each year. A specific question on the main reason for quitting smoking was answered by a total of 3075 ex-smokers (1936 men and 1139 women). Overall, 43.2% of ex-smokers mentioned a current health condition as the main reason to stop smoking, 31.9% stopped to avoid future health problems, 6.3% stopped because of pregnancy or child birth, 4.0% because of imposition by the partner/family, 3.7% because of a physician's recommendation, 3.0% because of the economic cost, 0.5% because of smoking bans, and 4.6% because of other reasons. Statistically significant differences in the motivation to quit smoking have been found according to sex, age, social class, and smoking history. The majority of ex-smokers quit because of tobacco-related health conditions. Only a minority of ex-smokers quit to avoid future illness. Physicians should be encouraged to assist smokers to quit. The current prices of cigarettes in Italy are not sufficiently high to discourage people from continuing smoking. PMID:22644233

Gallus, Silvano; Muttarak, Raya; Franchi, Matteo; Pacifici, Roberta; Colombo, Paolo; Boffetta, Paolo; Leon, Maria E; La Vecchia, Carlo

2013-01-01

59

Hydrothermal vent flow and turbulence measurements with acoustic scintillation instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustically derived measurements of hydrothermal vent flow and turbulence were obtained from the active black smoker Dante in the Main Endeavour vent field, using scintillation analysis from one-way transmissions. The scintillation transmitter and receiver array formed a 93 m acoustic path through the buoyant plume 20 m above the structure. The acoustic path was parallel to the valley sidewall where the M2 tidal currents are approximately aligned along ridge due to topographic steering by the valley walls and hence most of the plume displacement is expected to occur along the acoustic path. On one deployment, data were collected for 6.5 weeks and vertical velocities range from 0.1 to 0.2 m/s showing a strong dependence on the spring/neap tidal cycle. The refractive index fluctuations which can be paramaterized in terms of the root-mean-square temperature fluctuations also shows a strong tidal modulation during spring tide.

di Iorio, D.; Xu, G.

2009-12-01

60

Hydrothermal systems: A decade of discovery in slow spreading environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although much of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is unexplored, investigations this past decade show that it hosts a rich diversity of hydrothermal systems with fluid chemistries and biogeographic heterogeneity that span much greater compositional ranges than those within intermediate and fast spreading mid-ocean ridge systems. Extreme attenuation of the crust and formation of detachment faults are now known to be key to this diversity, resulting in three classes of hydrothermal systems. Type 1 systems host high-temperature, black smokers driven by heat extracted from cooling magma and/or proximal gabbroic crust. Acidic vent fluids are enriched in magmatically derived carbon dioxide, with variable concentrations of methane, hydrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. Type II fields host black smokers driven by cooling of variable mixtures of gabbroic and ultramafic material. Fluids are enriched in carbon dioxide, reflecting the magmatic-gabbroic influence, but they also contain elevated concentrations of methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons: hallmarks of serpentinization reactions. Type III systems are low-temperature, peridotite-hosted environments where fluid circulation is driven predominantly by cooling of mantle material. Carbon dioxide is absent, but fluids are enriched in methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons of abiogenic origin. There are now more than 225 endemic species inhabiting slow spreading ridges with full species diversity ranging from ˜30 to >100 species within a given site. The fundamental drivers of vent faunal community structure are considered to be a function of geologic setting, composition, and variability of the resulting vent fluid chemistry, differences in depth, life history strategies of individual species, and the great geographic distance typically separating vent sites on slow spreading ridges.

Kelley, Deborah S.; Shank, Timothy M.

61

Hydrothermal Vents in an Unusual Geotectonic Setting: the Kairei and Edmond Vent Fields, Central Indian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 25 years, field investigations along the global mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system have indicated that hydrothermal activity occurs in a range of geotectonic settings and is characterized by different styles of venting and mineralization. In March-May 2001, we conducted multidisciplinary investigations of two hydrothermally active areas on the Central Indian Ridge -- an intermediate-rate spreading system ( ~50-60 mm/yr). The Kairei vent field (about 25° 20'S) is located in the first segment north of the Rodriguez Triple Junction (RTJ) and was discovered by Japanese scientists in August 2000. The Edmond vent field (about 23° 53'S) is located two segments north of Kairei. Both vent fields occur at the northern ends of segments with very straight rift valley walls, in the vicinity of rounder plan-view basins at non-transform discontinuities. The Kairei vent field is located on a bench high on the stair-step eastern rift valley wall, nearly 7 km from the ridge axis, and at a depth range (2415-2460 m) ~1800 m shallower than the rift valley floor. Similarly, the Edmond vent field is located high on the eastern rift valley wall about 6 km from the adjacent rift axis at a depth range of 3290-3320 m. It is constructed on a small protrusion that extends south from the eastern rift wall and that forms the northeast corner of a ~60 m deep basin. The Kairei and Edmond vent fields are built on seafloor with a slope typically of 10-45° . High temperature venting at both sites is focused along a NW-SE trend (typically 100-120 m long and 80-90 m wide) and is likely fault-controlled. Both fields also include peripheral relict sulfide chimneys, old disaggregated sulfide structures, and massive sulfide talus, indicating that hydrothermal activity has been focused at these sites over long periods of time. Edmond is distinct from Kairei in its abundance of orange-brown, Fe-oxyhydroxide sediments that are several cm thick in depressions, and coat sulfide structures and talus. High-temperature venting at both sites is manifest as discrete clusters of large (up to 20 m tall, 2 m in diameter) chimneys with vigorous black smoker fluids emanating from multiple orifices, similar to the black smoker complex at the TAG hydrothermal field. Within and between the clusters at Edmond, smaller (up to 5 m high), branched structures ornament the seafloor and discharge black smoker fluids at slower flow rates. "Beehive" structures, similar to those at the Snake Pit hydrothermal field, are common at Edmond. Like many other MOR vent fields, diffuse flow is widespread at Edmond - unlike Kairei, where it is largely restricted to the flanks of the black smoker complexes. The location of the Kairei and Edmond vent fields high up on the walls of the rift valley is unusual. The only other known site in a similar setting is the Sea Cliff hydrothermal field on the Gorda Ridge. However, both Kairei and Edmond are noteworthy in being further away from the ridge axis (>6 km compared with ~2.5 km at Sea Cliff) and having higher temperature hydrothermal fluids (382° C compared with 305° C at Sea Cliff). Such high temperatures require a relatively shallow heat source, which raises important questions about the nature of both the heat source and the fault-controlled permeability structure of the rift valley walls.

Humphris, S. E.; Fornari, D. J.

2001-12-01

62

Hydrothermal Activity on the Mid-Cayman Rise: ROV Jason sampling and site characterization at the Von Damm and Piccard hydrothermal fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In January 2012 our multi-national and multi-disciplinary team conducted a series of 10 ROV Jason dives to conduct first detailed and systematic sampling of the Mid Cayman Rise hydrothermal systems at the Von Damm and Piccard hydrothermal fields. At Von Damm, hydrothermal venting is focused at and around a large conical structure that is approximately 120 m in diameter and rises at least 80m from the surrounding, largely sedimented seafloor. Clear fluids emitted from multiple sites around the flanks of the mound fall in the temperature range 110-130°C and fall on a common mixing line with hotter (>200°C) clear fluids emitted from an 8m tall spire at the summit which show clear evidence of ultramafic influence. Outcrop close to the vent-site is rare and the cone itself appear to consist of clay minerals derived from highly altered host rock. The dominant fauna at the summit of Von Damm are a new species of chemosynthetic shrimp but elsewhere the site also hosts two distinct species of chemosynthetic tube worm as well as at least one species of gastropod. The adjacent Piccard site, at ~5000m depth comprises 7 distinct sulfide mounds, 3 of which are currently active: Beebe Vents, Beebe Woods and Beebe Sea. Beebe Vents consists of 5 vigorous black smoker chimneys with maximum temperatures in the range 400-403°C while at Beebe Woods a more highly colonized thicket of up to 8m tall chimneys includes predominantly beehive diffusers with rare black smokers emitting fluids up to 353°C. Beebe Sea a diffuse site emitting fluids at 38°C Tmax, is the largest of the currently active mounds and immediately abuts a tall (8m) rift that strikes NE-SW bisecting the host Axial Volcanic Ridge. The fauna at Piccard are less diverse than at Von Damm and, predominantly, comprise the same species of MCR shrimp, a distinct gastropod species and abundant anemones.

German, C. R.

2012-12-01

63

Microbial Activity and Volatile Fluxes in Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding geographically and biologically the production or utilization of volatile chemical species such as CO2, CH4, and H2 is crucial not only for understanding hydrothermal processes but also for understanding life processes in the oceanic crust. To estimate the microbial effect on the transport of these volatiles, we consider a double-loop single pass model as shown in Figure 1 to estimate the mass fluxes shown. We then use a simple mixing formulation: C4Q4 = C3 (Q1 -Q3)+ C2Q2, where C2 is the concentration of the chemical in seawater, C3 is the average concentration of the chemical in high temperature focused flow, C4 is the expected concentration of the chemical as a result of mixing, and the relevant mass flows are as shown in Figure 1. Finally, we compare the calculated values of CO2, CH4, and H2 in diffuse flow fluids to those observed. The required data are available for both the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the East Pacific Rise 9°50' N systems. In both cases we find that, although individual diffuse flow sites have observed concentrations of some elements that are greater than average, the average concentration of these volatiles is smaller in all cases than the concentration that would be expected from simple mixing. This indicates that subsurface microbes are net utilizers of these chemical constituents at the Main Endeavour Field and at EPR 9°50' N on the vent field scale. Figure 1. Schematic of a 'double-loop' single-pass model above a convecting, crystallizing, replenished AMC (not to scale). Heat transfer from the vigorously convecting, cooling, and replenished AMC across the conductive boundary layer ? drives the overlying hydrothermal system. The deep circulation represented by mass flux Q1 and black smoker temperature T3 induces shallow circulation noted by Q2. Some black smoker fluid mixes with seawater resulting in diffuse discharge Q4, T4, while the direct black smoker mass flux with temperature T3 is reduced from Q1 to Q3. Heat output, vent temperature, and geochemical data allow estimates of the various mass fluxes. [Lowell et al., G-cubed 2013].

Corrigan, R. S.; Lowell, R. P.

2013-12-01

64

Adolescents' value images of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers.  

PubMed

Adolescents' value images of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers were investigated in a study of high school graduates. Overall, smokers were seen as being concerned with values related to personal enjoyment and autonomy. In contrast, nonsmokers were perceived as being more conventional, and more concerned with religious, interpersonal, and family values. Images of ex-smokers usually were intermediate, but resembled those of nonsmokers somewhat more than those of smokers. Interestingly, ex-smokers were perceived to place more importance on values relating to accomplishment and self-control than were either smokers or nonsmokers. In general, the value images were consistent among respondents who themselves were smokers, potential smokers, or nonsmokers. However, for a few values smokers and potential smokers had a more favorable image of smokers than did nonsmokers. Interestingly, males and females generally did not differ in their images of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers. Suggestions for prevention of adolescent smoking based on the value images are discussed. PMID:2316415

Grube, J W; Rokeach, M; Getzlaf, S B

1990-01-01

65

Hydrothermal Processing  

SciTech Connect

This chapter is a contribution to a book on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass being edited by Prof. Robert Brown of Iowa State University. It describes both hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal gasification of biomass to fuels.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2011-03-11

66

Propidium Monoazide-based Method for Identifying Phylogenetic Association of Necromass Near Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black Smoker hydrothermal systems are geologically driven systems located near subduction zones and spreading centers associated with plate margins. The high temperature and low pH of fluids that are often associated with basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems select for unique microbial communities primarily comprised of prokaryotes capable of S and Fe cycling. High temperature fluids, where temperatures exceed 300° C, are likely to have a lethal effect on transient deep water planktonic communities and, over long temporal scales, may influence the molecular composition of pelleted necromass aggregates near the chimney system. We have developed a method for discriminative sequencing permitting intra vs. extracellular 16S rDNA sequencing to reveal community differences between biologically-relevant and necromass-associated DNA. This method has only recently been applied to marine environments and, here, we propose its use as relevant tool for studying the molecular ecology of high temperature hydrothermal systems, as physical drivers of massive transient community die offs and associated detrital 16S rDNA community shifts. Ultimately, we aim to understand the fraction of 16S rDNA communities that do not represent living taxa, or the information-containing fraction of total necromass pool, to better frame ecological hypotheses regarding environmental biogeochemical cycling in hydrothermal system environments.

Ramírez, Gustavo; Edwards, Katrina

2014-05-01

67

Discovery of hydrothermal plumes at the Rodoriguez segment, Mid-Indian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical surveys for the Rodriguez Segment of the Central Indian Ridge have been quite few so far. One of the principal objectives of this cruise is to locate hydrothermally active sites along the plate spreading center of the segments 15 and 16 of the Central Indian Ridge. We conducted water column observations using a CTDT (a package of Conductivity, Temperature, Depth, and light transmission sensors) + CMS (Carousel Multi-Sampling system) attached with an in situ Mn analyzer GAMOS (Okamura et al., 2001) in order to detect any anomalies due to hydrothermal plumes. Summary of some highlighted results: (1) Two typical hydrothermal active stations have been recognized; one is located east of East Brigitte Protrusion in the Roger Plateau (on the segment 15), and the other is close to Beak Rocks on the Great Dodo Lava Plain (on the segment 16). (2) Both sites are characterized by light transmission (LT) anomalies of ˜0.2 % at maximum, suggesting the existence of black (or white) smoker activity. (3) While the DMn(nM)/DLT(%) at the former station is ˜100, in a similar trend as that observed during KH-93-3 cruise (Kairei Field), the ratio at the latter station is only 10, an order of magnitude lower than that at station 20. There may be a significant difference in hydrothermal fluid chemistry at these two locations.

Okamura, K.; Gamo, T.; Kiyota, K.; Kawagucci, S.; Connelly, D.; Boulart, C.; Poonyth, A.; Ura, T.; Sakamaki, T.; Nagahashi, K.; Tamaki, K.

2007-12-01

68

Measures of impulsivity in cigarette smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Drug users are thought to be more ”impulsive” than non-users. Objectives: This study examined whether regular smokers are more impulsive than never smokers using personality and behavioral measures\\u000a of impulsivity. Methods: Twenty regular smokers (?15 cigarettes\\/day) and 20 never smokers were recruited. Participants completed five personality\\u000a questionnaires to assess impulsivity: Adjective Checklist, Barratt’s Impulsivity Scale, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire,

Suzanne H. Mitchell

1999-01-01

69

Do Smokers Underestimate Risks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a national survey of 3,119 individuals to examine the effect of lung cancer risk perceptions on smoking activity. Both smokers and nonsmokers greatly overestimated the lung cancer risk of cigarette smoking, and the extent of the overestimation is much greater than the extent of underestimation. These risk perceptions in turn significantly reduce the probability of smoking, as

W. Kip Viscusi

1990-01-01

70

Former Cigarette Smokers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2000, 67 percent of those aged 12 or older (over 148 million persons) in the United States reported any cigarette use during their lifetime. Among smokers of at least 100 cigarettes, 42 percent reported not smoking during the past year. Males who smoke...

2002-01-01

71

Microbial mediated formation of low-temperature hydrothermal barite chimneys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-temperature (20 degrees C) venting area with numerous active and extinct barite chimneys (up to 1 m tall) are located on the eastern flank of the hydrothermal mound of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the Mohns-Knipovich bend of the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. The active barite chimneys are covered by white mats containing abundant microbial cells and extracellular material with attached barite crystals. Within the chimneys microbial cells are partly embedded in barite and crystals are covered by extracellular material. These observations indicate that the microbial material serve as a substrate for nucleation and precipitation of barite with the potential of having an important control on the construction of the chimneys. In addition, the presence of framboidal pyrite in black interior flow channels and in the underlying hydrothermal sediment further suggests that the chimney formation is linked to microbial sulphate reduction (MSR). To further investigate the relationship between chimney growth and microbial activity we used a combination of biomolecular and isotope analyses. Pyrosequencing of PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA followed by taxonomic classification revealed that sulphide oxidizers (Sulfurimonas) within the Epsilonproteobacteria dominate the microbial mats and the white barite of the chimney wall. In the black interior flow channel a more diverse microbial community was observed indicating methane, sulphur and ammonia oxidation as well as heterotrophic processes. Multiple isotope analyses (?18O, ?34S, ?33S) reveal that the barite chimneys precipitated from a fluid that was modified by subseafloor MSR in the sulphide mound. This is supported by the sulphur isotope signature of the framboidal pyrite, pore water, and mono- and disulphides extracted from the hydrothermal sediment as well as the biomolecular data. We suggest that the MSR was triggered by mixing of the H2 and CH4 rich high-temperature (320 degrees C) fluids and percolating seawater, which resulted in remobilization of hydrothermal barite deposited as debris and plume fall out in the mound. The combined results strongly suggest that the formation of the barite chimneys is a result of complex seafloor and subseafloor geobio-interactions.

Thorseth, I. H.; Steen, I. H.; Eickmann, B.; Dahle, H.; Baumberger, T.; Peters, M.; Strauss, H.; Pedersen, R. B.

2012-12-01

72

Estimate of heat flux and its temporal variation at the TAG hydrothermal mound, Mid-Atlantic Ridge 26°N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From August 1994 to March 1995, three 50-m-high vertical thermistor arrays designated "Giant Kelps" (GKs) were deployed around the central black smoker complex (CBC) at the TAG hydrothermal mound, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (26°08'N, 44°49'W). These were designed to monitor the temporal variability of the vertical temperature distribution in the hydrothermal plume. One small high-temperature probe "Hobo" was also deployed in one of the black smoker vents of CBC. Over the observation period, two typical characteristics are recognized in plume temperatures measured with GKs: (1) the amplitudes of temperature anomalies decrease with increasing height above the top of CBC; (2) maximum temperature anomalies on the upper thermistors occurred periodically and nearly simultaneously across the array about every 6 hours. Conversely, maximum temperature anomalies on the lower thermistors occurred periodically every 12 hours, indicating that the location of the plume discharged from CBC was forcibly moved by the change in direction of tidally modulated current flow. The heat flux from CBC was estimated from temperatures measured by GKs based on a model of buoyant hydrothermal fluid rising in a stable, stratified density environment. The estimated heat flux from CBC gradually decreases from about 86 to 55 MW over the ˜7 months of measurement, with a mean rate of decrease of 0.17 MW d-1. Since the black smoker effluent temperature measured with Hobo was almost stable over the measurement period, a plausible cause of the decrease is a reduction in the volume of hydrothermal fluid provided to the CBC (in which case the estimated mean rate of decrease in volume flux of CBC is 8.9 m3 d-1). Estimated heat flux, temperature anomalies observed by Hobo, and diffuse flow and subbottom temperature anomalies recorded by other long-term monitoring instruments before, during, and after ODP Leg 158 indicate that the drilling probably affected the fluid flow pattern within the mound but had little effect on the total heat flux from CBC.

Goto, Shusaku; Kinoshita, Masataka; Schultz, Adam; von Herzen, Richard P.

2003-09-01

73

Dispatch from the Deep: Hydrothermal Vent Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This dispatch from the research vessel Atlantis discusses how hydrothermal vents are formed and why scientists monitor minute temperature changes around them. It includes an account of preparing temperature probes to be deployed for a year-long study, an explanation of deep sea vents and their hydrothermal nature and an explanation of why deep sea vents seem to spew black smoke.

74

Discovery of a new hydrothermal vent based on an underwater, high-resolution geophysical survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new hydrothermal vent site in the Southern Mariana Trough has been discovered using acoustic and magnetic surveys conducted by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology's (JAMSTEC) autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), Urashima. The high-resolution magnetic survey, part of a near-bottom geophysical mapping around a previously known hydrothermal vent site, the Pika site, during the YK09-08 cruise in June-July 2009, found that a clear magnetization low extends ˜500 m north from the Pika site. Acoustic signals, suggesting hydrothermal plumes, and 10 m-scale chimney-like topographic highs were detected within this low magnetization zone by a 120 kHz side-scan sonar and a 400 kHz multibeam echo sounder. In order to confirm the seafloor sources of the geophysical signals, seafloor observations were carried out using the deep-sea manned submersible Shinkai 6500 during the YK 10-10 cruise in August 2010. This discovered a new hydrothermal vent site (12°55.30'N, 143°38.89'E; at a depth of 2922 m), which we have named the Urashima site. This hydrothermal vent site covers an area of approximately 300 m×300 m and consists of black and clear smoker chimneys, brownish-colored shimmering chimneys, and inactive chimneys. All of the fluids sampled from the Urashima and Pika sites have chlorinity greater than local ambient seawater, suggesting subseafloor phase separation or leaching from rocks in the hydrothermal reaction zone. End-member compositions of the Urashima and Pika fluids suggest that fluids from two different sources feed the two sites, even though they are located on the same knoll and separated by only ˜500 m. We demonstrate that investigations on hydrothermal vent sites located in close proximity to one another can provide important insights into subseafloor hydrothermal fluid flow, and also that, while such hydrothermal sites are difficult to detect by conventional plume survey methods, high-resolution underwater geophysical surveys provide an effective means.

Nakamura, Kentaro; Toki, Tomohiro; Mochizuki, Nobutatsu; Asada, Miho; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Nogi, Yoshifumi; Yoshikawa, Shuro; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Okino, Kyoko

2013-04-01

75

Hydrothermal Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly

C. R. German; K. L. von Damm

2003-01-01

76

Lung Cancer Risk Among Smokers of Menthol Cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Background Menthol cigarettes, preferred by African American smokers, have been conjectured to be harder to quit and to contribute to the excess lung cancer burden among black men in the Unites States. However, data showing an association between smoking menthol cigarettes and increased lung cancer risk compared with smoking nonmenthol cigarettes are limited. The Food and Drug Administration is currently considering whether to ban the sale of menthol cigarettes in the United States. Methods We conducted a prospective study among 85?806 racially diverse adults enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study during March 2002 to September 2009 according to cigarette smoking status, with smokers classified by preference for menthol vs nonmenthol cigarettes. Among 12?373 smokers who responded to a follow-up questionnaire, we compared rates of quitting between menthol and nonmenthol smokers. In a nested case–control analysis of 440 incident lung cancer case patients and 2213 matched control subjects, using logistic regression modeling we computed odds ratios (ORs) and accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer incidence, and applied Cox proportional hazards modeling to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of lung cancer mortality, according to menthol preference. Results Among both blacks and whites, menthol smokers reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day; an average of 1.6 (95% CI = 1.3 to 2.0) fewer for blacks and 1.8 (95% CI = 1.3 to 2.3) fewer for whites, compared with nonmenthol smokers. During an average of 4.3 years of follow-up, 21% of participants smoking at baseline had quit, with menthol and nonmenthol smokers having equal odds of quitting (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.89 to 1.16). A lower lung cancer incidence was noted in menthol vs nonmenthol smokers (for smokers of <10, 10–19, and ?20 cigarettes per day, compared with never smokers, OR = 5.0 vs 10.3, 8.7 vs 12.9, and 12.2 vs 21.1, respectively). These trends were mirrored for lung cancer mortality. In multivariable analyses adjusted for pack-years of smoking, menthol cigarettes were associated with a lower lung cancer incidence (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.90) and mortality (hazard ratio of mortality = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.95) than nonmenthol cigarettes. Conclusions The findings suggest that menthol cigarettes are no more, and perhaps less, harmful than nonmenthol cigarettes.

Cohen, Sarah S.; Aldrich, Melinda; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Signorello, Lisa B.

2011-01-01

77

Barite in hydrothermal environments as a recorder of subseafloor processes: a multiple-isotope study from the Loki's Castle vent field.  

PubMed

Barite chimneys are known to form in hydrothermal systems where barium-enriched fluids generated by leaching of the oceanic basement are discharged and react with seawater sulfate. They also form at cold seeps along continental margins, where marine (or pelagic) barite in the sediments is remobilized because of subseafloor microbial sulfate reduction. We test the possibility of using multiple sulfur isotopes (?(34) S, ?(33) S, ?(36) S) of barite to identify microbial sulfate reduction in a hydrothermal system. In addition to multiple sulfur isotopes, we present oxygen (?(18) O) and strontium ((87) Sr/(86) Sr) isotopes for one of numerous barite chimneys in a low-temperature (~20 °C) venting area of the Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultraslow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). The chemistry of the venting fluids in the barite field identifies a contribution of at least 10% of high-temperature black smoker fluid, which is corroborated by (87) Sr/(86) Sr ratios in the barite chimney that are less radiogenic than in seawater. In contrast, oxygen and multiple sulfur isotopes indicate that the fluid from which the barite precipitated contained residual sulfate that was affected by microbial sulfate reduction. A sulfate reduction zone at this site is further supported by the multiple sulfur isotopic composition of framboidal pyrite in the flow channel of the barite chimney and in the hydrothermal sediments in the barite field, as well as by low SO4 and elevated H2 S concentrations in the venting fluids compared with conservative mixing values. We suggest that the mixing of ascending H2 - and CH4 -rich high-temperature fluids with percolating seawater fuels microbial sulfate reduction, which is subsequently recorded by barite formed at the seafloor in areas where the flow rate is sufficient. Thus, low-temperature precipitates in hydrothermal systems are promising sites to explore the interactions between the geosphere and biosphere in order to evaluate the microbial impact on these systems. PMID:24725254

Eickmann, B; Thorseth, I H; Peters, M; Strauss, H; Bröcker, M; Pedersen, R B

2014-07-01

78

Methemoglobin levels in smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors analyzed the blood of a group of 336 smokers and 336 non-smokers to determine if tobacco smoke, potentially the major source of nitrogen oxide pollution for 40% of the adult population, significantly reduces oxygen carrying capacity as a result of methemoglobin formation. Each blood sample was analyzed for carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, and hemoglobin using an automated spectrophotometer. The mean

C. Borland; K. Harmes; N. Cracknell; D. Mack; T. Higenbottam

2009-01-01

79

Accuracy of smokers' risk perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to disagreements about the extent to which smokers recognize the full risk of smoking-induced illness, an attempt was made to review all articles that have investigated smokers' risk perceptions. These diverse studies are grouped here into four categories, depending on the type of risk judgment solicited by researchers. This grouping shows that the apparent underestimation or overestimation of

Neil D. Weinstein

1999-01-01

80

Direct Measurements of Hydrothermal Heat Output at Juan de Fuca Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat output and fluid flow are key parameters for characterizing seafloor hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers. In particular, they are essential for examining partition of heat and geochemical fluxes between discrete and diffuse flow components. Hydrothermal heat output also constrains permeability of young oceanic crust and thickness of the conductive boundary layer separating hydrothermal circulation from the underlying magmatic heat source. Over the past several years, we have deployed a number of relatively simple devices to make direct measurements of focused and diffuse flow. Most recently, we have used cup anemometer and turbine flow meters to measure fluid flow and heat flux at individual high-temperature vents and diffuse flow sites. The turbine flow meter (Figure 1) includes a titanium rotor assembly housed within a stainless steel tube and supported by sapphire bearings. The device can be used at different seafloor settings for measurements of both diffuse and focused flow. The spin of the rotor blades is videotaped to acquire the angular velocity, which is a function of the flow rate determined through calibration. We report data obtained during four cruises to the Main Endeavor and High Rise vent fields, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR), between 2007 and 2009. Overall more than 50 successful measurements of heat flow have been made on a variety of high-, medium-, and low-temperature hydrothermal sites on the Endeavor, Mothra, and High Rise structures. For example, the velocity of diffuse flow at Endeavor ranged from ~1 to ~10 cm/sec. The flow velocity from black smokers varied from ~10 cm/sec to ~1 m/sec, which appears to be similar to EPR 9°N. Typical measurements of heat flux obtained at JdFR ranged from ~1 kW for diffuse flow to ~1 MW for black smokers. Although it is difficult to extrapolate the data and obtain the integrated heat output for a vent field on JdFR, the data are used to characterize the heat fluxes from individual vent structures such as Hulk, Dante, and Godzilla. Figure 1. Turbine flow meter deployed on Fairy Castle structure at the High Rise vent field (6-26-09, Alvin dive 4526).

Germanovich, L. N.; di Iorio, D.; Genc, G.; Hurt, R. S.; Lowell, R. P.; Holden, J. F.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.

2009-12-01

81

Diffuse versus discrete venting at the Tour Eiffel vent site, Lucky Strike hydrothermal field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two styles of fluid flow at the seafloor are widely recognized: (1) localized outflows of high temperature (>300°C) fluids, often black or grey color in color (“black smokers”) and (2) diffuse, lower temperature (<100°C), fluids typically transparent and which escape through fractures, porous rock, and sediment. The partitioning of heat flux between these two types of hydrothermal venting is debated and estimates of the proportion of heat carried by diffuse flow at ridge axes range from 20% to 90% of the total axial heat flux. Here, we attempt to improve estimates of this partitioning by carefully characterizing the heat fluxes carried by diffuse and discrete flows at a single vent site, Tour Eiffel in the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Fluid temperature and video data were acquired during the recent Bathyluck’09 cruise to the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (September, 2009) by Victor aboard “Pourquoi Pas?” (IFREMER, France). Temperature measurements were made of fluid exiting discrete vents, of diffuse effluents immediately above the seafloor, and of vertical temperature gradients within discrete hydrothermal plumes. Video data allow us to calculate the fluid velocity field associated with these outflows: for diffuse fluids, Diffuse Flow Velocimetry tracks the displacement of refractive index anomalies through time; for individual hydrothermal plumes, Particle Image Velocimetry tracks eddies by cross-correlation of pixels intensities between subsequent images. Diffuse fluids exhibit temperatures of 8-60°C and fluid velocities of ~1-10 cm s-1. Discrete outflows at 204-300°C have velocities of ~1-2 m s-1. Combined fluid flow velocities, temperature measurements, and full image mosaics of the actively venting areas are used to estimate heat flux of both individual discrete vents and diffuse outflow. The total integrated heat flux and the partitioning between diffuse and discrete venting at Tour Eiffel, and its implications for the nature of hydrothermal activity across the Lucky Strike site are discussed along with the implications for crustal permeability, associated ecosystems, and mid-ocean ridge processes.

Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Escartin, J.; Gracias, N.; Olive, J. L.; Barreyre, T.; Davaille, A. B.; Cannat, M.

2010-12-01

82

Transfer and partitioning of energy and mass through seafloor hydrothermal systems: comparative studies at the Ridge2000 Integrated Study Sites (ISS) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seafloor hydrothermal systems are major players in the transfer of mass and energy from the mantle and crust to the ocean and biosphere. Over the past thirty years, much has been learned about this transfer to the ocean, but considerably less is known about the transfer to the biosphere. Study of hydrothermal systems in a diverse range of geologic settings has shown relationships between spreading rate and hydrothermal heat flux, substrate composition (including rock geochemistry, presence/absence of sediment) and hydrothermal fluid composition, and magmatic/tectonic events and temporal variability of fluid composition (e.g., German and Von Damm, Treatise On Geochemistry, 2004; Baker et al. AGU Monograph Series 91, 1995). Studies in arc and back-arc settings are documenting the effects of magmatic acid volatiles on fluid-rock reaction and fluid and vent deposit compositions (e.g., Ishibashi and Urabe, Backarc Basins: Tectonics and Magmatism, 1995). These comparative studies in a wide range of geologic settings, including at the three Ridge2000 ISS, have provided a fairly good understanding of the flux of heat and many elements to the ocean associated with high temperature seafloor hydrothermal systems. Considerably less is known, however, about the partitioning of heat and mass (particularly metals and sulfur) in hydrothermal systems. The deposits that form at vent sites are intimately linked within paths of energy and mass transport from the mantle and crust to the oceans. Transport differs greatly through different types of deposits (e.g., black smokers, white smokers/diffusers, flanges). Estimates of heat flux from measured temperatures of flow (unless integrated over and around an entire vent field) require an understanding of the partitioning of flow between focused black smokers and more diffuse flow from diffusers, flanges, and surfaces of deposits, and from the igneous substrate. Estimates of mass flux into the ocean require an understanding of the temperature-composition paths taken by fluids, and the extent to which some elements (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn, Ba, S) are partitioned between deposits and plumes. Precipitation efficiency differs depending on the vigor of venting and fluid composition (e.g., pH), which (in part) determines the prevalence of black smoker activity versus flow through diffusers and flanges (e.g., review in Tivey, Oceanography, 2007). Quantification of this partitioning is further complicated by apparent differences in ages of accumulated deposits in different vent fields. An unknown at many vent fields is the length of time and duration of activity responsible for forming the existing deposits, and the extent to which large size is a result of efficient precipitation versus time. For biota, the different styles of fluid flow through the substrate and different parts of deposits affect thermal and chemical environments in plumes, as well as on, and just inside, deposit exteriors. As with our understanding of mass and energy transfer to the ocean, we can make significant advances in our understanding of this partitioning of energy and mass through comparative studies of hydrothermal systems in a diverse range of geologic settings (e.g., at the three Ridge2000 ISS).

Tivey, M. K.

2010-12-01

83

A cross-sectional analysis of candidate biomarkers of biological effect in smokers, never-smokers and ex-smokers.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Biomarkers of biological effect (BOBE) have been proposed as potential tools to assess tobacco product use, toxicity and disease risk. Objective: To determine if candidate BOBE can distinguish between smokers, never-smokers and former smokers. Methods: Biomarker levels were compared from 143 smokers, 61 never-smokers and 61 ex-smokers. Results: In total, 27 candidate biomarkers were assessed, 14 were significantly different between smokers and never-smokers (p?smokers and former smokers (p?

Haswell, Linsey E; Papadopoulou, Ermioni; Newland, Nik; Shepperd, Christopher J; Lowe, Frazer J

2014-08-01

84

Culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial and archaeal communities of three deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR;\\u000a Rainbow, Logatchev and Broken Spur) were investigated using an integrated culture-dependent and independent approach. Comparative\\u000a molecular phylogenetic analyses, using the 16S rRNA gene and the deduced amino acid sequences of the alpha and beta subunits\\u000a of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes were

James W. Voordeckers; My H. Do; Michael Hügler; Vivian Ko; Stefan M. Sievert; Costantino Vetriani

2008-01-01

85

Geological context and vents morphology of the ultramafic-hosted Ashadze hydrothermal areas (Mid-Atlantic Ridge 13°N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent ROV dives and high-resolution bathymetric data acquired over the Ashadze fields on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (13°N) allow us to derive constraints on the regional and local geological setting of ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal fields. The active vent fields of Ashadze hydrothermal fields are located in the western axial valley wall, downslope from the termination of a prominent corrugated surface and in a transitional domain with respect to ridge segmentation. The study of the shipboard and ROV bathymetry shows that decameter (100 m by 60 m) to kilometer-scaled rockslides shape the axial valley wall slopes in this region. The Ashadze 1 vent field occurs on a coherent granular landslide rock mass that is elongated in an E-W direction. The Ashadze 1 vent field comprises hundreds of active and inactive sulfide chimneys. The Ashadze 2 vent field is located in a NNE-trending linear depression which separates outcrops of gabbros and serpentinized peridotites. Active black smokers in the Ashadze 2 field are located on ultramafic substratum in a 40-m diameter crater, 5-m deep. This crater recalls similar structures described at some vents of the Logatchev hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge 15°N). We discuss the mode of formation for these craters, as well as that for a breadcrust-like array of radial fissures identified at Ashadze 1. We propose that hydrothermalism at Ashadze can be an explosive phenomena associated with geyser-like explosions. Our study also constrains the geological and geophysical context of the ultramafic-hosted Ashadze hydrothermal system that may use the oceanic detachment fault as a preferred permeability conduit.

OndréAs, HéLèNe; Cannat, Mathilde; Fouquet, Yves; Normand, Alain

2012-11-01

86

Accuracy of smokers' risk perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to disagreements about the extent to which smokers recognize the full risk of smoking-induced illness, an attempt\\u000a was made to review all articles that have investigated smokers' risk perceptions. These diverse studies are grouped here into\\u000a four categories, depending on the type of risk judgment solicited by researchers. This grouping shows that the apparent underestimation\\u000a or overestimation of

Neil D. Weinstein

1998-01-01

87

Increased endogenous nitrosation in smokers.  

PubMed

Endogenous nitrosation of proline was investigated in smokers and nonsmokers. Volunteers consumed a volume of beetroot juice equivalent to 325 mg nitrate and, 1 h later, 500 mg proline. In separate experiments, volunteers ingested proline alone. Twenty-four-hour urines were collected and analysed for N-nitrosoproline. When proline was ingested alone, there was no significant difference in urinary N-nitrosoproline excretion between smokers and nonsmokers. When beetroot juice and proline were consumed, however, smokers produced approximately 2.5 times as much N-nitrosoproline as nonsmokers. Salivary nitrite levels of smokers and nonsmokers, both before and after consumption of beetroot juice, were not significantly different. Salivary thiocyanate levels were approximately 3.2. times higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. Our results suggest that the higher level of salivary thiocynate in smokers is responsible for the increased rate of endogenous nitrosation of proline in that group when compared with nonsmokers. Oxides of nitrogen in cigarette smoke do not appear to play a significant role. PMID:6533068

Ladd, K F; Archer, M C; Newmark, H L

1984-01-01

88

Modelling of hydrothermal fluid circulation in a heterogeneous medium: Application to the Rainbow Vent site (Mid-Atlantic-Ridge, 36°14N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal activity at the axis of mid-ocean ridges is a key driver for energy and matter transfer from the interior of the Earth to the ocean floor. At mid-ocean ridges, seawater penetrates through the permeable young crust, warms at depth and exchanges chemicals with the surrounding rocks. This hot fluid focuses and flows upwards, then is expelled from the crust at hydrothermal vent sites in the form of black or white smokers completed by diffusive emissions. We developed a new numerical tool in the Cast3M software framework to model such hydrothermal circulations. Thermodynamic properties of one-phase pure water were calculated from the IAPWS formulation. This new numerical tool was validated on several test cases of convection in closed-top and open-top boxes. Simulations of hydrothermal circulation in a homogeneous-permeability porous medium also gave results in good agreement with already published simulations. We used this new numerical tool to construct a geometric and physical model configuration of the Rainbow Vent site at 36°14'N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In this presentation, several configurations will be discussed, showing that high temperatures and high mass fluxes measured at the Rainbow site cannot be modelled with hydrothermal circulation in a homogeneous-permeability porous medium. We will show that these high values require the presence of a fault or a preferential pathway right below the venting site. We will propose and discuss a 2-D one-path model that allows us to simulate both high temperatures and high mass fluxes. This modelling of the hydrothermal circulation at the Rainbow site constitutes a first but necessary step to understand the origin of high concentrations of hydrogen issued from this ultramafic-hosted vent field.

Perez, F.; Mügler, C.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Charlou, J. L.

2012-04-01

89

Continuing Evolution of the Hydrothermal System at the RIDGE2000 ISS, 9-10° N EPR: 1991-2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been studying the evolution of the chemical composition of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal system on the East Pacific Rise from 9° 46-51'N since it was impacted by volcanic eruptions in 1991/2. We have been using the chemical and temperature data to infer the processes that are occurring subseafloor in the upper oceanic crust. As of March 2004, the chemical compositions of the vent fluids from this site have not yet stabilized. This observation is helping us to better understand not only the impact of magmatic events on these systems, but also the time scales on which they occur. Centered at the RIDGE2000 ISS "bull's-eye" at 9° 50'N we have noted a striking increase in the number of hydrothermal vents as well as in their measured fluid temperatures beginning after ~2000. In November 2003 we first noted the formation of a black smoker vent at the Tica site (measured T=342° C). In March 2004 we identified another new area of robust flow near the Bio9 vents at 9° 50'N, the 'Alvinellid Mat,' that we anticipate will form an additional black smoker to the three currently active at this site. In March 2004 we measured temperatures of 388° C in fluids from both the Bio9 and Bio9' smokers, putting them essentially on the two phase curve for seawater at this depth. For all of the Bio9 vents, as well as Tica, the fluids contain less than 300 mmoles/kg of Cl, approximately half the local seawater concentration. These high temperature and low Cl concentrations are accompanied by unusually low Si concentrations, <9.5 mmoles/kg. These data suggest a relatively shallow depth of reaction for the fluids, within a few hundred meters of the seafloor. These are the hottest temperatures measured in the Bio9 vents since the eruption in 1992. In contrast, the temperatures at P vent, about 60m south have cooled by ˜15° C since 2002. About 400m south, the chlorinity of the fluids from Ty and Io vents have increased, and Tube Worm Pillar, about 400m further south has become inactive. Therefore the changes in the vent fluids vary widely and often in opposite senses, over ˜1.5km of very hydrothermally active ridge. A more complete discussion of the changes and our interpretation of their implications for processes occurring subseafloor will be presented.

von Damm, K. L.; Parker, C. M.; Beers, K. A.; Hyde, A. A.

2004-12-01

90

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent Epsilonproteobacteria encode a conserved and widespread nitrate reduction pathway (Nap).  

PubMed

Despite the frequent isolation of nitrate-respiring Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents, the genes coding for the nitrate reduction pathway in these organisms have not been investigated in depth. In this study we have shown that the gene cluster coding for the periplasmic nitrate reductase complex (nap) is highly conserved in chemolithoautotrophic, nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Furthermore, we have shown that the napA gene is expressed in pure cultures of vent Epsilonproteobacteria and it is highly conserved in microbial communities collected from deep-sea vents characterized by different temperature and redox regimes. The diversity of nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria was found to be higher in moderate temperature, diffuse flow vents than in high temperature black smokers or in low temperatures, substrate-associated communities. As NapA has a high affinity for nitrate compared with the membrane-bound enzyme, its occurrence in vent Epsilonproteobacteria may represent an adaptation of these organisms to the low nitrate concentrations typically found in vent fluids. Taken together, our findings indicate that nitrate reduction is widespread in vent Epsilonproteobacteria and provide insight on alternative energy metabolism in vent microorganisms. The occurrence of the nap cluster in vent, commensal and pathogenic Epsilonproteobacteria suggests that the ability of these bacteria to respire nitrate is important in habitats as different as the deep-sea vents and the human body. PMID:24430487

Vetriani, Costantino; Voordeckers, James W; Crespo-Medina, Melitza; O'Brien, Charles E; Giovannelli, Donato; Lutz, Richard A

2014-07-01

91

Temperature variation records at diffuse and focused outflow in Lucky Strike hydrothermal field: toward a characterization of the outflow dynamic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal activity along mid-ocean ridges accounts for a large proportion of the Earth's heat loss, but the space-time variation of both heat and chemical fluxes of venting at individual sites remains largely unconstrained. As part of the MOMAR experiment to monitor hydrothermal activity, we used an ROV to deploy autonomous temperatures sensors at black smoker chimneys, cracks, and diffuse flow areas throughout the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, ~37°17'N) between summer 2009 and summer 2012. We deployed a set of high- and low-temperature thermal probes (<350°C and <125°C respectively) sampling at intervals that varied from <1 min to 24 min. Microseismicity and bottom pressure was also recorded with an ocean bottom seismometer network and a pressure gauge. We place particular emphasis on temporal variability at semi-diurnal tidal periods, and use poroelastic theory to constrain hydrologic parameters of the sub-surface circulation system. We identify two main types of temporal variability in the temperature records : (1) episodic variability with rapid temperature changes of ~5-150°C over time periods of few hours to several days, and (2) systematic variability at tidal periods with amplitudes ranging from a few tens of a degree to a few degrees, depending largely on mean outflow temperature. The episodic variability is stochastic (i.e., typically not correlated between mutitple probes among vents at the scale of the site), and does not appear to be correlated with local nor regional seismicity. The episodic events are observed primarily in diffuse flow records. The lack of spatial and temporal correlation of these events among probes, even at distances of <5 m within the same mound, suggests that they represent episodes of seawater mixing within the shallowmost crust underlying individual vents, or within the hydrothermal edifice itself. Most temperature records display systematic tide-related variability, with the strongest signal at the principal semidiurnal tidal periods (M2, S2, N2 and K2). Cross-spectral multi-taper methods applied to the temperature and bottom pressure records reveal robust phase relationships, particularly for the high-temperature, black-smoker records, as predicted by poroelastic theory (Jupp and Schultz, Wang and Davis, Crone and Wilcock). These results demonstrate the tidal pressures diffusely propagate through the porous matrix hosting sub-surface flow, which results in phase lags between the surface pressure and the fluid dischage temperature. We use this observation to constrain the poroelastic skin depth, bulk permeability, and vertical D'arcy flow velocity of the sub-surface regime at the Lucky Strike field.

Barreyre, T.; Escartin, J.; Sohn, R. A.; Cannat, M.; Ballu, V.

2012-12-01

92

Teens Who Prefer Menthols Are Heavier Smokers  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Teens Who Prefer Menthols Are Heavier Smokers: Study It's a fallacy that ... June 27, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Teens who use menthol cigarettes are heavier smokers than those who smoke ...

93

Discovery of hydrothermally active and extinct talc mounds on the Mid-Cayman Rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1977, hydrothermal vents have been the subject of intense scientific interest due to their role in cooling the oceanic crust and global geochemical cycles. Until now, two types of hydrothermal system have been identified: one, driven by magmatic heat extruding ';black smoker' fluids; and another, involving serpentinisation of ultramafic rocks and the precipitation of carbonate/brucite chimneys. Here, we present details of a new, off-axis type of hydrothermal system consisting of mounds of predominately botryoidal talc (a magnesium-silicate) with accessory silica and copper sulphides, and chimneys exhaling fluids of moderate temperature and pH. Discovered on the Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR) in 2010, the Von Damm Vent Field (VDVF) features a NNW-ESE-trending line of four overlapping cones, the largest of which is 75 m high by 150 m in diameter. The VDVF is hosted in the gabbroic footwall of the Mount Dent Oceanic Core Complex (MDOCC), which includes serpentinised peridotite at depth. The largest cone vents clear fluids from two main orifices at its summit, with primary temperatures of 215°C. Elsewhere, both focussed and diffuse flow areas emit fluids with temperatures of up to 150°C. The surrounding ~1 m thick pelagic sediment contains abundant pockmarks that emit methane-rich fluids at temperatures of less than 10°C. During the return to the MCR in early 2013, several other talc mounds were discovered within a kilometre of the active VDVF. These inactive mounds also comprise an assemblage of botryoidal talc, silica, disseminated sulphides (including chalcopyrite) and sulphates. One of these mounds (Mystic Mount) is double the volume of the active VDVF. The unique dominance of talc as the major mineral forming the hydrothermal structures indicates unusual vent fluid compositions that are able to carry both copper (at high-temperatures) and precipitate magnesium silicate. Thermodynamic modelling indicates that talc precipitates on mixing a moderately acidic, silica rich fluid (e.g. the primary VDVF fluids) with only 2% of seawater. At lower pH (e.g. typical ';black smoker' fluids), the ratio jumps to over 90% while at high pH (e.g. ';Lost City' fluids) brucite and carbonate dominate. Estimates using recently measured vent temperatures and fluid fluxes indicate a heat flux of ~800 MW for the active VDVF. Assuming the primary vent fluid has remained largely unchanged, the VDVF could have grown in under 1000 years and Mystic Mount in ~2000 years. Both the hydrothermal mounds and faults in the surrounding gabbro share a NNW-ESE orientation that is consistent with a brittle structural control imposed by the flexural curvature of the MDOCC in response to the uplift of the lower oceanic crust along a low-angle detachment fault. We propose that these flexural faults provide pathways for fluids to ingress deep into the MDOCC where they react with both mafic rocks (producing high-temperature, low pH, sulphide and copper-bearing fluids), peridotites and carbonates (increasing the pH) resulting in a moderate pH, silica-rich fluid that precipitates talc on mixing with seawater. The presence of further, inactive, talc mounds within 1 km of the VDVF indicates hydrothermal activity on OCCs has been widespread and represents a significant but hitherto overlooked mechanism of crustal heat loss and chemical interaction with the ocean at slow-spreading ridges.

Hodgkinson, M.; Murton, B. J.; Roberts, S.

2013-12-01

94

The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for Biogeography  

PubMed Central

Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than previously recognised.

Rogers, Alex D.; Tyler, Paul A.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jon T.; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D.; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A.; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearce, David A.; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; German, Christopher R.; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Alker, Belinda J.; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A.; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J. J.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D. K.; Roterman, Christopher N.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

2012-01-01

95

Retinal anatomy of Chorocaris chacei, a deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimp from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  

PubMed

Exploration of deep-sea hydrothermal vents over the past quarter century has revealed that they support unique and diverse biota. Despite the harsh nature of the environment, vents along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are dominated by large masses of highly motile Bresiliid shrimp. Until 1989, when it was discovered that the vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata possesses a hypertrophied dorsal eye, many believed that animals populating hydrothermal vents were blind. Chorocaris chacei (originally designated Rimicaris chacei) is a Bresiliid shrimp found at hydrothermal vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Like R. exoculata, C. chacei has a hypertrophied retina that appears to be specialized to detect the very small amount of light emitted from the orifices of black smoker hydrothermal vent chimneys. C. chacei lacks the sophisticated compound eyes common to other decapod crustaceans. Instead, it has a smooth cornea, with no dioptric apparatus, apposed by a tightly packed, massive array of photosensitive membrane. Photoreceptors in the C. chacei retina are segmented into a hypertrophied region that contains the photosensitive membrane and an atrophied cell body that is roughly ten times smaller in volume than the photosensitive segment. The microvillar photosensitive membrane is consistent in structure and ultrastructure with the rhabdoms of decapod and other invertebrate retinas. However, the volume density of photosensitive membrane (> or =60%) exceeds that typically observed in invertebrate retinas. The reflecting pigment cells commonly found in decapod retinas are represented in the form of a matrix of white diffusing cells that exhibit Tyndall scattering and form an axial sheath around the photoreceptors. All photoreceptor screening pigment granules and screening pigment cells are restricted to the region below the photoreceptor nuclei and are thereby removed from the path of incident light. No ultrastructural evidence of rhythmic cycling of photosensitive membrane was observed. The morphological adaptations observed in the C. chacei retina suggest that it is a high-sensitivity photodetector that is of functional significance to the animal. PMID:9302103

Lakin, R C; Jinks, R N; Battelle, B A; Herzog, E D; Kass, L; Renninger, G H; Chamberlain, S C

1997-09-01

96

The smoker’s paradox and the real risk of smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

No satisfactory explanations have been offered for the smokers paradox, the greater short-term survival of smokers after a myocardial infarction nor for the large variations in the coronary risk rate for smoking ranging between 1 and 5.9. These discrepancies as well as the smokers paradox may be caused by different baseline characteristics of smokers and nonsmokers, whereas the usually quoted

Friedebert Kunz; Christoph Pechlaner; Helmut Hörtnagl; Rudolf Pfister

2005-01-01

97

Temporal variability and tidal modulation of hydrothermal exit-fluid temperatures at the Lucky Strike deep-sea vent field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

deployed autonomous temperature sensors at black smoker chimneys, cracks, and diffuse flow areas at the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, ~37°17'N) between summer 2009 and summer 2012 and contemporaneously measured tidal pressures and currents as part of the long-term MoMAR experiment to monitor hydrothermal activity. We classify the temperature data according to the hydrogeologic setting of the measurement sites: a high-temperature regime (>190°C) representing discharge of essentially unmixed, primary hydrothermal fluids through chimneys, an intermediate-temperature regime (10-100°C) associated with mixing of primary fluids with cold pore fluids discharging through cracks, and a low-temperature regime (<10°C) associated with a thermal boundary layer forming over bacterial mats associated with diffuse outflow of warm fluids. Temperature records from all the regimes exhibit variations at semi-diurnal tidal periods, and cross-spectral analyses reveal that high-temperature discharge correlates to tidal pressure while low-temperature discharge correlates to tidal currents. Intermediate-temperature discharge exhibits a transitional behavior correlating to both tidal pressure and currents. Episodic perturbations, with transient temperature drops of up to ~150°C, which occur in the high-temperature and intermediate-temperature records, are not observed on multiple probes (including nearby probes at the same site), and they are not correlated with microearthquake activity, indicating that the perturbation mechanism is highly localized at the measurement sites within the hydrothermal structures. The average temperature at a given site may increase or decrease at annual time scales, but the average temperature of the hydrothermal field, as a whole, appears to be stable over our 3 year observation period.

Barreyre, Thibaut; Escartín, Javier; Sohn, Robert A.; Cannat, Mathilde; Ballu, Valérie; Crawford, Wayne C.

2014-04-01

98

Submarine Hydrothermal Systems: Insights from 3D and Multiphase Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk we present some new insights into black smoker hydrothermal systems using a state-of-the-art finite element-finite volume fluid flow simulator, recently developed in our group at ETH. First of all, we present fully-transient multi-phase simulations of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems that include the full complexity of the H2O-NaCl phase diagram. A series of 2D simulations were performed to study the influence of permeability and ocean depth on flow patterns and spatial and transient evolution of venting fluids. Although geometrically simple, our simulations accurately predict the range of salinities observed in natural systems. In addition, they reveal new dynamical features of the denser brine phase. In low-pressure systems at sim1500m water-depth, phase-separation occurs in boiling zones stretching from the bottom of the hydrothermal cell to the seafloor. Low-salinity vapors and high-salinity brines can vent simultaneously, and transient variations in vent-fluid salinities can be rapid. In high-pressure systems at roughly sim3500m water-depth, phase-separation occurs by brine condensation and is limited to the region close to the underlying magma chamber. Vent fluids consist of a low-salinity vapor mixed with a seawater-like fluid. Therefore, vent salinities from these systems are much more uniform in time and always below seawater salinity as long as phase-separation occurs in the subseafloor. Only by shutting down the heat source can, in the high pressure case, the brine be mined, resulting in larger than seawater salinities. These results are in good agreement with long-term observations from shallow and deep natural systems. Our results show that whether phase-separation occurs by boiling or by condensation is a first-order control on vent-fluid salinity, and especially its variation in space and time. Next to these 2D simulations, we present results from 3D simulations, which became computationally feasible by parallelizing the code. In 3D, convection self-organizes into pipe-like upflow surrounded by narrow and relatively warm downflow zones. We show that this configuration optimizes the heat output of the system. In this talk, we will present new results from simulations using different geologic structures, including a high-permeability axial plane, a highly permeable basaltic layer and mid-ocean ridge normal faults.

Coumou, D.; Driesner, T.; Weis, P.; Heinrich, C. A.

2009-04-01

99

Heterogeneity among smokers and non-smokers in attitudes and behaviour regarding smoking and smoking restrictions  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To determine if smokers and non-smokers cluster into meaningful, discrete subgroups with distinguishable attitudes and behaviours regarding smoking and smoking restrictions.?DESIGN—Qualitative research with 45 smokers guided development of questionnaire items applied in a population based telephone survey of 432 current smokers and 1332 non-smokers in Ontario, Canada.?METHODS—Cluster analysis of questionnaire items used to categorise adult smokers and non-smokers; comparison of clusters on sociodemographic characteristics and composite knowledge and attitude scores.?RESULTS—Smokers clustered in three groups. "Reluctant" smokers (16%) show more concern about other people discovering that they smoke, but parallel "easygoing" smokers (42%) in supporting restrictions on smoking and not smoking around others. "Adamant" smokers (42%) feel restrictions have gone too far, and are less likely to accommodate non-smokers. Significant gradients across categories in the expected direction were observed with respect to smoking status, stage of change, knowledge, and attitude scores, and predicted compliance with restrictions, validating the proposed typology. Non-smokers also clustered into three groups, of which the "adamant" non-smokers (45%) are the least favourably disposed to smoking. "Unempowered" non-smokers (34%) also oppose smoking, but tend not to act on it. "Laissez-faire" non-smokers (21%) are less opposed to smoking in both attitude and behaviour. A significant gradient across categories in the expected direction was observed with respect to composite scores regarding knowledge of the health effects of active and passive smoking and a composite score on support for restrictions on smoking in public places.?CONCLUSION—Recognition and consideration of the types of smokers and non-smokers in the population and their distinguishing characteristics could inform the development of tobacco control policies and programmes and suggest strategies to assist implementation.???Keywords: smokers; non-smokers; attitudes; smoking restrictions; typology; cluster

Poland, B.; Cohen, J.; Ashley, M.; Adlaf, E.; Ferrence, R.; Pederson, L.; Bull, S.; Raphael, D.

2000-01-01

100

First evidence for high-temperature off-axis venting of deep crustal/mantle heat: The Nibelungen hydrothermal field, southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During segment-scale studies of the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), 7-12° S, we found evidence in the water column for high-temperature hydrothermal activity, off-axis, east of Ascension Island. Extensive water column and seafloor work using both standard CTD and deep submergence AUV and ROV deployments led to the discovery and sampling of the "Drachenschlund" ("Dragon Throat") black smoker vent at 8°17.87' S/13°30.45' W in 2915 m water depth. The vent is flanked by several inactive chimney structures in a field we have named "Nibelungen". The site is located 6 km south of a non-transform offset between two adjacent 2nd-order ridge-segments and 9 km east of the presently-active, northward-propagating A2 ridge-segment, on a prominent outward-facing fault scarp. Both vent-fluid compositions and host-rock analyses show this site to be an ultramafic-hosted system, the first of its kind to be found on the southern MAR. The thermal output of this single vent, based on plume rise-height information, is estimated to be 60 ± 15 MW. This value is high for a single "black smoker" vent but small for an entire field. The tectonic setting and low He content of the vent fluids imply that high-temperature off-axis venting at "Drachenschlund" is driven not by magmatic processes, as at the majority of on-axis hydrothermal systems, but by residual heat "mined" from the deeper lithosphere. Whether this heat is being extracted from high-temperature mantle peridotites or deep crustal cumulates formed at the "duelling" non-transfrom offset is unclear, in either case the Drachenschlund vent provides the first direct observations of how cooling of deeper parts of the lithosphere, at least at slow-spreading ridges, may be occurring.

Melchert, B.; Devey, C. W.; German, C. R.; Lackschewitz, K. S.; Seifert, R.; Walter, M.; Mertens, C.; Yoerger, D. R.; Baker, E. T.; Paulick, H.; Nakamura, K.

2008-10-01

101

Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter from Deep-sea Floor Hydrothermal Vents in South Mariana Backarc Spreading Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In South Mariana Backarc Spreading Center, a few active hydrothermal fields are located. We investigated a characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from hydrothermal vents in this area, in order to clarify the biosphere beneath deep-sea floor. Hot water sample was collected from a drilled hole (APM01 located in Fryer site, 12o 55.22fN, 143o 37.16fE, depth 2850m) during the ROPOS/TN167A cruise in March 2004. The hole had been drilled during Hakurei-Maru 2 cruise in January 2004. Another hot water sample was collected from a natural black smoker located in Pika site (12o 55.15fN, 143o 36.96fE, depth 2773m) during YK03-09 cruise. In this investigation, we developed a standalone filtration system in order to collect and enrich dissolved organic matter of quite low concentration. This system was designed to be put near hydrothermal vents for at least 24h. This system has an ODS disk (EmporeTM High Performance Extraction Disk C18 90mm?) with a pre-filter (Whatman GMF 1 ?)m filter paper) to adsorb dilute organics. We collected DOM from the APM01 casing pipe for about 30h (Tmax = 25-30 o C, the estimated volume of filtrated water is max. 300L) using this filtration system. Adsorbed organics were eluted with methanol for 12h twice and toluene once using soxhlet extractor. Recovered amounts of methanol eluents are 72.8mg for APM01, and 89.7mg for the black smoker. Prior to GCMS analysis, we carried out high resolution 1 H-NMR measurement (400MHz), together with the DOM samples collected from the Suiyo Seamount in July-August 2001 and August 2002. Most of the samples show signals in the region of 3-4 ppm, and the samples from the vents of relatively low temperatures (APM01 and AP04: the natural vent at the Suiyo Seamount, temperature 8-48o C ) show signals also in the region of 0.8-1.6 ppm.

Kitajima, F.; Yamanaka, T.

2004-12-01

102

Long-term observations of tilt, seafloor pressure and temperatures in the Logatchev Hydrothermal Vent Field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 15°N.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Logatchev Hydrothermal Vent Field (LHF) was one of the foci of the German DFG-funded Priority Program 1144 where over the last 5 years attempts were made to monitor hydrothermal and magmatic activity by long-term measurements of (1) seafloor deformation (subsidence, uplift, tilt), (2) tremor (vertical seafloor acceleration, bottom pressure) (2) bottom water temperature variations and (4) variation of outflow temperatures of black smokers. In addition we measured horizontal temperature distribution and vertical temperature profiles in biological communities (mussel fields). Seafloor deformation was measured with an Ocean Bottom Tilt Station (OBT) with a biaxial bubble tilt sensor with a resolution of 1*10-6 rad. Ocean Bottom Pressure (OBP) - an obvious proxy for uplift or subsidence- was measured with a Paroscientific Digiquartz Pressure Sensor with an absolute resolution of 5 Pa (equivalent of 0.5mm depth change). A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometer of type Kistler with about 10-5 m/s2 nominal resolution was mounted in the OBT's sensor pressure tube to measure vertical acceleration. A short mooring at the seafloor with 25 temperature sensor distributed over 25m, located close to the outflow plume of a black smoker recorded variations in plume activity. In addition a high temperature sensor was placed directly inside the outflow of two black smokers and recorded temperatures over a week resp. over almost one year. In summary, all our deployed systems worked very well and data quality was good to excellent. However we also had to face the occasional data loss due to power failure or corrosion problems inside of underwater connectors. Because of its very high resolution the precise leveling of the tilt station with the help of an ROV was a challenge.. Unfortunately due to logistical problems with ROV and/or cruise scheduling we lost one complete cruise and during the last cruise to LHF in January 2009, not all instruments could be recovered due to extended bad weather conditions. In our presentation we will present an overview of our instruments, discuss our technical design principles, demonstrate the capabilities of our instruments and show and discuss the data collected over the last 4 years. In conclusion, a meaningful interpretation of long-term time series of seafloor deformation, in particular tilt and pressure, is only possible with simultaneous observations of the physical oceanography in the area and the use of sensor arrays instead of single point observations.

Villinger, Heinrich; Gennerich, Hans-Hermann; Fabian, Marcus

2010-05-01

103

Patterns of airway inflammation and MMP-12 expression in smokers and ex-smokers with COPD  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking activates and recruits inflammatory cells and proteases to the airways. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 may be a key mediator in smoke induced emphysema. However, the influence of smoking and its cessation on airway inflammation and MMP-12 expression during COPD is still unknown. We aimed to analyse airway inflammatory cell patterns in induced sputum (IS) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from COPD patients who are active smokers and who have ceased smoking >2 years ago. Methods 39 COPD outpatients – smokers (n = 22) and ex-smokers (n = 17) were studied. 8 'healthy' smokers and 11 healthy never-smokers were tested as the control groups. IS and BAL samples were obtained for differential and MMP-12+-macrophages count analysis. Results The number of IS neutrophils was higher in both COPD groups compared to both controls. The amount of BAL neutrophils was higher in COPD smokers compared to healthy never-smokers. The number of BAL MMP-12+-macrophages was higher in COPD smokers (1.6 ± 0.3 × 106/ml) compared to COPD ex-smokers, 'healthy' smokers and healthy never-smokers (0.9 ± 0.4, 0.4 ± 0.2, 0.2 ± 0.1 × 106/ml respectively, p < 0.05). Conclusion The lower amount of BAL neutrophils in COPD ex-smokers, compared to COPD smokers, suggests positive alterations in alveolar compartment after smoking cessation. Smoking and disease itself may stimulate MMP-12 expression in airway compartments (IS and BAL) from COPD patients.

Babusyte, Agne; Stravinskaite, Kristina; Jeroch, Jolanta; Lotvall, Jan; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Sitkauskiene, Brigita

2007-01-01

104

Comparison of Physical Fitness among Smoker and Non-Smoker Men  

PubMed Central

Background It is well documented that cigarette smoking has negative impacts on body health, as well as social health, economy, culture, etc. Nowadays, there is a large body of evidence that smoking is the cause of numerous life-threatening diseases like cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases along with different kinds of cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the physical fitness of smokers and non smokers. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 64 non-sportsmen (34 non-smokers and 30 smokers) aging 19-27 years. Both groups were matched for age, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). The smokers used cigarettes at least 5 cigarettes a day for 2 years. None of them had a musculoskeletal disease. We used a questionnaire and physical fitness tests for data gathering. The tests were used to measure muscle strength, endurance, speed, agility and flexibility in both groups. Findings The muscle strength was significantly different in smokers and non-smokers (P = 0.012). Moreover, smokers had less agility (P = 0.004) and speed (P = 0.008) than non-smokers. However, although smokers were weaker than non- smokers, the differences in muscle endurance (P = 0.066) and flexibility (P = 0.095) were not the statistically significant. Conclusion According to these results, the smokers were less powerful than nonsmokers. In addition, physical activity skills in young smokers were decreased. Therefore, smoking will cause a gradual loss of physical strength and active personal and social power.

Moslemi-Haghighi, Farzaneh; Rezaei, Iman; Ghaffarinejad, Farahnaz; Lari, Reza; Pouya, Fatemeh

2011-01-01

105

Hydrothermal Biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life in hot spring ecosystems is confronted with diverse challenges, and the responses to those challenges have dynamic biogeochemical consequences over narrow spatial and temporal scales. Within meters along hot spring outflow channels at Yellowstone, temperatures drop from boiling, and the near-boiling conditions of hot chemolithotrophic communities, to those that permit photosynthesis and on down to conditions where nematodes and insects graze on the edges of photosynthetic mats. Many major and trace element concentrations change only mildly in the water that flows through the entire ecosystem, while concentrations of other dissolved constituents (oxygen, sulfide, ammonia, total organic carbon) increase or decrease dramatically. Concentrations of metals and micronutrients range from toxic to inadequate for enzyme synthesis depending on the choice of hot spring. Precipitation of minerals may provide continuous growth of microbial niches, while dissolution and turbulent flow sweeps them away. Consequently, microbial communities change at the meter scale, and even more abruptly at the photosynthetic fringe. Isotopic compositions of carbon and nitrogen in microbial biomass reflect dramatic and continuous changes in metabolic strategies throughout the system. Chemical energy sources that support chemolithotrophic communities can persist at abundant or useless levels, or change dramatically owing to microbial activity. The rate of temporal change depends on the selection of hot spring systems for study. Some have changed little since our studies began in 1999. Others have shifted by two or more units in pH over several years, with corresponding changes in other chemical constituents. Some go through daily or seasonal desiccation cycles, and still others exhibit pulses of changing temperature (up to 40°C) within minutes. Taken together, hydrothermal ecosystems provide highly manageable opportunities for testing how biogeochemical processes respond to the scale of temporal, spatial, and compositional changes.

Shock, E.; Havig, J.; Windman, T.; Meyer-Dombard, D.; Michaud, A.; Hartnett, H.

2006-12-01

106

Tobacco Dependence Among Intermittent Smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Intermittent smokers (ITS) are an increasingly prevalent segment of smokers, yet it is unknown whether or how dependence severity may vary across ITS. Methods: Participants were 217 ITS (70 never daily ITS [NITS], 138 converted ITS [CITS], and 9 unknown), who smoked 4–27 days per month, and 197 daily smokers (DS), recruited for a study on smoking patterns. Participants completed questionnaires on dependence (time to first cigarette after waking, Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence [FTND], Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale [NDSS], Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives [WISDM], and Hooked on Nicotine Checklist [HONC]) and recorded each cigarette in real time over 3 weeks using Ecological Momentary Assessment. Logistic regression assessed differences in dependence between groups (DS vs. ITS; CITS vs. NITS), and least squares regression examined associations between dependence and smoking behavior (mean, maximum cigarettes per day; proportion of days smoked; longest period of abstinence) within ITS. Results: As expected, DS were significantly more dependent than ITS: FTND, NDSS, and WISDM discriminated between ITS and DS with greater than 90% accuracy. Similarly, among ITS, NITS demonstrated lower dependence than CITS. Within ITS, dependence measures also correlated with observed smoking rate and duration of abstinence. Conclusions: The study confirmed that DS are more dependent than ITS and that CITS are more dependent than NITS. Importantly, ITS exhibit features of dependence, and there is meaningful variation in dependence within ITS, suggesting that some aspects of dependence may appear with very infrequent smoking. Future work should examine implications for ITS’ potential progression to daily smoking and cessation outcome.

Ferguson, Stuart G.; Dunbar, Michael S.; Scholl, Sarah M.

2012-01-01

107

Investigating the Influence of Magmatic Volatile Input and Seawater Entrainment on Vent Deposit Morphology and Composition in Manus Basin (Back-arc) Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August 2006, hydrothermal activity within the eastern Manus Basin north of Papua New Guinea was investigated using a combination of mapping (SeaBeam from the R/V Melville, near-bottom multi-beam sonar and magnetometer from AUV ABE and ROV Jason-2) and sampling (fluids and solids using ROV Jason-2). Objectives included identifying tectonic/geologic settings, examining interactions of seawater with felsic rocks that constitute the high silica end-member in the range of basement compositions, determining the extent of volatile magmatic inputs into these systems, and examining the evolution of hydrothermal activity through time. At the PACMANUS (Papua New Guinea Australia Canada Manus) area five previously discovered vent fields were mapped and sampled, and a new very active field, Fenway, was located south of the Satanic Mills field. The core of the Fenway field is a 40 m diameter two-tiered mound. A large black smoker complex venting boiling (356C, 172 bar) fluids forms the upper tier, with the lower tier composed of sulfide debris, massive anhydrite-sulfide deposits, and anhydrite sand. At the DESMOS Caldera hyaloclastites and extensive patches of bleached and stained substrate were mapped and sampled, as were diffuse (72C) and focused (119C) acidic fluids with a pH (25C) of 1.0; no sulfide deposits were observed in the area. At the North Su vent field within the SuSu Knolls area even lower pH fluids were sampled (see Seewald et al., this session). Hydrothermal activity includes venting of white sulfur-rich fluids through cracks and sediments, formation of native sulfur flanges, diffuse venting through spires, and black smoker activity (324C). Anhydrite cement is also present. The abundance of massive anhydrite at Fenway and presence of anhydrite cement at North Su is consistent with significant local entrainment and heating of seawater. The extremely low pH (less than 2) of some vent fluids supports previous hypotheses that fluids in this area contain significant input of magmatic volatiles (e.g., Gamo et al. 1997, Geology 25). During the cruise, 104 black, gray, and clear fluids were sampled using gas-tight and major samplers, and 198 vent sulfide deposit, 83 altered substrate, and 43 fresh lava samples were recovered. Geophysical maps and geochemical data for solids and fluids will be used to determine the styles of mixing and reaction occurring beneath the vent fields, estimate subsurface mineral deposition, and investigate the extent to which input of magmatic fluids is occurring within each system.

Tivey, M.; Bach, W.; Tivey, M.; Seewald, J.; Craddock, P.; Rouxel, O.; Yoerger, D.; Yeats, C.; McConachy, T.; Quigley, M.; Vanko, D.

2006-12-01

108

Quit Attempts and Quit Rates Among Menthol and Nonmenthol Smokers in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We compared quit attempts and quit rates among menthol and nonmenthol cigarette smokers in the United States. Methods. We used data from the 2003 and 2006–2007 waves of the large, nationally representative Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey with control for state-level tobacco control spending, prices, and smoke-free air laws. We estimated mean prevalence, quit rates, and multivariate logistic regression equations by using self-respondent weights for menthol and nonmenthol smokers. Results. In 2003 and 2007, 70% of smokers smoked nonmenthol cigarettes, 26% smoked menthol cigarettes, and 4% had no preference. Quit attempts were 4.3% higher in 2003 and 8.8% higher in 2007 among menthol than nonmenthol smokers. The likelihood of quitting was 3.5% lower for quitting in the past year and 6% lower for quitting in the past 5 years in menthol compared with nonmenthol smokers. Quit success in the past 5 years was further eroded among menthol-smoking Blacks and young adults. Conclusions. Menthol smokers are more likely to make quit attempts, but are less successful at staying quit. The creation of menthol preference through marketing may reduce quit success.

Blackman, Kenneth; Tauras, John; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Villanti, Andrea C.; Niaura, Raymond S.; Vallone, Donna M.; Abrams, David B.

2011-01-01

109

Comparative mood states and cognitive skills of cigarette smokers, deprived smokers and nonsmokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular cigarette smokers (nà 15), overnight deprived smokers (nà 15) and nonsmokers (nà 20), were assessed on a battery of mood questionnaires and cognitive performance tasks, before and after a cigarette\\/rest period. At the initial session, deprived smokers reported significantly greater feelings of stress, irritability, depression, poor concentration and low pleasure, than both nondeprived smokers and nonsmokers (all comparisons, p50.01).

A. C. Parrott; N. J. Garnham

1998-01-01

110

Effect of Increased Tea Consumption on Oxidative DNA Damage among Smokers: A Randomized Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Tea drinking has been,associated,with decreased,occurrence,of cancer,and heart disease. One potential mechanism,for these findings is the strong antioxidant effect of tea polyphenols. A phase,II randomized,controlled tea intervention trial was,designed,to study the effect of high consumption,(4 cups\\/d) of decaffeinated,green or black tea on oxidative DNA damage,as measured,by urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine,(8-OHdG) among,smokers,over a 4-mo period. A total of 143 heavy smokers, aged 18–79

Iman A. Hakim; Robin B. Harris; Sylvia Brown; Hh. Sherry Chow; Sheila Wiseman; Sanjiv Agarwal; Wendy Talbot

111

Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is associated with exercise capacity in smokers and non-smokers  

PubMed Central

Objectives Smoking is an established cardiovascular risk factor that impairs endothelial function and reduces exercise capacity. Peripheral vascular endothelial function correlates with exercise capacity, but whether this association prevails in smokers is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the association between endothelial function and exercise capacity in chronic smokers and non-smoking controls. Methods Brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD, endothelium-dependent) following 5-minutes of upper arm occlusion was compared in 26 smokers (age 58±1 yrs; 15 female; BMI = 28±1) and 39 non-smokers (age 58±1 yrs; 24 female; BMI = 28±1) using ultrasound. Exercise treadmill time (ETT) was recorded from a standard Bruce protocol during symptom limited stress testing. Results There was a significant positive association between FMD and ETT in smokers (r = 0.60, p<0.05) and non-smokers (r = 0.28, p<0.05). FMD was significantly lower in smokers vs. non-smokers (8.9 ± 0.9 vs. 12.6 ± 0.7%, p<0.05). ETT was significantly lower in smokers (425 ± 35 sec) versus non-smokers (522 ± 25 sec, p<0.05). After adjusting for FMD, there were no longer group differences in ETT. When patients were matched according to FMD, there were no differences in ETT between smokers and non-smokers. Conclusion Peripheral endothelial dysfunction is a correlate of low exercise capacity in smokers and non-smokers alike. Future research is needed to examine if improving endothelial function will lead to concomitant increases in exercise capacity in chronic smokers.

Heffernan, Kevin S.; Karas, Richard H.; Patvardhan, Eshan A.; Kuvin, Jeffrey T.

2010-01-01

112

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (III) Hydrothermal Fluid Geobarometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IDDP wells will penetrate high pressure geothermal reservoirs where an understanding of the pressure effects on mineral equilibria is essential. The chemical compositions of fluids from active hydrothermal systems have long been applied to estimating reservoir temperature in subaerial geothermal systems at temperatures less than 300 °C and pressures along the H2O liquid/vapor P-T curve, where the pressures are low and the pressure effects on mineral equilibria are small. At pressures of hundreds of bars beneath mid-ocean ridge black smoker springs, the effect of pressure on mineral solubilities is substantial, and can be exploited to estimate pressure and temperature from fluid composition. In practice we compute mineral saturation indices, log(Q/K), for a given fluid for a wide range of P-T combinations, then plot log(Q/K) for alteration minerals against pressure at a series of temperatures so as to identify a possible "knot" in P-T-log(Q/K) space where a group of probable alteration minerals equilibrated with the fluid. We find that saturation index surfaces distinctly converge to zero in a narrow range of pressure and temperature. As an example, we estimate that for an East Pacific Rise 21 °N NGS fluid with a vent T=273 °C and vent P=260 bar, the reservoir conditions are likely T=370-420 °C and P=480-530 bar. To explore what aspect of the fluid chemistry causes the strong pressure effect on mineral solubilities, we computed the effect of pressure change on the activities of aqueous H+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and other significant species in the 21 °N NGS fluid. At 420 °C, pH changes from 8 to 5 as pressure changes from 200 to 700 bar, an effect resulting from dissociation of HCl with increasing pressure. Similarly, chloride complex dissociations yield approximately 10-fold increases in Ca2+, Na+, and K+ concentrations with a 200 to 700 bar pressure increase. In another series of calculations, we synthesized a seawater-like fluid that was equilibrated at 400 °C and 500 bar with clinopyroxene, chlorite, epidote, feldspars, and quartz, then treated the fluid as an "unknown" for estimating P-T. Even for small departures from equilibrium P-T (e.g. +/- 25 °C), the mineral saturation surfaces change markedly, thereby supporting the conclusion that pressure effects on fluid composition are large enough to enable meaningful pressure and temperature estimations in deep hydrothermal systems.

Reed, M. H.; Palandri, J. L.; Elders, W.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2007-12-01

113

Evidence for deep sea hydrothermal fluid-mineral equilibrium from multiple S isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multiple sulfur isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids and associated sulfide mineral deposits collected in 2006 in the eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea, provide an opportunity to better understand the processes of mineral precipitation, pore fluid composition, chemosynthetic energy sources, and metal-rich ore deposition in a felsic-hosted back arc hydrothermal system. Recent advances in multiple-stable isotope analytical techniques now enable the precise determination of all four stable isotopes of sulfur in hydrothermal vent fluids and co-precipitated sulfide mineral deposits, which may be used as a tracer to distinguish between sulfide derived from igneous rock, microbial sulfate reduction, and thermochemical reduction of seawater sulfate [1]. Multiple-stable isotopes of sulfur may also help constrain the relative contribution of sulfur derived by degassing of magmatic SO2 and sedimentary sulfide mineral inputs, as either process could generate the isotopically light ?34S (< 0‰) observed in some vent fluids, chalcopyrite chimney linings, and native sulfur collected at Manus Basin. We have analyzed the sulfur isotopic composition of high temperature black smoker vent fluid and associated chalcopyrite lining the inner walls of active conduits from two vent fields within the Manus Basin, including PACMANUS, located on the neovolcanic Pual ridge, and vents on discrete volcanic domes at SuSu Knolls. Preliminary results yield vent fluid ?34SH2S values ranging from -4.89 ± 0.02 to 5.41 ± 0.01, which closely match coexisting inner wall ?34Schalcopyrite values, ranging from -4.43 ± 0.01 to 5.64 ± 0.01. These results contrast with previous studies that report systematic differences in vent fluid ?34SH2S and sulfide minerals from the inner conduits of chimney structures [1, 2, 3]. The ?33SH2S values of vent fluids range from -0.031 ± 0.027 to 0.011 ± 0.016, and those of chalcopyrite range from -0.042 ± 0.012 to 0.012 ± 0.010. Preliminary results in 7 out of 8 fluid-mineral pairs show <1‰ difference between fluid and chalcopyrite, with most chalcopyrite showing slightly enriched ?34S, consistent with equilibrium fluid-mineral sulfur isotope exchange at 300-400°C during precipitation [4]. Negative ?34S in fluid-mineral pairs from SuSu Knolls may be a consequence of both magmatic volatile and sedimentary sulfide mineral input, an assertion supported by observations of very high CH4 concentrations in the black smoker fluids and low temperature acid sulfate fluids emanating from the dome flanks. Additional analyses are being conducted on more SuSu Knolls vents, as well as fluid-mineral pairs from Lau Basin vent fields. [1] Ono et al. (2007) GCA 71, 1170-1182. [2] Shanks (2001) Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 43, 469-525. [3] Woodruff and Shanks (1988) J. Geophy. Res. 93, 4562-4572. [4] Ohmoto and Goldhaber (1997) Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits, Third Edition, pp. 517-611.

McDermott, J. M.; Ono, S.; Tivey, M. K.; Seewald, J.

2010-12-01

114

Food and nutrient intake differences between smokers and non-smokers in the US.  

PubMed Central

Data from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to determine food and nutrient intake differences between current smokers (also categorized as light, moderate, and heavy smokers) and non-smokers. Smokers in several age-race-sex categories have lower intakes of vitamin C, folate, fiber, and vitamin A than non-smokers, and intake tended to decrease as cigarette consumption increased, particularly for vitamin C, fiber, and folate. Smokers were less likely to have consumed vegetables, fruits (particularly fruits and vegetables high in vitamins C and A), high fiber grains, low fat milk, and vitamin and mineral supplements than non-smokers. A negative linear trend was found between smoking intensity and intake of several categories of fruits and vegetables. These data suggest that the high cancer risk associated with smoking is compounded by somewhat lower intake of nutrients and foods which are thought to be cancer protective.

Subar, A F; Harlan, L C; Mattson, M E

1990-01-01

115

Lung Cancer in Never Smokers  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) has lately been recognized as a unique disease based on rapidly gained knowledge from genomic changes to treatment responses. The focus of this article is on current knowledge and challenges with regard to LCINS expanded from recent reviews highlighting five areas: (1) distribution of LCINS by temporal trends, geographic regions, and populations; (2) three well-recognized environmental risk factors; (3) other plausible environmental risk factors; (4) prior chronic lung diseases and infectious diseases as risk factors; and (5) lifestyles as risk or protective factors. This article will also bring attention to recently published literature in two pioneering areas: (1) histological characteristics, clinical features with emerging new effective therapies, and social and psychological stigma; and (2) searching for susceptibility genes using integrated genomic approaches.

Yang, Ping

2012-01-01

116

Comparative metagenomics of microbial communities inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys with contrasting chemistries  

PubMed Central

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys harbor a high diversity of largely unknown microorganisms. Although the phylogenetic diversity of these microorganisms has been described previously, the adaptation and metabolic potential of the microbial communities is only beginning to be revealed. A pyrosequencing approach was used to directly obtain sequences from a fosmid library constructed from a black smoker chimney 4143-1 in the Mothra hydrothermal vent field at the Juan de Fuca Ridge. A total of 308?034 reads with an average sequence length of 227?bp were generated. Comparative genomic analyses of metagenomes from a variety of environments by two-way clustering of samples and functional gene categories demonstrated that the 4143-1 metagenome clustered most closely with that from a carbonate chimney from Lost City. Both are highly enriched in genes for mismatch repair and homologous recombination, suggesting that the microbial communities have evolved extensive DNA repair systems to cope with the extreme conditions that have potential deleterious effects on the genomes. As previously reported for the Lost City microbiome, the metagenome of chimney 4143-1 exhibited a high proportion of transposases, implying that horizontal gene transfer may be a common occurrence in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In addition, genes for chemotaxis and flagellar assembly were highly enriched in the chimney metagenomes, reflecting the adaptation of the organisms to the highly dynamic conditions present within the chimney walls. Reconstruction of the metabolic pathways revealed that the microbial community in the wall of chimney 4143-1 was mainly fueled by sulfur oxidation, putatively coupled to nitrate reduction to perform inorganic carbon fixation through the Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle. On the basis of the genomic organization of the key genes of the carbon fixation and sulfur oxidation pathways contained in the large genomic fragments, both obligate and facultative autotrophs appear to be present and contribute to biomass production.

Xie, Wei; Wang, Fengping; Guo, Lei; Chen, Zeling; Sievert, Stefan M; Meng, Jun; Huang, Guangrui; Li, Yuxin; Yan, Qingyu; Wu, Shan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Shangwu; He, Guangyuan; Xiao, Xiang; Xu, Anlong

2011-01-01

117

Prevalence of airflow obstruction in smokers and never-smokers in Switzerland.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to measure age-specific prevalence of airflow obstruction in Switzerland in smokers and never-smokers using pulmonary function tests and respiratory symptoms from 6,126 subjects participating in the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults. The lower limit of normal of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio was used to define airflow obstruction. Severity of airflow obstruction was graded according to the recommendations of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Prevalence of airflow obstruction ranged from 2.5% in subjects aged 30-39 yrs to 8.0% in those aged ? 70 yrs. In multivariate analysis, age (OR 2.8, ? 70 yrs versus 30-39 yrs), smoking (OR 1.8) and asthma (OR 6.7) were associated with airflow obstruction. Never-smokers constituted 29.3% of subjects with airflow obstruction. Never-smokers with airflow obstruction were younger, more likely to be male and reported asthma more frequently than obstructive smokers. Obstructive smokers and never-smokers had similar level of symptoms and quality of life impairment. The prevalence of airflow obstruction in Switzerland is similar to other developed countries. Never-smokers account for a third of the prevalence, which is higher proportion than elsewhere. Airflow obstruction in never-smokers deserves attention because of its frequency and its similar health impact to that in smokers. PMID:20413537

Bridevaux, P-O; Probst-Hensch, N M; Schindler, C; Curjuric, I; Felber Dietrich, D; Braendli, O; Brutsche, M; Burdet, L; Frey, M; Gerbase, M W; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Pons, M; Tschopp, J-M; Rochat, T; Russi, E W

2010-12-01

118

Response of choroidal blood flow to carbogen breathing in smokers and non-smokers  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate a potential difference in ocular vascular reactivity during carbogen breathing in optic nerve head, choroid, and retina between healthy smokers and non-smokers. Methods: 25 (13 smokers and 12 non-smokers) healthy male volunteers participated in this observer masked, two cohort study. During inhalation of carbogen (5% CO2 and 95% O2) over 10 minutes measurements were taken using laser Doppler flowmetry to assess submacular choroidal and optic nerve head blood flow, laser interferometry to assess fundus pulsation amplitudes, and retinal vessel analyser (RVA) to assess retinal vessel diameters. Results: At baseline choroidal blood flow was higher (p?=?0.018, ANOVA) in smokers than in non-smokers. During administration of carbogen the response in choroidal blood flow was significantly different between the two groups: there was an increase in non-smokers after carbogen breathing (p?=?0.048) compared with relatively stable blood flow in smokers (p?=?0.049 between groups, ANOVA). A similar response pattern was seen for fundus pulsation amplitude, which increased notably after carbogen breathing in non-smokers but not in smokers (p<0.001 between groups, ANOVA). Optic nerve head blood flow and retinal vessel diameters were reduced in both groups to a comparable degree during carbogen breathing. Conclusion: The study indicated abnormal choroidal vascular reactivity in chronic smokers. These early haemodynamic changes may be related to the increased risk to smokers of developing ocular vascular diseases. The specific mechanisms underlying abnormal choroidal vascular reactivity in chronic smokers remain to be characterised.

Wimpissinger, B; Resch, H; Berisha, F; Weigert, G; Schmetterer, L; Polak, K

2004-01-01

119

Disparities Between Blacks and Whites in Tobacco and Lung Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Racial disparities exist in lung cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality. Smoking is responsible for the majority of lung cancers, and racial disparities also exist in smoking outcomes. Black smokers are less likely than white smokers to engage in evidence-based tobacco treatment, and black smokers are less likely than white smokers to stop smoking. Continued smoking following a lung cancer diagnosis is a potential indicator of poor lung cancer treatment outcomes, yet lung cancer patients who smoke are unlikely to receive evidence-based tobacco treatment. The risks from continued smoking after diagnosis deserve attention as a modifiable factor toward lessening racial disparities in lung cancer outcomes.

Japuntich, Sandra J.; Traeger, Lara; Cannon, Sheila; Pajolek, Hannah

2011-01-01

120

Where Do Youth Smokers Get Their Cigarettes?  

MedlinePLUS

... machines or restricted them to adult-only locations. Nationwide, older youth smokers are more likely to buy ... smoking. Sources Where Kids Obtain Cigarettes The 2012 nationwide Monitoring the Future survey found that 50.7 ...

121

Extra Exercise Could Help Depressed Smokers Quit  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extra Exercise Could Help Depressed Smokers Quit: Study Withdrawal symptoms, ... Tuesday, July 29, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression Exercise and Physical Fitness Quitting Smoking TUESDAY, July 29, ...

122

Vision in hydrothermal vent shrimp.  

PubMed

Bresiliid shrimp from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have non-imaging eyes adapted for photodetection in light environments of very low intensity. Comparison of retinal structures between both vent shrimp and surface-dwelling shrimp with imaging eyes, and between juvenile and adult vent shrimp, suggests that vent shrimp have evolved from ancestors that lived in a light environment with bright cyclic lighting. Whether the vent shrimp live in swarms and have large dorsal eyes or live in sparse groupings and have large anterior eyes, the basic retinal adaptations are the same across species. Retinal adaptations in adult vent shrimp include the loss of dioptrics, enlargement of both the rhabdomeral segment of the photoreceptors and the light-sensitive rhabdomere therein, attenuation of the arhabdomeral segment of the photoreceptors, reduction of black screening pigment, development of a white diffusing layer behind the photoreceptors, and the loss of rhabdom turnover. PMID:11079388

Chamberlain, S C

2000-09-29

123

Vision in hydrothermal vent shrimp.  

PubMed Central

Bresiliid shrimp from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have non-imaging eyes adapted for photodetection in light environments of very low intensity. Comparison of retinal structures between both vent shrimp and surface-dwelling shrimp with imaging eyes, and between juvenile and adult vent shrimp, suggests that vent shrimp have evolved from ancestors that lived in a light environment with bright cyclic lighting. Whether the vent shrimp live in swarms and have large dorsal eyes or live in sparse groupings and have large anterior eyes, the basic retinal adaptations are the same across species. Retinal adaptations in adult vent shrimp include the loss of dioptrics, enlargement of both the rhabdomeral segment of the photoreceptors and the light-sensitive rhabdomere therein, attenuation of the arhabdomeral segment of the photoreceptors, reduction of black screening pigment, development of a white diffusing layer behind the photoreceptors, and the loss of rhabdom turnover.

Chamberlain, S C

2000-01-01

124

Subseafloor Microbial Life in Venting Fluids from the Mid Cayman Rise Hydrothermal System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In hard rock seafloor environments, fluids emanating from hydrothermal vents are one of the best windows into the subseafloor and its resident microbial community. The functional consequences of an extensive population of microbes living in the subseafloor remains unknown, as does our understanding of how these organisms interact with one another and influence the biogeochemistry of the oceans. Here we report the abundance, activity, and diversity of microbes in venting fluids collected from two newly discovered deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the ultra-slow spreading Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR). Fluids for geochemical and microbial analysis were collected from the Von Damm and Piccard vent fields, which are located within 20 km of one another, yet have extremely different thermal, geological, and depth regimes. Geochemical data indicates that both fields are highly enriched in volatiles, in particular hydrogen and methane, important energy sources for and by-products of microbial metabolism. At both sites, total microbial cell counts in the fluids ranged in concentration from 5 x 10 4 to 3 x 10 5 cells ml-1 , with background seawater concentrations of 1-2 x 10 4 cells ml-1 . In addition, distinct cell morphologies and clusters of cells not visible in background seawater were seen, including large filaments and mineral particles colonized by microbial cells. These results indicate local enrichments of microbial communities in the venting fluids, distinct from background populations, and are consistent with previous enumerations of microbial cells in venting fluids. Stable isotope tracing experiments were used to detect utilization of acetate, formate, and dissolve inorganic carbon and generation of methane at 70 °C under anaerobic conditions. At Von Damm, a putatively ultra-mafic hosted site located at ~2200 m with a maximum temperature of 226 °C, stable isotope tracing experiments indicate methanogenesis is occurring in most fluid samples. No activity was detected in Piccard vent fluids, a basalt-hosted black smoker site located at ~4950 m with a maximum temperature of 403 °C. However, hyperthermophilic and thermophilic heterotrophs of the genus Thermococcus were isolated from Piccard vent fluids, but not Von Damm. These obligate anaerobes, growing optimally at 55-90 °C, are ubiquitous at hydrothermal systems and serve as a readily cultivable indicator organism of subseafloor populations. Finally, molecular analysis of vent fluids is on-going and will define the microbial population structure in this novel ecosystem and allow for direct comparisons with other deep-sea and subsurface habitats as part of our continuing efforts to explore the deep microbial biosphere on Earth.

Huber, J. A.; Reveillaud, J.; Reddington, E.; McDermott, J. M.; Sylva, S. P.; Breier, J. A.; German, C. R.; Seewald, J.

2012-12-01

125

Cigarette Smokers, Never-Smokers, and Transitions: Implications for Successful Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the social identities held by people is defined by whether or not they smoke cigarettes. Although this identity can and does change for many people over the course of their lives, most research has not examined the effects of transitioning from a smoker to a non-smoker. Using a life span perspective, our analyses contrasted the extent to…

Pruchno, Rachel; Hahn, Sarah; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen

2012-01-01

126

High-quality embryos maintain high pregnancy rates in passive smokers but not in active smokers.  

PubMed

This study assesses the effect of passive and active smoking on pregnancy rates after IVF with transfer of high-quality embryos. In a cohort study, women attending the IVF unit in 2006–2007 with favourable parameters for pregnancy (<38 years; less than three IVF cycles, transfer of two highest-grade embryos) grouped by smoking status were included. The cohort included 237 patients/cycles: 42 smokers, 195 non-smokers. The clinical pregnancy rate was significantly lower in smokers (35.7% versus 55.4%,P = 0.021, OR = 0.44 (95% CI 0.22–0.89)), even after conditional stratification on covariates (passive smoker, passive or partner smoker, age group). The live-birth rate was lower in smokers (28.6% versus 42.6%), but the difference was not statistically significant(OR = 0.54 (0.26–1.11)). Among non-smokers, there was no difference in pregnancy rate by passive or partner smoking. On logistic regression, variables predicting pregnancy were age <35 years (P = 0.008, OR = 2.58 (1.2–5.2)) and non-smoking (P = 0.003,OR = 3.47 (1.51–7.98)). In conclusion, transfer of high-quality embryos does not overcome the negative effect of active smoking on pregnancy rate in IVF treatment. The endometrium is apparently involved in the mechanism underlying IVF failure in smokers. PMID:21115271

Ben-Haroush, Avi; Ashkenazi, Jacob; Sapir, Onit; Pinkas, Haim; Fisch, Benjamin; Farhi, Jacob

2011-01-01

127

Hydrothermal synthesis map of bismuth titanates  

SciTech Connect

The hydrothermal synthesis of four bismuth titanate materials from common bismuth and titanium precursors under hydrothermal conditions is described. Reaction of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and anatase TiO{sub 2} in concentrated NaOH solution at 240 Degree-Sign C is shown to produce perovskite and sillenite phases Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20}, depending on the ratio of metal precursors used. When KOH solution is used and a 1:1 ratio of the same precursors, a pyrochlore Bi{sub 1.43}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 0.29}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.66} is formed. The use of a mixture of HNO{sub 3} and NaOH is shown to facilitate the formation of the Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}. The phases have been isolated separately as phase-pure powders and profile refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data allows comparisons with comparable materials reported in the literature. Analysis of Bi L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the materials shows the oxidation state of bismuth is +3 in all of the hydrothermally derived products. - Graphical abstract: Use of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} as reagents under hydrothermal conditions allows the phase-pure preparation of four crystalline bismuth titanate materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NaBiO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} under hydrothermal conditions allow formation of bismuth titanates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of four distint phases has been mapped. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi LIII-edge XANES shows Bi is reduced to oxidation state +3 in all materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new hydrated bismuth titanate pyrochlore has been isolated.

Sardar, Kripasindhu [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Walton, Richard I., E-mail: r.i.walton@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2012-05-15

128

Constraints On Fluid Evolution During Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Circulation From Anhydrite Sampled by ODP Hole 1256D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anhydrite is potentially a useful mineral for recording the evolution of seawater-derived fluids during mid- ocean ridge hydrothermal circulation because it exhibits retrograde solubility, and hence may precipitate due to the heating of seawater or the sub-surface mixing of seawater with black smoker-like fluids. Here we provide new insights into the chemical and thermal evolution of seawater during hydrothermal circulation through analyses of anhydrite recovered from ODP Hole 1256D, the first complete penetration of intact upper oceanic crust down to gabbros. Previously, crustal anhydrite has been recovered only from Hole 504B. Measurements of 87Sr/86Sr, major element ratios, Rare Earth Elements and ?18O in anhydrite constrain the changing composition of fluids as they chemically interact with basalt. Anhydrite fills veins and pore-space in the lower lava sequences from ~530 to ~1000 meters sub- basement (msb), but is concentrated in the lava-dike transition (754 to 811 msb) and uppermost sheeted dikes. Although present in greater quantities than in Hole 504B, the amount of anhydrite recovered from the Site 1256 crust is low compared to that predicted by models of hydrothermal circulation (e.g., Sleep, 1991). Two distinct populations of anhydrite are indicated by measurements of 87Sr/86Sr suggesting different fluid evolution paths within Site 1256. One group of anhydrites have 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7070 to 0.7085, close to that of 15 Ma seawater (0.70878), suggesting that some fluids penetrate through the lavas and into the sheeted dikes with only minimal Sr-exchange with the host basalts. A second group, with low 87Sr/86Sr between 0.7048 and 0.7052, indicates precipitation from a fluid that has undergone far greater interaction with basalt. This range is close to that estimated from Sr-isotopic analyses of epidote for the Hole 1256D hydrothermal fluids (87Sr/86Sr ~0.705). Sr/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr indicate a similar relationship to that seen at ODP Hole 504B suggesting that Sr/Ca ratios reduce greatly during recharge before there is significant Sr exchange with the host basalts. ?18O measurements display an irregular trend with depth from +17‰ in the lower volcanics to +10‰ in the sheeted dikes suggesting an increase in precipitation temperatures from 105 to 211°C. One sample, from a chalcopyrite mineralized dike margin has a very light ?18O of +2.2‰ suggesting a temperature of ~408°, perhaps indicating that fluid was superheated following direct contact with the hot intrusive body. This sample also records low 87Sr/86Sr and high total REE.

Smith-Duque, C.; Teagle, D. A.; Alt, J. C.; Cooper, M. J.

2008-12-01

129

Rock Magnetic Investigation of Felsic Hydrothermal Vent System: Results from ODP Leg 193 to Eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November-December, 2000, an active hydrothermal vent field in the Eastern Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, known as the PACMANUS vent field, was drilled during ODP Leg 193. This vent field has been considered as a modern-day analog of massive volcanogenic sulfide deposits within felsic volcanic sequence. The recovery was generally low due to fragility of rocks. Detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses were performed on rock samples recovered from three major sites (Sites 1188, 1189 and 1191). Site 1188, a low-temperature diffused venting region, was drilled to 370 mbsf utilizing a combination of RCB, Hammer Drill, ADCB and casing, and Site 1189, a black smoker region, was drilled to a depth of 200 mbsf using RCB. Paleomagnetic analysis shows that recovered rock samples have inclination close to the present-day Earth field. The top 35 m of PACMANUS vent field consists of fresh to moderately altered dacite-rhyodacite and exhibits moderately high natural remanent magnetization (< 6 A/m). Although there are small intervals of markedly less intensive alteration, the region below this extrusive layer is largely comprised of pervasively altered rocks with little evidence of sulfide deposit and exhibits as a whole a low magnetization intensity. However, two intervals with high remanent magnetization (> 6 A/m) were recognized below the upper extrusive layer at Site 1188 (135-211 mbsf and 280-370 mbsf) and one interval at Site 1189 (137-190 mbsf). In particular, the samples between 135-211-mbsf interval at Site 1188 have extremely high remanence with intensities ranging up to 300-500 A/m. Although pockets of magnetite are not uncommon in the ancient hydrothermal ore bodies, they have seldom been documented in modern-day system, and little is known about the physical and chemical condition that allows the magnetite to form in hydrothermal systems. Two possibilities of magnetite formation and its apparent alignment with the Earth field are explored: one that these magnetites precipitated from magnetite-rich fluid as it cooled from above the Curie temperature (TRM) and the other that magnetization was acquired by the growth of magnetite grains below the Curie temperature (CRM). Understanding the origin and behavior of these magnetic mineral assemblages may in turn provide a valuable constraint on the physical and chemical conditions of subseafloor hydrothermal systems, which are very poorly known at the moment.

Lee, S.

2003-12-01

130

Zinc, copper, and lead in mid-ocean ridge basalts and the source rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The contents of Zn, Cu, and Pb in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and the MORB source-rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits are examined. The values of Zn, Cu, and Pb for submarine mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are, respectively (in ppm): average MORB-75, 75, and 0.7; West Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR)-87, 64, and 0.5; southern JFR-120 and 0.5; and 21??N, East Pacific Rise (EPR)-73, 78, and 0.5. Values of Zn/Pb range from about 100-240 and Cu/ Pb from 100-156. In this study, Zn is found to correlate positively with TiO2 + FeO (mean square of weighted deviates, MSWD, of 1.6 for JFR basalt), and inversely with Mg number (MSWD of 3.5). Therefore, contrary to statements in the literature that Zn should be compatible in MORB, Zn is a mildly incompatible element and must be enriched in the glass phase relative to olivine as Zn does not fit into the other major phenocryst phase, plagioclase. In the source of MORB, Zn likely is most enriched in oxides: spinel, magnetite, and titanomagnetite. Copper generally does not correlate well with other elements in most MORB data examined. When differentiation is dominated by olivine, Cu has a tendency to behave incompatibly (e.g., at Mg numbers > 70), but, overall, Cu shows some tendency towards being a compatible element, particularly along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a behavior presumably due to separation of sulfides in which Cu (but not Zn) is markedly enriched. Copper thus may be in dispersed sulfides in the source of MORB. Ocean ridges provide important data on source-rock controls for sulfide deposits because, in sediment-starved ridges, much is known about the possible source rocks and mineralization is presently occurring. In contrast to Zn/Pb ~5 in continental hot Cl-rich brines, Zn/Pb in the hottest sediment-starved ridge black smoker hydrothermal fluids at 21 ??N, EPR is about 110, similar to local MORB (145), but Cu/Pb is closer to 30, possibly due to subsurface deposition of Cu. At the JFR, the best value of Zn/Pb in the hydrothermal fluids is about 175, again similar to local MORB (240), but Cu is very low in the fluids that are at temperatures less than 300??C. The large MORB-like Zn/Pb in the hottest black-smoker fluids suggests a source-rock control for the metals that prohibits significant galena in the black-smoker deposits of sediment-starved ridges. In contrast, exhalative deposits on sediment-swamped ridges have significant galena; its presence is suggestive of Pb derivation from sediments, an origin supported by Pb isotope studies of LeHuray and colleagues in 1988. ?? 1994.

Doe, B. R.

1994-01-01

131

Retinal anatomy of a new species of bresiliid shrimp from a hydrothermal vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  

PubMed

A new species of shrimp (Rimicaris sp.) was recently collected from the Snake Pit hydrothermal vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Until the discovery in 1989 that the deep-sea, hydrothermal vent species, Rimicaris exoculata, possessed a hypertrophied dorsal eye, everyone believed that animals recovered from vent environments were blind. Like R. exoculata, Rimicaris sp., a small orange bresiliid shrimp, has an enlarged dorsal eye specialized for detecting light in a very dim environment instead of the expected compound eye. The individual lenses characteristic of a compound eye adapted for imaging have been replaced in Rimicaris sp. by a smooth cornea underlain by a massive array of photosensitive membrane. The number of ommatidia in this species is about the same as in shrimp species that live at the surface; however, the photoreceptors are larger in the deep-sea species and the shape of the photoreceptors is markedly different. The light-sensitive region of the photoreceptor is much larger than those of other shrimp and the rest of the receptor is much smaller than normal. All screening pigment has moved out of the path of incident light to a position below the retina, and the reflecting pigment cells have adapted to form a bright white diffusing screen between and behind the photoreceptors. The ultrastructure of the microvillar array comprising the rhabdom is typical for decapod crustaceans; however, there is a much greater volume density of rhabdom (80% to 85%) than normal. There is no ultrastructural evidence for cyclic rhabdom shedding or renewal. Rimicaris sp. has apparently adapted its visual system to detect the very dim light emitted from the throats of the black smoker chimneys around which it lives. PMID:8852633

Nuckley, D J; Jinks, R N; Battelle, B A; Herzog, E D; Kass, L; Renninger, G H; Chamberlain, S C

1996-02-01

132

Heart Rate Variability and Wavelet-based Studies on ECG Signals from Smokers and Non-smokers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study deals with the heart rate variability (HRV) and wavelet-based ECG signal analysis of smokers and non-smokers. The results of HRV indicated dominance towards the sympathetic nervous system activity in smokers. The heart rate was found to be higher in case of smokers as compared to non-smokers ( p < 0.05). The frequency domain analysis showed an increase in the LF and LF/HF components with a subsequent decrease in the HF component. The HRV features were analyzed for classification of the smokers from the non-smokers. The results indicated that when RMSSD, SD1 and RR-mean features were used concurrently a classification efficiency of > 90 % was achieved. The wavelet decomposition of the ECG signal was done using the Daubechies (db 6) wavelet family. No difference was observed between the smokers and non-smokers which apparently suggested that smoking does not affect the conduction pathway of heart.

Pal, K.; Goel, R.; Champaty, B.; Samantray, S.; Tibarewala, D. N.

2013-12-01

133

Hydrothermal Temperature Changes at South Cleft, Juan de Fuca Ridge, Associated with Blanco Transform Seismicity: More Evidence of Far-Field Effects Induced by Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional impact of transform earthquakes on ridge-crest hydrothermal venting is investigated using a sequence of 170 western Blanco Transform earthquakes that occurred from June 1-7, 2000. The earthquakes were recorded on both the SOSUS hydrophone array and land-based seismic networks. The mainshock (Mw6.2) occurred at 11:13Z on June 2, exhibited a right-lateral strike-slip mechanism, and was the largest event detected from the western Blanco Transform in the past 40 yrs. The mainshock nucleated ~10 km east of a cluster of 80 foreshocks, and from the aftershock distribution, appears to have ruptured the entire western transform strike-slip fault segment ( ~56 km). Two HOBO high-temperature probes were positioned within black smoker chimneys at the Vent1 and Plume hydrothermal fields along the southern Cleft segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge, recording temperatures about once per hour. These two hydrothermal vent fields are ~1.8 km apart and ~42 km northwest of the acoustic location of the mainshock. The Plume HOBO record shows an abrupt temperature decrease from 240.5° C to 235.5° C between 12:00Z and 00:00Z on June 2-3 (immediately after the Blanco earthquake) after several prior months of a very gradual decrease in temperature. This perturbation lasts about a week before the temperature rejoins its previous trend. The Vent1 HOBO record shows that after 7 mos of steady readings (272° C +/- 3° ), temperatures decreased 5° C from May 25 to June 9, and decreased another 20° C from June 9 to 19, after which temperatures were steady for two weeks until the probe was retrieved. A Coloumb failure model indicates the mainshock should have caused a regional stress reduction of 0.02 MPa along the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. Since stress reduction in the crust might also decrease pore pressure and therefore the mass flow rate in a hydrothermal system, this stress reduction might have caused the observed temperature declines. These findings are consistent with recent observations that earthquakes can cause significant temperature and flow changes at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents even at considerable distances from the epicenter.

Dziak, R. P.; Chadwick, W. W.; Embley, R. W.; Fox, C. G.; Hammond, S. R.

2001-12-01

134

Multiplicity of abnormal promoter methylation in lung adenocarcinomas from smokers and never smokers.  

PubMed

The prevalence of methylation of the p16, DAPK and RASSF1A genes was investigated in lung adenocarcinoma from smokers, former uranium miners and never smokers. The association between a common genetic alteration in adenocarcinoma, mutation of the K-ras gene and methylation of these genes, as well as survival was examined. Adenocarcinomas from 157 smokers, 46 never smokers and 34 former uranium miners were evaluated for methylation of the p16, DAPK and RASSF1A genes using the methylation-specific PCR assay. Comparisons were also made to prevalences of methylation of the MGMT gene and mutation of the K-ras gene previously examined in these tumors. The prevalence of methylation for all genes was similar between adenocarcinomas from smokers and never smokers, although the prevalence for methylation of the p16 gene tended to be higher in smokers compared to never smokers. A significantly higher prevalence for p16 methylation was seen in central vs. peripheral lung tumors. At least 1 gene was methylated in 35% of stage I tumors, whereas 2 and >/=3 genes were methylated in 40% and 16% of tumors, respectively. Methylation of all genes was independent of K-ras mutation, whereas methylation of the DAPK and RASSF1A genes was positively associated. Environmental tobacco smoke, the strongest lung cancer risk factor among never smokers, induces adenocarcinoma in part through inactivation of the p16, DAPK and RASSF1A genes. Adenocarcinomas may develop through 2 distinct processes: multiple gene inactivations through promoter hypermethylation and activation of the K-ras gene. PMID:15578700

Divine, Kevin K; Pulling, Leah C; Marron-Terada, Patricia G; Liechty, Kieu C; Kang, Terri; Schwartz, Ann G; Bocklage, Therese J; Coons, Teresa A; Gilliland, Frank D; Belinsky, Steven A

2005-04-10

135

Current Major Depression Among Smokers Using a State Quitline  

PubMed Central

Background Smokers seeking treatment to quit smoking are generally not assessed for current depression, yet depression among smokers may influence quitting outcome. Purpose This study aims to formally assess current major depression among smokers calling a state tobacco quitline. Methods A total of 844 smokers calling the California Smokers’ Helpline in 2007 were screened for depression by the mood module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) was also administered to these callers. Two months after the screening, follow-up evaluations were conducted to assess cessation outcome. Results In all, 24.2% of smokers met criteria for current major depression and 16.5% reported symptoms indicating mild depression. Callers with current major depression were more likely to be heavy smokers and on Medicaid. Moreover, 74.0% of smokers with current major depression had substantial social and occupational functioning deficits. Two months later, those with major depression at baseline were significantly less likely to have quit smoking (18.5% vs 28.4%). Conclusions Almost one in four smokers to the California Smokers’ Helpline met criteria for current major depression. Over 400,000 smokers call state quitlines in the U.S. for help with quitting each year, which means that as many as 100,000 smokers with serious depressive symptoms are using these services annually. The large number of depressed smokers who seek help suggests a need to develop appropriate interventions to help them quit successfully.

Hebert, Kiandra K.; Cummins, Sharon E.; Hernandez, Sandra; Tedeschi, Gary J.; Zhu, Shu-Hong

2010-01-01

136

Internal Facies Organization of a Deep-Marine Dacite Volcano Hosting an Active Hydrothermal System (ODP Leg 193, Manus Back-Arc Basin, Papua New Guinea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Felsic volcanic centers are increasingly recognized as an important geological component of the sea floor, particularly in back-arc basins. Here, active hydrothermal fields located on differentiated volcanic rocks are generating polymetallic massive sulfides inferred to represent modern analogues to stratiform massive sulfide deposits within ancient felsic volcanic successions now exposed on land. Consequently, a better understanding of the processes associated with submarine, felsic volcanism is important to marine geoscientists, volcanologists, geochemists interested in fluid-rock interaction and economic geologists. ODP Leg 193 (Nov-Dec 2000) provided the first opportunity to examine in detail the internal organization of a modern, lava-dominated submarine dacite volcano (Pual Ridge) hosting a massive sulfide-forming hydrothermal system (PACMANUS). Pual Ridge is 1 to 1.5 km wide, 20 km long and rises ~500 m above the surrounding ocean floor. The PACMANUS hydrothermal field is located on the crest of this volcanic edifice at 1700 m below sea level (bsl). Drill core of variably altered dacite has been derived from below a field of diffuse hydrothermal discharge of low-T fluids (Snowcap site), as well as from a black smoker field with vigorous, focused hydrothermal discharge of high-T fluids (Roman Ruins site) located ~600 m away. The principal lithofacies components of Pual Ridge are coherent facies of effusive dacite lava (30 to 80 m thick flows), in-situ breccia and resedimented, mass-flow emplaced, monomictic and polymictic breccia and sandstone marking paleo-seafloor positions. Due to substantial fracturing associated with hydrothermal activity, discrimination of primary from secondary (alteration-related) clastic textures is difficult and not always possible. At Snowcap variably porphyritic, commonly vesicular (up to 20 vol%) coherent units dominate which probably represent a facies association proximal to the eruption site. The uppermost unit consists of glassy, moderately porphyritic dacite forming a 40 m high ridge. Volcanic facies components at the Roman Ruins site are considerably more diverse and characteristic of a more distal facies association with individual emplacement units consisting of coherent and brecciated facies separated by mass-flow emplaced volcaniclastic units. Flow banding and perlitic texture are common and have been observed in primary monomictic and polymictic volcaniclastic breccia, hydrothermal breccia and coherent facies and are even preserved in volcanic clasts of the hydrothermal stockwork zone (0 to 80 mbsf). The large proportion of primary clastic units at Roman Ruins indicates that this part of Pual Ridge had a high primary permeability which may provide favorable conditions for ascending fluids. The recovery of a mineralized tube pumice breccia with a pyrite-chalcopyrite-rich matrix at 105 mbsf and the recognition of sulfide-rich clasts in a volcaniclastic sandstone at 195 mbsf below the Roman Ruins site indicate that Pual Ridge has a long history of hydrothermal activity.

Paulick, H.; Vanko, D. A.; Yeats, C. J.; Bach, W.

2001-12-01

137

Smoker, ex-smoker or non-smoker? The validity of routinely recorded smoking status in UK primary care: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate how smoking status is recorded in UK primary care; to evaluate whether appropriate multiple imputation (MI) of smoking status yields results consistent with health surveys. Setting UK primary care and a population survey conducted in the community. Participants We identified 354?204 patients aged 16 or over in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) primary care database registered with their general practice 2008–2009 and 15?102 individuals aged 16 or over in the Health Survey for England (HSE). Outcome measures Age-standardised and age-specific proportions of smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers in THIN and the HSE before and after MI. Using information on time since quitting in the HSE, we estimated when ex-smokers are typically recorded as non-smokers in primary care records. Results In THIN, smoking status was recorded for 84% of patients within 1?year of registration. Of these, 28% were smokers (21% in the HSE). After MI of missing smoking data, the proportion of smokers was 25% (missing at random) and 20% (missing not at random). With increasing age, more were identified as ex-smokers in the HSE than THIN. It appears that those who quit before age 30 were less likely to be recorded as an ex-smoker in primary care than people who quit later. Conclusions Smoking status was relatively well recorded in primary care. Misclassification of ex-smokers as non-smokers is likely to occur in those quitting smoking at an early age and/or a long time ago. Those with no smoking status information are more likely to be ex-smokers or non-smokers than smokers.

Marston, Louise; Carpenter, James R; Walters, Kate R; Morris, Richard W; Nazareth, Irwin; White, Ian R; Petersen, Irene

2014-01-01

138

Viewing E-Cigarette Use May Keep Smokers from Quitting  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Viewing E-Cigarette Use May Keep Smokers From Quitting Seeing smokeless devices in action triggered urge for a regular cigarette in young smokers, study found (*this news item will not be ...

139

Perceptions of smokers influence nonsmoker attitudes and preferences for interactions  

PubMed Central

In two studies, we examined nonsmokers’ perceptions of smokers and consequences of the perceptions. In Study 1, smokers answered questions about their sense of self, dependence on smoking, and motivation to quit. Nonsmokers answered questions about their perceptions of these characteristics. Differences between smokers’ self-descriptions and nonsmokers’ perceptions were observed. Study 2 asked nonsmokers to judge two types of smokers for which the descriptions were based on Study 1 findings. Results showed that nonsmokers held a more negative attitude about and were less willing to engage in different close relationships with the smoker who was described in terms of nonsmokers’ perceptions rather than smokers’ reports. Attitude mediated the relationship between type of smoker and willingness to date a smoker.

Dillard, Amanda J.; Magnan, Renee E.; Koblitz, Amber R.; McCaul, Kevin D.

2012-01-01

140

Difference between smokers and non-smokers in the corpus callosum volume.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of smoking on corpus callosum volume. In addition, the relationships between smoking duration, smoking frequency, and corpus callosum volume were analyzed. Magnetic resonance brain images were acquired for 58 normal Korean men (30 smokers (age 32.82±14.12 years) and 28 non-smokers (age 35.49±13.11 years)). The corpus callosum volume was measured using Brain Voyager 2000S/W and was normalized by intracranical volume, which was calculated using cerebral sizes. The corpus callosum volume for smokers was significantly smaller than that for non-smokers. Also, there was a negative correlation between corpus callosum volume and smoking duration. The change of white matter volume (e.g., corpus callosum) might be a primary factor for characterizing the effects of smoking. PMID:20804817

Choi, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Su-Jeong; Yang, Jae-Woong; Kim, Ji-Hye; Choi, Jin-Seung; Park, Jang-Yeon; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Tack, Gye-Rae; Lee, Beob-Yi; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Chung, Soon-Cheol

2010-11-12

141

On the global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields: One decade later  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the last global compilation one decade ago, the known number of active submarine hydrothermal vent fields has almost doubled. At the end of 2009, a total of 518 active vent fields was catalogued, with about half (245) visually confirmed and others (273) inferred active at the seafloor. About half (52%) of these vent fields are at mid-ocean ridges (MORs), 25% at volcanic arcs, 21% at back-arc spreading centers (BASCs), and 2% at intra-plate volcanoes and other settings. One third are in high seas, and the nations with the most known active vent fields within EEZs are Tonga, USA, Japan, and New Zealand. The increase in known vent fields reflects a number of factors, including increased national and commercial interests in seafloor hydrothermal deposits as mineral resources. Here, we have comprehensively documented the percentage of strike length at MORs and BASCs that has been systematically explored for hydrothermal activity. As of the end of 2009, almost 30% of the ~60,000 km of MORs had been surveyed at least with spaced vertical profiles to detect hydrothermal plumes. A majority of the vents discovered at MORs in the past decade occurred at segments with < 60 mm/yr full spreading rate. Discoveries at ultra-slow MORs in the past decade included the deepest known vent (Beebe at Mid-Cayman Rise) and high-temperature black smoker vents (e.g., Dragon at SWIR and Loki's Castle at Mohns Ridge), and the highest temperature vent was measured at the slow-spreading S MAR (Turtle Pits). Using a previously published equation for the linear relationship between the number of active vent fields per 100 km strike length (F_s) vs. weighted-average full spreading rate (u_s), we predicted 676 vent fields remaining to be discovered at MORs. Even accounting for the lower F_s at slower spreading rates, almost half of the vents that are predicted remaining to be discovered at MORs are at ultra-slow to slow spreading rates (< 40 mm/yr) and about 1/3 at intermediate rates (40-80 mm/yr). MOR regions that are little explored tend to be at high latitudes, such as the ultra-slow to slow spreading Arctic MORs (e.g., Kolbeinsey and Mohns Ridges), the ultra-slow American-Antarctic Ridge, and the intermediate spreading Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Although a greater percentage of the ~11,000 km of BASCs has been surveyed for hydrothermal activity, the discoveries at BASCs in the past decade were mainly at segments with intermediate to fast spreading rates. Using the same equation for F_s vs. u_s, we predicted 71 vent fields remaining to be discovered at BASCs, and most are likely to be found at ultra-slow and slow spreading segments (e.g., Andaman Basin, and central to northern Mariana Trough). With 2/3 of our overall predicted total vent fields at spreading ridges remaining to be discovered, we expect that the next decade of exploration will continue to yield new discoveries, leading to new insights into biogeography of vent fauna and the global impacts of fluxes of heat and materials from vents into our oceans.

Beaulieu, S. E.; Baker, E. T.; German, C. R.

2012-12-01

142

Characteristics and smoking patterns of intermittent smokers.  

PubMed

Current models of smoking and dependence assume a need to smoke at regular intervals to maintain nicotine levels, yet about 25% of adult smokers do not smoke daily. This subset of intermittent smokers (ITS) has gone largely unexamined. In this study, we describe the demographics, smoking history, and smoking behavior of ITS (n = 282; 50.2% male) in comparison to daily smokers (DS; n = 233; 60.7% male). Within ITS, we also compare "converted" ITS (CITS), who had previously smoked daily, with "native" ITS (NITS). On average, ITS were 34.66 years of age, and had smoked 42,850 cigarettes in the course of an average of 18 years of smoking. They smoked an average of 4.38 days per week, consuming 4.39 cigarettes a day on smoking days, and demonstrated considerable day-to-day variability in cigarette consumption. Almost half of ITS had Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence scores of 0, indicating no dependence. Compared to DS, ITS were more likely to cite alcohol drinking, socializing, and being with other smokers as common contexts for smoking, and they also more often cited being angry or stressed. Data suggested that ITS' behavior was not explained by use of other nicotine products nor by economic constraints on smoking, nor by differences in psychological adjustment. Within ITS, CITS were heavier, more frequent, and more dependent smokers. In many respects, CITS were intermediate between NITS and DS. ITS show distinct patterns of smoking behavior that are not well explained by current models of nicotine dependence. PMID:22390208

Shiffman, Saul; Tindle, Hilary; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah; Dunbar, Michael; Mitchell-Miland, Chantele

2012-08-01

143

Cerebral effects of nicotine during cognition in smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the smoker, nicotine has a positive effect on attention, cognition and mood. Conversely, nicotine abstinence is characterized\\u000a by uncomfortable psychological effects such as impaired attention, but also irritability. We postulated that nicotine exerts\\u000a an effect on cerebral areas important for attention and mood. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), as an index for cerebral\\u000a activity, was measured in both smokers

P. H. Ghatan; M. Ingvar; L. Eriksson; S. Stone-Elander; M. Serrander; K. Ekberg; J. Wahren

1998-01-01

144

Altered Antigenic Profiling and Infectivity of Porphyromonas gingivalis in Smokers and Non-Smokers With Periodontitis.  

PubMed

Background: Cigarette smokers are more susceptible to periodontal diseases and are more likely to be infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis than non-smokers. Furthermore, smoking is known to alter the expression of P. gingivalis surface components and compromise immunoglobulin (Ig)G generation. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the overall IgG response to P. gingivalis is suppressed in smokers in vivo and whether previously established in vitro tobacco-induced phenotypic P. gingivalis changes would be reflected in vivo. Methods: The authors examined the humoral response to several P. gingivalis strains as well as specific tobacco-regulated outer membrane proteins (FimA and RagB) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in biochemically validated (salivary cotinine) smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis (CP: n = 13) or aggressive periodontitis (AgP: n = 20). The local and systemic presence of P. gingivalis DNA was also monitored by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Smoking was associated with decreased total IgG responses against clinical (10512, 5607, and 10208C; all P <0.05) but not laboratory (ATCC 33277, W83) P. gingivalis strains. Smoking did not influence IgG produced against specific cell-surface proteins, although a non-significant pattern toward increased total FimA-specific IgG in patients with CP, but not AgP, was observed. Seropositive smokers were more likely to be infected orally and systemically with P. gingivalis (P <0.001), as determined by 16S RNA analysis. Conclusion: Smoking alters the humoral response against P. gingivalis and may increase P. gingivalis infectivity, strengthening the evidence that mechanisms of periodontal disease progression in smokers may differ from those of non-smokers with the same disease classification. PMID:24147843

Zeller, Iris; Hutcherson, Justin A; Lamont, Richard J; Demuth, Donald R; Gumus, Pinar; Nizam, Nejat; Buduneli, Nurcan; Scott, David A

2014-06-01

145

The Compensating Behavior of Smokers: Taxes, Tar, and Nicotine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 1979 and 1987 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we test whether smokers alter their smoking habits in the face of higher taxes. Smokers in high-tax states are more likely to smoke cigarettes higher in tar and nicotine. Although taxes reduce the number of cigarettes consumed per day among remaining smokers, total daily tar and nicotine intake

William N. Evans; Matthew C. Farrelly

1998-01-01

146

A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

Patten, Christi A.

2000-01-01

147

The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence in a Dutch sample of daily smokers and ex-smokers.  

PubMed

We explored the performance of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) in a sample of 1378 daily smokers and 1058 ex-smokers who participated in a survey study of the Netherlands Twin Register. FTND scores were higher for smokers than for ex-smokers. Nicotine dependence level was not associated with age. FTND score was highly correlated with the maximum number of cigarettes smoked (even after excluding the item 'number of cigarettes per day' from FTND), but the FTND score showed a low correlation with age of first cigarette and total number of years smoked. In a subsample of smokers (n = 143) and ex-smokers (n = 181) the test-retest correlations for the FTND were high. In general, the performance of the FTND in ex-smokers was comparable with that in smokers. These findings suggest the FTND to be a valuable tool for studies of nicotine dependence in large epidemiological samples. PMID:15718074

Vink, Jacqueline M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Beem, A Leo; Boomsma, Dorret I

2005-03-01

148

No difference in striatal dopamine transporter availability between active smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers using [123I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and SPECT  

PubMed Central

Background Mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways play important roles in both the rewarding and conditioning effects of drugs. The dopamine transporter (DAT) is of central importance in regulating dopaminergic neurotransmission and in particular in activating the striatal D2-like receptors. Molecular imaging studies of the relationship between DAT availability/dopamine synthesis capacity and active cigarette smoking have shown conflicting results. Through the collaboration between 13 SPECT centres located in 10 different European countries, a database of FP-CIT-binding in healthy controls was established. We used the database to test the hypothesis that striatal DAT availability is changed in active smokers compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers. Methods A total of 129 healthy volunteers were included. Subjects were divided into three categories according to past and present tobacco smoking: (1) non-smokers (n = 64), (2) ex-smokers (n = 39) and (3) active smokers (n = 26). For imaging of the DAT availability, we used [123I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Data were collected in collaboration between 13 SPECT centres located in 10 different European countries. The striatal measure of DAT availability was analyzed in a multiple regression model with age, SPECT centre and smoking as predictor. Results There was no statistically significant difference in DAT availability between the groups of active smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers (p = 0.34). Further, we could not demonstrate a significant association between striatal DAT and the number of cigarettes per day or total lifetime cigarette packages in smokers and ex-smokers. Conclusion Our results do not support the hypothesis that large differences in striatal DAT availability are present in smokers compared to ex-smokers and healthy volunteers with no history of smoking.

2013-01-01

149

Bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in human lung: its distribution in smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--Bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is a normal component of the lung's immune system in many animals and may be analogous to gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). This study aimed at assessing the nature and extent of BALT in human lung and determining whether its expression is induced within the human airway in response to smoking. METHODS--Paraffin embedded, formalin fixed full thickness bronchial wall sections were examined from 31 whole lung specimens derived from both smokers and non-smokers. Samples were taken from throughout the bronchial tree to include main stem bronchi, lobar bronchi and segmental bronchi, as well as first to third generation carinae. Standard 4 microns step sections were stained by haematoxylin and eosin and immunocytochemical methods to show foci of BALT. RESULTS--Examination of 256 airway sites detected 46 foci of BALT. These differed from those described in other mammals in being distributed throughout the bronchial tree, in being found in relation to bronchial glandular epithelium as well as luminal bronchial epithelium, and in lacking any accompanying M cells. Analysis by smoking status showed that the expression of BALT was significantly more common in smokers than non-smokers (82% (14/17) v 14% (2/14) respectively). CONCLUSIONS--The findings support the view that BALT in humans is an integral feature in a comparatively small proportion of lungs from non-smokers while being significantly more prominent in lungs from smokers. The tissue shows several important differences from that described in other mammals. Images

Richmond, I.; Pritchard, G. E.; Ashcroft, T.; Avery, A.; Corris, P. A.; Walters, E. H.

1993-01-01

150

Submarine hydrothermal fossils confirmed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers from Princeton University (D. Crerrar et al, Econ. Geol., May 1982) have documented, in considerable detail, evidence for the formation of some of the 800 or more manganiferous chert deposits occurring in the central belt of the Fransiscan formation in northwestern California. They confirm the surprisingly old conclusion o f Tiaferro and Hudson (Cal. Div. Mines Bull., 125, 217-276, 1943) that the Fransiscan chert deposits probably represent the fossil remains of submarine hydrothermal vents.The deposits resemble recently discovered hydrothermal mounds near the Galapagos rift, the Gulf of Aden, and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. As the Princeton investigators point out, there are important implications of the existence of deep hydrothermal circulation systems at oceanic spreading centers throughout geologic time. They note that the calculated annual flow of hydrothermal fluids in such processes is about 1017 g, which implies that the entire volume of the oceans could circulate completely every 10 million years. With such circulation, the hydrothermal processes along midocean ridges could control the composition of seawater and strongly influence the geochemical flux of elements in the marine environment.

Bell, Peter M.

151

Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (?18 years) smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS) data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely to have made a quit attempt than white non-menthol users. Conclusions Most correlates of quit attempts were similar across all racial/ethnic groups. Therefore population-based comprehensive tobacco control programs that increase quit attempts and successful cessation among all racial/ethnic groups should be continued and expanded. Additional strategies may be needed to encourage quit attempts among less educated, older, and more addicted smokers.

Kahende, Jennifer W.; Malarcher, Ann M.; Teplinskaya, Anna; Asman, Kat J.

2011-01-01

152

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Ceramic Powders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The history of the hydrothermal synthesis is summarized and an appropriate definition of hydrothermal processing and its associated conditions is described. The chronological development of the present large scale process as it is now in operation in the ...

P. Krijgsman

1992-01-01

153

Differential effects of dietary supplements on metabolomic profile of smokers versus non-smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette smoking is well-known to associate with accelerated skin aging as well as cardiovascular disease and lung cancer, in large part due to oxidative stress. Because metabolites are downstream of genetic variation, as well as transcriptional changes and post-translational modifications of proteins, they are the most proximal reporters of disease states or reversal of disease states. Methods In this study, we explore the potential effects of commonly available oral supplements (containing antioxidants, vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids) on the metabolomes of smokers (n = 11) compared to non-smokers (n = 17). At baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation, metabolomic analysis was performed on serum by liquid and gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS and GC-MS). Furthermore, clinical parameters of skin aging, including cutometry as assessed by three dermatologist raters blinded to subjects' age and smoking status, were measured. Results Long-chain fatty acids, including palmitate and oleate, decreased in smokers by 0.76-fold (P = 0.0045) and 0.72-fold (P = 0.0112), respectively. These changes were not observed in non-smokers. Furthermore, age and smoking status showed increased glow (P = 0.004) and a decrease in fine wrinkling (P = 0.038). Cutometry showed an increase in skin elasticity in smokers (P = 0.049) but not in non-smokers. Complexion analysis software (VISIA) revealed decreases in the number of ultraviolet spots (P = 0.031), and cutometry showed increased elasticity (P = 0.05) in smokers but not non-smokers. Conclusions Additional future work may shed light on the specific mechanisms by which long-chain fatty acids can lead to increased glow, improved elasticity measures and decreased fine wrinkling in smokers' skin. Our study provides a novel, medicine-focused application of available metabolomic technology to identify changes in sera of human subjects with oxidative stress, and suggests that oral supplementation (in particular, commonly available antioxidants, vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids) affects these individuals in a way that is unique (compared to non-smokers) on a broad level.

2012-01-01

154

Water-Rock Reaction, Substrate Composition, Magmatic Degassing, and Mixing as Major Factors Controlling Vent Fluid Compositions in Manus Basin Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major objective of cruise MGLN06MV to the Manus Basin, north of Papua New Guinea, was the use of vent fluid chemistry as a guide to sub-seafloor processes occurring within four major areas of hydrothermal activity. A broad spectrum of high and low temperature fluids were sampled using gas-tight and syringe style "major" samplers from black smoker chimneys, white smoker spires, and igneous and sediment substrates. The majority of fluids exhibit salinities lower or higher than seawater, consistent with phase separation having occurred at or below the seafloor. Preliminary shipboard analyses of 273 to 285C vent fluids at the basalt- hosted Vienna Woods system (Manus Spreading Center) indicate that black/grey smoker fluids are characterized by compositions and pH similar to fluids sampled from other basalt-hosted (e.g., mid-ocean ridge (MOR)) systems. In contrast, the majority of fluids sampled from felsic-hosted hydrothermal systems in the eastern Manus Basin exhibit substantially lower pH and greater compositional variability within an individual vent field. High temperature fluids from four different areas of venting at the PACMANUS (Papua New Guinea Australia Canada Manus) vent field exhibit temperatures from 271 to 356C, pH from 2.3 to 2.8, H2 from 8 to 325 umol/l, H2S from 2.5 to 26 mmol/l, and CH4 from 8 to 39 umol/l. The low pH of these fluids (relative to MOR fluids) may reflect water-rock reaction with felsic rocks, input of magmatic volatiles (as proposed for the Mariner Field on the Valu Fa Ridge), and subsurface deposition of metal sulfides. Lower temperature fluids (80 to 180C) at PACMANUS exhibit higher pH (4.9 to 3.4). White smoker fluids (70 to 115C) collected at the DESMOS Caldera, were extraordinarily acidic (pH = 1.0 to 1.5), with very low H2S and CH4 concentrations. The composition of these fluids supports the hypothesis of Gamo et al. (Geology 25, 1997) that they reflect a mixture of magmatic volatiles and heated seawater. Fluids collected from vent fields within the SuSu Knolls area exhibited the largest range in properties. For example, on the lower flanks of the North Su vent field, extremely acidic fluids (pH = 0.87 to 1.8) were recovered from cracks within volcaniclastic debris with measured temperatures of 48 to 215C. These fluids are CH4 and H2S poor, with salinities identical to that of seawater, and, as at DESMOS, likely represent a mix of magmatic volatiles and heated seawater. Further up the flanks of the North Su vent field, high temperature fluids (300 to 325C) exhibit more moderate pH (2.8 to 3.5), higher H2S abundances (5.3 to 7.7 umol/l) and very high CH4 concentrations (91 to 566 umol/l). High temperature fluids recovered from the Suzette vent fields also contained high concentrations of CH4 (90 to 503 umol/l). Elevated CH4 concentrations in fluids from the SuSu Knolls area may reflect entrainment of CH4 generated by thermal alteration of organic sediments or biomass.

Seewald, J.; Reeves, E.; Saccocia, P.; Rouxel, O.; Walsh, E.; Price, R.; Tivey, M.; Bach, W.; Tivey, M.

2006-12-01

155

Reduction of the Nailfold Capillary Blood Velocity in Cigarette Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette smoking causes cardiovascular disease and activates markers of endothelial dysfunction or injury. We investigated the nailfold capillary blood velocity (NCV) in cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers. Methods Forty-eight men (eighteen non-smokers and thirty smokers) were recruited. We measured NCV using nailfold capillary microscopy and exhaled carbon monoxide (ECO) concentration three times (before smoking; NCV0min and ECO0min, and after smoking; NCV5min, ECO5min, NCV30min, and ECO30min), in a condition of fasting in the case of smokers. In non-smokers, the same measurements were taken without smoking. Additionally, personal cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking history were acquired by a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Mean age, waist circumference, ECO0min, ECO5min, and ECO30min was higher and NCV5min and NCV30min were significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Total smoking years were negatively correlated with NCV5min. Average pack of the daily smoking, total pack-years, as well as total smoking years were also negatively correlated with NCV30min by regression analysis. After adjustment of significantly different variables, NCV30min was significantly lower in smokers. In the subgroup analysis, the interleukin-6 level was significantly increased in subjects with a long period of cigarette smoking compared with non-smokers. Conclusion Reduction of NCV in smokers is associated with personal smoking history, not with body composition or certain oxidative stress markers.

Kim, Kwang-Min; Lee, Duck-Joo

2012-01-01

156

Higher Rates of Clostridium difficile Infection among Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objectives Cigarette smoking has been shown to be related to inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated whether smoking affected the probability of developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Methods We conducted a longitudinal study of 16,781 older individuals from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study. Data were linked to files from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Results Overall, the rate of CDI in older individuals was 220.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 193.3, 248.0). Rates of CDI were 281.6/100,000 person-years in current smokers, 229.0/100,000 in former smokers and 189.1/100,000 person-years in never smokers. The odds of CDI were 33% greater in former smokers (95% CI: 8%, 65%) and 80% greater in current smokers (95% CI: 33%, 145%) when compared to never smokers. When the number of CDI-related visits was evaluated, current smokers had a 75% increased rate of CDI compared to never smokers (95% CI: 15%, 167%). Conclusions Smoking is associated with developing a Clostridium difficile infection. Current smokers have the highest risk, followed by former smokers, when compared to rates of infection in never smokers.

Rogers, Mary A. M.; Greene, M. Todd; Saint, Sanjay; Chenoweth, Carol E.; Malani, Preeti N.; Trivedi, Itishree; Aronoff, David M.

2012-01-01

157

Efficacy of low and high dose inhaled corticosteroid in smokers versus non-smokers with mild asthma  

PubMed Central

Background: Cigarette smokers with asthma are insensitive to short term inhaled corticosteroid therapy, but efficacy when given for a longer duration at different doses is unknown. Methods: Ninety five individuals with mild asthma were recruited to a multicentre, randomised, double blind, parallel group study comparing inhaled beclomethasone in doses of 400 µg or 2000 µg daily for 12 weeks in smokers and non-smokers. The primary end point was the change in morning peak expiratory flow (PEF). Secondary end points included evening PEF, use of reliever inhaler, number of asthma exacerbations, spirometric parameters, and asthma control score. Results: After 12 weeks of inhaled beclomethasone there was a considerable difference between the morning PEF measurements of smokers and non-smokers with asthma (–18 (95% CI –35 to –1), adjusted p = 0.035). Among those receiving 400 µg daily there was a difference between the mean (95% CI) morning PEF (l/min) in smokers and non-smokers (–25 (95% CI –45 to –4), adjusted p = 0.019) and in the number of asthma exacerbations (6 v 1 in smokers and non-smokers, respectively, p = 0.007). These differences were reduced between smokers and non-smokers receiving 2000 µg inhaled beclomethasone daily. Conclusions: Compared with non-smokers, smokers with mild persistent asthma are insensitive to the therapeutic effect of low dose inhaled corticosteroid treatment administered for a 12 week period. The disparity of the response between smokers and non-smokers appears to be reduced with high dose inhaled corticosteroid. These findings have important implications for the management of individuals with mild asthma who smoke.

Tomlinson, J; McMahon, A; Chaudhuri, R; Thompson, J; Wood, S; Thomson, N

2005-01-01

158

'We will speak as the smoker': the tobacco industry's smokers' rights groups  

PubMed Central

Introduction The tobacco industry usually keeps its commercial and political communications separate. However, the images of the smoker developed by the two types of communication may contradict one another. This study assesses industry attempts to organize ‘smokers’ rights groups,’ (SRGs) and the image of the smoker that underlay these efforts. Methods Searches of the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, the British American Tobacco documents database, and Tobacco Documents Online. Results 1100 documents pertaining to SRGs were found, including groups from across Europe and in Australia, New Zealand, and Hong Kong. From the late 1970s through the late 1990s they were active in numerous policy arenas, particularly the defeat of smoke-free laws. Their strategies included asserting their right to smoke and positioning themselves as courteous victims of tobacco control advocates. However, most SRGs were short-lived and apparently failed to inspire smokers to join in any significant numbers. Conclusion SRGs conflated the legality of smoking with a right to smoke. SRGs succeeded by focusing debates about smoke-free policies on smokers rather than on smoke. However, SRGs’ inability to attract members highlights the conflict between the image of the smoker in cigarette ads and that of the smokers’ rights advocate. The changing social climate for smoking both compelled the industry’s creation of SRGs, and created the contradictions that led to their failure. As tobacco control becomes stronger, the industry may revive this strategy in other countries. Advocates should be prepared to counter SRGs by exposing their origins and exploiting these contradictions.

Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

2009-01-01

159

Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions such as leukoplakia and hairy tongue. Controversy exists in the literature, however, about the prevalence of oral lesions in smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral lesions in male smokers compared with nonsmokers in Hamadan. A total of 516 male participants were assessed, 258 of whom were smokers and 258 of whom were healthy nonsmokers. The prevalence of lesions was evaluated by clinical observation and biopsy. We found that the most prevalent lesions among smokers were gingival problems and coated tongue; smokers had significantly more lesions than did nonsmokers. Malignant and premalignant lesions were found in a higher age range. Among all participants in our study, we found a large number of oral mucosal lesions in smokers that had a strong correlation with smoking. Dental services need to implement care and health education for smokers to promote health.

Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Hayati, Zahra; Rezaei, Farzad

2013-01-01

160

Genetic risk assessment in hookah smokers.  

PubMed

The genotoxic effect of hookah smoke was investigated on somatic chromosomes of 35 occupationally nonexposed male hookah smokers. These were compared with an equal number of nonsmokers matched with respect to age, sex, drug intake, if any, and socio-economic status. The mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and satellite associations (SA) were analysed. All the parameters showed a significant increase (p < 0.01) in the smokers compared with control individuals, viz MI, 3.88-5.41; CA, 0.94-2.22; SCE, 3.59-5.66; and SA, 5.2-8.65. A distinct time and dose effect relationship was observed. Hookah smoke is thus, both clastogenic and genotoxic for human beings. PMID:10756983

Yadav, J S; Thakur, S

2000-01-01

161

Genetics might determine which smokers get hooked  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have identified genetic risk factors that may accelerate a teen's progression to becoming a lifelong heavy smoker. The team of scientists from the U.S., the U.K., and New Zealand examined earlier studies by other research teams to develop a genetic risk profile for heavy smoking. Then they looked at their own long-term study of 1,000 New Zealanders from birth to age 38 to identify whether individuals at high genetic risk got hooked on cigarettes more quickly as teens and whether, as adults, they had a harder time quitting. Duke University researchers developed a new "genetic risk score" for the study by examining prior genome-wide associations (GWAS) of adult smokers. Duke is home to the Duke Cancer Institute.

162

Magnetic and Electron Microscopic Investigation on Rock Samples from the PACMANUS Hydrothermal Vent Field in Papua New Guinea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PACMANUS hydrothermal vent field in the Eastern Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, is considered as a modern-day analog of massive volcanogenic sulfide deposits within felsic volcanic sequence. This active vent field was drilling in November-December 2003 by Ocean Drilling Program Leg 193. The recovery was generally low with less than 15% due to fragility of rocks. Paleomagnetic measurements and scanning electron microscope observations were performed on samples from three major sites (Sites 1188, 1189 and 1191). Site 1188, a low-temperature diffused venting region, was drilled to 370 mbsf. Site 1189, a black smoker region, was drilled to a depth of 200 mbsf using RCB. The recovered rock samples have inclination close to the present-day Earth field (-7° ), but those near the seafloor have much steeper inclination of up to -25° . The upper 35 m of the sites consists of fresh to moderately altered dacite-rhyodacite, which exhibits moderately high natural remanent magnetization (< 6 A/m). The region below this extrusive layer largely comprises of pervasively altered rocks with little evidence of sulfide deposit and as a whole exhibits a low magnetization intensity. However, two intervals with extremely high remanent magnetization were discovered below the upper extrusive layer at Site 1188 (135-211 mbsf and 280-370 mbsf) and one interval at Site 1189 (137-190 mbsf). In particular, the samples between 135-211-mbsf interval at Site 1188 have extremely high remanence with intensities ranging up to 300-500 A/m. Although pockets of magnetite are not uncommon in the ancient hydrothermal ore bodies, they have seldom been documented in modern-day system, and little is known about the physical and chemical condition that allows the magnetite to form in hydrothermal vent systems. Two possibilities of magnetite formation are explored: one that these magnetites precipitated from magnetite-rich fluid as it cooled from above the Curie temperature (TRM) and the other that magnetization was acquired by the growth of magnetite grains below the Curie temperature (CRM).

Lee, S.; Doh, S.; Kim, Y.

2004-12-01

163

Lung cancer in never smokers: a review.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Although tobacco smoking accounts for the majority of lung cancer, approximately 10% of patients with lung cancer in the United States are lifelong never smokers. Lung cancer in the never smokers (LCINS) affects women disproportionately more often than men. Only limited data are available on the etiopathogenesis, molecular abnormalities, and prognosis of LCINS. Several etiologic factors have been proposed for the development of LCINS, including exposure to radon, cooking fumes, asbestos, heavy metals, and environmental tobacco smoke, human papillomavirus infection, and inherited genetic susceptibility. However, the relative significance of these individual factors among different ethnic populations in the development of LCINS has not been well-characterized. Adenocarcinoma is the predominant histologic subtype reported with LCINS. Striking differences in response rates and outcomes are seen when patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who are lifelong never smokers are treated with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) inhibitors such as gefitinib or erlotinib compared with the outcomes with these agents in patients with tobacco-associated lung cancer. Interestingly, the activating mutations in the EGFR-TK inhibitors have been reported significantly more frequently in LCINS than in patients with tobacco-related NSCLC. This review will summarize available data on the epidemiology, risk factors, molecular genetics, management options, and outcomes of LCINS. PMID:17290066

Subramanian, Janakiraman; Govindan, Ramaswamy

2007-02-10

164

Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal  

SciTech Connect

We are examining the effects on composition and behavior of Argonne-supplied Wyodak coal under both thermal (no added water/N{sub 2}) and hydrothermal (liquid water/N{sub 2}) conditions at 350{degree}C for periods of 30 min and 5 hr, with emphasis during this period on the longer treatment. Field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) of the untreated, thermally treated, and hydrothermally treated coals is conducted at conditions where the samples are heated from ambient to 500{degree}C at 2.5{degree}/min. In the 5 hr work the volatilities of the coals are 24%, 16%, and 25% respectively. Solvent swelling studies with the recovered coals do not demonstrate the expected lower degree of crosslinking in the hydrothermal case. Both the thermal and hydrothermal treatments yield products with a decreased swelling ratio, but the ratio for the product from the aqueous treatment is slightly lower than that from thermal treatment. At present we cannot reconcile this result with our other data. 4 refs., 6 figs.

Loo, Bock; Ross, D.S.

1990-08-14

165

Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers, and coal miners.  

PubMed

Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, miners, and control subjects and explore the relationship between EC level, exposure history, and the extent of chronic lung disease. The samples comprised three subgroups representing never smokers (8), chronic cigarette smokers (26), and coal miners (6). Following the dissolution of lung tissue, the extracted EC residue was quantified using a thermal-optical transmission (TOT) carbon analyzer. Mean EC levels in the lungs of the control group were 56.68 ± 24.86 (SD) ?g/g dry lung weight. Respective mean EC values in lung samples from the smokers and coal miners were 449.56 ± 320.3 ?g/g and 6678.2 ± 6162 ?g/g. These values were significantly higher than those obtained from the never-smoker group. EC levels in the lung and pack-years of cigarette smoking correlated significantly, as did EC levels and the severity of small airway disease. This study provides one of the first quantitative assessments of EC in human lungs from populations at high relative risk for the development of chronic lung disease. PMID:21480045

Saxena, Rajiv K; McClure, Michael E; Hays, Michael D; Green, Francis H Y; McPhee, Laura J; Vallyathan, V; Gilmour, M Ian

2011-01-01

166

Heavy smokers have higher bcl-2 mutation frequency and risk for lymphoma than non-smokers  

SciTech Connect

Early detection of cells carrying somatic mutations at oncogenic loci could prove useful for identifying individuals at high risk for cancer and permit intervention prior to the onset of clinically recognizable disease. We have determined the frequency of rare t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocations at the bcl-2 proto-oncogene locus in the peripheral blood of 85 smokers and 35 nonsmokers using a sensitive nested PCR assay. The identical translocation occurs in 85% of follicular lymphoma tumors, and about 50% of all non-Hodgkin`s Lymphoma. Smokers with the highest exposure had a 3.6-fold higher mutation frequency relative to the nonsmokers. Logistic regression analysis showed that of the variables tested (age, race, sex, current smoking, years of smoking, and pack-years), the cumulative smoking measure (pack-years) was the best predictor of t(14;18) frequency (p=0.004). These observations are consistent with two recent epidemiological studies showing 2.3-fold and 3.8-fold increased risk for Non-Hodgkins lymphoma among heavy smokers. The results support the hypothesis that smokers have an increased burden of lymphocytes bearing bcl-2 mutations which raises their individual risk for future lymphoid tumors. We speculate that the increased frequency of oncogenic translocations in smokers may result either from the mutagenic or antigenic activity of cigarette smoke.

Liu, Y.; Cortopassi, G.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Bell, D.A.

1994-09-01

167

Hydrothermal Reactivity of Amines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reactivity of aqueous amines depends on temperature, pH, and redox state [1], all of which are highly variable in hydrothermal systems. Temperature and pH affect the ratio of protonated to unprotonated amines (R-NH2 + H+ = R-NH3+), which act as nucleophiles and electrophiles, respectively. We hypothesize that this dual nature can explain the pH dependence of reaction rates, and predict that rates will approach a maximum at pH = pKa where the ratio of protonated and unprotonated amines approaches one and the two compounds are poised to react with one another. Higher temperatures in hydrothermal systems allow for more rapid reaction rates, readily reversible reactions, and unique carbon-nitrogen chemistry in which water acts as a reagent in addition to being the solvent. In this study, aqueous benzylamine was used as a model compound to explore the reaction mechanisms, kinetics, and equilibria of amines under hydrothermal conditions. Experiments were carried out in anoxic silica glass tubes at 250°C (Psat) using phosphate-buffered solutions to observe changes in reaction rates and product distributions as a function of pH. The rate of decomposition of benzylamine was much faster at pH 4 than at pH 9, consistent with the prediction that benzylamine acts as both nucleophile and an electrophile, and our estimate that the pKa of benzylamine is ~5 at 250°C and Psat. Accordingly, dibenzylamine is the primary product of the reaction of two benzylamine molecules, and this reaction is readily reversible under hydrothermal conditions. Extremely acidic or basic pH can be used to suppress dibenzylamine production, which also suppresses the formation of all other major products, including toluene, benzyl alcohol, dibenzylimine, and tribenzylamine. This suggests that dibenzylamine is the lone primary product that then itself reacts as a precursor to produce the above compounds. Analog experiments performed with ring-substituted benzylamine derivatives and chiral methylbenzylamine suggest an SN2 mechanism for the formation of dibenzylamine. These results show the interdependence of pH and speciation with amine reaction rates. We predict the distribution of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary amines in hydrothermal solutions can be used to solve for the pH of subsurface reaction zones in hydrothermal systems. [1] McCollom, T.M. (2013) The influence of minerals on decomposition of the n-alkyl-?-amino acid norvaline under hydrothermal conditions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 104, 330-357.

Robinson, K.; Shock, E.; Hartnett, H. E.; Williams, L. B.; Gould, I.

2013-12-01

168

volcanic architecture of an active felsic-hosted hydrothermal system reconstructed using rab-images and wireline logging data (odp hole 1189c)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 193 drilled an active black smoker field (Roman Ruins) of the PACMANUS hydrothermal system (Papua New Guinea), a hydrothermal system associated with felsic magmatism at a convergent plate margin. Leg 193 drilled three holes at this hydrothermal site but only two holes were cored and variably altered dacites were recovered. Hole 1189C was drilled 166 m deep without coring using Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) technique and employing the Resistivity-at-the-Bit (RAB) technique for the first time in ODP. Therefore, LWD data and additional wireline measurements, including Formation Microscanner (FMS) images recorded over a 40 m long interval, are of prime importance for reconstructing the different volcanic facies. The RAB provides electrical images of the borehole wall with lower spatial resolution than the images from the FMS tool but yields a full 360° coverage of the borehole wall. Volcanic facies were reconstructed by calibrating logs with the RAB and FMS images. Information on the volcanic facies as well as their petrophysical properties were taken from the cores in the neighboring holes. Using the combination of LWD and wireline measurements defined individual log response patterns for each facies could be defined. Massive units cause high electrical resistivity values and low total gamma-ray values The massive dacites belong to the coherent facies representing the interior part of lava flows where the erupted melt cools slowly. Brecciated and fractured material from the outer part of lava flows, the so-called volcaniclastic facies show low electrical resistivity and high gamma-ray counts. Sulfide disseminations developing in connection with hydrothermal fluids are characterized by high density and photoelectrical factor. In the RAB images fresh massive rocks of the coherent facies can be distinguished by the strongly altered material of the volcaniclastic facies. Besides in the FMS images it is possible to separate breccia from fractured units within the volcaniclastic facies. The reconstructed lithology of Hole 1189C consists of a complex facies association. The equal portions of coherent and volcaniclastic facies indicate a medial facies situated at the flanks of the subaqueous, lava-dominated felsic volcano.

Arnold, J.; Bartetzko, A.; Clauser, C.

2003-04-01

169

Do smokers with alcohol problems have more difficulty quitting?  

PubMed

This review compares nicotine dependence and the ability to stop smoking in smokers with no alcohol problems to smokers with current, past or lifetime (i.e., either current or past) alcohol problems. We searched computerized databases, meeting abstracts and made requests to listserves and grantees for comparisons of the above categories. We could not use meta-analyses and, thus, used consistency across studies to make conclusions. We located 17 articles on nicotine dependence, 12 on the ability to quit on a given attempt, 7 on lifetime quitting and 2 on quit attempts. Smokers with current and past alcohol problems were more nicotine dependent than smokers with no alcohol problems. Surprisingly, smokers with past problems were as able to quit on a given attempt as smokers with no problems. We hypothesize this may be because such smokers learned skills in resolving their alcohol problems that neutralized their increased nicotine dependence. Smokers with current or past alcohol problems appear to be less likely to quit in their lifetime. Given their equal ability to quit on a given attempt, this could be due to fewer quit attempts; however, whether this is actually so is unclear. Our results that smokers with past alcohol problems can quit as easily as those without alcohol problems suggest that smokers with past alcohol problems may respond to minimal treatments for smoking cessation. PMID:16188401

Hughes, John R; Kalman, David

2006-04-28

170

Smoking abstinence and reinstatement effects in adolescent cigarette smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction The study objectives were to examine smoking abstinence and reinstatement effects on subjective experience and cognitive performance among adolescent smokers. Methods Adolescents (aged 14–17 years, 60 daily smokers and 32 nonsmokers) participated. Participants completed baseline assessments (Session 1) and returned to the laboratory 1–3 days later to repeat assessments (Session 2); half of the smokers were randomly assigned to 15–17 hr tobacco abstinence preceding Session 2. Results During Session 2, abstaining smokers reported significantly greater increases in withdrawal symptoms, smoking urges, and negative affect compared with smokers who did not abstain and compared with nonsmokers. Smoking reinstatement reversed abstinence effects, returning to baseline levels for smoking urges and negative affect. Abstaining smokers showed significantly enhanced cognitive performance on two of six tasks (two-letter search compared with nonabstaining smokers; serial reaction time compared with nonsmokers); smoking reinstatement resulted in significant decrements on these two tasks relative to nonabstaining smokers. Discussion Effects of smoking abstinence and reinstatement on self-report measures are consistent with earlier research with adolescent as well as adult smokers and may help to elucidate the motivational underpinnings of smoking maintenance among adolescent smokers. Effects found on cognitive performance were contrary to hypotheses; further research is needed to understand better the role of cognitive performance effects in smoking maintenance among adolescents.

Leventhal, Adam M.; Brazil, Linda; Lewis-Esquerre, Johanna; Stein, L. A. R.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.; Niaura, Raymond S.

2010-01-01

171

Could a scheme for licensing smokers work in Australia?  

PubMed

In this article, we evaluate the possible advantages and disadvantages of a licensing scheme that would require adult smokers to verify their right to purchase tobacco products at point of sale using a smart-card licence. A survey of Australian secondary school students conducted in 2011 found that half of 17-2013-old smokers and one-fifth of 12-2013-old smokers believed it was "easy" or "very easy" to purchase cigarettes themselves. Reducing tobacco use by adolescents now is central to the future course of the current epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, since most current adult smokers began to smoke as adolescents--at a time when they were unable to purchase tobacco lawfully. The requirement for cigarette retailers to reconcile all stock purchased from wholesalers against a digital record of retail sales to licensed smokers would create a robust incentive for retailers to comply with laws that prohibit tobacco sales to children. Foreseeable objections to introducing a smokers licence need to be taken into account, but once we move beyond the "shock of the new", it is difficult to identify anything about a smokers licence that is particularly offensive or demeaning. A smoker licensing scheme deserves serious consideration for its potential to dramatically curtail retailers' violation of the law against selling tobacco to minors, to impose stricter accountability for sale of a uniquely harmful drug and to allow intelligent use of information about smokers' purchases to help smokers quit. PMID:23909540

Magnusson, Roger S; Currow, David C

2013-08-01

172

Relation of resistin levels with C-reactve protein, homocysteine and uric acid in smokers and non-smokers  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The association between C-reactive protein, homocysteine, uric acid levels and cardiovascular risk have been debated for decades. Resistin is a newly discovered adipocyte derived cytokine. Smoking besides its effect on atherosclerosis, is shown to alter adipocytokine levels. Bearing in mind, these complex relationship of resistin with smoking, C-reactive protein, homocysteine and uric acid, we planned to investigate the association of resistin and these cardiovascular risk factors in smoker and non-smoker subjects. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional randomized study including 52 smoking and 33 non-smoking men. After making comparisons of C-reactive protein, homocysteine, uric acid and resistin between the two groups, we classified the subjects according to their insulin resistance and body mass and made again the comparisons.. RESULTS: Resistin levels were higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p<0.001) and also in insulin resistant than in non-insulin resistant smokers (p<0.05). Resistin levels were indifferent in non-smokers as insulin resistance was concerned and in smoker or non-smokers as body mass index was concerned. As all subjects were grouped based on homeostasis model assesment index and body mass index, neither C-reactive protein nor homocysteine and uric acid levels differred. CONCLUSIONS: We found that smoking may have influence on resistin levels and in smokers, insulin resistance is related to resistin levels, but in smoker and non-smokers body mass may not have any association with resistin. Resistin also may not have a role in C-reactive protein, homocysteine and uric acid levels both in smokers and non-smokers.

Esbah, Onur; Gursoy, Gul; Kirnap, Nazli Gulsoy; Cetiner, Hacer; Demirbas, Berrin; Acar, Yasar; Bayram, Murat

2011-01-01

173

A family consultation intervention for health-compromised smokers  

PubMed Central

Although spousal support predicts the success of a smoker's cessation efforts, “social-support” interventions based on teaching partners better support skills have had consistently disappointing results. We examined the potential utility of a family consultation (FAMCON) intervention based on family-systems principles in a treatment–development project involving 20 couples in which one partner (the primary smoker) continued to smoke despite having or being at significant risk for heart or lung disease. The 50% rate of stable abstinence achieved by primary smokers over at least 6 months exceeds benchmark success rates reported in the literature for other comparably intensive interventions, suggesting that a couple-focused intervention different in concept and format from social-support interventions tested in the past may hold promise for health-compromised smokers. The FAMCON approach appeared particularly well suited to female smokers and smokers whose partner also smoked—two subgroups at high risk for relapse.

Shoham, Varda; Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Trost, Sarah E.; Muramoto, Myra

2009-01-01

174

Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hydrothermal method of synthesizing hydroxyapatite by heating a precipitate, formed by mixing Ca(NO3)2bold dot4H2O and (NH4)2HPO4 with distilled water, in a hydrothermal reactor at 200 °C for 24-72 hrs is described. A treatment time of 24 hrs produced single phase (as shown by XRD) hydroxyapatite powder, however for longer treatment times XRD patterns were indicative of the presence of a secondary phase, monetite (CaHPO4). SEM examination of the treated powders displayed particles of rod-like morphology with dimensions 100-500 nm in length and 10-60 nm in diameter. Preliminary results on the use of the particles for the infiltration of dentine tubules are presented.

Earl, J. S.; Wood, D. J.; Milne, S. J.

2006-02-01

175

Cigarette Litter: Smokers' Attitudes and Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly.

Rath, Jessica M.; Rubenstein, Rebecca A.; Curry, Laurel E.; Shank, Sarah E.; Cartwright, Julia C.

2012-01-01

176

Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.  

PubMed

Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly. PMID:22829798

Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

2012-06-01

177

Hydrothermal reactivity of saponite.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nature and extent of the reactions of synthetic Fe-free saponite have been investigated under experimental hydrothermal conditions as a first step towards understanding saponite reactivity under relatively simple conditions. Saponite crystallizes from amorphous gel of ideal saponite composition within 7 days at 300o-550oC under P = 1 kbar. Reactions subsequent to this initial crystallization depend on reaction T and interlayer cations. Saponite is found to react hydrothermally, over a period of 200 days, at T down to 400oC, at least 150oC lower than previously reported, but showed no signs of reaction below 400oC. At 450oC, a mixture of talc/saponite and saponite/phlogopite clays forms from K-saponite via intracrystalline layer transformations, while above 450oC the initial K-saponite dissolves, with talc and phlogopite forming as discrete phases. After 200 days reactions at 400-450oC were not complete, so that given sufficient time to reach equilibrium, a lower hydrothermal stability limit for saponite is possible. Further study of the Fe-bearing saponite system will be required before experimental results can be applied to natural systems.-D.F.B.

Whitney, G.

1983-01-01

178

Smokers' knowledge about smoking-related health problems in Lebanon.  

PubMed

The relationship between smokers' knowledge about smoking related health problems and the motivation to quit smoking in a sample of Lebanese smokers was evaluated. The first group of smokers was composed of hospitalized subjects for a cardiologic or a respiratory health problem (n = 42). The second group was composed of smokers who have not suffered from any smoking-related health problem (n = 69). A positive correlation was found between the Richmond test score and the knowledge level about smoking related health problems (r = .302; p = .0013). PMID:24041132

Khalil, Rami Bou; Aoun-Bacha, Zeina; Hlais, Sani; Richa, Sami

2014-02-01

179

Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

180

Lung cancer risks from residential radon among smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary lung cancer occurs mainly among elderly smokers. Smoking and radon are generally considered to be the main causes of lung cancer. By simply studying the age dependence of all primary lung cancer incidences it seems plausible to suggest that the risk for obtaining lung cancer from domestic radon is low for children. In addition, as there are few non-smoking

Anita Enflo

2002-01-01

181

Self-esteem, psychological distress, and coping styles in pregnant smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed

The literature underscores that psychological factors could play an important role in smoking behavior, which is considered a coping mechanism. To study relations among measures of self-esteem, psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping styles in pregnant smokers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. These factors were assessed in two groups of pregnant women (Smokers, n = 40; Non-smokers, n = 40) contacted at one University Hospital in Paris. All participants filled out the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Brief Cope Scale. Comparisons, correlations, and regression models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the group of pregnant women who smoked had significantly lower mean self-esteem, elevated psychological distress and anxiety scores, and reported using more emotion-focused coping than the group of pregnant non-smokers. Self-esteem significantly predicted problem-focused coping. This study confirms the importance of assessing these psychological variables to offer women more specific support to quit smoking. PMID:24693823

Varescon, Isabelle; Leignel, Shirley; Gérard, Caroline; Aubourg, Frédérique; Detilleux, Michel

2013-12-01

182

[Varenicline--a new chance for smokers?].  

PubMed

Cigarette smokers believe that quitting smoking is the hardest thing in their life. Modern pharmacology offers a wide range of various drugs and therapies that might support smoking cessation. One of the most effective drug is varenicline. Varenicline has been introduced this year to Polish pharmaceutical market by Pfizer company under the trade name Champix. The aim of the study was to critically review all new information about Champix pharmacology and pharmacokinetics but also evaluate safety and economical aspects of using this new drug. From the presented data it might be concluded that nowadays varenicline is the most effective drug used in smoking cessation (about 40%). The unique properties of varenicline, which is a partial agonist and antagonist to alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor, are the reasons of dual mechanism of the drug action. The agonist effect is caused by binding to nicotinic receptors and stimulating receptor-mediated activity. The antagonist effect occurs when varenicline blocks the ability of nicotine to activate nicotinic receptors. The most frequently adverse effects of varenicline are: nausea, headache, insomnia, and abnormal dreams. Although the price of complete therapy with Champix seems to be quite high, but potential benefits (in case of therapy finished successfully) are much higher than these costs. Pharmacological properties of varenicline described in the article, along with its high relative effectiveness and safeness, make the drug very attractive and promising for the smokers who want to quit. PMID:18409337

Goniewicz, Maciej Lukasz; Koszowski, Bartosz; Czoga?a, Jan; Sobczak, Andrzej

2007-01-01

183

Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.  

PubMed

Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. PMID:24387877

Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

2014-06-01

184

Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking: a study of smokers and former smokers*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. METHODS: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. RESULTS: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking.

Afonso, Maria Fernanda Besteiro; Alves, Maria Graca Pereira

2013-01-01

185

Cue reactivity in smokers: an event-related potential study.  

PubMed

Drugs-of-abuse may increase the salience of drug cues by sensitizing the dopaminergic (DA) system (Robinson and Berridge, 1993), leading to differential attention to smoking stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to assess attention to smoking cues but not using an ERP component associated with DA-mediated salience evaluation. In this study the DA-related P2a and the P3, were compared in smokers (N = 21) and non-smokers (N = 21) during an attention selection cue exposure task including both cigarette and neutral images. We predicted that both the P2a and P3 would be larger to targets than non-targets, but larger to non-target cigarette images than non-target neutral images only in the smokers, reflecting smokers' evaluation of smoking stimuli as relevant even when they were not targets. Results indicated that smokers showed behavioral cue reactivity, with more false alarms to cigarette images (responding to cigarette images when they were not targets) than non-smokers; however, both smokers and non-smokers had a larger P2a and P3 to cigarette images. Thus, while smokers showed behavioral evidence of differential salience evaluation of the cigarette images, this group difference was not reflected in differential brain activity. These findings may reflect characteristics of the ERPs (both ERP components were smaller in the smokers), the smoking sample (they were not more impulsive, i.e. reward sensitive, than the non-smokers, in contrast to prior studies) and the design (all participants were aware that the aim of the study was related to smoking). PMID:23958866

Bloom, Erika Litvin; Potts, Geoffrey F; Evans, David E; Drobes, David J

2013-11-01

186

Trends in serum cotinine concentrations among daily cigarette smokers: data from NHANES 1999-2010.  

PubMed

To the best of our knowledge, there have been no apparent studies of the trends in serum cotinine levels among smokers. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 1999-2010 were used to evaluate trends for serum cotinine levels; average number of cigarettes smoked per day; and Cambridge filter method (CFM) tar and CFM nicotine levels by gender, race/ethnicity, and cigarette mentholation status. Regression models were fitted to evaluate the factors associated with serum cotinine levels. Serum cotinine levels increased over time for both males and females, non-Hispanic whites and others. CFM nicotine levels also rose over time for cigarettes smoked by both males and females and by both non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks. Average number of cigarettes smoked per day decreased over time for females, non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks. CFM tar levels fell only for Mexican Americans. Exposure to second hand smoke at home was found to be associated with more than 1 ng/ml increase in serum cotinine levels. This large study on a nationally representative sample of daily smokers suggested that increasing concentrations of CFM nicotine in cigarettes over time led to elevated serum cotinine levels even though the number of cigarettes smoked daily remained relatively constant. PMID:24291557

Jain, Ram B

2014-02-15

187

Distribution and Sources of Trace Metals in Volcaniclastic Sediments of the SuSu Knolls Hydrothermal Field, Eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-one sediment cores from the Suzette sulfide mound (renamed Solwara 1 by Nautilus Minerals Inc) in the SuSu Knolls hydrothermal field, eastern Manus back-arc basin, were studied in order to outline anomalies in metal concentrations within the mound and to explain the sources of the anomalies. The sediment cores were collected during expeditions of Nautilus Minerals Inc in 2006 and 2007. The work complements our previous study of metalliferous sediments of the SuSu Knolls and aims to provide guidelines for exploration for seafloor massive sulfide deposits in both modern and ancient back-arc environments. In contrast to mid-ocean ridges, the sedimentation in back-arc basins is more complex and involves deposition of large amount of volcaniclastic material that may mask the hydrothermal signal. The SuSu Knolls are covered by an apron of laminated dark gray volcanic sandy silts and silty sands composed of various amounts of volcanic rock fragments, volcanic glass, Ca plagioclase, pyroxene, cristobalite, Si-rich amorphous material, alunite, pyrite, barite and magnetite. In many cases the gray volcaniclastic sediments exhibit patches and layers having a black or greenish-brown color that contain fecal pellets. On the western slope of Suzette (Solwara 1), dark gray volcaniclastic sediments overlie greenish, greenish-brown and greenish-black volcaniclastic sediments containing up to 10 wt % clay-size component that comprises alteration products of volcanic glass such as smectite, chlorite and X-ray amorphous material. In most cases black and greenish-brown colored sediments contain fecal pellets at different stages of preservation. The distributions of Au (19 ppb to 2 ppm), Cu (159 ppm to 1 wt %), Zn (35 ppm to 1333 ppm), Pb (7 ppm to 977 ppm) and Ba (0.05 wt % to 2.8 wt %) outline patchy anomalies throughout the sediments of the mound. The study showed that some volcaniclastic sediments as deep as 25 cm below seafloor that are proximal to chimneys and chimney fragments do not exhibit clear metal anomalies. Local strong anomalies in metal concentrations caused by dispersal of chimney sulfides in the volcaniclastic sediments were found on the rim of the mound. More widespread anomalies were detected down to 80 cm depth in greenish-brown and greenish- black volcaniclastic sediments from the western slope of the mound. Metal anomalies in these sediments may be a result of dispersal of fine-grained particles of secondary minerals, such as atacamite and Fe-oxyhydroxides, derived from oxidation of sulfide chimneys. Another possible source of the metals is hydrothermal particles that were deposited in the sediments within fecal pellets. With the exception of local anomalies in surface sediments around active chimneys, the current particulate plume emanating from black smokers does not leave a clear signal in the sediments covering the mound.

Hrischeva, E. H.; Scott, S. D.

2007-12-01

188

Middle Archean island arc volcano-hydrothermal sequence: 3.2-Ga Dixon Island Formation, coastal Pilbara terrane, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3.2-Ga Dixon Island Formation in the Cleaverville Group of the coastal Pilbara terrane, Australia, is one of the most complete and best-preserved examples of middle Archean oceanic stratigraphy. Field observations and geochemical evidence suggest that this formation contains a low-temperature hydrothermal-vent system with a biogenic microbial colony from the Archean ocean. The Dixon Island Formation is approximately 350 m thick and consists of the Rhyolite Tuff, Black Chert and Varicolored Chert members, in ascending order. The Rhyolite Tuff Member contains many vein swarms, such as fine quartz vein and two black-chert veins with in highly altered rhyolite tuff layers. This vein rich and highly altered vein zones are identified as an underground bypass zone for circulating hydrothermal fluid. The Black Chert Member, which is 10 - 15 m thick, is composed of massive black chert, laminated black chert, dark greenish siliceous shale, stromatolite-like biomat bed and tuffaceous laminated chert. The absence of detrital sediment of continental origin and the many vein injections imply that this sedimentary facies represents a pelagic hydrothermal environment at about 500 - 2000 m in paleodepth, and may have been on the slope of an immature island arc. More then 500 samples of detail chemical anarysis from black chert veins and black chert bed suggest that the total organic carbon (TOC) value of massive black chert in the lower part of the Black Chert Member is higher (TOC=0.15-0.45%) than that of the overlying laminated chert section (TOC=0.02-0.15%) and the black chert vein (TOC=0.1-0.13). The carbon isotope (delta13C) values of this lithology (-33 - -27 per mil) are also lighter than for the black-chert veins (-29--26 per mill) and the laminated black chert in the upper part of the Black Chert Member and the Vari-colored Chert Member (-27 - -13 per mil). Especially, -40 per mill carbon isotope identified near the biomat beds. These evidences suggest that the carbonaceous grains bearing massive black chert in the lower part of the Black Chert Member is identified as directory from the black chert vein. On the other hand, biogenic materials, biomat bed and very low carbon isotope suggest the biogenic activity formed above a low-temperature hydrothermal vent. The microbial colony may have been rapidly fossilized by silicification related to hydrothermal activity. Laminated black chert in the upper part of the Black Chert and the Varicolored Chert members may have formed by cyanobacterial sedimentation from the ocean surface.

Kiyokawa, S.; Katagami, A.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Kitajima, F.

2005-12-01

189

Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

2003-01-01

190

Helping a Smoker Quit: Do's and Don'ts  

MedlinePLUS

Helping a Smoker Quit: Do’s and Don’ts General hints for friends and family Do respect that the quitter is in ... or program they are using. If your ex-smoker “slips” Don’t assume that they will start ...

191

Optimistic Bias and Perceived Control among Cigarette Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have shown that cigarette smokers are generally aware of increased health risks associated with smoking, but that smokers tend to underestimate their own susceptibility to disease. In general, optimistic bias has been shown to increase with greater perceived control over an event or behavior; however, this phenomenon has not been examined…

Waltenbaugh, Adam W.; Zagummy, Matthew J.

2004-01-01

192

Optimistic bias in adolescent and adult smokers and nonsmokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimistic biases regarding the risks of smoking were examined among 200 adolescents (aged 12–17) and 203 adults (aged 30–50). Strong majorities of adolescent and adult smokers and nonsmokers agreed that smoking is addictive and causes death for “most people” who smoke. However, for themselves personally, adolescent and adult smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to doubt that they would die

Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

2000-01-01

193

Internet and Mobile Phone Text Messaging Intervention for College Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors developed a smoking cessation program using mobile phone text messaging to provide tailored and stage-specific messages to college smokers. Participants and Methods: The authors recruited 31 daily smokers who desired to quit from a college campus and asked them to use an Internet and mobile phone text messaging program to…

Riley, William; Obermayer, Jami; Jean-Mary, Jersino

2008-01-01

194

Lung cancer in never smokers — a different disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most lung cancers are a result of smoking, approximately 25% of lung cancer cases worldwide are not attributable to tobacco use, accounting for over 300,000 deaths each year. Striking differences in the epidemiological, clinical and molecular characteristics of lung cancers arising in never smokers versus smokers have been identified, suggesting that they are separate entities. This Review summarizes our

Sophie Sun; Joan H. Schiller; Adi F. Gazdar

2007-01-01

195

Symptom-Based Questionnaire for Identifying COPD in Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Symptom-based questionnaires may enhance chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) screening in primary care. Objectives: We prospectively tested questions to help identify COPD among smokers without prior history of lung disease. Methods: Subjects were recruited via random mailing to primary care practices in Aberdeen, UK, and Denver, Colo., USA. Current and former smokers aged 40 or older with no prior

David B. Price; David G. Tinkelman; R. J. Halbert; Robert J. Nordyke; Sharon Isonaka; Dmitry Nonikov; Elizabeth F. Juniper; Daryl Freeman; Thomas Hausen; Mark L. Levy; Anders Østrem; Thys van der Molen; Constant P. van Schayck

2006-01-01

196

Educating Smokers about Their Cigarettes and Nicotine Medications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers' Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group…

Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Brown, Anthony; Celestino, Paula

2010-01-01

197

Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least

Brad Rodu; William T Godshall

2006-01-01

198

Cody hydrothermal system  

SciTech Connect

The hot springs of Colter's Hell are the surface manifestations of a much larger hydothermal system. That system has been studied to define its extent, maximum temperature, and mechanism of operation. The study area covers 2700 km/sup 2/ (1040 mi/sup 2/) in northwest Wyoming. Research and field work included locating and sampling the hot springs, geologic mapping, thermal logging of available wells, measuring thermal conductivities, analyzing over 200 oil and gas well bottom-hole temperatures, and compiling and analyzing hydrologic data. These data were used to generate a model for the hydrothermal system.

Heasler, H.P.

1982-01-01

199

Analysis of exhaled breath from smokers, passive smokers and non-smokers by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this study, 38 samples of expired air were collected and analyzed from 20 non-smoking volunteers, four passive smokers and 14 smokers (21 women and 17 men). Measurements were carried out using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) as an isolation and preconcentration technique. The determination and identification were accomplished by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our data showed that ca 32% of all identified compounds in the breath of healthy non-smokers were saturated hydrocarbons. In the breath of smoking and passive smoking volunteers hydrocarbons were predominant, but also present were more exogenous analytes such as furan, acetonitrile and benzene than in the breath of non-smokers. Acetonitrile, furan, 3-methylfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran, 2-butanone, octane and decane were identified in breath of smoking and passive smoking persons. PMID:19039804

Buszewski, Bogus?aw; Ulanowska, Agnieszka; Ligor, Tomasz; Denderz, Natalia; Amann, Anton

2009-05-01

200

Lung cancer in never smokers Epidemiology and risk prediction models  

PubMed Central

In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model.

McCarthy, William J.; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh

2012-01-01

201

Compounds enhanced in a mass spectrometric profile of smokers' exhaled breath versus non-smokers as determined in a pilot study using PTR-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study has been carried out to define typical characteristics of the trace gas compounds in exhaled breath of non-smokers and smokers to assist interpretation of breath analysis data from patients who smoke with respiratory diseases and lung cancer. Exhaled breath was analyzed using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for 370 volunteers (81 smokers, 210 non-smokers, 79 ex-smokers). Volatile

Ievgeniia Kushch; Konrad Schwarz; Lukas Schwentner; Bettina Baumann; Alexander Dzien; Alex Schmid; Karl Unterkofler; Günter Gastl; Patrik Spanel; David Smith; Anton Amann

2008-01-01

202

Pulmonary Scopulariopsis in a chronic tobacco smoker.  

PubMed

A 70-year-old male smoker, with a three-month status of post-balloon angioplasty for ischaemic heart disease, presented with a one-week history of fever, haemoptysis and chest discomfort on coughing. The patient did not report any loss of weight or appetite. On examination, he was febrile. Pulmonary function tests revealed obstructive airway disease. High resolution computed tomography of the lungs revealed fibrosis with bronchiectasis in both the upper lobes, and a spiculating subpleural mass in the posterior aspect of the right lung apex. Subsequent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) culture yielded the Scopulariopsis species. Our patient was treated with a four-week course of amphotericin B, followed by itraconazole. At the 24-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic. Subsequent BAL cultures revealed no fungal growths, and radiological studies showed a regression in the lesion. PMID:20848053

Satyavani, M; Viswanathan, R; Harun, N S; Mathew, L

2010-08-01

203

Hydrothermal processes above the Yellowstone magma chamber: Large hydrothermal systems and large hydrothermal explosions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrothermal explosions are violent and dramatic events resulting in the rapid ejection of boiling water, steam, mud, and rock fragments from source craters that range from a few meters up to more than 2 km in diameter; associated breccia can be emplaced as much as 3 to 4 km from the largest craters. Hydrothermal explosions occur where shallow interconnected reservoirs of steam- and liquid-saturated fluids with temperatures at or near the boiling curve underlie thermal fields. Sudden reduction in confi ning pressure causes fluids to fl ash to steam, resulting in signifi cant expansion, rock fragmentation, and debris ejection. In Yellowstone, hydrothermal explosions are a potentially signifi cant hazard for visitors and facilities and can damage or even destroy thermal features. The breccia deposits and associated craters formed from hydrothermal explosions are mapped as mostly Holocene (the Mary Bay deposit is older) units throughout Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and are spatially related to within the 0.64-Ma Yellowstone caldera and along the active Norris-Mammoth tectonic corridor. In Yellowstone, at least 20 large (>100 m in diameter) hydrothermal explosion craters have been identifi ed; the scale of the individual associated events dwarfs similar features in geothermal areas elsewhere in the world. Large hydrothermal explosions in Yellowstone have occurred over the past 16 ka averaging ??1 every 700 yr; similar events are likely in the future. Our studies of large hydrothermal explosion events indicate: (1) none are directly associated with eruptive volcanic or shallow intrusive events; (2) several historical explosions have been triggered by seismic events; (3) lithic clasts and comingled matrix material that form hydrothermal explosion deposits are extensively altered, indicating that explosions occur in areas subjected to intense hydrothermal processes; (4) many lithic clasts contained in explosion breccia deposits preserve evidence of repeated fracturing and vein-fi lling; and (5) areal dimensions of many large hydrothermal explosion craters in Yellowstone are similar to those of its active geyser basins and thermal areas. For Yellowstone, our knowledge of hydrothermal craters and ejecta is generally limited to after the Yellowstone Plateau emerged from beneath a late Pleistocene icecap that was roughly a kilometer thick. Large hydrothermal explosions may have occurred earlier as indicated by multiple episodes of cementation and brecciation commonly observed in hydrothermal ejecta clasts. Critical components for large, explosive hydrothermal systems include a watersaturated system at or near boiling temperatures and an interconnected system of well-developed joints and fractures along which hydrothermal fluids flow. Active deformation of the Yellowstone caldera, active faulting and moderate local seismicity, high heat flow, rapid changes in climate, and regional stresses are factors that have strong infl uences on the type of hydrothermal system developed. Ascending hydrothermal fluids flow along fractures that have developed in response to active caldera deformation and along edges of low-permeability rhyolitic lava flows. Alteration of the area affected, self-sealing leading to development of a caprock for the hydrothermal system, and dissolution of silica-rich rocks are additional factors that may constrain the distribution and development of hydrothermal fields. A partial lowpermeability layer that acts as a cap to the hydrothermal system may produce some over-pressurization, thought to be small in most systems. Any abrupt drop in pressure initiates steam fl ashing and is rapidly transmitted through interconnected fractures that result in a series of multiple large-scale explosions contributing to the excavation of a larger explosion crater. Similarities between the size and dimensions of large hydrothermal explosion craters and thermal fields in Yellowstone may indicate that catastrophic events which result in l

Morgan, L. A.; Pat, Shanks, III, W. C.; Pierce, K. L.

2009-01-01

204

Distribution, structure and temporal variability of hydrothermal outflow at a slow-spreading hydrothermal field from seafloor image mosaics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lucky Strike hydrothermal site, located South of the Azores along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, is one of the largest and best-known active hydrothermal fields along the ridge system. This site within the MoMAR area is also the target for the installation in 2010 of a pilot deep-sea observatory with direct telemetry to land, to be part of the European Seafloor Observatory Network (ESONET). The Lucky Strike hydrothermal site has seen extensive high-resolution, near-bottom geophysical surveys in 1996 (Lustre'96), 2006 (Momareto06), 2008 (MOMAR08) and 2009 (Bathyluck09). Vertically acquired black-and-white electronic still camera images have been projected and georeferenced to obtain 3 image mosaics covering the zone of active venting, extending ~ 700x800 m2, and with full image resolution (~10 mm pixels). These data allow us to study how hydrothermal outflow is structured, including the relationships between the zones of active high-temperature venting, areas of diffuse outflow, and the geological structure (nature of the substrate, faults and fissures, sediments, etc.). Hydrothermal outflow is systematically associated with bacterial mats that are easily identified in the imagery, allowing us to study temporal variability at two different scales. Over the 13-year period we can potentially track changes in both the geometry and intensity of hydrothermal activity throughout the system; our preliminary study of the Eiffel Tower, White Castle and Mt Segur indicate that activity has been sustained in recent times, with small changes in the detailed geometry of the diffuse outflow and its intensity. At longer times scales (hundreds to 1000 years?) imagery also shows evidence of areas of venting that are no longer active, often associated with the active structures. In combination with the high-resolution bathymetry, the imagery data thus allow us to characterize the shallow structure of hydrothermal outflow at depth, the structural and volcanic control, and ultimately quantify the heat flux associates with this hydrothermal outflow. Image mosaics are also key for the installation of instrumentation required by temporal studies, and for the infrastructure of the ESONET pilot seafloor observatory. This type of survey techniques and studies can also be extended to other areas of interest, such as hydrothermal fields, cold seeps, etc.

Barreyre, Thibaut; Escartin, Javier; Cannat, Mathilde; Garcia, Rafael; Science Party, Momar'08; Science Party, Bathyluck'09

2010-05-01

205

Delay and probability discounting of multiple commodities in smokers and never-smokers using multiple-choice tasks.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate temporal and probabilistic discounting in smokers and never-smokers, across a number of commodities, using a multiple-choice method. One hundred and eighty-two undergraduate university students, of whom 90 had never smoked, 73 were self-reported light smokers (<10 cigarettes/day), and 17 were heavy smokers (10+cigarettes/day), completed computerized batteries of delay and probability discounting questions pertaining to a total of eight commodities and administered in a multiple-choice format. In addition to cigarettes, monetary rewards, and health outcomes, the tasks included novel commodities such as ideal dating partner and retirement income. The results showed that heavy smokers probability discounted commodities at a significantly shallower rate than never-smokers, suggesting greater risk-taking. No effect of smoking status was observed for delay discounting questions. The only commodity that was probability discounted significantly less than others was 'finding an ideal dating partner'. The results suggest that probability discounting tasks using the multiple-choice format can discriminate between non-abstaining smokers and never-smokers and could be further explored in the context of behavioral and drug addictions. PMID:24196025

Poltavski, Dmitri V; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

2013-12-01

206

"I Smoke but I Am Not a Smoker": Phantom Smokers and the Discrepancy between Self-Identity and Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article presents the development of a new smoking status, the "phantom smokers," who do not view themselves as smokers but report smoking cigarettes. Participants: Students from 2 universities in Michigan (N = 899; October 2005) and Florida (N = 1,517; May 2006) participated in surveys. Methods: Respondents in Michigan completed…

Choi, Youjin; Choi, Sejung Marina; Rifon, Nora

2010-01-01

207

Thermococcus sulfurophilus sp. nov., a New Hyperthermophilic, Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon Isolated from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P, was isolated from "black smoker" chimney material at the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site in the Atlantic Ocean (36.2 N; 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P have irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth occurs within pH range of 5.5-8.2 (optimal at pH 7.0-7.2), salinity range of 1-5% NaCl (optimal concentration 3% NaCl wt/vol), and temperature range of +55 C to +94 C (optimal growth at +83 C to +85 C). Strain OGL-20P is resistant to freezing (at -20 C). New isolate is strictly anaerobic with sulfur-type of respiration. A limited number of compounds are utilized as electron donors, including peptone, becto-tryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract but does not grow with separate amino acids. Sulfur and Iron can be used as electron acceptors; but not sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate or nitrate. Strain OGL-20P is resistant to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin. Growth of str. OGL20P is inhibited by tetracyclin but not by Na2MoO4. The G+C content of DNA is 57.2 mol%. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis allows one to classify strain OGL-20P as a representative of a now species of Thermococcus genus. The name Thermococcus sulfurophilus op. nov., was suggested for the new isolate, type strain OGL-20P (sup T) (= ATCC BAA_394 (sup T) = DSM...(supT)).

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Whitman, William B.; Marsic, Damien; Garriott, Owen; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

208

Ethylation and methylation of hemoglobin in smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two previous studies demonstrated elevated levels of 3-ethyladenine in smokers' urine, suggesting that cigarette smoke may contain a DNA ethylating agent. We hypo- thesized that such an agent would also lead to elevated levels of N-terminal N-ethylvaline in hemoglobin. N-terminal N-alkylated valines in hemoglobin can be measured using a modified Edman degradation, which employs penta- fluorophenyl isothiocyanate to produce a

Steven G. Carmella; Menglan Chen; Peter W. Villalta; James G. Gurney; Dorothy K. Hatsukami; Stephen S. Hecht

209

Dimensions of impulsivity among heavy drinkers, smokers, and heavy drinking smokers: singular and combined effects.  

PubMed

Alcohol use and cigarette smoking commonly co-occur. The role impulsivity may play as a common underlying mechanism in alcohol use and cigarette smoking is of particular interest due to emerging evidence of it being a critical component across multiple forms of addiction. Impulsivity can be examined through several constructs including, risky decision-making, response inhibition, and delay reward discounting. Impulsivity and each of these specific constructs play significant roles in the initiation of drug use, continued use despite negative consequences, and potential to relapse. This study used three behavioral tasks to measure risky decision-making (balloon analog risk test; BART), response inhibition (stop signal task; SST), and delay reward discounting (delay discounting task; DDT). This study advances research on impulsivity and substance use by parsing out the various components of impulsivity and examining them across three groups, heavy drinkers only (HD) (N=107), smokers only (S) (N=67), and heavy drinking smokers (HDS) (N=213). Participants completed questionnaires, interviews, and neurocognitive tasks including the SST, BART, and DDT. Analyses supported an additive effect of alcohol and nicotine use in delay reward discounting. Heavy drinking smokers displayed steeper delay discounting of small rewards than did smokers only (p<.05) and heavy drinkers only (p<.05). This additive effect of smoking and drinking was not observed for risky decision-making and response inhibition, suggesting specificity of the effects for delay reward discounting. These findings indicate that those who both drink heavily and smoke cigarettes daily have increased delay reward discounting, than those in the S and HD groups. Future studies should examine these constructs longitudinally, as well as incorporate genetic and/or a neuroimaging component to these group comparisons in order to ascertain the biological bases of these behavioral findings. PMID:22445419

Moallem, Nathasha R; Ray, Lara A

2012-07-01

210

DIMENSIONS OF IMPULSIVITY AMONG HEAVY DRINKERS, SMOKERS, AND HEAVY DRINKING SMOKERS: SINGULAR AND COMBINED EFFECTS  

PubMed Central

Alcohol use and cigarette smoking commonly co-occur. The role impulsivity may play as a common underlying mechanism in alcohol use and cigarette smoking is of particular interest due to emerging evidence of it being a critical component across multiple forms of addiction. Impulsivity can be examined through several constructs including, risky decision-making, response inhibition, and delay reward discounting. Impulsivity and each of these specific constructs play significant roles in the initiation of drug use, continued use despite negative consequences, and potential to relapse. This study used three behavioral tasks to measure risky decision-making (Balloon Analog Risk Test; BART), response inhibition (Stop Signal Task (SST), and delay reward discounting (Delay Discounting Task; DDT). This study advances research on impulsivity and substance use by parsing out the various components of impulsivity and examining them across three groups, heavy drinkers only (HD) (N =107), smokers only (S) (N=67), and heavy drinking smokers (HDS) (N=213). Participants completed questionnaires, interviews, and neurocognitive tasks including the SST, BART, and DDT. Analyses supported an additive effect of alcohol and nicotine use in delay reward discounting. Heavy drinking smokers displayed steeper delay discounting of small rewards than did smokers only (p < .05) and heavy drinkers only (p < .05). This additive effect of smoking and drinking was not observed for risky decision-making and response inhibition, suggesting specificity of the effects for delay reward discounting. These findings indicate that those who both drink heavily and smoke cigarettes daily have increased delay reward discounting, than those in the S and HD groups. Future studies should examine these constructs longitudinally, as well as incorporate genetic and/or a neuroimaging component to these group comparisons in order to ascertain the biological bases of these behavioral findings.

Moallem, Nathasha R.; Ray, Lara A.

2013-01-01

211

Hydrothermal venting activities in the Early Cambrian, South China: Petrological, geochronological and stable isotopic constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-episodic (three episodes at least) hydrothermal silica chimneys are identified in the black chert successions (up to ?100 m thick locally), overlain by thick black shales (up to a few 100 m thick), in the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary successions along the southern marginal zone of the Yangtze Platform, South China. Their occurrences are constrained within the lowermost Cambrian by the SHRIMP U–Pb zircon

Daizhao Chen; Jianguo Wang; Hairuo Qing; Detian Yan; Renwei Li

2009-01-01

212

Change in Smoking, Diet, and Walking for Exercise in Blacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive changes in one health behavior may be accompanied by other constructive health behavior changes. Thus, the authors investigated the association of smoking reduction and cessation to changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and engaging in walking for exercise. This study included 539 Black light smokers ([less than or equal to]10…

Berg, Carla J.; Thomas, Janet L.; An, Lawrence C.; Guo, Hongfei; Collins, Tracie; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2012-01-01

213

Paleomagnetic and Rock Magnetic Investigation of Felsic Hydrothermal Vent System in Back-Arc Setting: Preliminary Results from ODP Leg 193 to Eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PACMANUS hydrothermal vent field in the Eastern Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, has been considered as a modern-day analog of massive volcanogenic sulfide deposits within felsic volcanic sequence. This vent field was drilled during ODP Leg 193 in November-December, 2000. The recovery was generally low due to fragility of rocks. Of the four sites that were drilled, three (Sites 1188, 1189 and 1191) had sufficient recovery for detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study. Site 1188, a low-temperature diffused venting region, was drilled to 370 mbsf utilizing a combination of RCB, Hammer Drill, ADCB and casing, and Site 1189, a black smoker region, was drilled to a depth of 200 mbsf using RCB. Paleomagnetic analysis shows that recovered rock samples have inclination close to the present-day Earth field. The top 35 m of PACMANUS vent field consists of fresh to moderately altered dacite-rhyodacite and exhibits moderately high natural remanent magnetization (< 6 A/m). Although there are small intervals of markedly less intensive alteration, the region below this extrusive layer is largely comprised of pervasively altered rocks with little evidence of sulfide deposit and exhibits as a whole a low magnetization intensity. However, two intervals with high remanent magnetization (> 6 A/m) were recognized below the upper extrusive layer at Site 1188 (135-211 mbsf and 280-370 mbsf) and one interval at Site 1189 (137-190 mbsf). In particular, the samples between 135-211-mbsf interval at Site 1188 have extremely high remanence with intensities ranging up to 300-500 A/m. Although pockets of magnetite are not uncommon in the ancient hydrothermal ore bodies, they have seldom been documented in modern-day system, and little is known about the condition that allows the magnetite to form in hydrothermal systems. Here I explore two possibilities of magnetite formation and its alignment with the Earth field: one that these magnetites precipitated from magnetite-rich fluid as it cooled from above the Curie temperature (TRM) and the other that magnetization was acquired by the growth of magnetite grains below the Curie temperature (CRM).

Lee, S.-M.

2003-04-01

214

A Retrievable Mineral Microcosm for Examining Microbial Colonization and Mineral Precipitation at Seafloor Hydrothermal Vents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although seafloor hydrothermal vent environments are known to support thriving ecosystems, the microscale physical and chemical environment suitable for microbial colonization and the identity of pioneering organisms is unknown. Because of the fragility of young chimneys and their ephemeral nature, novel methods for sample retrieval and analysis are required. The mineral microcosm consists of four titanium mesh chambers containing crushed minerals mounted on a titanium base that allows for fluid flow through the chambers. The chambers can be filled with different minerals or mineral mixtures (or no minerals) to supply different substrates for microbial colonization and different local microenvironments as minerals react with the surrounding fluids. The device sets on top of an active hydrothermal vent for a period of days to weeks to allow colonization and mineral reaction. The mineral microcosm was deployed during the Atlantis/Alvin Extreme 2001 Cruise (Oct.- Nov.,2001) to 9° 50'N on the East Pacific Rise a total of three times, for ~ 24, ~ 96, and ~ 48 hours each. It was deployed in two different environments, twice in lower temperature (<300°C), diffuse-flow environments and once (for ~96 hours) in a higher temperature black smoker environment (>350°C).Seed minerals included sulfides, sulfates, magnetite, apatite, and quartz, both individually and in mixtures. In the first 24-hour deployment, dissolution of anhydrite but not sulfide minerals within the chambers indicated high temperatures in chamber interiors and rapid reaction rates. Temperatures measured on chamber exteriors before retrieval ranged from 4° -98°C. The 96-hour deployment on a hot vent (fluid ~370°C before deployment) resulted in extensive mineral precipitation and chimney growth inside the mineral chambers, on the outer surfaces of the chambers, and on the platform as a whole, creating micro-chimneys several centimeters tall. The young chimneys were mainly composed of pyrite with lesser amounts of chalcopyrite and sphalerite and with thin veneers of anhydrite on exterior surfaces in contact with seawater. Bulk trace element analyses of the newly formed chimneys show concentrations of Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, and Pb (up to ~200 ppm) but a lack of As, Sn, U, and W. On the last deployment in a polychaete-rich, diffuse-flow area (vent temperature ~300°C), the microcosm was covered with biofilm and polychaete tubes had formed on the surface during the ~48 hours on the vent. Temperatures at chamber exteriors had decreased to 16- 20°C, suggesting that the vent was not vigorous enough to maintain a large flow through the chambers. Although no evidence for microbial colonization was obtained in these initial deployments, the device can simulate the mineralogy and temperature gradients of a natural hydrothermal chimney. Young chimney samples of known age (~96 hours) obtained from the second deployment were analyzed by synchrotron X-ray computed tomography for porosity and mineralogy and compared with existing chimneys at these sites (see companion abstract by Ashbridge, et al.).

Dunn, E. E.; Holloway, J. R.; Cary, S.; Voglesonger, K. M.; Ashbridge, D. A.; O'Day, P. A.

2002-12-01

215

Black Holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Anton Koekemoer; 1. Black holes, entropy, and information G. T. Horowitz; 2. Gravitational waves from black-hole mergers J. G. Baker, W. D. Boggs, J. M. Centrella, B. J. Kelley, S. T. McWilliams and J. R. van Meter; 3. Out-of-this-world physics: black holes at future colliders G. Landsberg; 4. Black holes in globular clusters S. L. W. McMillan; 5. Evolution of massive black holes M. Volonteri; 6. Supermassive black holes in deep multiwavelength surveys C. M. Urry and E. Treister; 7. Black-hole masses from reverberation mapping B. M. Peterson and M. C. Bentz; 8. Black-hole masses from gas dynamics F. D. Macchetto; 9. Evolution of supermassive black holes A. Müller and G. Hasinger; 10. Black-hole masses of distant quasars M. Vestergaard; 11. The accretion history of supermassive black holes K. Brand and the NDWFS Boötes Survey Teams; 12. Strong field gravity and spin of black holes from broad iron lines A. C. Fabian; 13. Birth of massive black-hole binaries M. Colpi, M. Dotti, L. Mayer and S. Kazantzidis; 14. Dynamics around supermassive black holes A. Gualandris and D. Merritt; 15. Black-hole formation and growth: simulations in general relativity S. L. Shapiro; 16. Estimating the spins of stellar-mass black holes J. E. McClintock, R. Narayan and R. Shafee; 17. Stellar relaxation processes near the Galactic massive black hole T. Alexander; 18. Tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes S. Gezari; 19. Where to look for radiatively inefficient accretion flows in low-luminosity AGN M. Chiaberge; 20. Making black holes visible: accretion, radiation, and jets J. H. Krolik.

Livio, Mario; Koekemoer, Anton M.

2011-02-01

216

Assessing the invariance of smoking-related self-efficacy, beliefs, and intention among high school current smokers.  

PubMed

Measures of correlates of youth smoking should be invariant. We examined the measurement invariance of smoking-related self-efficacy, beliefs, and intention across gender, race (White vs. Black), ethnicity (non-Hispanic vs. Hispanic), and grade level (9th/10th vs. 11th/12th grade) for 2767 high school current smokers. Strong factorial invariance was found in the factors across gender (NNFI:0.959; CFI:0.959; RMSEA:0.085), grade (NNFI:0.962; CFI:0.962; RMSEA: 0.079), race (NNFI: 0.967; CFI: 0.967; RMSEA: 0.074), and ethnicity (NNFI: 0.965; CFI: 0.965; RMSEA: 0.078). Smoking-related self-efficacy, beliefs, and intention measures may be confidently used to understand attitudinal differences across gender, race, ethnicity, and grade level for youth smokers. PMID:23647165

Sterling, Kymberle; Ford, Kentya; Park, Haesuk; Diamond, Pamela; McAlister, Alfred

2013-05-01

217

Oesophageal cancer in never-smokers and never-drinkers.  

PubMed

Alcohol, tobacco and diet are the most important determinants of oesophageal cancer. Previous studies which examined smoking in non-drinkers and drinking in non-smokers did not report the main effects of dietary factors or the smoking and drinking effects adjusted for dietary factors. Data from a hospital-based case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese were used to examine the effects of dietary variables as well as tobacco and alcohol in never-drinkers and never-smokers. Among the 400 cases, there were 68 never-smokers and 53 never-drinkers; 540 were never-smokers and 407 were never-drinkers among 1598 controls. In never-smokers, alcohol drinking was strongly associated with risk. Use of green leafy vegetables and citrus fruits was protective. Among never-drinkers, smokers had increased risk, but the protective effect of vegetables and fruits did not reach statistical significance. In never-smokers and in never-drinkers alike, frequent consumption of pickled vegetables and being born in Teochew or Hokkien were associated with increased risks. This study provides further support for the independent effects of alcohol, tobacco and diet in oesophageal cancer. PMID:7896452

Cheng, K K; Duffy, S W; Day, N E; Lam, T H

1995-03-16

218

Psychomotor Function in Chronic Daily Cannabis Smokers during Sustained Abstinence  

PubMed Central

Background The present study assessed psychomotor function in chronic, daily cannabis smokers during 3 weeks continuously monitored abstinence on a secure research unit. We hypothesized that psychomotor performance would improve during abstinence of chronic, daily cannabis smokers. Methodology/Principal Findings Performance on the critical tracking (CTT) and divided attention (DAT) tasks was assessed in 19 male chronic, daily cannabis smokers at baseline and after 8, 14–16 and 21–23 days of continuously monitored abstinence. Psychomotor performance was compared to a control group of non-intoxicated occasional drug users. Critical frequency (?c) of the CTT and tracking error and control losses of the DAT were the primary outcome measures. Results showed that chronic cannabis smokers’ performance on the CTT (p<0.001) and the DAT (p<0.001) was impaired during baseline relative to the comparison group. Psychomotor performance in the chronic cannabis smokers improved over 3 weeks of abstinence, but did not recover to equivalent control group performance. Conclusions/Significance Sustained cannabis abstinence moderately improved critical tracking and divided attention performance in chronic, daily cannabis smokers, but impairment was still observable compared to controls after 3 weeks of abstinence. Between group differences, however, need to be interpreted with caution as chronic smokers and controls were not matched for education, social economic status, life style and race.

Bosker, Wendy M.; Karschner, Erin L.; Lee, Dayong; Goodwin, Robert S.; Hirvonen, Jussi; Innis, Robert B.; Theunissen, Eef L.; Kuypers, Kim P. C.

2013-01-01

219

Geothermal constraints on the hydrological regime of the TAG active hydrothermal mound, inferred from long-term monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During August 1994 to March 1995, a period that included ODP Leg 158 drilling, bottom-water and sub-bottom temperatures were continuously logged by a long-term temperature monitoring system 'Daibutsu' at the base of the central black-smoker complex (CBC) and within the low heat flow zone at the TAG hydrothermal mound on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The temperature of hydrothermal fluid at CBC was also measured with a small high-temperature probe 'Hobo'. Bottom-water temperature variations measured with Daibutsu at both sites have predominant semi-diurnal periods, causing the sub-bottom temperatures to fluctuate at these periods with reduced amplitudes and phase delays at sub-bottom depths. Seawater entrainment into the mound has been previously suggested at the low heat flow zone. We quantitatively evaluate the seawater entrainment rate at both sites from a one-dimensional numerical model, combined with a heat conduction model for the semi-diurnal variations. The entrainment rate of seawater at the base of CBC is estimated as 1.3±0.5×10 -5 m/s, at least from August 17 to 30, 1994. On the other hand, the seawater entrainment rate at the low heat flow zone was undetected by long-term temperature monitoring at shallow sub-bottom depth. Nevertheless an increase in heat flow observed at the low heat flow zone during ODP drilling can be interpreted as a decrease in the entrainment rate of seawater. Before ODP Leg 158, Daibutsu measured three sub-bottom temperature anomalies at the base of CBC not derived from bottom-water temperature variations and Hobo also detected a CBC fluid temperature anomaly, indicating some natural changes in fluid flow within the mound. Daibutsu and Hobo also measured temperature anomalies during and after drilling at the ODP TAG-1 area. The Hobo temperature anomalies are inferred to have occurred when the cold fluid entrained through the drill holes at TAG-1 site reached or cooled the main fluid path to CBC. The entrained seawater through the drill holes appears to have contributed to dissolution and precipitation of anhydrite within the mound and perhaps affected the local permeability structure inside the mound. The temperature anomalies measured with Daibutsu at the base of CBC may have been induced by the change in the fluid flow pattern as a result of such permeability changes within the mound.

Goto, Shusaku; Kinoshita, Masataka; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Von Herzen, Richard P.

2002-10-01

220

Changes in bronchial responsiveness to inhaled histamine over four years in middle aged male smokers and ex-smokers.  

PubMed Central

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled histamine in smokers is associated with an accelerated annual decline in FEV1 and low baseline FEV1 values. The evolution of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and whether it precedes or follows the accelerated decline in FEV1 and reduction in FEV1 is unknown. Measurements of the provocative concentration of inhaled histamine required to reduce FEV1 by 20% (PC20) were repeated after a four year interval in 27 male smokers (mean age 59 years, smoking on average 27 cigarettes a day in 1986) and 16 men who were ex-smokers in 1982 and who remained non-smokers until 1986 (mean age 53 years in 1986). These men were originally recruited to a prospective study in 1974 and had their first PC20 measurement in 1982. PC20 was positively related to baseline FEV1 in both smokers and ex-smokers in both 1982 and 1986 (r ranging from 0.56 to 0.76, p less than 0.01). In smokers mean FEV1 fell from 83% to 77% predicted (p less than 0.001) and geometric mean PC20 from 7.11 to 3.27 mg/ml (p less than 0.001) between 1982 and 1986. The change in PC20 in individual smokers over the four years was related to change in FEV1 (p = 0.012). In ex-smokers mean FEV1 was 93% predicted both in 1982 and in 1986 and there was no significant difference in geometric mean PC20 between 1982 (6.68 mg/ml) and 1986 (5.98 mg/ml). Thus in smokers there was an accelerated annual decline in FEV1 and an increase in bronchial hyperresponsiveness as FEV1 fell. The ex-smokers had comparable levels of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in 1982. Mean PC20 values were unchanged in 1986 in these men, who showed a normal age related decline in FEV1. These longitudinal results emphasise the importance of baseline airway geometry in influencing bronchial hyperresponsiveness to histamine in middle aged smokers and ex-smokers.

Lim, T K; Taylor, R G; Watson, A; Joyce, H; Pride, N B

1988-01-01

221

En Echelon Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En echelon hydrothermal systems develop within the porous rocks that surround, in three-dimensions, their distinctive plan-form and cross-sectional basaltic intrusion geometry. Examples that span several (self-similar) spatial scales include the en echelon off-set area of the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii; the Northeast Rift Zone of Mauna Loa Volcano; the intrusive-eruptive fissures of the Krafla Central Volcano, Northeast Iceland; the ensemble of the three Icelandic central volcanoes Theistarekir-Krafla-Fremrinamur; major segments of the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; and several paleo-hydrothermal systems of the Mesozoic basins of eastern North America, including the Culpeper Basin. An en echelon hydrothermal system comprises two or more en echelon--arranged magma-filled fractures enclosed in a fluid-saturated porous matrix. Blocks of country rock between individual offset fracture segments are similarly porous and fluid-saturated. In 3-D, the system resembles the fan blades of a turbine rotor, with blades (dikes) emanating from a deep "master" fracture and turning smoothly in response to the local variations in the least compressive regional stress component. The primary geometric, hydrologic and thermal attributes of the system (on a horizontal plane) include dike thickness, dike-to-dike offset and overlap, the (initial) intrusion temperature, duration of magma flow, dike widths and lengths, the mean seepage velocity of regional subsurface aqueous fluid flow, and the mean flow azimuth in relationship to the plan-form geometry of the en echelon array. Finite element single phase models in horizontal cross-section have been developed for dike widths of 100 m, dike lengths of 1,500 m, overlaps of 500 m, dike-to-dike offsets of 500 m, intrusion temperatures of 1,200 C, horizontal seepage fluxes imposed at the sides of ~ 1,000 g cm-2 yr-1, and a matrix permeability of 10-14 m2. The regional flow field has been parameterized in dike-orthogonal, dike-parallel, and 45 degree angles of attack with respect to the major axes of the individual dikes within the en echelon array. Depending on the magnitudes and geometric arrangement of key system attributes, an en echelon hydrothermal system may either act as an efficient thermal radiator, effectively shedding heat to the surroundings, or may it act as an effective heater, thermally enhancing the environment between neighboring dikes in 3-D. Conditions that promote the efficient loss of heat include thin dikes of short length, large dike-to-dike offset, high matrix fluid velocities, and regional flow azimuths that are orthogonal to the individual dikes. Conditions that promote differential heating between the dikes include wide dikes with maximal overlap and minimal offset, low regional flow velocities and "angles of attack" of the regional flow field that provide for maximum hydrodynamic "shelter" for individual dikes within the interior of the en echelon array.

Ryan, M. P.; Carr, P. M.; Daniels, D. L.; Sutphin, D. M.

2005-12-01

222

Differences in clinical presentation of non-small cell lung cancer in never-smokers versus smokers  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was conducted to evaluate whether or not tumor spread and the diagnostic process in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is different based on smoking history. Methods Associations between smoking status and clinical presentation were evaluated controlling for the effect of histology. Lung cancer with delayed diagnosis (LCDD) and incidental detection (LCID) were determined based on medical records. Results Of 914 patients, frequency of distant metastases was more common in never-smokers than in smokers (59% and 36%, respectively; P<0.001). Although never-smokers were more likely to have LCDD than smokers (18% and 11%, respectively; P=0.038), LCDD were not significantly associated with frequency of distant metastases [49% (LCDD) vs. 42% (non-LCDD); P=0.189] as well as tumor [29% (T3-4) vs. 24% (T1-2); P=0.134] and node [43% (N2-3) vs. 44% (N0-1); P=0.838] stage. Interestingly, never-smokers are more likely to have LCID than smokers (31% and 19%, respectively; P=0.010). In survival analysis, LCID (P=0.001; HR, 0.63) remained a prognostic factor, while LCDD did not. Conclusions This study suggests distinct metastatic pattern and diagnostic processes of never-smokers. The link between survival and incidental detection was also indicated.

Lee, Joo Young; Jang, Seung-Hun; Hwang, Yong Il; Choe, Du Hwan; Kim, Cheol Hyeon; Baek, HeeJong

2013-01-01

223

Black tea  

MedlinePLUS

... much medicine the body absorbs. To avoid this interaction, avoid black tea 1 hour before and 2 ... much medicine the body absorbs. To avoid this interaction, avoid black tea 1 hour before and 2 ...

224

Black Cohosh  

MedlinePLUS

... miscarriage , and relief of labor pains) [ 4 ]. What clinical studies have been done on black cohosh and ... cohosh can cause stomach discomfort and headaches [ 10 ]. Clinical trials comparing estrogens with black cohosh preparations have ...

225

Smokers and non-smokers talk about regulatory options in tobacco control  

PubMed Central

Objective Community members are occasionally polled about tobacco control policies, but are rarely given opportunities to elaborate on their views. We examined laypeople's conversations to understand how 11 regulatory options were supported or opposed in interactions. Design Qualitative design; purposive quota sampling; data collection via focus groups. Setting Three locations in Sydney, Australia. Participants 63 smokers and 75 non?smokers, men and women, from three age groups (18–24, 35–44, 55–64 years), recruited primarily via telephone. Measurements Semi?structured question route; data managed in NVivo; responses compared between groups. Results Laypeople rejected some regulatory proposals and certain arguments about taxation and the cost of cessation treatments. Protecting children and hypothecating tobacco excise for health education and care were highly acceptable. Plain packaging, banning retail displays and youth smoking prevention received qualified support. Bans on political donations from tobacco corporations were popular in principle but considered logistically fraught. Smokers asked for better cessation assistance and were curious about cigarette ingredients. Justice was an important evaluative principle. Support was often conditional and unresolved arguments frequent. We present both sides of these conflicts and the ways in which policies were legitimised or de?legitimised in conversation. Conclusions Simple measures of agreement used in polls may obscure the complexity of community responses to tobacco policy. Support was frequently present but contested; some arguments that seem self?evident to advocates were not so to participants. The detailed understanding of laypeople's responses provided through qualitative methods may help frame proposals and arguments to meet concerns about justice, effectiveness and feasibility.

Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon

2006-01-01

226

Text Messages May Double Smoker's Odds of Quitting  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Text Messages May Double Smoker's Odds of Quitting Cellphone reminders and encouragement help people stick to smoke-free goal, study finds (*this news item will ...

227

Abnormal Lung Scan May Be 'Teachable Moment' for Smokers  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal Lung Scan May Be 'Teachable Moment' for Smokers Researchers ... May 29, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Health Screening Lung Cancer Quitting Smoking THURSDAY, May 29, 2014 (HealthDay ...

228

Smoking cessation: social comparison level predicts success for adult smokers.  

PubMed

The affiliation preferences of 151 adult heavy smokers who joined smoking cessation groups were assessed at the 1st group session and were then used to predict their smoking status 6 and 12 months later. Those who preferred to be in groups with other smokers who were having relatively little trouble quitting were more likely to be successful than were those who preferred others who were having more difficulty quitting. This prospective effect was mediated by psychological distancing from the image of the typical smoker: Preference for others who were doing well was associated with a decrease in perceived similarity to the typical smoker, which, in turn, was associated with successful cessation. Implications of these findings for cessation groups and social comparison theory are discussed. PMID:16287409

Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Lane, David J; Stock, Michelle L

2005-11-01

229

Treating Lung Cancer in Nonsmokers and Former Light Smokers  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, previously untreated non-small cell lung cancer patients who never smoked or are former light smokers will be treated with either erlotinib alone or erlotinib in combination with the drugs carboplatin and paclitaxel.

230

Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive\\/ever hookah smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). OBJECTIVES: To find serum CEA levels in ever\\/exclusive

Khan Mohammad Sajid; Kamal Chaouachi; Rubaida Mahmood

2008-01-01

231

Black Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

232

Cortical Hypoexcitability in Chronic Smokers? A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in animal models and humans indicate that chronic nicotine intake influences neuronal excitability, resulting in functional and structural CNS changes. The aim of the present study was to explore human primary motor cortex (M1) excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in chronic smokers. A total of 44 right-handed volunteers, aged 20-30 years, participated in the study. Chronic smokers were

Nicolas Lang; Alkomiet Hasan; Elke Sueske; Walter Paulus; Michael A Nitsche

2007-01-01

233

Cortical Hypoexcitability in Chronic Smokers? A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in animal models and humans indicate that chronic nicotine intake influences neuronal excitability, resulting in functional and structural CNS changes. The aim of the present study was to explore human primary motor cortex (M1) excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in chronic smokers. A total of 44 right-handed volunteers, aged 20–30 years, participated in the study. Chronic smokers were

Nicolas Lang; Alkomiet Hasan; Elke Sueske; Walter Paulus; Michael A Nitsche

2008-01-01

234

Effects of dissuasive packaging on young adult smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTobacco industry documents illustrate how packaging promotes smoking experimentation and reinforces existing smokers' behaviour. Plain packaging reduces the perceived attractiveness of smoking and creates an opportunity to introduce larger pictorial warnings that could promote cessation-linked behaviours. However, little is known about the effects such a combined policy measure would have on smokers' behaviour.MethodsA 3 (warning size) *4 (branding level) plus

Janet Hoek; Christiane Wong; Philip Gendall; Jordan Louviere; Karen Cong

2010-01-01

235

Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker's saliva  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPH-Spectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers’ instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37°C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher’s protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker’s or nonsmoker’s saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group.

Oguri, Makoto; O'Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M.; Marshall, Grayson W.

2010-01-01

236

Residual Outcome Expectations and Relapse in Ex-Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a social cognitive theoretical point of view, strong positive outcome expectations of smoking are a cause of relapse in smoking cessation, working in concert with self-efficacy. This study investigated whether and to what extent this could be verified in a sample of ex-smokers. Some (N = 324) ex-smokers were followed for 7 months. At Time 1 (T1) and Time

Arie Dijkstra; Ron Borland

2003-01-01

237

Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451 girls and 361 boys aging 20-25 years old who entered Isfahan and Kashan Universities (Iran) in 2007. Demographic factors (age, gender, and age at smoking onset) cigarette and hookah smoking status, having a smoking father or smoking friends and four related social norms were recorded. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS Cigarette and hookah smokers had significant differences with nonsmokers in two social norms: “Perceived smoking by important characters” [odds ratio (OR) = 1.35 in cigarette smokers and 1.58 in hookah smokers; P < 0.001] and “smoking makes gatherings friendly” (OR = 3.62 in cigarette smokers and 6.16 in hookah smokers; P < 0.001). Furthermore, cigarette and hookah smoking were significantly associated with having smoking friends. CONCLUSION Highlighting the social norms leading to cigarette and hookah smoking may help policy makers develop comprehensive interventions to prevent smoking among adolescents.

Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam; Shokouh, Pedram; Teimori, Soheila; Amirpour, Afshin; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

2013-01-01

238

Black Holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

Luminet, Jean-Pierre

1992-09-01

239

Black Holes: And Black Magic  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Black Holes and Black Magic? No true connection, needless to say, but black holes are so bizarre that they really do seem\\u000a to be magical. Even now we cannot pretend that we have anything like a full understanding of them.

Patrick Moore

240

Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, ?9 and ?8 in the skin, serum and saliva of smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking induces skin ageing, affects wound healing and inflammatory responses in skin and mucous membranes but the mechanisms\\u000a behind these adverse effects of smoking are not clear. The objective was to elucidate the mechanisms of smoking-related tissue\\u000a damage, by comparing the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) ?2, ?9, and ?8 in the skin, serum and saliva of smokers\\u000a and non-smokers.

Anina Raitio; Hans Tuomas; Nina Kokkonen; Tuula Salo; Timo Sorsa; Roeland Hanemaaijer; Aarne Oikarinen

2005-01-01

241

Differential inhibition of inflammatory cytokine release from cultured alveolar macrophages from smokers and non smokers by No2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human alveolar macrophages (AMs) obtained from smokers and non-smokers by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were subjected to various concentrations of NO2 in an inverted monolayer exposure model. Culture super natants were collected 4 h after the exposure and assayed for secreted TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-8 and MIP-1?. The steady state levels of the mRNAs for these cytokines were also analysed in the

Tiziana Dandrea; Ba Tu; Anders Blomberg; Thomas Sandström; Magnus Sköld; Anders Eklund; Ian Cotgreave

1997-01-01

242

Scottish court dismisses a historic smoker's suit.  

PubMed

The decision in a Scottish smoker's case, McTear v. Imperial Tobacco Limited, that there was no scientific proof of causation between the plaintiff's smoking and his death from lung cancer, accepted all of the traditional arguments that the tobacco industry has made throughout the history of tobacco litigation, including that epidemiology is not an adequate branch of science to draw a conclusion of causation, that the tobacco industry has no knowledge that its products are dangerous to consumers, and that, despite this lack of knowledge, the plaintiff had sufficient information to make an informed decision about the dangers of smoking. This case relied on outmoded methods of reasoning and placed too great a faith in the tobacco industry's timeworn argument that "everybody knew, nobody knows". Further, the judge found it prejudicial that the plaintiff's expert witnesses were not paid for their services because she was indigent, believing that the lack of payment placed in doubt their credibility and claiming that the paid tobacco expert witnesses had more motive to testify independently because they had been paid, a perverse and novel line of reasoning. The McTear case contrasts unfavourably with the recent decision in United States v. Philip Morris, a United States decision that found the tobacco industry defendants to be racketeers, based both on the weight of a huge amount of internal tobacco industry documents showing that the tobacco industry knew their products were addictive and were made that way purposely to increase sales, and on the testimony of expert witnesses who, like those who testified in McTear, have made the advancement of the public health their life's work and are not "hired guns". The McTear case's reasoning seems outdated and reminiscent of early litigation in the United States. Hopefully, it will not take courts outside of the United States 40 more years to acknowledge the current scientific knowledge about smoking and health. PMID:17897973

Friedman, L; Daynard, R

2007-10-01

243

Discrimination and characterization of breath from smokers and non-smokers via electronic nose and GC/MS analysis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to prove the general applicability of an electronic nose for analyzing exhaled breath considering the dependency on smoking. At first, odor compounds from spices (n=6) were detected via the electronic nose and further characterized and classified with gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry to demonstrate the principle ability of the electronic nose. Then, the exhaled breath from smokers and non-smokers were analyzed to prove the influence of smoking on breath analyses with the electronic nose. The exhaled breath was sampled from 11 smokers and 11 non-smokers in a special sampling bag with the mounted sensor chip of the electronic nose. Additionally, solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) technique was established for detection of the specific chemical compounds with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). For analyses of the sensor signals the principle component analysis (PCA) was applied and the groups were differentiated by linear discriminant function analysis. In accordance to the discrimination between the different spices and between smokers and non-smokers the PCA analysis leads to an optimum accuracy of 100%. The results of this study show that an electronic nose has the ability to detect different changes of odor components and provides separation of smoking side effects in smelling different diseases. PMID:22255134

Witt, Katharina; Reulecke, Sina; Voss, Andreas

2011-01-01

244

Intent to quit among daily and non-daily college student smokers  

PubMed Central

Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking category as it relates to readiness to quit among current smokers. Of the 4438 students at six Southeast colleges who completed an online survey, 69.7% (n = 3094) were non-smokers, 6.6% (n = 293) were quitters, 7.1% (n = 317) were native non-daily smokers, 6.4% (n = 283) were converted non-daily smokers and 10.2% (n = 451) were daily smokers. There were differences in sociodemographics, substance use (alcohol, marijuana, other tobacco products) in the past 30 days and psychosocial factors among these subgroups of students (P < 0.001). Among current smokers, there were differences in cigarettes smoked per day, recent quit attempts, self-identification as a smoker, self-efficacy and motivation to quit (P < 0.001). After controlling for important factors, converted non-daily smokers were more likely to be ready to quit in the next month versus native non-daily smokers (OR = 2.15, CI 1.32–3.49, P = 0.002). Understanding differences among young adults with different smoking patterns and histories is critical in developing interventions targeting psychosocial factors impacting cessation among this population.

Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

2013-01-01

245

Promoter methylation of RASSF1A and DAPK and mutations of K-ras, p53, and EGFR in lung tumors from smokers and never-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies indicate that some characteristics of lung cancer among never-smokers significantly differ from those of smokers. Aberrant promoter methylation and mutations in some oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are frequent in lung tumors from smokers but rare in those from never-smokers. In this study, we analyzed promoter methylation in the ras-association domain isoform A (RASSF1A) and the death-associated

Yang Liu; Weimin Gao; Jill M Siegfried; Joel L Weissfeld; James D Luketich; Phouthone Keohavong

2007-01-01

246

Do smokers in Europe think all cigarettes are equally harmful?  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the ban on misleading descriptors such as light or mild cigarettes in Europe, there are still widespread misperceptions of the relative harmfulness of different brands of cigarettes among smokers. This study examined the extent to which smokers in three European countries believed that some cigarette brands are less harmful and why, using data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe surveys. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were completed among nationally representative samples of 4,956 current smokers (aged ? 18) from Germany (n = 1,515), France (n = 1,735) and the United Kingdom (n = 1,706) conducted between September 2006 and November 2007. Logistic regression models examined whether outcomes, including beliefs that some cigarettes could be less harmful than others, varied by socio-demographic and country of residence. Findings: Around a quarter of smokers in the UK and France, and a third in Germany believed some cigarettes are less harmful than others. Overall, of smokers who falsely believed that some cigarettes are less harmful, 86.3% thought that tar/nicotine yields, 48.7% taste, and 40.4% terms on packs such as ‘smooth’ or ‘ultra’ indicated less harmful brands. About a fifth of smokers across all countries chose their brand based on health reasons, and a similar proportion gave tar yields as a reason for choosing brands. Conclusions: Our research suggests that the current European Tobacco Products Directive is inadequate in eliminating misperceptions about the relative risk of brand descriptors on cigarettes. There is therefore an urgent need to protect smokers in Europe from these misperceptions via stronger measures such as plain packaging regulations.

McNeill, Ann; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain

2012-01-01

247

Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, -9 and -8 in the skin, serum and saliva of smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed

Smoking induces skin ageing, affects wound healing and inflammatory responses in skin and mucous membranes but the mechanisms behind these adverse effects of smoking are not clear. The objective was to elucidate the mechanisms of smoking-related tissue damage, by comparing the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2, -9, and -8 in the skin, serum and saliva of smokers and non-smokers. The study population consisted of 47 current smokers and 51 non-smokers, all males of Finnish origin. Skin samples from the upper inner arm were frozen in liquid nitrogen. Levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein in the skin were assessed by zymography and MMP-8 isoforms were determined by Western blotting. From the serum samples, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were assessed by zymography and MMP-8 levels by time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (IFMA). From the salivary samples, MMP-8 levels were analysed by IFMA and MMP-9 levels by capture activity assay. In skin tissue, lower levels of both the pro and active forms of MMP-9 and of the active forms of MMP-8 were found in the smokers compared to the non-smokers. In serum, higher levels of proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 were found in the smokers compared to the non-smokers (P=0.001 and P<0.001, respectively), whereas MMP-8 levels did not differ significantly between the groups. Active forms of MMP-9 and MMP-2 could not be found in serum. In saliva, the amount of total MMP-9 was significantly lower in the smokers (156.0 U/ml) compared to the non-smokers (223.9 U/ml, P=0.032), whereas the levels of MMP-8 or active MMP-9 did not differ significantly between the groups. We conclude that smoking alters the levels of matrix metalloproteinases in skin tissue, serum and saliva, which may affect the turnover of extracellular matrix of skin even though the clinical impact of our findings is not clear. PMID:16215764

Raitio, Anina; Tuomas, Hans; Kokkonen, Nina; Salo, Tuula; Sorsa, Timo; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Oikarinen, Aarne

2005-12-01

248

Mesozoic hydrothermal alteration associated with gold mineralization in the Mercur district, Utah  

SciTech Connect

K/Ar dates and chemical data show that a Mesozoic gold-bearing hydrothermal system altered black shales of the Mississippian Great Blue Limestone throughout an area encompassing the Mercur gold district, Utah. K/Ar dates of illite veins and illite-rich, clay-sized separates of altered shales that are enriched in Au, As, Hg, Sc, and other heavy metals indicate that hydrothermal activity occurred from 193 to 122 Ma. Several ages from within the Mercur district cluster near 160 Ma and may date the minimum age of gold mineralization.

Wilson, P.N.; Parry, W.T. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (USA))

1990-09-01

249

Hydrothermal Industrialization: Direct Heat Development. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Devel...

1982-01-01

250

Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D. D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W. P.; Komadel, P.

1998-01-01

251

Exploration strategies for hydrothermal deposits.  

PubMed

With unlimited money the most certain strategy for finding most hydrothermal metal deposits would be by drilling to 5000 m at 50 m spacing. However, the cost would far outweigh the benefit of the discoveries. Geological knowledge and exploration techniques may be used to obtain the greatest benefit for minimum cost, and to concentrate human and material resources in the most economic way in areas with the highest probability of discovery. This paper reviews the economic theory of exploration based on expected value, and the application of geological concepts and exploration techniques to exploration for hydrothermal deposits. Exploration techniques for hydrothermal-systems on Mars would include geochemistry and particularly passive geophysical methods. PMID:9243019

Horn, R A

1996-01-01

252

Health care institutions should not exclude smokers from employment.  

PubMed

Some health care institutions, including academic health centers, have adopted policies excluding smokers from employment. Claims advanced on behalf of these policies include financial savings from reduced health costs and absenteeism as well as advantages consonant with their message of healthy living. The authors suggest that the institutional savings from these policies are speculative and unproven. Also, in settings where large medical schools operate, it is likely to be the poor, including members of minority groups, who, under an employee smoker ban, will lose the opportunity to work for an employer that offers health insurance and other benefits. In response to the incentives created by such bans, some will quit smoking, but most will not. Thus, at the community level, employee smoker bans are more likely to be harmful than beneficial.Although private businesses may rightly choose not to hire smokers in the 19 states where such policies are legal, health care institutions, including academic health centers, should consider hiring choices in light of the values they profess. The traditional values of medicine include service to all persons in need, even when illness results from addiction or unsafe behavior. Secular academic communities require a shared dedication to discovery without requiring strict conformity of private behavior or belief. The authors conclude that for health care institutions, policies of hiring smokers and helping them to quit are both prudent and expressive of the norms of medical care, such as inclusion, compassion, and fellowship, that academic health professionals seek to honor. PMID:24871233

Huddle, Thomas S; Kertesz, Stefan G; Nash, Ryan R

2014-06-01

253

Natural killer cell activity in cigarette smokers and asbestos workers  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure on cellular immunity, the authors tested a group of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers for natural killer (NK) activity in the peripheral blood. The mean NK activity in cigarette smokers was lower than in normal subjects (13.7 +/- 1.6 versus 29.0 +/- 3%; p less than 0.05). As a group, the mean NK activity for the asbestos-exposed group was also reduced compared with that of the nonsmoking control group (22.6 +/- 3.2%; p less than 0.05). When divided according to the smoking status, the asbestos workers who were nonsmokers or ex-smokers showed similar decreases in NK activity compared with normal subjects (19.5 +/- 6.2 and 21.2 +/- 4.5%, respectively; p less than 0.05). A subgroup of asbestos-exposed subjects who currently smoked showed no decrease in NK activity. The data show that NK activity is reduced in the peripheral blood of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers. The relatively normal NK activity found in asbestos workers who also smoked is unexplained. Impairment of NK activity is a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of infection and cancer in smokers and neoplasia in asbestos workers.

Ginns, L.C.; Ryu, J.H.; Rogol, P.R.; Sprince, N.L.; Oliver, L.C.; Larsson, C.J.

1985-06-01

254

Assessment of tobacco dependence in waterpipe smokers in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Summary Setting Waterpipe smoking is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, little is known about nicotine dependence in tobacco smokers who use waterpipes. Objective To assess evidence of dependence among non-cigarette smoking waterpipe smokers in Egypt. Methods A total of 154 male exclusive current waterpipe smokers were enrolled for the present study. We adapted the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence and the Reasons for Smoking (RFS) scales and related these to smoking behavior. Results The mean age of the subjects was 47 ± 14 years, the mean age at smoking initiation was 22 ± 9 years, and average daily consumption was 4 ± 8 hagars (tobacco units). The time to the first smoke of the day (P < 0.001), smoking even when ill (P = 0.003), time to tobacco craving (P < 0.001), and hating to give up the first smoke of the day (P = 0.033) were each significantly associated with the number of hagars smoked per day. The RFS subscales of addictive smoking, smoking to relieve negative affect, and smoking for stimulation were also associated with these variables. Conclusion The overall findings suggest that waterpipe smokers exhibit many of the same features of nicotine dependency attributed to cigarette smokers.

Auf, R. A.; Radwan, G. N.; Loffredo, C. A.; El Setouhy, M.; Israel, E.; Mohamed, M. K.

2013-01-01

255

Lung cancer in never smokers--a review.  

PubMed

An estimated 10-25% of lung cancers worldwide occur in never smokers, i.e. individuals having smoked less than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime. Lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) is more frequent in women, although large geographic variations are found. Histologically, adenocarcinomas predominate. The mere existence of LCINS suggests that risk factors other than smoking must be present. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (particularly in women) and exposure to workplace carcinogens (particularly in men) are the two most important alternative risk factors. However, a history of either is absent in more than a third of LCINS. The large proportion of women in LCINS suggest a hormonal element that may interact with other identified factors such as hereditary risks, a history of respiratory infections or disease, exposure to air pollution, cooking and heating fumes, or exposure to ionising radiation. The study of genomic polymorphisms finds constitutive DNA variations across subjects according to their smoking status, particularly in genes coding for enzymes that participate in the metabolism of certain carcinogens, in those coding for DNA repair enzymes, or in genes associated with tobacco addiction, or inflammatory processes. The type of molecular mutation in p53 or KRAS varies with smoking status. EGFR mutations are more frequent in never smokers, as are EML4-ALK fusions. The mutually exclusive nature of certain mutations is a strong argument in favour of separate genetic paths to cancer for ever smokers and never smokers. In the present paper we review current clinical and molecular aspects of LCINS. PMID:22464348

Couraud, Sébastien; Zalcman, Gérard; Milleron, Bernard; Morin, Franck; Souquet, Pierre-Jean

2012-06-01

256

Adult Smokers' Responses to "Corrective Statements" Regarding Tobacco Industry Deception  

PubMed Central

Background To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate “corrective statements” (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. Purpose To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Methods Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280–281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Results Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. Conclusions This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco–related health disparities.

Kollath-Cattano, Christy L.; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Thrasher, James F.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J.; Krugman, Dean M.; Berg, Carla J.; Hardin, James W.

2014-01-01

257

Menthol Preference Among Smokers: Association With TRPA1 Variants  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Preference for smoking menthol cigarettes differs from individual to individual and population to population in ways that may provide higher levels of nicotine intake and contribute to smoking’s morbidity and mortality. Menthol acts at sites that include the transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 channel that is expressed by nociceptors in the lung and airways, suggesting that individual and population differences in TRPA1 sequences might contribute to observed differences in menthol preference among smokers. Methods: We have thus sought association between menthol preference and common variants in the TRPA1 gene in heavier and lighter European-American smokers. Smokers were recruited for studies of smoking cessation in North Carolina and of substance abuse genetics in Maryland. Results: A common TRPA1 haplotype is defined by 1 missense and 10 intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms that display significant (.006 < p < .05; ?2) association with preference for mentholated cigarettes in heavy smokers (odds ratio ca. 1.3). There are smaller trends in the same direction in lighter smokers. Conclusions: This TRPA1 haplotype provides a novel biological basis for individual differences in menthol preference and possibly for actions of other agents that act at TRPA1.

Walther, Donna; Behm, Frederique M.; Rose, Jed E.

2011-01-01

258

C-reactive protein in patients with COPD, control smokers and non-smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have raised serum levels of C reactive protein (CRP). This may be related directly to COPD and its associated systemic inflammation or secondary to other factors such as concomitant ischaemic heart disease (IHD) or smoking status. The aim of this study was to evaluate IHD and smoking as potential causes of raised CRP levels in COPD and to test the association between inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use and serum CRP levels. Methods Cross sectional analyses comparing cohorts of 88 patients with COPD, 33 smokers (S), and 38 non?smoker (NS) controls were performed. Clinical assessments included a complete medical history, pulmonary function, 6?minute walk test (6MWT), cardiopulmonary exercise test, and high sensitivity serum CRP measurements. Results Serum CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with COPD (5.03 (1.51)?mg/l) than in controls (adjusted odds ratio 9.51; 95% confidence interval 2.97 to 30.45) but were similar in the two control groups (S: 2.02 (1.04)?mg/l; NS: 2.24 (1.04)?mg/l). There was no clinical or exercise evidence of unstable IHD in any of the subjects. CRP levels were lower in COPD patients treated with ICS than in those not treated (3.7 (3.0)?mg/l v 6.3 (3.6)?mg/l); this association was confirmed in an adjusted regression model (p<0.05). Conclusion CRP levels are raised in COPD patients without clinically relevant IHD and independent of cigarette smoking, and reduced in patients with COPD using ICS. CRP may be a systemic marker of the inflammatory process that occurs in patients with COPD.

Pinto-Plata, V M; Mullerova, H; Toso, J F; Feudjo-Tepie, M; Soriano, J B; Vessey, R S; Celli, B R

2006-01-01

259

Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette smokers: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of the lung function profiles of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Males aged 35–60 living in Sousse, Tunisia, who have been smoking narghile exclusively for more than 10 narghile-years (n=36) or cigarettes exclusively for more than 10 pack-years (n=106) were recruited to participate in this case–control study. The anthropometric and plethysmographic data were measured according to international recommendations using a body plethysmograph (ZAN 500 Body II, Me?greräte GmbH, Germany). Large-airway-obstructive-ventilatory-defect (LAOVD) was defined as: first second forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) below the lower-limit-of-normal (LLN). Restrictive-ventilatory-defect (RVD) was defined as total lung capacity < LLN. Lung hyperinflation was defined as residual volume > upper-limit-of-normal. Student t-test and ?2 test were used to compare plethysmographic data and profiles of the two groups. Results The subjects in the ENS and ECS groups are well matched in age (45±7 vs. 47±5 years) and height (1.73±0.06 vs. 1.72±0.06 m) and used similar quantities of tobacco (36±22 narghile-years vs. 35±19 pack-years). Compared to the ENS group, the ECS group had significantly lower FEV1 (84±12 vs. 60±21%), FVC (90±12 vs. 76±18%), and FEV1/FVC (99±7 vs. 83±17%). The two groups had similar percentages of RVD (31 vs. 36%), while the ECS group had a significantly higher percentage of LAOVD (8 vs. 58%) and lung hyperinflation (36 vs.57%). Conclusion Chronic exclusive narghile smoking has less adverse effects on pulmonary function tests than chronic exclusive cigarette smoking.

Saad, Helmi Ben; Khemiss, Mehdi; Nhari, Saida; Essghaier, Mejda Ben; Rouatbi, Sonia

2013-01-01

260

Pressure balance under hydrothermal conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low pressure, low temperature growth of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystals, the material of choice for certain kinds of laser eye surgery apparatus and other applications, requires hydrothermal growth in pressure balance noble metal cans. This paper discusses the problem of pressure balancing the Au cans used for hydrothermal KTP growth. The P-V-T behavior of the pressure balance medium (H2O) and the growth medium (KTP saturated K2HPO4) are described and the source of the 'dimples' in growth cans is explained and remediation strategies are suggested.

Laudise, R. A.; Bridenbaugh, P. M.; Iradi, T.

1994-06-01

261

Hydrothermal scheduling based Lagrangian relaxation approach to hydrothermal coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an improved Lagrangian relaxation based hydrothermal coordination algorithm. By using Lagrangian multipliers to relax system-wide demand and reserve requirements, the problem is decomposed into thermal and hydro subproblems. The thermal subproblem is solved by using dynamic programming without discretizing generation levels. Instead of solving the hydro subproblems independently as done in the standard Lagrangian relaxation formulation, the

M. S. Salam; K. M. Nor; A. R. Hamdam

1998-01-01

262

Differential inhibition of inflammatory cytokine release from cultured alveolar macrophages from smokers and non-smokers by NO2.  

PubMed

Human alveolar macrophages (AMs) obtained from smokers and non-smokers by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were subjected to various concentrations of NO2 in an inverted monolayer exposure model. Culture supernatants were collected 4 h after the exposure and assayed for secreted TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8 and MIP-1 alpha. The steady state levels of the mRNAs for these cytokines were also analysed in the cells. The adherence of BAL cells to plastic prior to exposure to the gas elevated the steady state mRNA levels of all four cytokines tested in smoker's cells and that of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta, but not IL-8 (MIP-1 alpha not tested), in non-smoker's cells. Interestingly, adherent cells from non-smokers released circa 15-, 3-, 1.5- and 3-fold the amounts of IL-1 beta, IL-8, TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha, respectively, than smoker's cells during control incubation or exposure to air. A 20 min exposure to NO2 (5 or 20 p.p.m.) did not increase the secretion of any of the cytokines from either cell type. In contrast, NO2 caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of the secretion of all cytokines except IL-1 beta from smoker's cells. Additionally, NO2 greatly diminished the release of all cytokines in response to further treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In contrast, only the secretion of TNF-alpha from non-smoker's cells was inhibited by the gas in a concentration-dependent manner, whilst LPS-induced secretion of the cytokines was not affected by the gas. The steady state levels of the respective mRNAs for each of the cytokines were not significantly affected in smoker's cells by exposure to NO2, except for a negative, dose-dependent trend in the case of TNF-alpha. Nitrogen dioxide also failed to elevate the levels of the mRNAs in non-smoker's cells but, again, tended to diminish the levels, particularly of IL-1 beta mRNA. However, exposure to the gas inhibited LPS-induced accumulation of cytokine mRNAs in smoker's cells only. The data suggest that macrophage-derived cytokine mediators of the sepsis response may not play a role in the generation of NO2-induced inflammation in the human lung. Conversely, the gas seems to non-specifically inhibit the release and/or production of cytokines, particularly from smoker's cells, at the post-transcriptional level, and impairs the ability of the cells to increase the transcription and release of the cytokines in response to bacterial LPS. The fact that NO2 seriously impaired the already diminished capacity of smoker's cells to release several important pro-inflammatory cytokines, both under control conditions and in response to LPS, strongly suggest that the inhalation of NO2 in cigarette smoke may contribute to impairing host defence against infection in the lung. PMID:9363475

Dandrea, T; Tu, B; Blomberg, A; Sandström, T; Sköld, M; Eklund, A; Cotgreave, I

1997-10-01

263

Distress Tolerance Treatment for Early-Lapse Smokers  

PubMed Central

A significant percentage of individuals attempting smoking cessation lapse within a matter of days, and very few are able to recover to achieve long-term abstinence. This observation suggests that many smokers may have quit-attempt histories characterized exclusively by early lapses to smoking following quit attempts. Recent negative-reinforcement conceptualizations of early lapse to smoking suggest that individuals' reactions to withdrawal and inability to tolerate the experience of these symptoms, rather than withdrawal severity itself, may represent an important treatment target in the development of new behavioral interventions for this subpopulation of smokers. This article presents the theoretical rationale and describes a novel, multicomponent distress-tolerance treatment for early-lapse smokers that incorporates behavioral and pharmacological elements of standard smoking-cessation treatment, whereas drawing distress-tolerance elements from exposure-based and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy–based treatment approaches. Preliminary data from a pilot study (N = 16) are presented, and clinical implications are discussed.

Brown, Richard A.; Palm, Kathleen M.; Strong, David R.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Hayes, Steven C.; Wilson, Kelly G.; Gifford, Elizabeth V.

2008-01-01

264

Lung cancer in never smokers: disease characteristics and risk factors.  

PubMed

It is estimated that approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases are observed in never-smokers and its incidence is expected to increase due to smoking prevention programs. Risk factors for the development of lung cancer described include second-hand smoking, radon exposure, occupational exposure to carcinogens and to cooking oil fumes and indoor coal burning. Other factors reported are infections (HPV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis), hormonal and diatery factors and diabetes mellitus. Having an affected relative also increases the risk for lung cancer while recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with increased risk for lung cancer development in never smokers. Distinct clinical, pathology and molecular characteristics are observed in lung cancer in never smokers; more frequently is observed in females and adenocarcinoma is the predominant histology while it has a different pattern of molecular alterations. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of this disease. PMID:23921082

Pallis, Athanasios G; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

2013-12-01

265

A study of carboxyhaemoglobin levels of cigarette and sheesha smokers in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed Central

A single carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) estimation of late evening blood sample among non-smokers, cigarette smokers, and sheesha smokers was evaluated among Saudis. The COHb level in smokers of 15 to 40 cigarettes a day ranged between 0.7 and 10.3 with a mean value of 6.1 +/- 2.58 COHb. Values among sheesha smokers ranged between 6.5 and 13.9 with a mean value of 8.8 +/- 1.83, significantly higher than those of cigarette smokers (P less than 0.001) for a given degree of exposure to tobacco smoke.

Zahran, F; Yousef, A A; Baig, M H

1982-01-01

266

Direct Observations of Parenting and Real-time Negative Affect among Adolescent Smokers and Non-Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objective This longitudinal study examined how observations of parental general communication style and control with their adolescents predicted changes in negative affect over time for adolescent smokers and non-smokers. Method Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 111; 56.8% female) who had all experimented with cigarettes and were thus at risk for continued smoking and escalation; 36% of these adolescents (n = 40) had smoked in the past month at baseline and were considered smokers in the present analyses. Adolescents participated separately with mothers and fathers in observed parent-adolescent problem-solving discussions to assess parenting at baseline. Adolescent negative affect was assessed at baseline, 6- and 24-months via ecological momentary assessment. Results Among both smoking and non-smoking adolescents, escalating negative affect significantly increased risk for future smoking. Higher quality maternal and paternal communication predicted a decline in negative affect over 1.5 years for adolescent smokers but was not related to negative affect for non-smokers. Controlling maternal, but not paternal, parenting predicted escalation in negative affect for all adolescents. Conclusions Findings suggest that reducing negative affect among experimenting youth can reduce risk for smoking escalation. Therefore, family-based prevention efforts for adolescent smoking escalation might consider parental general communication style and control as intervention targets. However, adolescent smoking status and parent gender may moderate these effects.

Richmond, Melanie J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

2012-01-01

267

Altered hypothalamic response to food in smokers123  

PubMed Central

Background: Smoking cessation is often followed by weight gain. Eating behaviors and weight change have been linked to the brain response to food, but it is unknown whether smoking influences this response. Objective: We determined the influence of smoking status (smokers compared with nonsmokers) on the brain response to food in regions associated with weight changes in nonsmokers. Design: In study 1, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to identify regions of the brain associated with weight change in nonsmokers. BMI and the brain response to a milk shake, which is a palatable and energy-dense food, were measured in a group of 27 nonsmokers (5 men). Sixteen subjects (3 men) returned 1 y later for BMI reassessment. The change in BMI was regressed against the brain response to isolate regions associated with weight change. In study 2, to determine whether smokers showed altered responses in regions associated with weight change, we assessed the brain response to a milk shake in 11 smokers. The brain response to a milk shake compared with a tasteless control solution was assessed in 11 smokers (5 men) in comparison with a group of age-, sex- and body weight–matched nonsmokers selected from the pool of nonsmokers who participated in study 1. Results: The response in the midbrain, hypothalamus, thalamus, and ventral striatum was positively associated with weight change at the 1-y follow-up in 16 nonsmokers. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers had a greater response to milk shakes in the hypothalamus. Conclusion: Smokers display an altered brain response to food in the hypothalamus, which is an area associated with long-term weight change in nonsmokers.

Geha, Paul Y; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Felsted, Jennifer; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Small, Dana M

2013-01-01

268

Black algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of cyanophytes, especially those growing on tiles and walls exposed to air and sunlight, appear black due to the presence of pigments in the mucilaginous cell-walls. Such pigments may serve a protective role against adverse effects of ultraviolet light but, overlying the ordinary intracellular blue-green pigments, they make the algal clumps look black. Among the most familiar of

Ralph A. Lewin

2006-01-01

269

Adolescent smokers' provision of tobacco to other adolescents.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study examined adolescent smokers provision of tobacco to other adolescents. METHODS: Data from a survey of 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students in Minnesota were analyzed by using mixed-model logistic regression. RESULTS: More than two thirds (68.8%) of adolescent smokers had provided tobacco to another adolescent in the previous 30 days. Mother's smoking, number of friends who smoke, owning tobacco merchandise, number of cigarettes smoked in the past week, source of last cigarette (commercial), and recent attempt to buy cigarettes were associated with providing. CONCLUSIONS: The social availability of tobacco to youth needs further examination.

Wolfson, M; Forster, J L; Claxton, A J; Murray, D M

1997-01-01

270

Prevalence of Trial of Snus Products Among Adult Smokers  

PubMed Central

A 2008 survey assessed the proportion of smokers in 8 geographic areas who reported trying snus. In test markets, 10% of smokers had tried snus in the past year. Among young adult men, the trial rate was 29%. Trial was more likely among Whites than among minorities, among respondents with lower education than among those with higher education, and among those without immediate plans to quit smoking than among those intending to quit in the next 30 days. The association between trial and low cessation motivation is an important target for research.

McCausland, Kristen; Curry, Laurel; Cullen, Jennifer

2011-01-01

271

Nicotine effects on affective response in depression-prone smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Comorbidity between cigarette smoking and depression is thought to arise because depression-prone smokers self-administer\\u000a nicotine to improve mood. Yet little evidence supports this view, and nicotine’s effect on positive affect deficiency in depression\\u000a remains largely unstudied.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  We hypothesized that (1) nicotine would dispel negative affect and enhance positive affect and (2) effects would be stronger\\u000a for smokers vulnerable to depression,

Bonnie Spring; Jessica Werth Cook; Bradley Appelhans; Anne Maloney; Malia Richmond; Jocelyn Vaughn; Joseph Vanderveen; Donald Hedeker

2008-01-01

272

Neuroimaging of marijuana smokers during inhibitory processing: a pilot investigation.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological investigations of substance abusers have reported impairments on tasks mediated by the frontal executive system, including functions associated with behavioral inhibition and decision making. The higher order or executive components which are involved in decision making include selective attention and short term storage of information, inhibition of response to irrelevant information, initiation of response to relevant information, self-monitoring of performance, and changing internal and external contingencies in order to "stay the course" towards the ultimate goal. Given the hypothesized role of frontal systems in decision making and the previous evidence that executive dysfunctions and structural brain changes exist in subjects who use illicit drugs, we applied fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques in a pilot investigation of heavy cannabis smokers and matched control subjects while performing a modification of the classic Stroop task. Marijuana smokers demonstrated significantly lower anterior cingulate activity in focal areas of the anterior cingulate cortex and higher midcingulate activity relative to controls, although both groups were able to perform the task within normal limits. Normal controls also demonstrated increased activity within the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the interference condition, while marijuana smokers demonstrated a more diffuse, bilateral pattern of DLPFC activation. Similarly, although both groups performed the task well, marijuana smokers made more errors of commission than controls during the interference condition, which were associated with different brain regions than control subjects. These findings suggest that marijuana smokers exhibit different patterns of BOLD response and error response during the Stroop interference condition compared to normal controls despite similar task performance. Furthermore, DTI measures in frontal regions, which include the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and bilateral anterior cingulate white matter regions, showed no between group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of directional coherence within white matter fiber tracts, but a notable increase in trace, a measure of overall isotropic diffusivity in marijuana smokers compared to controls. Overall, results from the present study indicate significant differences in the magnitude and pattern of signal intensity change within the anterior cingulate and the DLPFC during the Stroop interference subtest in chronic marijuana smokers compared to normal controls. Furthermore, although chronic marijuana smokers were able to perform the task reasonably well, the functional activation findings suggest they utilize different cortical processes from the control subjects in order to do so. Findings from this study are consistent with the notion that substance abusers demonstrate evidence of altered frontal neural function during the performance of tasks that involve inhibition and performance monitoring, which may affect the ability to make decisions. PMID:15795138

Gruber, Staci A; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

2005-04-01

273

Preliminary results from Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 - NE Lau: First explorations of hydrothermally active volcanoes across the supra-subduction zone and a return to the West Mata eruption site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several expeditions in the past few years have shown that the NE Lau basin has one of the densest concentrations of volcanically and hydrothermally active volcanoes on the planet. In 2008 two active submarine volcanic eruptions were discovered during a one week period and subsequent dives with the Jason remotely operated vehicle at one of the sites (West Mata) revealed an active boninite eruption taking place at 1200 m depth. Two dives at the other revealed evidence for recent eruption along the NE Lau Spreading Center. Several more expeditions in 2010-11 discovered additional evidence about the extent and types of hydrothermal activity in this area. Data from CTDO (conductivity, temperature, depth, optical) vertical casts, tow-yos, and towed camera deployments revealed more than 15 hydrothermal sites at water depths from ~800 to 2700 m that include sites from the magmatic arc, the "rear arc," and the back arc spreading centers. These sites range from high temperature black smoker sulfide-producing systems to those dominated by magmatic degassing. Dives by remotely operated vehicle (Quest 4000) in September 2012 will explore these sites and return samples for chemical, biological and geologic studies. One of the dives will be a return visit to West Mata volcano, the site of the deepest submarine eruption yet observed (in 2009). Recent multibeam data reveal large changes in West Mata's summit, suggesting that the nature of the eruption and the location of the erupting vents may have changed. In addition to the preliminary results from the science team, we will also discuss our use and experience with continuous live video transmission (through the High Definition video camera on the Quest 4000) back to shore via satellite and through the internet. Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 Science Team: Bradley Tebo, Bill Chadwick, Ed Baker, Ken Rubin, Susan Merle, Timothy Shank, Sharon Walker, Andra Bobbitt, Nathan Buck, David Butterfield, Eric Olson, John Lupton, Richard Arculus, Fabio Caratori-Tontini, Rick Davis, Kevin Roe, Edward Mitchell, Paula Keener-Chavis Carolyn Sheehan, Peter Crowhurst, Simon Richards,and Volker Ratmeyer along with the Quest-4000 team. .

Resing, J.; Embley, R. W.

2012-12-01

274

Hydrothermal synthesis of perovskite nanotubes.  

PubMed

A low-temperature hydrothermal reaction has been utilized to generate crystalline barium titanate and strontium titanate nanotubes, which have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. PMID:12613636

Mao, Yuanbing; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Wong, Stanislaus S

2003-02-01

275

Hydrothermal Links Between the Caribbean Plateau and OAE2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A popular current model for the sporadic occurrence of ocean anoxic events (OAEs) in the Cretaceous ties hydrothermally-induced changes in ocean chemistry (bio-limiting trace metals) during ocean plateau (LIP) volcanism to increased surface productivity, followed by mid-to-deep water oxygen depletion and accumulation of organic-rich sediments. This proposed connection is far from accepted, and important unresolved aspects include the timing of events and yet-to-be-proved synchroneity of volcanism and OAEs, the sensitivity of phytoplankton to bio-limiting (and toxic) trace metals, the difference in biotic responses at various OAEs, and the source of the hydrothermal inputs (sea floor spreading centers or ocean plateaus). To test this hypothesis we have measured the distribution of major, minor and trace element abundances in five pelagic carbonate and black shale sequences that bracket the OAE2, defined by a prominent positive excursion in the global seawater d13C record. Sedimentary sections at Rock Creek Canyon (Pueblo, CO), ODP Site 1138 (Kerguelen Plateau), Bass River (NJ), Totuma well (Venezuela) and Baranca el Canyon (Mexico) were chosen to examine potential trace metal patterns and gradients around the proposed source of hydrothermal inputs - the Caribbean Plateau, whose initial volcanic activity has been dated at 93-89 Ma. ICP-AES and ICP-MS elemental abundances from whole rock samples are normalized to Zr to remove the effect of terrestrial inputs. We find prominent trace metal "spikes" (up to 50 times background) for elements known to be concentrated in volatile degassing of magmas and in hydrothermal plumes resulting from seawater-rock reactions. These anomalies begin at the onset and continue well into the d13C excusion at all five sites. Furthermore, the magnitude of the anomalies decreases with distance from the Caribbean region, and the pattern of elements shifts from a wide range of metals near-source to predominantly long residence time metals far "downstream".

Duncan, R. A.; Snow, L. J.

2003-12-01

276

Drill core-based facies reconstruction of a deep-marine felsic volcano hosting an active hydrothermal system (Pual Ridge, Papau New Guinea, ODP Leg 193)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pual Ridge is a deep-marine, felsic volcanic edifice in the eastern Manus back-arc basin (Papua New Guinea) with an estimated volume of ˜6 to 9 km 3. It is 1-1.5 km wide, 20 km long and rises 500-600 m above the surrounding ocean floor. The active PACMANUS hydrothermal field on the crest of Pual Ridge at 1640-1690 m below sea level was the target of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 193. Variably altered dacite lavas have been recovered from the subsurface of a low-T discharge site (Snowcap) and a high-T black smoker site (Roman Ruins) reaching a maximum depth of 380 m below seafloor (mbsf). Volcanic facies interpretation of these cores is difficult due to incomplete recovery and widespread pseudoclastic textures generated by fracturing and multi-phase, incomplete fluid-dacite interaction. However, distinction of genuine volcaniclastic facies and facies with alteration-related clastic appearance is important in order to define paleo-seafloor positions within the volcanic stratigraphy, that may be prospective for massive sulfide mineralization. This has been accomplished using remnant primary characteristics indicative of transportation such as polymictic composition, grading or textural evidence for differential movement of individual clasts. Three phases of volcanic activity can be distinguished and a proximal facies association dominated by coherent facies of dacite lavas exists below Snowcap. At Roman Ruins, a medial facies association consists of lava flows with about equal proportions of coherent and volcaniclastic facies. Endogenous growth was an important process during lava flow emplacement and groundmass textures such as perlite, flow banding and spherulites indicate that cooling rates were variable, locally allowing for high-temperature devitrification. A tube pumice breccia unit is interpreted as the resedimented facies of a quench fragmented, highly vesicular dacite lava carapace. Sulfide accumulations in the subsurface are restricted to Roman Ruins suggesting that the abundance of volcaniclastic facies favored ascent of metal-bearing fluids due to the inherent high permeability. Evidence for mineralization at paleo-seafloor positions at 110 and 195 mbsf indicate a complex interrelationship between volcanic and hydrothermal activity. A facies model has been developed which may help to locate subaqueous, felsic lava-dominated volcanic centers and associated sulfide deposits in ancient volcano-sedimentary successions.

Paulick, H.; Vanko, D. A.; Yeats, C. J.

2004-02-01

277

Archean hydrothermal sea-floor surface environment: Australia VS South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archean greenstone belt typically contains chemical sedimentary sequences such as cherts and BIFs and underlying thick volcanics. These sequences may be used to extract information on hydrothermal activity and potential biological activity on early Earth. We compare the geological and geochemical characteristics of such chemical sediments in the 3.2 Ga Cleaverville Group and 3.4 Ga Warrawoona Group (Marble Bar Chert) in the Pilbara district and coeval Onverwacht Group (Masauri River Chert) and Komati River Formation in the Barberton Greenstone Belt. The Cleaverville Group formed by bimodal volcanism in an immature island arc. The Dixon Island Formation of the Cleaverville Group is one of the best-preserved sequences of Archean hydrothermal activity. The Dixon Island Formation is composed of Komatiite-Rhyolite Tuff, Black Chert, and Varicolored Chert Members to the top. The Komatiite-Rhyolite Tuff Member contains highly altered volcanic rocks with black chert veins. The thick Black Chert Member is characterized by low organic carbon contents (<0.5 percent) and low carbon isotope compositions (- 28 to -40 per mil). It contains fossil-like carbonaceous materials. The Masauri River Chert is also a hydrothermal sequence that is quite similar to the Dixon Island Formation. It contains highly altered volcanic rocks with numerous quartz swarms and black chert dikes, which are covered by volcanic tuff and well-stratified black/white cherts. Its upper sequence contains Fe- rich black/white cherts. Black chert of the Masauri River Chert is also characterized by low organic carbon content (<0.5 percent) and relatively high carbon isotope compositions (-20 to -30 per mil). Similarity in the petrographical and geochemical characteristics of black chert veins and massive black chert beds in the Australian and South African sections suggest that the depositional environments for those rocks were also similar. These evidences strong suggest that Archean hydrothermal system contains organic matter which is blowout from the see-floor surface. Early life exuberate (such as bacteria) on these organic rich see-floor along the vent system.

Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Koge, S.; Inamoto, Y.; Ikehara, M.; Kitajima, F.; Yamaguchi, K.

2007-12-01

278

Motion and twisting of magnetic particles ingested by alveolar macrophages in non-smokers and smokers: Implementation of viscoelasticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferrimagnetic iron oxide particles were inhaled by 17 healthy volunteers (9 non-smokers, 8 smokers), and the retained particles were magnetized and detected by a SQUID. Stochastic particle transport due to cytoskeletal reorganizations within macrophages (relaxation) and directed particle motion in a weak magnetic twisting field were investigated with respect to viscous and elastic properties of the cytoskeleton. Relaxation and cytoskeletal stiffness were not influenced by cigarette smoking. Relaxation and particle twisting revealed a non-Newtonian viscosity with a pure viscous and a viscoelastic compartment. Viscous and elastic data obtained from relaxation correlated with particle twisting, indicating that the proposed simple model is a reasonable approximation of cytoskeletal mechanical properties.

Möller, Winfried; Felten, Kathrin; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Häussinger, Karl; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.

2007-04-01

279

Ineffectiveness of Cough for Enhancing Mucus Clearance in Asymptomatic Smokers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using monodisperse aerosols radiolabeled with (99m)Tc, the authors studied the effectiveness of cough and rapid inhalations for clearing mucus in ten asymptomatic smokers. On three separate study days, each subject breathed 5 micrometers (MMAD) (99m)Tc-ir...

W. D. Bennett W. F. Chapman T. R. Gerrity

1992-01-01

280

Smoking Intensity among Nigerian Secondary Schools Adolescent Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined smoking intensity among secondary school adolescent smokers. A total of 800 students, made up of 685 males and 115 females who have at least tasted a cigarette once, from twenty secondary schools (5 private and 15 public secondary schools) in Benin City, Nigeria participated in the study. A questionnaire was used in collecting…

Imhonde, Henry O.; Aluede, Oyaziwo

2007-01-01

281

EFFECTIVENESS OF COUGH FOR ENHANCING MUCUS CLEARANCE IN ASYMPTOMATIC SMOKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Using monodisperse aerosols radiolabeled with 99mTc, we studied the effectiveness of ough and rapid inhalations for clearing mucus in en asymptomatic smokers. On three eparate study days, each subject breathed 5 um (MMAD) 99mTc-iron oxide particles under ontrolled breathing condi...

282

Addiction to the nicotine gum in never smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Addiction to nicotine gum has never been described in never smokers or in never users of tobacco. Methods Internet questionnaire in 2004–2006 in a self-selected sample of 434 daily users of nicotine gum. To assess dependence on nicotine gum, we used modified versions of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS), the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and the Cigarette Dependence Scale. Results Five never smokers used the nicotine gum daily. They had been using the nicotine gum for longer than the 429 ever smokers (median = 6 years vs 0.8 years, p = 0.004), and they had higher NDSS-gum Tolerance scores (median = 0.73 vs = -1.0, p = 0.03), a difference of 1.5 standard deviation units. Two never smokers had never used smokeless tobacco, both answered "extremely true" to: "I use nicotine gums because I am addicted to them", both "fully agreed" with: "after a few hours without chewing a nicotine gum, I feel an irresistible urge to chew one" and: "I am a prisoner of nicotine gum". Conclusion This is to our knowledge the first report of addiction to nicotine gum in never users of tobacco. However, this phenomenon is rare, and although the long-term effect of nicotine gum is unknown, this product is significantly less harmful than tobacco.

Etter, Jean-Francois

2007-01-01

283

Putting It on the Line: Telephone Counseling for Adolescent Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present an adolescent counseling intervention used by the California Smokers' Helpline and test in the largest randomized trials to date. In this study, more than 1,400 teen clients were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received telephone counseling…

Tedeschi, Gary J.; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Anderson, Christopher M.; Cummins, Sharon; Ribner, Neil G.

2005-01-01

284

Transtheoretical Model of Change Among Hospitalized African American Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine predicted relationships among transtheoretical model of change measures in a sample of 211 low-income, African American hospitalized smokers. Methods: We used discriminant analysis to examine differences in decisional balance and self-efficacy across stages of change for quitting. Results: Differences in decisional balance…

Kohler, Connie L.; Fish, Larry; Davies, Susan L.

2004-01-01

285

Willingness among College Students to Help a Smoker Quit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Between February and March 2003, the authors examined college students' willingness to help a smoker quit and assessed demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with willingness to help. Participants: Survey respondents were 701 college students (474 women, 227 men) aged 18 to 24 years who indicated there was someone close…

Thomas, Janet L.; Gerber, Tracy A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Patten, Christi A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Offord, Kenneth P.

2008-01-01

286

Effects of Tobacco Abstinence on Food Intake Among Cigarette Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total caloric and specific nutrient intakes of smokers who became abstinent were compared with those of a control group. Both groups were composed of volunteer inpatients housed in a research ward for 7 days. After smoking ad libitum for 3 days, the experimental group was required to abstain from tobacco for the next 4 days while the control group

Dorothy Hatsukami; Lynda LaBounty; John Hughes; Dawn Laine

1993-01-01

287

Matching Smokers to Treatment: Self-Control versus Social Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied 137 smokers who were assessed on 12 predictor variables and then randomly assigned to social support or self-control treatment. Social support treatment was more effective than self-control treatment for participants with high baseline self-control orientation scores and participants with high self-efficacy scores. Implications are…

Digiusto, Erol; Bird, Kevin D.

1995-01-01

288

Feasibility of an exercise counseling intervention for depressed women smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction Depressive symptoms negatively impact smoking abstinence. However, few interventions have been targeted to smokers with current depression. Exercise improves mood and may benefit depressed smokers. This pilot study investigated the feasibility of an exercise intervention for depressed female smokers (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score ?16). Methods Participants (M?=?41 years, 98% White) were randomized to 10 weeks of individually delivered exercise counseling (n?=?30) or a health education contact control condition (n?=?30). All participants received nicotine patch therapy and behavioral counseling for smoking cessation. Results The intervention was feasible as indicated by ability to recruit participants, exercise counseling session attendance (M?=?7.6 of 10 sessions attended), and significant increase in exercise frequency and stage of change from baseline to end of treatment (EOT) (Week 10). Participant attrition rate was 35% by Week 10 but did not differ significantly between groups. Smoking abstinence rates at Week 10, using intention-to-treat analysis, were 17% for exercise counseling participants and 23% for health education participants (p = .75). Discussion An exercise counseling intervention was found to be feasible for depressed women smokers. More intensive intervention may be needed to increase smoking abstinence rates, and methods should be refined to reduce participant burden and attrition.

Patten, Christi A.; Lewis, Beth A.; Clark, Matthew M.; Ussher, Michael; Ebbert, Jon O.; Croghan, Ivana T.; Decker, Paul A.; Hathaway, Julie; Marcus, Bess H.; Hurt, Richard D.

2009-01-01

289

Recurrent hemoptysis in a 62-year-old smoker.  

PubMed

Tracheal papillary adenoma is a rare benign tumor. We report a case of papillary adenoma in a 62-year-old male smoker who presented with recurrent hemoptysis. The tumor was located in the upper third of trachea and forceps biopsy through flexible bronchoscopy was uncomplicated and diagnostic. PMID:23741099

Gowrinath, Karanam; Ramakrishna, Baddukonda Appala; Shanthi, Vissa; Sujatha, Gogineni

2013-04-01

290

Recurrent hemoptysis in a 62-year-old smoker  

PubMed Central

Tracheal papillary adenoma is a rare benign tumor. We report a case of papillary adenoma in a 62-year-old male smoker who presented with recurrent hemoptysis. The tumor was located in the upper third of trachea and forceps biopsy through flexible bronchoscopy was uncomplicated and diagnostic.

Gowrinath, Karanam; Ramakrishna, Baddukonda Appala; Shanthi, Vissa; Sujatha, Gogineni

2013-01-01

291

Inhibition of Cellular Mediated Immunity in Marihuana Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular mediated immunity of 51 young chronic marihuana smokers, as evaluated by the lymphocyte response in vitro to allogenetic cells and to phytohemagglutinin, was significantly decreased and similar to that of patients in whom impairment of T (thymus derived) cell immunity is known to occur. This inhibition of blastogenesis might be related to an impairment of DNA synthesis.

Gabriel G. Nahas; Nicole Suciu-Foca; Jean-Pierre Armand; Akira Morishima

1974-01-01

292

Milestones in the Process of Cessation Among Novice Adolescent Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To document the sequence and timing of milestones in the pro- cess of smoking cessation, we prospectively studied cessation milestones among novice adolescent smokers. Methods. Participants, aged 12 to 13 years in 1999 (n = 1293), completed self- report questionnaires every 3 months during the school year over 5 years. We as- certained time after first puff to attain

Jennifer O'Loughlin; André Gervais; Erika Dugas; Garbis Meshefedjian

293

Effects of nicotine deprivation on craving response covariation in smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most models of craving propose that when cravings are strong, diverse responses—thought to index an underlying craving state— covary. Previous studies provided weak support for this hypothesis. The authors tested whether nicotine deprivation affects degree of covariation across multiple measures related to craving. Heavy and light smokers (N 127) were exposed to smoking cues while either nicotine deprived or nondeprived.

Michael A. Sayette; Christopher S. Martin; Jay G. Hull; Joan M. Wertz; Michael A. Perrott

2003-01-01

294

Factors in Nonadherence to Quitline Services: Smoker Characteristics Explain Little  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Quitlines offer evidence-based, multisession coaching support for smoking cessation in the 50 U.S. states, Canada, and several other countries. Smokers who enroll in quitline services have, "ipso facto," shown readiness to attempt to quit, but noncompletion of coaching services appears widespread and has not been widely investigated.…

Burns, Emily K.; Levinson, Arnold H.; Deaton, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

295

Striatal hyposensitivity to delayed rewards among cigarette smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Brain regions that track value (including the ventral striatum) respond more during the anticipation of immediate than delayed rewards, even when the delayed rewards are larger and equally preferred to the immediate. The anticipatory response to immediate vs. delayed rewards has not previously been examined in association with cigarette smoking. Methods Smokers (n=35) and nonsmokers (n=36) performed a modified monetary incentive functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) task (Knutson et al., 2000) that included opportunities to win either immediate or delayed rewards. The delayed rewards were larger and equally preferred to the immediate rewards. Results Across groups, greater activation was observed in regions previously shown to track value including bilateral ventral/dorsal striatum during anticipation of immediate relative to delayed rewards. This effect was significantly greater among smokers than nonsmokers within the right ventral striatum. This group difference was driven particularly by low striatal activation among smokers during delayed reward trials. Conclusions The general tendency for striatal reward anticipatory activity to be attenuated when rewards are delayed is exaggerated among smokers relative to comparison participants. Among possible explanations of this relationship are that 1) low anticipatory response to delayed rewards is a phenotypic risk factor for smoking, and 2) smoking-related neuroadaptations result in reduced recruitment during the anticipation of delayed rewards.

Luo, Shan; Ainslie, George; Giragosian, Lisa; Monterosso, John R.

2010-01-01

296

Pancreatic Cancer Linked to Insulin Resistance in Male Smokers  

Cancer.gov

A new study, led by researchers at the NCI, shows for the first time that male smokers with the highest insulin levels are twice as likely to develop pancreatic cancer as men with the lowest levels. Similarly, men with glucose levels in the range of clinical diabetes were twice as likely to develop the cancer as men with normal glucose levels.

297

Role of Vitamin E on Oxidative Stress in Smokers  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoke contains numerous oxygen free radicals that when inhaled, overwhelm antioxidant defenses and produce a condition of oxidative stress. This study investigated whether or not supplementation with vitamin E can affect the state of oxidative stress in healthy smokers. In this randomised double blind trial, 32 smokers received 200 mg of vitamin E or placebo daily for 8 weeks. All smokers in the vitamin E group completed the trial whilst only nine in the placebo group completed the trial. Plasma vitamin E concentrations increased significantly [P<0.02] in the vitamin E group. The release of malondialdehyde [MDA] from erythrocytes was not significantly different between the two groups at baseline and was clearly reduced [P<0.01] after 8 weeks of vitamin E supplementation. Vitamin E increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity [P<0.02] and decreased gluthathione peroxidase activity [P<0.02]. No changes were detected in plasma MDA. We conclude that daily supplementation with 200 mg of vitamin E for 8 weeks improved the oxidative stress state in smokers.

Ismail, Nafeeza Mohd.; Harun, Asma; Yusof, Ahmad Asmadi; Zaiton, Z; Marzuki, Alini

2002-01-01

298

Young smokers’ views of genetic susceptibility testing for lung cancer risk: minding unintended consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of smokers’ responses to individualized feedback of genetic susceptibility has shown little or no influence on\\u000a smoking cessation outcomes. One explanation is that smokers may be having unintended responses that undermine the feedback’s\\u000a motivational impact (e.g., fatalism or downplaying risk). In preparation for a large randomized trial with college smokers,\\u000a we conducted a qualitative pilot study to explore smokers

Sharron L. Docherty; Colleen M. McBride; Saskia C. Sanderson; Suzanne C. O’Neill; James A. Shepperd; Isaac M. Lipkus

2011-01-01

299

Molecular evidence for microorganisms participating in Fe, Mn, and S biogeochemical cycling in two low-temperature hydrothermal fields at the Southwest Indian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined two low-temperature hydrothermal deposits rich in Fe-Si-Mn collected from the recently discovered hydrothermal fields at the Southwest Indian Ridge using mineralogical, geochemical, and molecular biological techniques. The mineralogical and geochemical analyses indicated that the low-temperature hydrothermal fields would provide a warm and chemical species-rich habitat for chemosynthetic-based hydrothermal ecosystems. Analyses of 16S rRNA sequences showed that ?-Proteobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, Leptothrix, and Pseudomonas were potential Fe and Mn oxidizers in the low-temperature hydrothermal environments, but they were not present in equal abundance among the subniches. Some potential Fe and Mn reducers were also recovered; they were more commonly found in the exterior black Fe-Mn oxides. The difference between the exterior black Fe-Mn oxides and the interior Opal-A could be related to differences in in situ physicochemical conditions. We also identified microbial players that may participate in sulfur (S) geochemical cycling in these low-temperature hydrothermal environments via analyses of 16S rRNA sequences and the aprA functional gene. The results indicated that members of ?-Proteobacteria and ?-Proteobacteria were involved in the S oxidation process, while members of ?-Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Firmicutes, and Archaea might participate in the S reduction process. Fe, Mn, and S oxidizers and reducers might actively participate in hydrothermal biogeochemical processes, which could influence the transfer of chemical species and the formation of biogenic minerals.

Li, Jiwei; Peng, Xiaotong; Zhou, Huaiyang; Li, Jiangtao; Sun, Zhilei

2013-06-01

300

Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers.  

PubMed

The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9% were males. The average age was 30.02 +/- 9.48 years and the average number of years of smoking was 8.09 +/- 6.45 years. Three subjects had dysphonia at the time of examination. The incidence of benign lesions of the vocal folds in the hubble-bubble group was 21.5%, with edema being the most common at 16.7% followed by cyst at 4.8%. The incidence of laryngeal findings was significantly higher in the hubble-bubble group compared to controls. In the cigarette-smoking group, the most common finding was vocal fold cyst in 14.8% followed by polyps in 7.4%, and edema, sulcus vocalis and granuloma. These findings were not significantly different from the hubble-bubble group except for the thick mucus, which was significantly higher in the latter. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between hubble-bubble smokers and controls except for the VTI and MPT, which were significantly lower in the hubble-bubble group. In comparison with the cigarette-smoking group, hubble-bubble smokers had significantly higher Fundamental frequency and habitual pitch (p value 0.042 and 0.008, respectively). The laryngeal findings in hubble-bubble smokers are comparable to cigarette smokers. These laryngeal findings are not translated acoustically, as all the acoustic parameters are within normal range compared to controls. PMID:20480370

Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Sibai, Abla; Oubari, Dima; Ashkar, Jihad; Fuleihan, Nabil

2010-10-01

301

Discounting of delayed health gains and losses by current, never- and ex-smokers of cigarettes.  

PubMed

Recent evidence implicates steep discounting of delayed outcomes as an important feature of drug dependence. We determined discounting rates for health gains and health losses in current cigarette smokers (n = 23), never-smokers (n = 22) and ex-smokers (n = 21). Participants indicated preference for immediate vs. delayed hypothetical health gains and for immediate vs. delayed hypothetical health losses in a titration procedure that determined indifference points at a range of delays. The degree of discounting was estimated using two nonlinear decay models: an exponential model and a hyperbolic model. The hyperbolic equation generally provided better fits to the data than the exponential equation did. Current smokers discounted delayed health gains and health losses more steeply than never-smokers did. Discounting by ex-smokers was generally intermediate to that of current smokers and never-smokers, although not statistically different from either. Current smokers and ex-smokers discounted delayed health losses more steeply than they did health gains. Never-smokers did not discount gains and losses differently. Cigarette smokers show rapid loss of value for delayed health outcomes, emphasizing the need for smoking-cessation treatments that provide relatively immediate consequences for abstinence. PMID:12215238

Odum, Amy L; Madden, Gregory J; Bickel, Warren K

2002-08-01

302

External and internal cues as determinants of the smoking behavior of light and heavy smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied 108 light and heavy smokers (male undergraduates) to assess the role of external and internal smoking cues as determinants of smoking behavior, as an analogy to S. Schachter's (1971) model of eating behavior. It was predicted that light smokers would be more affected by the manipulation of external cues and heavy smokers more affected by the manipulation of internal

C. Peter Herman

1974-01-01

303

Do cigarette smokers have unrealistic perceptions of their heart attack, cancer, and stroke risks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether perceived risks of heart attack, cancer, and stroke were higher among smokers than nonsmokers; whether smokers were more likely to underestimate these risks; and the demographic correlates of unrealistic risk estimation among smokers. Two thousand seven hundred eight-five patients from 12 North Carolina family practices completed a questionnaire including a health risk appraisal and questions concerning

Victor J. Strecher; Matthew W. Kreuter; Sarah C. Kobrin

1995-01-01

304

Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

2014-01-01

305

Black Cohosh  

MedlinePLUS

... as stomach discomfort, headache, or rash. In general, clinical trials of black cohosh for menopausal symptoms have ... Is CAM? Safety Information For Health Care Professionals Clinical Practice Guidelines Literature Reviews More » Research NCCAM Research ...

306

Vaginal cells of smokers are more resistant to human papillomavirus infection than that of non-smokers  

PubMed Central

To evaluate effect of HPV and smoking on DNA double-strand breaks in vaginal samples, vaginal specimens collected from participants (n=76) were classified based on HPV and smoking status and DNA double-strand breaks measured using comet assay. Mean tail length (31.2 +/? 18.7 ?m) and tail moment (2.4 +/? 2.8 arbitrary units) for HPV-positive patients were lower (p<0.001) compared with HPV-negative patients (61.7 +/? 22.6 ?m; 8.7 +/? 4.9). Never-smokers were found to have higher level (p<0.001) of double-strand breaks (57.7 +/? 24.5 ?m, 7.5 +/? 5.5 AU) compared with ever smokers (35.3 +/? 21.9 ?m; 3.4 +/? 3.7 AU). Among HPV infected patients, never-smokers have more double-strand breaks compared to smokers (p<0.001) which correlated with age (p<0.001). Highly differentiated vaginal epithelium may be resistant to DNA damage associated with HPV infection and smoking, which may be attributed to adoptive survival mechanisms of vaginal epithelium.

Moktar, Afsoon; Ravoori, Srivani; Vadhanm, Manicka V.; Pan, Jianmin; Rai, Shesh N; Jenson, Alfred B.; Parker, Lynn P.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

2012-01-01

307

COMPARISON OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION IN NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS OBTAINED FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several studies have demonstrated that individuals who smoke have greater susceptibility to influenza infections, as well as other respiratory virus infections, than non-smokers, yet the role of airway epithelial cells in this response is not clear. To determine whether in vivo t...

308

Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8), with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5), females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5), White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4) or Black people (0.90, 0.73-1.10, n = 4). Estimates for current and ever smokers are similar. The combined estimate for long-term use (0.95, 0.80-1.13, n = 4) again suggests no effect of mentholation. Conclusion Higher lung cancer rates in Black males cannot be due to their greater preference for mentholated cigarettes. While some study weaknesses exist, the epidemiological evidence is consistent with mentholation having no effect on the lung carcinogenicity of cigarettes.

2011-01-01

309

Hydrothermal synthesis of zirconia nanomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yttria-stabilised zirconia powders and films have been obtained from Zr(IV) peroxides by hydrothermal crystallisation at temperatures in the range 125–200°C. The thermodynamic evaluation evidenced that formation of Zr(OH)5? in H2O2 solutions increases solubility of Zr (IV) hydrated species and improves the kinetics of the new phase formation by the solubilisation-reprecipitation process. Powders with crystallite sizes in the range 6–22 nm

R. R Piticescu; C Monty; D Taloi; A Motoc; S Axinte

2001-01-01

310

Iron isotope fractionation in sulfides: constraints on mechanisms of sulfide formations in hydrothermal and magmatic systems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on non-traditional stable isotope fractionations (e.g., Fe, Cu) provide further insight into mechanisms of sulfide mineralization. Correct interpretation of these data is impossible without knowledge on equilibrium isotopic fractionation factors of sulfides. We present data on iron isotope fractionation factors (?-factors) of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and mackinawite (FeS). Iron ?-factors for chalcopyrite were derived from synchrotron experimental data on inelastic nuclear resonant x-ray scattering (INRXS) [1] using the method described elsewhere [2,3]. The ?-factors for mackinawite were found from the Moessbauer second-order Doppler shift data [4] by the method presented in [5]. The temperature dependence of the iron ?-factors are fitted by following third-order polynomials: 103ln?cpy = 0.82560x - 0.01298x2 + 0.0005246x3 103ln?mcw = 0.2542x - 0.0001847x2 + 2.072×103x3 where x=106/T2 Using these data along with ?-factors for pyrite and troilite [3,6], we compared iron isotope fractionation between pyrite and chalcopyrite in hydrothermal and magmatic conditions. Rouxel et al. [7] studied iron isotope of seafloor of hydrothermal vents in detail. They found that pyrite is enriched in light iron isotope relative to chalcopyrite in the case of black smoker Bio 9. This result evidences absence of iron isotope equilibrium between pyrite and chalcopyrite, because in equilibrium pyrite is enriched in heavy iron isotope (?py > ?cpy). Quantitatively, iron isotope fractionation between chalcolpyrite and pyrite is very close to equilibrium iron isotope fractionation between chalcolpyrite and FeS phase (mackinawite or troilite). This agrees the mechanism of pyrite formation through intermidient FeS phase if to assume isotopic equilibrium between the FeS phase and dissolved iron and no isotopic effect in the final stage of conversion FeS to FeS2 (pyrite). Another iron isotope fractionation was observed between pyrite and chalcopyrite in the case of the Cu-Au porphyry deposit of Crasberg igneous complex (GIC) [8]. In this case, pyrite is enriched in heavy iron isotope relative to chalcopyrite that is in agreement with direction of iron isotope fractionation in equilibrium. Using these data [8] and appropriate iron ?-factors obtained from INRXS- and Moessbauer experiments, we estimated temperatures of pyrite and chalcopyrite formation. We obtained reasonable temperatures varying between 180 and 650oC for different intrusions of GIC, which are in agreement with other estimations [9,10] Conclusions: Iron ?-factors for chalcopyrite CuFeS2 were calculated from 57Fe PDOS obtained in INRXS synchrotron radiation experiments [1]. Iron ?-factors for mackinawite were calculated from the Moessbauer SOD shift based on experiments [4]. Using new value of chalcopyrite and mackinawite and/or troilite iron ?-factors, it was shown that isotope composition of pyrite in hydrothermal seafloor processes is controlled by equilibrium isotope fractionation between FeS phase (pyrite precursor) and hydrothermal fluid. Fe isotope equilibrium between pyrite and chalcopyrite may be attained in magmatic processes. References: Kobayashi H., Umemura J., Kazekami Y. and Sakai N. Phys. Rev. B. (2007) 76, 134108. Polyakov V. B., Mineev S. D., Clayton R. N., Hu G. and Mineev K. S. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2005) 69, 5531-5536. Polyakov V. B., Clayton R. N., Horita J. and Mineev S.D. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2007) 71, 3833-3846. Bertaut E. F., Burlet P. and Chappert J. Solid State Comm. (1965) 3, 335 - 338. Polyakov V. B. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (1997)61, 4213 - 4217. Polyakov V.B. and Mineev S. D. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2000) 64, 849 - 865 Rouxel O., Shanks III W. C., Bach W. and Edwards K. J. Chem. Geol. (2008) 252, 214 - 227 Graham S., Pearson N., Jackson S., Griffin W. and O'Reilly S. Y. Chem. Geol. (2004) 204, 147 - 169 Heinrich C. A. Mineralium Deposita (2005) 39, 864-889 Pollard P.J. and Taylor R.G. Mineralium Deposita (2004) 37, 117-136. .

Polyakov, Veniamin; Soultanov, Dilshod

2010-05-01

311

Microbial Geochemistry in Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are far more ubiquitous than generally recognized. Approximately 50-60 systems are currently known, occurring world-wide in areas of high heat flow, such as, volcanic island arcs, near-surface mid-ocean ridges, and intraplate oceanic volcanoes. In contrast to deep-sea systems, shallow- sea vent fluids generally include a meteoric component, they experience phase separation near the sediment- water interface, and they discharge into the photic zone (<200 m). They also are characterized by wide ranges in chemical composition, hundreds of redox disequilibria that translate to potential metabolisms, and broad phylogenetic diversity among the thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Perhaps because deep-sea smokers and continental hot springs are visually more stunning, shallow-sea systems are often overlooked study sites. We will discuss their particular features that afford unique opportunities in microbial geochemistry. Two of the better studied examples are at Vulcano Island (Italy) and Ambitle Island (Papua New Guinea). The vents and sediment seeps at Vulcano are the "type locality" for numerous cultured hyperthermophiles, including the bacteria Aquifex and Thermotoga, the crenarchaeon Pyrodictium, and the Euryarchaeota Archaeoglobus and Pyrococcus. Isotope-labeled incubation experiments of heated sediments and an array of culturing studies have shown that simple organic compounds are predominantly fermented or anaerobically respired with sulfate. 16S rRNA gene surveys, together with fluorescent in situ hybridization studies, demonstrated the dominance of key thermophilic bacteria and archaea (e.g., Aquificales, Thermotogales, Thermococcales, Archaeoglobales) in the sediments and the presence of a broad spectrum of mostly uncultured crenarchaeota in several vent waters, sediment samples, and geothermal wells. Thermodynamic modeling quantified potential energy yields from aerobic and anaerobic respiration reactions and fermentation reactions. In contrast to their deep-sea counterparts, shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are often characterized by high arsenic concentrations of more than 500-times seawater levels. The arsenic, generally present as arsenite (As^{III}) in the vent fluid, feeds local biogeochemical arsenic cycles. Thus, shallow sites are excellent hunting grounds for novel extremophiles that may gain metabolic energy by catalyzing arsenic redox reactions. Particularly the Ambitle site, where hydrothermal fluids contain up to 1,000 ?g/L arsenite, has proven to be exceptional. There, the arsenic has a wide-ranging impact on micro-, meio-, and macro-fauna.

Amend, J. P.; Pichler, T.

2006-12-01

312

The Crisis in Black and Black.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

313

Differential use of other tobacco products among current and former cigarette smokers by income level.  

PubMed

With the declining sales of cigarettes, the tobacco industry has been promoting other forms of combustible and smokeless tobacco to current and former cigarette smokers. Exposure to the promotion of tobacco products has been shown to vary by income level. We combined the 2006 through 2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health to compare the prevalence and patterns of other tobacco use (cigar, snuff, and chewing tobacco) between current and former cigarette smokers by income level. Other tobacco use was minimal among females and among male non-smokers. Approximately a third of both current and former male cigarette smokers reported past-year other tobacco use. Overall, current smokers were more likely than former smokers to have used cigars (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.50-1.92) or snuff (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28) in the past year. The association of smoking status with other tobacco use differed by income level (interaction term p-value<0.001). Among lower income groups, current smokers were more likely to use cigars and snuff compared to former smokers. Among the highest income group, former smokers were just as likely to use smokeless tobacco as current smokers. The differing patterns of use of other tobacco between current and former smokers by income level highlight a need for studies to understand the motivations for the use of these products and their role in smoking cessation. PMID:24930053

Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Pierce, John P; White, Martha; Messer, Karen

2014-10-01

314

False promises: The tobacco industry, "low-tar" cigarettes, and older smokers  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging Baby Boomers. Methods Archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis utilizing iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Results Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. “Low tar” cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Conclusion Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing “low-tar” or “light” cigarettes to older smokers at risk at quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer; however, “light” cigarettes may actually make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers and families about the tobacco industry’s influence may decrease the tendency to “blame the victim,” thereby enhancing the likelihood of tobacco addiction treatment for older adults. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers.

Cataldo, Janine K.; Malone, Ruth E.

2009-01-01

315

Gender and age differences among current smokers in a general population survey  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence suggests a higher proportion of current smokers among female than among male ever smokers at the age above 50. However, little is known about the proportion of current smokers among ever smokers in old age groups with consideration of women in comparison to men from general population samples. The goal was to analyze the proportions of current smokers among female and among male ever smokers including those older than 80. Methods Cross-sectional survey study with a national probability household sample in Germany. Data of 179,472 participants aged 10 or older were used based on face-to-face in-home interviews or questionnaires. The proportions of current smokers among ever smokers were analyzed dependent on age, age of onset of smoking and cigarettes per day including effect modification by gender. Results Proportions of current smokers tended to be larger among female than among male ever smokers aged 40 or above. Women compared to men showed adjusted odds ratios of 1.7 to 6.9 at ages 40 to 90 or older in contrast to men. No such interaction existed for age of onset of smoking or cigarettes per day. Conclusion Special emphasis should be given to current smokers among the female general population at the age of 40 or above in public health intervention.

John, Ulrich; Hanke, Monika; Meyer, Christian; Schumann, Anja

2005-01-01

316

3.2-Ga Dixon Island Formation VS. 3.5-Ga Marble Bar Chert: Stratigraphic correlation of the volcano-hydrothermal sequences in the Pilbara, Australia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3.2-Ga Dixon Island Formation in the coastal Pilbara terrane and the 3.5 Ga Marble Bar Chert in the Warrawoona Group in Pilbara Craton of western Australia, are well preserved an Archean hydrothermal stratigraphic sequence containing organic black chert and Fe rich iron chert or BIF. We did detail mapping (1/500 and 1/100 scales) to recognize previous ocean floor environments. Especially the Dixon Island Formation is exposed excellent preservation along the coast (7 km long) which is only location of the greenstone belt in the Pilbara. The stratigraphy of these sequences preserved quite resembles. They form volcanics (rhyolite tuff, pillow basalt), highly altered zone with hydrothermal black chert vein, black chert, varicolored (black and white) chert and red chert or BIF from bottom to top. Many black-chert vein swarms imply intensive low-temperature hydrothermal activity during deposition of black chert above the basement volcanics. These resemble stratigraphy, which is called Black chert-BIF (BCB) sequence, indicate the one of the standard sedimentary sequence of Archean oceanic hydrothermal environments. Metamorphic grade and structural deformation is different. The Dixon Island Formation is situated less than prehnite-pumpellyite facies with D2 left-lateral strike-slip deformation (Kiyokawa et al., 2002). It contains many previous sedimentary structures. On the other hand, the Marble Bar Chert is affected NNW compressional deformation and lower greenschist facies metamorphic grade and most carbonaceous materials are decomposed. In detail, absence of detrital sediments of continental origin in the Dixon Island formation implies that this sedimentary facies represents a hydrothermal environment at about 500~2000 m in paleo-depth. Microbial material has been preserved well in the black chert bed, which is composed of massive black chert and laminated black chert. The massive black chert has carbonaceous peloids (0.3 mm~2 mm in diameter) similar to those in the black chert veins. The massive black chert of the Dixon Island Formation contains wriggle-, rod- and dendrite-shaped bacterial-shape material. The black chert of the Marble Bar Chert, however, preserved more deformed black carbonate materials and poor rod-shape matarials. Geochemical data of the Dixon Island Formation as follows: total organic carbon (TOC) in the black chert and black chert veins varies within 0.05 ~ 0.16% (average 0.1%) and the carbon isotope (delta 13C) values of these rocks are -35~ -27 per mil (average 30 per mill). Sulfur isotope (delta 34S and delta 33S) values of the pyrite in black chert rocks are -1~ -9.9 per mil and 1.3~5.6 per mil. This evidence suggests that the carbonaceous grains and bacteria-shaped material in the black cherts in the Dixon Island Formation are biogenic and formed close to a hydrothermal vent system. Based on the field observations and geochemical evidences suggest that the Dixon Island Formation and Marble Bar Chert are quite resemble sedimentary environments on the ocean floor with biogenic microbial colony near hydrothermal vents in the Archean. The black carbon materials in the Marble Bar Chert may be decomposed by diagenesis and metamorphism.

Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Kitajima, F.; Nakamura, T.; Katagami, A.; Nedachi, M.

2004-12-01

317

Project IMPACT: A pharmacotherapy pilot trial investigating the abstinence and treatment adherence of Latino light smokers  

PubMed Central

Light smoking is particularly prevalent among Latino smokers. Nicotine replacement (NRT) and varenicline are effective medications for smoking cessation for moderate-heavy smokers, but have not been tested in light smokers and thus there are no treatment guidelines for use with light smokers. This pilot trial tested the efficacy of NRT and varenicline in increasing smoking abstinence among Latino light smokers. A 3-group (NRT, varenicline, varenicline-placebo) randomized design was used and Latino light smokers (?10 cpd) received 12 weeks of treatment which included a culturally-informed behavioral health session and ongoing medication management visits. At follow-up, there were no abstinent participants in the placebo and NRT groups. However, 30% of participants in the varenicline group were abstinent at the 3, 4, and 6 month follow-up. This study represents the only investigation that specifically targets Latino light smokers using these treatments and characterizing their treatment adherence.

de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stanton, Cassandra; Audet, Daniel A.; Stein, Michael

2012-01-01

318

Smokers' Decision Making: More than Mere Risk Taking  

PubMed Central

The fact that smoking is bad for people’s health has become common knowledge, yet a substantial amount of people still smoke. Previous studies that sought to better understand this phenomenon have found that smoking is associated with the tendency to take risk in other areas of life as well. The current paper explores factors that may underlie this tendency. An experimental analysis shows that smokers are more easily tempted by immediate high rewards compared to nonsmokers. Thus the salience of risky alternatives that produce large rewards most of the time can direct smokers to make bad choices even in an abstract situation such as the Iowa Gambling Task. These findings suggest that the risk taking behavior associated with smoking is not related to the mere pursuit of rewards but rather reflects a tendency to yield to immediate temptation.

Ert, Eyal; Yechiam, Eldad; Arshavsky, Olga

2013-01-01

319

Effects of Nicotine Deprivation on Craving Response Covariation in Smokers  

PubMed Central

Most models of craving propose that when cravings are strong, diverse responses—thought to index an underlying craving state— covary. Previous studies provided weak support for this hypothesis. The authors tested whether nicotine deprivation affects degree of covariation across multiple measures related to craving. Heavy and light smokers (N = 127) were exposed to smoking cues while either nicotine deprived or nondeprived. Measures included urge ratings, affective valence, a behavioral choice task assessing perceived reinforcement value of smoking, and smoking-related judgment tasks. Results indicated higher correlations in the nicotine-deprived than in nondeprived group. The measures principally responsible for this effect loaded onto a single common Craving factor for nicotine-deprived but not nondeprived smokers. These findings suggest that, under certain conditions, measures of craving-related processes covary.

Sayette, Michael A.; Martin, Christopher S.; Hull, Jay G.; Wertz, Joan M.; Perrott, Michael A.

2009-01-01

320

Fabrication of hollow mesoporous NiO hexagonal microspheres via hydrothermal process in ionic liquid  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors were synthesized in ionic liquid and water solution by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were prepared by thermal treatment of Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were self-assembled by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals with high specific surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mesoporous structure is stable at 773 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic liquid absorbed on the O-terminate surface of the crystals to form hydrogen bond and played key roles in determining the final shape of the NiO novel microstructure. -- Abstract: The novel NiO hexagonal hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by annealing Ni(OH){sub 2}, which was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the hollow NiO microstructures are self-organized by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals. The mesoporous structure possessed good thermal stability and high specific surface area (ca. 83 m{sup 2}/g). The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF{sub 4}]) was found to play a key role in controlling the morphology of NiO microstructures during the hydrothermal process. The special hollow mesoporous architectures will have potential applications in many fields, such as catalysts, absorbents, sensors, drug-delivery carriers, acoustic insulators and supercapacitors.

Zhao, Jinbo, E-mail: zhaojinb@gmail.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China) [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); Wu, Lili, E-mail: wulili@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China) [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); Zou, Ke, E-mail: zouk2005@163.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China) [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China)

2011-12-15

321

Effect of breathing 100% oxygen on retinal and optic nerve head capillary blood flow in smokers and non-smokers  

PubMed Central

AIM—The effect of breathing 100% oxygen on retinal and optic nerve head capillary blood flow in smokers and non-smokers was investigated using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry (SLDF) as a new non-invasive method to visualise and quantify ocular blood flow.?METHOD—10 eyes of 10 young healthy non-smoking volunteers (mean age 26 (SD 3) years) and nine eyes of nine young healthy smoking volunteers (mean age 26 (4) years) were investigated. All participants were asked not to smoke or consume caffeine containing drinks for at least 4 hours before the measurements. Blood flow measurements were performed before and after 100% oxygen was applied to the subjects through a mask over a period of 5 minutes (6 litres per minute). Juxtapapillary retinal and optic nerve head blood flow were determined in arbitrary units using SLDF representing a combination of laser Doppler flowmetry and a scanning laser system allowing visualisation and quantification of the retinal and optic nerve head blood flow. Blood flow was determined in an area of 100 µm × 100 µm. The level of carboxyhaemoglobin was determined in all subjects. A Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test (non-parametric) was used for statistical evaluation.?RESULTS—In the non-smoking group, retinal `flow' was reduced by 33% (p = 0.005), optic nerve head `flow' by 37% (p = 0.005). In the smoking group retinal flow was reduced by 10% (p = 0.01), optic nerve head flow by 13% (p <0.008). The difference in reactivity to oxygen breathing between smokers and non-smokers was highly significant (p <0.00001). Increased carboxyhaemoglobin levels were not found in either of the groups. A significant reduction of the mean arterial blood pressure of 6% (5%) (p <0.02) was observed in the non-smoking group after administration of oxygen.?CONCLUSION—These results indicate that hyperoxia leads to a decrease in capillary blood flow of the retina and optic nerve head secondary to vasoconstriction, and that smokers do not respond to oxygen breathing as non-smokers do. The findings might be based on factors such as long term effects of nicotine on the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.??

Langhans, M.; Michelson, G.; Groh, M.

1997-01-01

322

Comparison of the Respiratory Microbiome in Healthy Nonsmokers and Smokers  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Results from 16S rDNA-encoding gene sequence–based, culture-independent techniques have led to conflicting conclusions about the composition of the lower respiratory tract microbiome. Objectives: To compare the microbiome of the upper and lower respiratory tract in healthy HIV-uninfected nonsmokers and smokers in a multicenter cohort. Methods: Participants were nonsmokers and smokers without significant comorbidities. Oral washes and bronchoscopic alveolar lavages were collected in a standardized manner. Sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding genes was performed, and the neutral model in community ecology was used to identify bacteria that were the most plausible members of a lung microbiome. Measurements and Main Results: Sixty-four participants were enrolled. Most bacteria identified in the lung were also in the mouth, but specific bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus, Methylobacterium, and Ralstonia species were disproportionally represented in the lungs compared with values predicted by the neutral model. Tropheryma was also in the lung, but not the mouth. Mouth communities differed between nonsmokers and smokers in species such as Porphyromonas, Neisseria, and Gemella, but lung bacterial populations did not. Conclusions: This study is the largest to examine composition of the lower respiratory tract microbiome in healthy individuals and the first to use the neutral model to compare the lung to the mouth. Specific bacteria appear in significantly higher abundance in the lungs than would be expected if they originated from the mouth, demonstrating that the lung microbiome does not derive entirely from the mouth. The mouth microbiome differs in nonsmokers and smokers, but lung communities were not significantly altered by smoking.

Beck, James M.; Schloss, Patrick D.; Campbell, Thomas B.; Crothers, Kristina; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Flores, Sonia C.; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Ghedin, Elodie; Huang, Laurence; Jablonski, Kathleen; Kleerup, Eric; Lynch, Susan V.; Sodergren, Erica; Twigg, Homer; Young, Vincent B.; Bassis, Christine M.; Venkataraman, Arvind; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Weinstock, George M.

2013-01-01

323

OXIDATIVE STRESS RELATED APOPTOSIS IN SMOKERS AND CHRONIC LUNG DISEASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoke contains various carcinogens, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It has been found that cigarette smoking causes several chronic lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). There are mul- tiple markers used for oxidative damage\\/stress in smokers such as urinary 8- hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), serum hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and H2O2 in breath condensate.

Ratana Banjerdpongchai

2006-01-01

324

Antioxidant activity of noni juice in heavy smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice has demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate this activity in humans, noni juice from Tahiti (TNJ) was evaluated in a 30 day, double-blind, and placebo controlled clinical trial with 285 current heavy smokers. Research participants were randomly assigned to three daily treatment groups: 118 mL placebo, 29.5 mL TNJ, and 118

Mian-Ying Wang; M Nawal Lutfiyya; Vicki Weidenbacher-Hoper; Gary Anderson; Chen X Su; Brett J West

2009-01-01

325

Black Literature vs. Black Studies: Three Lynchings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers three works by black authors, all dealing with lynchings, that may be used in a black literature course to introduce students to the esthetic dimension of black literature, as well as to its cultural and racial significance. (GW)

Williams, Melvin G.

1977-01-01

326

Black smokers and density currents: A uniformitarian model for the genesis of banded iron-formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banded iron-formations (BIFs) were comparatively abundant and widespread marine sedimentary rocks in the Archean and Lower Proterozoic eras, but thereafter they appear to be restricted to the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic eras, although there are indications of similar rocks forming at present. BIFs are important as the major source of iron ore for industry and have also been used to support

Desmond F. Lascelles

2007-01-01

327

Determinants of salivary cotinine levels among current smokers in Mexico.  

PubMed

The present study describes salivary cotinine levels and their relationship to cigarettes smoked per day in Mexican smokers. Using a sampling strategy based on the number of cigarettes per day, we recruited 1,222 smokers from Mexico City and the state of Morelos in Mexico during 1999. Smoking behaviors and other factors known to affect nicotine intake and cotinine level were identified in an interview using a standardized questionnaire. Salivary cotinine was measured by capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. We used generalized additive models to describe the relationship between salivary cotinine levels and variables of interest. The mean age of the population was 39.7 years (SD=15.6 years), with a mean cotinine level of 194.7 ng/ml (SD=134.8; range=10.1-767). Participants smoked a mean of 15.5 cigarettes per day (SD=11.3). Salivary cotinine and cigarettes smoked per day were positively related, although the association was not linear, flattening above 20 cigarettes per day. After adjusting for cigarettes per day, we found that significant predictors of cotinine levels included age, body mass index, cigarette producer, and smoking behavior variables. These results may have implications for dosing with nicotine medications to aid smoking cessation in Mexican smokers and suggest that whether the cigarette is labeled light or regular has no relationship to nicotine dose from smoking cigarettes. PMID:15801572

Campuzano, Julio C; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Kuri Morales, Pablo; Bautista, Pablo; Benowitz, Neal L; Ceraso, Marion; Blackford, Amanda; Samet, Jonathan M

2004-12-01

328

Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers.  

PubMed

Intermittent smokers (ITS) - who smoke less than daily - comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5-30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n=21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n=26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or "indulgent" smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS. PMID:24599056

Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M; Tindle, Hilary A; Anderson, Stewart J; Ferguson, Stuart G

2014-01-01

329

Serum antibodies and immunoglobulins in smokers and nonsmokers.  

PubMed Central

Antibodies to antigens in humidifier water were detected by double immunodiffusion in 30 of 63 (47.6%) persons who were exposed to aerosols from a water humidification unit in a cigar plant, whereas no antibodies could be detected in 49 unexposed blood donors (P less than 0.001). The presence of antibodies could not be related to fever or pulmonary symptoms (cough, expectoration, dyspnoe). Antibodies were found in 14 (93.3%) of 15 nonsmokers and in only 13 (31.7%) of 41 smokers (P less than 0.001), and the titres were highest in nonsmokers. Serum IgG and IgA levels were higher in nonsmokers than in smokers, and the variances within the groups were significantly different (F less than 0.05 and F less than 0.05, respectively). The mean serum IgM values were not significantly different in the two groups. Antibodies to Candida albicans and Escherichia coli 04 and 075 were detected with equal prevalences and titres in smokers and nonsmokers. These findings suggest that tobacco smoking may suppress the humoral immune response to inhaled antigens but not to antigens which are supposed to be absorbed through membranes other than those of the bronchopulmonary system. They may partly explain the reported increased incidence of allergic alveolitis in nonsmokers.

Andersen, P; Pedersen, O F; Bach, B; Bonde, G J

1982-01-01

330

The Black Books Roundup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists "Black and Black related" books available from American and some British publishing companies. Also provides lists of publishers and bookstores that carry works relevant to Blacks and Black studies. (GC)

Black Scholar, 1982

1982-01-01

331

Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey  

PubMed Central

Background In an attempt to minimize the pack design avenue of communication between tobacco producers and smokers and potential smokers, several jurisdictions, including Norway, have considered regulations on cigarette pack design. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how package design affects young people’s perceptions of typical smokers of some pre-chosen cigarette brands and brand varieties. Methods Based on data from a web survey among 1022 15–22 year-olds, possible effects of plain packaging of cigarettes on adolescents’ views about typical cigarette smokers were investigated. The data collection had a between-subjects design, in which participants were allocated to one of three groups, and asked to typify the smokers of selected cigarette packs either in branded, plain or plain with descriptor versions. The sample included boys and girls, and smokers and non-smokers. The smoker characteristics included in the investigation were: gender, glamour, stylishness, popularity, coolness, sophistication and slimness. Results After creating sum-scores within and across packs and pack versions, analyses indicated that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging would result in a reduction in positive user images related to smoking among adolescents and young adults. For girls, this effect held up after controlling for confounders. Conclusions To the extent that plain packaging contributes to making smoking images less positive, it can potentially be an efficient aid in reducing smoking uptake among adolescents.

2013-01-01

332

Rapid Proteome Analysis of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples of Lifelong Smokers and Never Smokers by MicroScale Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to determine whether relative qualitative and quantitative differ- ences in protein expression could be related to smoke exposure or smoke-induced airway inflammation. We therefore explored and characterized the protein compo- nents found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid sam- pled from either lifelong smokers or never-smokers. Methods: BAL fluid samples obtained by bronchoscopy from

Amelie Plymoth; Ziping Yang; Claes-Goran Lofdahl; Ann Ekberg-Jansson; Magnus Dahlback; Thomas E. Fehniger; Gyorgy Marko-Varga; William S. Hancock

2006-01-01

333

Numerical modeling of oceanic crustal hydrothermal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oceanic crust is a complex rock-mineral formation which extends up to several kilometers below the sea floor and covers laterally about two thirds of the planet. Hydrothermal circulation within the crust is driven by magmatic sources and carried by the fluid residing in pores and cracks. Hydrothermal advection transfers about one quarter of the Earth's total heat power from

Konstantin Latychev

2000-01-01

334

EFFECTS OF EXTRATERRESTRIAL HYDROTHERMAL PROCESSES IN CHONDRITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal reactions in terrestrial geological processes may be defined in a simplified form as those that cause numerous alterations of earlier formed rocks and minerals due to the action of hot aqueous solutions, usually in a postmagmatic stage. Under extraterrestrial conditions hydrothermal processes should occur probably less often because of the lack of the environments rich in such solutions. Only

Andrzej MANECK

335

Hydrothermal epitaxy of perovskite thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work details the discovery and study of a new process for the growth of epitaxial single crystal thin films which we call hydrothermal epitaxy. Hydrothermal epitaxy is a low temperature solution route for producing heteroepitaxial thin films through the use of solution chemistry and structurally similar substrates. The application of this synthesis route has led to the growth of

Allen T. Chien

1998-01-01

336

TUNABLE HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS OF BAMNO3 NANOCRYSTALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although synthesis of nanooxides has been attempted by many different and innovative chemical approaches, further research is still needed to develop inexpensive and mass- production methods capable to provide pure products and thus make nanocrystals' technological applications viable. Hydrothermal synthesis matches these requirements. Under hydrothermal conditions, where an aqueous reaction mixture is heated above 100 ºC in a sealed reaction

Ana Querejeta; Marina Parras; Aurea Varela; Jose González-Calbet

337

Black Carbon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Black carbon, composed of tiny particles of soot, is produced whenever organic substances like fossil fuels, firewood or coal is incompletely burned. These particles are polluting the air and causing serious health and environmental concerns for people around the world. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

338

Counseling Blacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

Vontress, Clemmont E.

1970-01-01

339

Black Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents an overview of contemporary black adolescents from social, psychological, economic, educational, medical, historical, and comparative perspectives, with most emphasizing the roles that race, socioeconomic status, and environmental forces play in this critical period. The volume includes 19 chapters by various authors arranged…

Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

340

Pulmonary function responses to ozone in smokers with a limited smoking history.  

PubMed

In non-smokers, ozone (O3) inhalation causes decreases in forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and dead space (VD) and increases the slope of the alveolar plateau (SN). We previously described a population of smokers with a limited smoking history that had enhanced responsiveness to brief O3 boluses and aimed to determine if responsiveness to continuous exposure was also enhanced. Thirty smokers (19M, 11F, 24±4 years, 6±4 total years smoking,4±2 packs/week) and 30 non-smokers (17M, 13F, 25±6 years) exercised for 1h on a cycle ergometer while breathing 0.30ppm O3. Smokers and non-smokers were equally responsive in terms of FEV1 (-9.5±1.8% vs -8.7±1.9%). Smokers alone were responsive in terms of VD (-6.1±1.2%) and SN (9.1±3.4%). There was no difference in total delivered dose. Dead space ventilation (VD/VT) was not initially different between the two groups, but increased in the non-smokers (16.4±2.8%) during the exposure, suggesting that the inhaled dose may be distributed more peripherally in smokers. We also conclude that these cigarette smokers retain their airway responsiveness to O3 and, uniquely, experience changes in VD that lead to heterogeneity in airway morphometry and an increase in SN. PMID:24747805

Bates, Melissa L; Brenza, Timothy M; Ben-Jebria, Abdellaziz; Bascom, Rebecca; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Ultman, James S

2014-07-01

341

The Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Acute Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Chronic Smokers  

PubMed Central

Although previous research had related structural changes and impaired cognition to chronic cigarette smoking, recent neuroimaging studies have associated nicotine, which is a main chemical substance in cigarettes, with improvements in cognitive functions (e.g. improved attention performance). However, information about the alterations of whole-brain functional connectivity after acute cigarette smoking is limited. In this study, 22 smokers underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) after abstaining from smoking for 12 hours (state of abstinence, SOA). Subsequently, the smokers were allowed to smoke two cigarettes (state of satisfaction, SOS) before they underwent a second rs-fMRI. Twenty non-smokers were also recruited to undergo rs-fMRI. In addition, high-resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired using the same magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI)scanner for all participants. The results showed that smokers had structural changes in insula, thalamus, medial frontal cortex and several regions of the default mode network (DMN) compared with non-smokers. Voxel-wise group comparisons of newly developed global brain connectivity (GBC) showed that smokers in the SOA condition had higher GBC in the insula and superior frontal gyrus compared with non-smokers. However, smokers in the SOS condition demonstrated significantly lower GBC in several regions of the DMN, as compared with smokers in the SOA condition. These results suggest that structural integrity combined with dysfunction of the DMN might be involved in relapses after a short period of time among smokers.

Wang, Kangcheng; Yang, Junyi; Zhang, Songyan; Wei, Dongtao; Hao, Xin; Tu, Shen; Qiu, Jiang

2014-01-01

342

Perceptions of Addiction, Attempts to Quit, and Successful Quitting in Nondaily and Daily Smokers  

PubMed Central

We aimed to qualitatively examine differences in perceptions of addiction, attempts to quit, and successful quitting among nondaily versus daily college student smokers. We conducted 16 focus groups with a total of 73 college student smokers from the southeastern U.S. Focus groups were homogenous in terms of gender, smoking status (nondaily, daily), and type of school (2-year college, 4-year university). Questions centered on perceptions of addiction, their own addiction, what constitutes a quit attempt, and successful quitting. Themes that emerged among all smokers regarding conceptualization of general addiction included physiological and psychological dependence and an inability to quit smoking. In terms of their own addiction, nondaily smokers referenced their ability to quit and sense of choice to smoke as factors indicating a lack of addiction, whereas daily smokers reported dependence symptoms and their inability to control their smoking indicating addiction. Nondaily smokers discussed quit attempts in terms of making the decision to quit and avoiding situational triggers, whereas daily smokers reported taking more behavioral steps toward cessation (e.g., not buying cigarettes, reducing cigarette consumption). With regard to successful cessation, both groups identified losing the desire to smoke as a hallmark. However, nondaily smokers reported that the decision to quit might constitute successful cessation; daily smokers had more strict behavioral criteria such as abstinence for an extended period of time. The different perceptions of one’s own addiction, attempting to quit smoking, and successful quitting suggest the need to improve assessments of these factors, particularly among nondaily smokers.

Berg, Carla J.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Sterling, Kymberle; DeSisto, Carla; Pinsker, Erika A.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2014-01-01

343

African-American menthol and nonmenthol smokers: differences in smoking and cessation experiences.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day, African Americans have lower cessation rates and experience disproportionately higher rates of smoking-related health consequences. Because of their high preference for menthol cigarettes, it has been suggested that smoking menthol cigarettes may contribute to the excess smoking-related morbidity experienced by African Americans. Smoking menthol cigarettes could increase health risks from smoking if smokers of menthol cigarettes have lower cessation rates and thereby have longer duration of smoking compared to smokers of nonmentholated cigarettes. Few studies have examined associations between smoking of mentholated cigarettes and smoking cessation among African Americans. This study examined the smoking patterns of menthol cigarette smokers and their smoking cessation experiences. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 480 African-American smokers at an inner-city health center. Survey examined sociodemographics, smoking characteristics, and smoking cessation experiences of participants. Menthol smokers (n = 407) were compared to nonmenthol smokers (n = 73) in these characteristics. RESULTS: Menthol smokers were younger and more likely to smoke cigarettes with longer rod length, with filters, and those high in nicotine and tar. Although both groups did not differ by number of past quit attempts, time since most recent quit attempt was shorter for menthol smokers. The durations of most recent and longest-ever quit attempts were nonsignificantly shorter for menthol, compared to nonmenthol smokers. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that African-American menthol smokers are less successful with smoking cessation. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and examine mechanisms underlying such differences.

Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ebersole-Robinson, Maiko; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2004-01-01

344

Attitudes towards screening for lung cancer among smokers and their non-smoking counterparts  

PubMed Central

Background There has been resurgence of interest in lung cancer screening using low?dose computed tomography. The implications of directing a screening programme at smokers has been little explored. Methods A nationwide telephone survey was conducted. Demographics, certain clinical characteristics and attitudes about screening for lung cancer were ascertained. Responses of current, former and never smokers were compared. Results 2001 people from the US were interviewed. Smokers were significantly (p<0.05) more likely than never smokers to be male, non?white, less educated, and to report poor health status or having had cancer, and less likely to be able to identify a usual source of healthcare. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were less likely to believe that early detection would result in a good chance of survival (p<0.05). Smokers were less likely to be willing to consider computed tomography screening for lung cancer (71.2% (current smokers) v 87.6% (never smokers) odds ratio (OR) 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32 to 0.71). More never smokers as opposed to current smokers believed that the risk of disease (88% v 56%) and the accuracy of the test (92% v 71%) were important determinants in deciding whether to be screened (p<0.05). Only half of the current smokers would opt for surgery for a screen?diagnosed cancer. Conclusion The findings suggest that there may be substantial obstacles to the successful implementation of a mass?screening programme for lung cancer that will target cigarette smokers.

Silvestri, Gerard A; Nietert, Paul J; Zoller, James; Carter, Cindy; Bradford, David

2007-01-01

345

Monodisperse spindle-like FeWO{sub 4} nanoparticles: Controlled hydrothermal synthesis and enhanced optical properties  

SciTech Connect

Monodisperse FeWO{sub 4} nanoparticles with specific spindle-like morphology have been synthesized in the presence of citric acid through hydrothermal process. In the synthesis route, citric acid played four roles such as the reducing agent, chelating regents, structure-directing agent and stabilizing agents. In addition, the morphology of FeWO{sub 4} was dramatically tuned by the pH value of the precursor medium. The optical properties of FeWO{sub 4} were investigated with UV-Vis spectra and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic experiments demonstrated that the decomposition efficiency of the monodisperse spindle-like FeWO{sub 4} nanoparticles is 74% after 30 min of UV irradiation, which displayed remarkable enhanced photodegradation activity compared with ordinary FeWO{sub 4} sample (57%) and normal TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts P-25 (56%). - Monodisperse spindle-like FeWO{sub 4} nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activities. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monodisperse spindle-like FeWO{sub 4} were synthesized with hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Citric acid plays key roles in the hydrothermal synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their morphology can be tuned with pH value of the precursor medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They show enhanced photocatalytic activities with irradiation of UV light.

Guo, Jinxue; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Lu, Yibin [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, No.53, Zhengzhou Road, People's Republic of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266042 (China)] [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, No.53, Zhengzhou Road, People's Republic of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266042 (China); Zhang, Xiao, E-mail: zhx1213@126.com [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, No.53, Zhengzhou Road, People's Republic of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266042 (China)] [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, No.53, Zhengzhou Road, People's Republic of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266042 (China); Kuang, Shaoping; Hou, Wanguo [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, No.53, Zhengzhou Road, People's Republic of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266042 (China)] [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, No.53, Zhengzhou Road, People's Republic of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266042 (China)

2012-12-15

346

High Resolution Mapping of the Ashadze and Logachev Hydrothermal Fields, Mid Atlantic Ridge 13-15°N.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the SERPENTINE cruise (feb 25 to apr. 5, 2007) on board the french research vessel Pourquoi Pas? a new multibeam bathymetric system (RESON 7125 echo sounder) was used on the ROV Victor 6000 to gather real time fine-scale bathymetry. The resolution is 5% of the altitude above the seafloor (h), and the footprint at the seafloor is 0.2% of h. The Ashadze and Logachev hydrothermal fields are located in the 13-15°N region of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, on outcrops of serpentinized mantle-derived peridotite with interspeded gabbroic bodies. Maps at 50 m above the seafloor were done to investigate the relationships between the vent fields and their tectonic/volcanic environnement. Higher resolution mapping, 20 m above the seafloor, was done at the scale of the vent fields. These maps, which have resolutions of a few tens of centimetres, are unique tools to understand the local geological control on the vents. Our observations also emphasize the role of slope failure, and spreading-parallel or oblique structural lineaments on the fine scale topography of MAR axial valley walls. Ashadze area comprises two active vent fields located at two different levels on the western wall of the axial valley near 13°N. The Ashadze1 and 2 sites, 5 km apart, are respectively 4 km and 9 km off-axis. Active vents at Azhadze1 (4100 m) are distributed over an area about 150 m-long, along an EW-trending south-facing scarp. High resolution mapping at 20 m (450x450 m area) reveals the fine structure of sulfide mounds, as well as complex fissure arrays near the vents. Away from the vents, topography appears dominated by slope failure, with prominent landslides. Black smokers at Ashadze 2 (3260 m) are located in a crater-shaped depression, about 25 m in diameter, which lies in a narrow (about 70 m), N-S trending trough. On the high resolution maps at Ashadze 2 (800x450 m) the N-S trending trough appears bounded to the east by a faulted gabbroic body. To the west, it is limited by a narrow N-S trending ridge, 20 to 50 m-high, that bears numerous extinct hydrothermal chimneys. Logachev comprises two active vent fields located east of the ridge near 14°45"N. Logachev 1 and 2 sites, 5 km apart, are located 8 km and 12 km off-axis. We only mapped Logatchev 1, which is a large and well studied vent field on the eastern axial valley wall. It comprises many vents in a NW-trending elongated area about 400 m-long. High resolution mapping at 20m (550X750 m) reveals the circular shape of the main sulfide mounds, as well as complex arrays of scarps and fissures, oriented predominantly E-W, and NE- SW. Numerous lens-shaped slump features are also revealed near the vents.

Ondreas, H.; Cannat, M.; Cherkashov, G.; Fouquet, Y.; Normand, A.; Serpentine Scientific Party, A.

2007-12-01

347

Synergistic effect of radon in blood cells of smokers - an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of lung cancer among smokers increases with exposure to residential radon. The present study aimed to investigate the synergetic effect between smoking and radon. Blood samples from smokers and non-smokers were exposed to different concentrations of radon ranging from 0 to 189MBq/m(3) corresponding to doses ranging from 0.2 to 15.2mGy. Chromosome aberrations in first division metaphase preparations were scored. The frequency of dicentrics in radon-exposed smoker cells was found to be higher than non-smokers by factor of 3.8. The present study is the first of its kind to investigate the interaction of radon and smoking sans confounding factors, as smoker cells were exposed in vitro to radon. PMID:23850733

Meenakshi, C; Mohankumar, Mary N

2013-09-18

348

Differential cigarette-related startle cue reactivity among light, moderate, and heavy smokers  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined the relationship between the level of daily cigarette consumption and the startle response to affective and cigarette-related cues among treatment-seeking smokers. Before receiving any behavioral or pharmacological treatment, 136 smokers attended a baseline laboratory session, during which we recorded their reflexive eyeblink responses to acoustic startle probes while they were viewing pleasant, unpleasant, neutral, and cigarette-related pictures. We found that 1) cigarette-related and pleasant pictures similarly reduced the startle magnitude compared to neutral pictures; 2) the magnitude of startle modulation rendered by pleasant or unpleasant pictures did not differ among light, moderate, and heavy smokers; and 3) startle attenuation by cigarette-related pictures was greater in heavy smokers than in light smokers. These results suggest that similar to pleasant stimuli, cigarette-related cues are motivationally salient for smokers, and that this salience increases with nicotine dependence.

Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D.; Versace, Francesco; Lam, Cho Y.; Minnix, Jennifer A.; Karam-Hage, Maher; Dani, John A.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Wetter, David W.; Brown, Victoria L.; Cinciripini, Paul M.

2012-01-01

349

Geochemistry of hydrothermal plume in the Suiyo Seamount Caldera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical compounds of the hot basalt origin are discharged into the deep ocean via hydrothermal plume by the deep-sea hydrothermal activity. The hydrothermal plume is widely diffused to the ocean by mixing with ambient seawater. Chemical reactions and interactions with microorganisms in the diffusion process of the hydrothermal plume are important to comprehend the oceanic geochemical cycles. Recently, it has

K. Shitashima; Y. Maeda

2002-01-01

350

Nitrogen 15-enriched Precambrian kerogen and hydrothermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen isotope data are reported for kerogen from Precambrian black shales at prehnite-pumpellyite to greenschist facies and for micas from postmetamorphic hydrothermal quartz vein systems. Nitrogen in micas was acquired from N-bearing aqueous metamorphic hydrothermal fluids generated, from breakdown of sedimentary kerogen and dehydration of K-silicates, at deeper crustal levels. The 2.7 Ga kerogens and hydrothermal K-micas yield ?15N values of 15-24‰, compared to existing data of 2-6‰ in Phanerozoic counterparts. Paleoproterozoic equivalents have intermediate ?15N of 7-12‰, implying a secular decrease in ?15N of shale kerogen. The 15N-enriched nitrogen in Archean shales and hydrothermal vein systems cannot be caused either by N isotopic shifts accompanying metamorphism or Rayleigh fractionation because premetamorphic and postmetamorphic samples from the same terrane are both enriched and lack covariation of ?15N with N, C/N ratios, or metamorphic grade. The magnitude of shifts during progressive metamorphism of sedimentary rocks in previous studies is constrained at <1‰ to greenschist and about 3‰ to amphibolite facies. Furthermore, 15N-enriched values cannot stem from long-term preferential diffusional loss of 14N as samples were selected from terranes where 40Ar/39Ar ages are within a few million years of concordant U-Pb ages; nitrogen is structurally bound in micas, whereas Ar is not. It is possible that the 15N-enriched values stem from a different N cycle in the Archean, with large biologically mediated fractionations, yet the magnitude of the fractionations observed exceeds any presently known, and chemoautotrophic communities tend to depleted values. Earlier results on Archean cherts show a range from -6 to 30‰. Given the temporal association of chert-banded iron formation with mantle plumes, the range is consistent with mixing between mantle N2 of -5‰ and the enriched marine reservoir identified in this study. We attribute the secular trend from Archean kerogen of 15-24‰ to Phanerozoic kerogen averaging 3-4‰ to a secondary atmosphere derived from CI-chondrite-like material and comets with ?15N of 30-42‰. Shifts of ?15N to its present values of 0‰ can be accounted for by a combination of sequestration of atmospheric N2 into sedimentary rocks and mantle degassing of -5‰ mantle N2.

Jia, Yiefei; Kerrich, Robert

2004-07-01

351

Transitions in Smoking Status Over Time in a Population-Based Panel Study of Smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Few studies have examined the transitions of smokers in the general population through multiple periods of daily, occasional smoking, or abstinence over time. Transitions from daily to occasional smoking are particularly of interest as these may be steps toward cessation. Methods: The Ontario Tobacco Survey panel study followed 4,355 baseline smokers, semiannually for up to 3 years. Probabilities of all possible changes in smoking status more than 6 months were estimated using 13,000 repeated measures observations generated from sets of 3 consecutive interviews (n = 9,932 daily smokers, 1,245 occasion smokers, and 1,823 abstinent for at least 30 days, at Time 1). Results: For initial daily smokers, an estimated 83% remained daily smokers more than 2 follow-ups. The majority of those who had been abstinent for 30 days at 1 interview, were also former smokers at the following interview. In contrast, occasional smoking status was unstable and future smoking status was dependent upon smoking history and subjective dependence. Among daily smokers who became occasional smokers 6 months later, an estimated 20% became a former smoker, at the next interview, but 50% returned to daily smoking. Daily, turned occasional smokers who rebounded back to daily smoking were more likely to describe themselves as addicted at Time 1. Continuing occasional smokers were somewhat less likely to intend to quit, or have tried, despite considering themselves less addicted. Conclusions: Reducing to occasional smoking can be a stepping stone toward cessation but entails a greater risk of return to daily smoking, compared with complete abstinence.

2013-01-01

352

Prefrontal hemodynamic changes during cigarette smoking in young adult smokers with and without ADHD.  

PubMed

Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have elevated smoking prevalence and reduced cessation rates compared to the general population. However, the effects of cigarette smoking on underlying brain activity in smokers with ADHD are not well characterized. Non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to characterize how cigarette smoking affects prefrontal brain hemodynamics in smokers with and without ADHD. Prefrontal changes of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin (HbO2 and HHb) were measured in six male adult smokers with ADHD and six age- and gender-matched control smokers. NIRS measurements were separated into four sequential time intervals, i.e., before smoking, during smoking, after smoking, and during a breath hold. Prefrontal HbO2 was lower during smoking in smokers with ADHD compared to control smokers. More specifically, smokers with ADHD showed decreased prefrontal HbO2 during smoking compared to breath hold, before and after smoking periods. In contrast, control smokers showed increased prefrontal HbO2 from before smoking to breath hold. Decreased prefrontal HbO2 in smokers with ADHD may reflect a smoking-induced change in prefrontal brain activity and microvasculature, which is not found in smokers without ADHD. The lower prefrontal HbO2 may be a biomarker for increased susceptibility to tobacco smoke in smokers with ADHD. Smoking in individuals with ADHD may increase vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries in the prefrontal cortex, which may contribute to a reduction in HbO2. The findings highlight the importance of smoking cessation, in particular in those smokers who use nicotine to self-medicate ADHD symptoms. PMID:24125785

Gehricke, Jean-G; Polzonetti, Chiara; Caburian, Cyrus; Gratton, Enrico

2013-11-01

353

Young adult smokers' perceptions of plain packaging: a pilot naturalistic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsTo explore the impact, if any, that using plain (non-branded) cigarette packs in real-life settings has on young adult smokers.MethodsNaturalistic-type research was employed, where smokers used brown ‘plain’ packs for 2 weeks and their regular packs for 2 weeks, in real-life settings. Participants were recruited in Glasgow, Scotland. Of the 140 smokers aged 18–35 years who participated in the naturalistic

Crawford Moodie; Anne Marie Mackintosh; Gerard Hastings; Allison Ford

2011-01-01

354

Smoking Intensity and Lipoprotein Abnormalities in Active Smokers  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking is associated with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and elevated triglycerides. Objective To evaluate the effects of five markers of smoking intensity on lipoprotein concentrations and particle sizes in a large, modern cohort of current smokers. Methods Fasting nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy lipoprotein profiles were obtained in a large cohort of current smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation trial. Multivariate linear regression models were constructed to determine predictors of lipoprotein fractions. Models included age, sex, race, waist circumference, level of physical activity and alcohol consumption. Smoking intensity parameters included: current cigarettes smoked/day, pack-years, the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels. Results The 1,504 subjects (58% women, 84% white) had a mean (standard deviation) age of 45 (11.0) years. They smoked 21.4 (8.9) cigarettes/day (29.4 [20.4] pack-years). HDL-C (42.0 [13.5] mg/dL) and total HDL particles (30.3 [5.9] ?mol/L) were low. Cigarettes smoked/day independently predicted higher total cholesterol (p=0.009), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.023), and triglycerides (p=0.002). CO levels predicted lower HDL-C (p=0.027) and total HDL particles (p=0.009). However, the incremental R2 for each marker of smoking intensity on each lipoprotein was small. Relationships between the FTND score and lipoproteins were weak and inconsistent. Participants in the lowest quintiles of current smoking, pack-years, and CO had more favorable lipoproteins (all p<0.04). Conclusions Among current smokers, increased smoking burden is associated with small increases in total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglycerides. Increased recent smoke exposure is associated with small decreases in HDL-C and HDL particles.

Gossett, Linda K.; Johnson, Heather M.; Piper, Megan E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.; Stein, James H.

2009-01-01

355

Lung disease with chronic obstruction in opium smokers in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Fifty-four opium smokers with chronic obstructive lung disease were studied for two-and-a-half years. Forty-eight patients had a cough for at least two years before the onset of inappropriate exertional dyspnoea. Fine, bubbling adventitious sounds suggesting small airway disease were heard on auscultation over the middle and lower lobes in 38 patients. The prevalence of inflammatory lung disease and chronic respiratory failure in this series is suggested as the main cause for the frequent finding of right ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. Physiological studies revealed moderate to severe airways obstruction with gross over-inflation and, in 32 patients, an additional restrictive defect probably due to peribronchiolar fibrosis. Radiological evidence of chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis was observed in 45 patients, `pure' chronic bronchiolitis in six patients, and `widespread' emphysema in 25 patients respectively. Necropsy examinations in nine patients, however, showed destructive emphysema of variable severity in all. Chronic bronchiolitis often associated with striking bronchiolectasis was present in six cases. More severe bronchiolar rather than bronchial inflammation was noted. The heavy opium smokers had characteristic nodular shadows on chest radiography, sometimes associated with a striking reticular pattern not seen in `pure' cigarette smokers. This was due to gross pigmented dust (presumably carbon) deposition in relation to blood vessels, lymphatics, and bronchioles, and also within the alveoli. It is speculated that the initial lesion is an acquired bronchiolitis. Opium smoking induces an irritative bronchopathy favouring repeated attacks of acute bronchiolitis and eventually resulting in obliterative bronchiolitis, peribronchiolar fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and destructive emphysema. Images

Da Costa, J. L.; Tock, E. P. C.; Boey, H. K.

1971-01-01

356

Quitters referring smokers: a quitline chain-referral pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Telephone counseling Quitlines can support smoking cessation, but are under-utilized. We explored the use of smoker peer-referrals to increase use of a Quitline in Mississippi and Alabama. Findings Collaborating with the Alabama and Mississippi Quitline, we piloted peer-referrals to Quitlines. Successful ‘quitters’ who had used the Quitline were contacted at routine follow-up and recruited to participate as a peer-referrer and refer their friends and family who smoked to the Quitline. Peer-referrers completed a training session, received a manual and a set of Quitline brochures a peer-referral forms. These peer-referral forms were then returned to the Quitline telephone counselors who proactively called the referred smokers. Of the initial potential pool of 96 who quit using the Quitline, 24 peer-referrers (75% Women, 29% African-American, and high school graduates/GED 67%) were recruited and initially agreed to participate as peer-referrers. Eleven of the 24 who initially agreed were trained, and of these 11, 4 (4%) actively referred 23 friends and family over 2 months. From these 23 new referrals, three intakes (100% Women, 66% African-American) were completed. Of the initial pool of 96, 4 (4%) actively participated in referring friends and family. Quitline staff and peer-referrers noted several barriers including: time-point in which potential peer-referrers were asked to participate, an ‘overwhelming’ referral form to use and limited ways to refer. Conclusions Though ‘quitters’ were willing to agree to peer-refer, we received a minority of referrals. However, we identified several areas to improve this new method for increasing awareness and access to support systems like the Quitline for smokers who want to quit.

2014-01-01

357

Evaluating oral noncombustible potential-reduced exposure products for smokers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Potential-reduced exposure products (PREPs) are marketed as a way for smokers to continue using tobacco while possibly lessening their tobacco toxicant intake. Some tobacco-based PREPs are combustible and intended to be smoked, while others are noncombustible and intended to be administered orally (e.g., Camel Snus [CS] tobacco sachets and Ariva tobacco tablets). The ability of these noncombustible PREPs to reduce smokers’ exposure to cigarette-delivered toxicants and suppress tobacco abstinence symptoms effectively is unclear. Clinical laboratory methods have been used to measure combustible PREP-associated toxicant exposure and abstinence symptom suppression and could be applied to evaluating the effects of orally administered noncombustible PREPs. Methods: In this study, 21 smokers (6 women) participated in four 5-day conditions that differed by product used: CS, Ariva, own brand cigarettes, or no tobacco. Measures included expired-air carbon monoxide (CO), the urinary metabolite of nicotine (cotinine), the urinary metabolite of the carcinogen NNK (NNAL-T), and subjective effect ratings. Results: Relative to own brand, all other conditions were associated with CO and cotinine levels that were lower and abstinence symptom ratings that were greater. Only no-tobacco use was associated with significantly lower NNAL levels. Acceptability ratings were also lower in all conditions relative to own brand. Discussion: Although these oral products reduce exposure to CO, their ineffective abstinence symptom suppression and low acceptability may limit their viability as PREPs. As with combustible PREPs, clinical laboratory study of orally administered noncombustible PREPs will be a valuable part of any comprehensive PREP evaluation strategy.

Eissenberg, Thomas

2010-01-01

358

Using numerical models and volume rendering to interpret acoustic imaging of hydrothermal flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our acoustic imaging system will be installed onto the Neptune Canada observatory at the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge, which is a Ridge 2000 Integrated Study Site. Thereafter, 16-30 Gb of acoustic imaging data will be collected daily. We are developing a numerical model of merging plumes that will be used to guide expectations and volume rendering software that transforms volumetric acoustic data into photo-like images. Hydrothermal flow is modeled as a combination of merged point sources which can be configured in any geometry. The model stipulates the dissipation or dilution of the flow and uses potential fields and complex analysis to combine the entrainment fields produced by each source. The strengths of this model are (a) the ability to handle a variety of scales especially the small scale as the potential fields can be specified with an effectively infinite boundary condition, (b) the ability to handle line, circle and areal source configurations, and (c) the ability to handle both high temperature focused flow and low temperature diffuse flow. This model predicts the vertical and horizontal velocities and the spatial distribution of effluent from combined sources of variable strength in a steady ambient velocity field. To verify the accuracy of the model’s results, we compare the model predictions of plume centerlines for the merging of two relatively strong point sources with the acoustic imaging data collected at Clam Acres, Southwest Vent Field, EPR 21°N in 1990. The two chimneys are 3.5 m apart and the plumes emanating from their tops merge approximately 18 mab. The model is able to predict the height of merging and the bending of the centerlines. Merging is implicitly observed at Grotto Vent, Main Endeavour Field, in our VIP 2000 data from July 2000: although there are at least 5 vigorous black smokers only a single plume is discernable in the acoustic imaging data. Furthermore, the observed Doppler velocity data increases with height, consistent with multiple merging plumes. The numerical model assumes 5 sources in a circle and predicts that the plumes merge between 10 m and 15 m above the vents resulting in a 3-fold increase in velocity. The predictions of the numerical model are sensitive to the interplay between vent velocity, ambient velocity and entrainment rates. To better illustrate variations in expansion with ambient velocity, we have developed a two-phase volume rendering technique which substantially improves the illustration of expansion rates. The numerical model is also able to make predictions about the areal distribution of effluent from diffuse flow by modeling it as multiple weak sources. Comparisons with diffuse flow maps, particularly those based on July 2000 data from our acoustic imaging, suggest that interpretation of diffuse flow maps (and in situ temperature measurements) requires knowledge of the ambient currents in order to gauge how far the effluent may have shifted from its source, as merging may result in an increase in rise rate.

Bemis, K. G.; Bennett, K.; Takle, J.; Rona, P. A.; Silver, D.

2009-12-01

359

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (I) Drilling for Supercritical Hydrothermal Fluids is Underway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IDDP is being carried out by an international industry-government consortium in Iceland (consisting of three leading Icelandic power companies, together with the National Energy Authority), Alcoa Inc. and StatoilHydro) with the objective of investigating the economic feasibility of producing electricity from supercritical geothermal fluids. This will require drilling to temperatures of 400-600°C and depths of 4 to 5 km. Modeling suggests that supercritical water could yield an order of magnitude greater power output than that produced by conventional geothermal wells. The consortium plans to test this concept in three different geothermal fields in Iceland. If successful, major improvements in the development of high-temperature geothermal resources could result worldwide. In June 2008 preparation of the first deep IDDP well commenced in the Krafla volcanic caldera in the active rift zone of NE Iceland. Selection of the first drill site for this well was based on geological, geophysical and geochemical data, and on the results of extensive geothermal drilling since 1971. During 1975-1984, a rifting episode occurred in the caldera, involving 9 volcanic eruptions. In parts of the geothermal field acid volcanic gases made steam from some of the existing wells unsuitable for power generation for the following decade. A large magma chamber at 3-7 km depth was detected by S-wave attenuation beneath the center of the caldera, believed to be the heat source of the geothermal system. A recent MT-survey has confirmed the existence of low resistivity bodies at shallow depths within the volcano. The IDDP well will be drilled and cased to 800m depth in September, before the winter snows, and in spring 2009 it will be drilled and cased to 3.5km depth and then deepened to 4.5 km in July. Several spot cores for scientific studies will be collected between 2400m and the total depth. After the well heats, it will be flow tested and, if successful, a pilot plant for power production should follow in 2010. During 2009-19 two new wells, ~4 km deep, will be drilled at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields in southern Iceland, and subsequently deepened into the supercritical zone. In contrast to the fresh water systems at Krafla and Hengill, the Reykjanes geothermal system produces hydrothermally modified seawater on the Reykjanes peninsula, where the Mid-Atlantic Ridge comes on land. Processes at depth at Reykjanes should be more similar to those responsible for black smokers on oceanic rift systems. Because of the considerable international scientific opportunities afforded by the IDDP, the US National Science Foundation and the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program will jointly fund the coring and sampling for scientific studies. Research is underway on samples from existing wells in the targeted geothermal fields, and on active mid-ocean ridge systems that have conditions believed to be similar to those that will be encountered in deep drilling by the IDDP. Some of these initial scientific studies by US investigators are reported in the accompanying papers.

Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.

2008-12-01

360

Preliminary Study of Buprenorphine and Bupropion for Opioid Dependent Smokers  

PubMed Central

In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, bupropion (BUPRO, 300 mg/day) was compared to placebo (PBO) for concurrent treatment of opioid and tobacco addiction in 40 opioid-dependent smokers stabilized on buprenorphine (BUPRE, 24 mg/day). Participants received contingent, monetary reinforcement for abstinence from smoking, illicit opioids, and cocaine. Significant differences in treatment retention were observed (BUPRE+BUPRO, 58%; BUPRE+PBO, 90%). BUPRO treatment was not more effective than placebo for abstinence from tobacco, opioids, or cocaine in BUPRE stabilized patients. These preliminary findings do not support the efficacy of BUPRO, in combination with BUPRE, for concurrent treatment of opioid and tobacco addiction.

Mooney, Marc E.; Poling, James; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Gonsai, Kishor; Kosten, Thomas; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

2008-01-01

361

Changing smokers' risk perceptions--for better or worse?  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of a smoking health message on smokers' comparative optimism. Two groups watched an anti-smoking scenario, with one group imagining being part of the scenario. Participants, including controls, completed comparative optimism ratings for four smoking-related illnesses. The intervention had negative consequences with both intervention groups reporting significantly higher comparative optimism versus the control group for all four smoking-related illnesses. It is concluded that media health messages can be powerful tools in changing comparative optimism but are influenced by peoples' prior perceptions. Health messages need to be systematically assessed to understand prior beliefs of the target audience. PMID:23338730

Myers, Lynn B

2014-03-01

362

Interaction between naltrexone and oral THC in heavy marijuana smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Rationale. Studies in non-human animals suggest that opioid antagonists block the reinforcing effects of cannabinoids.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective. The present studies in humans investigated how naltrexone modulates (1) the subjective and physiological effects of oral\\u000a THC in comparison to methadone, (2) the reinforcing effects of oral THC, and (3) plasma levels of oral THC.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. In study 1, marijuana smokers (n=9)

Margaret Haney; Adam Bisaga; Richard W. Foltin

2003-01-01

363

Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers  

PubMed Central

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist consumers in distinguishing real health threats from spurious health claims. As this report documents, there is a strong scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction, and it shows great potential as a public health strategy to help millions of smokers.

Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

2006-01-01

364

Smoking and the bandit: A preliminary study of smoker and non-smoker differences in exploratory behavior measured with a multi-armed bandit task  

PubMed Central

Advantageous decision-making is an adaptive trade-off between exploring alternatives and exploiting the most rewarding option. This trade-off may be related to maladaptive decision-making associated with nicotine dependence; however, explore/exploit behavior has not been previously investigated in the context of addiction. The explore/exploit trade-off is captured by the multi-armed bandit task, in which different arms of a slot machine are chosen to discover the relative payoffs. The goal of this study was to preliminarily investigate whether smokers differ from non-smokers in their degree of exploratory behavior. Smokers (n = 18) and non-smokers (n = 17) completed a six-armed bandit task as well as self-report measures of behavior and personality traits. Smokers were found to exhibit less exploratory behavior (i.e. made fewer switches between slot machine arms) than non-smokers within the first 300 trials of the bandit task. The overall proportion of exploratory choices negatively correlated with self-reported measures of delay aversion and nonplanning impulsivity. These preliminary results suggest that smokers make fewer initial exploratory choices on the bandit task. The bandit task is a promising measure that could provide valuable insights into how nicotine use and dependence is associated with explore/exploit decision-making.

Addicott, Merideth A.; Pearson, John M.; Wilson, Jessica; Platt, Michael L.; McClernon, F. Joseph

2014-01-01

365

Glutathione and nitrite levels in induced sputum at COPD patients and healthy smokers  

PubMed Central

Objectives The role of oxidative stress at the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is known. The aim of this study is to investigate the oxidative stress with sputum induction that is a simple method in COPD patients and healthy smokers. Methods Sputum induction was performed in 21 COPD patients (10 stable, 11 acute exacerbations), nine healthy smokers, and ten healthy non-smokers. Glutathione, NO2– levels, and cell counts at sputum, and plasma NO2– contents were evaluated in all subjects. Results Mean sputum glutathione and NO2– levels were significantly higher in acute exacerbations with COPD patients than healthy smokers (P=0.007 and P<0.001 respectively), and non-smokers (P<0.001 and P<0.001 respectively). On the other hand, sputum glutathione and NO2– levels did not show significant differences between stable and acute exacerbations with COPD patients. Although, sputum glutathione levels were higher in stable COPD patients than healthy smokers’, no statistically significant difference was established. In addition, sputum glutathione levels were significantly higher in healthy smokers than non-smokers (P<0.001). Conclusions As a result, we can say that oxidative stress increases not only in COPD patients but also in healthy smokers. In addition, sputum induction that is a simple method can be used to demonstrate to show oxidative stress.

Ilhan, Nevin; Deveci, Figen; Akpolat, Nusret; Erden, Ersin Sukru; Muz, M. Hamdi

2014-01-01

366

Increased Genetic Vulnerability to Smoking at CHRNA5 in Early-Onset Smokers  

PubMed Central

Context Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. Objective To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. Data Sources Primary data. Study Selection Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. Data Extraction Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94 050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ?10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33 348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ?16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. Data Synthesis Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR]=1.45; 95% CI, 1.36–1.55; n=13 843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21–1.33, n = 19 505) (P = .01). Conclusion These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers.

Hartz, Sarah M.; Short, Susan E.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert; Chen, LiShiun; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Coon, Hilary; Han, Younghun; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sun, Juzhong; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef; Geller, Frank; Gu?bjartsson, Daniel; Hansel, Nadia N.; Jiang, Chenhui; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Liu, Zhen; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Michel, Martha; Rawal, Rajesh; Hum, Sc; Rosenberger, Albert; Scheet, Paul; Shaffer, John R.; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, John R.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Wheeler, William; Xiao, Xiangjun; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Aggen, Steven H.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Beaty, Terri; Bennett, Siiri; Bergen, Andrew W.; Boyd, Heather A.; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cichon, Sven; Couper, David; Cucca, Francesco; Dick, Danielle M.; Foroud, Tatiana; Furberg, Helena; Giegling, Ina; Gu, Fangyi; Hall, Alistair S.; Hallfors, Jenni; Han, Shizhong; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkila, Kauko; Lic, Phil; Hewitt, John K.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jensen, Majken K.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaakinen, Marika; Kittner, Steven J.; Konte, Bettina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Leppert, Mark; Levy, Steven M.; Mathias, Rasika A.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Muley, Thomas; Murray, Tanda; Nauck, Matthias; North, Kari; Pergadia, Michele; Polasek, Ozren; Ramos, Erin M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Risch, Angela; Ruczinski, Ingo; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Terracciano, Antonio; Uda, Manuela; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wu, Xifeng; Abecasis, Goncalo; Barnes, Kathleen; Bickeboller, Heike; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caporaso, Neil; Duan, Jubao; Edenberg, Howard J.; Francks, Clyde; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gelernter, Joel; Grabe, Hans Jorgen; Hops, Hyman; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Viikari, Jorma; Kahonen, Mika; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F.; Marazita, Mary L.; Marchini, Jonathan; Melbye, Mads; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nothen, Markus M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Raitakari, Olli; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sanders, Alan R.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shete, Sanjay; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret; Stefansson, Kari; Swan, Gary E.; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Volzke, Henry; Wei, Qingyi; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Amos, Christopher I.; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S.; Ehringer, Marissa; Grucza, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Heath, Andrew; Johnson, Eric O.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stitzel, Jerry A.; Weiss, Robert B.; Kraft, Peter; Bierut, Laura J.

2012-01-01

367

Acute psychomotor, subjective and physiological responses to smoking in depressed outpatient smokers and matched controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in people diagnosed with depression, and depressed smokers are less likely to quit.\\u000a Examining depressed smokers’ responses to smoking will help determine the role of depression in maintaining cigarette smoking.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To determine the psychomotor, subjective and physiological effects of cigarette smoking in currently depressed smokers versus\\u000a matched controls.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Fourteen currently depressed smokers and

Debra Malpass; Suzanne Higgs

2007-01-01

368

Depressive symptoms and smokers' perceptions of lung cancer risk: moderating effects of tobacco dependence.  

PubMed

Smokers who acknowledge the personal health risks of smoking are more likely to attempt quitting. Unfortunately, many smokers are unrealistically optimistic about their health risks. Depressed smokers, however, may be more realistic about their risks. These studies examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and risk perceptions among two groups: college-age smokers (N = 128) and smokers from the nationally representative HINTS database (N = 1,246). In the college sample, among highly tobacco dependent smokers, more depressed smokers believed more strongly that quitting eliminates lung cancer risk (b = - .27, p = .01), and they estimated a faster reversal of risk after quitting (b = - .70, p = .03). In the HINTS sample, among highly tobacco dependent women, the more depressed they were, the higher their perceived risk of developing lung cancer (b = .23, p = .05). In sum, depressive symptoms among some smokers may lead to hei